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Sample records for co-generation desalination complex

  1. Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    To cope with the rising demand for fresh water, desalination of brackish groundwater and seawater is increasingly being viewed as a pragmatic option for augmenting fresh water supplies. The large scale deployment of desalination is likely to demonstrably increase electricity use,...

  2. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A [San Francisco, CA; Bradshaw, Robert W [Livermore, CA; Dedrick, Daniel E [Berkeley, CA; Anderson, David W [Riverbank, CA

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  3. Desalination Technologies: Hellenic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Zotalis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond doubt, desalination is growing rapidly worldwide. However, there are still obstacles to its wider implementation and acceptance such as: (a high costs and energy use for fresh water production; (b environmental impacts from concentrate disposal; (c a complex, convoluted and time-consuming project permitting process; and (d limited public understanding of the role, importance, benefits and environmental challenges of desalination. In this paper, a short review of desalination in Greece is being made. Data on the cost of desalination shows a decrease in the future and the potential of water desalination in Greece. The paper summarizes the current status in southeastern Greece (e.g., Aegean islands and Crete, and investigates the possibility of production of desalinated water from brackish water.

  4. Evaluation of hydroacid complex in the forward osmosis–membrane distillation (FO–MD) system for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The incorporation of membrane distillation (MD) into forward osmosis (FO) provides process sustainability to regenerate the draw solution and to produce clean water simultaneously. However, the reverse salt flux is the major hurdle in the FO-MD system because it not only reduces the effective osmotic driving force across the membrane but also increases the replenishment cost and scaling issue. For the first time, a hydroacid complex with abundant hydrophilic groups and ionic species is evaluated as the draw solutes in the hybrid FO-MD system consisting of multi-bore PVDF MD membranes for seawater/brackish desalination. In order to evaluate the practicality of the hydroacid complex in the FO-MD system, FO and MD experiments were conducted at elevated temperatures and concentrations. The hydroacid complex has displayed desired properties such as high solubility, low viscosity, excellent thermal stability and minimal reverse salt flux suitable for FO and MD operations. FO-MD desalination process was demonstrated with a highest seawater desalination flux of 6/32 LMH (FO/MD). This study may open up the prospective of employing the hydroacid complex as the draw solute in FO-MD hybrid systems for seawater /brackish desalination. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Desalination: a national perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Advancing Desalination Technology; National Research Council

    2008-01-01

    ... States lags behind that of many other countries. Concerns have been raised that technological barriers and financial costs prohibit broader desalination implementation. The committee formed by the Water Science and Technology Board of the National Research Council (NRC) performed a critical analysis of current desalination technologies and the barriers to...

  6. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Stacked microbial desalination cells to enhance water desalination efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xia, Xue; Liang, Peng; Cao, Xiaoxin; Sun, Haotian; Huang, Xia

    2011-03-15

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new method to obtain clean water from brackish water using electricity generated from organic matters by exoelectrogenic bacteria. Anions and cations, derived from salt solution filled in the desalination chamber between the anode and cathode, move to the anode and cathode chambers under the force of electrical field, respectively. On the basis of the primitive single-desalination-chambered MDC, stacked microbial desalination cells (SMDCs) were developed in order to promote the desalination rate in the present study. The effects of desalination chamber number and external resistance were investigated. Results showed that a remarkable increase in the total desalination rate (TDR) could be obtained by means of increasing the desalination cell number and reducing the external resistance, which caused the charge transfer efficiency increased since the SMDCs enabled more pairs of ions separated while one electron passed through the external circuit. The maximum TDR of 0.0252 g/h was obtained using a two-desalination-chambered SMDC with an external resistance of 10 Ω, which was 1.4 times that of single-desalination-chambered MDC. SMDCs proved to be an effective approach to increase the total water desalination rate if provided a proper desalination chamber number and external resistance.

  8. Molecular Transporters for Desalination Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-02

    May-2009 17-Feb-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Molecular transporters for desalination applications The views, opinions and...12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 desalination biomimetric membranes activated chemical transport REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR...ABSTRACT Molecular transporters for desalination applications Report Title The primary goal of the ‘Molecular Transporter’ program was to develop a precise

  9. ENERGY EFFICIENT DESALINATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the research is to develop a thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of cylindrical shape for the desalination of sea water.Methods. To improve the efficiency of the desalination device, a  special thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of  cylindrical shape is developed. The construction of the thin-film  semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump allows the flow rates of  incoming sea water and outflowing fresh water and brine to be  equalised by changing the geometric dimensions of the desalinator.  The cross-sectional area of the pipeline for incoming sea water is equal to the total area of outflowing fresh water and brine.Results. The use of thin-film semiconductor p- and n-type branches  in a thermo-module reduces their electrical resistance virtually to  zero and completely eliminates Joule's parasitic heat release. The  Peltier thermoelectric effect on heating and cooling is completely  preserved, bringing the efficiency of the heat pump to almost 100%, improving the energy-saving characteristics of the  desalinator as a whole. To further increase the efficiency of the  proposed desalinator, thermoelectric modules with radiation can be  used as thermoelectric devices.Conclusion. As a consequence of the creation of conditions of high rarefaction under which water will be converted to steam, which, at  20° C, is cold (as is the condensed distilled water, energy costs can  be reduced. In this case, the energy for heating and cooling is not  wasted; moreover, sterilisation is also achieved using the ultraviolet  radiation used in the thermoelectric devices, which, on the one hand, generate electromagnetic ultraviolet radiation, and, on the other, cooling. Such devices operate in optimal mode without heat  release. The desalination device can be used to produce fresh water and concentrated solutions from any aqueous solutions, including wastewater from industrial

  10. Microfluidic desalination techniques and their potential applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Susan Helena; van den Berg, Albert; Odijk, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss recent developments in the emerging research field of miniaturized desalination. Traditionally desalination is performed to convert salt water into potable water and research is focused on improving performance of large-scale desalination plants. Microfluidic desalination

  11. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  12. Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreddine Ghaffour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting.

  13. A New Method for Water Desalination Using Microbial Desalination Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Xiaoxin

    2009-09-15

    Current water desalination techniques are energy intensive and some use membranes operated at high pressures. It is shownhere that water desalination can be accomplished without electrical energy input or high water pressure by using a source of organic matter as the fuel to desalinate water. A microbial fuel cell was modified by placing two membranes between the anode and cathode, creating a middle chamber for water desalination between the membranes. An anion exchange membrane was placed adjacent to the anode, and a cation exchange membrane was positioned next to the cathode. When current was produced by bacteria on the anode, ionic species in the middle chamber were transferred into the two electrode chambers, desalinating the water in the middle chamber. Proof-of-concept experiments for this approach, using what we call a microbial desalination cell (MDC), was demonstrated using water at different initial salt concentrations (5, 20, and 35 g/L) with acetate used as the substrate for the bacteria. The MDC produced a maximum of 2 W/m2 (31 W/m3) while at the same time removing about 90% of the salt in a single desalination cycle. As the salt was removed from the middle chamber the ohmic resistance of the MDC (measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) increased from 25 Ω to 970 Ω at the end of the cycle. This increased resistance was reflected by a continuous decrease in the voltage produced over the cycle. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility for a new method for water desalination and power production that uses only a source of biodegradable organic matter and bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Microbial desalination cells for energy production and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2013-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are a new, energy-sustainable method for using organic matter in wastewater as the energy source for desalination. The electric potential gradient created by exoelectrogenic bacteria desalinates water by driving ion transport through a series of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs). The specific MDC architecture and current conditions substantially affect the amount of wastewater needed to desalinate water. Other baseline conditions have varied among studies making comparisons of the effectiveness of different designs problematic. The extent of desalination is affected by water transport through IEMs by both osmosis and electroosmosis. Various methods have been used, such as electrolyte recirculation, to avoid low pH that can inhibit exoelectrogenic activity. The highest current density in an MDC to date is 8.4A/m2, which is lower than that produced in other bioelectrochemical systems. This implies that there is a room for substantial improvement in desalination rates and overall performance. We review here the state of the art in MDC design and performance, safety issues related to the use of MDCs with wastewater, and areas that need to be examined to achieve practical application of this new technology. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Marine monitoring surveys for desalination plants-A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Lattemann, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies are standard practice and a regulatory requirement for most new desalination projects today. However, most of the EIA studies are limited to predictive information; that is, they gather information on the project and the project\\'s environment before project implementation to make predictions about likely impacts. The EIAs may involve comprehensive studies, such as field monitoring, laboratory toxicity testing, and modeling studies. Consequently, the"surprising paucity of useful experimental data, either from laboratory tests or from field monitoring studies", which was observed by the US National Research Council in 2008, has been gradually decreasing. However, there is still a long-term research need on the site-specific effects of desalination plants after project commissioning has taken place. A main challenge of field research is the adequate design of the monitoring studies, which have to adequately distinguish the effects of the desalination project from natural processes over long periods of time. The existing monitoring studies have so far used a wide range of approaches and methods to investigate the environmental impacts of desalination plant discharges. Shortfalls are often that they are limited in scope, short-term, or localized. In essence, many studies fall short of recognizing the potentially synergetic effects of the single waste components of the discharges on marine organisms and the complexity of the potential responses by the ecosystem. While the possible risk of damage arising from the concentrate discharge to the marine environment in close proximity to the outfall is at hand, no conclusive evidence can yet be provided concerning the long-term impacts of desalination plant discharges, let alone the cumulative impacts on certain sea areas. This paper conducts a critical review of existing monitoring programs for desalination plants. Shortcomings of current practices are identified and relevant

  16. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, T.; Lee, J.; O'Hern, S. C.; Fellman, B. A.; Baig, M. A.; Hassan, S. F.; Atieh, M. A.; Rahman, F.; Laoui, T.; Karnik, R.; Wang, E. N.

    2011-07-01

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity.

  17. Adsorption Desalination: A Novel Method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2010-11-15

    The search for potable water for quenching global thirst remains a pressing concern throughout many regions of the world. The demand for new and sustainable sources and the associated technologies for producing fresh water are intrinsically linked to the solving of potable water availability and hitherto, innovative and energy efficient desalination methods seems to be the practical solutions. Quenching global thirst by adsorption desalination is a practical and inexpensive method of desalinating the saline and brackish water to produce fresh water for agriculture irrigation, industrial, and building applications. This chapter provides a general overview of the adsorption fundamentals in terms of adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and heat of adsorption. It is then being more focused on the principles of thermally driven adsorption desalination methods. The recent developments of adsorption desalination plants and the effect of operating conditions on the system performance in terms of specific daily water production and performance ratio are presented. Design of a large commercial adsorption desalination plant is also discussed herein.

  18. Microfluidic desalination techniques and their potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, S H; van den Berg, A; Odijk, M

    2015-09-07

    In this review we discuss recent developments in the emerging research field of miniaturized desalination. Traditionally desalination is performed to convert salt water into potable water and research is focused on improving performance of large-scale desalination plants. Microfluidic desalination offers several new opportunities in comparison to macro-scale desalination, such as providing a platform to increase fundamental knowledge of ion transport on the nano- and microfluidic scale and new microfluidic sample preparation methods. This approach has also lead to the development of new desalination techniques, based on micro/nanofluidic ion-transport phenomena, which are potential candidates for up-scaling to (portable) drinking water devices. This review assesses microfluidic desalination techniques on their applications and is meant to contribute to further implementation of microfluidic desalination techniques in the lab-on-chip community.

  19. Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.E.

    1997-04-01

    An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

  20. Osmotically-assisted desalination method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Andrea; Childress, Amy E.; Cath, Tzahi Y.

    2014-08-12

    Systems and methods for osmotically assisted desalination include using a pressurized concentrate from a pressure desalination process to pressurize a feed to the desalination process. The depressurized concentrate thereby produced is used as a draw solution for a pressure-retarded osmosis process. The pressure-retarded osmosis unit produces a pressurized draw solution stream that is used to pressurize another feed to the desalination process. In one example, the feed to the pressure-retarded osmosis process is impaired water.

  1. The nuclear energy in the seawater desalination; La energia nuclear en la desalacion de agua de mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno A, J.; Flores E, R.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In general, the hydric resources of diverse regions of the world are insufficient for to satisfy the necessities of their inhabitants. Among the different technologies that are applied for the desalination of seawater are the distillation processes, the use of membranes and in particular recently in development the use of the nuclear energy (Nuclear Desalination; System to produce drinkable water starting from seawater in a complex integrated in that as much the nuclear reactor as the desalination system are in a common location, the facilities and pertinent services are shared, and the nuclear reactor produces the energy that is used for the desalination process). (Author)

  2. Adsorption desalination: An emerging low-cost thermal desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Desalination, other than the natural water cycle, is hailed as the panacea to alleviate the problems of fresh water shortage in many water stressed countries. However, the main drawback of conventional desalination methods is that they are energy intensive. In many instances, they consumed electricity, chemicals for pre- and post-treatment of water. For each kWh of energy consumed, there is an unavoidable emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) at the power stations as well as the discharge of chemically-laden brine into the environment. Thus, there is a motivation to find new direction or methods of desalination that consumed less chemicals, thermal energy and electricity.This paper describes an emerging and yet low cost method of desalination that employs only low-temperature waste heat, which is available in abundance from either the renewable energy sources or exhaust of industrial processes. With only one heat input, the Adsorption Desalination (AD) cycle produces two useful effects, i.e., high grade potable water and cooling. In this article, a brief literature review, the theoretical framework for adsorption thermodynamics, a lumped-parameter model and the experimental tests for a wide range of operational conditions on the basic and the hybrid AD cycles are discussed. Predictions from the model are validated with measured performances from two pilot plants, i.e., a basic AD and the advanced AD cycles. The energetic efficiency of AD cycles has been compared against the conventional desalination methods. Owing to the unique features of AD cycle, i.e., the simultaneous production of dual useful effects, it is proposed that the life cycle cost (LCC) of AD is evaluated against the LCC of combined machines that are needed to deliver the same quantities of useful effects using a unified unit of $/MWh. In closing, an ideal desalination system with zero emission of CO2 is presented where geo-thermal heat is employed for powering a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant.

  3. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  4. Desalination. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    This guide provides a review of the relevant literature on desalination within the collections of the Library of Congress. While not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed as a quick and ready reference source for the reader, and includes the following sections: (1) articles that provide introductions to the topic of…

  5. Co-generation: Increasing energy efficiency in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekić Alija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main sources for power generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina are domestic coals, mainly lignite and brown coals, which are relatively characterized with a high content of sulphur (3-5% and incombustibles (˜30%. From the 70’s, use of this type of fuels was not allowed in the city of Sarajevo due to very unfavorable emissions to the atmosphere, during the heating period, and since then Sarajevo has been supplied with natural gas. All the heating installations in the city were reconstructed and adapted. The district heating system Toplane Sarajevo is supplied with electrical energy from the Public electrical distribution network (Elektrodistribucija Sarajevo at low voltage (0.4 kV. The boiler-house Dobrinja III-2 (KDIII-2, from the district heating system of Sarajevo Suburb Dobrinja, which was not in use after the war 1992-1995, had a lot of advantages for the reconstruction into the co-generation plant. The Government of Canton Sarajevo financially supported this proposal. An analysis of co-generations for the district heating system and a selection of most appropriate co-generation systems were made. In the proposed conceptual design, the co-generation KDIII-2 was located in the existing boiler-house KDIII-2, connected with the heating system in Dobrinja. The operating costs of production of electricity and heat were evaluated in the study and compared with the costs of conventional energy supply to the district heating system. This analysis resulted in economic indicators, which showed that this investment was economically viable, and it also determined the payback period of the investment. In this paper results of the mentioned study and an overview of co-generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented.

  6. Feasibility of co-generation of water and electricity by means of the IRIS;Factibilidad de cogeneracion de agua y electricidad mediante el IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas E, S.; Alonso V, G.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Xolocostli, V.; Ramirez S, J. R., E-mail: samuel.vargas@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The importance to count with resources that allow the development of a country is an important factor. The electricity and the water are factors that in the future will be crucial for the development of any region of the planet. In this work the economic reliability of use of IRIS reactor like a energy source for the electricity production, as well as for the potable water production through the desalination of sea water. Within this study the requirements of these two outlines for different regions from the country are analyzed, nevertheless, chooses the northwest region of the Mexican republic, because, according to estimations realized for the Energy Secretary and the National Commission of the Water, this would present important water requirements and electricity, due to the population increase that is considered for all the country, mainly the built-up zones. Combined to this one is due to consider that the present water demand in some regions of the country present a worrisome over-exploitation of this liquid appraising. The economic evaluation of co-generation that appears in this work though the IRIS reactor, includes different desalination capacities at the moment, using the three more used techniques, obtaining the even costs of water and electricity, as well as net saleable energy and the construction costs as much for the desalination plant and the IRIS reactor. (Author)

  7. Thermal desalination in GCC and possible development

    KAUST Repository

    Darwish, Mohamed Ali

    2013-06-28

    The Water Desalination and Reuse Center in King Abdulla University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia, held a workshop on thermal desalination on the 11th and 12th of March, 2013. This paper was presented as part of a lecture at the workshop. It presents the status and possible developments of the two main thermal desalination systems processing large quantities of seawater in the Gulf Cooperation Council, multi-stage flash, and thermal vapor compression systems. Developments of these systems were presented to show how these systems are competing with the more energy-efficient seawater reverse osmosis desalting. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  8. A Grid-Connected Desalination Plant Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Ko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a grid-connected desalination plant operation approach is suggested. In desalination plant, large amount of energy is needed to operate pump and motor; hence most of energy is electricity. For this reason, the largest part of the operation cost is electricity charges. To demonstrate power usage, small size desalination measuring system mounted plant is used. Finally, to show the result of a grid-connected desalination plant operation, electric tariff rate of Korea is used. The result shows that total cost reduction rate is calculated about 1.6% of annual total electric plant operation cost.

  9. On fuzzy control of water desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titli, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Jamshidi, M. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olafsson, F. [Institute of Technology, Norway (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    In this report we have chosen a sub-system of an MSF water desalination plant, the brine heater, for analysis, synthesis, and simulation. This system has been modelled and implemented on computer. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for the top brine temperature control loop has been designed and implemented on the computer. The performance of the proposed FLC is compared with three other conventional control strategies: PID, cascade and disturbance rejection control. One major concern on FLC`s has been the lack of stability criteria. An up to-date survey of stability of fuzzy control systems is given. We have shown stability of the proposed FLC using the Sinusoidal Input Describing Functions (SIDF) method. The potential applications of fuzzy controllers for complex and large-scale systems through hierarchy of rule sets and hybridization with conventional approaches are also investigated. (authors)

  10. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to be constructed in the region. However, most of the large cities in these countries have very limited water storage capacity, ranging from hours to a few days only and their groundwater capacity is very limited. The growing need for fresh water has led to significant cost reduction, because of technological improvements of desalination technologies which makes it an attractive option for water supply even in countries where desalination was unthinkable in the past. In the GCC/MENA region, operating records show that water demand is relatively constant during the year, while power demand varies considerably with a high peak in the summer season. However, desalination and power plants are economically and technically efficient only if they are fully operated at close to full capacity. In addition, desalination plants are exposed to external constraints leading to unexpected shutdowns (e.g. red tides). Hybridization of different technologies, including reverse osmosis and thermal-based plants, is used to balance the power to water mismatch in the demand by using the idle power from co-generation systems during low power demand periods. This has led to consideration of storage of additional desalinated water to allow for maximum production and stability in operation. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) would then be a good option to store the surplus of desalinated water which could be used when water demand is high or during unexpected shutdowns of desalination plants. In addition, increased reuse of treated wastewater could bring an integrated approach to water resources management. In this

  11. Economical analysis of a solar desalination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Wang, Tie-Zhu; He, Xiao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple stage tower-type of solar desalination unit by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and y...

  12. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... renovation due to damage of the glazing from the presence of salts. These tiles were severely contaminated with both chlorides and nitrates, and one of the tiles also contained sulphates though at a low concentration. The charge transfer was too low in the experiments to obtain full desalination...

  13. Desalination with carbon aerogel electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Richardson, J.H.; Fix, D.V.

    1996-10-21

    An electrically regenerated electrosorption process known as carbon aerogel CDI was developed for continuously removing ionic impurities from aqueous streams. A salt solution flows in a channel formed by pairs of parallel carbon aerogel electrodes. Each electrode has a very high BET surface area and very low resistivity. After polarization, anions and cations are removed from electrolyte by the electric field and electrosorbed onto the carbon aerogel. The solution is thus separated into two streams, brine and water. Based on this, carbon aerogel CDI appears to be an energy-efficient alternative to evaporation, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis. The energy required by this process is about QV/2, plus losses. Estimated energy requirement for sea water desalination is 18-27 Wh gal{sup -1}, depending on cell voltage and flow rate. The requirement for brackish water desalination is less, 1.2-2.5 Wh gal{sup -1} at 1600 ppM. This is assuming that stored electrical energy is reclaimed during regeneration.

  14. Co-generation at CERN Beneficial or not?

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelmsson, M

    1998-01-01

    A co-generation plant for the combined production of electricity and heat has recently been installed on the CERN Meyrin site. This plant consists of: a gas turbine generator set (GT-set), a heat recovery boiler for the connection to the CERN primary heating network, as well as various components for the integration on site. A feasibility study was carried out and based on the argument that the combined use of natural gas -available anyhow for heating purposes- gives an attractively high total efficiency, which will, in a period of time, pay off the investment. This report will explain and update the calculation model, thereby confirming the benefits of the project. The results from the commissioning tests will be taken into account, as well as the benefits to be realized under the condition that the plant can operate undisturbed by technical setbacks which, incidentally, has not been entirely avoided during the first year of test-run and operation.

  15. Multilayer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-10

    While single-layer nanoporous graphene (NPG) has shown promise as a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination membrane, multilayer graphene membranes can be synthesized more economically than the single-layer material. In this work, we build upon the knowledge gained to date toward single-layer graphene to explore how multilayer NPG might serve as a RO membrane in water desalination using classical molecular dynamic simulations. We show that, while multilayer NPG exhibits similarly promising desalination properties to single-layer membranes, their separation performance can be designed by manipulating various configurational variables in the multilayer case. This work establishes an atomic-level understanding of the effects of additional NPG layers, layer separation, and pore alignment on desalination performance, providing useful guidelines for the design of multilayer NPG membranes.

  16. Desalination and hydrogen, chlorine, and sodium hydroxide production via electrophoretic ion exchange and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnikov, Viktor; Bahga, Supreet S; Santiago, Juan G

    2012-08-28

    We demonstrate and analyze a novel desalination method which works by electrophoretically replacing sodium and chloride in feed salt water with a pair of ions, calcium and carbonate, that react and precipitate out. The resulting calcium carbonate precipitate is benign to health, and can be filtered or settled out, yielding low ionic strength product water. The ion exchange and precipitation employs self-sharpening interfaces induced by movement of multiple ions in an electric field to prevent contamination of the product water. Simultaneously, the electrolysis associated with the electromigration produces hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide. We conducted an experimental study of this method's basic efficacy to desalinate salt water from 100 to 600 mol m(-3) sodium chloride. We also present physicochemical models of the process, and analyze replacement reagents consumption, permeate recovery ratio, and energy consumption. We hypothesize that the precipitate can be recycled back to replacement reagents using the well-known, commercially implemented Solvay process. We show that the method's permeate recovery ratio is 58% to 46%, which is on par with that of reverse osmosis. We show that the method's energy consumption requirement over and above that necessary to generate electrolysis is 3 to 10 W h l(-1), which is on par with the energy consumed by state-of-the-art desalination methods. Furthermore, the method operates at ambient temperature and pressure, and uses no specialized membranes. The process may be feasible as a part of a desalination-co-generation facility: generating fresh water, hydrogen and chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide.

  17. Offshore Desalination Using Wave Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Serna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the design of an offshore desalination plant currently under preliminary development. The purpose is to test the feasibility of producing drinkable water using wave energy in out-of-sight installations, as an alternative for those locations where land use, civil engineering works, and/or environmental impact make a coast-based solution inadequate. After describing the components, a proposal for sizing them is studied, based on using buoy-measured data at the expected location and their mathematical models of the different sections of the plant. Finally, by using measured buoy data, the influence of sizing on the expected performance is studied for a specific location, and one of the designs is developed in detail.

  18. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst...... others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity...

  19. Understanding transport in model water desalination membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edwin

    Polyamide based thin film composites represent the the state-of-the-art nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes used in water desalination. The performance of these membranes is enabled by the ultrathin (~100 nm) crosslinked polyamide film in facilitating the selective transport of water over salt ions. While these materials have been refined over the last several decades, understanding the relationships between polyamide structure and membrane performance remains a challenge because of the complex and heterogeneous nature of the polyamide film. In this contribution, we present our approach to addressing this challenge by studying the transport properties of model polyamide membranes synthesized via molecular layer-by-layer (mLbL) assembly. First, we demonstrate that mLbL can successfully construct polyamide membranes with well-defined nanoscale thickness and roughness using a variety of monomer formulations. Next, we present measurement tools for characterizing the network structure and transport of these model polyamide membranes. Specifically, we used X-ray and neutron scattering techniques to characterize their structure as well as a recently-developed indentation based poromechanics approach to extrapolate their water diffusion coefficient. Finally, we illustrate how these measurements can provide insight into the original problem by linking the key polyamide network properties, i.e. water-polyamide interaction parameter and characteristic network mesh size, to the membrane performance.

  20. Desalination and sustainability - An appraisal and current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2016-02-01

    Desalination technologies have evolved and advanced rapidly along with increasing water demands around the world since 1950s. Many reviews have focused on the techno-economic and environmental and ecological issues of the desalination technologies and emphasized the feasibility of desalination industry as an alternative to meet the water demands in many water scarce regions. Despite these efforts, many perceptions about desalination processes hinder their applications for potential water supplies. This article has two specific aims: 1) provide an overview of the desalination trends around the world and discuss the sustainability components of desalination processes in comparison with other water supply alternatives; and 2) discuss case studies for desalination, and drivers and factors that influence sustainable desalination and other alternative water sources for desalination to increase our current understanding on the sensitive and futuristic issues of water supply and resource management options for drought facing regions. Although some of the facts and recent developments discussed here show that desalination can be affordable and potentially sustainable, contributions that meaningfully address socio-economic and ecological and environmental issues of desalination processes are urgently required in this critical era of severe water stress for the present context and the future development of desalination technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low Energy Desalination Using Battery Electrode Deionization

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taeyoung

    2017-09-21

    New electrochemical technologies that use capacitive or battery electrodes are being developed to minimize energy requirements for desalinating brackish waters. When a pair of electrodes is charged in capacitive deionization (CDI) systems, cations bind to the cathode and anions bind to the anode, but high applied voltages (>1.2 V) result in parasitic reactions and irreversible electrode oxidation. In the battery electrode deionization (BDI) system developed here, two identical copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) battery electrodes were used that release and bind cations, with anion separation occurring via an anion exchange membrane. The system used an applied voltage of 0.6 V, which avoided parasitic reactions, achieved high electrode desalination capacities (up to 100 mg-NaCl/g-electrode, 50 mM NaCl influent), and consumed less energy than CDI. Simultaneous production of desalinated and concentrated solutions in two channels avoided a two-cycle approach needed for CDI. Stacking additional membranes between CuHCF electrodes (up to three anion and two cation exchange membranes) reduced energy consumption to only 0.02 kWh/m3 (approximately an order of magnitude lower than values reported for CDI), for an influent desalination similar to CDI (25 mM decreased to 17 mM). These results show that BDI could be effective as a very low energy method for brackish water desalination.

  2. Microbial desalination cells packed with ion-exchange resin to enhance water desalination rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Zuo, Kuichang; Xia, Xue; Wei, Jincheng; Luo, Xi; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2012-08-01

    A novel configuration of microbial desalination cell (MDC) packed with ion-exchange resin (R-MDC) was proposed to enhance water desalination rate. Compared with classic MDC (C-MDC), an obvious increase in desalination rate (DR) was obtained by R-MDC. With relatively low concentration (10-2 g/L NaCl) influents, the DR values of R-MDC were about 1.5-8 times those of C-MDC. Ion-exchange resins packed in the desalination chamber worked as conductor and thus counteracted the increase in ohmic resistance during treatment of low concentration salt water. Ohmic resistances of R-MDC stabilized at 3.0-4.7 Ω. By contrast, the ohmic resistances of C-MDC ranged from 5.5 to 12.7 Ω, which were 55-272% higher than those of R-MDC. Remarkable improvement in desalination rate helped improve charge efficiency for desalination in R-MDC. The results first showed the potential of R-MDC in the desalination of water with low salinity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Series assembly of microbial desalination cells containing stacked electrodialysis cells for partial or complete seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-07-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new approach for desalinating water based on using the electrical current generated by exoelectrogenic bacteria. Previously developed MDCs have used only one or two desalination chambers with substantial internal resistance, and used low salinity catholytes containing a buffered or acid solution. Here we show that substantially improved MDC performance can be obtained even with a nonbuffered, saline catholyte, by using an electrodialysis stack consisting of 5 pairs of desalting and concentrating cells. When 4 stacked MDCs were used in series (20 total pairs of desalination chambers), the salinity of 0.06 L of synthetic seawater (35 g/L NaCl) was reduced by 44% using 0.12 L of anode solution (2:1). The resistive loss in the electrodialysis stack was negligible due to minimization of the intermembrane distances, and therefore the power densities produced by the MDC were similar to those produced by single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) lacking desalination chambers. The observed current efficiency was 86%, indicating separation of 4.3 pairs of sodium and chloride ions for every electron transferred through the circuit. With two additional stages (total of 3.8 L of anolyte), desalination was increased to 98% salt removal, producing 0.3 L of fresh water (12.6:1). These results demonstrate that stacked MDCs can be used for efficient desalination of seawater while at the same time achieving power densities comparable to those obtained in MFCs.

  4. Series Assembly of Microbial Desalination Cells Containing Stacked Electrodialysis Cells for Partial or Complete Seawater Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2011-07-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new approach for desalinating water based on using the electrical current generated by exoelectrogenic bacteria. Previously developed MDCs have used only one or two desalination chambers with substantial internal resistance, and used low salinity catholytes containing a buffered or acid solution. Here we show that substantially improved MDC performance can be obtained even with a nonbuffered, saline catholyte, by using an electrodialysis stack consisting of 5 pairs of desalting and concentrating cells. When 4 stacked MDCs were used in series (20 total pairs of desalination chambers), the salinity of 0.06 L of synthetic seawater (35 g/L NaCl) was reduced by 44% using 0.12 L of anode solution (2:1). The resistive loss in the electrodialysis stack was negligible due to minimization of the intermembrane distances, and therefore the power densities produced by the MDC were similar to those produced by single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) lacking desalination chambers. The observed current efficiency was 86%, indicating separation of 4.3 pairs of sodium and chloride ions for every electron transferred through the circuit. With two additional stages (total of 3.8 L of anolyte), desalination was increased to 98% salt removal, producing 0.3 L of fresh water (12.6:1). These results demonstrate that stacked MDCs can be used for efficient desalination of seawater while at the same time achieving power densities comparable to those obtained in MFCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Environmental impact of seawater desalination plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutaz, I S

    1991-01-01

    Enormous amounts of seawater are desalted everyday worldwide. The total world production of fresh water from the sea is about 2621 mgd (9.92 million m(3) day(-1) 1985 figures). Desalting processes are normally associated with the rejection of high concentration waste brine from the plant itself or from the pretreatment units as well as during the cleaning period. In thermal processes, mainly multistage flash (MSF) thermal pollution occurs. These pollutants increase the seawater temperature, salinity, water current and turbidity. They also harm the marine environment, causing fish to migrate while enhancing the presence of algae, nematods and tiny molluscus. Sometimes micro-elements and toxic materials appear in the discharged brine.This paper will discuss the impact of the effluents from the desalination plants on the seawater environment with particular reference to the Saudi desalination plants, since they account for about 50% of the world desalination capacity.

  6. Direct seawater desalination by ion concentration polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Ko, Sung Hee; Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Han, Jongyoon

    2010-04-01

    A shortage of fresh water is one of the acute challenges facing the world today. An energy-efficient approach to converting sea water into fresh water could be of substantial benefit, but current desalination methods require high power consumption and operating costs or large-scale infrastructures, which make them difficult to implement in resource-limited settings or in disaster scenarios. Here, we report a process for converting sea water (salinity approximately 500 mM or approximately 30,000 mg l(-1)) to fresh water (salinity desalination of sea water (approximately 99% salt rejection at 50% recovery rate) at a power consumption of less than 3.5 Wh l(-1), which is comparable to current state-of-the-art systems. Rather than competing with larger desalination plants, the method could be used to make small- or medium-scale systems, with the possibility of battery-powered operation.

  7. Multi effect desalination and adsorption desalination (MEDAD): A hybrid desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an advanced desalination cycle that hybridizes a conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) and an emerging yet low-energy adsorption cycle (AD). The hybridization of these cycles, known as MED + AD or MEDAD in short, extends the limited temperature range of the MED, typically from 65 °C at top-brine temperature (TBT) to a low-brine temperature (LBT) of 40 °C to a lower LBT of 5 °C, whilst the TBT remains the same. The integration of cycles is achieved by having vapor uptake by the adsorbent in AD cycle, extracting from the vapor emanating from last effect of MED. By increasing the range of temperature difference (DT) of a MEDAD, its design can accommodate additional condensation-evaporation stages that capitalize further the energy transfer potential of expanding steam. Numerical model for the proposed MEDAD cycle is presented and compared with the water production rates of conventional and hybridized MEDs. The improved MEDAD design permits the latter stages of MED to operate below the ambient temperature, scavenging heat from the ambient air. The increase recovery of water from the seawater feed may lead to higher solution concentration within the latter stages, but the lower saturation temperatures of these stages mitigate the scaling and fouling effects. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fieldwork, Co-Teaching and Co-Generative Dialogue in Lower Secondary School Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Yuli; Koul, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    This article reports one of the case studies in a 3-year longitudinal study in environmental science education. This case explores the process of teaching about ecosystems through co-teaching and co-generative dialogue in a Year-9 science classroom in Western Australia. Combining with co-teaching and co-generative dialogue aimed at transforming…

  9. Electrochemical desalination of bricks - Experimental and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Chlorides, nitrates and sulfates play an important role in the salt-decay of porous materials in buildings and monuments. Electrochemical desalination is a technology able to remove salts from such porous materials in order to stop or prevent the decay. In this paper, experimental and numerical......-contaminated bricks with respect to the monovalent ions is discussed. Comparison between the experimental and the simulation results showed that the proposed numerical model is able to predict electrochemical desalination treatments with remarkable accuracy, and it can be used as a predictive tool...

  10. Power surplus in an hybrid desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Eduardo Manfredini [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS (Brazil); Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrela; Zanardi, Mauricio de Araujo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], Emails: perrela@feg.unesp.br, mzanardi@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Desalination is a process to be considered in the water planning - its use is year by year worldwide and must be considered as an opportunity even for Brazil. Associated to the perspectives of implementing such technology, advances such as integrating energy generation systems to desalination processes in the so-called hybrid systems have been suggested to obtain a more efficient process. The power surplus generated by hybrid technologies is an interesting index to be considered in the context of produced fresh water. In this paper, several gas turbine systems were considered in a hybrid system; the power surplus of these configurations in a Brazilian case is presented and analyzed. (author)

  11. The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimelech, Menachem; Phillip, William A

    2011-08-05

    In recent years, numerous large-scale seawater desalination plants have been built in water-stressed countries to augment available water resources, and construction of new desalination plants is expected to increase in the near future. Despite major advancements in desalination technologies, seawater desalination is still more energy intensive compared to conventional technologies for the treatment of fresh water. There are also concerns about the potential environmental impacts of large-scale seawater desalination plants. Here, we review the possible reductions in energy demand by state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies, the potential role of advanced materials and innovative technologies in improving performance, and the sustainability of desalination as a technological solution to global water shortages.

  12. Energy Implications of Seawater Desalination (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, H.; Heberger, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater has traditionally come from rivers, lakes, streams, and groundwater aquifers. As demand increases and climate change alters the location and timing of water supply, these traditional sources are becoming unavailable, more difficult, or increasingly expensive to develop. As a result, many communities are switching to alternative sources of water. Interest in pursuing seawater desalination is high in many coastal communities. In California, for example, 17 plants are proposed for development along the California coast and two in Mexico. Water managers are pursing desalination because is a local supply that can help diversify the water supply portfolio. Additionally, it is a reliable supply, which can be especially valuable during a drought. But removing the salt from seawater is an energy-intensive process that consumes more energy per gallon than most other water supply and treatment options. These energy requirements are key factors that will impact the extent and success of desalination in California. Energy requirements for seawater desalination average about 4.0 kWh per cubic meter (m3) of water produced. By comparison, the least energy-intensive options of local sources of groundwater and surface water require 0 - 0.90 kWh per m3; wastewater reuse, depending on treatment levels, may require from 0.26 - 2.2 kWh per m3. Beyond the electricity required for the desalination facility itself, producing any new source of water, including through desalination, increases the amount of energy required to deliver and use the water produced as well as collect, treat, and dispose of the wastewater generated. Energy is the largest single variable cost for a desalination plant, varying from one-third to more than one-half the cost of produced water. Building a desalination plant may reduce a water utility's exposure to water reliability risks at the added expense of an increase in exposure to energy price risk. In dependent on hydropower, electricity prices tend to

  13. Submerged membrane distillation for desalination of water

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2016-10-27

    Submerged membrane modules for use for desalination of water are disclosed. In one or more aspects, the membrane modules can be submerged either in a feed solution tank or the feed solution can pass through the lumen side of the membrane submerged within the tank. The feed solution can be a water-based feed stream containing an amount of salt.

  14. Solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M. T. B. F.

    2016-11-01

    The Philippines is surrounded by coastal areas and these areas can be a potential source for potable water. This study aims to design and construct a solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens. The experimental study was conducted using polluted salt water for the sample and desalination was carried out using the designed system. The desalination system was composed of the solar concentrator, solar still and the condenser system. The Fresnel lens was made of acrylic plastic and was an effective solar concentrator. Solar stills made of dark colored glass bottles were effective in absorbing the solar energy. The condenser system made of polybutylene and polystyrene were effective in condensing the vapor at ambient temperature. The shortest time of vaporization of the salt water was at 293 sec and the optimum angle of position of the lens was 36.42°. The amount of condensate collected was directly proportional to the amount of salt water in the solar still. The highest mean efficiency of the designed set-up was 34.82%. The water produced by the solar powered desalination system using Fresnel lens passed the standards set by WHO (World Health Organization) for drinking water.

  15. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...

  16. Sustainable desalination using ocean thermocline energy

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-09-22

    The conventional desalination processes are not only energy intensive but also environment un-friendly. They are operating far from thermodynamic limit, 10–12%, making them un-sustainable for future water supplies. An innovative desalination processes are required to meet future sustainable desalination goal and COP21 goal. In this paper, we proposed a multi-effect desalination system operated with ocean thermocline energy, thermal energy harnessed from seawater temperature gradient. It can exploit low temperature differential between surface hot water temperature and deep-sea cold-water temperature to produce fresh water. Detailed theoretical model was developed and simulation was conducted in FORTRAN using international mathematical and statistical library (IMSL). We presented four different cases with deep-sea cold water temperature varies from 5 to 13°C and MED stages varies from 3 to 6. It shows that the proposed cycle can achieve highest level of universal performance ratio, UPR = 158, achieving about 18.8% of the ideal limit. With the major energy input emanated from the renewable solar, the proposed cycle is truly a “green desalination” method of low global warming potential (GWP), best suited for tropical coastal shores having bathymetry depths up to 300m or more.

  17. Algal blooms and Membrane Based Desalination Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villacorte, L.O.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity (~80 million m3/day in 2013), plant size and global application. An emerging threat to this technology is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational

  18. Entropy Generation Analysis of Desalination Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Lienhard V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies. Entropy generation analysis, and specifically, Second Law efficiency, is an important tool for illustrating the influence of irreversibilities within a system on the required energy input. When defining Second Law efficiency, the useful exergy output of the system must be properly defined. For desalination systems, this is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of water from a feed stream of a given salinity. In order to evaluate the Second Law efficiency, entropy generation mechanisms present in a wide range of desalination processes are analyzed. In particular, entropy generated in the run down to equilibrium of discharge streams must be considered. Physical models are applied to estimate the magnitude of entropy generation by component and individual processes. These formulations are applied to calculate the total entropy generation in several desalination systems including multiple effect distillation, multistage flash, membrane distillation, mechanical vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and humidification-dehumidification. Within each technology, the relative importance of each source of entropy generation is discussed in order to determine which should be the target of entropy generation minimization. As given here, the correct application of Second Law efficiency shows which systems operate closest to the reversible limit and helps to indicate which systems have the greatest potential for improvement.

  19. Electrode placement during electro-desalination of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Andersson, Lovisa C. H.

    2017-01-01

    , where the most fragile parts thus can be desalinated without physically placing electrodes on them. The Cl removal rate was higher in the areas closest to the electrodes and slowest in the part, which was not placed directly between the electrodes. This is important to incorporate in the monitoring...

  20. Apparatus and method for improved desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2009-12-30

    A water desalination system comprising an evaporator for evaporating saline water to produce water vapor; a condenser for condensing the water vapor; wherein the evaporator and the condenser are in heat transfer communication such that heat used by the evaporator is at least in part derived from the condenser.

  1. State-of-art report on the seawater desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-11-01

    Desalination technologies have been developed over the last 40 years and become a reliable industrial process for water production from sea or blackish water. At present, various desalination processes are available for the effective use of seawater or blackish water as valuable water resources. Since a large amount of energy is required for seawater desalination, the cost of energy is important for desalination. For the regions of severe water shortage, however, desalination is the most economical way of water supply compare to any other alternatives. Currently, water supply by seawater desalination is being increased in the areas of the Caribbean, North African and Middle East. Also, desalination of blackish water is being increased in the south-east region of USA. In general, the distillation process and the membrane technology are used for seawater esalination and the membrane and the electric-dialysis for blackish water. However, the selection of the desalination process is highly dependent on the use of produced water and the local environmental conditions where the desalination plant installed. The local condition is the most important parameters for the selection of the desalination process.

  2. A simulation model for Carson Ice Co-Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N.K.W.; Elmasri, M. [Thermoflow, Inc., Wellesley, MA (United States); Brownell, G. [SMUD, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes a software system to simulate the performance of the Carson Ice Co-gen Facility operated by the Carson Energy Group. This 100 MW plant consists of a cogeneration combined cycle and a simple cycle unit powered by LM6000 gas turbine generators. Features of the system include inlet heating/absorption chilling for the gas turbines, supplementary firing capability, and a broad range of steam turbine extractions and admissions. The software enables the operator to model complex operating scenarios. It predicts technical and economic performance under a wide range of conditions, taking into account various equipment constraints and operation preferences. For any set of user-specified operating inputs, the corresponding heat and mass balance diagrams as well as economic figures may be viewed virtually instantaneously. Interactive plots of plant heat rate, incremental heat rate, operating income, and other parameters reveal issues and trade-offs involved in performance and economic optimization.

  3. Microbial desalination cells for improved performance in wastewater treatment, electricity production, and desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haiping; Xu, Pei; Roane, Timberley M; Jenkins, Peter E; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-02-01

    The low conductivity and alkalinity in municipal wastewater significantly limit power production from microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study integrated desalination with wastewater treatment and electricity production in a microbial desalination cell (MDC) by utilizing the mutual benefits among the above functions. When using wastewater as the sole substrate, the power output from the MDC (8.01 W/m(3)) was four times higher than a control MFC without desalination function. In addition, the MDC removed 66% of the salts and improved COD removal by 52% and Coulombic efficiency by 131%. Desalination in MDCs improved wastewater characteristics by increasing the conductivity by 2.5 times and stabilizing anolyte pH, which therefore reduced system resistance and maintained microbial activity. Microbial community analysis revealed a more diverse anode microbial structure in the MDC than in the MFC. The results demonstrated that MDC can serve as a viable option for integrated wastewater treatment, energy production, and desalination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Provision of Desalinated Irrigation Water by the Desalination of Groundwater within a Saline Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. J. Antia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated land accounts for 70% of global water usage and 30% of global agricultural production. Forty percent of this water is derived from groundwater. Approximately 20%–30% of the groundwater sources are saline and 20%–50% of global irrigation water is salinized. Salinization reduces crop yields and the number of crop varieties which can be grown on an arable holding. Structured ZVI (zero valent iron, Fe0 pellets desalinate water by storing the removed ions as halite (NaCl within their porosity. This allows an “Aquifer Treatment Zone” to be created within an aquifer, (penetrated by a number of wells (containing ZVI pellets. This zone is used to supply partially desalinated water directly from a saline aquifer. A modeled reconfigured aquifer producing a continuous flow (e.g., 20 m3/day, 7300 m3/a of partially desalinated irrigation water is used to illustrate the impact of porosity, permeability, aquifer heterogeneity, abstraction rate, Aquifer Treatment Zone size, aquifer thickness, optional reinjection, leakage and flow by-pass on the product water salinity. This desalination approach has no operating costs (other than abstraction costs (and ZVI regeneration and may potentially be able to deliver a continuous flow of partially desalinated water (30%–80% NaCl reduction for $0.05–0.5/m3.

  5. International overview of seawater desalination plant by reverse osmosis technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kangwen, Shu

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Environmental technology In a world faced with increased urbanization, population growth, climate change and degradation of water supplies, the importance of a reliable source of technology to provide fresh water emphasizes the importance of seawater desalination. Over the years a variety of seawater desalination methods have been developed throughout the world. The most common technologies available for desalination around the world are membrane reverse osmosis (RO),...

  6. International overview of seawater desalination plant by reverse osmosis technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kangwen, Shu

    2012-01-01

    In a world faced with increased urbanization, population growth, climate change and degradation of water supplies, the importance of a reliable source of technology to provide fresh water emphasizes the importance of seawater desalination. Over the years a variety of seawater desalination methods have been developed throughout the world. The most common technologies available for desalination around the world are membrane reverse osmosis (RO), thermal distillation (TD) and electrodialysis ...

  7. Disinfection by-product formation during seawater desalination: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daekyun; Amy, Gary L; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-09-15

    Due to increased freshwater demand across the globe, seawater desalination has become the technology of choice in augmenting water supplies in many parts of the world. The use of chemical disinfection is necessary in desalination plants for pre-treatment to control both biofouling as well as the post-disinfection of desalinated water. Although chlorine is the most commonly used disinfectant in desalination plants, its reaction with organic matter produces various disinfection by-products (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes [THMs], haloacetic acids [HAAs], and haloacetonitriles [HANs]), and some DBPs are regulated in many countries due to their potential risks to public health. To reduce the formation of chlorinated DBPs, alternative oxidants (disinfectants) such as chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and ozone can be considered, but they also produce other types of DBPs. In addition, due to high levels of bromide and iodide concentrations in seawater, highly cytotoxic and genotoxic DBP species (i.e., brominated and iodinated DBPs) may form in distribution systems, especially when desalinated water is blended with other source waters having higher levels of organic matter. This article reviews the knowledge accumulated in the last few decades on DBP formation during seawater desalination, and summarizes in detail, the occurrence of DBPs in various thermal and membrane plants involving different desalination processes. The review also identifies the current challenges and future research needs for controlling DBP formation in seawater desalination plants and to reduce the potential toxicity of desalinated water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Corrosion and Protection of Metal in the Seawater Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiangyu; Gao, Lili; Cui, Zhendong; Yin, Jianhua

    2018-01-01

    Seawater desalination develops rapid for it can solve water scarcity efficiently. However, corrosion problem in the seawater desalination system is more serious than that in normal water. So, it is important to pay attention to the corrosion and protection of metal in seawater desalination. The corrosion characteristics and corrosion types of metal in the seawater desalination system are introduced in this paper; In addition, corrosion protect methods and main influencing factors are stated, the latest new technologies about anti-corrosion with quantum energy assisted and magnetic inhibitor are presented.

  9. Electro-desalination of glazed tile panels - discussion of possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Célia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    of the system. Single tiles, a variety of porous stones and the mortar on the back of a tile have all been electro-desalinated successfully in laboratory scale. Thus individually, all parts of the wall with tile panel can be electro-desalinated. The interface between mortar and tile can be problematic....... In the few experiments conducted on tiles with attached mortar, the mortar was desalinated to a higher degree than the biscuit and successful desalination of the biscuit through the mortar requires further research. In-situ pilot scale tests were performed on highly salt-contaminated walls without tiles...

  10. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  11. LOW-WASTE TECHNOLOGY FOR WATER DESALINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Макаренко, Ірина Миколаївна

    2015-01-01

    Processes of reagent, ion-exchange and nanofiltration water desalination have been studied. Using reagents based on sodium hydroxoaluminate at reagent softening, it is possible to reduce residual hardness to 0.1–0.5 mg-eq/dm3 that allows to significantly decreasing reagents consumption for ion-exchange water demineralization. The application of weak-acid cationite in acid form at the first stage of cation exchange promotes this process. At the reagent softening with sodium hydroxoaluminate, a...

  12. Algal blooms and Membrane Based Desalination Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Villacorte, L.O.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity (~80 million m3/day in 2013), plant size and global application. An emerging threat to this technology is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of the plant to avoid irreversible fouling...

  13. Desalination with carbon aerogel electrodes. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Richardson, J.H.; Fix, D.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Thomson, S.L.; May, S.C. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-04

    Electrically regenerated electrosorption process (carbon aerogel CDI) was developed by LLNL for continuously removing ionic impurities from aqueous streams. A salt solution flows in a channel formed by numerous pairs of parallel carbon aerogel electrodes. Each electrode has a very high BET surface area (2-5.4x10{sup 6}ft{sup 2}lb{sup -1} or 400-1100 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}) and very low electrical resistivity ({le}40 m{Omega}). Ions are removed from the electrolyte by the electric field and electrosorbed onto the carbon aerogel. It is concluded that carbon aerogel CDI may be an energy-efficient alternative to electrodialysis and reverse osmosis for desalination of brackish water ({le}5000 ppM). The intrinsic energy required by this process is about QV/2, where Q is the stored electrical charge and V is the voltage between the electrodes, plus losses. Estimated requirement for desalination of a 2000 ppM feed is -0.53-2.5 Wh/gal{sup -1} (0.5-2.4 kJ L{sup -1}), depending on voltage, flow rate, cell dimensions, aerogel density, recovery ratio, etc. This assumes that 50-70% of the stored electrical energy is reclaimed during regeneration (electrical discharge). Though the energy requirement for desalination of sea water is also low, this application will be much more difficult. Additional work will be required for desalination of streams that contain more than 5000 ppM total dissolved solids (2000 ppM will require electrochemical cells with extremely tight, demanding tolerances). At this present time, the process is best suited for streams with dilute impurities, as recently demonstrated during a field test at LLNL Treatment Facility C.

  14. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO driven by electricity and Multi Stage Flash (MSF desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP. The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts on energy system performance. Results indicate that RO and MSF are similar in fuel use. While there is no use of waste heat from condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to results in lower fuel usage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity Production (CEEP even at relatively modest wind power penetrations. Here RO assists the energy system in decreasing CEEP – and even more if water storage is applied.

  15. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Diniz da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes.

  16. Co-Generation and Renewables: Solutions for a Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Co-generation and renewables: solutions for a low-carbon energy future shows that powerful synergies exist when co-generation and renewables work together. The report documents, for the first time, some of the little-known complementary aspects of the two technologies. It also re-emphasises the stand-alone benefits of each technology. Thus, decision makers can use the report as a 'one-stop shop' when they need credible information on co-generation, renewables and the possible synergies between the two. It also provides answers to policy makers' questions about the potential energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to both co-generation and renewables. Secure, reliable, affordable and clean energy supplies are fundamental to economic and social stability and development. Energy and environmental decision-makers are faced with major challenges that require action now in order to ensure a more sustainable future. More efficient use of, and cleaner primary energy sources can help to achieve this goal. Co-generation -- also known as combined heat and power (CHP) -- represents a proven, cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for delivering electricity and heat. Renewable sources provide clean and secure fuels for producing electricity and heat.

  17. Science Communication and Desalination Research: Water Experts' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, R. A.; Williams, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to clean drinking water is a major problem for many people across the world. Desalination is being increasingly used in many countries to provide this important resource. Desalination technology has received varying degrees of support in the communities in which this technology has been adopted. Productive communication suggests we…

  18. Wireless desalination using inductively powered porous carbon electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, J.; Porada, S.

    2013-01-01

    Water desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) uses electrochemical cell pairs formed of porous carbon electrodes, which are brought in contact with the water that must be desalinated. Upon applying a cell voltage or current between the electrodes, ions are electrosorbed and water is produced

  19. Water recycling and desalination by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Because salt and other small components are the most common compounds in wastewater from the process industry, desalination techniques are likely to be suitable as treatment processes in many cases. Although membrane distillation (MD) is a well-known technology for desalination and water treatment,

  20. Desalination and Water Recycling by Air Gap Membrane Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  1. Bioelectrochemical desalination and electricity generation in microbial desalination cell with dewatered sludge as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanyu; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Guodong; Fan, Qingxin; Wei, Liangliang; Ding, Jing; Zheng, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) with common liquid anodic substrate exhibit a slow startup and destructive pH drop, and abiotic cathodes have high cost and low sustainability. A biocathode MDC with dewatered sludge as fuel was developed for synergistic desalination, electricity generation and sludge stabilization. Experimental results indicated that the startup period was reduced to 3d, anodic pH was maintained between 6.6 and 7.6, and high stability was shown under long-term operation (300d). When initial NaCl concentrations were 5 and 10g/L, the desalinization rates during stable operation were 46.37±1.14% and 40.74±0.89%, respectively. The maximum power output of 3.178W/m(3) with open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.118V was produced on 130d. After 300d, 25.71±0.15% of organic matter was removed. These results demonstrated that dewatered sludge was an appropriate anodic substrate to enhance MDC stability for desalination and electricity generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Concurrent desalination and hydrogen generation using microbial electrolysis and desalination cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haiping; Jenkins, Peter E; Ren, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    The versatility of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) makes them promising for various applications, and good combinations could make the system more applicable and economically effective. An integrated BES called microbial electrolysis and desalination cell (MEDC) was developed to concurrently desalinate salt water, produce hydrogen gas, and potentially treat wastewater. The reactor is divided into three chambers by inserting a pair of ion exchange membranes, with each chamber serving one of the three functions. With an added voltage of 0.8 V, lab scale batch study shows the MEDC achieved the highest H(2) production rate of 1.5 m(3)/m(3) d (1.6 mL/h) from the cathode chamber, while also removing 98.8% of the 10 g/L NaCl from the middle chamber. The anode recirculation alleviated pH and high salinity inhibition on bacterial activity and further increased system current density from 87.2 to 140 A/m(3), leading to an improved desalination rate by 80% and H(2) production by 30%. Compared to slight changes in desalination, H(2) production was more significantly affected by the applied voltage and cathode buffer capacity, suggesting cathode reactions were likely affected by the external power supply in addition to the anode microbial activity.

  3. Integrated experimental investigation and mathematical modeling of brackish water desalination and wastewater treatment in microbial desalination cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Qingyun; Huang, Zuyi; Dosoretz, Carlos; He, Zhen

    2015-06-15

    Desalination of brackish water can provide freshwater for potable use or non potable applications such as agricultural irrigation. Brackish water desalination is especially attractive to microbial desalination cells (MDCs) because of its low salinity, but this has not been well studied before. Herein, three brackish waters prepared according to the compositions of actual brackish water in three locations in Israel were examined with domestic wastewater as an electron source in a bench-scale MDC. All three brackish waters could be effectively desalinated with simultaneous wastewater treatment. The MDC achieved the highest salt removal rate of 1.2 g L(-1) d(-1) with an initial salinity of 5.9 g L(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.8 d. The desalinated brackish water could meet the irrigation standard of both salinity (450 mg L(-1) TDS) and the concentrations of major ionic species, given a sufficient HRT. The MDC also accomplished nearly 70% removal of organic compounds in wastewater with Coulombic efficiency varied between 5 and 10%. A previously developed MDC model was improved for brackish water desalination, and could well predict salinity variation and the concentrations of individual ions. The model also simulated a staged operation mode with improved desalination performance. This integrated experiment and mathematical modeling approach provides an effective method to understand the key factors in brackish water desalination by MDCs towards further system development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioelectricity inhibits back diffusion from the anolyte into the desalinated stream in microbial desalination cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Qingyun; Porat, Oded; Dosoretz, Carlos G; He, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) taking advantage of energy in wastewater to drive desalination represent a promising approach for energy-efficient desalination, but concerns arise whether contaminants in wastewater could enter the desalinated stream across ion exchange membranes. Such back diffusion of contaminants from the anolyte into the desalinated stream could be controlled by two mechanisms, Donnan effect and molecule transport. This study attempted to understand those mechanisms for inorganic and organic compounds in MDCs through two independently conducted experiments. Donnan effect was found to be the dominant mechanism under the condition without current generation. Under open circuit condition, the MDC fed with 5 g L(-1) salt solution exhibited 1.9 ± 0.7%, 10.3 ± 1.3%, and 1.8 ± 1.2% back diffusion of acetic, phosphate, and sulfate ions, respectively. Current generation effectively suppressed Donnan effect from 68.2% to 7.2%, and then molecule transport became more responsible for back diffusion. A higher initial salt concentration (35 g L(-1)) and a shorter HRT (1.0 d) led to the highest concentration gradient, resulting in the most back diffusion of 7.1 ± 1.2% and 6.8 ± 3.1% of phosphate and sulfate ions, respectively. Three representative organic compounds were selected for test, and it was found that organic back diffusion was intensified with a higher salt concentration gradient and molecular weight played an important role in compound movement. Principal component analysis confirmed the negative correlation between Donnan effect and current, and the positive correlation between molecule transport and concentration gradient related conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ozone-cathode microbial desalination cell; An innovative option to bioelectricity generation and water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Abdolmajid; Ebrahimi, Ali Asghar; Salmani, Mohammad Hossein; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan

    2017-12-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new approach of water desalination methods, which is based on ionic species removal from water in proportion to the electric current generated by bacteria. However, the low current generation and insufficient deionization in this technology have created challenges to improve the process. Here, the performance of MDC using ozone as a new electron acceptor (O3-MDC) was evaluated versus another operated independently with oxygen (O2-MDC). Results showed the maximum open-circuit voltages of 628 and 1331 mV for 20 g L-1 NaCl desalination in O2-MDC and O3-MDC, respectively. The O3-MDC produced a maximum power density of 4.06 W m-2 (about 11 times higher than O2-MDC) while at the same time was able to remove about 74% of salt (55.58% in the O2-MDC). Each cycle of O2-MDC and O3-MDC operation lasted about 66 and 94 h, respectively, indicating a more stable current profile in the O3-MDC. Moreover, sequencing test based on 16S rRNA gene showed that the anode biofilm had more diverse microbial community than anolyte sample. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Acidobacteria were from dominant microbial communities in anode biofilm sample. Accordingly, the results revealed that ozone can enhance MDC performance either as a desalination process or as a pre-treatment reactor for downstream desalination processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing forward osmosis water recovery from landfill leachate by desalinating brine and recovering ammonia in a microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2018-01-31

    In this work, a microbial desalination cell (MDC) was employed to desalinate the FO treated leachate for reduction of both salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The FO recovered 51.5% water from a raw leachate and the recovery increased to 83.5% from the concentrated leachate after desalination in the MDC fed with either acetate or another leachate as an electron source and at a different hydraulic retention time (HRT). Easily-degraded substrate like acetate and a long HRT resulted in a low conductivity desalinated effluent. Ammonia was also recovered in the MDC cathode with a recovery efficiency varying from 11 to 64%, affected by current generation and HRT. Significant COD reduction, as high as 65.4%, was observed in the desalination chamber and attributed to the decrease of both organic and inorganic compounds via diffusion and electricity-driven movement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategies for merging microbial fuel cell technologies in water desalination processes: Start-up protocol and desalination efficiency assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, Zulema; Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Ortiz, Juan Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Microbial Desalination Cells constitute an innovative technology where microbial fuel cell and electrodialysis merge in the same device for obtaining fresh water from saline water with no energy-associated cost for the user. In this work, an anodic biofilm of the electroactive bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens was able to efficiently convert the acetate present in synthetic waste water into electric current (j = 0.32 mA cm-2) able to desalinate water. .Moreover, we implemented an efficient start-up protocol where desalination up to 90% occurred in a desalination cycle (water production:0.308 L m-2 h-1, initial salinity: 9 mS cm-1, final salinity: process or as a pre-treatment method combined with other well established desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO) or reverse electrodialysis.

  8. Modeling of electrokinetic desalination of bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    A model for the reactive transport of matter through porous media induced by an externally applied electric field is discussed. The Nernst–Planck–Poisson system of equations is used for modeling multi-species electro-diffusion transport phenomena, assuming chemical equilibrium during the process....... The system of equations includes the transport of water and the resulting advective flow of the aqueous species. The model takes into account transient change in porosity and its impact on transport. Test examples were performed and compared to experimental data for electrokinetic desalination treatment...

  9. Assessing the economic feasibility of flexible integrated gasification Co-generation facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, J.C.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluated the economic effects of introducing flexibility to state-of-the-art integrated gasification co-generation (IGCG) facilities equipped with CO2 capture. In a previous paper the technical and energetic performances of these flexible IG-CG facilities were evaluated. This paper

  10. Conceptual design of a solar tower power plant with a co-generative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It describes in details the design and operation of a re-innovated solar power plant with a co-generative organic rankine system as the bottoming cycle. It involves heat energy being captured and used to generate steam, which drives a steam turbine to produce electrical energy from the alternator. The low temperature ...

  11. Reviews on Fuel Cell Technology for Valuable Chemicals and Energy Co-Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisitsree Wiyaratn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of co-generation process in fuel cell type reactor to produce valuable chemical compounds along with electricity. The chemicals and energy co-generation processes have been shown to be a promising alternative to conventional reactors and conventional fuel cells with pure water as a byproduct. This paper reviews researches on chemicals and energy co-generation technologies of three types of promising fuel cell i.e. solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, alkaline fuel cell (AFC, and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. In addition, the research studies on applications of SOFCs, AFCs, and PEMFCs with chemical production (i.e. nitric oxide, formaldehyde, sulfur oxide, C2 hydrocarbons, alcohols, syngas and hydrogen peroxide were also given. Although, it appears that chemicals and energy co-generation processes have potential to succeed in commercial applications, the development of cheaper catalyst materials with longer stability ,and understanding in thermodynamic are still challenging to improve the overall system performance and enable to use in commercial market.

  12. Projected world market for seawater desalination equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    A forecast is presented of the market for seawater desalination plants. The conclusions presented herein are based on a number of sources of information, of which the most important are: responses to questionnaires mailed to 300 cognizant water agencies in 61 countries; the published market growth trend over the period 1971 to 1983; and an analysis of the geography, rainfall, population, industrial growth, and energy availability in the respective countries. Analysis suggests the possibility that financing, although currently a major stumbling block to the purchase of desalting plants, may be effected by an exchange program in which the purchaser of plants will offer some exportable product(s) in exchange. The forecast suggests the likelihood that the seawater desalination market is becoming saturated. A plateau is expected to develop in new plant sales of additional capacity in the immediate future, followed by a downturn by the end of the century. This report, however, emphasizes the importance of the replacement market, which will involve substantial sales to replace worn-out and obsolescent equipment. The combined new-plus-replacement annual sales can be expected to reach 1.25 million m/sup 3//d (330 Mgd) by the year 2000. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is expected to represent 270,000 m/sup 3//d (70 Mgd) by the end of the century because of technological improvements in membrane systems and components.

  13. Future Energy Benchmark for Desalination: Is it Better to have a Power (Electricity) Plant With RO or MED/MSF?

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2016-06-23

    Power and desalination cogeneration plants are common in many water scared courtiers. Designers and planners for cogeneration face tough challenges in deciding the options:- Is it better to operate a power plant (PP) with the reverse osmosis (i.e., PP+RO) or the thermally-driven multi-effect distillation/multi-stage flashed ( PP+MED/MSF) methods. From literature, the RO methods are known to be energy efficient whilst the MED/MSF are known to have excellent thermodynamic synergies as only low pressure and temperature steam are used. Not with-standing the challenges of severe feed seawater of the Gulf, such as the frequent harmful algae blooms (HABs) and high silt contents, this presentation presents a quantitative analyses using the exergy and energetic approaches in evaluating the performances of a real cogeneration plant that was recently proposed in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. We demonstrate that the process choice of PP+RO versus PP+MED depends on the inherent efficiencies of individual process method which is closely related to innovative process design. In this connection, a method of primary fuel cost apportionment for a co-generation plant with a MED desalination is presented. We show that an energy approach, that captures the quality of expanding steam, is a better method over the conventional work output (energetic) and the energy method seems to be over-penalizing a thermally-driven MED by as much as 22% in the operating cost of water.

  14. Future Energy Benchmark for Desalination: is it Better to have a Power (electricity) Plant with ro or Med/msf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw

    2016-06-01

    Power and desalination cogeneration plants are common in many water scared courtiers. Designers and planners for cogeneration face tough challenges in deciding the options:- Is it better to operate a power plant (PP) with the reverse osmosis (i.e., PP+RO) or the thermally-driven multi-effect distillation/multi-stage flashed (PP+MED/MSF) methods. From literature, the RO methods are known to be energy efficient whilst the MED/MSF are known to have excellent thermodynamic synergies as only low pressure and temperature steam are used. Not with-standing the challenges of severe feed seawater of the Gulf, such as the frequent harmful algae blooms (HABs) and high silt contents, this presentation presents a quantitative analyses using the exergy and energetic approaches in evaluating the performances of a real cogeneration plant that was recently proposed in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. We demonstrate that the process choice of PP+RO versus PP+MED depends on the inherent efficiencies of individual process method which is closely related to innovative process design. In this connection, a method of primary fuel cost apportionment for a co-generation plant with a MED desalination is presented. We show that an energy approach, that captures the quality of expanding steam, is a better method over the conventional work output (energetic) and the energy method seems to be over-penalizing a thermally-driven MED by as much as 22% in the operating cost of water.

  15. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2014-04-13

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group\\'s contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solar Energy Supported Desalination Processes for Desalting of Sea Water

    OpenAIRE

    , M.E. Argun

    2010-01-01

    This study is a review of solar energy supported desalination processes. Although the sun light captured by earth excessively meets of world’s need, we can use a few amount of this source. Solar energy supported desalination is one of the method developed for desalination. Solar energy usage will also decrease CO2 emission which is responsible of global warming. A lot of studies to improve the efficiency of solar energy systems have been carried out during last years. Solar energy can be used...

  17. Rotating carbon nanotube membrane filter for water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingsong; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Hualin; Li, Shaofan

    2016-01-01

    We have designed a porous nanofluidic desalination device, a rotating carbon nanotube membrane filter (RCNT-MF), for the reverse osmosis desalination that can turn salt water into fresh water. The concept as well as design strategy of RCNT-MF is modeled, and demonstrated by using molecular dynamics simulation. It has been shown that the RCNT-MF device may significantly improve desalination efficiency by combining the centrifugal force propelled reverse osmosis process and the porous CNT-based fine scale selective separation technology. PMID:27188982

  18. Nanoporous Carbon Nitride: A High Efficient Filter for Seawater Desalination

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Weifeng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-01-01

    The low efficiency of commercially-used reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has been the main obstacle in seawater desalination application. Here, we report the auspicious performance, through molecular dynamics simulations, of a seawater desalination filter based on the recently-synthesized graphene-like carbon nitride (g-C2N) [Nat. Commun., 2015, 6, 6486]. Taking advantage of the inherent nanopores and excellent mechanical properties of g-C2N filter, highly efficient seawater desalination can be achieved by modulating the nanopores under tensile strain. The water permeability can be improved by two orders of magnitude compared to RO membranes, which offers a promising approach to the global water shortage solution.

  19. A ten liter stacked microbial desalination cell packed with mixed ion-exchange resins for secondary effluent desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kuichang; Cai, Jiaxiang; Liang, Shuai; Wu, Shijia; Zhang, Changyong; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2014-08-19

    The architecture and performance of microbial desalination cell (MDC) have been significantly improved in the past few years. However, the application of MDC is still limited in a scope of small-scale (milliliter) reactors and high-salinity-water desalination. In this study, a large-scale (>10 L) stacked MDC packed with mixed ion-exchange resins was fabricated and operated in the batch mode with a salt concentration of 0.5 g/L NaCl, a typical level of domestic wastewater. With circulation flow rate of 80 mL/min, the stacked resin-packed MDC (SR-MDC) achieved a desalination efficiency of 95.8% and a final effluent concentration of 0.02 g/L in 12 h, which is comparable with the effluent quality of reverse osmosis in terms of salinity. Moreover, the SR-MDC kept a stable desalination performance (>93%) when concentrate volume decreased from 2.4 to 0.1 L (diluate/concentrate volume ratio increased from 1:1 to 1:0.04), where only 0.875 L of nonfresh water was consumed to desalinate 1 L of saline water. In addition, the SR-MDC achieved a considerable desalination rate (95.4 mg/h), suggesting a promising application for secondary effluent desalination through deriving biochemical electricity from wastewater.

  20. Aridity, desalination plants and tourism in the eastern Canary Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José-León García-Rodríguez; Francisco J. García-Rodríguez; Carlos Castilla-Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    .... These systems were used until the introduction of seawater desalination plants and the arrival of tourism in the last third of the twentieth century, which improved living standards for the local...

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of capacitive charging and desalination by porous electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Bazant, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid and efficient exchange of ions between porous electrodes and aqueous solutions is important in many applications, such as electrical energy storage by supercapacitors, water desalination and purification by capacitive deionization, and capacitive extraction of renewable energy from a

  2. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2014-08-04

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvement of water desalination technologies in reverse osmosis plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskii, S. P.; Konoval'chik, M. V.; Gul'ko, S. E.

    2017-07-01

    The strengthening of requirements for the protection of surface-water sources and increases in the cost of reagents lead to the necessity of using membrane (especially, reverse osmosis) technologies of water desalination as an alternative to ion-exchange technologies. The peculiarities of using reverse osmosis technologies in the desalination of waters with an increased salinity have been discussed. An analogy has been made between the dependence of the adsorptive capacity of ion-exchange resins on the reagent consumption during ion exchange and the dependence of the specific ion flux on the voltage in the electrodialysis and productivity of membrane elements on the excess of the pressure of source water over the osmotic pressure in reverse osmosis. It has been proposed to regulate the number of water desalination steps in reverse osmosis plants, which makes it possible to flexibly change the productivity of equipment and the level of desalinization, depending on the requirements for the technological process. It is shown that the selectivity of reverse osmotic membranes with respect to bivalent ions (calcium, magnesium, and sulfates) is approximately four times higher than the selectivity with respect to monovalent ions (sodium and chlorine). The process of desalination in reverse osmosis plants depends on operation factors, such as the salt content and ion composition of source water, the salt content of the concentrate, and the temperatures of solution and operating pressure, and the design features of devices, such as the length of the motion of the desalination water flux, the distance between membranes, and types of membranes and turbulators (spacers). To assess the influence of separate parameters on the process of reverse osmosis desalination of water solutions, we derived criteria equations by compiling problem solution matrices on the basis of the dimensional method, taking into account the Huntley complement. The operation of membrane elements was

  4. Solar-Powered Desalination: A Modelling and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Jimmy; Andrews, John

    2007-10-01

    Water shortage is becoming one of the major problems worldwide. As such, desalination technologies have been implemented to meet growing demands for fresh water. Among the desalination technologies, thermal desalination, including multi stage flash (MSF) and multi effect evaporation (MEE), is the current leading desalination process. Reverse osmosis (RO) is also being increasingly used. Despite technological improvements, thermal desalination and reverse osmosis continue to be intensive fossil-fuel consumers and contribute to increased levels of greenhouse gases. As energy costs rise, thermal desalination by solar energy and/or low cost waste heat is likely to become increasingly attractive. As part of a project investigating the productive use of saline land and the development of sustainable desalination systems, the feasibility of producing potable water from seawater or brackish water using desalination systems powered by renewable energy in the form of low-temperature solar-thermal sources has been studied. A salinity-gradient solar pond and an evacuated tube solar collector system have been used as heat sources. Solar ponds combine solar energy collection with long-term storage and can provide reliable thermal energy at temperature ranges from 50 to 90 °C. A visual basic computer model of the different multi-stage flash desalination processes coupled with a salinity-gradient solar pond was developed to determine which process is preferable in regards to performance and greenhouse impact. The governing mathematical equations are derived from mass balances, heat energy balances, and heat transfer characteristics. Using the results from the modelling, a small-scale solar-powered desalination system, capable of producing up to 500 litres of fresh water per day, was designed and manufactured. This single-stage flash system consists of two main units: the heat supply and storage system and the flash desalination unit. Two different condenser heat exchanger

  5. Operational strategy of adsorption desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the performances of an adsorption desalination (AD) system in two-bed and four-bed operational modes. The tested results are calculated in terms of key performance parameters namely, (i) specific daily water production (SDWP), (ii) cycle time, and (iii) performance ratio (PR) for various heat source temperatures, mass flow rates, cycle times along with a fixed heat sink temperature. The optimum input parameters such as driving heat source and cycle time of the AD cycle are also evaluated. It is found from the present experimental data that the maximum potable water production per tonne of adsorbent (silica gel) per day is about 10 m3 whilst the corresponding performance ratio is 0.61, and a longer cycle time is required to achieve maximum water production at lower heat source temperatures. This paper also provides a useful guideline for the operational strategy of the AD cycle. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deionization and desalination using electrostatic ion pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, William L [Livermore, CA; Aines, Roger D [Livermore, CA; Haslam, Jeffery J [Livermore, CA; Schaldach, Charlene M [Pleasanton, CA; O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA; Cussler, Edward [Edina, MN

    2011-07-19

    The present invention provides a new method and apparatus/system for purifying ionic solutions, such as, for example, desalinating water, using engineered charged surfaces to sorb ions from such solutions. Surface charge is applied externally, and is synchronized with oscillatory fluid movements between substantially parallel charged plates. Ions are held in place during fluid movement in one direction (because they are held in the electrical double layer), and released for transport during fluid movement in the opposite direction by removing the applied electric field. In this way the ions, such as salt, are "ratcheted" across the charged surface from the feed side to the concentrate side. The process itself is very simple and involves only pumps, charged surfaces, and manifolds for fluid collection.

  7. Economic Analysis in Series-Distillation Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO and multi-stage flash (MSF cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. Therefore, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K and 722 kPa for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K, the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3. At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K, the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3. Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. Keywords: desalination, dropwise condensation, mechanical-vapor compression

  8. Determination of Fuel Consumption Indexes of Co-generation Combined Cycle Steam and Gas Units with unfired waste heat boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed methodology and the results of determination of fuel consumption indexes of co-generation combined cycle steam and gas units (PGU with unfired waste heat boilers apply to PGU-230 of 3-d co-generation power plant ofMinsk. 

  9. Reverse osmosis desalination: water sources, technology, and today's challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Marrot, Benoit; Moulin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Reverse osmosis membrane technology has developed over the past 40 years to a 44% share in world desalting production capacity, and an 80% share in the total number of desalination plants installed worldwide. The use of membrane desalination has increased as materials have improved and costs have decreased. Today, reverse osmosis membranes are the leading technology for new desalination installations, and they are applied to a variety of salt water resources using tailored pretreatment and membrane system design. Two distinct branches of reverse osmosis desalination have emerged: seawater reverse osmosis and brackish water reverse osmosis. Differences between the two water sources, including foulants, salinity, waste brine (concentrate) disposal options, and plant location, have created significant differences in process development, implementation, and key technical problems. Pretreatment options are similar for both types of reverse osmosis and depend on the specific components of the water source. Both brackish water and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) will continue to be used worldwide; new technology in energy recovery and renewable energy, as well as innovative plant design, will allow greater use of desalination for inland and rural communities, while providing more affordable water for large coastal cities. A wide variety of research and general information on RO desalination is available; however, a direct comparison of seawater and brackish water RO systems is necessary to highlight similarities and differences in process development. This article brings to light key parameters of an RO process and process modifications due to feed water characteristics.

  10. An exergy approach to efficiency evaluation of desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-05-02

    This paper presents an evaluation process efficiency based on the consumption of primary energy for all types of practical desalination methods available hitherto. The conventional performance ratio has, thus far, been defined with respect to the consumption of derived energy, such as the electricity or steam, which are susceptible to the conversion losses of power plants and boilers that burned the input primary fuels. As derived energies are usually expressed by the units, either kWh or Joules, these units cannot differentiate the grade of energy supplied to the processes accurately. In this paper, the specific energy consumption is revisited for the efficacy of all large-scale desalination plants. In today\\'s combined production of electricity and desalinated water, accomplished with advanced cogeneration concept, the input exergy of fuels is utilized optimally and efficiently in a temperature cascaded manner. By discerning the exergy destruction successively in the turbines and desalination processes, the relative contribution of primary energy to the processes can be accurately apportioned to the input primary energy. Although efficiency is not a law of thermodynamics, however, a common platform for expressing the figures of merit explicit to the efficacy of desalination processes can be developed meaningfully that has the thermodynamic rigor up to the ideal or thermodynamic limit of seawater desalination for all scientists and engineers to aspire to.

  11. An exergy approach to efficiency evaluation of desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kim Choon; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Son, Hyuk Soo; Hamed, Osman A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an evaluation process efficiency based on the consumption of primary energy for all types of practical desalination methods available hitherto. The conventional performance ratio has, thus far, been defined with respect to the consumption of derived energy, such as the electricity or steam, which are susceptible to the conversion losses of power plants and boilers that burned the input primary fuels. As derived energies are usually expressed by the units, either kWh or Joules, these units cannot differentiate the grade of energy supplied to the processes accurately. In this paper, the specific energy consumption is revisited for the efficacy of all large-scale desalination plants. In today's combined production of electricity and desalinated water, accomplished with advanced cogeneration concept, the input exergy of fuels is utilized optimally and efficiently in a temperature cascaded manner. By discerning the exergy destruction successively in the turbines and desalination processes, the relative contribution of primary energy to the processes can be accurately apportioned to the input primary energy. Although efficiency is not a law of thermodynamics, however, a common platform for expressing the figures of merit explicit to the efficacy of desalination processes can be developed meaningfully that has the thermodynamic rigor up to the ideal or thermodynamic limit of seawater desalination for all scientists and engineers to aspire to.

  12. Economics of Renewable Energy for Water Desalination in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Shouman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the economics of renewable energy- powered desalination, as applied to water supply for remote coastal and desert communities in developing countries. In this paper, the issue of integration of desalination technologies and renewable energy from specified sources is addressed. The features of Photovoltaic (PV system combined with reverse osmosis desalination technology, which represents the most commonly applied integration between renewable energy and desalination technology, are analyzed. Further, a case study for conceptual seawater reverse osmosis (SW-RO desalination plant with 1000 m3 /d capacity is presented, based on PV and conventional generators powered with fossil fuel to be installed in a remote coastal area in Egypt, as a typical developing country. The estimated water cost for desalination with PV/ SW-RO system is about $1.25 m3 , while ranging between $1.22-1.59 for SW-RO powered with conventional generator powered with fossil fuel. Analysis of the economical, technical and environmental factors depicts the merits of using large scale integrated PV/RO system as an economically feasible water supply relying upon a renewable energy source.

  13. Future sustainable desalination using waste heat: kudos to thermodynamic synergy

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-12-02

    There has been a plethora of published literature on thermally-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles for seawater desalination due to their favorable environmentally friendly attributes, such as the ability to operate with low-temperature heat sources, from either the renewable or the exhaust gases, and having almost no major moving parts. We present an AD cycle for seawater desalination due to its unique ability to integrate higher water production yields with the existing desalination methods such as reverse osmosis (RO), multi-stage flashing (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED), etc. The hybrid cycles exploit the thermodynamic synergy between processes, leading to significant enhancement of the systems\\' performance ratio (PR). In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally the synergetic effect between the AD and MED cycles that results in quantum improvement in water production. The unique feature is in the internal latent heat recovery from the condenser unit of AD to the top-brine stage of MED, resulting in a combined, or simply termed as MEAD, cycle that requires no additional heat input other than the regeneration of an adsorbent. The batch-operated cycles are simple to implement and require low maintenance when compared with conventional desalination methods. Together, they offer a low energy and environmentally friendly desalination solution that addresses the major issues of the water-energy-environment nexus. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting the Specific Energy Consumption of Reverse Osmosis Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlynn S. Stillwell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Desalination is often considered an approach for mitigating water stress. Despite the abundance of saline water worldwide, additional energy consumption and increased costs present barriers to widespread deployment of desalination as a municipal water supply. Specific energy consumption (SEC is a common measure of the energy use in desalination processes, and depends on many operational and water quality factors. We completed multiple linear regression and relative importance statistical analyses of factors affecting SEC using both small-scale meta-data and municipal-scale empirical data to predict the energy consumption of desalination. Statistically significant results show water quality and initial year of operations to be significant and important factors in estimating SEC, explaining over 80% of the variation in SEC. More recent initial year of operations, lower salinity raw water, and higher salinity product water accurately predict lower values of SEC. Economic analysis revealed a weak statistical relationship between SEC and cost of water production. Analysis of associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions revealed important considerations of both electricity source and SEC in estimating the GHG-related sustainability of desalination. Results of our statistical analyses can aid decision-makers by predicting the SEC of desalination to a reasonable degree of accuracy with limited data.

  16. Water quality assessment of solar-assisted adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    This study focuses on the water quality assessment (feed, product and brine) of the pilot adsorption desalination (AD) plant. Seawater from the Red Sea is used as feed to the AD plant. Water quality tests are evaluated by complying the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards with major primary and secondary inorganic drinking water pollutants and other commonly tested water quality parameters. Chemical testing of desalinated water at the post desalination stage confirms the high quality of produced fresh water. Test results have shown that the adsorption desalination process is very effective in eliminating all forms of salts, as evidenced by the significant reduction of the TDS levels from approximately 40,000. ppm in feed seawater to less than 10. ppm. Test results exhibit extremely low levels of parameters which are generally abundant in feed seawater. The compositions of seawater and process related parameters such as chloride, sodium, bromide, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and silicate in desalinated water exhibit values of less than 0.1. ppm. Reported conductivity measurements of desalinated water are comparable to distilled water conductivity levels and ranged between 2 and 6. μS/cm while TOC and TIC levels are also extremely low and its value is less than 0.5. ppm. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Co-generation and reality Potential in Mexico; Potencial de cogeneracion y realidad en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This document deals with the Mexican use of co-generation -the efficient use of the energy- through the support offered by the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), since this is the agency in charge of fomenting the efficient use of energy by means of actions coordinated with diverse dependencies and organizations of the Administracion Publica Federal and with the governments of the federal entities as well as municipalities, social and private sectors. Among the subjects to be dealt are quality of the electrical and thermal energy, types of fuels that can be used in the co-generation project, the present situation of the co-generation in Mexico and the conditions for their development. [Spanish] Este documento analiza el uso de la cogeneracion en Mexico es decir, el uso eficiente de la energia a traves del apoyo que brinda la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) ya que es el organo encargado de fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de la energia mediante acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal y con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. Se trataran temas como calidad de la energia electrica y termica, los tipos de combustibles que pueden utilizarse en el proyecto de cogeneracion, la situacion actual de la cogeneracion en Mexico y las ccondiciones para su desarrollo.

  18. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with co-generation of biohydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Shikha; Sarkar, Omprakash; Swamy, Y V; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-01

    Fermentation experiments were designed to elucidate the functional role of the redox microenvironment on volatile fatty acid (VFA, short chain carboxylic acid) production and co-generation of biohydrogen (H2). Higher VFA productivity was observed at pH 10 operation (6.3g/l) followed by pH 9, pH 6, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 11 (3.5 g/l). High degree of acidification, good system buffering capacity along with co-generation of higher H2 production from food waste was also noticed at alkaline condition. Experiments illustrated the role of initial pH on carboxylic acids synthesis. Alkaline redox conditions assist solubilization of carbohydrates, protein and fats and also suppress the growth of methanogens. Among the carboxylic acids, acetate fraction was higher at alkaline condition than corresponding neutral or acidic operations. Integrated process of VFA production from waste with co-generation of H2 can be considered as a green and sustainable platform for value-addition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of a Hybrid Uf-Ro Process to Geothermal Water Desalination. Concentrate Disposal and Cost Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbara Tomaszewska; Leszek Pająk; Michał Bodzek

    2014-01-01

    M embrane-based water desalination processes and hybrid technologies are often considered as a technologically and economically viable alternative for desalination of geothermal waters. This has been...

  20. Solar membrane distillation: desalination for the Navajo Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, Vasiliki; Corral, Andrea F; Mette, Patrick; Jiang, Hua; Arnoldand, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2014-01-01

    Provision of clean water is among the most serious, long-term challenges in the world. To an ever increasing degree, sustainable water supply depends on the utilization of water of impaired initial quality. This is particularly true in developing nations and in water-stressed areas such as the American Southwest. One clear example is the Navajo Nation. The reservation covers 27,000 square miles, mainly in northeastern Arizona. Low population density coupled with water scarcity and impairment makes provision of clean water particularly challenging. The Navajos rely primarily on ground water, which is often present in deep aquifers or of brackish quality. Commonly, reverse osmosis (RO) is chosen to desalinate brackish ground water, since RO costs are competitive with those of thermal desalination, even for seawater applications. However, both conventional thermal distillation and RO are energy intensive, complex processes that discourage decentralized or rural implementation. In addition, both technologies demand technical experience for operation and maintenance, and are susceptible to scaling and fouling unless extensive feed pretreatment is employed. Membrane distillation (MD), driven by vapor pressure gradients, can potentially overcome many of these drawbacks. MD can operate using low-grade, sub-boiling sources of heat and does not require extensive operational experience. This presentation discusses a project on the Navajo Nation, Arizona (Native American tribal lands) that is designed to investigate and deploy an autonomous (off-grid) system to pump and treat brackish groundwater using solar energy. Βench-scale, hollow fiber MD experiment results showed permeate water fluxes from 21 L/m2·d can be achieved with transmembrane temperature differences between 40 and 80˚C. Tests run with various feed salt concentrations indicate that the permeate flux decreases only about 25% as the concentration increases from 0 to 14% (w/w), which is four times seawater salt

  1. Can the Adoption of Desalination Technology Lead to Aquifer Preservation? A Case Study of a Sociotechnical Water System in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie McEvoy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about the sustainability of groundwater supplies worldwide. In many regions, desalination—the conversion of saline water to freshwater—is viewed as a way to increase water supplies and reduce pressure on overdrawn aquifers. Using data from reports, articles, interviews, a survey, and a focus group, this paper examines if, and how, the adoption of desalination technology can lead to aquifer preservation in Baja California Sur (BCS, Mexico. The paper outlines existing institutional arrangements (i.e., laws, rules, norms, or organizations surrounding desalination in BCS and concludes that there are currently no effective mechanisms to ensure aquifer preservation. Four mechanisms that could be implemented to improve groundwater management are identified, including: 1 integrated water-and land-use planning; 2 creation of an institute responsible for coordinated and consistent planning; 3 improved groundwater monitoring; and 4 implementation of water conservation measures prior to the adoption of desalination technology. This paper concludes that viewing water technologies, including desalination, as sociotechnical systems—i.e., a set of technological components that are embedded in complex social, political, and economic contexts—has the potential to create a more sustainable human–environment–technology relationship. By assessing desalination technology as a sociotechnical system, this study highlights the need to focus on institutional development and capacity building, especially within local water utilities and urban planning agencies.

  2. Development of the microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell for desalination as well as acid and alkali productions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo; Qin, Bangyu; Luo, Yong

    2012-02-21

    By combining the microbial electrolysis cell and the microbial desalination cell, the microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) becomes a novel device to desalinate salty water. However, several factors, such as sharp pH decrease and Cl(-) accumulation in the anode chamber, limit the MEDC development. In this study, a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) was developed with four chambers using a bipolar membrane. Results showed that the pH in the anode chamber of the MEDCC always remained near 7.0, which greatly enhanced the microbial activities in the cell. With applied voltages of 0.3-1.0 V, 62%-97% of Coulombic efficiencies were achieved from the MEDCC, which were 1.5-2.0 times of those from the MEDC. With 10 mL of 10 g/L NaCl in the desalination chamber, desalination rates of the MEDCC reached 46%-86% within 18 h. Another unique feature of the MEDCC was the simultaneous production of HCl and NaOH in the cell. With 1.0 V applied voltage, the pH values at 18 h in the acid-production chamber and cathode chamber were 0.68 and 12.9, respectively. With the MEDCC, the problem with large pH changes in the anode chamber was resolved, and products of the acid and alkali were obtained.

  3. Design of a process for supercritical water desalination with zero liquid discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odu, Samuel Obarinu; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Metz, S.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional desalination methods have a major drawback; the production of a liquid waste stream which must be disposed. The treatment of this waste stream has always presented technical, economic, and environmental challenges. The supercritical water desalination (SCWD) process meets these

  4. Energy systems impacts of reverse osmosis and thermal desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This paper investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity...

  5. Improved petroleum refinery wastewater treatment and seawater desalination performance by combining osmotic microbial fuel cell and up-flow microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevda, Surajbhan; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M

    2017-12-09

    The petroleum refinery wastewater which is a product of petroleum refinery has a high organic content. This study explores the utilization of petroleum refinery wastewater collected from petroleum refinery as a resource for bioelectricity generation and using this energy for salt removal from seawater in a hydraulically connected osmotic microbial fuel cell (OsMFC) and up flow microbial desalination cell (UMDC). Anaerobic mixed sludge was used in the anodic chamber of OsMFC and UMDC. Petroleum refinery wastewater was fed first into the OsMFC and then transferred to the UMDC. The OsMFC and UMDC were connected to 1000 and 100 Ω external resistance respectively. Experimental results showed that the combined system could remove 93% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the petroleum refinery wastewater whilst 48% salts were removed from the seawater. Experimental results showed that this complex wastewater can be treated and produce bioelectricity, with COD removal and salt removal. The hydraulically connected OsMFC and up flow MDC provide a suitable platform for wastewater treatment and seawater desalination.

  6. Desalination of masonry structures: Fine tuning of pore size distribution of poultices to substrate properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    2010-01-01

    Desalination is a relatively new intervention in the field of conservation of architectural heritage. Especially the desalination of immovable objects, such as masonry structures, is still a trial-error practice. In the field, different desalination materials and methods are used, sometimes with

  7. Membrane-based seawater desalination: Present and future prospects

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary L.

    2016-10-20

    Given increasing regional water scarcity and that almost half of the world\\'s population lives within 100 km of an ocean, seawater represents a virtually infinite water resource. However, its exploitation is presently limited by the significant specific energy consumption (kWh/m) required by conventional desalination technologies, further exasperated by high unit costs ($/m) and environmental impacts including GHG emissions (g CO-eq/m), organism impingement/entrainment through intakes, and brine disposal through outfalls. This paper explores the state-of-the-art in present seawater desalination practice, emphasizing membrane-based technologies, while identifying future opportunities in step improvements to conventional technologies and development of emerging, potentially disruptive, technologies through advances in material science, process engineering, and system integration. In this paper, seawater reverse osmosis (RO) serves as the baseline conventional technology. The discussion extends beyond desalting processes into membrane-based salinity gradient energy production processes, which can provide an energy offset to desalination process energy requirements. The future membrane landscape in membrane-based desalination and salinity gradient energy is projected to include ultrahigh permeability RO membranes, renewable-energy driven desalination, and emerging processes including closed-circuit RO, membrane distillation, forward osmosis, pressure retarded osmosis, and reverse electrodialysis according various niche applications and/or hybrids, operating separately or in conjunction with RO.

  8. Saline Groundwater from Coastal Aquifers As a Source for Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yoseph; Rahav, Eyal; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2016-02-16

    Reverse osmosis (RO) seawater desalination is currently a widespread means of closing the gap between supply and demand for potable water in arid regions. Currently, one of the main setbacks of RO operation is fouling, which hinders membrane performance and induces pressure loss, thereby reducing system efficiency. An alternative water source is saline groundwater with salinity close to seawater, pumped from beach wells in coastal aquifers which penetrate beneath the freshwater-seawater interface. In this research, we studied the potential use of saline groundwater of the coastal aquifer as feedwater for desalination in comparison to seawater using fieldwork and laboratory approaches. The chemistry, microbiology and physical properties of saline groundwater were characterized and compared with seawater. Additionally, reverse osmosis desalination experiments in a cross-flow system were performed, evaluating the permeate flux, salt rejection and fouling propensities of the different water types. Our results indicated that saline groundwater was significantly favored over seawater as a feed source in terms of chemical composition, microorganism content, silt density, and fouling potential, and exhibited better desalination performance with less flux decline. Saline groundwater may be a better water source for desalination by RO due to lower fouling potential, and reduced pretreatment costs.

  9. Thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles for seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qipeng; Chen, Ningping; Zhao, Dieling; Lu, Xianmao

    2013-11-13

    Thermoresponsive magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a class of smart materials that respond to a change in temperature may by used as a draw solute to extract water from brackish or seawater by forward osmosis (FO). A distinct advantage is the efficient regeneration of the draw solute and the recovery of water via heat-facilitated magnetic separation. However, the osmotic pressure attained by this type of draw solution is too low to counteract that of seawater. In this work, we have designed a FO draw solution based on multifunctional Fe3O4 nanoparticles grafted with copolymer poly(sodium styrene-4-sulfonate)-co-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PSSS-PNIPAM). The resulting regenerable draw solution shows high osmotic pressure for seawater desalination. This is enabled by three essential functional components integrated within the nanostructure: (i) a Fe3O4 core that allows magnetic separation of the nanoparticles from the solvent, (ii) a thermoresponsive polymer, PNIPAM, that enables reversible clustering of the particles for further improved magnetic capturing at a temperature above its low critical solution temperature (LCST), and (iii) a polyelectrolyte, PSSS, that provides an osmotic pressure that is well above that of seawater.

  10. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E. [CUBAENERGIA, Playa, Havana (Cuba)]. E-mail: emeneses@cien.energia.inf.cu; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I. [CUBAENERGIA, Playa, Havana (Cuba)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  11. Desalination plant aids Australian water shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocking, A.W.

    2010-09-15

    This article described a reverse-osmosis desalination plant that was commissioned for Adelaide, South Australia, which operates under permanent water restrictions. The plant will supplement the freshwater supply, reduce the pressure on the existing rainwater catchment system, and allow water levels to regenerate. The company that won the bid on the project used 3-dimensional modelling to get accurate cost estimates and visualize the plant impact on the environment, the community, and a culturally important site. A detailed diffusion plan was devised to mitigate the effects of saline concentrate release. As reverse osmosis is so energy intensive that it can be difficult to justify a plant on sustainability grounds. Energy recovery devices were included in the process building and outfall shaft, and solar energy panels will be installed on the process building roof. The energy recovery devices use energy stored in the brine to increase the output of the high-pressure pumps that feed the reverse osmosis units. Energy recovery units in the outfall shaft will produce electricity and provide power to the grid for the process plant to use. The 3-dimensional model was credited as a key factor in winning the bid, and the many advantages of 3-dimensional modelling were described. 3 figs.

  12. Nanotechnology applications to desalination : a report for the joint water reuse & desalination task force.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Mayer, Tom; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials and nanotechnology methods have been an integral part of international research over the past decade. Because many traditional water treatment technologies (e.g. membrane filtration, biofouling, scale inhibition, etc.) depend on nanoscale processes, it is reasonable to expect one outcome of nanotechnology research to be better, nano-engineered water treatment approaches. The most immediate, and possibly greatest, impact of nanotechnology on desalination methods will likely be the development of membranes engineered at the near-molecular level. Aquaporin proteins that channel water across cell membranes with very low energy inputs point to the potential for dramatically improved performance. Aquaporin-laced polymer membranes and aquaporin-mimicking carbon nanotubes and metal oxide membranes developed in the lab support this. A critical limitation to widespread use of nanoengineered desalination membranes will be their scalability to industrial fabrication processes. Subsequent, long-term improvements in nanoengineered membranes may result in self-healing membranes that ideally are (1) more resistant to biofouling, (2) have biocidal properties, and/or (3) selectively target trace contaminants.

  13. Entropy generation minimization: A practical approach for performance evaluation of temperature cascaded co-generation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2012-10-01

    We present a practical tool that employs entropy generation minimization (EGM) approach for an in-depth performance evaluation of a co-generation plant with a temperature-cascaded concept. Co-generation plant produces useful effect production sequentially, i.e., (i) electricity from the micro-turbines, (ii) low pressure steam at 250 °C or about 8-10 bars, (iii) cooling capacity of 4 refrigeration tones (Rtons) and (iv) dehumidification of outdoor air for air conditioned space. The main objective is to configure the most efficient configuration of producing power and heat. We employed entropy generation minimization (EGM) which reflects to minimize the dissipative losses and maximize the cycle efficiency of the individual thermally activated systems. The minimization of dissipative losses or EGM is performed in two steps namely, (i) adjusting heat source temperatures for the heat-fired cycles and (ii) the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA), to seek out the sensitivity of heat transfer areas, flow rates of working fluids, inlet temperatures of heat sources and coolant, etc., over the anticipated range of operation to achieve maximum efficiency. With EGM equipped with GA, we verified that the local minimization of entropy generation individually at each of the heat-activated processes would lead to the maximum efficiency of the system. © 2012.

  14. Optimization of operation of energy supply systems with co-generation and absorption refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Mirko M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-generation systems, together with absorption refrigeration and thermal storage, can result in substantial benefits from the economic, energy and environmental point of view. Optimization of operation of such systems is important as a component of the entire optimization process in pre-construction phases, but also for short-term energy production planning and system control. This paper proposes an approach for operational optimization of energy supply systems with small or medium scale co-generation, additional boilers and heat pumps, absorption and compression refrigeration, thermal energy storage and interconnection to the electric utility grid. In this case, the objective is to minimize annual costs related to the plant operation. The optimization problem is defined as mixed integer nonlinear and solved combining modern stochastic techniques: genetic algorithms and simulated annealing with linear programming using the object oriented “ESO-MS” software solution for simulation and optimization of energy supply systems, developed as a part of this research. This approach is applied to optimize a hypothetical plant that might be used to supply a real residential settlement in Niš, Serbia. Results are compared to the ones obtained after transforming the problem to mixed 0-1 linear and applying the branch and bound method.

  15. Energy-positive wastewater treatment and desalination in an integrated microbial desalination cell (MDC)-microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Styczynski, Jordyn; Huang, Yuankai; Xu, Zhiheng; McCutcheon, Jeffrey; Li, Baikun

    2017-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of nitrogen in municipal wastewater, metal in industrial wastewater and saline in seawater was achieved in an integrated microbial desalination cell-microbial electrolysis cell (MDC-MEC) system. Batch tests showed that more than 95.1% of nitrogen was oxidized by nitrification in the cathode of MDC and reduced by heterotrophic denitrification in the anode of MDC within 48 h, leading to the total nitrogen removal rate of 4.07 mg L-1 h-1. Combining of nitrogen removal and desalination in MDC effectively solved the problem of pH fluctuation in anode and cathode, and led to 63.7% of desalination. Power generation of MDC (293.7 mW m-2) was 2.9 times higher than the one without salt solution. The electric power of MDC was harvested by a capacitor circuit to supply metal reduction in a MEC, and 99.5% of lead (II) was removed within 48 h. A kinetic MDC model was developed to elucidate the correlation of voltage output and desalination efficiency. Ratio of wastewater and sea water was calculated for MDC optimal operation. Energy balance of nutrient removal, metal removal and desalination in the MDC-MEC system was positive (0.0267 kW h m-3), demonstrating the promise of utilizing low power output of MDCs.

  16. Energy-water-environment nexus underpinning future desalination sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-03-11

    Energy-water-environment nexus is very important to attain COP21 goal, maintaining environment temperature increase below 2°C, but unfortunately two third share of CO2 emission has already been used and the remaining will be exhausted by 2050. A number of technological developments in power and desalination sectors improved their efficiencies to save energy and carbon emission but still they are operating at 35% and 10% of their thermodynamic limits. Research in desalination processes contributing to fuel World population for their improved living standard and to reduce specific energy consumption and to protect environment. Recently developed highly efficient nature-inspired membranes (aquaporin & graphene) and trend in thermally driven cycle\\'s hybridization could potentially lower then energy requirement for water purification. This paper presents a state of art review on energy, water and environment interconnection and future energy efficient desalination possibilities to save energy and protect environment.

  17. Desalination by biomimetic aquaporin membranes: Review of status and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, C.Y.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Based on their unique combination of offering high water permeability and high solute rejection aquaporin proteins have attracted considerable interest over the last years as functional building blocks of biomimetic membranes for water desalination and reuse. The purpose of this review is to prov......Based on their unique combination of offering high water permeability and high solute rejection aquaporin proteins have attracted considerable interest over the last years as functional building blocks of biomimetic membranes for water desalination and reuse. The purpose of this review......; including an overview of our own recent developments in aquaporin-based membranes. Finally we outline future prospects of aquaporin based biomimetic membrane for desalination and water reuse....

  18. Technology development and application of solar energy in desalination: MEDRC contribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2011-12-01

    Desalination has become one of the sources for water supply in several countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa region. There is a great potential to develop solar desalination technologies especially in this region where solar source is abundantly available. The success in implementing solar technologies in desalination at a commercial scale depends on the improvements to convert solar energy into electrical and/or thermal energies economically as desalination processes need these types of energies. Since desalination is energy intensive, the wider use of solar technologies in desalination will eventually increase the demand on these technologies, making it possible to go for mass production of photovoltaic (PV) cells, collectors and solar thermal power plants. This would ultimately lead to the reduction in the costs of these technologies. The energy consumed by desalination processes has been significantly reduced in the last decade meaning that, if solar technologies are to be used, less PV modules and area for collectors would be needed. The main aspects to be addressed to make solar desalination a viable option in remote location applications is to develop new materials or improve existing solar collectors and find the best combinations to couple the different desalination processes with appropriate solar collector. In the objective to promote solar desalination in MENA, the Middle East Desalination Research Center has concentrated on various aspects of solar desalination in the last twelve years by sponsoring 17 research projects on different technologies and Software packages development for coupling desalination and renewable energy systems to address the limitations of solar desalination and develop new desalination technologies and hybrid systems suitable for remote areas. A brief description of some of these projects is highlighted in this paper. The full details of all these projects are available the Centers website. © 2011 Elsevier

  19. DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT RESEARCH AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Altman, Susan J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Biedermann, Laura [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuzio, Stephanie P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rempe, Susan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Water is the backbone of our economy - safe and adequate supplies of water are vital for agriculture, industry, recreation, and human consumption. While our supply of water today is largely safe and adequate, we as a nation face increasing water supply challenges in the form of extended droughts, demand growth due to population increase, more stringent health-based regulation, and competing demands from a variety of users. To meet these challenges in the coming decades, water treatment technologies, including desalination, will contribute substantially to ensuring a safe, sustainable, affordable, and adequate water supply for the United States. This overview documents Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL, or Sandia) Water Treatment Program which focused on the development and demonstration of advanced water purification technologies as part of the larger Sandia Water Initiative. Projects under the Water Treatment Program include: (1) the development of desalination research roadmaps (2) our efforts to accelerate the commercialization of new desalination and water treatment technologies (known as the 'Jump-Start Program),' (3) long range (high risk, early stage) desalination research (known as the 'Long Range Research Program'), (4) treatment research projects under the Joint Water Reuse & Desalination Task Force, (5) the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership Program, (6) water treatment projects funded under the New Mexico Small Business Administration, (7) water treatment projects for the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), (8) Sandia- developed contaminant-selective treatment technologies, and finally (9) current Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funded desalination projects.

  20. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  1. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment for desalination: a review on methodology feasibility and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Chang, Victor W-C; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-15

    As concerns of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by desalination increase, research studies of the environmental sustainability of desalination are growing in importance. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an ISO standardized method and is widely applied to evaluate the environmental performance of desalination. This study reviews more than 30 desalination LCA studies since 2000s and identifies two major issues in need of improvement. The first is feasibility, covering three elements that support the implementation of the LCA to desalination, including accounting methods, supporting databases, and life cycle impact assessment approaches. The second is reliability, addressing three essential aspects that drive uncertainty in results, including the incompleteness of the system boundary, the unrepresentativeness of the database, and the omission of uncertainty analysis. This work can serve as a preliminary LCA reference for desalination specialists, but will also strengthen LCA as an effective method to evaluate the environment footprint of desalination alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Precipitation softening: a pretreatment process for seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, George M; Zayyat, Ramez M; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of membrane fouling in reverse osmosis systems and elimination of scaling of heat transfer surfaces in thermal plants are a major challenge in the desalination of seawater. Precipitation softening has the potential of eliminating the major fouling and scaling species in seawater desalination plants, thus allowing thermal plants to operate at higher top brine temperatures and membrane plants to operate at a reduced risk of fouling, leading to lower desalinated water costs. This work evaluated the use of precipitation softening as a pretreatment step for seawater desalination. The effectiveness of the process in removing several scale-inducing materials such as calcium, magnesium, silica, and boron was investigated under variable conditions of temperature and pH. The treatment process was also applied to seawater spiked with other known fouling species such as iron and bacteria to determine the efficiency of removal. The results of this work show that precipitation softening at a pH of 11 leads to complete elimination of calcium, silica, and bacteria; to very high removal efficiencies of magnesium and iron (99.6 and 99.2 %, respectively); and to a reasonably good removal efficiency of boron (61 %).

  4. Application of Delphi method in site selection of desalination plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sepehr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the reduced freshwater supplies across the world, seawater desalination is one of the appropriate methods available for producing freshwater. Selecting an optimal location is crucial in the installation of these plants owing to the environmental problems they cause. The present study was conducted to identify optimal locations for installing desalination Plants in the coastal areas of southern Iran (Hormozgan Province with application of Delphi method. To implement this technique and identify, screen and prioritize effective criteria and sub-criteria, ten experts were surveyed through questionnaires and eight criteria and 18 sub-criteria were identified. All these sub-criteria were evaluated and classified in ArcGIS into five classes as input layers. The maps were then integrated based on the modulation importance coefficient and the identified priorities using a linear Delphi model and the final map was reclassified into five categories. Environmentally sensitive areas and seawater quality were respectively the criterion and sub-criterion that received the highest importance. After combining the layers and obtaining the final map, 63 locations were identified for installing desalination plants in the coastal areas on the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in Hormozgan Province.  At the end, 27 locations were high important and had optimal environmental conditions for establishing desalination plants. Of the 27 locations, six were located in the coastal area of the Oman Sea, one in the coastal area of the Strait of Hormuz and 20 others in the coastal area of the Persian Gulf.

  5. Economic evaluation of the integrated SMART desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Lee, Man Kye; Yeo, Ji Won; Kim, Hee Chul; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-04-01

    In this study, an economic evaluation methodology of the integrated SMART desalination plant was established and the economic evaluation of SMART was performed. The plant economics was evaluated with electricity generation costs calculated using approximate estimates of SMART cost data and the result was compared with the result calculated using the SMART design data and estimated bulk materials. In addition, a series of sensitivity studies on the power generation cost was performed for the main economic parameters of SMART Power credit method was used for the economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant. Power credit method is a widely used economic analysis method for the cogeneration plant when the major portion of the energy is used for the electricity generation. In the case of using SMART fot power generation only, the result shows that the electricity generation cost of SMART is higher than that of the alternative power options. However, it can be competitive with the other power options in the limited cases, especially with the gas fired combined plant. In addition, an economic analysis of the integrated SMART desalination plant coupled with MED was performed. The calculated water production cost is in the range of 0.56 approx. 0.88($/m{sup 3}) for the plant availability of 80% or higher, which is close to the study results presented by the various other countries. This indicates that SMART can be considered as a competitive choice for desalination among various alternative energy sources.

  6. Seawater desalination and serum magnesium concentrations in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Shlezinger, Meital; Katz, Rachel; Shalev, Varda; Amitai, Yona

    2017-04-01

    With increasing shortage of fresh water globally, more countries are consuming desalinated seawater (DSW). In Israel >50% of drinking water is now derived from DSW. Desalination removes magnesium, and hypomagnesaemia has been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Presently the impact of consuming DSW on body magnesium status has not been established. We quantified changes in serum magnesium in a large population based study (n = 66,764), before and after desalination in regions consuming DSW and in regions where DSW has not been used. In the communities that switched to DSW in 2013, the mean serum magnesium was 2.065 ± 0.19 mg/dl before desalination and fell to 2.057 ± 0.19 mg/dl thereafter (p < 0.0001). In these communities 1.62% of subjects exhibited serum magnesium concentrations ≤1.6 mg/dl between 2010 and 2013. This proportion increased by 24% between 2010-2013 and 2015-2016 to 2.01% (p = 0.0019). In contrast, no such changes were recorded in the communities that did not consume DSW. Due to the emerging evidence of increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with hypomagnesaemia, it is vital to consider re-introduction of magnesium to DSW.

  7. Short Review on Predicting Fouling in RO Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, Alejandro; Melián-Martel, Noemi; Nuez, Ignacio

    2017-10-24

    Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane fouling is one of the main challenges that membrane manufactures, the scientific community and industry professionals have to deal with. The consequences of this inevitable phenomenon have a negative effect on the performance of the desalination system. Predicting fouling in RO systems is key to evaluating the long-term operating conditions and costs. Much research has been done on fouling indices, methods, techniques and prediction models to estimate the influence of fouling on the performance of RO systems. This paper offers a short review evaluating the state of industry knowledge in the development of fouling indices and models in membrane systems for desalination in terms of use and applicability. Despite major efforts in this field, there are gaps in terms of effective methods and models for the estimation of fouling in full-scale RO desalination plants. In existing models applied to full-scale RO desalination plants, neither the spacer geometry of membranes, nor the efficiency and frequency of chemical cleanings are considered.

  8. Short Review on Predicting Fouling in RO Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ruiz-García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane fouling is one of the main challenges that membrane manufactures, the scientific community and industry professionals have to deal with. The consequences of this inevitable phenomenon have a negative effect on the performance of the desalination system. Predicting fouling in RO systems is key to evaluating the long-term operating conditions and costs. Much research has been done on fouling indices, methods, techniques and prediction models to estimate the influence of fouling on the performance of RO systems. This paper offers a short review evaluating the state of industry knowledge in the development of fouling indices and models in membrane systems for desalination in terms of use and applicability. Despite major efforts in this field, there are gaps in terms of effective methods and models for the estimation of fouling in full-scale RO desalination plants. In existing models applied to full-scale RO desalination plants, neither the spacer geometry of membranes, nor the efficiency and frequency of chemical cleanings are considered.

  9. A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.

    2014-01-01

    A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes was developed and successfully tested. A greenhouse as part of a test rig, with different sorts of mangroves, was installed. Measurements showed promising results concerning fresh water relative yielding rates up to 1.4 kg/h/m2 (leaf

  10. Pre-desalination with electro-membranes for SWRO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.W.; Huiting, H.; Cornelissen, E.R.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Although seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is currently the only non-thermal desalination process in practical use, its characteristics make it difficult to approach the ideal reversible process. SWRO has a low water recovery (determined by the osmotic pressure) and relatively high energy consumption.

  11. Microfluidic desalination : capacitive deionization on chip for microfluidic sample preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Susan Helena

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the work described in this thesis is to implement the desalination technique capacitive deionization (CDI) on a microfluidic chip to improve the reproducibility in the analysis of biological samples for drug development. Secondly, microfluidic CDI allows for the in situ study of ion

  12. A framework for planning sustainable seawater desalination water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Maedeh P; McHugh, Adam; Anda, Martin; Ho, Goen

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative framework for sustainable desalination planning in metropolitan areas, which integrates the tools of mixed integer linear programming and life cycle assessment, is presented. The life cycle optimisation framework allows for optimal desalination planning by considering choices over intake type, staging and location of the infrastructure under different land-use, environmental and economic policies. Optimality is defined by the decision maker's selected objective function, being either an environmental impact or a levelised cost indicator. The framework was tested for future desalination planning scenarios in the northern metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. Results indicate that multi-staged construction and decentralised planning solutions may produce lower life cycle environmental impacts (58%) and at a lower levelised cost (24%) than a centralised desalination solution currently being considered by Western Australian water planners. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the better environmental and economic performance of decentralised planning over centralised planning is highly sensitive to the proportion of land that can be made available for the siting of decentralised plants near the demand zone. Insight into land use policies is a critical factor to the initiation and success of decentralised solution in developed metropolitan areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A desalination guide for South African municipal engineers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    technologies (such as solar desalination) may in some cases be considered, but the reader is specifically referred to Goldie and. Sanderson (2004) in this ..... panel repair or generator maintenance out to private contractors. Full dependence on contractors for maintenance tasks needs to be minimised where possible.

  14. Water Desalination Using Capacitive Deionization with Microporous Carbon Electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Weinstein, L.; Dash, R.; Wal, van der A.F.; Bryjak, M.; Gogotsi, Y.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a water desalination technology in which salt ions are removed from brackish water by flowing through a spacer channel with porous electrodes on each side. Upon applying a voltage difference between the two electrodes, cations move to and are accumulated in

  15. Comparison of Configurations for High-Recovery Inland Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Davies

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desalination of brackish groundwater (BW is an effective approach to augment water supply, especially for inland regions that are far from seawater resources. Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO desalination is still subject to intensive energy consumption compared to the theoretical minimum energy demand. Here, we review some of the BWRO plants with various system arrangements. We look at how to minimize energy demands, as these contribute considerably to the cost of desalinated water. Different configurations of BWRO system have been compared from the view point of normalized specific energy consumption (SEC. Analysis is made at theoretical limits. The SEC reduction of BWRO can be achieved by (i increasing number of stages, (ii using an energy recovery device (ERD, or (iii operating the BWRO in batch mode or closed circuit mode. Application of more stages not only reduces SEC but also improves water recovery. However, this improvement is less pronounced when the number of stages exceeds four. Alternatively and more favourably, the BWRO system can be operated in Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD mode and gives a comparative SEC to that of the 3-stage system with a recovery ratio of 80%. A further reduction of about 30% in SEC can be achieved through batch-RO operation. Moreover, the costly ERDs and booster pumps are avoided with both CCD and batch-RO, thus furthering the effectiveness of lowering the costs of these innovative approaches.

  16. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the cos...

  17. Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Greathouse, Jeffery A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO)

    2008-01-01

    Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations

  18. Design and optimization of desalination reverse osmosis plants driven by renewable energies using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourouni, K.; Ben M' Barek, T. [Energetique des Batiments et Systeme Solaire, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Tunis, BP 37, Le Belvedere 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Al Taee, A. [University of Surrey, Guidford, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Renewable energy sources (RES) for powering desalination processes is a promising option especially in remote and arid regions where the use of conventional energy is costly or unavailable. Reverse Osmosis (RO) is one of the most suitable desalination processes to be coupled with different renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. If RES/RO systems are optimally designed, some combinations can be cost effective and reliable. However, the design of such systems is complex because of uncertain renewable energy supplies, load demands and the non-linear characteristics of some components. In such system, different scenarios can be suggested; i.e combinations of PV panels, type and number of batteries, type and number of turbines, etc. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the optimal configuration with classical techniques. The development of a tool to integrate all parameters involved and compare between the possible scenarios is very important. This paper presents a new model based on the Genetic Algorithms allowing the generation of several individuals (possible solutions) for coupling small RO unit to RES. A particular interest is focused on the hybrid systems (PV/WIND/Batteries/RO). The objective function to minimize corresponds to the total water cost (Capital cost plus Operational costs). Finally, a case study of PV/RO unit, installed since 2007 in Ksar Ghilene village in southern Tunisia, is presented. (author)

  19. Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems.

  20. Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Sarp, S; Bucs, Sz S; Amy, G; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ZVI (Fe0 Desalination: Stability of Product Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. J. Antia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A batch-operated ZVI (zero valent iron desalination reactor will be able to partially desalinate water. This water can be stored in an impoundment, reservoir or tank, prior to use for irrigation. Commercial development of this technology requires assurance that the partially-desalinated product water will not resalinate, while it is in storage. This study has used direct ion analyses to confirm that the product water from a gas-pressured ZVI desalination reactor maintains a stable salinity in storage over a period of 1–2.5 years. Two-point-three-litre samples of the feed water (2–10.68 g (Na+ + Cl−·L−1 and product water (0.1–5.02 g (Na+ + Cl−·L−1 from 21 trials were placed in storage at ambient (non-isothermal temperatures (which fluctuated between −10 and 25 °C, for a period of 1–2.5 years. The ion concentrations (Na+ and Cl− of the stored feed water and product water were then reanalysed. The ion analyses of the stored water samples demonstrated: (i that the product water salinity (Na+ and Cl− remains unchanged in storage; and (ii the Na:Cl molar ratios can be lower in the product water than the feed water. The significance of the results is discussed in terms of the various potential desalination routes. These trial data are supplemented with the results from 122 trials to demonstrate that: (i reactivity does not decline with successive batches; (ii the process is catalytic; and (iii the process involves a number of steps.

  2. Model-based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, Rachel; Dees, Elizabeth

    2017-03-23

    The focus of this research effort centered around water recovery from high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) extracted waters (180,000 mg/L) using a combination of water recovery (partial desalination) technologies. The research goals of this project were as follows: 1. Define the scope and test location for pilot-scale implementation of the desalination system, 2.Define a scalable, multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, salt from saline brines, and 3. Validate overall system performance with field-sourced water using GE pre-pilot lab facilities. Conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) technology was established as a baseline desalination process. A quality function deployment (QFD) method was used to compare alternate high TDS desalination technologies to the base case FF-MVR technology, including but not limited to: membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO). Technoeconomic analysis of high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) was performed comparing the following two cases: 1. a hybrid seawater RO (SWRO) plus HPRO system and 2. 2x standard seawater RO system, to achieve the same total pure water recovery rate. Pre-pilot-scale tests were conducted using field production water to validate key process steps for extracted water pretreatment. Approximately 5,000 gallons of field produced water was processed through, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and steam regenerable sorbent operations. Improvements in membrane materials of construction were considered as necessary next steps to achieving further improvement in element performance at high pressure. Several modifications showed promising results in their ability to withstand close to 5,000 PSI without gross failure.

  3. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2011-05-24

    Seawater/brackish water desalination has been widely adopted by the Algerian Government in the last few years to supply potable water to municipality for various purposes mainly for domestic and industrial uses especially in areas where demand is high due to shortage of fresh water resources, rapid population growth and development of industry and tourism. Ten years ago, desalination was confined to the industrial use only especially in oil and gas industry as the country was relying on rain water and other available sources to supply fresh water to municipalities. Due to chronic drought conditions, the Ministry of Water Resources reviewed the national water strategy and a strong option for desalination was adopted where an ambitious program was thus put into action. Sixteen mega-plants, with capacities ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 m3 per day, primarily based on Reverse Osmosis technology, were launched in the last few years making the Algerian desalination program one of the world\\'s fastest growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa\\'s largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning. An integrated water resources management was also adopted as additional option to cuter the increasing water demand as there is also a great potential for water reuse and conventional water treatment. An additional benefit of this would be reducing the volume of treated wastewater disposed into the environment. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Self-Driven Desalination and Advanced Treatment of Wastewater in a Modularized Filtration Air Cathode Microbial Desalination Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kuichang; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Zuo, Jiaolan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-05

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) extract organic energy from wastewater for in situ desalination of saline water. However, to desalinate salt water, traditional MDCs often require an anolyte (wastewater) and a catholyte (other synthetic water) to produce electricity. Correspondingly, the traditional MDCs also produced anode effluent and cathode effluent, and may produce a concentrate solution, resulting in a low production of diluate. In this study, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube membranes and Pt carbon cloths were utilized as filtration material and cathode to fabricate a modularized filtration air cathode MDC (F-MDC). With real wastewater flowing from anode to cathode, and finally to the middle membrane stack, the diluate volume production reached 82.4%, with the removal efficiency of salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 93.6% and 97.3% respectively. The final diluate conductivity was 68 ± 12 μS/cm, and the turbidity was 0.41 NTU, which were sufficient for boiler supplementary or industrial cooling. The concentrate production was only 17.6%, and almost all the phosphorus and salt, and most of the nitrogen were recovered, potentially allowing the recovery of nutrients and other chemicals. These results show the potential utility of the modularized F-MDC in the application of municipal wastewater advanced treatment and self-driven desalination.

  5. Treatment and desalination of domestic wastewater for water reuse in a four-chamber microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaobin; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) have been studied for contaminant removal from wastewater and salinity reduction in saline water. However, in an MDC wastewater treatment and desalination occurs in different streams, and high salinity of the treated wastewater creates challenges for wastewater reuse. Herein, a single-stream MDC (SMDC) with four chambers was developed for simultaneous organic removal and desalination in the same synthetic wastewater. This SMDC could achieve a desalination rate of 12.2-31.5 mg L(-1) h(-1) and remove more than 90 % of the organics and 75 % of NH4 (+)-N; the pH imbalance between the anode and cathode chambers was also reduced. Several strategies such as controlling catholyte pH, increasing influent COD concentration, adopting the batch mode, applying external voltage, and increasing the alkalinity of wastewater were investigated for improving the SMDC performance. Under a condition of 0.4 V external voltage, anolyte pH adjustment, and a batch mode, the SMDC decreased the wastewater salinity from 1.45 to below 0.75 mS cm(-1), which met the salinity standard of wastewater for irrigation. Those results encourage further development of the SMDC technology for sustainable wastewater treatment and reuse.

  6. Impact of socio-economic growth on desalination in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, around 1336 desalination plants in the United States (US) provided purified water mainly to municipalities, the industry sector and for power generation. In 2013 alone, ∼200 million m(3) of water were desalinated; the amount that could satisfy annual municipal water consumption of more than 1.5 million people in the US. Desalination has proven to be a reliable water supply source in many countries around the world, with the total global desalination capacity of ∼60 million m(3)/day in 2013. Desalination has been used to mitigate water scarcity and lessen the pressure on water resources. Currently, data and information about desalination are still limited, while extensive socio-economic analyses are missing. This paper presents an econometric model to fill this gap. It evaluates the impact of selected socio-economic variables on desalination development in the US in the time span 1970-2013. The results show that the GDP and population growth have significantly impacted the desalination sector over the analyzed time period. The insights into the economics of desalination provided with this paper can be used to further evaluate cost-effectiveness of desalination both in the US and in other countries around the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of the Chemical Interactions on the Removal Rate of Different Salts in Electrokinetic Desalination Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination techniques have been successfully applied for the prevention of salt-induced deterioration problems of masonry and other construction materials. A mathematical model for electrochemical desalination treatments is described, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system...... and sculptures. Simulations of the desalination treatment of brick samples contaminated with these target contaminants are shown. The influence of the chemical interactions on the efficiency is highlighted in the results....

  8. Procedures of water desalination with solar energy and f-chart method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Andrija A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid population growth, and climate change caused by environmental pollution needs for drinking water are increasing while amount of freshwater are decreasing. However possible solution for freshwater scarcity can be found in water desalination procedures. In this article three representative water desalination solar powered plants are described. Except explanation of processes it is also mentioned basic advantages and disadvantages of humidification, reverse osmosis and desalination evaporation by using solar energy. Simulation of the solar desalination system is analyzed with f-chart method monthly, located on located 42 degrees north latitude.

  9. Drivers of an urban community's acceptance of a large desalination scheme for drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Fiona L.; Tapsuwan, Sorada; Walker, Iain; Randrema, Elodie

    2015-09-01

    Changing climates and growing populations have prompted policy makers to shift to more climate resilient, technology-driven water sources, such as seawater desalination. Desalination is a prominent water resource in the Middle East but countries in other parts of the world with similar scarcity issues and good access to sea water, such as Australia, have been comparatively slow to adopt it. This paper explores attitudes to desalination in Perth, Western Australia, and the factors that influence its acceptance. We compared individuals' acceptance of desalination over two time periods by using identical surveys administered in 2007 and 2012. We then examined the attitudinal factors - attitudes towards desalination and attitudes towards the environment - that influence acceptance. Acceptance of desalination was reasonably high and stable at both times (74% and 73% in 2007 and 2012 respectively). We found that respondents' attitudes to perceived outcomes and benefits, fairness, environmental obligation and risk were important predictors of their acceptance of desalination in both surveys. However the weight given to these aspects varied over time. The findings show that there is still mixed community sentiment towards desalination, which helps to explain why acceptance has not increased since desalination was introduced in 2006.

  10. Capacity building strategies and policy for desalination using renewable energies in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Hacene; Abdellah, Ouagued [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, BP151 (Algeria); Ghaffour, Noreddine [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C. 133, Muscat (Oman)

    2009-05-15

    The integration of renewable resources in desalination and water purification is becoming increasingly attractive. This is justified by the fact that areas of fresh water shortages have plenty of solar energy and these technologies have low operating and maintenance costs. In this paper, an overview of capacity building strategy and policy for desalination in Algeria is presented. Importance of training and education on renewable energies is also outlined. The contribution of the Middle East Desalination Research Center in capacity building and research and development in desalination in Algeria is also presented. (author)

  11. EFFECTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF CO-GENERATION IN THE DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM OF THE FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN NIŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen M Stojiljković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of co-generation of thermal and electrical energy in district heating systems often results with higher overall energy efficiency of the systems, primary energy savings and environmental benefits. Financial results depend on number of parameters, some of which are very difficult to predict. After introduction of feed-in tariffs for generation of electrical energy in Serbia, better conditions for implementation of co-generation are created, although in district heating systems barriers are still present. In this paper, possibilities and effects of implementation of natural gas fired co-generation engines are examined and presented for the boiler house that is a part of the district heating system owned and operated by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Niš. At the moment, in this boiler house only thermal energy is produced. The boilers are natural gas fired and often operate in low part load regimes. The plant is working only during the heating season. For estimation of effects of implementation of co-generation, referent values are taken from literature or are based on the results of measurements performed on site. Results are presented in the form of primary energy savings and greenhouse gasses emission reduction potentials. Financial aspects are also considered and triangle of costs is shown.

  12. Advanced adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle: A thermodynamic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a thermodynamic framework to calculate adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle performances as a function of pore widths and pore volumes of highly porous adsorbents, which are formulated from the rigor of thermodynamic property surfaces of adsorbent-adsorbate system and the adsorption interaction potential between them. Employing the proposed formulations, the coefficient of performance (COP) and overall performance ratio (OPR) of adsorption cycle are computed for various pore widths of solid adsorbents. These results are compared with experimental data for verifying the proposed thermodynamic formulations. It is found from the present analysis that the COP and OPR of adsorption cooling cum desalination cycle is influenced by (i) the physical characteristics of adsorbents, (ii) characteristics energy and (iii) the surface-structural heterogeneity factor of adsorbent-water system. The present study confirms that there exists a special type of adsorbents having optimal physical characteristics that allows us to obtain the best performance.

  13. Thermoeconomic Analysis and Multiobjective Optimization of a Solar Desalination Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar desalination plant consisting of solar parabolic collectors, steam generators, and MED unit was simulated technoeconomically and optimized using multiobjective genetic algorithm. A simulation code was developed using MATLAB language programming. Indirect steam generation using different thermal oils including THERMINOL VP1, THERMINOL66, and THERMINOL59 was also investigated. Objective function consisted of 17 essential parameters such as diameter of heat collector element, collector width, steam generator pinch, approach temperatures, and MED number of effects. Simulation results showed that THERMINOL VP1 had superior properties and produced more desalinated water than other heat transfer fluids. Performance of the plant was analyzed on four characteristic days of the year to show that multiobjective optimization technique can be used to obtain an optimized solution, in which the product flow rate increased, while total investment and O&M costs decreased compared to the base case.

  14. Constructing Black Titania with Unique Nanocage Structure for Solar Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guilian; Xu, Jijian; Zhao, Wenli; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-11-23

    Solar desalination driven by solar radiation as heat source is freely available, however, hindered by low efficiency. Herein, we first design and synthesize black titania with a unique nanocage structure simultaneously with light trapping effect to enhance light harvesting, well-crystallized interconnected nanograins to accelerate the heat transfer from titania to water and with opening mesopores (4-10 nm) to facilitate the permeation of water vapor. Furthermore, the coated self-floating black titania nanocages film localizes the temperature increase at the water-air interface rather than uniformly heating the bulk of the water, which ultimately results in a solar-thermal conversion efficiency as high as 70.9% under a simulated solar light with an intensity of 1 kW m-2 (1 sun). This finding should inspire new black materials with rationally designed structure for superior solar desalination performance.

  15. Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Elizabeth M. [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Moore, David Roger [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Li, Li [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Kumar, Manish [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-05-28

    Over the last 1.5 years, GE Global Research and Pennsylvania State University defined a model-based, scalable, and multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, optionally, salt. The team explored saline brines that ranged across the expected range for extracted water for carbon sequestration reservoirs (40,000 up to 220,000 ppm total dissolved solids, TDS). In addition, the validated the system performance at pilot scale with field-sourced water using GE’s pre-pilot and lab facilities. This project encompassed four principal tasks, in addition to Project Management and Planning: 1) identify a deep saline formation carbon sequestration site and a partner that are suitable for supplying extracted water; 2) conduct a techno-economic assessment and down-selection of pre-treatment and desalination technologies to identify a cost-effective system for extracted water recovery; 3) validate the downselected processes at the lab/pre-pilot scale; and 4) define the scope of the pilot desalination project. Highlights from each task are described below: Deep saline formation characterization The deep saline formations associated with the five DOE NETL 1260 Phase 1 projects were characterized with respect to their mineralogy and formation water composition. Sources of high TDS feed water other than extracted water were explored for high TDS desalination applications, including unconventional oil and gas and seawater reverse osmosis concentrate. Technoeconomic analysis of desalination technologies Techno-economic evaluations of alternate brine concentration technologies, including humidification-dehumidification (HDH), membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), turboexpander-freeze, solvent extraction and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO), were conducted. These technologies were evaluated against conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) as a baseline desalination process. Furthermore, a

  16. High performance hydrophilic pervaporation composite membranes for water desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Bin

    2014-08-01

    A three-layer thin film nanofibrous pervaporation composite (TFNPVC) membrane was prepared by sequential deposition using electrospraying/electrospinning. The poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) top barrier layer was first electrosprayed on aluminum foil and its thickness can be easily controlled by adjusting the collecting time. Next a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous scaffold was deposited by electrospinning as a mid-layer support. A nonwoven PET layer is used to complete the composite membrane. The pervaporation desalination performance of TFNPVC membranes was tested using NaCl solutions at 100. Pa and at room temperature. The TFNPVC membranes show excellent desalination performance (high water flux and salt rejection >. 99.5%) for different salt concentrations with virtually no change in performance after 50. h of operation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2016-06-23

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around −8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  18. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian; Zuo, Jian; Lu, Kang-Jia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-10-01

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around -8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracing disinfection byproducts in full-scale desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Le Roux, Julien

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the formation and the behavior of halogenated byproducts (regulated THMs and HAAs, as well as nitrogenous, brominated and iodinated DBPs including the emerging iodo-THMs) along the treatment train of full-scale desalination plants. One thermal multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) plant and two reverse osmosis (RO) plants located on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. DBPs formed during the prechlorination step were efficiently removed along the treatment processes (MSF or RO). Desalination plants fed with good seawater quality and using intermittent chlorine injection did not show high DBP formation and discharge. One RO plant with a lower raw water quality and using continuous chlorination at the intake formed more DBPs. In this plant, some non-regulated DBPs (e.g., dibromoacetonitrile and iodo-THMs) reached the product water in low concentrations (< 1.5 μg/L). Regulated THMs and HAAs were far below their maximum contamination levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Substantial amounts of DBPs are disposed to the sea; low concentrations of DBPs were indeed detected in the water on shore of the desalination plants.

  20. Porous organic cage membranes for water desalination: a simulation exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xian; Jiang, Jianwen

    2017-07-19

    Porous organic cages (POCs) have emerged as a new class of porous materials and received considerable interest for their potential applications. Herein we report the first proof-of-concept simulation study on POC membranes for water desalination. Five [4+6] POCs (CC1, CC2, CC3, CC16, and CC17) are considered with similar crystal structures, but different periphery groups and pore morphologies. CC1 is found to be impermeable to water due to disconnected pores. With an interconnected tetrahedral pore network, CC3 and CC16 have an intermediate water permeability of 1-5 × 10-7 kg m (m2 h bar)-1. CC2 and CC17 contain straight pores and a widely open pore network, respectively, thus exhibit a high water permeability of 2-3 × 10-6 kg m (m2 h bar)-1; nevertheless, salt rejection in CC17 is only 89%. Among the five POC membranes, CC2 is the best for water desalination with performance superior to other membranes reported in the literature. The membrane flexibility is revealed to have a weak effect on water permeation. To provide further microscopic understanding, the permeation duration, diffusion and hydrogen bonding of water in the POC membranes are quantitatively analyzed. From this simulation study, the key factors governing water permeation in the POC membranes are unraveled and CC2 is identified to be an interesting candidate for water desalination.

  1. Graphene membranes with nanoslits for seawater desalination via forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayaka, Madhavi; Liu, Bo; Hu, Zhongqiao; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Chen, Zhong; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Zhou, Kun

    2017-11-22

    Stacked graphene (GE) membranes with cascading nanoslits can be synthesized economically compared to monolayer nanoporous GE membranes, and have potential for molecular separation. This study focuses on investigating the seawater desalination performance of these stacked GE layers as forward osmosis (FO) membranes by using molecular dynamics simulations. The FO performance is evaluated in terms of water flux and salt rejection and is explained by analysing the water density distribution and radial distribution function. The water flow displays an Arrhenius type relation with temperature and the activation energy for the stacked GE membrane is estimated to be 8.02 kJ mol-1, a value much lower than that of commercially available FO membranes. The study reveals that the membrane characteristics including the pore width, offset, interlayer separation distance and number of layers have significant effects on the desalination performance. Unlike monolayer nanoporous GE membranes, at an optimum layer separation distance, the stacked GE membranes with large pore widths and completely misaligned pore configuration can retain complete ion rejection and maintain a high water flux. Findings from the present study are helpful in developing GE-based membranes for seawater desalination via FO.

  2. Computer simulation of water desalination through boron nitride nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lijun; Li, Jia-Chen; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhisen; Shen, Jia-Wei; Li, Lihua; Wu, Jianyang

    2017-11-15

    Development of high-efficiency and low-cost seawater desalination technologies is critical to solving the global water crisis. Herein we report a fast water filtering method with high salt rejection by boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). The effect of the radius of BNNTs on water filtering and salt rejection was investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our simulation results demonstrate that fast water permeation and high salt rejection could be achieved by BNNT(7,7) under both high pressure and low pressure. The potential of mean force (PMF) of Na+ ion and water molecule through BNNT(7,7) further revealed the mechanism of seawater desalination by BNNT(7,7). Using BNNT(7,7) array, a 10 cm2 nanotube membrane with 1.5 × 1013 pores per cm2 will produce freshwater with a flow rate of 98 L per day per MPa under 100 MPa. Our study shows the potential application of BNNTs membrane for fast and efficient desalination.

  3. Simultaneous decolorization and desalination of dye wastewater through electrochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaxin; Zhang, Baogang; Liang, Shuai; Li, Jiaxin; Wang, Zhijun

    2018-01-06

    Salt-containing dye wastewater discharged from textile industries causes serious environmental problems. Simultaneous decolorization and desalination of dye wastewater in a laboratory scale electrochemical cell are realized for the first time with boron-doped diamond anode. With initial methyl orange (MO) and NaCl of 50 and 3000 mg L-1, decolorization and desalination efficiencies of 70.2 and 88.7% were achieved after 6-h treatment with applied voltage of 6 V. Increasing applied voltages resulted in the improvements of both color and salt removal, while higher MO concentrations suppressed decolorization and higher NaCl concentration accelerated desalination rate. MO dissociated into anions transferred through the anion exchange membrane into the anode compartment and reacted with the active species as ·OH, H2O2, and ClO- generated in anode compartment, leading to color removal. Component analysis confirmed the destruction of MO, with generation of low molecular weight compounds such as phenol and indole. Ions balance analysis indicated that Cl- and Na+ moved to the anode and the cathode compartments respectively through the employed membranes driven by external voltage, realizing salt removal. This study has collectively demonstrated an efficient alternative for satisfactory treatment of salt-containing dye wastewater based on electrochemical technology.

  4. Tunable C2N Membrane for High Efficient Water Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanmei; Li, Weifeng; Zhou, Hongcai; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity represents one of the most serious global problems of our time and challenges the advancements in desalination techniques. Although water-filtering architectures based on graphene have greatly advanced the approach to high performance desalination membranes, the controlled-generation of nanopores with particular diameter is tricky and has stunted its wide applications. Here, through molecular dynamic simulations and first-principles calculations, we propose that the recently reported graphene-like carbon nitride (g-C2N) monolayer can serve as high efficient filters for water desalination. Taking the advantages of the intrisic nanoporous structure and excellent mechanical properties of g-C2N, high water transparency and strong salt filtering capability have been demonstrated in our simulations. More importantly, the “open” and “closed” states of the g-C2N filter can be precisely regulated by tensile strain. It is found that the water permeability of g-C2N is significantly higher than that reported for graphene filters by almost one order of magnitude. In the light of the abundant family of graphene-like carbon nitride monolayered materials, our results thus offer a promising approach to the design of high efficient filteration architectures. PMID:27384666

  5. Entropy Generation of Desalination Powered by Variable Temperature Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Warsinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Powering desalination by waste heat is often proposed to mitigate energy consumption and environmental impact; however, thorough technology comparisons are lacking in the literature. This work numerically models the efficiency of six representative desalination technologies powered by waste heat at 50, 70, 90, and 120 °C, where applicable. Entropy generation and Second Law efficiency analysis are applied for the systems and their components. The technologies considered are thermal desalination by multistage flash (MSF, multiple effect distillation (MED, multistage vacuum membrane distillation (MSVMD, humidification-dehumidification (HDH, and organic Rankine cycles (ORCs paired with mechanical technologies of reverse osmosis (RO and mechanical vapor compression (MVC. The most efficient technology was RO, followed by MED. Performances among MSF, MSVMD, and MVC were similar but the relative performance varied with waste heat temperature or system size. Entropy generation in thermal technologies increases at lower waste heat temperatures largely in the feed or brine portions of the various heat exchangers used. This occurs largely because lower temperatures reduce recovery, increasing the relative flow rates of feed and brine. However, HDH (without extractions had the reverse trend, only being competitive at lower temperatures. For the mechanical technologies, the energy efficiency only varies with temperature because of the significant losses from the ORC.

  6. Electrokinetic desalination of sandstones for NaCl removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben V.

    2012-01-01

    Salt induced decay is a serious threat to many historic stone and brick buildings and monuments. Further salt decay can be problematic in more recent buildings, as well, causing repeated plaster and paint peeling and increased hygroscopic moisture content. There is a need for development of relia......Salt induced decay is a serious threat to many historic stone and brick buildings and monuments. Further salt decay can be problematic in more recent buildings, as well, causing repeated plaster and paint peeling and increased hygroscopic moisture content. There is a need for development...... of reliable methods to remove the damaging salts in order to stop the decay. Electrokinetic desalination of fired clay bricks have previously shown efficient in laboratory scale and in the present work the method is tested for desalination of Cotta and Posta sandstones, which both have lower porosity than...... the bricks studied. The stones were contaminated with NaCl by submersion prior to the desalination experiments, where an electric DC field was applied to the stones from electrodes placed in clay poultice. Two poultice types were tested: calcareous clay used brick production and a mixture of kaolinite...

  7. Desalination using low grade heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of

  8. Graphene oxide-based efficient and scalable solar desalination under one sun with a confined 2D water path

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xiuqiang; Xu, Weichao; Tang, Mingyao; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2016-01-01

      Because it is able to produce desalinated water directly using solar energy with minimum carbon footprint, solar steam generation and desalination is considered one of the most important technologies...

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of desalinated water among professionals in health and water departments in Shengsi, China: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    Full Text Available Desalination has been considered as an essential way to solve water stress all over the world. Most of previous studies focused on its environmental impacts, energy consumption and desalination technologies rather than human health. However, the safety of desalinated water remains unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the residents in an island county in eastern China to desalinated water. Seventeen people working in medical and water industries were recruited, and focus group discussion and in-depth interview were conducted among them. Our results showed that the majority of people interviewed knew the definition and local supply pattern of desalinated water, while some of them showed some concern about the safety and nutrition of desalinated water. Current drinking water standard has no specific item for desalination, so we strongly suggest issuing a standard for desalinated water.

  10. A combined microbial desalination cell and electrodialysis system for copper-containing wastewater treatment and high-salinity-water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Liu, Junfeng; Sui, Mingrui; Qu, Youpeng; Ambuchi, John J; Wang, Haiman; Feng, Yujie

    2017-01-05

    A new concept for heavy metal removal by forming hydroxide precipitation using alkalinity produced by microbial desalination cell (MDC) was proposed. Four five-chamber MDCs were hydraulically connected to concurrently produce alkalinity to treat synthetic copper-containing wastewater and salt removal. There was nearly complete removal of copper, with a maximum removal rate of 5.07kg/(m3d) under the initial copper concentration of 5000mg/L (final pH of 7). The final copper concentration met the emission standard for electroplating of China (0.5mg/L, GB 21900-2008). XRD analysis indicated copper was precipitated as Cu2Cl(OH)3. The best performance of MDCs in terms of average power density, salt removal and COD removal rate achieved in stage 3 were 737.3±201.1mW/m2, 53.6±0.8kg/(m3d), and 1.84±0.05 kgCOD/(m3d) respectively. For purposes of water recovery, an electrodialysis (ED) system was presented based on in-situ utilization of generated electricity by MDCs as post-desalination treatment for salt effluent after sedimentation. The maximum discharging voltage of 12.75±1.26V at switching time (Ts) of 15min using a capacitor-based circuit produced a maximum desalination efficiency of 30.4±2.6%. These results indicated that this combined system holds great promise for real-world treatment of copper-containing wastewater and deep desalination of high-salinity-water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility study of a dedicate nuclear desalination system: Low-pressure inherent heat sink nuclear desalination plant (LIND)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Sik; No, Hee Cheon; Jo, Yu Gwan; Wivisono, Andhika Feri; Park, Byung Ha; Choi, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Cho, Nam Zin [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we suggest the conceptual design of a water-cooled reactor system for a low-pressure inherent heat sink nuclear desalination plant (LIND) that applies the safety-related design concepts of high temperature gas-cooled reactors to a water-cooled reactor for inherent and passive safety features. Through a scoping analysis, we found that the current LIND design satisfied several essential thermal-hydraulic and neutronic design requirements. In a thermal-hydraulic analysis using an analytical method based on the Wooton-Epstein correlation, we checked the possibility of safely removing decay heat through the steel containment even if all the active safety systems failed. In a neutronic analysis using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, we estimated a cycle length of approximately 6 years under 200 MW{sub th} and 4.5% enrichment. The very long cycle length and simple safety features minimize the burdens from the operation, maintenance, and spent-fuel management, with a positive impact on the economic feasibility. Finally, because a nuclear reactor should not be directly coupled to a desalination system to prevent the leakage of radioactive material into the desalinated water, three types of intermediate systems were studied: a steam producing system, a hot water system, and an organic Rankine cycle system.

  12. Feasibility study of a dedicated nuclear desalination system: Low-pressure Inherent heat sink Nuclear Desalination plant (LIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Sik Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest the conceptual design of a water-cooled reactor system for a low-pressure inherent heat sink nuclear desalination plant (LIND that applies the safety-related design concepts of high temperature gas-cooled reactors to a water-cooled reactor for inherent and passive safety features. Through a scoping analysis, we found that the current LIND design satisfied several essential thermal–hydraulic and neutronic design requirements. In a thermal–hydraulic analysis using an analytical method based on the Wooton–Epstein correlation, we checked the possibility of safely removing decay heat through the steel containment even if all the active safety systems failed. In a neutronic analysis using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, we estimated a cycle length of approximately 6 years under 200 MWth and 4.5% enrichment. The very long cycle length and simple safety features minimize the burdens from the operation, maintenance, and spent-fuel management, with a positive impact on the economic feasibility. Finally, because a nuclear reactor should not be directly coupled to a desalination system to prevent the leakage of radioactive material into the desalinated water, three types of intermediate systems were studied: a steam producing system, a hot water system, and an organic Rankine cycle system.

  13. A comparative life cycle assessment of hybrid osmotic dilution desalination and established seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Nathan T; Black, Nathan D; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2012-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the comparative environmental impacts of coupled seawater desalination and water reclamation using a novel hybrid system that consist of an osmotically driven membrane process and established membrane desalination technologies. A comparative life cycle assessment methodology was used to differentiate between a novel hybrid process consisting of forward osmosis (FO) operated in osmotic dilution (ODN) mode and seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), and two other processes: a stand alone conventional SWRO desalination system, and a combined SWRO and dual barrier impaired water purification system consisting of nanofiltration followed by reverse osmosis. Each process was evaluated using ten baseline impact categories. It was demonstrated that from a life cycle perspective two hurdles exist to further development of the ODN-SWRO process: module design of FO membranes and cleaning intensity of the FO membranes. System optimization analysis revealed that doubling FO membrane packing density, tripling FO membrane permeability, and optimizing system operation, all of which are technically feasible at the time of this publication, could reduce the environmental impact of the hybrid ODN-SWRO process compared to SWRO by more than 25%; yet, novel hybrid nanofiltration-RO treatment of seawater and wastewater can achieve almost similar levels of environmental impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of geothermal energy for desalination in New Mexico: a feasibility study. Final report, January 1, 1977-May 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, L.; Keyes, C.G. Jr.; Swanberg, C.A.; Gupta, Y.F.; Davis, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    The water requirements and availability for New Mexico are described. The possibility of using geothermal resources for desalination of the state's saline water sources is discussed. The following aspects of the problem are covered: resource evaluation, geothermal desalination technology, potential geothermal desalination sites, saline and geothermal aquifer well fields design, geothermal desalination plant waste brine disposal, process water pumping and brine disposal unit costs, environmental considerations, and legal and institutional considerations. (MHR)

  15. Guideline for implementing Co-generation based on biomass waste from Thai industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybaek, R.

    2005-07-01

    Due to the large-scale industrial development in Thailand the consumption of energy - primarily based on fossil fuels - has increased enormously, even though the economic growth has slowed down since the economic crisis in 1997. It is, therefore, important to reduce the environmental impact of this energy consumption, which can be achieved by energy conservation, higher efficiency in the production of energy, or by the use of different kinds of renewable energy. This thesis seeks to develop new strategies for the use of waste heat as a part of the industrial process heat, which can be supplied to industries by a district-heating network. By substituting process heat - produced by electricity or by boilers using fossil fuel in individual industries - with process heat, produced by a co-generation plant - using the industries own biomass waste as fuel - process heat can be supplied to industries participating in a small scale district heating network. Thus, an Industrial Materials Network can be created, which is environmentally as well as economically beneficial for both industry and society. On the basis of a case study of the industrial area, Navanakorn Industrial Promotion Zone in Thailand, such initiatives for efficient materials and energy uses have been conducted and proved successful, and industries - as well as local and national governmental agencies, NGOs and branch organizations etc. - have shown interest in supporting the implementation of such scheme. In this thesis, a Guideline for large-scale implementation of Industrial Materials Network in Thailand was developed. By following a series of actions, the Guideline defines the initiatives that must be taken in order to ensure correct implementation. Chronologically, the emphasis of the Guideline is on pointing to relevant stakeholders who can pursue the implementation, and then appropriate areas and types of industries for Industrial Materials Network implementation. Thereafter, guidance for the

  16. Hybrid membrane system for desalination and wastewater treatment : Integrating forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 97% of the water in the world is seawater, desalination technologies have the potential to solve the fresh water crisis. The most used desalination technology nowadays is seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the

  17. Improved performance of the microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell using the stack structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo; Qin, Bangyu; Luo, Yong; Hou, Yanping

    2012-07-01

    The microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) is a device to desalinate seawater, and produce acid and alkali. The objective of this study was to enhance the desalination and chemical-production performance of the MEDCC using two types of stack structure. Experiments were conducted with different membrane spacings, numbers of desalination chambers and applied voltages. Results showed that the stack construction in the MEDCC enhanced the desalination and chemical-production rates. The maximal desalination rate of 0.58 ± 0.02 mmol/h, which was 43% higher than that in the MEDCC, was achieved in the four-desalination-chamber MEDCC with the AEM-CEM stack structure and the membrane spacing of 1.5mm. The maximal acid- and alkali-production rates of 0.079 ± 0.006 and 0.13 ± 0.02 mmol/h, which were 46% and 8% higher than that in the MEDCC, respectively, were achieved in the two-desalination-chamber MEDCC with the BPM-AEM-CEM stack structure and the membrane spacing of 3mm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an environmental impact assessment and decision support system for seawater desalination plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lattemann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater desalination is a rapidly growing coastal-based industry. The combined production capacity of all seawater desalination plants worldwide has increased by 30% over the last two years: from 28 million cubic meters per day in 2007—which is the equivalent of the average discharge of the River

  19. Feasibilty study of renewable energy powered seawater desalination technology using natural vacuum technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayhan, Teoman; Al Madani, Hussain [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Bahrain, P.O. box 32038, Isatown 32036 (Bahrain)

    2010-02-15

    With an ever-increasing population and rapid growth of industrialization, there is great demand for fresh water. Desalination has been a key proponent to meet the future challenges due to decreasing availability of fresh water. However, desalination uses significant amount of energy, today mostly from fossil fuels. It is, therefore, reasonable to rely on renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, waste heat from the industry and other renewable sources. The present study deals with the energy-efficient seawater desalination system utilizing renewable energy sources and natural vacuum technique. A new desalination technology named Natural Vacuum Desalination is proposed. The novel desalination technique achieve remarkable energy efficiency through the evaporation of seawater under vacuum and will be described in sufficient detail to demonstrate that it requires much less electric energy compared to any conventional desalination plant of fresh water production of similar capacity. The discussion will highlight the main operative and maintenance features of the proposed natural vacuum seawater desalination technology which seems to have promising techno-economic potential providing also advantageous coupling with renewable energy sources. (author)

  20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR PERFORMANCE SOLAR DESALINATION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmatulin I.R.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of using renewable energy for water purification. Results of analysis of a preferred energy source for a water purification using installed in places where fresh water shortages and a lack of electrical energy. The possibility of desalination of salt water using solar energy for regions with temperate climate. Presented desalination plant working on energy vacuum solar collectors, principles of action developed by the desalination plant. The experimental results of a constructed distiller when working with vacuum glass tubes and vacuum tubes with copper core inside. Conclusions about the possibility of using solar collectors for water desalination, are tips and tricks to improve the performance of solar desalination plant.

  1. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of a liter-scale microbial desalination cell as a platform to study bioelectrochemical desalination with salt solution or artificial seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kyle S; Drew, David M; He, Zhen

    2011-05-15

    Bioelectrochemical desalination is potentially advantageous because of bioenergy production and integrated wastewater treatment and desalination. In this work, the performance and energy benefits of a liter-scale upflow microbial desalination cell (UMDC) were evaluated. The UMDC desalinated both salt solution (NaCl) and artificial seawater, and the removal rate of total dissolved solid (TDS) increased with an increased hydraulic retention time, although TDS reduction in artificial seawater was lower than that in salt solution. Our analysis suggested that electricity generation was a predominant factor in removing TDS (more than 70%), and that other factors, like water osmosis and unknown processes, also contributed to TDS reduction. It was more favorable given the high energy efficiency, when treating salt solution, to operate the UMDC under the condition of high power output compared with that of high current generation because of the amount of energy production; while high current generation was more desired with seawater desalination because of lower salinity in the effluent. Under the condition of the high power output and the assumption of the UMDC as a predesalination in connection with a reversal osmosis (RO) system, the UMDC could produce electrical energy that might potentially account for 58.1% (salt solution) and 16.5% (artificial seawater) of the energy required by the downstream RO system. Our results demonstrated the great potential of bioelectrochemical desalination.

  3. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharbi, O.A., E-mail: omar.alharbi@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Phillips, M.R., E-mail: m.phillips@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Williams, A.T., E-mail: allan.williams@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Gheith, A.M., E-mail: amingheith@mans.edu.eg [Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Bantan, R.A., E-mail: rbantan@kau.edu.sa [Marine Geology Department, Faculty of Marine Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rasul, N.M., E-mail: rasul.nm@sgs.org.sa [Saudi Geological Survey, Centre for Marine Geology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = - 0.59o). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  4. Forward osmosis :a new approach to water purification and desalination.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2006-07-01

    Fresh, potable water is an essential human need and thus looming water shortages threaten the world's peace and prosperity. Waste water, brackish water, and seawater have great potential to fill the coming requirements. Unfortunately, the ability to exploit these resources is currently limited in many parts of the world by both the cost of the energy and the investment in equipment required for purification/desalination. Forward (or direct) osmosis is an emerging process for dewatering aqueous streams that might one day help resolve this problem. In FO, water from one solution selectively passes through a membrane to a second solution based solely on the difference in the chemical potential (concentration) of the two solutions. The process is spontaneous, and can be accomplished with very little energy expenditure. Thus, FO can be used, in effect, to exchange one solute for a different solute, specifically chosen for its chemical or physical properties. For desalination applications, the salts in the feed stream could be exchanged for an osmotic agent specifically chosen for its ease of removal, e.g. by precipitation. This report summarizes work performed at Sandia National Laboratories in the area of FO and reviews the status of the technology for desalination applications. At its current state of development, FO will not replace reverse osmosis (RO) as the most favored desalination technology, particularly for routine waters. However, a future role for FO is not out of the question. The ability to treat waters with high solids content or fouling potential is particularly attractive. Although our analysis indicates that FO is not cost effective as a pretreatment for conventional BWRO, water scarcity will likely drive societies to recover potable water from increasingly marginal resources, for example gray water and then sewage. In this context, FO may be an attractive pretreatment alternative. To move the technology forward, continued improvement and

  5. Developments in solar still desalination systems: A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2012-10-01

    Solar still desalination uses a sustainable and pollution-free source to produce high-quality water. The main limitation is low productivity and this has been the focus of intensive research. A major concern while increasing productivity is to maintain economic feasibility and simplicity. The authors present a critical review of the research work conducted on solar stills development. Studies addressing each parameter of concern are grouped together and results compared. Novelty in design and newly introduced features are presented. Modeling efforts of flow circulation within the still and methods to estimate internal heat transfer coefficients are discussed and future research needs are outlined. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. A multi evaporator desalination system operated with thermocline energy for future sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-05-05

    All existing commercial seawater desalination processes, i.e. thermally-driven and membrane-based reverse osmosis (RO), are operated with universal performance ratios (UPR) varying up to 105, whilst the UPR for an ideal or thermodynamic limit (TL) of desalination is at 828. Despite slightly better UPRs for the RO plants, all practical desalination plants available, hitherto, operate at only less than 12% of the TL, rendering them highly energy intensive and unsustainable for future sustainability. More innovative desalination methods must be sought to meet the needs of future sustainable desalination and these methods should attain an upper UPR bound of about 25 to 30% of the TL. In this paper, we examined the efficacy of a multi-effect distillation (MED) system operated with thermocline energy from the sea; a proven desalination technology that can exploit the narrow temperature gradient of 20°C all year round created between the warm surface seawater and the cold-seawater at depths of about 300–600m. Such a seawater thermocline (ST)-driven MED system, simply called the ST-MED process, has the potential to achieve up to 2 folds improvement in desalination efficiency over the existing methods, attaining about 18.8% of the ideal limit. With the major energy input emanated from the renewable solar, the ST-MED is truly a “green desalination” method of low global warming potential, best suited for tropical coastal shores having bathymetry depths of 300m or more.

  7. Synergies of solar energy use in the desalination of seawater: A case study in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Edward L.

    2016-05-01

    The mining industry is a great consumer of water for hydrometallurgical processes. Despite the efforts in minimizing the use of fresh water through reuse, recycling and process intensification, water demand for mining is expected to rise a 40% from 2013 to 2020. For seawater to be an alternative to groundwater, it must be pumped up to the mine (thousands of meters uphill) and desalinated. These processes require intensive energy and investment in desalination and piping/pumping facilities. A conventional solution for this process would be desalination by reverse osmosis at sea level, powered by electricity from the grid, and further pumping of the desalinated water uphill. This paper compares the feasibility of two solar technologies versus the "conventional" option. LCOW (Levelized Cost of Water) was used as a comparative indicator among the studied solutions, with values for a lifetime of 10, 15, 20 and 25 years, calculated using a real discount rate equal to 12%. The LCOW is lower in all cases for the RO + grid solution. The cost of desalination, ignoring the contribution of pumping, is similar for the three technologies from twenty years of operation. The use of solar energy to desalinate sea water for consumption in the mines of the Atacama region is technically feasible. However, due to the extra costs from pumping whole seawater, and not just the desalinated water, solar solutions are less competitive than the conventional process.

  8. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  9. Integrated processes for desalination and salt production: A mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenten, I. Gede; Ariono, Danu; Purwasasmita, Mubiar; Khoirudin

    2017-03-01

    The scarcity of fresh water due to the rapid growth of population and industrial activities has increased attention on desalination process as an alternative freshwater supply. In desalination process, a large volume of saline water is treated to produce freshwater while a concentrated brine is discharged back into the environment. The concentrated brine contains a high concentration of salt and also chemicals used during desalination operations. Due to environmental impacts arising from improper treatment of the brine and more rigorous regulations of the pollution control, many efforts have been devoted to minimize, treat, or reuse the rejected brine. One of the most promising alternatives for brine handling is reusing the brine which can reduce pollution, minimize waste volume, and recover valuable salt. Integration of desalination and salt production can be implemented to reuse the brine by recovering water and the valuable salts. The integrated processes can achieve zero liquid discharge, increase water recovery, and produce the profitable salt which can reduce the overall desalination cost. This paper gives an overview of desalination processes and the brine impacts. The integrated processes, including their progress and advantages in dual-purpose desalination and salt production are discussed.

  10. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel to desalt the sea or brackish water. Based on an experimental prototype AD plant, the life-cycle cost analysis of AD plants of assorted water production capacities has been simulated and these predictions are translated into unit cost of water production. Our results show that the specific energy consumption of the AD cycle is 1.38 kWh/m3 which is the lowest ever reported. For a plant capacity of 1000 m3/d, the AD cycle offers a unit cost of $0.457/m3 as compared to more than $0.9 for the average RO plants. Besides being cost-effective, the AD cycle is also environment-friendly as it emits less CO2 emission per m3 generated, typically 85% less, by comparison to an RO process. © 2010 Desalination Publications.

  11. Aridity, desalination plants and tourism in the eastern Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-León García-Rodríguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura are the easternmost of the Canary Islands, and are located on the southern edge of the temperate zone, in the subtropical anticyclone belt. With less than 150 mm of rainfall a year, they are classified as an arid zone. Their inhabitants have devised original agricultural systems to combat the aridity, although low yields have historically limited socio-economic development and population growth. These systems were used until the introduction of seawater desalination plants and the arrival of tourism in the last third of the twentieth century, which improved living standards for the local population but also led to a cultural transition. Nevertheless, these farming systems have left behind an important regional heritage, with an environmental and scenic value that has played an integral role in the latest phase of development. The systems have become a tourist attraction and have been central to the two islands being designated biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This article aims to analyse the main socioeconomic and land-use changes that have come about as a result of desalination technology.

  12. Advanced Control Synthesis for Reverse Osmosis Water Desalination Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Bui Duc Hong; You, Sam-Sang; Choi, Hyeung-Six; Jeong, Seok-Kwon

    2017-11-01

      In this study, robust control synthesis has been applied to a reverse osmosis desalination plant whose product water flow and salinity are chosen as two controlled variables. The reverse osmosis process has been selected to study since it typically uses less energy than thermal distillation. The aim of the robust design is to overcome the limitation of classical controllers in dealing with large parametric uncertainties, external disturbances, sensor noises, and unmodeled process dynamics. The analyzed desalination process is modeled as a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with varying parameters. The control system is decoupled using a feed forward decoupling method to reduce the interactions between control channels. Both nominal and perturbed reverse osmosis systems have been analyzed using structured singular values for their stabilities and performances. Simulation results show that the system responses meet all the control requirements against various uncertainties. Finally the reduced order controller provides excellent robust performance, with achieving decoupling, disturbance attenuation, and noise rejection. It can help to reduce the membrane cleanings, increase the robustness against uncertainties, and lower the energy consumption for process monitoring.

  13. New solar desalination system using humidification/ dehumidification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Dayem, Adel M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, 5555 Makah (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-01

    An innovative solar desalination system is successfully designed, manufactured and experimentally tested at Makkah, 21.4 °N. The system consists of 1.15 m2 flat-plate collector as a heat source and a desalination unit. The unit is about 400 liter vertical cylindrical insulated tank. It includes storage, evaporator and condenser of hot salt-water that is fed from the collector. The heated water in the collector is raised naturally to the unit bottom at which it is used as storage. A high pressure pump is used to inject the water vertically up through 1-mm three nozzles inside the unit. The hot salt-water is atomized inside the unit where the produced vapor is condensed on the inner surfaces of the unit outer walls to outside. The system was experimentally tested under different weather conditions. It is obtained that the system can produce about 9 liter a day per quadratic meter of collector surface area. By that it can produce about 1.6 liters per kWh of solar energy. Moreover the water temperature has a great effect on the system performance although the scaling possibility is becoming significant. By that way the cost of a liter water production is relatively high and is obtained as 0.5 US$.

  14. Fundamental and application aspects of adsorption cooling and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Saha, Bidyut Baran

    2015-10-23

    Adsorption (AD) cycle is recently pioneered for cooling and desalination applications. For water treatment, the cycle can be used to treat highly concentrated feed water, ranging from seawater, ground water and chemically-laden waste water. This paper presents a review of the recent development of AD cycle and its hybridization with known conventional cycles such as the MED and MSF. We begin by looking at the basic sorption theory for different adsorbent-adsorbate pairs, namely (i) silica gel-water, (ii) the zeolite-water, (iii) parent Maxsorb III/ethanol, (iv) KOH-H2 surface treated Maxsorb III/ethanol, and (v) a metal organic framework (MOF) material namely, MIL-101Cr/ethanol. We also present the basic AD cycle for seawater desalination as well as its hybridization with known conventional thermally-driven cycles for efficiency improvement. We demonstrate the water production improvement by 2-3 folds by hybridization in a pilot comprising a 3-stage MED and AD plant and the top-brine temperature 50oC.

  15. Optimizing Nanopore Surface Properties for High-Efficiency Water Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    As water resources worldwide become rapidly scarcer, it is becoming increasingly important to devise new techniques to obtain clean water from seawater. At present, water purification technologies are limited by costly energy requirements relative to the theoretical thermodynamic limit and by insufficient understanding of the physical processes underlying ion filtration and fluid transport at the molecular scale. New advances in computational materials science offer a promising way to deepen our understanding of these physical phenomena. In this presentation, we describe a new approach for high-efficiency water desalination based on surface-engineered porous materials. This approach is especially relevant for promising technologies such as nanofiltration and membrane distillation, which offers promising advantages over traditional desalination technologies using mesoporous membranes that are only permeable to pure water vapor. More accurate molecular modeling of mesoporous and nanoporous materials represents a key step towards efficient large-scale treatment of seawater. Results regarding the effect of pore properties (surface texture, morphology, density, tortuosity) on desired performance characteristics such as ion selectivity, maximal water flux and energy requirements will be presented.

  16. An experimental investigation on MEDAD hybrid desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-04-02

    This paper presents an advanced desalination cycle called "MEDAD" desalination which is a hybrid of the conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) and an adsorption cycle (AD). The combined cycles allow some of MED stages to operate below ambient temperature, as low as 5. °C in contrast to the conventional MED. The MEDAD cycle results in a quantum increase of distillate production at the same top-brine condition. Being lower than the ambient temperature for the bottom stages of hybrid cycle, ambient energy can now be scavenged by the MED processes whilst the AD cycle is powered by low temperature waste heat from exhaust or renewable sources. In this paper, we present the experiments of a 3-stage MED and MEDAD plants. These plants have been tested at assorted heat source temperatures from 15. °C to 70. °C and with portable water as a feed. All system states are monitored including the distillate production and power consumption and the measured results are expressed in terms of performance ratio (PR). It is observed that the synergetic matching of MEDAD cycle led to a quantum increase in distillate production, up to 2.5 to 3 folds vis-a-vis to a conventional MED of the same rating. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The calculation of desalination of mineralized porous ice at thawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sosnovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained in this work demonstrate that dynamics of desalination of porous ice depends on a mobility of ions of salts, and the mobility is determined by the diffusion coefficient. The ice was made by freezing of mineralized water of different chemical composition. Model calculations of average mineralization of the porous ice at its thawing were made, and the ion concentrations of different salts were defined. Values of the diffusion coefficients of the salt ions in the film of brine ice pellets were obtained by means of comparison of results of measurements and calculations of dynamics of content of the salt ions in a porous ice at its thawing. The diffusion coefficient of ions Na+, Cl−, SO4 2− is by order of magnitude larger than that of Ca2+ and by two orders of magnitudethan HCO3 −. This results in that the content of ions Na+, Cl−, SO42− decreases in porous ice at its thawing 3 times faster than the content of the ions Ca2+. Basing on analysis of chemical composition of drainage water in some regions in Russia a possibility to desalinate the porous ice formed during the winter sprinkling is demonstrated.

  18. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Gordon; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Motmans, Filip; Khraisheh, Marwan; Atieh, Muataz

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling. PMID:29304024

  19. Bioindicators as metrics for environmental monitoring of desalination plant discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, J A; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Y; Loya-Fernández, A; Ferrero-Vicente, L M; Marco-Méndez, C; Martinez-Garcia, E; Giménez-Casalduero, F; Sánchez-Lizaso, J L

    2016-02-15

    Development of desalination projects requires simple methodologies and tools for cost-effective and environmentally-sensitive management. Sentinel taxa and biotic indices are easily interpreted in the perspective of environment management. Echinoderms are potential sentinel taxon to gauge the impact produced by brine discharge and the BOPA index is considered an effective tool for monitoring different types of impact. Salinity increase due to desalination brine discharge was evaluated in terms of these two indicators. They reflected the environmental impact and recovery after implementation of a mitigation measure. Echinoderms disappeared at the station closest to the discharge during the years with highest salinity and then recovered their abundance after installation of a diffuser reduced the salinity increase. In the same period, BOPA responded due to the decrease in sensitive amphipods and the increase in tolerant polychaete families when salinities rose. Although salinity changes explained most of the observed variability in both indicators, other abiotic parameters were also significant in explaining this variability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of polyvinylchloride and cellulose acetate blend membranes for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendi, Ayman; Abdallah, Heba; Amin, Ashraf; Amin, Shereen Kamel

    2017-10-01

    The pollution of water resources, severe climate changes, rapid population growth, increasing agricultural demands, and rapid industrialization insist the development of innovative technologies for generating potable water. Polyvinylchloride/cellulose acetate (PVC/CA) membranes were prepared using phase inversion technique for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The membrane performance was investigated using Red Sea water (El-Ein El-Sokhna-Egypt). The membrane performance indicated that the prepared membranes were endowed to work under high pressure; increasing in feeding operating pressure led to increase permeate flux and rejection. Increasing feed operating pressure from zero to 40 bar led to increase in the salt rejection percent. Salt rejection percent reached to 99.99% at low feed concentration 5120 ppm and 99.95% for Red Sea water (38,528 ppm). The prepared membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, and mechanical properties. SEM, FTIR and mechanical results were used to distinguish the best membrane for desalination. According to characterization results, one prepared membrane was selected to run performance test in desalination testing unit. The membrane (M3) showed excellent performance and stability under different operating conditions and during the durability test for 36 days.

  1. Solar Desalination by Humidification-Dehumidification of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumouh J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of supplying potable water can hardly be overstressed. In many arid zones, coastal or inlands, seawater or brackish water desalination may be the only solution to the shortage of fresh water. The process based on humidification-dehumidification of air (HDH principle mimic the natural water cycle. HDH technique has been subjected to many studies in recent years due to the low temperature, renewable energy use, simplicity, low cost installation and operation. An experimental test set-up has been fabricated and assembled. The prototype equipped with appropriate measuring and controlling devices. Detailed experiments have been carried out at various operating conditions. The heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained experimentally. The results of the investigation have shown that the system productivity increases with the increase in the mass flow rate of water through the unit. Water temperature at condenser exit increases linearly with water temperature at humidifier inlet and it decreases as water flow rate increases. HDH desalination systems realised on also work at atmospheric pressure; hence they do not need mechanical energy except for circulation pumps and fans. These kinds of systems are suitable for developing countries. The system is modular, it is possible to increase productivity with additional solar collectors and additional HDH cycles.

  2. Effects of drinking desalinated seawater on cell viability and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarrão, Camila Longhi; Bachi, André Luis Lacerda; Mariano, Mario; Abel, Lucia Jamli

    2017-06-01

    Desalination of seawater is becoming an important means to address the increasing scarcity of freshwater resources in the world. Seawater has been used as drinking water in the health, food, and medical fields and various beneficial effects have been suggested, although not confirmed. Given the presence of 63 minerals and trace elements in drinking desalinated seawater (63 DSW), we evaluated their effects on the behavior of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that cell viability and proliferation in the presence of 63 DSW were significantly greater than in mineral water and in the presence of fetal bovine serum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 63 DSW showed no toxic effect on murine embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and murine melanoma (B16-F10) cells. In another assay, we also showed that pre-treatment of non-adherent THP-1 cells with 63 DSW reduces apoptosis incidence, suggesting a protective effect against cell death. We conclude that cell viability and proliferation were improved by the mineral components of 63 DSW and this effect can guide further studies on health effects associated with DSW consumption.

  3. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kayvani Fard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling.

  4. BELL PEPPER CULTIVATION WITH BRINE FROM BRACKISH WATER DESALINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO DE MOURA ARRUDA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In desalination process, besides the potable water, highly salty and pollutant water (brine is generated, which can be used for producing crops since it is carefully monitored. In order to test this hypothesis, bell pepper plants, cv. 'Margarita', were grown in coconut fiber substrate under greenhouse and were irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap water, brine from desalination plant, and its dilution with tap water at 75, 50 and 25%, giving a range of electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (ECs of 2.6, 3.1, 6.6, 10.0 and 12.2 dS m-1 after the dilutions and fertilizers addition. Completely randomized blocks design was used with 5 treatments (salinity levels of the nutrient solutions and six replications. Leaf area, number of marketable fruit, total and marketable yield were reduced with ECs increase. The marketable yield of bell pepper 'Margarita' reduced 6.3% for each unitary increase of ECs above 2.6 dS m-1 (threshold salinity and the results suggest that in hydroponic system, the reduction of marketable yield with increasing ECs is promoted by reduction of the number of fruits per plant instead of a reduction of fruit mean weight.

  5. Self-Powered Desalination of Geothermal Saline Groundwater: Technical Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Davies

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical study shows the technical feasibility of self-powered geothermal desalination of groundwater sources at <100 °C. A general method and framework are developed and then applied to specific case studies. First, the analysis considers an ideal limit to performance based on exergy analysis using generalised idealised assumptions. This thermodynamic limit applies to any type of process technology. Then, the analysis focuses specifically on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC driving Reverse Osmosis (RO, as these are among the most mature and efficient applicable technologies. Important dimensionless parameters are calculated for the ideal case of the self-powered arrangement and semi-ideal case where only essential losses dependent on the RO system configuration are considered. These parameters are used to compare the performance of desalination systems using ORC-RO under ideal, semi-ideal and real assumptions for four case studies relating to geothermal sources located in India, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and Turkey. The overall system recovery ratio (the key performance measure for the self-powered process depends strongly on the geothermal source temperature. It can be as high as 91.5% for a hot spring emerging at 96 °C with a salinity of 1830 mg/kg.

  6. Desalination Processes Evaluation at Common Platform: A Universal Performance Ratio (UPR) Method

    KAUST Repository

    Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad

    2018-01-31

    The inevitable escalation in economic development have serious implications on energy and environment nexus. The International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) predicted that the Non Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (non-OECD) countries will lead with 71% rise in energy demand in contrast with only 18% in developed countries from 2012-2040. In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, about 40% of primary energy is consumed for cogeneration based power and desalination plants. The cogeneration based plants are struggling with unfair primary fuel cost apportionment to electricity and desalination. Also, the desalination processes performance evaluated based on derived energy, providing misleading selection of processes. There is a need of (i) appropriate primary fuel cost appointment method for multi-purposed plants and (ii) desalination processes performance evaluation method based on primary energy. As a solution, we proposed exergetic analysis for primary fuel percentage apportionment to all components in the cycle according to the quality of working fluid utilized. The proposed method showed that the gas turbine was under charged by 40%, steam turbine was overcharged by 71% and desalination was overcharged by 350% by conventional energetic apportionment methods. We also proposed a new and most suitable desalination processes performance evaluation method based on primary energy, called universal performance ratio (UPR). Since UPR is based on primary energy, it can be used to evaluate any kind of desalination processes, thermally driven, pressure driven & humidification-dehumidification etc. on common platform. We showed that all desalination processes are operating only at 10-13% of thermodynamic limit (TL) of UPR. For future sustainability, desalination must achieve 25-30% of TL and it is only possible either by hybridization of different processes or by innovative membrane materials.

  7. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  8. Characterization of saline groundwater across the coastal aquifer of Israel as resource for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yospeh; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2015-04-01

    In arid countries with access to marine water seawater desalination is becoming an important water source in order to deal with the water scarcity and population growth. Seawater reverse osmosis (RO) facilities use open seawater intake, which requires pretreatment processes to remove particles in order to avoid fouling of the RO membrane. In small and medium size desalination facilities, an alternative water source can be saline groundwater in coastal aquifers. Using saline groundwater from boreholes near the shore as feed water may have the advantage of natural filtration and low organic content. It will also reduce operation costs of pretreatment. Another advantage of using groundwater is its availability in highly populated areas, where planning of large RO desalination plants is difficult and expensive due to real-estate prices. Pumping saline groundwater underneath the freshwater-seawater interface (FSI) might shift the interface towards the sea, thus rehabilitating the fresh water reservoirs in the aquifer. In this research, we tested the potential use of saline groundwater in the coastal aquifer of Israel as feed water for desalination using field work and desalination experiments. Specifically, we sampled the groundwater from a pumping well 100 m from the shore of Tel-Aviv and sea water from the desalination plant in Ashqelon, Israel. We used an RO cross flow system in a pilot plant in order to compare between the two water types in terms of permeate flux, permeate flux decline, salt rejection of the membrane and the fouling on the membrane. The feed, brine and fresh desalinated water from the outlet of the desalination system were chemically analyzed and compared. Field measurements of dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and salinity were also conducted in situ. Additionally, SDI (silt density index), which is an important index for desalination, and total organic carbon that has a key role in organic fouling and development of biofouling, were measured and

  9. Experiences of energy saving and co-generation projects; Experiencias de proyectos de ahorro de energia y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Barajas, Alberto [Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this document are presented the successful projects of energy saving and co-generation that Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V. has made in diverse industries. The investment recovery periods have been smaller to 18 months. The projects have been made for different companies within Mexican Republic. [Spanish] Se presentan los casos exitosos de proyectos de ahorro de energia y cogeneracion que Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V. ha realizado en diversas industrias cuyo periodo de recuperacion de la inversion han sido menores a 18 meses. Los proyectos han sido realizados para distintas empresas dentro de la Republica Mexicana.

  10. Simultaneous water desalination and electricity generation in a microbial desalination cell with electrolyte recirculation for pH control

    KAUST Repository

    Qu, Youpeng

    2012-02-01

    A recirculation microbial desalination cell (rMDC) was designed and operated to allow recirculation of solutions between the anode and cathode chambers. This recirculation avoided pH imbalances that could inhibit bacterial metabolism. The maximum power density was 931±29mW/m 2 with a 50mM phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and 776±30mW/m 2 with 25mM PBS. These power densities were higher than those obtained without recirculation of 698±10mW/m 2 (50mM PBS) and 508±11mW/m 2 (25mM PBS). The salt solution (20g/L NaCl) was reduced in salinity by 34±1% (50mM) and 37±2% (25mM) with recirculation (rMDC), and by 39±1% (50mM) and 25±3% (25mM) without recirculation (MDC). These results show that electrolyte recirculation using an rMDC is an effective method to increase power and achieve efficient desalination by eliminating pH imbalances. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Study on solar sea water desalination; Studie ueber solare Meerwasserentsalzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, G.K.

    1995-09-01

    The state of the art of solar sea water desalination is discussed based on the example of simple solar distillation. Reasons are given for the relatively reserved use of this technique in the past. The increasing shortage of fresh water (drinking water) due to increasing water consumption, the deforestation of (rain) forests, and increasing environmental pollution reveals the urgency of sea water desalination. However, the fossil energy sources that are needed for desalination cause a further increase in carbon dioxide emissions and aggravate the global-warming problem. This study suggests to multiply the relatively low economic efficiency and low cost efficiency of simple solar distillers by vacuum-controlled ground cooling and to operate pumps that convey sea water and distilled water by means of solar energy or solar cogeneration. Model calculations and a pilot project are recommended for a closer quantification of the data. General intercultural and socioeconomic aspects that must be considered when installing solar sea water (waste water) distillation plants, e.g. in Africa, are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Studie wird der Stand der Technik der solaren Wasserentsalzung, basierend auf der einfachen solaren Destillation, untersucht sowie die Gruende fuer den bisher relativ geringen Einsatz dieser Technik erlaeutert. Die zunehmende Verknappung von Suesswasser (Trinkwasser), durch steigenden Wasserverbrauch, durch die Abholzung von (Regen)-Waeldern und durch die zunehmende Umweltverschmutzung ruecken aber die Notwendigkeit der Meerwasserentsalzung immer staerker in den Vordergrund. Der hohe Energiebedarf dafuer traegt aber bei der Verwendung von fossiler Primaerenergie zu einer weiteren Verstaerkung des CO{sub 2}-Ausstosses und damit zur weiteren Verschaerfung der Klimaproblematik bei. Deshalb wird hier nicht nur vorgeschlagen, den relativ geringen Wirkungsgrad und die relativ geringe Kosteneffizienz einfacher solarer Destillatoren durch

  12. A desalination plant with solar and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Ye, Z.; Gao, W.

    2013-12-01

    The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem. China has a water shortage, although the total amount of water resources is the sixth in the world, the per capita water capacity is the 121th (a quarter of the world's per capita water capacity), and the United Nations considers China one of the poorest 13 countries in the world in terms of water. In order to increase the supply of fresh water, a realistic way is to make full use of China's long and narrow coastline for seawater desalination. This paper discusses a sea water desalination device, the device adopts distillation, uses the greenhouse effect principle and wind power heating principle, and the two-type start is used to solve the problem of vertical axis wind turbine self-starting. Thrust bearings are used to ensure the stability of the device, and to ensure absorbtion of wind energy and solar energy, and to collect evaporation of water to achieve desalination. The device can absorb solar and wind energy instead of input energy, so it can be used in ship, island and many kinds of environment. Due to the comprehensive utilization of wind power and solar power, the efficiency of the device is more than other passive sea water desalting plants, the initial investment and maintenance cost is lower than active sea water desalting plant. The main part of the device cannot only be used in offshore work, but can also be used in deep sea floating work, so the device can utilise deep sea energy. In order to prove the practicability of the device, the author has carried out theory of water production calculations. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the device ais bsorbing solar and wind power, except loose lost part which is used for water temperature rise and phase transition. Assume the inflow water temperature is 20 °C, outflow water temperature is 70 °C, the energy utilization is 60%, we can know that the water production quantity is 8 kg/ m2 per hour. Comparing with the

  13. Geophysical remote sensing of water reservoirs suitable for desalinization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David Franklin; Bartel, Lewis Clark; Bonal, Nedra; Engler, Bruce Phillip

    2009-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, as well as other regions of the world, competing demands for fresh water or water suitable for desalination are outstripping sustainable supplies. In these areas, new water supplies are necessary to sustain economic development and agricultural uses, as well as support expanding populations, particularly in the Southwestern United States. Increasing the supply of water will more than likely come through desalinization of water reservoirs that are not suitable for present use. Surface-deployed seismic and electromagnetic (EM) methods have the potential for addressing these critical issues within large volumes of an aquifer at a lower cost than drilling and sampling. However, for detailed analysis of the water quality, some sampling utilizing boreholes would be required with geophysical methods being employed to extrapolate these sampled results to non-sampled regions of the aquifer. The research in this report addresses using seismic and EM methods in two complimentary ways to aid in the identification of water reservoirs that are suitable for desalinization. The first method uses the seismic data to constrain the earth structure so that detailed EM modeling can estimate the pore water conductivity, and hence the salinity. The second method utilizes the coupling of seismic and EM waves through the seismo-electric (conversion of seismic energy to electrical energy) and the electro-seismic (conversion of electrical energy to seismic energy) to estimate the salinity of the target aquifer. Analytic 1D solutions to coupled pressure and electric wave propagation demonstrate the types of waves one expects when using a seismic or electric source. A 2D seismo-electric/electro-seismic is developed to demonstrate the coupled seismic and EM system. For finite-difference modeling, the seismic and EM wave propagation algorithms are on different spatial and temporal scales. We present a method to solve multiple, finite-difference physics

  14. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  15. USE OF REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION ON DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF HYDROPONIC LETTUCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nildo da Silva Dias; Francisco Aécio de Lima; Claudio Ricardo da Silva; Osvaldo Nogueira de Sousa Neto; Hans Raj Gheyi

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluated the impact of the high salinity reject brine from reverse osmosis desalination on hydroponics lettuce cultivated in greenhouse an investigation was carried out in Mossoro, Northeast of Brazil (5º11...

  16. Electrokinetic desalination of protruded areas of stone avoiding the direct contact with electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, J.; Matyscák, O.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Soluble salts are considered one of the main deterioration factors of porous building materials such as rocks, bricks or granites. The desalination treatments currently used in order to mitigate this alteration process are usually applied directly on the affected areas, which have often a low...... degree of cohesion precisely due to the deteriorating effect of the salts. The present study aimed to investigate the evaluation of a new approach based on electrokinetic techniques to desalinate rocks in monuments, specifically to desalinate carved reliefs. The procedure avoids the direct contact...... with the areas highly affected by salts, which usually show loss of cohesion due to salt crystallization processes, by placing the electrodes on adjacent areas less contaminated with salts. This fact represents another difficulty in the desalination process because the electric field must be adapted to the shape...

  17. Optimal Design of a Solar Desalination Unit with Heliostats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to improve the yield of a solar desalination cell using concentration of solar rays by means of automatically controlled heliostats. The vertical cell is orientated towards the north. It is mainly composed of two plates; the one being heated by the solar rays reflected by the mirrors is used for evaporation of a falling water film; the other one is used for water vapor condensation. Each heliostat consists of an altitude-azimuth mount having two degrees of freedom and supporting a plane mirror. The heliostat permanently follows the sun trajectory and reflects the solar rays on the cell by means of automatic control implemented in a control card based on a microcontroller. Model predictive control allows us to maximize the distilled water production.

  18. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  19. Quantized Water Transport: Ideal Desalination through Graphyne-4 Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, E. G.; Meng, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Graphyne sheet exhibits promising potential for nanoscale desalination to achieve both high water permeability and salt rejection rate. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations on pore-size effects suggest that γ-graphyne-4, with 4 acetylene bonds between two adjacent phenyl rings, has the best performance with 100% salt rejection and an unprecedented water permeability, to our knowledge, of ~13 L/cm2/day/MPa, 3 orders of magnitude higher than prevailing commercial membranes based on reverse osmosis, and ~10 times higher than the state-of-the-art nanoporous graphene. Strikingly, water permeability across graphyne exhibits unexpected nonlinear dependence on the pore size. This counter-intuitive behavior is attributed to the quantized nature of water flow at the nanoscale, which has wide implications in controlling nanoscale water transport and designing highly effective membranes. PMID:24196437

  20. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish......Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like...... and clothes washer replacements is expected to decrease by 14%. In economic terms these changes are equal to 24–85% of water production costs in 2005. Our calculations further indicate that the economic impact from changing the water quality can be at least as significant as the change in operating costs...

  1. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gryta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered.

  2. Thermodynamical research of using solar energy for desalination of seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsović Marjan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world face the problem of saline water. Water desalination processes, which require significant energy consumption, are a common solution to produce drinking water. This study evaluated the influence of the following process operational parameters on the energy consumption of seawater RO systems: water salinity, permeate recovery ratio, membrane performance and feed water temperature. Optimal operational conditions for the theoretical minimum energy consumption were determined with experiments by varying water qualities and operational parameters. In order to further reduce energy consumption a RO system was integrated with a PV solar system and a pilot PVRO system was built and tested. The results obtained from this study indicated that even though a Solar PV system incurs a huge initial capital investment, it will yield significant benefits in the long run of the RO operational period.

  3. Effect of the scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuhua; Liu, Zhenfa; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Haihua

    2017-09-01

    A scale inhibitor was synthesized from polysuccinimide with 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid and aspartic acid. The effect of scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination was studied. The results showed that the ion content of permeate water is lower with the scale inhibitor added in RO system for seawater desalination than without scale inhibitor. On the contrary, the ion content of concentrate water is higher when with scale inhibitor in RO system.

  4. Nuclear desalination for the northwest of Mexico; Desalacion nuclear para el noroeste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega C, R. F. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The IMPULSA project of the Engineering Institute of UNAM, it has dedicated from the year 2005 to the study and development of new desalination technologies of seawater with renewable energies. The objective is to form a group of expert engineers and investigators in the desalination topics able to transform their scientific knowledge in engineering solutions, with a high grade of knowledge of the environment and the renewable energies. In the middle of 2007 was took the initiative in the IMPULSA project to study the nuclear desalination topic. It is evident that before the high cost of the hydrocarbons and its high environmental impact, the nuclear generation alternative of energy becomes extremely attractive, mainly for desalination projects of seawater of great size. The Northwest of Mexico is particularly attractive as the appropriate site for one nuclear desalination plant of great size given its shortage of drink water and the quick growth of its population; as well as its level of tourist, agricultural and industrial activity. In this study was revised the state of the art of the nuclear desalination on the world and it is simulated some couplings and operation forms of nuclear reactors and desalination units, from the thermodynamic and economic viewpoint with the purpose of identifying the main peculiarities of this technology. The objective of the study was to characterize several types and sizes of nuclear reactors of the last generation that could be couple to a desalination technology as multi-stage distillation, type flash distillation or inverse osmosis. It is used for this effect the DEEP 3.1 program of the IAEA to simulate the coupling and to carry out an economic preliminary evaluation. Was found cost very competitive of 0.038-0.044 US$/kWh for the electric power production and 0.60 to 0.77 US$/m{sup 3} for the drink water produced, without including the water transport cost or the use of carbon certificates. (Author)

  5. Conceptual design and economic evaluation about the coupling of high power PWRs and desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Both electricity and fresh water become basic human needs in modern days. This paper describes the coupling methods of high power pressurized water reactors and desalination system, and evaluates the economics of coupling systems. OPR1000 designed by Korea was chosen for the reference reactor. Because MED (Mulct-Effect Distillation) with TVC (Thermal Vapor Compressor) have been evaluated as an effective desalination system for high power reactors, it was used for the reference desalination method in simulation. In order to simulate the secondary circuit of PWRs with heat exchangers for MED-TVC, PEPSE program which is normally used for performance evaluation of power system efficiencies was used. The coupling of OPR1000 and desalination systems were set under the restriction it had to make as small changes as possible. From the results PEPSE simulation, the economics of the coupling systems were calculates using equations form DEEP4.0 (Desalination Economic Evaluation Program) which was developed by IAEA because Deep simulates just two simple couplings which are back pressure and condensation/extraction. In the secondary circuit simulation seven coupling cases were set and outlet powers to heat exchanger for desalination were varied to be dependent on the thermohydraulic conditions on each part. The results of changed electrical power generation were calculated with the thermal outputs for desalination. It is concluded that two coupling method using the steam from high-pressure turbine have high performance and are economical among the simulated cases. The first one is to add a heat exchanger on the branch from high-pressure turbine into moisture separator and the other is on the branch into feedwater heating parts. It proves desalination plants can be added to current high power PWRs.

  6. Composition and Variability of Biofouling Organisms in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Minglu; Jiang, Sunny; Tanuwidjaja, Dian; Voutchkov, Nikolay; Hoek, Eric M. V.; Cai, Baoli

    2011-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane biofouling remains a common challenge in the desalination industry, but the marine bacterial community that causes membrane fouling is poorly understood. Microbial communities at different stages of treatment processes (intake, cartridge filtration, and SWRO) of a desalination pilot plant were examined by both culture-based and culture-independent approaches. Bacterial isolates were identified to match the genera Shewanella, Alteromonas, Vibrio, and Ce...

  7. Cellulose Derived Graphenic Fibers for Capacitive Desalination of Brackish Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugazhenthiran, Nalenthiran; Sen Gupta, Soujit; Prabhath, Anupama; Manikandan, Muthu; Swathy, Jakka Ravindran; Raman, V Kalyan; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2015-09-16

    We describe a simple and inexpensive cellulose-derived and layer-by-layer stacked carbon fiber network electrode for capacitive deionization (CDI) of brackish water. The microstructure and chemical composition were characterized using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques; electrochemical/electrical performance was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and 4-probe electrical conductivity and surface area by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, respectively. The desalination performance was investigated using a laboratory batch model CDI unit, under fixed applied voltage and varying salt concentrations. Electro-adsorption of NaCl on the graphite reinforced-cellulose (GrC) electrode reached equilibrium quickly (within 90 min) and the adsorbed salts were released swiftly (in 40 min) back into the solution, during reversal of applied potential. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies clearly illustrate that sodium and chloride ions were physisorbed on the negative and positive electrodes, respectively during electro-adsorption. This GrC electrode showed an electro-adsorption capacity of 13.1 mg/g of the electrode at a cell potential of 1.2 V, with excellent recyclability and complete regeneration. The electrode has a high tendency for removal of specific anions, such as fluoride, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate from water in the following order: Cl->NO3->F->SO4(2-). GrC electrodes also showed resistance to biofouling with negligible biofilm formation even after 5 days of incubation in Pseudomonas putida bacterial culture. Our unique cost-effective methodology of layer-by-layer stacking of carbon nanofibers and concurrent reinforcement using graphite provides uniform conductivity throughout the electrode with fast electro-adsorption, rapid desorption, and extended reuse, making the electrode affordable for capacitive desalination of brackish water.

  8. Opportunities of integrating desalination to cogeneration for Brazilian conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.M.; Balestieri, J.A.P.; Zanardi, M.A. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mfeduardo@uol.com.br; perrella@feg.unesp.br; mznardi@feg.unesp.br

    2006-06-15

    One of the major problems in this century refers to the availability of potable water, necessary to the survival of populations. The world population is continually increasing and natural resources are proportionally decreasing, and the development of potable water production techniques demands intensive efforts. Electric power requirement is also necessary to the development of nations. Desalination processes are widely used in countries with low offer of potable water. Technologies nowadays in use are multi-stage-flash distillation (MSF), multi-effect distillation (MED) and reverse osmosis (RO) process. In MSF and MED processes, the main technique is distillation. Reverse osmosis technique relies on the osmotic principle, in which a solvent passes through a membrane. Since the middle of 1950, these desalting techniques are widely used mainly in the Middle East countries, where water shortage is almost absolute. Although uncommonly conceived, discussing the implementation of desalination processes in association to cogeneration systems in Brazil is a necessary task for the long-term planning. In this way, this paper proposes to review the successful experiences presented in the literature as a way of establishing how electric power and fresh water production can be produced from seawater desalting processes in an optimized way. Another objective pursued in this paper is stimulating more attention to this matter, that deserves discussing the skill staff formation and the know-how of such technologies in the strategic planning to the water resource management, specially because these investments require a considerable time for human resources development and the knowledge of the most adequate technology to be implemented for the integration of desalting and cogeneration units. (author)

  9. Forward Osmosis in India: Status and Comparison with Other Desalination Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in demand of freshwater and depleting water sources, it is imperative to switch to seawater as a regular source of water supply. However, due to the high total dissolved solid content, it has to be desalinated to make it drinkable. While desalination technologies have been used for many years, mass deployment of such technologies poses a number of challenges like high energy requirements as well as high negative environmental impact through side products and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is to present a sustainable technology for desalination. Forward osmosis, an emerging technology, is compared with the other commonly used technologies worldwide, namely, multieffect distillation, multistage flash distillation, and reverse osmosis as well as other emerging technologies like vapour compression, solar humidification dehumidification, nanofiltration, and freezing desalination. As energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions are one of the major concerns of desalination, this paper concludes that forward osmosis is an emerging sustainable technology for seawater desalination. This paper then presents the challenges involved in the application of forward osmosis in India and presents a plant setup. In the end, the cost comparison of a forward osmosis and reverse osmosis plant has been done and it was concluded that forward osmosis is economically better as well. PMID:27350984

  10. Solar desalination of seawater using double-dye-modified PTFE membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Masaki

    2017-12-15

    The production of purified water by seawater desalination is now a significant countermeasure against recent severe water shortage. As the global warming is thought to be a dominant cause of the water scarcity problem, the energy employed for the desalination should be free from fossil fuels. We recently reported a simple membrane desalination combining the harvesting of solar energy and the membrane permeation of vaporized water. Water on a PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane modified with disperse red 1 (DR1) as an azobenzene dye that photo-isomerizes with visible light permeates through it under visible light irradiation. The penetrated water was efficiently desalinated to produce purified water by membrane distillation mechanism, where water was evaporated by DR1 using solar energy. In this paper, we report that the aqueous solution of rhodamine B on non modified PTFE membrane permeated the membrane to be purified under visible light irradiation. This paper also reports that a PTFE membrane modified with disperse blue 14 (DB14) was active for the desalination. Thus, even these non-azobenzene dyes were revealed to be available for the light induce water permeation. When DR1 and DB14 were modified to PTFE membrane concurrently, a higher performance of seawater desalination using simulated sunlight was achieved by efficient absorption of the irradiated light with DR1 and DB14. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Forward Osmosis in India: Status and Comparison with Other Desalination Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Dhruv; Gupta, Lovleen; Dhingra, Rijul

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in demand of freshwater and depleting water sources, it is imperative to switch to seawater as a regular source of water supply. However, due to the high total dissolved solid content, it has to be desalinated to make it drinkable. While desalination technologies have been used for many years, mass deployment of such technologies poses a number of challenges like high energy requirements as well as high negative environmental impact through side products and CO2 emissions. The purpose of this paper is to present a sustainable technology for desalination. Forward osmosis, an emerging technology, is compared with the other commonly used technologies worldwide, namely, multieffect distillation, multistage flash distillation, and reverse osmosis as well as other emerging technologies like vapour compression, solar humidification dehumidification, nanofiltration, and freezing desalination. As energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions are one of the major concerns of desalination, this paper concludes that forward osmosis is an emerging sustainable technology for seawater desalination. This paper then presents the challenges involved in the application of forward osmosis in India and presents a plant setup. In the end, the cost comparison of a forward osmosis and reverse osmosis plant has been done and it was concluded that forward osmosis is economically better as well.

  12. The Desalination Process Driven by Wave Energy: A Challenge for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Franzitta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between water and energy is currently the focus of several investigations. In particular, desalination is a technological process characterized by high energy consumption; nevertheless, desalination represents the only practicable solution in several areas, where the availability of fresh water is limited but brackish water or seawater are present. These natural resources (energy and water are essential for each other; energy system conversion needs water, and electrical energy is necessary for water treatment or transport. Several interesting aspects include the study of saline desalination as an answer to freshwater needs and the application of renewable energy (RE devices to satisfy electrical energy requirement for the desalination process. A merge between renewable energy and desalination is beneficial in that it is a sustainable and challenging option for the future. This work investigates the possibility of using renewable energy sources to supply the desalination process. In particular, as a case study, we analyze the application of wave energy sources in the Sicilian context.

  13. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  14. Development of a poultice for electrochemical desalination of porous building materials: desalination effect and pH changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, I.

    2013-01-01

    Salt induced deterioration of structures and stones are generally recognized as a frequent and serious problem. The deterioration is especially undesired in relation to cultural heritage as it is impossible to recreate original material (e.g. original murals). By presence of salts in decorated...... vaults two different techniques are applied: poultices or establishment of climate chambers. Both techniques can result in ion transport away from the valuable surfaces with murals, but satisfying desalination has not been obtained according to conservators from the Danish National Museums mural...... preservation section in consistence with the present available literature. In the present paper the possibility for salt removal by utilizing a well known and accepted transport process, electromigration, is investigated, i.e. movement of ions in a solution in an applied electric DC field. An experimental...

  15. The optimal scheduling of decentralised co-generation plants in microgrids; Optimale Einsatzplanung von Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungsanlagen in Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunkel, David [TU Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hess, Tobias; Schegner, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik

    2011-07-01

    The daily operational scheduling of decentralised unit is an important optimization task of power systems. This proceeding deals with planning of small scaled co-generation power units for district heating in a microgrid. This power system can be mathematically formulated and solved by an optimization algorithm. The solution process consists of a unit commitment and dispatch. The starting unit commitment is characterised by a mixed integer nonlinear problem defining the on-off-state of all units. Subsequently, the dispatch distributes the generation requirements to every committed unit considering thermal demand. The dispatching is based on a mixed integer linear problem. Additionally, it presents a way for flexible reducing the outage reserve related to the operational condition. The given microgrid operates in an islanding mode. The method can also be applied in a grid connected model considering the possible requirements of a grid operator. (orig.)

  16. Use of drinking water treatment solids for arsenate removal from desalination concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuesong; Lin, Lu; Papelis, Charalambos; Myint, Maung; Cath, Tzahi Y; Xu, Pei

    2015-05-01

    Desalination of impaired water can be hindered by the limited options for concentrate disposal. Selective removal of specific contaminants using inexpensive adsorbents is an attractive option to address the challenges of concentrate management. In this study, two types of ferric-based drinking water treatment solids (DWTS) were examined for arsenate removal from reverse osmosis concentrate during continuous-flow once-through column experiments. Arsenate sorption was investigated under different operating conditions including pH, arsenate concentration, hydraulic retention time, loading rate, temperature, and moisture content of the DWTS. Arsenate removal by the DWTS was affected primarily by surface complexation, electrostatic interactions, and arsenate speciation. Results indicated that arsenate sorption was highly dependent on initial pH and initial arsenate concentration. Acidic conditions enhanced arsenate sorption as a result of weaker electrostatic repulsion between predominantly monovalent H2AsO4(-) and negatively charged particles in the DWTS. High initial arsenate concentration increased the driving force for arsenate sorption to the DWTS surface. Tests revealed that the potential risks associated with the use of DWTS include the leaching of organic contaminants and ammonia, which can be alleviated by using wet DWTS or discarding the initially treated effluent that contains high organic concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Source water quality shaping different fouling scenarios in a full-scale desalination plant at the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    The complexity of Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane fouling phenomenon has been widely studied and several factors influencing it have been reported by many researchers. This original study involves the investigation of two different fouling profiles produced at a seawater RO desalination plant installed on a floating mobile barge. The plant was moved along the coastline of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The two locations where the barge was anchored showed different water quality. At the second location, two modules were harvested. One of the modules was pre-fouled by inorganics during plant operation at the previous site while the other was installed at the second site. Fouled membranes were subjected to a wide range of chemical and microbiological characterization procedures. Drastically different fouling patterns were observed in the two membranes which indicates the influence of source water quality on membrane surface modification and on fouling of RO membranes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Economic and Policy Drivers of Agricultural Water Desalination in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, P.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Viers, J. H.; Mauter, M.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture in arid regions is threatened by the twin stresses of soil salinity and uncertain water availability. Recently, water desalination has been a proposed solution for mitigating the effects of drought, soil salinization, and the ecological impacts of agricultural drainage. In this study, we combine data from earth observing systems with auxiliary information on prices, yields, and farmer behavior in order to create a decision framework which assesses the public and private costs and benefits of distributed desalination in the Central Valley (CV) of California. The use of remotely sensed crop classifiers allows us to resolve our analysis at the 30m pixel scale across the CV, a feature that allows us to characterize regional differences in technology effectiveness. We employ environmental and economic modeling to estimate the value of lower salinity irrigation water; the value of augmented water supply under present and future climate scenarios; and the human health, environmental, and climate change damages associated with generating power to desalinate water. We find that water desalination is only likely to be profitable in 4% of the CV during periods of severe drought, and that current costs would need to decrease by 70-90% for adoption to occur on the median acre. Fossil-fuel powered desalination technologies also generate air emissions that impose significant public costs in the form of human health and climate change damages, although these damages vary greatly depending on technology. The ecosystem service benefits of reduced agricultural drainage would need to be valued between 800 and 1200 per acre-foot, or nearly the full capital and operational costs of water desalination, for the net benefits of water desalination to be positive from a societal perspective.

  19. An Interactive Computer Tool for Teaching About Desalination and Managing Water Demand in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, J. R.; Reyes, R.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an interactive tool to geospatially and temporally analyze desalination developments and trends in the US in the time span 1950-2013, its current contribution to satisfying water demands and its future potentials. The computer tool is open access and can be used by any user with Internet connection, thus facilitating interactive learning about water resources. The tool can also be used by stakeholders and policy makers for decision-making support and with designing sustainable water management strategies. Desalination technology has been acknowledged as a solution to a sustainable water demand management stemming from many sectors, including municipalities, industry, agriculture, power generation, and other users. Desalination has been applied successfully in the US and many countries around the world since 1950s. As of 2013, around 1,336 desalination plants were operating in the US alone, with a daily production capacity of 2 BGD (billion gallons per day) (GWI, 2013). Despite a steady increase in the number of new desalination plants and growing production capacity, in many regions, the costs of desalination are still prohibitive. At the same time, the technology offers a tremendous potential for `enormous supply expansion that exceeds all likely demands' (Chowdhury et al., 2013). The model and tool are based on data from Global Water Intelligence (GWI, 2013). The analysis shows that more than 90% of all the plants in the US are small-scale plants with the capacity below 4.31 MGD. Most of the plants (and especially larger plants) are located on the US East Coast, as well as in California, Texas, Oklahoma, and Florida. The models and the tool provide information about economic feasibility of potential new desalination plants based on the access to feed water, energy sources, water demand, and experiences of other plants in that region.

  20. Implementation of Brackish Groundwater Desalination Using Wind-Generated Electricity: A Case Study of the Energy-Water Nexus in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Mary E. Clayton; Ashlynn S. Stillwell; Michael E. Webber

    2014-01-01

    Growing populations and periodic drought conditions have exacerbated water stress in many areas worldwide. In response, some municipalities have considered desalination of saline water as a freshwater supply. Unfortunately, desalination requires a sizeable energy investment. However, renewable energy technologies can be paired with desalination to mitigate concern over the environmental impacts of increased energy use. At the same time, desalination can be operated in an intermittent way to m...

  1. Potential drawbacks associated with agricultural irrigation with treated wastewaters from desalinated water origin and possible remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Ori; Kochva, Malka; Tarchitzky, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Over 90% of the water supplied in the coastal region in Israel in 2013 (600 Mm(3) y(-1)) will be from desalination plants. The wastewater generated from this water (>400 Mm(3) y(-1)) is planned, after proper treatment, to be reused for agricultural irrigation, making this low-salinity water the main agricultural-sector future water source. In this respect both the Mg(2 + ) concentration and the Sodium Adsorption Ratio value of the water are of concern. We show that the typical Na(+) concentration addition to wastewater (between approximately 100 and approximately 165 mg L(-1)) is much higher than the combined addition of Ca(2 + ) and Mg(2 + ) (between 0 and several mg L(-1)). Since desalinated water is typically supplied with low Ca(2 + ) and Mg(2 + ) concentrations ( approximately 35 and 0 mg L(-1) respectively), the treated wastewater is characterized by very low Mg(2 + ) concentrations, low salinity and very high SAR values, typically >6 and up to 10 (meq L(-1))(0.5). SAR values can be lowered by adding either Ca(2 + ) or Mg(2 + ) to desalinated water. Adding Mg(2 + ) is preferable from both health (minimizing cardiovascular disease hazards) and agriculture (inexpensive Mg fertilization) aspects. The low cost of Mg(2 + ) addition at the post-treatment stage of desalination plants corroborates the request for Mg(2 + ) addition in regions where treated wastewater from desalinated water origin is planned to be reused for irrigation.

  2. Microbial Electrodialysis Cell for Simultaneous Water Desalination and Hydrogen Gas Production

    KAUST Repository

    Mehanna, Maha

    2010-12-15

    A new approach to water desalination is to use exoelectrogenic bacteria to generate electrical power from the biodegradation of organic matter, moving charged ions from a middle chamber between two membranes in a type of microbial fuel cell called a microbial desalination cell. Desalination efficiency using this approach is limited by the voltage produced by the bacteria. Here we examine an alternative strategy based on boosting the voltage produced by the bacteria to achieve hydrogen gas evolution from the cathode using a three-chambered system we refer to as a microbial electrodialysis cell (MEDC). We examined the use of the MEDC process using two different initial NaCl concentrations of 5 g/L and 20 g/L. Conductivity in the desalination chamber was reduced by up to 68 ± 3% in a single fed-batch cycle, with electrical energy efficiencies reaching 231 ± 59%, and maximum hydrogen production rates of 0.16 ± 0.05 m3 H2/m3 d obtained at an applied voltage of 0.55 V. The advantage of this system compared to a microbial fuel cell approach is that the potentials between the electrodes can be better controlled, and the hydrogen gas that is produced can be used to recover energy to make the desalination process self-sustaining with respect to electrical power requirements. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Reverse osmosis desalination of chitosan cross-linked graphene oxide/titania hybrid lamellar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Sun, Penzhan; Zhang, Yingjiu; Zhu, Hongwei

    2016-07-08

    With excellent mass transport properties, graphene oxide (GO)-based lamellar membranes are believed to have great potential in water desalination. In order to quantify whether GO-based membranes are indeed suitable for reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, three sub-micrometer thick GO-based lamellar membranes: GO-only, reduced GO (RGO)/titania (TO) nanosheets and RGO/TO/chitosan (CTS) are prepared, and their RO desalination performances are evaluated in a home-made RO test apparatus. The photoreduction of GO by TO improves the salt rejection, which increases slowly with the membrane thickness. The RGO/TO/CTS hybrid membranes exhibit higher rejection rates of only about 30% (greater than threefold improvement compared with a GO-only membrane) which is still inferior compared to other commercial RO membranes. The low rejection rates mainly arise from the pressure-induced weakening of the ion-GO interlayer interactions. Despite the advantages of simple, low-cost preparation, high permeability and selectivity of GO-based lamellar membranes, as the current desalination performances are not high enough to afford practical application, there still remains a great challenge to realize high performance separation membranes for water desalination applications.

  4. Photosynthetic microbial desalination cells (PMDCs) for clean energy, water and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabian, Bahareh; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2013-12-01

    Current microbial desalination cell (MDC) performances are evaluated with chemical catalysts such as ferricyanide, platinum catalyzed air-cathodes or aerated cathodes. All of these methods improve power generation potential in MDCs, however, they are not preferable for large scale applications due to cost, energy and environmental toxicity issues. In this study, performance of microbial desalination cells with an air cathode and an algae biocathode (Photosynthetic MDC - PMDC) were evaluated, both under passive conditions (no mechanical aeration or mixing). The results indicate that passive algae biocathodes perform better than air cathodes and enhance COD removal and utilize treated wastewater as the growth medium to obtain valuable biomass for high value bioproducts. Maximum power densities of 84 mW m(-3) (anode volume) or 151 mW m(-3) (biocathode volume) and a desalination rate of 40% were measured with 0.9 : 1 : 0.5 volumetric ratios of anode, desalination and algae biocathode chambers respectively. This first proof-of-concept study proves that the passive mechanisms can be beneficial in enhancing the sustainability of microbial desalination cells.

  5. Economic Investigation of Different Configurations of Inclined Solar Water Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Phillips Agboola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigated the performance of four configurations of inclined solar water desalination (ISWD system for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost, and distilled water production cost. The empirical findings show that in terms of daily productivity improved inclined solar water desalination (IISWD performed best with 6.41 kg/m2/day while improved inclined solar water desalination with wire mesh (IISWDWM produced the least with 3.0 kg/m2/day. In terms of cost price of the systems, the control system inclined solar water desalination (ISWD is the cheapest while IISWDWM is the most expensive system. Distilled water cost price ranges from 0.059 TL/kg, for IISWDW, to 0.134 TL/kg, for IISWDWM system. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar desalination system for potable water in northern Cyprus. Potable water from vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 TL/kg.

  6. Electrokinetic desalination using honeycomb carbon nanotubes (HC-CNTs): a conceptual study by molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qile; Kong, Xian; Li, Jipeng; Lu, Diannan; Liu, Zheng

    2014-09-21

    A new concept of electrokinetic desalination using a CNT honeycomb is presented through molecular dynamics simulation. The preferential translocation of ions towards the outlets near two electrodes was realized by applying an electric field perpendicular to bulk fluid flow in a CNT network, which, in the meantime, generated deionized water flux discharged from the central outlets. The effects of the major factors such as electric field strength, numbers of separation units, diameter of CNT, and ion concentration on the desalination were examined. It was shown that over 95% salt rejection and around 50% fresh water recovery were achieved by the presented module by applying an electric field of 0.8 V nm(-1). CNT diameter, which is critical to ion rejection without the electric field, had a marginal effect on the desalination of this new module when a strong electric field was applied. The desalination was also not sensitive to ion concentration, indicating its excellent workability for a wide range of water salinity, e.g. from brackish water to seawater. A potential of mean force profile revealed a free energy barrier as large as 2.0-6.0 kcal mol(-1) for ions to move opposite to the implemented electrical force. The simulation confirmed the high potential of the CNT honeycomb in water desalination.

  7. Use of simulated evaporation to assess the potential for scale formation during reverse osmosis desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    The tendency of solutes in input water to precipitate efficiency lowering scale deposits on the membranes of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems is an important factor in determining the suitability of input water for desalination. Simulated input water evaporation can be used as a technique to quantitatively assess the potential for scale formation in RO desalination systems. The technique was demonstrated by simulating the increase in solute concentrations required to form calcite, gypsum, and amorphous silica scales at 25??C and 40??C from 23 desalination input waters taken from the literature. Simulation results could be used to quantitatively assess the potential of a given input water to form scale or to compare the potential of a number of input waters to form scale during RO desalination. Simulated evaporation of input waters cannot accurately predict the conditions under which scale will form owing to the effects of potentially stable supersaturated solutions, solution velocity, and residence time inside RO systems. However, the simulated scale-forming potential of proposed input waters could be compared with the simulated scale-forming potentials and actual scale-forming properties of input waters having documented operational histories in RO systems. This may provide a technique to estimate the actual performance and suitability of proposed input waters during RO.

  8. Simultaneous Removal of Phenol and Dissolved Solids from Wastewater Using Multichambered Microbial Desalination Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Harapriya; Jain, Sumat Chand; Ghangrekar, Makarand M

    2015-12-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) has great potential toward direct electricity generation from wastewater and concurrent desalination through potential difference developed due to microbial activity. Degradation of phenol by isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa in anodic chamber and simultaneous desalination of water in middle desalination chamber of multichamber MDC is demonstrated in this study. Performance of the MDCs with different anodic inoculum conditions, namely pure culture of P. aeruginosa (MDC-1), 50 % v/v mixture of P. aeruginosa and anaerobic mixed consortia (MDC-2) and anaerobic mixed consortia (MDC-3), was evaluated to compare the phenol degradation in anodic chamber, bioelectricity generation, and simultaneous total dissolved solids (TDS) removal from saline water in desalination chamber. Synergistic effect between P. aeruginosa and mixed anaerobic consortia as inoculum was evident in MDC-2 demonstrating phenol degradation of 90 %, TDS removal of 75 % in 72 h of reaction time along with higher power generation of 27.5 mW/m(2) as compared to MDC-1 (95 %, 64 %, 12.8 mW/m(2), respectively) and MDC-3 (58 %, 52 %, 4.8 mW/m(2), respectively). The results illustrate that the multichamber MDC-2 is effective for simultaneous removal of phenol and dissolved solids contained in industrial wastewaters.

  9. Microbial mediated desalination for ground water softening with simultaneous power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, Manupati; Butti, Sai Kishore; Velvizhi, G; Venkata Mohan, S

    2017-10-01

    A novel three-chambered microbial desalination cell (MDC) was designed for evaluating desalination of synthetic ground water with simultaneous energy generation and resource recovery. The specific design enabled efficient interelectrode communication by reducing the distance of separation and also maintained an appropriate surface area to volume ratio. MDC were evaluated in different circuitry modes (open and closed) to assess the desalination efficiency, bioelectricity generation, resource recovery, substrate utilization and bioelectrokinetics. The closed circuit operation has showed efficient desalination efficiency (51.5%) and substrate utilization (70%). Owing to the effective electron transfer kinetics, closed circuit mode of operation showed effective desalination of the synthetic ground water with simultaneous power production (0.35W/m2). Circuitry specific biocatalyst activity was observed with higher peak currents (10.1mA; -5.98mA) in closed circuit mode. MDC can function as sustainable and alternative solution for ground and surface water treatment with power productivity and resource recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated pretreatment and desalination by electrocoagulation (EC)-ion concentration polarization (ICP) hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Siwon; Kim, Bumjoo; Han, Jongyoon

    2017-06-13

    Conventional water treatment process is composed of multiple stages, including desalination (salt removal) and pre/post-treatment of desalination to remove particles, chemicals, and other potential foulants for desalination. In this work, we developed a microfluidic proof-of-concept for a single device water treatment system, which removes both salt ions and non-salt contaminants. Our system combines electrocoagulation (EC), a versatile contaminant removal process, and ion concentration polarization (ICP) desalination, which is an electromembrane desalination process. We demonstrated a continuous EC-ICP operation that removed >95% of suspended solids and reduced the salinity from brackish range (20 mM NaCl) to a potable level (<8.6 mM NaCl). We also demonstrated that our system is flexible in terms of the type and concentration of contaminants it can handle. Combining two different electrochemical processes into a single system, we can reduce unnecessary voltage drop by having a shared anode, and achieve both seamless integration and energy efficient operation. Our system will find applications as a small-scale water treatment system, if properly scaled up in the future.

  11. Bioelectricity generation and dewatered sludge degradation in microbial capacitive desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanyu; Zhao, Qingliang; Na, Xiaolin; Zheng, Zhen; Jiang, Junqiu; Wei, Liangliang; Zhang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new approach for the synergy in bioelectricity generation, desalination and organic waste treatment without additional power input. However, current MDC systems cause salt accumulation in anodic wastewater and sludge. A microbial capacitive desalination cell (MCDC) with dewatered sludge as anodic substrate was developed to address the salt migration problem and improve the sludge recycling value by special designed-membrane assemblies, which consisted of cation exchange membranes (CEMs), layers of activated carbon cloth (ACC), and nickel foam. Experimental results indicated that the maximum power output of 2.06 W/m3 with open circuit voltage (OCV) of 0.942 V was produced in 42 days. When initial NaCl concentration was 2 g/L, the desalinization rate was about 15.5 mg/(L·h) in the first 24 h, indicating that the MCDC reactor was suitable to desalinize the low concentration salt solution rapidly. The conductivity of the anodic substrate decreased during the 42-day operation; the CEM/ACC/Ni assemblies could effectively restrict the salt accumulation in MCDC anode and promote dewatered sludge effective use by optimizing the dewatered sludge properties, such as organic matter, C/N, pH value, and electric conductivity (EC).

  12. Enhancing biodegradation and energy generation via roughened surface graphite electrode in microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Atieh; Yousefi Kebria, Daryoush; Najafpour Darzi, Ghasem

    2017-09-01

    The microbial desalination cell (MDC) is known as a newly developed technology for water and wastewater treatment. In this study, desalination rate, organic matter removal and energy production in the reactors with and without desalination function were compared. Herein, a new design of plain graphite called roughened surface graphite (RSG) was used as the anode electrode in both microbial fuel cell (MFC) and MDC reactors for the first time. Among the three type of anode electrodes investigated in this study, RSG electrode produced the highest power density and salt removal rate of 10.81 W/m3 and 77.6%, respectively. Such a power density was 2.33 times higher than the MFC reactor due to the junction potential effect. In addition, adding the desalination function to the MFC reactor enhanced columbic efficiency from 21.8 to 31.4%. These results provided a proof-of-concept that the use of MDC instead of MFC would improve wastewater treatment efficiency and power generation, with an added benefit of water desalination. Furthermore, RSG can successfully be employed in an MDC or MFC, enhancing the bio-electricity generation and salt removal.

  13. Economic feasibility of a solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2014-02-01

    Solar still desalination systems offer sustainable tools for fresh water production. However, their widespread application is often hindered by their relatively low production rates compared to other desalination methods. In this study, a simple amendment, in the form of a slowly-rotating hollow cylinder, was introduced within the solar still, significantly increasing the evaporative surface area. This new modified still was analyzed in terms of both operation and economic feasibility. The introduced cylinder resulted in a 200-300% increase in water output relative to a control, which did not include the cylinder. The resulting percent improvement far exceeds that obtained by other modifications. Unit production cost estimates varied between 6 and 60$/m3 depending on discount rates, productivity, service lifetime and initial capital costs. These projections are well within reported cost ranges for renewable-based technologies. In order to evaluate the system\\'s feasibility in real market value, different scenarios that introduce carbon-trading schemes and environmental degradation costs for fuel-based desalination, were performed. Reported costs for fuel-based brackish water and seawater desalination were thus adjusted to include unaccounted-for costs related to environmental damage. This analysis yielded results that further justify the economic feasibility of the new modified solar still, particularly for seawater desalination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Pushing desalination recovery to the maximum limit: Membrane and thermal processes integration

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-05-05

    The economics of seawater desalination processes has been continuously improving as a result of desalination market expansion. Presently, reverse osmosis (RO) processes are leading in global desalination with 53% share followed by thermally driven technologies 33%, but in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries their shares are 42% and 56% respectively due to severe feed water quality. In RO processes, intake, pretreatment and brine disposal cost 25% of total desalination cost at 30–35% recovery. We proposed a tri-hybrid system to enhance overall recovery up to 81%. The conditioned brine leaving from RO processes supplied to proposed multi-evaporator adsorption cycle driven by low temperature industrial waste heat sources or solar energy. RO membrane simulation has been performed using WinFlow and IMSDesign commercial softwares developed by GE and Nitto. Detailed mathematical model of overall system is developed and simulation has been conducted in FORTRAN. The final brine reject concentration from tri-hybrid cycle can vary from 166,000ppm to 222,000ppm if RO retentate concentration varies from 45,000ppm to 60,000ppm. We also conducted economic analysis and showed that the proposed tri-hybrid cycle can achieve highest recovery, 81%, and lowest energy consumption, 1.76kWhelec/m3, for desalination reported in the literature up till now.

  15. Reverse osmosis desalination of chitosan cross-linked graphene oxide/titania hybrid lamellar membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Sun, Penzhan; Zhang, Yingjiu; Zhu, Hongwei

    2016-07-01

    With excellent mass transport properties, graphene oxide (GO)-based lamellar membranes are believed to have great potential in water desalination. In order to quantify whether GO-based membranes are indeed suitable for reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, three sub-micrometer thick GO-based lamellar membranes: GO-only, reduced GO (RGO)/titania (TO) nanosheets and RGO/TO/chitosan (CTS) are prepared, and their RO desalination performances are evaluated in a home-made RO test apparatus. The photoreduction of GO by TO improves the salt rejection, which increases slowly with the membrane thickness. The RGO/TO/CTS hybrid membranes exhibit higher rejection rates of only about 30% (greater than threefold improvement compared with a GO-only membrane) which is still inferior compared to other commercial RO membranes. The low rejection rates mainly arise from the pressure-induced weakening of the ion-GO interlayer interactions. Despite the advantages of simple, low-cost preparation, high permeability and selectivity of GO-based lamellar membranes, as the current desalination performances are not high enough to afford practical application, there still remains a great challenge to realize high performance separation membranes for water desalination applications.

  16. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, O A; Phillips, M R; Williams, A T; Gheith, A M; Bantan, R A; Rasul, N M

    2012-04-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ=-0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r=0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t=2.898; df=18; pdesalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal design of graphene nanopores for seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Qiu, Yinghua; Li, Kun; Sha, Jingjie; Li, Tie; Chen, Yunfei

    2018-01-07

    Extensive molecular dynamics simulations are employed to optimize nanopore size and surface charge density in order to obtain high ionic selectivity and high water throughput for seawater desalination systems. It is demonstrated that with the help of surface charge exclusion, nanopores with diameter as large as 3.5 nm still have high ionic selectivity. The mechanism of the salt rejection in a surface-charged nanopore is mainly attributed to the ion concentration difference between the cations and anions induced by the surface charges. Increasing surface charge density is beneficial to enhance ionic selectivity. However, there exists a critical value for the surface charge density. Once the surface charge density exceeds the critical value, charge inversion occurs inside a nanopore. Further increasing the surface charge density will deteriorate the ionic selectivity because the highly charged nanopore surface will allow more coions to enter the nanopore in order to keep the whole system in charge neutrality. Besides the surface charge density, the nanopore length also affects the ionic selectivity. Based on our systematic simulations, nanopores with surface charge density between -0.09 C/m2 and -0.12 C/m2, diameters smaller than 3.5 nm, and membrane thickness ranging between 8 and 10 graphene layers show an excellent performance for the ionic selectivity.

  18. Interlayer free - nickel doped silica membranes for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, A.; Karlina, L.; Astuti, Y.; Sriatun; Wang, D. K.; Motuzas, J.; da Costa, J. C. D.

    2017-02-01

    This work shows for the first time the potential of nickel oxide silica membranes for desalination applications. Nickel oxide silica xerogels were synthesised via a sol-gel method including TEOS, nickel nitrate with and without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The effects of nickel addition (5% - 50 mol %) on the structure-property relationship of the silica materials were systematically studied. The membrane performance were tested as a function of feed salt concentration (0.3-3.5 wt% NaCl) and temperature (27-60 °C). The membranes which were prepared using equal sol-gel conditions to the xerogel samples showed the raised feed temperatures resulted in increased water fluxes, whilst increasing the salt concentration resulted in decreased water fluxes. The membranes with addition of hydrogen peroxide exhibited better performances than their H2O2 absence counterpart. The salt rejection was in excess of 90% and the maximum flux observed was 7.3 kg m-2 h-1 at 60°C for a 0.3 wt% NaCl feed concentration.

  19. Permeability of uncharged organic molecules in reverse osmosis desalination membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dražević, Emil; Košutić, Krešimir; Svalina, Marin; Catalano, Jacopo

    2017-06-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are primarily designed for removal of salts i.e. for desalination of brackish and seawater, but they have also found applications in removal of organic molecules. While it is clear that steric exclusion is the dominant removal mechanism, the fundamental explanation for how and why the separation occurs remains elusive. Until recently there was no strong microscopic evidences elucidating the structure of the active polyamide layers of RO membranes, and thus they have been conceived as "black boxes"; or as an array of straight capillaries with a distribution of radii; or as polymers with a small amount of polymer free domains. The knowledge of diffusion and sorption coefficients is a prerequisite for understanding the intrinsic permeability of any organic solute in any polymer. At the same time, it is technically challenging to accurately measure these two fundamental parameters in very thin (20-300 nm) water-swollen active layers. In this work we have measured partition and diffusion coefficients and RO permeabilities of ten organic solutes in water-swollen active layers of two types of RO membranes, low (SWC4+) and high flux (XLE). We deduced from our results and recent microscopic studies that the solute flux of organic molecules in polyamide layer of RO membranes occurs in two domains, dense polymer (the key barrier layer) and the water filled domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vapor transport through short hydrophobic nanopores for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Rahman, Faizur; Karnik, Rohit

    2011-11-01

    We propose a concept for desalination of water by reverse osmosis (RO) using a vapor-trapping membrane composed of short hydrophobic nanopores and separates the salt water (feed) and the fresh water (permeate) on each side. The feed water is vaporized by applied pressure and the water vapor condenses on the permeate side accompanied by recovery of latent heat. A probabilistic model based on rarified gas conditions predicted 3-5 times larger mass flux by the proposed membrane than conventional RO membranes at temperatures in the range of 30-50C. To realize the short hydrophobic nanopores, gold was deposited at the entrance of alumina pores followed by SAM formation. The fraction of leaking pores was confirmed to be less than 0.2% using a calcium ion indicator (Fluo-4). Finally, a microfluidic flow cell was fabricated for characterizing the transport properties of the membranes. The authors would like to thank the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, for funding the research reported in this paper through the Center for Clean Water and Clean Energy at MIT and KFUPM.

  1. Desalination of sea water with aquatic lily (Eichhornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámburo-Miranda, Isela Victoria; Ruelas-Ramírez, Emmanuel Hammurabi

    2017-11-01

    During the last decades, methods of halo conditioning have been developed to increase the tolerance to salinity in glucophyta crops. Some experiments have carried out the application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in support to the modification of cell tolerance in saline medium. The first objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the incorporation of H2O2 in salinity tolerance development of the aquatic lily (Eichhornia crassipes). Results showed that the incorporation of 0.03 % H2O2 salinity tolerance developed in salt concentrations similar to seawater. Saline stress tolerance in aquatic lily was shown by the excretion of salts in its leaves; this process helped also in removing salt from seawater. At the same time, the reproduction of the lily is intimately linked to the content of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) (nutrients) in water. This reason is important to control the concentrations of these elements in the water. This will allow maintaining a control in the dissemination of the lily. Considering the mentioned above, the second objective was to continue development of the adaptation of the aquatic lily in seawater, using H2O2 and the required amount of nutrients. This paper points out the importance of considering a biological process for the treatments in the desalination of seawater, making the process more sustainable.

  2. Optimal design of graphene nanopores for seawater desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwu; Qiu, Yinghua; Li, Kun; Sha, Jingjie; Li, Tie; Chen, Yunfei

    2018-01-01

    Extensive molecular dynamics simulations are employed to optimize nanopore size and surface charge density in order to obtain high ionic selectivity and high water throughput for seawater desalination systems. It is demonstrated that with the help of surface charge exclusion, nanopores with diameter as large as 3.5 nm still have high ionic selectivity. The mechanism of the salt rejection in a surface-charged nanopore is mainly attributed to the ion concentration difference between the cations and anions induced by the surface charges. Increasing surface charge density is beneficial to enhance ionic selectivity. However, there exists a critical value for the surface charge density. Once the surface charge density exceeds the critical value, charge inversion occurs inside a nanopore. Further increasing the surface charge density will deteriorate the ionic selectivity because the highly charged nanopore surface will allow more coions to enter the nanopore in order to keep the whole system in charge neutrality. Besides the surface charge density, the nanopore length also affects the ionic selectivity. Based on our systematic simulations, nanopores with surface charge density between -0.09 C/m2 and -0.12 C/m2, diameters smaller than 3.5 nm, and membrane thickness ranging between 8 and 10 graphene layers show an excellent performance for the ionic selectivity.

  3. Does hindered transport theory apply to desalination membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dražević, Emil; Košutić, Krešimir; Kolev, Vesselin; Freger, Viatcheslav

    2014-10-07

    As reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration polyamide membranes become increasingly used for water purification, prediction of pollutant transport is required for membrane development and process engineering. Many popular models use hindered transport theory (HTT), which considers a spherical solute moving through an array of fluid-filled rigid cylindrical pores. Experiments and molecular dynamic simulations, however, reveal that polyamide membranes have a distinctly different structure of a "molecular sponge", a network of randomly connected voids widely distributed in size. In view of this disagreement, this study critically examined the validity of HTT by directly measuring diffusivities of several alcohols within a polyamide film of commercial RO membrane using attenuated total reflection-FTIR. It is found that measured diffusivities deviate from HTT predictions by as much as 2-3 orders of magnitude. This result indicates that HTT does not adequately describe solute transport in desalination membranes. As a more adequate alternative, the concept of random resistor networks is suggested, with resistances described by models of activated transport in "soft" polymers without a sharp size cutoff and with a proper address of solute partitioning.

  4. Modeling and PSO optimization of Humidifier-Dehumidifier desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is modeling a solar-air heater humidification-dehumidification unit with applying particle swarm optimization to find out  the maximum gained output ratio with respect to the mass flow rate of water and air entering humidifier, mass flow rate of cooling water entering dehumidifier, width and length of solar air heater and terminal temperature difference (TTD of dehumidifier representing temperature difference of inlet cooling water and saturated air to dehumidifier as its decision variable. A sensitivity analysis, furthermore, is performed to distinguish the effect of operating parameters including mass flow rate and streams’ temperature. The results showed that the optimum productivity decreases by decreasing the ratio of mass flow rate of water entering humidifier to air ones. Article History: Received: July 12th 2017; Revised: December 15th 2017; Accepted: 2nd February 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Afshar, M.A., Naseri, A., Bidi, M., Ahmadi, M.H. and Hadiyanto, H. (2018 Modeling and PSO Optimization of Humidifier-Dehumidifier Desalination. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1,59-64. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.59-64

  5. Seawater reverse osmosis desalination and (harmful) algal blooms

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the occurrence of HABs in seawater, their effects on the operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, the indicators for quantifying/predicting these effects, and the pretreatment strategies for mitigating operational issues during algal blooms. The potential issues in SWRO plants during HABs are particulate/organic fouling of pretreatment systems and biological fouling of RO membranes, mainly due to accumulation of algal organic matter (AOM). The presence of HAB toxins in desalinated water is also a potential concern but only at very low concentrations. Monitoring algal cell density, AOM concentrations and membrane fouling indices is a promising approach to assess the quality of SWRO feedwater and performance of the pretreatment system. When geological condition is favourable, subsurface intake can be a robust pretreatment for SWRO during HABs. Existing SWRO plants with open intake and are fitted with granular media filtration can improve performance in terms of capacity and product water quality, if preceded by dissolved air flotation or sedimentation. However, the application of advanced pretreatment using ultrafiltration membrane with in-line coagulation is often a better option as it is capable of maintaining stable operation and better RO feed water quality during algal bloom periods with significantly lower chemical consumption.

  6. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on ferroaluminophosphate for desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption characteristics of microporous ferroaluminophosphate adsorbent (FAM-Z01, Mitsubishi Plastics) are evaluated for possible application in adsorption desalination and cooling (AD) cycles. A particular interest is its water vapor uptake behavior at assorted adsorption temperatures and pressures whilst comparing them to the commercial silica gels of AD plants. The surface characteristics are first carried out using N2 gas adsorption followed by the water vapor uptake analysis for temperature ranging from 20°C to 80°C. We propose a hybrid isotherm model, composing of the Henry and the Sips isotherms, which can be integrated to satisfactorily fit the experimental data of water adsorption on the FAM-Z01. The hybrid model is selected to fit the unusual isotherm shapes, that is, a low adsorption in the initial section and followed by a rapid vapor uptake leading to a likely micropore volume filling by hydrogen bonding and cooperative interaction in micropores. It is shown that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of FAM-Z01 can be up to 5 folds higher than that of conventional silica gels. Owing to the quantum increase in the adsorbate uptake, the FAM-Z01 has the potential to significantly reduce the footprint of an existing AD plant for the same output capacity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Bioluminescence-Based Method for Measuring Assimilable Organic Carbon in Pretreatment Water for Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Lauren A.; Schneider, Orren D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    A bioluminescence-based assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test was developed for determining the biological growth potential of seawater within the reverse osmosis desalination pretreatment process. The test uses Vibrio harveyi, a marine organism that exhibits constitutive luminescence and is nutritionally robust. AOC was measured in both a pilot plant and a full-scale desalination plant pretreatment. PMID:21148685

  8. Bacterial community structure and variation in a full-scale seawater desalination plant for drinking water production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belila, A.; El-Chakhtoura, J.; Otaibi, N.; Muyzer, G.; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Saikaly, P.E.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial processes inevitably play a role in membrane-based desalination plants, mainly recognized as membrane biofouling. We assessed the bacterial community structure and diversity during different treatment steps in a full-scale seawater desalination plant producing 40,000 m3/d of drinking

  9. IRIS Reactor a Suitable Option to Provide Energy and Water Desalination for the Mexican Northwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, C.; Viais, J.

    2004-10-03

    The Northwest region of Mexico has a deficit of potable water, along this necessity is the region growth, which requires of additional energy capacity. The IRIS reactor offers a very suitable source of energy given its modular size of 300 MWe and it can be coupled with a desalination plant to provide the potable water for human consumption, agriculture and industry. The present paper assess the water and energy requirements for the Northwest region of Mexico and how the deployment of the IRIS reactor can satisfy those necessities. The possible sites for deployment of Nuclear Reactors are considered given the seismic constraints and the closeness of the sea for external cooling. And in the other hand, the size of the desalination plant and the type of desalination process are assessed accordingly with the water deficit of the region.

  10. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-02-05

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  11. Desalination of Red Sea water using both electrodialysis and reverse osmosis as complementary methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Abdel-Aal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Desalination process separates nearly salt free water from sea or brackish water. So, desalination process is becoming a solution for water scarcity all over the world. Two membrane methods of water desalination namely electrodialysis (ED and reverse osmosis (RO are used in this study as complementary methods. The results show that both ED and RO can be used as integrated system. This system is economic and cost effective compared with each individual method provided using the ED system before the RO. In this study, it was approved that seawater can be used as it is an electrolyte. TDS of Red Sea water was decreased from 42070 ppm to 2177 ppm achieving 94.8% removal efficiency using ED for half of its optimum time. Total removal efficiency of 99.4% can be obtained using the combined system of ED and RO.

  12. Performance Study of Reverse Osmosis Plants for Water Desalination in Bandar-Lengeh, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zirakrad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reverse osmosis (RO is best known for its use in desalination (removing the salt from seawater to get fresh water, but since the early 1970s it has also been used to purify fresh water for medical, industrial, and domestic applications. The aim of this research was the performance study of reverse osmosis plants for water desalination in Bandar-Lengeh, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study the concentrations of a number of physical, chemical and biological quality parameters in raw and treated water of Bandar-Lengeh water Desalination Plants were determined and Performance of RO plants for seawater and costal groundwater desalination were studied. There are two desalination plants in Bandar-Lengeh. Water from these plants are used for municipal supply. Total production capacity of the two RO desalination plants is 8000 m3/d. Results: The results of this study showed average values of TDS, Sodium, Chloride, Sulfate, diatomaceous and Nematodes in seawater were 37749 mg/l; 9715 mg/l; 22020 mg/l; 3067 mg/l; 24337 N/100ml and 5 N/100ml and in treated water were 1233 mg/l; 436 mg/l; 710 mg/l; 58 mg/l, 0 N/100ml and 0 N/100ml, respectively. Also the results showed average values of TDS, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate in coastal ground water were 37131 mg/l; 9303 mg/l; 21072 mg/l; 3745 mg/l; and in treated water were 687mg/l; 253 mg/l; 389 mg/l; 19 mg/l, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed the quality of feed water and pretreatment plays an extremely important role in operational problems such as fouling of RO systems.

  13. A Plan to Develop a Red Tide Warning System for Seawater Desalination Process Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Woo; Yun, Hong Sik

    2017-04-01

    The holt of the seawater desalination process for fifty five days due to the eight-month long red tide in 2008 in the Persian Gulf, the Middle East, had lost about 10 billion KRW. The POSCO Seawater Desalination facility, located in Gwangyang Bay Area in the Southern Sea, has produced 30,000 tons of fresh water per day since 2014. Since there has been an incident of red time in the area for three months in August, 2012, it is necessary to establish a warning system for red tide that threatens the stable operation of the seawater desalination facility. A red tide warning system can offer the seawater desalination facility manager customized services on red tide information and potential red tide inflow to the water intake. This study aimed to develop a red tide warning system in Gwangyang Bay Area by combining RS, modeling and monitoring technologies, which provides red tide forecasting information with which to effectively control the seawater desalination process. Using the proposed system, the seawater desalination facility manager can take phased measures to cope with the inflow of red tide. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was supported by a grant(16IFIP-C088924-03) from Industrial Facilities & Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport(MOLIT) of the Korea government and the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA). This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education(NRF-2014R1A1A2054975).

  14. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment for Membrane Distillation Desalination in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac; Turchi, Craig

    2016-10-01

    Substantial drought and declines in potable groundwater in the United States over the last decade has increased the demand for fresh water. Desalination of saline water such as brackish surface or groundwater, seawater, brines co-produced from oil and gas operations, industrial wastewater, blow-down water from power plant cooling towers, and agriculture drainage water can reduce the volume of water that requires disposal while providing a source of high-quality fresh water for industrial or commercial use. Membrane distillation (MD) is a developing technology that uses low-temperature thermal energy for desalination. Geothermal heat can be an ideal thermal-energy source for MD desalination technology, with a target range of $1/m3 to $2/m3 for desalinated water depending on the cost of heat. Three different cases were analyzed to estimate levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for integration of MD desalination technology with low-grade geothermal heat: (1) residual heat from injection brine at a geothermal power plant, (2) heat from existing underutilized low-temperature wells, and (3) drilling new wells for low-temperature resources. The Central and Western United States have important low-temperature (<90 degrees C) geothermal resource potential with wide geographic distribution, but these resources are highly underutilized because they are inefficient for power production. According to the USGS, there are 1,075 identified low temperature hydrothermal systems, 55 low temperature sedimentary systems and 248 identified medium to high temperature geothermal systems in the United States. The estimated total beneficial heat potential from identified low temperature hydrothermal geothermal systems and residual beneficial heat from medium to high temperature systems is estimated as 36,300 MWth, which could theoretically produce 1.4 to 7 million m3/day of potable water, depending on desalination efficiency.

  15. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment for Membrane Distillation Desalination in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac; Turchi, Craig

    2017-05-01

    Substantial drought and declines in potable groundwater in the United States over the last decade has increased the demand for fresh water. Desalination of saline water such as brackish surface or groundwater, seawater, brines co-produced from oil and gas operations, industrial wastewater, blow-down water from power plant cooling towers, and agriculture drainage water can reduce the volume of water that requires disposal while providing a source of high-quality fresh water for industrial or commercial use. Membrane distillation (MD) is a developing technology that uses low-temperature thermal energy for desalination. Geothermal heat can be an ideal thermal-energy source for MD desalination technology, with a target range of $1/m3 to $2/m3 for desalinated water depending on the cost of heat. Three different cases were analyzed to estimate levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for integration of MD desalination technology with low-grade geothermal heat: (1) residual heat from injection brine at a geothermal power plant, (2) heat from existing underutilized low-temperature wells, and (3) drilling new wells for low-temperature resources. The Central and Western United States have important low-temperature (<90 degrees C) geothermal resource potential with wide geographic distribution, but these resources are highly underutilized because they are inefficient for power production. According to the USGS, there are 1,075 identified low temperature hydrothermal systems, 55 low temperature sedimentary systems and 248 identified medium to high temperature geothermal systems in the United States. The estimated total beneficial heat potential from identified low temperature hydrothermal geothermal systems and residual beneficial heat from medium to high temperature systems is estimated as 36,300 MWth, which could theoretically produce 1.4 to 7 million m3/day of potable water, depending on desalination efficiency.

  16. Control of biofouling by xanthine oxidase on seawater reverse osmosis membranes from a desalination plant: enzyme production and screening of bacterial isolates from the full-scale plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, V; Skillman, L; Li, D; Xie, Z; Ho, G

    2017-07-01

    Control of biofouling on seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes is a major challenge as treatments can be expensive, damage the membrane material and often biocides do not remove the polymers in which bacteria are embedded. Biological control has been largely ignored for biofouling control. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of xanthine oxidase enzyme against complex fouling communities and then identify naturally occurring bacterial strains that produce the free radical generating enzyme. Initially, 64 bacterial strains were isolated from different locations of the Perth Seawater Desalination Plant. In our preceding study, 25/64 isolates were selected from the culture collection as models for biofouling studies, based on their prevalence in comparison to the genomic bacterial community. In this study, screening of these model strains was performed using a nitroblue tetrazolium assay in the presence of hypoxanthine as substrate. Enzyme activity was measured by absorbance. Nine of 25 strains tested positive for xanthine oxidase production, of which Exiguobacterium from sand filters and Microbacterium from RO membranes exhibited significant levels of enzyme production. Other genera that produced xanthine oxidase were Marinomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas and Staphylococcus. Strain variations were observed between members of the genera Microbacterium and Bacillus. Xanthine oxidase, an oxidoreductase enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species, is endogenously produced by many bacterial species. In this study, production of the enzyme by bacterial isolates from a full-scale desalination plant was investigated for potential use as biological control of membrane fouling in seawater desalination. We have previously demonstrated that free radicals generated by a commercially available xanthine oxidase in the presence of a hypoxanthine substrate, effectively dispersed biofilm polysaccharides on industrially fouled membranes

  17. Today's and future challenges in applications of renewable energy technologies for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, Mattheus F A

    2013-08-28

    Recent trends and challenges in applications of renewable energy technologies for water desalination are critically reviewed with an emphasis on environmental concerns and sustainable development. After providing an overview of wind, wave, geothermal, and solar renewable energy technologies for fresh water production, hybrid systems are assessed. Then scale-up and economic factors are considered. This is followed with a section on regulatory factors, environmental concerns, and globalization, and a final segment on selecting the most suitable renewable energy technology for conventional and emerging desalination processes. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Desalination of brackish water and concentration of industrial effluents by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schoeman

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodialysis (ED is, at present, used mainly for the desalination of brackish drinking-water. Brackish water with a high scaling potential can be successfully treated, using the electrodialysis reversal (EDR process without the addition of chemicals. The reliability of the ED process makes it very attractive for water treatment. Although used mainly for brackish water desalination, ED also has certain industrial applications. Plating wash waters, cooling tower recirculation water and glass etching effluents have been treated successfully with ED for water recovery and effluent volume reduction, while ED treatment of nickel plating wash waters is an established industrial process.

  19. First experiences with electrochemical in-situ desalination of bricks in a church vault construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Deterioration of surfaces on building constructions and especially historical constructions caused by presence of salts is a well known problem in Europe and on other continents as well, however there is still a lack of an efficient desalination method. Salt induced deterioration is especially....... In the present paper all necessary considerations were made and described prior to electrochemical in-situ desalination. Experiences in getting started with experiments on cultural heritage has been obtained, it needs some extra time and should therefore be considered as an extra step during the preparation...

  20. Desalination of a brick by application of an electric DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2009-01-01

    developing an electrochemical desalination method for brick masonry. Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale with one type of bricks that were contaminated with either NaCl or KCl through submersion in salt solutions prior to application of current. It was seen that NaCl was slower supplied...... to the brick during submersion and slower removed in the applied electric field than KCl. This indicates that the removal rate of chloride depends on the associated cation and this must be taken into account when desiding the duration of full scale actions. The electrochemical desalination was very efficient...

  1. Ruled-based control of off-grid desalination powered by renewable energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Serna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rule-based control is presented for desalination plants operating under variable, renewable power availability. This control algorithm is based on two sets of rules: first, a list that prioritizes the reverse osmosis (RO units of the plant is created, based on the current state and the expected water demand; secondly, the available energy is then dispatched to these units following this prioritized list. The selected strategy is tested on a specific case study: a reverse osmosis plant designed for the production of desalinated water powered by wind and wave energy. Simulation results illustrate the correct performance of the plant under this control.

  2. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Renewable energy-driven desalination technologies: A comprehensive review on challenges and potential applications of integrated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous improvements in conventional desalination technologies, its wide use is still limited due primarily to high energy requirements which are currently met with expensive fossil fuels. The use of alternative energy sources is essential to meet the growing demand for water desalination. In the last few decades a lot of effort has being directed in the use of different renewable energy (RE) sources to run desalination processes. However, the expansion of these efforts towards larger scale plants is hampered by several techno-economic challenges. Several medium-scale RE-driven desalination plants have been installed worldwide. Nevertheless, most of these plants are connected to the electrical grid to assure a continuous energy supply for stable operation. Furthermore, RE is mostly used to produce electric power which can be used to run desalination systems. This review paper focuses on an integrated approach in using RE-driven with an emphasis on solar and geothermal desalination technologies. Innovative and sustainable desalination processes which are suitable for integrated RE systems are presented. An assessment of the benefits of these technologies and their limitations are also discussed.

  4. A framework for investigating the interactions between climate, dust, solar power generation and water desalination processes in Desert Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, M. S.; Alqatari, S.; Ibrahim, H. D.; AlAloula, R. A.; Alrished, M.; AlSaati, A.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing water demand in Saudi Arabia due to rapid population growth has forced the rapid expansion of seawater desalination plants in order to meet both current and future freshwater needs. Saudi Arabia has a huge potential for solar energy, hence, solar-powered desalination plants provide an opportunity to sustainably address the freshwater demand in the kingdom without relying on fossil fuels energy. However, the desert climate of Saudi Arabia and limited access to the open ocean imposes several challenges to the expansion and sustainability of solar-powered desalination plants. For example, the frequent and intense dust storms that occur in the region can degrade solar panels and significantly reduce their efficiency. Moreover, the high salinity Arabian Gulf is both the source of feedwater and sink of hypersaline discharge (brine) for many plants in the east of the Kingdom, and the brine may alter the salinity, temperature and movement of the water thereby reducing the quality of the feedwater to the desalination plants. Here, we propose a framework to investigate the different interactions between climate, dust, solar power generation and seawater desalination in order to identify optimal parameters such as locations of solar panels and seawater intake for sustainable implementation of solar-powered desalination plants. This framework integrates several numerical models including regional climate, hydrodynamics, Photovoltaics (PV) and Photovoltaic-Reverse Osmosis (PV-RO) models that are used to investigate these interactions for a solar-powered desalination plant at AlKhafji on the Northeastern coast of Saudi Arabia.

  5. Recent developments in thermally-driven seawater desalination: Energy efficiency improvement by hybridization of the MED and AD cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    The energy, water and environment nexus is a crucial factor when considering the future development of desalination plants or industry in the water-stressed economies. New generation of desalination processes or plants has to meet the stringent environment discharge requirements and yet the industry remains highly energy efficient and sustainable when producing good potable water. Water sources, either brackish or seawater, have become more contaminated as feed while the demand for desalination capacities increase around the world. One immediate solution for energy efficiency improvement comes from the hybridization of the proven desalination processes to the newer processes of desalination: For example, the integration of the available thermally-driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as in increase in water production can be expected. The advent of MED with AD cycles, or simply called the MEDAD cycles, is one such example where seawater desalination can be pursued and operated in cogeneration with the electricity production plants: The hybrid desalination cycles utilize only the low exergy bled-steam at low temperatures, complemented with waste exhaust or renewable solar thermal heat at temperatures between 60 and 80. °C. In this paper, the authors have reported their pioneered research on aspects of AD and related hybrid MEDAD cycles, both at theoretical models and experimental pilots. Using the cogeneration of electricity and desalination concept, the authors examined the cost apportionment of fuel cost by the quality or exergy of working steam for such cogeneration configurations.

  6. Desalination by electrodialysis using a stack of charged hydrogels in a microfluidic platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; Haase, A. Sander; Benneker, Anne Maria; van den Berg, Albert; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    We show a new approach for desalinating water, using a stack of periodic hydrogel structures in a microfluidic platform. This technique utilizes alternating anion- (AEH) and cation-exchange hydrogels (CEH) locally fabricated in confined compartments by capillary line pinning. Parallel streams of

  7. CO2 Mineralization Using Brine Discharged from a Seawater Desalination Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hwan Bang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CO2 mineralization is a method of sequestering CO2 in the form of carbonated minerals. Brine discharged from seawater desalination is a potential source of Mg and Ca, which can precipitate CO2 as forms of their carbonate minerals. The concentration of Mg and Ca in brine are twice those in the seawater influent to desalination process. This study used a cycle for CO2 mineralization that involves an increase in the pH of the brine, followed by CO2 bubbling, and, finally, filtration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that non-synthesized brine from a seawater desalination plant has been used for CO2 mineralization. The resulting precipitates were CaCO3 (calcite, Mg5(CO34(OH2·4H2O (hydromagnesite, and NaCl (halite with these materials being identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and thermo gravimetric-differentail thermal Analysis (TGA-DTA. Despite the presence of Ca with Mg in brine being unfavorable for the precipitation of Mg carbonate, Mg reacted with CO2 to form hydromagnesite at a yield of 86%. Most of the Ca formed calcite, at 99% yield. This study empirically demonstrates that brine from seawater desalination plants can be used for CO2 mineralization.

  8. Comparison of environmental impact and energy efficiency of desalination processes by LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarnacki, K.M.; Melin, T.; Jansen, A.E.; Medevoort, J. van

    2011-01-01

    In this study two desalination technologies have been compared by means of LCA with the focus on energy supply with a variety of scenarios based on different assumptions. The studied technologies are reverse osmosis and the newly developed technology Memstill where electrical energy demand is

  9. Analysis the Existence of Heterotrophic Bacteria in Active Water Desalination Plant Output of Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseindoost Gh. MSc,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims One of the consequences of taking ground water into surface is changing its chemical quality, specially increasing the concentration of dissolved salts. This research was performed in order to analyze growth possibility of heterotrophic bacteria in the membrane of active desalination plants in Kashan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on water output of 20 active desalination plants in 2013 in Kashan City, Iran and 200 specimens of input and output water was randomly extracted from desalination plants. Awareness and education level of system operators, filter changing intervals, HPC of input and output water and chlorine concentration of input and output water were measured and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed statistically with SPSS 18 software using one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, McNemar and one-sample T tests. Findings There was a significant relation between the interval time and output HPC level of the plants (p0.05. The mean concentration of chlorine in samples of 20 desalination plants was 0.76±0.44mg/l in input water and 0.64±0.52mg/l in output water (p>0.05. Level of awareness had significant relation with the output water pollution with HPC (p0.05. Conclusion The mean level of HPC

  10. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Victor S T; She, Qianhong; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Tang, Chuyang Y; Fane, Anthony G; Krantz, William B

    2013-07-04

    This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%-20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination.

  11. Application of S-CO{sub 2} Cycle for Small Modular Reactor coupled with Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Woong; Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Korean small modular reactor, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor, 100MWe), is designed to achieve enhanced safety and improved economics through reliable passive safety systems, a system simplification and component modularization. SMART can generate electricity and provide water by seawater desalination. However, due to the desalination aspect of SMART, the total amount of net electricity generation is decreased from 100MWe to 90MWe. The authors suggest in this presentation that the reduction of electricity generation can be replenished by applying S-CO{sub 2} power cycle technology. The S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle, which is recently receiving significant attention as the next generation power conversion system, has some benefits such as high cycle efficiency, simple configuration, compactness and so on. In this study, the cycle performance analysis of the S-CO{sub 2} cycles for SMART with desalination system is conducted. The simple recuperated S-CO{sub 2} cycle is revised for coupling with desalination system. The three revised layout are proposed for the cycle performance comparison. In this results of the 3rd revised layout, the cycle efficiency reached 37.8%, which is higher than the efficiency of current SMART with the conventional power conversion system 30%.

  12. Effects of Bloom-Forming Algae on Fouling of Integrated Membrane Systems in Seawater Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, David Allen

    2009-01-01

    Combining low- and high-pressure membranes into an integrated membrane system is an effective treatment strategy for seawater desalination. Low-pressure microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes remove particulate material, colloids, and high-molecular-weight organics leaving a relatively foulant-free salt solution for treatment by…

  13. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Victor S.T.; She, Qianhong; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Fane, Anthony G.; Krantz, William B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%–20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination. PMID:24956940

  14. Membrane scaling and flux decline during fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis desalination of brackish groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Lotfi, Fezeh; Hong, Seungkwan; Shaffer, Devin L; Elimelech, Menachem; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2014-06-15

    Fertiliser-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination has been recently studied as one feasible application of forward osmosis (FO) for irrigation. In this study, the potential of membrane scaling in the FDFO process has been investigated during the desalination of brackish groundwater (BGW). While most fertilisers containing monovalent ions did not result in any scaling when used as an FO draw solution (DS), diammonium phosphate (DAP or (NH4)2HPO4) resulted in significant scaling, which contributed to severe flux decline. Membrane autopsy using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the reverse diffusion of DAP from the DS to the feed solution was primarily responsible for scale formation during the FDFO process. Physical cleaning of the membrane with deionised water at varying crossflow velocities was employed to evaluate the reversibility of membrane scaling and the extent of flux recovery. For the membrane scaled using DAP as DS, 80-90% of the original flux was recovered when the crossflow velocity for physical cleaning was the same as the crossflow velocity during FDFO desalination. However, when a higher crossflow velocity or Reynolds number was used, the flux was recovered almost completely, irrespective of the DS concentration used. This study underscores the importance of selecting a suitable fertiliser for FDFO desalination of brackish groundwater to avoid membrane scaling and severe flux decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A portable and high energy efficient desalination/purification system by ion concentration polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-10-01

    The shortage of fresh water is one of the acute challenges that the world is facing now and, thus, energy efficient desalination strategies can provide substantial answers for the water-crisis. Current desalination methods utilizing reverse-osmosis and electrodialysis mechanisms required high power consumptions/large-scale infrastructures which do not make them appropriate for disaster-stricken area or underdeveloped countries. In addition, groundwater contamination by heavy metal compounds, such as arsenic, cadmium and lead, poses significant public health challenges, especially in developing countries. Existing water purification strategies for heavy metal removal are not readily applicable due to technological, environmental, and economical barriers. This presentation elucidates a novel desalination/purification process, where a continuous contaminated stream is divided into filtered and concentrated stream by the ion concentration polarization. The key distinct feature is that both salts and larger particles (cells, viruses, and microorganisms) are pushed away from the membrane, in continuous flow operations, eliminating the membrane fouling that plagues the membrane filtration methods. The power consumption is less than 5Wh/L, comparable to any existing systems. The energy and removal efficiency, and low cost manufacturability hold strong promises for portable, self-powered water purification/desalination system that can have significant impacts on water shortage in developing/rural part of the world.

  16. Environmental assessment of desalination processes: Reverse osmosis and Memstill®

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarnacki, K.; Meneses, M.; Melin, T.; Medevoort, J. van; Jansen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Desalination becomes in many parts of the world and also in Europe a promising option to combat water stress in water scarce regions. However, also the question of sustainability and environmental impacts of this technology is in focus of numerous studies and discussions. Especially, the focus is

  17. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Theory of pH changes in water desalination by capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, J.E.; Keesman, K.J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2017-01-01

    In electrochemical water desalination, a large difference in pH can develop between feed and effluent water. These pH changes can affect the long-term stability of membranes and electrodes. Often Faradaic reactions are implicated to explain these pH changes. However, quantitative theory has not

  19. Functionalized thermo-responsive microgels for high performance forward osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Yusak; Yun, Seonho; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels were recently proposed for energy-saving forward osmosis (FO) process. However, their low water flux and dewatering ability for reuse make them less attractive for industrial desalination process. In this work, the co-polymer microgels of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid with different mixing ratios were synthesized using surfactant-free emulsion polymerization to produce submicron-size hydrogels with high surface area and fast swelling-deswelling response. The microgels were employed as draw agents in a laboratory scale FO desalination system. The microgel-based FO process performed a high water flux up to 23.8 LMH and high water recovery ability of 72.4%. In addition, we explored a new conductivity measurement method to online analyze water flux of the FO system. This on-line conductivity analysis approach appeared to be an accurate and efficient method for evaluating microgel-based FO desalination performance. Our experimental data revealed that the stimuli-responsive microgel was an efficient draw agent for FO desalination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tunable, Strain-Controlled Nanoporous MoS₂ Filter for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Yang, Yanmei; Weber, Jeffrey K; Zhang, Gang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-02-23

    The deteriorating state of global fresh water resources represents one of the most serious challenges that scientists and policymakers currently face. Desalination technologies, which are designed to extract potable water from the planet's bountiful stores of seawater, could serve to alleviate much of the stress that presently plagues fresh water supplies. In recent decades, desalination methods have improved via water-filtering architectures based on nanoporous graphene filters and artificial membranes integrated with biological water channels. Here, we report the auspicious performance (in simulations) of an alternative nanoporous desalination filter constructed from a MoS2 nanosheet. In striking contrast to graphene-based filters, we find that the "open" and "closed" states of the MoS2 filter can be regulated by the introduction of mechanical strain, yielding a highly tunable nanopore interface. By applying lateral strain to the MoS2 filter in our simulations, we see that the transition point between "open" and "closed" states occurs under tension that induces about 6% cross-sectional expansion in the membrane (6% strain); the open state of the MoS2 filter demonstrates high water transparency and a strong salt filtering capability even under 12% strain. Our results thus demonstrate the promise of a controllable nanoporous MoS2 desalination filter, wherein the morphology and size of the central nanopore can be precisely regulated by tensile strain. These findings support the design and proliferation of tunable nanodevices for filtration and other applications.

  1. Theory of pH changes in water desalination by capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, J E; Keesman, K J; Biesheuvel, P M; van der Wal, A

    2017-08-01

    In electrochemical water desalination, a large difference in pH can develop between feed and effluent water. These pH changes can affect the long-term stability of membranes and electrodes. Often Faradaic reactions are implicated to explain these pH changes. However, quantitative theory has not been developed yet to underpin these considerations. We develop a theory for electrochemical water desalination which includes not only Faradaic reactions but also the fact that all ions in the water have different mobilities (diffusion coefficients). We quantify the latter effect by microscopic physics-based modeling of pH changes in Membrane Capacitive Deionization (MCDI), a water desalination technology employing porous carbon electrodes and ion-exchange membranes. We derive a dynamic model and include the following phenomena: I) different mobilities of various ions, combined with acid-base equilibrium reactions; II) chemical surface charge groups in the micropores of the porous carbon electrodes, where electrical double layers are formed; and III) Faradaic reactions in the micropores. The theory predicts small pH changes during desalination cycles in MCDI if we only consider phenomena I) and II), but predicts that these pH changes can be much stronger if we consider phenomenon III) as well, which is in line with earlier statements in the literature on the relevance of Faradaic reactions to explain pH fluctuations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-performance sulfosuccinic acid cross-linked PVA composite pervaporation membrane for desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Liang, Bin; Qu, Ting; Cao, Bing; Li, Pei

    2017-10-25

    Pervaperation (PV), as a novel technology, has shown great promise in fresh water production from salty water. However, the low water flux of the present membranes hinders their practical applications. Here, a new type of PV composite membrane, consisting of a selective skin layer fabricated from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) cross-linked by sulfosuccinic acid and a porous support layer using a commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ultrafiltration membrane, was developed for applications in desalination. The separation performance of S-PVA/PAN composite PV membranes with different S-PVA layer thicknesses was tested in detail. The best result showed a water flux of 27.9 kg m-2 h-1 with a salt rejection of 99.8%, which was obtained at a vacuum of 100 Pa and temperature of 70°C when separating a 35,000 ppm NaCl solution. The S-PVA/PAN composite membranes could also be used for the desalination of high-concentration (100,000 ppm) NaCl solutions with a water flux of 11.2 kg m-2 h-1 with a salt rejection of 99.8%. Moreover, a stable desalination performance was obtained for a 120 h operation time. This study shows the possibility of using PV in desalination applications for seawater, brackish water and reverse osmosis concentrate treatment.

  3. Enhancing organic matter removal in desalination pretreatment systems by application of dissolved air flotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shutova, Yulia; Karna, Barun Lal; Hambly, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems caused by organic matter (OM) remains a significant operational issue during desalination. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) has recently received attention as a pre-treatment option for seawater OM removal; however, only a limited number of studies have...

  4. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic...

  5. Graphene-based Recyclable Photo-Absorbers for High-Efficiency Seawater Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangqing; Ou, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wu, Hui

    2016-04-13

    Today's scientific advances in water desalination dramatically increase our ability to transform seawater into fresh water. As an important source of renewable energy, solar power holds great potential to drive the desalination of seawater. Previously, solar assisted evaporation systems usually relied on highly concentrated sunlight or were not suitable to treat seawater or wastewater, severely limiting the large scale application of solar evaporation technology. Thus, a new strategy is urgently required in order to overcome these problems. In this study, we developed a solar thermal evaporation system based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) decorated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Because this material can absorb over 95% of sunlight, we achieved high evaporation efficiency up to 70% under only 1 kW m(-2) irradiation. Moreover, it could be separated from seawater under the action of magnetic force by decorated with MNPs. Thus, this system provides an advantage of recyclability, which can significantly reduce the material consumptions. Additionally, by using photoabsorbing bulk or layer materials, the deposition of solutes offen occurs in pores of materials during seawater desalination, leading to the decrease of efficiency. However, this problem can be easily solved by using MNPs, which suggests this system can be used in not only pure water system but also high-salinity wastewater system. This study shows good prospects of graphene-based materials for seawater desalination and high-salinity wastewater treatment.

  6. Improving bioelectricity generation and COD removal of sewage sludge in microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Atieh; Yousefi Kebria, Daryoush; Darzi, Ghasem Najafpour

    2017-05-11

    Improving wastewater treatment process and water desalination are two important solutions for increasing the available supply of fresh water. Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) with common electrolytes display relatively low organic matter removal and high cost. In this study, sewage sludge was used as the substrate in the Microbial desalination cell (MDC) under three different initial salt concentrations (5, 20 and 35 g.L-1) and the maximum salt removal rates of 50.6%, 64% and 69.6% were obtained under batch condition, respectively. The MDC also produced the maximum power density of 47.1 W m-3 and the averaged chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 58.2 ± 0.89% when the initial COD was 6610 ± 83 mg L-1. Employing treated sludge as catholyte enhanced COD removal and power density to 87.3% and 54.4 W m-3, respectively, with counterbalancing pH variation in treated effluent. These promising results showed, for the first time, that the excess sewage sludge obtained from biological wastewater treatment plants could be successfully used as anolyte and catholyte in MDC, achieving organic matter biodegradation along with salt removal and energy production. In addition, using treated sludge as catholyte will improve the performance of MDC and introduce a more effective method for both sludge treatment and desalination.

  7. Investigating the Potential of Single-Walled Aluminosilicate Nanotubes in Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Kai-Hsin; Kang, Dun-Yen; Lin, Li-Chiang

    2017-01-18

    Water shortage has become a critical issue. To facilitate the large-scale deployment of reverse-osmosis water desalination to produce fresh water, discovering novel membranes is essential. Here, we computationally demonstrate the great potential of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (AlSiNTs), materials that can be synthesized through scalable methods, in desalination. State-of-the-art molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the desalination performance and structure-performance relationship of AlSiNTs. Free energy profiles, passage time distribution, and water density map were also analyzed to further understand the dependence of transport properties on diameter and water dynamics in the nanotubes. AlSiNTs with an inner diameter of 0.86 nm were found to fully reject NaCl ions while allowing orders of magnitude higher water fluxes compared to currently available reverse osmosis membranes, providing opportunities in water desalination. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Review of nuclear electricity generation and desalination plants and evaluation of SMART application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Ok; Kang, Hyung Suk; Cho, Bong Hyun; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Lee, Young Jin; Kim, Joo Pyung; Lee, Doo Jeong; Chang, Moon Hee

    1998-03-01

    KAERI are developing a new advanced integral reactor named SMART for dual application purpose of the electric power generation and seawater desalination. This report are describing the general desalting methods with its technology development and the coupling schemes between electricity generation system and desalting system. Though MSF takes the most part of currently operating seawater desalination plants, MED and RO has been preferred in the past decade. MED has a advantage over MSF with the view to investment costs and energy efficiency. The coupling between electricity generation system and desalination system can be realized by using one of back pressure cycle, extraction cycle, and multi-shaft cycle. New design and operating strategy has to be established for various environment and load conditions. To evaluate the candidate desalination systems of SMART and the coupling method of it with other secondary systems, the desalted water and electricity were calculated through the several options. The result shows that back pressure cycle is preferred at the high water/power ratio and extraction cycle at the low value. If energy efficiency are only considered, RO will be best choice. (author). 17 refs., 12 tabs., 31 figs

  9. Water desalination by membrane technology (RO in southern Iran (Jask city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Yousefi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reverse Osmosis (RO is an increasingly common method of desalination. A full scale water desalination system by membrane technology (RO evaluated in a southern city (Jask in Iran. Methods: First, data collection on water supply and network were performed. Analysis on most of the water quality parameters (Turbidity, pH, EC, Cl-, Na+, Alkalinity, Ca, Na, K, No3, No2, Fe, Mg, Mn, NH4, Po4, HCo3-, So42- etc. was performed as standard methods. The membranes of the RO in the desalination system were Poly-Amid (CSM type. Results: The efficiency of the RO water desalination system was 94.16, 84.12, 92.00, and 96.17% respectively for Turbidity, Na+, Mg2+, So42-. The result shows a significant difference between influent and effluent water of the RO system. The produced water is in agreement with national standard of drinking water. Furthermore, water exited from the RO system for TDS, Ca+2, and Mg2+ was less than minimum limit of the guideline. Conclusion: The quality parameters of the water resource (EC, TDS, Cl-, Na+ etc. were higher than Iranian drinking water standards. The RO technology modified the quality of the water parameters.

  10. Supercritical water desalination (SCWD) : process development, design and pilot plant validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odu, Samuel Obarinu

    2017-01-01

    Conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO), multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) and electro dialysis (ED) have a major drawback; the production of a liquid waste stream with an increased salinity (compared to the feed) that has to be disposed of. The treatment of this waste

  11. Risk analysis of the sea desalination plant at the 5th refinery of south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... due to water flow shortage. Based on the HAZOP study results expressed here, the start-up procedure was also modified and problems associated with design, several mechanical parts and pipe lines installed were identified and adjusted. Keywords: HAZOP; hazard identity; sea water desalination unit; risk; gas refinery.

  12. Memstill® - Low cost membrane distillation technology for seawater desalination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanemaaijer, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Despite widespread research and development efforts during the last 25 years, membrane distillation still is not an accepted process for seawater desalination. A consortium of nine parties is presently developing a modified air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) process, aiming at presenting a

  13. Optimum Peak Current Hysteresis Control for Energy Recovering Converter in CDI Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto M. Pernía

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive De-Ionization (CDI is becoming a suitable alternative for desalination. The low cost of the materials required and its reduced energy consumption can be critical factors for developing this technique. CDI technology does not require a high-pressure system and the energy storage capability of CDI cells allows it to be reused in other CDI cells, thus minimizing consumption. The goal of the power stage responsible of the energy recovery is transferring the stored energy from one cell to another with the maximum possible efficiency, thus allowing the desalination process to continue. Assuming hysteresis current control is implemented at the DC/DC (direct current converter, this paper aims to determine the optimum peak current through the inductor in each switching period with a view to maximizing overall efficiency. The geometrical parameters of the desalination cell and the NaCl concentration modify the cell electrical properties. The peak current control of the power stage should be adapted to the cell characteristics so that the efficiency behavior of the whole CDI system can be improved. The mathematical model defined in this paper allows the CDI plant automation using the peak inductor current as control variable, adapting its value to the salt concentration during the desalination process.

  14. Electrochemical desalination of salt infected limestone masonry of a historic warehouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    plant for electrochemical desalination, a method where the driving force is an applied electrical potential. The test plant covered about 25 m2 surface of a limestone wall of a historic warehouse. It consisted of 72 electrode units which were placed in two rows; the one above the other and the mutual...

  15. Desalination of historic masonry : From pre-investigation to after-care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, R.P.J.; Lubelli, B.

    2010-01-01

    Salt crystallization constitutes one of the most widespread decay mechanisms affecting historic buildings. Desalination is a conservation treatment of growing importance in the case of historic masonry. This paper describes the approach from pre-investigation and treatment to follow-up care as the

  16. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Krantz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%–20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination.

  17. Direct prediction of the desalination performance of porous carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Borchardt, D.; Oschatz, M.; Bryjak, M.; Atchison, J.S.; Keesman, K.J.; Kaskel, S.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Presser, V.

    2013-01-01

    Desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging technology for the energy- and cost-efficient removal of ions from water by electrosorption in charged porous carbon electrodes. A variety of carbon materials, including activated carbons, templated carbons, carbon aerogels, and carbon

  18. Membrane for distillation including nanostructures, methods of making membranes, and methods of desalination and separation

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-21

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure provide membranes, methods of making the membrane, systems including the membrane, methods of separation, methods of desalination, and the like.

  19. Review on the science and technology of water desalination by capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Zhao, R.; Wal, van der A.; Presser, V.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon electrodes have significant potential for energy-efficient water desalination using a promising technology called Capacitive Deionization (CDI). In CDI, salt ions are removed from brackish water upon applying an electrical voltage difference between two porous electrodes, in which the

  20. Carbon Dioxide Nucleation as a Novel Cleaning Method for Sodium Alginate Fouling Removal from Reverse Osmosis Membranes desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Alnajjar, Heba

    2017-05-01

    The use of Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes have been significantly increasing in water desalination, and the main operational obstacle in RO desalination plants is membrane fouling. Among other solutes, dissolved biopolymers, such as polysaccharides can lead to severe membrane fouling especially with the addition of calcium ions because of the complexation formation between the surface of membrane and foulants materials. However, this complexation can also take place in the feed bulk, resulting in foulants aggregates formation. Although there are some physical techniques that can maintain the membrane performance without reducing its lifetime, only chemical cleanings are still commonly used in RO plants. In this study, a novel cleaning method is proposed to restore the membrane performance by removing the deposited foulants without reducing the membrane lifetime. The cleaning method is based on using water saturated with dissolved CO2 gas, and its principle is based on producing spontaneous CO2 bubbles due to local pressure difference leading to nucleation of bubbles throughout the membrane surface, especially at nucleation sites, which improve the cleaning efficiency. Alginic acid sodium salt was used as a model of polysaccharides foulants in presence of different concentrations of NaCl and calcium ions aiming to enhance membrane fouling, and then CO2 cleaning solution efficiency, in terms flux recovery (FR), was tested under different operating conditions and compared to other cleaning methods. Average FR of 20%±3, 25%±3 and 80%±3 for MilliQ water, a cleaning solution at pH4, and CO2 solution at 6 bar, 0.17 m/s, and 23 ̊C ±0.2 for 6 minutes were obtained, respectively. The efficiency of this novel cleaning method was also compared to direct osmosis overnight, and the average flux was comparable (about 60%±3), though that the cleaning time was significantly different. Various calcium concentrations (0-10 mM) were added in the alginate solution to study the

  1. A Novel Method for Enhancement of System Regulating Capacity by using Seawater Desalination Plant in a Small Island Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Toru; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Imanaka, Masaki; Onda, Yusuke; Baba, Jumpei; Kuniba, Yusuke; Higa, Naoto; Asato, Sadao

    Recently, more and more unstable renewable energy based generations such as photovoltaic generations and wind turbine generations have been installed into power systems. This paper focuses a small island power system operation and proposes a novel control method of power consumption of a seawater desalination plant as a controllable load in order to secure more regulating capacity of the power system considering the customer's convenience of the desalination plant. Through a frequency analysis simulation, fuel cost can be reduced and system frequency fluctuation can be suppressed for the proposed control method of seawater desalination plant.

  2. Predictive Control Applied to a Solar Desalination Plant Connected to a Greenhouse with Daily Variation of Irrigation Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Roca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The water deficit in the Mediterranean area is a known matter severely affecting agriculture. One way to avoid the aquifers’ exploitation is to supply water to crops by using thermal desalination processes. Moreover, in order to guarantee long-term sustainability, the required thermal energy for the desalination process can be provided by solar energy. This paper shows simulations for a case study in which a solar multi-effect distillation plant produces water for irrigation purposes. Detailed models of the involved systems are the base of a predictive controller to operate the desalination plant and fulfil the water demanded by the crops.

  3. Harmful algae and their potential impacts on desalination operations off southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, David A; Garneau, Marie-Eve; Seubert, Erica; Howard, Meredith D A; Darjany, Lindsay; Schnetzer, Astrid; Cetinić, Ivona; Filteau, Gerry; Lauri, Phil; Jones, Burton; Trussell, Shane

    2010-01-01

    Seawater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is a reliable method for augmenting drinking water supplies. In recent years, the number and size of these water projects have increased dramatically. As freshwater resources become limited due to global climate change, rising demand, and exhausted local water supplies, seawater desalination will play an important role in the world's future water supply, reaching far beyond its deep roots in the Middle East. Emerging contaminants have been widely discussed with respect to wastewater and freshwater sources, but also must be considered for seawater desalination facilities to ensure the long-term safety and suitability of this emerging water supply. Harmful algal blooms, frequently referred to as 'red tides' due to their vibrant colors, are a concern for desalination plants due to the high biomass of microalgae present in ocean waters during these events, and a variety of substances that some of these algae produce. These compounds range from noxious substances to powerful neurotoxins that constitute significant public health risks if they are not effectively and completely removed by the RO membranes. Algal blooms can cause significant operational issues that result in increased chemical consumption, increased membrane fouling rates, and in extreme cases, a plant to be taken off-line. Early algal bloom detection by desalination facilities is essential so that operational adjustments can be made to ensure that production capacity remains unaffected. This review identifies the toxic substances, their known producers, and our present state of knowledge regarding the causes of toxic episodes, with a special focus on the Southern California Bight. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel Microbial Electrochemical Technologies and Microorganisms for Power Generation and Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.

    2014-12-01

    Global increases in water demand and decreases in both the quantity and quality of fresh water resources have served as the major driving forces to develop sustainable use of water resources. One viable alternative is to explore non-traditional (impaired quality) water sources such as wastewater and seawater. The current paradigm for wastewater treatment is based on technologies that are energy intensive and fail to recover the potential resources (water and energy) in wastewater. Also, conventional desalination technologies like reverse osmosis (RO) are energy intensive. Therefore, there is a need for the development of sustainable wastewater treatment and desalination technologies for practical applications. Processes based on microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs), microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) and microbial desalination cells (MDCs) hold promise for the treatment of wastewater with recovery of the inherent energy, and MDCs could be used for both desalination of seawater and energy recovery. METs use anaerobic bacteria, referred to as exoelectrogens, that are capable of transferring electrons exogenously to convert soluble organic matter present in the wastewater directly into an electrical current to produce electrical power (MFC and MDC) or biogas (MEC). In my dissertation, I investigated the three types of METs mentioned above to: 1) have a better insight on the effect of 4 oxygen intrusion on the microbial community structure and performance of air-cathode MFCs; 2) improve the desalination efficiency of air-cathode MDCs using ion exchange resins (IXRs); and 3) enrich for extremophilic exoelectrogens from the Red Sea brine pool using MECs. The findings from these studies can shape further research aimed at developing more efficient air-cathode MFCs for practical applications, a more efficient integrated IXRMDC configuration that can be used as a pre-treatment to RO, and exploring extreme environments as a

  5. Integrating desalination to reservoir operation to increase redundancy for more secure water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Rashi; Ng, Tze Ling

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of integrating desalination to existing reservoir systems to mitigate supply uncertainty. Desalinated seawater and wastewater are relatively reliable but expensive. Water from natural resources like reservoirs is generally cheaper but climate sensitive. We propose combining the operation of a reservoir and seawater and wastewater desalination plants for an overall system that is less vulnerable to scarcity and uncertainty, while constraining total cost. The joint system is modeled as a multiobjective optimization problem with the double objectives of minimizing risk and vulnerability, subject to a minimum limit on resilience. The joint model is applied to two cases, one based on the climate and demands of a location in India and the other of a location in California. The results for the Indian case indicate that it is possible for the joint system to reduce risk and vulnerability to zero given a budget increase of 20-120% under current climate conditions and 30-150% under projected future conditions. For the Californian case, this would require budget increases of 20-80% and 30-140% under current and future conditions, respectively. Further, our analysis shows a two-way interaction between the reservoir and desalination plants where the optimal operation of the former is just as much affected by the latter as the latter by the former. This highlights the importance of an integrated management approach. This study contributes to a greater quantitative understanding of desalination as a redundancy measure for adapting water supply infrastructures for a future of greater scarcity and uncertainty.

  6. Managed Aquifer Recharge of Surplus Desalinated Seawater: a MARSOL Case Study from Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Daniel; Ganot, Yonatan; Russak, Ammos; Nitzan, Ido; Bernstein, Anat; Katz, Yoram; Guttman, Yossi

    2015-04-01

    MARSOL is an EU-funded project on demonstrating managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a solution to water scarcity and drought. Among other activities in MARSOL, 7 demo-sites in Mediterranean countries were chosen for research and demonstration of different types of MAR (e.g. soil aquifer treatment, river infiltration basins etc.). One of these demo sites is the Menashe infiltration basin (Israel) in which MAR of surplus desalinated sea water is demonstrated, monitored and investigated in the last year. Different operational circumstances create periods in which water from the Hadera seawater desalination plant cannot be distributed through the national water carrier to consumers. A solution was set in MAR of this water through sandy infiltration ponds to the Israeli coastal aquifer which is consisted mainly from calcareous sandstone. Hydrological and geochemical aspects are of interest in this MAR operation due to the high discharge rates of low-salinity chlorinated water to the infiltration pond. Monitoring of operational events, laboratory experiments, controlled field-experiments and modelling are carried out aiming at clarifying the following issues: infiltration rates - spatial and temporal variability; recharge and withdrawal operation; disinfection by-products due to infiltration of chlorinated water; changes in hydraulic properties due to dissolution/precipitation processes; and using MAR of desalinated water as a remineralization treatment. We will present some results concerning these aspects concentrating on the last one. Observations show that desalinated water dissolve carbonates relatively fast in the unsaturated zone and shallow groundwater of the infiltration site. This process which increases significantly the water's alkalinity also enriches the water with magnesium which its deficiency in desalinated seawater is an unsolved concern. Further increase in calcium and magnesium concentration requires flow in the aquifer through the calcareous

  7. The techno-economic optimization of a 100MWe CSP-desalination plant in Arandis, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Ernest P.; Hoffmann, Jaap E.

    2017-06-01

    Energy is a key factor responsible for a country's economic growth and prosperity. It is closely related to the main global challenges namely: poverty mitigation, global environmental change and food and water security [1.]. Concentrating solar power (CSP) is steadily gaining more market acceptance as the cost of electricity from CSP power plants progressively declines. The cogeneration of electricity and water is an attractive prospect for future CSP developments as the simultaneous production of power and potable water can have positive economic implications towards increasing the feasibility of CSP plant developments [2.]. The highest concentrations of direct normal irradiation are located relatively close to Western coastal and Middle-Eastern North-African regions. It is for this reason worthwhile investigating the possibility of CSP-desalination (CSP+D) plants as a future sustainable method for providing both electricity and water with significantly reduced carbon emissions and potential cost reductions. This study investigates the techno-economic feasibility of integrating a low-temperature thermal desalination plant to serve as the condenser as opposed to a conventional dry-cooled CSP plant in Arandis, Namibia. It outlines the possible benefits of the integration CSP+D in terms of overall cost of water and electricity. The high capital costs of thermal desalination heat exchangers as well as the pumping of seawater far inland is the most significant barrier in making this approach competitive against more conventional desalination methods such as reverse osmosis. The compromise between the lowest levelized cost of electricity and water depends on the sizing and the top brine temperature of the desalination plant.

  8. Development of a Desalination Membrane Bioinspired by Mangrove Roots for Spontaneous Filtration of Sodium Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lim, Jae Hong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-12-27

    The shortage of available fresh water is one of the global issues presently faced by humanity. To determine a solution to this problem, the survival strategies of plants have been examined. In this study, a nature-inspired membrane with a highly charged surface is proposed as an effective membrane for the filtration of saline water. To mimic the desalination characteristics of mangrove roots, a macroporous membrane based on polyethylene terephthalate is treated with polyelectrolytes using a layer-by-layer deposition method. The fabricated membrane surface has a highly negative charged ζ-potential value of -97.5 ± 4.3 mV, similar to that of the first layer of mangrove roots. Desalination of saline water using this membrane shows a high salt retention rate of 96.5%. The highly charged surface of the membrane may induce a relatively thick and stable ion depletion zone in front of the membrane. As a result, most co-ions are repelled from the membrane surface, and counterions are also rejected by virtue of their electroneutrality. The water permeability is found to be 7.60-7.69 L/m2·h, which is 10 times higher than that of the reverse osmosis desalination method. This nature-inspired filtration membrane exhibits steady desalination performance over 72 h of operation, successfully demonstrating the stable filtration of saline water. This nature-inspired membrane is applicable to the design of a small-scale, portable, and energy-free desalination device for use in third-world countries or small villages.

  9. Desalinated and blended water in Saudi Arabia: human exposure and risk analysis from disinfection byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Imran Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia produces the largest amount of desalinated water as a single country. The desalinated water is typically blended with treated groundwater, pH adjusted and chlorinated prior to supply to the communities. The desalinated seawater and/or blended water contains various types of disinfection byproducts (DBPs, some of which may induce cancer risks to human through lifetime exposure. In this study, occurrences of trihalomethanes (THMs in desalinated and blended water in Saudi Arabia were investigated and their exposure and risks were predicted. The chronic daily intakes of CHCl3, BDCM, DBCM and CHBr3 were estimated to be 8.38×10−5, 7.57×10−5, 2.54×10−5 and 4.32×10−4 mg/kg-day respectively. The overall cancer risk was 1.78×10−5 with the range of 7.40×10−7 – 9.26×10−5 and the average hazard index was 3.49×10−2 with the range of 1.20×10−3 – 2.34×10−1. The loss of disability adjusted life years (DALY were estimated to be 25.1 per year and the average cancer risk had 8.48×10−7 DALY per person per year. The financial burden was estimated to be US$2.72 million with the range of US$2.52–2.91 million. The findings may assist in better understanding and reducing cancer risks from DBPs in desalinated and blended water.

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  11. Bioelectrochemical systems-driven directional ion transport enables low-energy water desalination, pollutant removal, and resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are integrated water treatment technologies that generate electricity using organic matter in wastewater. In situ use of bioelectricity can direct the migration of ionic substances in a BES, thereby enabling water desalination, resource recovery, and valuable substance production. Recently, much attention has been placed on the microbial desalination cells in BESs to drive water desalination, and various configurations have optimized electricity generation and desalination performance and also coupled hydrogen production, heavy metal reduction, and other reactions. In addition, directional transport of other types of charged ions can remediate polluted groundwater, recover nutrient, and produce valuable substances. To better promote the practical application, the use of BESs as directional drivers of ionic substances requires further optimization to improve energy use efficiency and treatment efficacy. This article reviews existing researches on BES-driven directional ion transport to treat wastewater and identifies a few key factors involved in efficiency optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine conc...

  13. Co-generation system with a linear concentrator and thermoelectric elements; Senkei shukokei to netsuden henkan soshi wo mochiita netsuden heikyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachi, E.; Suzuki, A.; Fujibayashi, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The co-generation system using a solar cell has the disadvantage that the performance of a cell element deteriorates when the temperature rises. Therefore, the co-generation system in which a BiTe thermoelectric element and linear Fresnel lens are used was constructed. Moreover, the basic characteristics were confirmed and the characteristics of a system model were analyzed. A thermoelectric element area must be reduced to improve the generating efficiency. The generating efficiency depends on the temperature difference between thermoelectric elements rather than the thermoelectric element area. As the thermoelectric area gets lower, the generating efficiency will get higher. This inclination is advantageous on the economic side. The generating efficiency becomes low during operation at high temperature. As a result, the temperature supplied to the thermal load is set to the lower position (100 to 200{degree}C) so as to advance the validity of the system. Even if the co-generation temperature is low, a heat supply capability of 150{degree}C is sufficient for an industrial heat supply system because it holds a large majority of the consumption demand for the whole industry. 3 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A Comparison of Optimal Operation of a Residential Fuel Cell Co-Generation System Using Clustered Demand Patterns Based on Kullback-Leibler Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Hasizume

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating residential energy systems like co-generation systems, hot water and electricity demand profiles are critical. In this paper, the authors aim to extract basic time-series demand patterns from two kinds of measured demand (electricity and domestic hot water, and also aim to reveal effective demand patterns for primary energy saving. Time-series demand data are categorized with a hierarchical clustering method using a statistical pseudo-distance, which is represented by the generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence of two Gaussian mixture distributions. The classified demand patterns are built using hierarchical clustering and then a comparison is made between the optimal operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell co-generation system and the operation of a reference system (a conventional combination of a condensing gas boiler and electricity purchased from the grid using the appropriately built demand profiles. Our results show that basic demand patterns are extracted by the proposed method, and the heat-to-power ratio of demand, the amount of daily demand, and demand patterns affect the primary energy saving of the co-generation system.

  15. The use of simulated whole effluents in toxicity assessments: A review of case studies from reverse osmosis desalination plants

    OpenAIRE

    Falkenberg, L. J.; Styan, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is an increasingly common means to meet the demand for freshwater. Resulting wastewater discharges can, however, impact biota of the surrounding environment. Concern exists that interactive effects specific to the outputs of each desalination plant may result in unique impacts difficult to predict by studying existing plants or assessing the effects of individual chemicals found in waste streams. Given this, we highlight an alternative approach to assess potential toxici...

  16. An investigation of desalination by nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and integrated (hybrid NF/RO) membranes employed in brackish water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Talaeipour, M.; J.Nouri; Hassani, A. H.; A. H. Mahvi

    2017-01-01

    Background As an appropriate tool, membrane process is used for desalination of brackish water, in the production of drinking water. The present study aims to investigate desalination processes of brackish water of Qom Province in Iran. Methods This study was carried out at the central laboratory of Water and Wastewater Company of the studied area. To this aim, membrane processes, including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), separately and also their hybrid process were applied. Mo...

  17. Volume 1: Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheaffer, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dollinger, Caroline [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sarker, Prateeti [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cresko, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal to reduce the cost of seawater desalination systems to $0.50/ cubic meter (m3) through the development of technology pathways to reduce energy, capital, operating, soft, and system integration costs.1 In support of this goal and to evaluate the technology pathways to lower the energy and carbon intensity of desalination while also reducing the total water cost, DOE is undertaking a comprehensive study of the energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for desalination technologies and systems. This study is being undertaken in two phases. Phase 1, Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems, collected the background information that will underpin Phase 2, the Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems. This report (Volume 1) summarizes the results from Phase 1. The results from Phase 2 will be summarized in Volume 2: Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems (Volume 2). The analysis effort for Phase 2 will utilize similar methods as other industry-specific Energy Bandwidth Studies developed by DOE,2 which has provided a framework to evaluate and compare energy savings potentials within and across manufacturing sectors at the macroscale. Volume 2 will assess the current state of desalination energy intensity and reduction potential through the use of advanced and emerging technologies. For the purpose of both phases of study, energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy required per unit of product water output (for example, kilowatt-hours per cubic meter of water produced). These studies will expand the scope of previous sectorial bandwidth studies by also evaluating CO2 intensity and reduction opportunities and informing a techno-economic analysis of desalination systems. Volume 2 is expected to be completed in 2017.

  18. Bismuth as a New Chloride-Storage Electrode Enabling the Construction of a Practical High Capacity Desalination Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Do-Hwan; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2017-08-16

    Materials that can selectively store Na and Cl ions in the bulk of their structures and release these ions with good cycle stability can enable the construction of a high capacity, rechargeable desalination cell for use in seawater desalination. In this study, the ability of a nanocrystalline Bi foam electrode to serve as an efficient and high capacity Cl-storage electrode using its conversion to BiOCl was investigated. When Bi as a Cl-storage electrode was coupled with NaTi2(PO4)3 as a Na-storage electrode, a new type of rechargeable desalination cell, which is charged during desalination and discharged during salination, was constructed. The resulting Bi-NaTi2(PO4)3 cell was tested under various salination and desalination conditions to investigate advantages and potential limitations of using Bi as a Cl-storage electrode. Slow Cl- release kinetics of BiOCl in neutral conditions and an imbalance in Cl and Na storage (i.e., Cl storage requires three electrons/Cl, while Na storage requires one electron/Na) were identified as possible drawbacks, but strategies to address these issues were developed. On the basis of these investigations, optimum desalination and salination conditions were identified where the Bi/NaTi2(PO4)3 cell achieved a desalination/salination cycle at ±1 mA cm-2 with a net potential input of only 0.20 V. The kinetics of Cl- release from BiOCl was significantly improved by the use of an acidic solution, and therefore, a divided cell was used for the salination process. We believe that with further optimizations the Bi/BiOCl electrode will enable efficient and practical desalination applications.

  19. Reserve osmosis and its application in water desalination; Osmosis inversa y su aplicacion en la desalacion de las aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Aplicada, EPS Universidad Murcia, Cartagena (Spain); Almela, L. [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia (Spain); Huete, J.

    1996-08-01

    The limited availability of water resources raises two fundamental issues: those of restructuring traditional irrigated land and scarching for new resources to alleviate water shortage. Among the diverse methods that can be utilized for the desalination of water, reverse osmosis is now of great importance. One the advantages of this techniques is that it can be applied equally to big installations as to smaller rural holdings. This paper briefly describes the different methods of desalination, placing emphasis on reverse osmosis. (Author) 8 refs.

  20. Impacts of desalination plant discharges on the marine environment: A critical review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Johnston, Emma L; Knott, Nathan A

    2010-10-01

    Desalination of seawater is an increasingly common means by which nations satisfy demand for water. Desalination has a long history in the Middle East and Mediterranean, but expanding capacities can be found in the United States, Europe and Australia. There is therefore increasing global interest in understanding the environmental impacts of desalination plants and their discharges on the marine environment. Here we review environmental, ecological and toxicological research in this arena including monitoring and assessment of water quality and ecological attributes in receiving environments. The greatest environmental and ecological impacts have occurred around older multi-stage flash (MSF) plants discharging to water bodies with little flushing. These discharge scenarios can lead to substantial increases in salinity and temperature, and the accumulation of metals, hydrocarbons and toxic anti-fouling compounds in receiving waters. Experiments in the field and laboratory clearly demonstrate the potential for acute and chronic toxicity, and small-scale alterations to community structure following exposures to environmentally realistic concentrations of desalination brines. A clear consensus across many of the reviewed articles is that discharge site selection is the primary factor that determines the extent of ecological impacts of desalination plants. Ecological monitoring studies have found variable effects ranging from no significant impacts to benthic communities, through to widespread alterations to community structure in seagrass, coral reef and soft-sediment ecosystems when discharges are released to poorly flushed environments. In most other cases environmental effects appear to be limited to within 10s of meters of outfalls. It must be noted that a large proportion of the published work is descriptive and provides little quantitative data that we could assess independently. Many of the monitoring studies lacked sufficient detail with respect to study design

  1. Adsorption Characteristics of Water and Silica Gel System for Desalination Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Cevallos, Oscar R.

    2012-07-01

    An adsorbent suitable for adsorption desalination cycles is essentially characterized by a hydrophilic and porous structure with high surface area where water molecules are adsorbed via hydrogen bonding mechanism. Silica gel type A++ possesses the highest surface area and exhibits the highest equilibrium uptake from all the silica gels available in the market, therefore being suitable for water desalination cycles; where adsorbent’s adsorption characteristics and water vapor uptake capacity are key parameters in the compactness of the system; translated as feasibility of water desalination through adsorption technologies. The adsorption characteristics of water vapor onto silica gel type A++ over a temperature range of 30 oC to 60 oC are investigated in this research. This is done using water vapor adsorption analyzer utilizing a constant volume and variable pressure method, namely the Hydrosorb-1000 instrument by Quantachrome. The experimental uptake data is studied using numerous isotherm models, i. e. the Langmuir, Tóth, generalized Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A), Dubinin-Astakhov based on pore size distribution (PSD) and Dubinin-Serpinski (D-Se) isotherm for the whole pressure range, and for a pressure range below 10 kPa, proper for desalination cycles; isotherms type V of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) classification were exhibited. It is observed that the D-A based on PSD and the D-Se isotherm models describe the best fitting of the experimental uptake data for desalination cycles within a regression error of 2% and 6% respectively. All isotherm models, except the D-A based on PSD, have failed to describe the obtained experimental uptake data; an empirical isotherm model is proposed by observing the behavior of Tóth and D-A isotherm models. The new empirical model describes the water adsorption onto silica gel type A++ within a regression error of 3%. This will aid to describe the advantages of silica gel type A++ for the design of

  2. A review of environmental governance and its effects on concentrate discharge from desalination plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan

    2013-01-01

    The most likely environmental impact of concentrate discharges (in most instances twice the concentration of the ambient environment) leaking from desalination plants on local marine ecosystems has been controversially discussed for many years. Increasing water demand and lack of renewable natural water resources in Saudi Arabia also result in greater dependence on desalination and consequently amplify the impact on marine environment and multifactorial ecosystems in near-field areas of desalination discharges. Accurate scientific baseline data should furnish information on various factors such as intake- and outfall locality, brine (concentrate) discharge and chemical characteristics (i.e. effluent concentration, mass flow rates (flux)), local effects, and even cumulative effects of desalination activities, at least on a regional and even on a national scale. Even if such data were available, in many cases they are non-transparent and are not even accessible, or tend to be overlooked as a result of ambiguous desalination-related policies. This paper focuses on national environmental regulations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and how such regulations help control the flow of concentrate discharge into the receiving waters. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  3. Graphene oxide-based efficient and scalable solar desalination under one sun with a confined 2D water path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuqiang; Xu, Weichao; Tang, Mingyao; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2016-12-06

    Because it is able to produce desalinated water directly using solar energy with minimum carbon footprint, solar steam generation and desalination is considered one of the most important technologies to address the increasingly pressing global water scarcity. Despite tremendous progress in the past few years, efficient solar steam generation and desalination can only be achieved for rather limited water quantity with the assistance of concentrators and thermal insulation, not feasible for large-scale applications. The fundamental paradox is that the conventional design of direct absorber-bulk water contact ensures efficient energy transfer and water supply but also has intrinsic thermal loss through bulk water. Here, enabled by a confined 2D water path, we report an efficient (80% under one-sun illumination) and effective (four orders salinity decrement) solar desalination device. More strikingly, because of minimized heat loss, high efficiency of solar desalination is independent of the water quantity and can be maintained without thermal insulation of the container. A foldable graphene oxide film, fabricated by a scalable process, serves as efficient solar absorbers (>94%), vapor channels, and thermal insulators. With unique structure designs fabricated by scalable processes and high and stable efficiency achieved under normal solar illumination independent of water quantity without any supporting systems, our device represents a concrete step for solar desalination to emerge as a complementary portable and personalized clean water solution.

  4. The sea water desalination by the nuclear reactors; Le dessalement de l'eau de mer par les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisan, S. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares DDIN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2002-07-01

    This document underlines the importance of water shortage in many areas in the world in the future. The water sea desalination can be a efficient solution to this problem. The desalination methods are presented. In this context the desalination reactors appear as a competitive solution, facing the fossil energies systems not only for the simultaneous electric power and drinking water production, but also for the minimization of greenhouse gases. (A.L.B.)

  5. Efficiency improvement of seawater desalination processes: the case of the W.E.B. Aruba N.V. on the island of Aruba

    OpenAIRE

    Marchena, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Seawater desalination is known worldwide as the most important source for the production of drinking water in arid areas where there are practically no natural water resources and consequently insufficient surface water or groundwater. However the desalination technology still remains a very costly process despite the many innovations it went through since its introduction to reduce water production cost. The island of Aruba has earned worldwide throughout its desalination history since 1932 ...

  6. Ecotoxicological impact assessment of the brine discharges from a desalination plant in the marine waters of the Algerian west coast, using a multibiomarker approach in a limpet, Patella rustica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Meriem; Rouane-Hacene, Omar; Boutiba, Zitouni; Guibbolini-Sabatier, Marielle E; Faverney, Christine Risso-De

    2017-11-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the impact of Bousfer desalination plant brine discharges on the Algerian west coast, on a natural population of the marine gastropod mollusc Patella rustica. The effects of a chronic exposure to such discharges are complex to understand due to the combined effects of environmental physico-chemical parameters (e.g., high salinity) and different pollutants that can modulate the physiological responses of this species to stress. In this context, we assessed the biological effects in a marine species P. rustica, by a multibiomarker approach that provided information on the health status of organisms in response to such an environmental stress. We measured biomarkers in the whole soft tissues of limpets as indicators of neurotoxicity (AChE activity), oxidative stress (CAT, SOD, GR, and GPx activities), biotransformation (GST), oxidative damage (LPO through TBARS levels), and genotoxicity (CSP 3-like activity). In parallel, hydrological parameters were measured in the Bay of Oran, at four selected sites: site H considered as a "hotspot," located at Bousfer desalination plant; two other sites E and W, at the east and the west of H respectively; finally, site R "reference" located in Madragh, which is considered as a remote clean site. Our analyses revealed that the activities of antioxidant defense enzymes reached the highest levels in P. rustica collected from site H. The activation of antioxidant defense system in these organisms translated the alteration of their status health, reflecting a level of environmental disruption generated by the desalination plant brine discharges and the high salinity in this area. We also observed that the tissues of limpets collected from site H as well as the two other sites, E and W, had undergone molecular damage, confirmed by the high levels of CSP 3-like activity. This damage resulted from chronic exposure to environmental conditions, potentially genotoxic, due to the desalination plant

  7. Direct contact membrane distillation for nuclear desalination, Part II: experiments with radioactive solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayet, M. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Physics, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: khayetm@fis.ucm.es; Mengual, J.I. [Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Physics, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mengual@fis.ucm.es; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G. [Department of Nuclear Methods in Process Engineering, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: gzakrzew@orange.ichtj.waw.pl

    2006-07-01

    This paper proposes the application of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) coupled with a nuclear reactor for water desalination and for low- and medium-level radioactive liquid waste concentration. Both laboratory and pilot plant experiments were carried out using the membranes reviewed in Part I of this paper. The effects of process parameters on the productivity and quality of DCMD systems are discussed. Distilled water, non-active solutions of inorganic salts and solutions with admixtures of radionuclides and simulated and real radioactive waste samples were used as feed solutions. Employing DCMD for liquid low- and medium-level radioactive waste processing is an alternative to traditional methods used in nuclear technology. The combination of radioactive waste processing and water desalination creates an economical integrated system for water and wastewater management in nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Optimization of the Sequence of Washing Reverse Osmosis Membranes Used for Seawater Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gutierrez-Ruiz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Seawater contains a number of organic and inorganic components that cause fouling of membranes when subjected to a process of reverse osmosis desalination. This fouling is one of the most important problems in the management of desalination plants, as it entails a significant loss in system performance. For membranes to be able to continue operating under appropriate conditions, they must undergo periodic cleaning protocols. This paper presents the results obtained when, subjecting a previously fouled aromatic polyamide membrane to different washing agents and using different concentrations of the same. Optimal concentrations of cleaning reagents were established. The results indicate that the performance of cleaning using a mixture of reagents, and alternating alkaline and acidic media, enabled maximum recovery of the membrane permeate flux (94.2 % and a significant reduction in the consumption of cleaning reagents.

  9. The effect of flow and chemical corrosion in reverse osmosis over desalinated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jae [Chunnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Byung Gu [Doosan Heavy Industry Co., Tongyoung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Desalinated water produced by a reverse osmosis (RO) filtering method forms about 22% of total production of desalinated water in the world. However, the RO environment is very corrosive due to the presence of various chemicals for water treatment and the flow of sand particles leading to corrosion. Recently, there has been much effort to substitute cheaper and more corrosion resistant stainless steels for copper based alloys as a valve material in RO. Nevertheless, the effects of chemicals and particles on the corrosion of stainless steels have rarely been studied. Erosion phenomenon was detected under the condition with the flow rate of more than 8ms{sup -1} in spite of the absence of sand particles. In seawater containing sand particles, the erosion in stainless steels was accelerated further.

  10. Parametric theoretical study of a two-stage solar organic Rankine cycle for RO desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmadakis, G.; Manolakos, D.; Papadakis, G. [Department of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Street, 11855 Athens (Greece)

    2010-05-15

    The present work concerns the parametric study of an autonomous, two-stage solar organic Rankine cycle for RO desalination. The main goal of the current simulation is to estimate the efficiency, as well as to calculate the annual mechanical energy available for desalination in the considered cases, in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters on the performance of the system. The parametric study concerns the variation of different parameters, without changing actually the baseline case. The effect of the collectors' slope and the total number of evacuated tube collectors used, have been extensively examined. The total cost is also taken into consideration and is calculated for the different cases examined, along with the specific fresh water cost (EUR/m{sup 3}). (author)

  11. Intakes and outfalls for seawater reverse-osmosis desalination facilities innovations and environmental impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Burton; Maliva, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The book assembles the latest research on new design techniques in water supplies using desalinated seawater. The authors examine the diverse issues related to the intakes and outfalls of these facilities. They clarify how and why these key components of the facilities impact the cost of operation and subsequently the cost of water supplied to the consumers. The book consists of contributed articles from a number of experts in the field who presented their findings at the “Desalination Intakes and Outfalls” workshop held at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia in October, 2013. The book integrates coverage relevant to a wide variety of researchers and professionals in the general fields of environmental engineering and sustainable development.

  12. Solar Desalination System Model for Sizing of Photovoltaic Reverse Osmosis (PVRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Habib, Abdulelah

    2015-06-28

    The focus of this paper is to optimize the solar energy utilization in the water desalination process. Due to variable nature of solar energy, new system design is needed to address this challenge. Here, reverse osmosis units, as the electrical loads, are considered as an ON/OFF units to track these solar energy variations. Reverse osmosis units are different in sizes and numbers. Various combinations of reverse osmosis units in size and capacity provide different water desalination system performances. To assess each scenario of reverse osmosis units, the total capital cost and operation and maintenance (O&M) cost are considered. The implemented optimization algorithm search all of the possible scenarios to find the best solution. This paper deploys the solar irradiance data which is provided from west coast (Red Sea) of Saudi Arabia for model construction and optimization algorithm implementation.

  13. Electrochemical and Corrosion Properties of Aluminum Brass in Seawater Desalination Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong JU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior and mechanism of aluminum brass (HAl77-2 in seawater desalination plant were investigated using electrochemical measurement, Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis. The electrochemical results revealed that the corrosion of HAl77-2 in the desalination artificial seawater depended on chloride ion concentrations, displaying a maximum with a chloride ion concentration of 2.3 wt.%. Corrosion rate of HAl77-2 initial increased and subsequently decreased with the increasing of chloride ion concentration. Moreover, corrosion of HAl77-2 becomes more severe when temperature rises. The above results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests were in a good agreement. The results of SEM and EDX methods showed selective localized corrosion appeared remarkably on the surface of HAl77-2.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.4.17170

  14. Desalination of salt damaged Obernkirchen sandstone by an applied DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyščák, Ondřej; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2014-01-01

    as the outer surface was scaling due to salts.The focus of the work was on the effect of electrokinetic desalination for removal of unevenly distributed mixtures of salts. Previous reported studies were conducted with laboratory contaminated stones with single salts, which were relatively evenly distributed...... the treatment the water content was very low in the stones, between 1.3% and 2.1%. Electroosmotic water transport was observed in the clay poultices, however, there was no decrease of the water contents in the stones at the end of the experiments, so there was no indication of an electroosmotic effect......Soluble salts are considered as one of the most common causes for decay of building materials. In the present work, an electrokinetic method for desalination of sandstones from a historic warehouse was tested. The sandstones claddings were removed from the warehouse during a renovation action...

  15. Influence of the properties of granite and sandstone in the desalination process by electrokinetic technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, J.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pozo-Antonio, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    such as sand disaggregation and superficial detachments. These problems can be solved by conservation technologies, which are aimed to decrease the salt concentration in rocks (desalination).The present study aimed to investigate the efficiency of electrokinetic techniques for desalination of two different......Soluble salts are considered a main cause of damage of porous building materials such as rocks, bricks or granites, which were commonly used in the building constructions of the architectural and archaeological heritage. Soluble salts are also responsible for various forms of deterioration...... kinds of rocks: granite and sandstone. These rocks were contaminated with NaCl solution, and samples with a thickness of 6. cm were used in the tests. This study compared the percentage of salt removal at different depths (efficacy) and the time needed to get the same percentage removal (effectiveness...

  16. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A; Missimer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2015-10-25

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  18. Potential effects of desalinated water quality on the operation stability of wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Beni; Cochva, Malka; Lahav, Ori

    2009-03-15

    Desalinated water is expected to become the major source of drinking water in many places in the near future, and thus the major source of wastewater to arrive at wastewater treatment plants. The paper examines the effect of the alkalinity value with which the water is released from the desalination plant on the alkalinity value that would develop within the wastewater treatment process under various nitrification-denitrification operational scenarios. The main hypothesis was that the difference in the alkalinity value between tap water and domestic wastewater is almost exclusively a result of the hydrolysis of urea (NH(2)CONH(2), excreted in the human urine) to ammonia (NH(3)), regardless of the question what fraction of NH(3(aq)) is transformed to NH(4)(+). Results from a field study show that the ratio between the alkalinity added to tap water when raw wastewater is formed (in meq/l units) and the TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, mole/l) concentration in the raw wastewater is almost 1:1 in purely domestic sewage and close to 1:1 in domestic wastewater streams mixed with light industry wastewaters. Having established the relationship between TAN and total alkalinity in raw wastewater the paper examines three theoretical nitrification-denitrification treatment scenarios in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The conclusion is that if low-alkalinity desalinated water constitutes the major water source arriving at the WWTP, external alkalinity will have to be added in order to avoid pH drop and maintain process stability. The results lead to the conclusion that supplying desalinated water with a high alkalinity value (e.g. > or =100 mg/l as CaCO(3)) would likely prevent the need to add costly basic chemicals in the WWTP, while, in addition, it would improve the chemical and biological stability of the drinking water in the distribution system.

  19. Temperature and Pressure Effects of Desalination Using a MFI-Type Zeolite Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gray

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are potentially a robust desalination alternative, as they are chemically stable and possess the essential properties needed to reject ions. Zeolite membranes could desalinate “challenging” waters, such as saline secondary effluent, without any substantial pre-treatment, due to the robust mechanical properties of ceramic membranes. A novel MFI-type zeolite membrane was developed on a tubular α-Al2O3 substrate by a combined rubbing and secondary hydrothermal growth method. The prepared membrane was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and single gas (He or N2 permeation and underwent desalination tests with NaCl solutions under different pressures (0.7 MPa and 7 MPa. The results showed that higher pressure resulted in higher Na+ rejection and permeate flux. The zeolite membrane achieved a good rejection of Na+ (~82% for a NaCl feed solution with a TDS (total dissolved solids of 3000 mg·L−1 at an applied pressure of 7 MPa and 21 °C. To explore the opportunity for high salinity and high temperature desalination, this membrane was also tested with high concentration NaCl solutions (up to TDS 90,000 mg·L−1 and at 90 °C. This is the first known work at such high salinities of NaCl. It was found that increasing the salinity of the feed solution decreased both Na+ rejection and flux. An increase in testing temperature resulted in an increase in permeate flux, but a decrease in ion rejection.

  20. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    Various regions around the world are confronted with dwindling water supplies and thus the need for exploiting non-traditional inland brackish water resource, as well as reclamation and reuse of municipal wastewater and agricultural drainage (AD) water. Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane desalination is the primary technology for inland brackish water desalting. However, successful implementation of RO technology requires operation at high product water recovery (>85%) in order to minimize the vol...

  1. Unlocking High-Salinity Desalination with Cascading Osmotically Mediated Reverse Osmosis: Energy and Operating Pressure Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yip, Ngai Yin

    2018-02-20

    Current practice of using thermally driven methods to treat hypersaline brines is highly energy-intensive and costly. While conventional reverse osmosis (RO) is the most efficient desalination technique, it is confined to purifying seawater and lower salinity sources. Hydraulic pressure restrictions and elevated energy demand render RO unsuitable for high-salinity streams. Here, we propose an innovative cascading osmotically mediated reverse osmosis (COMRO) technology to overcome the limitations of conventional RO. The innovation utilizes the novel design of bilateral countercurrent reverse osmosis stages to depress the hydraulic pressure needed by lessening the osmotic pressure difference across the membrane, and simultaneously achieve energy savings. Instead of the 137 bar required by conventional RO to desalinate 70 000 ppm TDS hypersaline feed, the highest operating pressure in COMRO is only 68.3 bar (-50%). Furthermore, up to ≈17% energy saving is attained by COMRO (3.16 kWh/m 3 , compared to 3.79 kWh/m 3 with conventional RO). When COMRO is employed to boost the recovery of seawater desalination to 70% from the typical 35-50%, energy savings of up to ≈33% is achieved (2.11 kWh/m 3 , compared to 3.16 kWh/m 3 with conventional RO). Again, COMRO can operate at a moderate hydraulic pressure of 80 bar (25% lower than 113 bar of conventional RO). This study highlights the encouraging potential of energy-efficient COMRO to access unprecedented high recovery rates and treat hypersaline brines at moderate hydraulic pressures, thus extending the capabilities of membrane-based technologies for high-salinity desalination.

  2. Membrane distillation and reverse electrodialysis for near-zero liquid discharge and low energy seawater desalination

    OpenAIRE

    Tufa, R.; Curcio, E.; Brauns, E.; van Baak, W.; Fontananova, E.; Di Profio, G.

    2015-01-01

    With a total capacity of 70 million cubic meters per day, seawater desalination industry represents the most affordable source of drinking water for many people living in arid areas of the world. Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) technology, driven by the impressive development in membrane materials, modules and process design, currently shows an overall energy consumption of 3-4 kWh per m(3) of desalted water, substantially lower than thermal systems; however, the theoretical energy demand to ...

  3. Temperature and Pressure Effects of Desalination Using a MFI-Type Zeolite Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Kim, Jun Hyun; Na, Yong-Han; Moon, Il-Shik; Connor, Greg; Maeda, Shuichi; Morris, Gayle; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Zeolites are potentially a robust desalination alternative, as they are chemically stable and possess the essential properties needed to reject ions. Zeolite membranes could desalinate “challenging” waters, such as saline secondary effluent, without any substantial pre-treatment, due to the robust mechanical properties of ceramic membranes. A novel MFI-type zeolite membrane was developed on a tubular α-Al2O3 substrate by a combined rubbing and secondary hydrothermal growth method. The prepared membrane was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and single gas (He or N2) permeation and underwent desalination tests with NaCl solutions under different pressures (0.7 MPa and 7 MPa). The results showed that higher pressure resulted in higher Na+ rejection and permeate flux. The zeolite membrane achieved a good rejection of Na+ (~82%) for a NaCl feed solution with a TDS (total dissolved solids) of 3000 mg·L−1 at an applied pressure of 7 MPa and 21 °C. To explore the opportunity for high salinity and high temperature desalination, this membrane was also tested with high concentration NaCl solutions (up to TDS 90,000 mg·L−1) and at 90 °C. This is the first known work at such high salinities of NaCl. It was found that increasing the salinity of the feed solution decreased both Na+ rejection and flux. An increase in testing temperature resulted in an increase in permeate flux, but a decrease in ion rejection. PMID:24956943

  4. Toward high permeability, selectivity and controllability of water desalination with FePc nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qingming; Pan, Jun; Yin, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lina; Kang, Seung-gu; Jimenez-Cruz, Camilo A; Zhou, Ruhong; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-03-21

    Nanoporous materials exhibit promising potential in water transportation applications, especially in ocean water desalination. It is highly desired to have great permeability, selectivity and controllability in the desalination performance of these nanopores. However, it is still a challenge to achieve all three features in one material or device. Here, we demonstrate efficient and controllable water desalination with a nanoporous 2D Fe phthalocyanine (FePc) membrane using molecular dynamics simulations. We find the FePc membrane not only conducts fast water flow, but it also suppresses ion permeation. The selectivity is attributed to a mechanism distinct from the traditional steric exclusion: cations are excluded due to electrostatic repulsion, whereas anions can be trapped in the nanopore and induce the reorganization of ions in the vicinity of the nanopore, which in turn creates a tendency for the trapped anions to move back into the saline reservoir. More interestingly, we find such mechanism is largely due to the sufficiently strong electrostatic interaction of the charged nanopore region with ions and is not restricted to the FePc nanopore. In addition, the number of protonated nitrogen atoms in FePc pores can be modulated by adjusting the pH value of the solution. The extent of the anion occupancy can thus be regulated, giving rise to control of the water flow. Taken together, great permeability, selectivity and controllability can be achieved with this nanosheet system. Moreover, our study suggests there is an alternative mechanism of water desalination which may be realized by intrinsically nanoporous materials such as FePc membranes.

  5. Supercapacitive microbial desalination cells: New class of power generating devices for reduction of salinity content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Abad, Fernando Benito; Serov, Alexey; Kodali, Mounika; Howe, Kerry J; Soavi, Francesca; Atanassov, Plamen

    2017-12-15

    In this work, the electrodes of a microbial desalination cell (MDC) are investigated as the positive and negative electrodes of an internal supercapacitor. The resulting system has been named a supercapacitive microbial desalination cell (SC-MDC). The electrodes are self-polarized by the red-ox reactions and therefore the anode acts as a negative electrode and the cathode as a positive electrode of the internal supercapacitor. In order to overcome cathodic losses, an additional capacitive electrode (AdE) was added and short-circuited with the SC-MDC cathode (SC-MDC-AdE). A total of 7600 discharge/self-recharge cycles (equivalent to 44 h of operation) of SC-MDC-AdE with a desalination chamber filled with an aqueous solution of 30 g L-1 NaCl are reported. The same reactor system was operated with real seawater collected from Pacific Ocean for 88 h (15,100 cycles). Maximum power generated was 1.63 ± 0.04 W m-2 for SC-MDC and 3.01 ± 0.01 W m-2 for SC-MDC-AdE. Solution conductivity in the desalination reactor decreased by ∼50% after 23 h and by more than 60% after 44 h. There was no observable change in the pH during cell operation. Power/current pulses were generated without an external power supply.

  6. Generalized Least Energy of Separation for Desalination and Other Chemical Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan H. Mistry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies driven by different combinations of heat, work, and chemical energy. This paper develops a consistent basis for comparing the energy consumption of such technologies using Second Law efficiency. The Second Law efficiency for a chemical separation process is defined in terms of the useful exergy output, which is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of product from a feed stream of a given composition. For a desalination process, this is the minimum least work of separation for producing one kilogram of product water from feed of a given salinity. While definitions in terms of work and heat input have been proposed before, this work generalizes the Second Law efficiency to allow for systems that operate on a combination of energy inputs, including fuel. The generalized equation is then evaluated through a parametric study considering work input, heat inputs at various temperatures, and various chemical fuel inputs. Further, since most modern, large-scale desalination plants operate in cogeneration schemes, a methodology for correctly evaluating Second Law efficiency for the desalination plant based on primary energy inputs is demonstrated. It is shown that, from a strictly energetic point of view and based on currently available technology, cogeneration using electricity to power a reverse osmosis system is energetically superior to thermal systems such as multiple effect distillation and multistage flash distillation, despite the very low grade heat input normally applied in those systems.

  7. The Physical, Chemical and Microbial Quality of Treated Water in Qom s Desalination Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Yari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesWater is the basis of life and health. The health of food and water supply plays an important role in human health. One of the methods of water desalination is membrane filter reverse osmosis method. This method is used for desalination of drinking water supply in Qom.MethodsThis is a descriptive, cross-sectional study designed to determine the quality of treated water in Qom desalination plant in year 2002. Inlet and outlet water samples of this plant were examined by the standard examination methods and the collected data were compared with national and international standards. Excel software was used for statistical analysis.ResultsThe results showed that the residual chlorine concentration, total hardness and fluoride concentration were lower than the minimum standard limit set for drinking water. The pH was also lower than the minimum standard limit. Microbial contamination was detected in 6% of samples.ConclusionThe results show that the acidity of water was lower than standard in whole plant. This gives corrosive properties to the water and increases the dissolution of materials, which are in contact with this water. In order to eliminate the secondary contamination, the concentration of residual chlorine should be 1 mg/l. But, none of the measurements showed a concentration as high as this value. As fluoride is an important element for health and growth of bone and teeth, especially in growing children, fluoride should be added to the drinking water. As the relationship between hardness of water and cardiovascular diseases has been established, it can be concluded that this drinking water supply can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in long time. Dilution of this water is recommended to adjust various factors to the standard limits and keep the total dissolved solids low.Keywords: Qom ;Water; Reverse Osmosis; Desalination Plant; Water Quality

  8. On the potential of forward osmosis to energetically outperform reverse osmosis desalination

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Ronan Killian; Lienhard, John H.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a comparison of the theoretical and actual energy requirements of forward osmosis and reverse osmosis seawater desalination. We argue that reverse osmosis is significantly more energy efficient and that forward osmosis research efforts would best be fully oriented towards alternate applications. The underlying reason for the inefficiency of forward osmosis is the draw-dilution step, which increases the theoretical and actual energy requirements for draw regeneration. As a consequen...

  9. Self-powered desalination of geothermal saline groundwater:technical feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Philip A.; Orfi, Jamel

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical study shows the technical feasibility of self-powered geothermal desalination of groundwater sources at <100 °C. A general method and framework are developed and then applied to specific case studies. First, the analysis considers an ideal limit to performance based on exergy analysis using generalised idealised assumptions. This thermodynamic limit applies to any type of process technology. Then, the analysis focuses specifically on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) driving...

  10. Reducing the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination by using brackish groundwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to find out whether or not, and to what extent, the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination are reduced when brackish groundwater is used instead of sea water. In order to answer this question, the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used, and two water production plants are compared. The brackish groundwater scenario is based on a plant located in Almería (southern Spain), while the sea water scenario is based on literature data. Four impact categories and two environmental indicators, one of them related to brine discharge, are included. The results show that the key life-cycle issue of brackish groundwater desalination is electricity consumption, and since this is substantially reduced with regard to using sea water, the life-cycle impacts are found to be almost 50% lower. An uncertainty analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation shows that these environmental savings are significant for all impact categories. Potential local impacts provoked by brine discharge are also found to be lower, due to a reduced content of salts. It is concluded that, when and wherever possible, exploitation of brackish groundwater resources should be assigned priority to sea water resources as an input for reverse osmosis desalination, although it must be taken into account that groundwater, as opposed to sea water, is a limited resource.

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Program Title: Solar Powered Dewvaporation Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Shashidhar [Polestar Technologies Inc., Needham Heights, MA (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Desalination technologies have been used increasingly throughout the world to produce the drinking water from the brackish ground and sea water for the past few decades. Among the commercially available desalination technologies, reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash distillation are the most widely used technologies globally. However, these technologies are difficult to be directly integrated with green energies without converting them to electricity. Dewvaporation, a desalination process, uses saturated steam as a carrier-gas to evaporate water from saline feeds and form pure condensate. It has the major technical benefit of reusing energy, released from vapor condensation, multiple times. The current proposal has been planned to address this issue. In Phase I, we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a new plasmonic nanoparticle based approach through fabrication and evaluation of a solar powered water vapor generation module. The water vapor generation module allows generation of high temperature plasmon on a fiber bundle end, where strong water and plasmon interaction occurs generating water vapor. Plasmon enhanced water evaporation has been realized on plasmonic nanoparticle immobilized substrate with an energy conversion efficiency of over 50%.

  12. A Cost Effective Desalination Plant Using a Solar Chimney with Recycled Aluminum Can Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singuru Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work was to use solar energy for desalination of water. A solar chimney desalination system, which includes the solar chimney, solar collector, evaporation system, and passive condenser, was designed and built. The air enters into collector and gets heated and released at the bottom of chimney. Due to draught effect dry air goes upward. The air is humidified by spraying salt water into the hot air stream using a mistifier at the middle of chimney. Then, the partial vapours contained in the air are condensed to give desalinated water. The performance of the integrated system including power and potable water production was estimated and the results were discussed. With a 3.4 m height setup, experimental test rig was capable of evaporating 3.77 L water daily condensing 2.3 L water. It is compact in nature as it is easy to assemble and dissemble. It can be used for purifying rain water in summer under rain water harvesting. Because of using country wood, recycled Al cans, and GI sheet in fabrication, it is lower in cost.

  13. Indirect contact freeze water desalination for an ice maker machine - CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Harith; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad

    2017-11-01

    To offer for potable water shortages, sea water desalination is a potential solution for the global rising demand for fresh water. The latent heat of fusion is about one-seventh the latent heat of vaporisation, thus indicating the benefit of lower energy consumption for the freeze desalination process. Limited literature is reported on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on freeze desalination. Therefore, analysing and investigating thermodynamic processes are easily conducted by the powerful tool of CFD. A single unit of ice formation in an ice maker machine was modelled using ANSYS Fluent software three-dimensionally. Energy, species transport and solidification/melting modules were used in building the CFD model. Parametric analysis was conducted using the established CFD model to predict the effects of freezing temperature and the geometry of the ice maker machine; on ice production and the freezing time. Lower freezing temperatures allowed more ice production and faster freezing. Increasing the diameter and the length of the freezing tube enabled more ice to be produced.

  14. Design concept and its requirements of the integrated SMART nuclear desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Young In; Chon, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jung; Chang, Moon Hee

    2001-02-01

    The integrated SMART desalination plant consists of four(4) units of Multi Effect Distillation Process combined with Thermal-Vapor Compressor(MED-TVC) and coupled with the extracted steam from turbine through the steam transformer. Steam transformer produces the main pressure steam and supplies to the MED-TVC unit. Each distillation unit has the production the capacity of 10,000 m3/day of distilled water per day at top brine temperature of 65 deg C using the seawater supplied at temperature of 33 deg C. MED-TVC was selected as a desalination process coupled with SMART, since the thermal vapor compression is very effective where the steam is available at high temperature and pressure conditions than required in the evaporator. The MED-TVC unit is consisted of the steam supply system, vapor and condensate system, seawater supply system, brine system and chemical dosing system. The standard design of the SMART desalination plant is under development as a part of the SMART project. This report describes design concept of these systems and their requirements.

  15. Optimal Operation Method for Microgrid with Wind/PV/Diesel Generator/Battery and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The power supply mode of island microgrid with a variety of complementary energy resources is one of the most effective ways to solve the problem of future island power supply. Based on the characteristics of seawater desalination system and water demand of island residents, a power allocation strategy for seawater desalination load, storage batteries, and diesel generators is proposed with the overall consideration of the economic and environmental benefits of system operation. Furthermore, a multiobjective optimal operation model for the island microgrid with wind/photovoltaic/diesel/storage and seawater desalination load is also proposed. It first establishes the objective functions which include the life loss of storage batteries and the fuel cost of diesel generators. Finally, the model is solved by the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. The island microgrid in a certain district is taken as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed optimal method. The results provide the theoretical and technical basis for the optimal operation of island microgrid.

  16. THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN THE DESALINATION SEA WATER IN AGRICULTURAL GREENHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tahri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited resources of fresh water in arid areas like the Middle East and North Africa MENA have led to the use of poor quality water in irrigation agriculture. These can reduce crop yield and environmental damage. Agriculture accounts for 70% of overall consumption in freshwater. Given the evaporation phenomena that occur in arid regions, this figure rises to 90%. This study focuses on the concept of combining the greenhouse with the desalination of seawater This concept is intended for small scale applications in remote areas where only saline water and solar energy are available.  The main objective of this research work is to analyze the production of fresh water using solar energy in the desalination of sea water in the greenhouse. This operating system is in need of thorough study of evaporators, condensers and design of the greenhouse. Desalination, combining the greenhouse to the use of sea water while exploiting the phenomenon of condensation of water vapor in the air, seems to respond positively to the needs of agricultural irrigation.

  17. Super square carbon nanotube network: a new promising water desalination membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ligang; He, Xiaoqiao; Lu, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Super square (SS) carbon nanotube (CNT) networks, acting as a new kind of nanoporous membrane, manifest excellent water desalination performance. Nanopores in SS CNT network can efficiently filter NaCl from water. The water desalination ability of such nanoporous membranes critically depends on the pore diameter, permitting water molecule permeatration while salt ion obstruction. On the basis of the systematical analysis on the interaction among water permeability, salt concentration limit and pressure on the membranes, an empirical formula is developed to describe the relationship between pressure and concentration limit. In the meantime, the nonlinear relationship between pressure and water permeability is examined. Hence, by controlling pressure, optimal plan can be easily made to efficiently filter the saltwater. Moreover, steered molecular dynamics (MD) method uncovers bending and local buckling of SS CNT network that leads to salt ions passing through membranes. These important mechanical behaviours are neglected in most MD simulations, which may overestimate the filtration ability. Overall, water permeability of such material is several orders of magnitude higher than the conventional reverse osmosis membranes and several times higher than nanoporous graphene membranes. SS CNT networks may act as a new kind of membrane developed for water desalination with excellent filtration ability.

  18. USE OF REJECT BRINE FROM DESALINATION ON DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF HYDROPONIC LETTUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NILDO DA SILVA DIAS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluated the impact of the high salinity reject brine from reverse osmosis desalination on hydroponics lettuce cultivated in greenhouse an investigation was carried out in Mossoro, Northeast of Brazil (5º11'S, 37º20'O and 18m above sea. Two lettuce cultivars ('Verônica' and 'Babá de verão' were cultivated with a basic nutrient solution with 1.1 dS m-1 (control during the crop cycle (1-28 days after transplanting - DAT - T0 and with basic nutrient solution containing 50% of the reject water from desalinization with 4.8 dS m-1 exposed during 1-7, 21-28, 7-14 e 1-28 DAT (T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The addition of 50% of brine reject from desalination into the hydroponic nutrient solution allows grow only 'Verônica' lettuce with no reduction in fresh biomass. This lettuce cultivar shows to be more tolerant to salinity for all exposure time with reject brine in the nutrition solution, despite the fact that 'Babá de Verão' cultivar is more productive.

  19. An Improved Multi-Evaporator Adsorption Desalination Cycle for GCC Countries

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-03-29

    In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, cogeneration based desalination processes consume almost 25% of the total annual energy and it is increasing at 2.2% annually. The high fresh water demand is attributed to high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, 24%, and the high water languishes, more than 10%. Over the past two decades, GCC countries have spent tens of billion dollars to expand their present and planned desalination capacities. It is foreseeable that with business-as-usual scenario, the domestic oil consumption of Saudi Arabia may exceed its production capacity by 2040. Innovative and sustainable water production solutions are needed urgently for future water supplies without environment impact. In this paper, a hybrid desalination cycle is proposed by integrating multi cascaded-evaporators (CE) with an adsorption cycle (AD). In this new innovative cycle, AD desorbed vapors are supplied to the CE to exploit the latent condensation energy within the evaporators arranged in both pressures-temperatures cascaded manner to improves the performance ratio (PR) of the cycle. Hybrid cycle shows more than 10 folds water production improvement as compared to conventional AD cycle due to synergetic effect. This concept is demonstrated in a laboratory pilot plant using a 3 cascaded evaporators pilot and simulation of 8 evaporators hybrid cycle.

  20. Use of Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy for Desalination in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cath, Tzahi [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Vanneste, Johan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This joint project between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Colorado School of Mines has examined the potential of using low-temperature geothermal resources for desalination. The temperature range in question is not well suited for electricity generation, but can be used for direct heating. Accordingly, the best integration approaches use thermal desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation (MED) or membrane distillation (MD), rather than electric-driven technologies such as reverse osmosis (RO). The examination of different desalination technologies led to the selection of MD for pairing with geothermal energy. MD operates at near-ambient pressure and temperatures less than 100°C with hydrophobic membranes. The technology is modular like RO, but the equipment costs are lower. The thermal energy demands of MD are higher than MED, but this is offset by an ability to run at lower temperatures and a low capital cost. Consequently, a geothermal-MD system could offer a low capital cost and, if paired with low-cost geothermal energy, a low operating cost. The target product water cost is $1.0 to $1.5 per cubic meter depending on system capacity and the cost of thermal energy.

  1. Plasmonic heating from indium nanoparticles on a floating microporous membrane for enhanced solar seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Xing, Jun; Wen, Xinglin; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Shijie; Xiong, Qihua

    2017-09-14

    Passive solar evaporation represents a promising and environmentally benign method of water purification/desalination. Plasmonic nanoparticles have been demonstrated as an effective approach for enhancing solar steam generation through a plasmonic heating effect, nonetheless the efficiency is constrained by unnecessary bulk heating of the entire liquid volume, while the noble metals commonly used are not cost-effective in terms of availability and their sophisticated preparation. Herein, a paper-like plasmonic device consisting of a microporous membrane and indium nanoparticles (In NPs/MPM) is fabricated through a simple thermal evaporation method. Due to the light-weight and porous nature of the device, the broadband light absorption properties, and theoretically the excellent plasmonic heating effect from In NP which could be even higher than gold, silver and aluminium nanoparticles, our device can effectively enhance solar water evaporation by floating on the water surface and its utility has been demonstrated in the solar desalination of a real seawater sample. The durability of the device in solar seawater desalination has also been investigated over multiple cycles with stable performances. This portable device could provide a solution for individuals to do water/seawater purification in under-developed areas with limited/no access to electricity or a centralized drinking water supply.

  2. Composition and variability of biofouling organisms in seawater reverse osmosis desalination plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minglu; Jiang, Sunny; Tanuwidjaja, Dian; Voutchkov, Nikolay; Hoek, Eric M V; Cai, Baoli

    2011-07-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane biofouling remains a common challenge in the desalination industry, but the marine bacterial community that causes membrane fouling is poorly understood. Microbial communities at different stages of treatment processes (intake, cartridge filtration, and SWRO) of a desalination pilot plant were examined by both culture-based and culture-independent approaches. Bacterial isolates were identified to match the genera Shewanella, Alteromonas, Vibrio, and Cellulophaga based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The 16S rRNA gene clone library of the SWRO membrane biofilm showed that a filamentous bacterium, Leucothrix mucor, which belongs to the gammaproteobacteria, accounted for nearly 30% of the clone library, while the rest of the microorganisms (61.2% of the total clones) were related to the alphaproteobacteria. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that bacteria colonizing the SWRO membrane represented a subportion of microbes in the source seawater; however, they were quite different from those colonizing the cartridge filter. The examination of five SWRO membranes from desalination plants located in different parts of the world showed that although the bacterial communities from the membranes were not identical to each other, some dominant bacteria were commonly observed. In contrast, bacterial communities in source seawater were significantly different based on location and season. Microbial profiles from 14 cartridge filters collected from different plants also revealed spatial trends.

  3. Composition and Variability of Biofouling Organisms in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minglu; Jiang, Sunny; Tanuwidjaja, Dian; Voutchkov, Nikolay; Hoek, Eric M. V.; Cai, Baoli

    2011-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane biofouling remains a common challenge in the desalination industry, but the marine bacterial community that causes membrane fouling is poorly understood. Microbial communities at different stages of treatment processes (intake, cartridge filtration, and SWRO) of a desalination pilot plant were examined by both culture-based and culture-independent approaches. Bacterial isolates were identified to match the genera Shewanella, Alteromonas, Vibrio, and Cellulophaga based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The 16S rRNA gene clone library of the SWRO membrane biofilm showed that a filamentous bacterium, Leucothrix mucor, which belongs to the gammaproteobacteria, accounted for nearly 30% of the clone library, while the rest of the microorganisms (61.2% of the total clones) were related to the alphaproteobacteria. 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that bacteria colonizing the SWRO membrane represented a subportion of microbes in the source seawater; however, they were quite different from those colonizing the cartridge filter. The examination of five SWRO membranes from desalination plants located in different parts of the world showed that although the bacterial communities from the membranes were not identical to each other, some dominant bacteria were commonly observed. In contrast, bacterial communities in source seawater were significantly different based on location and season. Microbial profiles from 14 cartridge filters collected from different plants also revealed spatial trends. PMID:21551282

  4. Particulate-free porous silicon networks for efficient capacitive deionization water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metke, Thomas; Westover, Andrew S.; Carter, Rachel; Oakes, Landon; Douglas, Anna; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficient water desalination processes employing low-cost and earth-abundant materials is a critical step to sustainably manage future human needs for clean water resources. Here we demonstrate that porous silicon – a material harnessing earth abundance, cost, and environmental/biological compatibility is a candidate material for water desalination. With appropriate surface passivation of the porous silicon material to prevent surface corrosion in aqueous environments, we show that porous silicon templates can enable salt removal in capacitive deionization (CDI) ranging from 0.36% by mass at the onset from fresh to brackish water (10 mM, or 0.06% salinity) to 0.52% in ocean water salt concentrations (500 mM, or ~0.3% salinity). This is on par with reports of most carbon nanomaterial based CDI systems based on particulate electrodes and covers the full salinity range required of a CDI system with a total ocean-to-fresh water required energy input of ~1.45 Wh/L. The use of porous silicon for CDI enables new routes to directly couple water desalination technology with microfluidic systems and photovoltaics that natively use silicon materials, while mitigating adverse effects of water contamination occurring from nanoparticulate-based CDI electrodes. PMID:27101809

  5. Enhanced Salt Removal by Unipolar Ion Conduction in Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Bumjoo; Chen, Lan; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    Chloride ion, the majority salt in nature, is ∼52% faster than sodium ion (DNa+ = 1.33, DCl− = 2.03[10−9m2s−1]). Yet, current electrochemical desalination technologies (e.g. electrodialysis) rely on bipolar ion conduction, removing one pair of the cation and the anion simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate that novel ion concentration polarization desalination can enhance salt removal under a given current by implementing unipolar ion conduction: conducting only cations (or anions) with the unipolar ion exchange membrane stack. Combining theoretical analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we elucidate that this enhanced salt removal can shift current utilization (ratio between desalted ions and ions conducted through electrodes) and corresponding energy efficiency by the factor ∼(D− − D+)/(D− + D+). Specifically for desalting NaCl, this enhancement of unipolar cation conduction saves power consumption by ∼50% in overlimiting regime, compared with conventional electrodialysis. Recognizing and utilizing differences between unipolar and bipolar ion conductions have significant implications not only on electromembrane desalination, but also energy harvesting applications (e.g. reverse electrodialysis). PMID:27158057

  6. Unravelling and Reconstructing the Nexus of Salinity, Electricity, and Microbial Ecology for Bioelectrochemical Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Heyang; Sun, Shan; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; Badgley, Brian D; He, Zhen

    2017-11-07

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are an emerging concept for simultaneous water/wastewater treatment and energy recovery. The key to developing MDCs is to understand fundamental problems, such as the effects of salinity on system performance and the role of microbial community and functional dynamics. Herein, a tubular MDC was operated under a wide range of salt concentrations (0.05-4 M), and the salinity effects were comprehensively examined. The MDC generated higher current with higher salt concentrations in the desalination chamber. When fed with 4 M NaCl, the MDC achieve a current density of 300 A m-3 (anode volume), which was one of the highest among bioelectrochemical system studies. Community analysis and electrochemical measurements suggested that electrochemically active bacteria Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter transferred electrons extracellularly via electron shuttles, and the consequent ion migration led to high anode salinities and conductivity that favored their dominance. Predictive functional dynamics and Bayesian networks implied that the taxa putatively not capable of extracellular electron transfer (e.g., Bacteroidales and Clostridiales) might indirectly contribute to bioelectrochemical desalination. By integrating the Bayesian network with logistic regression, current production was successfully predicted from taxonomic data. This study has demonstrated uncompromised system performance under high salinity and thus has highlighted the potential of MDCs as an energy-efficient technology to address water-energy challenges. The statistical modeling approach developed in this study represents a significant step toward understating microbial communities and predicting system performance in engineered biological systems.

  7. Shale gas produced water treatment using innovative microbial capacitive desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Zachary A; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Xu, Pei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of unconventional oil and gas production has generated large amounts of wastewater for disposal, raising significant environmental and public health concerns. Treatment and beneficial use of produced water presents many challenges due to its high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and salinity. The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of treating actual shale gas produced water using a bioelectrochemical system integrated with capacitive deionization-a microbial capacitive desalination cell (MCDC). Microbial degradation of organic compounds in the anode generated an electric potential that drove the desalination of produced water. Sorption and biodegradation resulted in a combined organic removal rate of 6.4 mg dissolved organic carbon per hour in the reactor, and the MCDC removed 36 mg salt per gram of carbon electrode per hour from produced water. This study is a proof-of-concept that the MCDC can be used to combine organic degradation with desalination of contaminated water without external energy input. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PV-Li-ion-micropump membrane systems for portable personal desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. McHenry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research presents a technical simulation of theoretically portable desalination systems utilising low-energy and lightweight components that are either commercially available or currently in development. The commercially available components are small-scale flexible and portable photovoltaic (PV modules, Li-ion battery-converter units, and high pressure low voltage brushless DC motor-powered micropumps. The theoretical and conventional small-scale desalination membranes are compared against each other: low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO, nanofilters, graphene, graphene oxide, and graphyne technology. The systems were designed with the identical PV-Li-ion specifications and simulation data to quantify the energy available to power the theoretical energy demand for desalinating a saline water at 30,000–40,000 ppm total dissolved solid (TDS to reliably supply the minimum target of 3.5 L d−1 of freshwater for one theoretical year. The results demonstrate that modern portable commercially available PV-battery systems and new generations of energy-efficient membranes under development have the potential to enable users to sustainably procure daily drinking water needs from saline/contaminated water resources, with the system exhibiting a net reduction in weight than carrying water itself.

  9. Fertiliser drawn forward osmosis process: Pilot-scale desalination of mine impaired water for fertigation

    KAUST Repository

    Phuntsho, Sherub

    2016-02-20

    The pilot-scale fertiliser driven forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) system was operated in the field for about six months for the desalination of saline groundwater from the coal mining activities. Long-term operation of the FDFO-NF system indicates that simple hydraulic cleaning could effectively restore the water flux with minimal chemical cleaning frequency. No fouling/scaling issues were encountered with the NF post-treatment process. The study indicates that, FDFO-NF desalination system can produce water quality that meets fertigation standard. This study also however shows that, the diffusion of solutes (both feed and draw) through the cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane could be one of the major issues. The FO feed brine failed to meet the effluent discharge standard for NH4+ and SO42+ (reverse diffusion) and their concentrations are expected to further increase at higher feed recovery rates. Low rejection of feed salts (Na+, Cl−) by FO membrane may result in their gradual build-up in the fertiliser draw solution (DS) in a closed FDFO-NF system eventually affecting the final water quality unless it is balanced by adequate bleeding from the system through NF and re-reverse diffusion towards the FO feed brine. Therefore, FO membrane with higher reverse flux selectivity than the CTA-FO membrane used in this study is necessary for the application of the FDFO desalination process.

  10. Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

  11. Numerical simulation and performance investigation of an advanced adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature waste heat-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles offer high potential as one of the most economically viable and environmental-friendly desalination methods. This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination cycle that employs internal heat recovery between the evaporator and the condenser, utilizing an encapsulated evaporator-condenser unit for effective heat transfer. A simulation model has been developed based on the actual sorption characteristics of the adsorbent-adsorbate pair, energy and mass balances applied to the components of the AD cycle. With an integrated design, the temperature in the evaporator and the vapor pressurization of the adsorber are raised due to the direct heat recovery from the condenser, resulting in the higher water production rates, typically improved by as much as three folds of the conventional AD cycle. In addition, the integrated design eliminates two pumps, namely, the condenser cooling water and the chilled water pumps, lowering the overall electricity consumption. The performance of the cycle is analyzed at assorted heat source and cooling water temperatures, and different cycle times as well as the transient heat transfer coefficients of the evaporation and condensation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Desalination of aqueous solutions by LTA and MFI zeolite membranes using pervaporation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malekpour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available LTA and MFI zeolite membranes were hydrothermally grown on the surface of an α-alumina porous support. The synthesized membranes were used for removal of cationic and anionic species from aqueous solutions by the pervaporation method. The perfection of the membranes was improved by employing the multi-stage synthesis method. The membranes were characterized by XRD, SEM and IR methods. The membranes were initially evaluated by the pervaporation separation of water from aqueous 2-propanol mixtures. The separation factors obtained were 7081 and 105 for NaA and ZSM-5 membranes, respectively. The ability of membranes for desalination of some aqueous solutions containing I-, Cs+ and Sr2+ ions was examined in various conditions. These ionic species were chosen because of their importance in the nuclear sciences. Both membranes effectively removed (more than 99 wt% I-, Cs+ and Sr2+ from their singlesalt solutions (0.001mol dm-3 over a temperature range of 298-338 K. The effects of parameters such as time and temperature on the separation factors and fluxes were investigated. This work shows that, due to their excellent chemical, thermal and mechanical stability, the zeolitic membranes are useful for desalination of aqueous solutions and treating saline wastewaters by pervaporation. Therefore, this method has the ability to desalinate harsh environment solutions involving strong solvent and radioactive components.

  13. Salt removal using multiple microbial desalination cells under continuous flow conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Qu, Youpeng

    2013-05-01

    Four microbial desalination cells (MDCs) were hydraulically connected and operated under continuous flow conditions. The anode solution from the first MDC flowed into the cathode, and then on to the anode of the next reactor, which avoided pH imbalances that inhibit bacterial metabolism. The salt solution also moved through each desalination chamber in series. Increasing the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of the salt solution from 1 to 2. days increased total NaCl removal from 76 ± 1% to 97 ± 1%, but coulombic efficiencies decreased from 49 ± 4% to 35 ± 1%. Total COD removals were similar at both HRTs (60 ± 2%, 2. days; 59 ± 2%, 1. day). Community analysis of the anode biofilms showed that bacteria most similar to the xylose fermenting bacterium Klebsiella ornithinolytica predominated in the anode communities, and sequences most similar to Geobacter metallireducens were identified in all MDCs except the first one. These results demonstrated successful operation of a series of hydraulically connected MDCs and good desalination rates. © 2013 Elsevier B.V..

  14. Integrated Wireless Monitoring and Control System in Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Haji Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational processes of the Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane desalination plants require continuous monitoring through the constant attendance of operators to ensure proper productivity and minimize downtime and prevent membrane failure. Therefore, the plant must be equipped with a control system that monitors and controls the operational variables. Monitoring and controlling the affecting parameters are critical to the evaluation of the performance of the desalination plant, which will help the operator find and resolve problems immediately. Therefore, this paper was aimed at developing an RO unit by utilizing a wireless sensor network (WSN system. Hence, an RO pilot plant with a feed capacity of 1.2 m3/h was utilized, commissioned, and tested in Kuwait to assess and verify the performance of the integrated WSN in RO membrane desalination system. The investigated system allowed the operators to remotely monitor the operational process of the RO system. The operational data were smoothly recorded and monitored. Furthermore, the technical problems were immediately determined, which reduced the time and effort in rectifying the technical problems relevant to the RO performance. The manpower requirements of such treatment system were dramatically reduced by about 50%. Based on a comparison between manual and wireless monitoring operational processes, the availability of the integrated RO unit with a wireless monitoring was increased by 10%

  15. Enhanced water desalination efficiency in an air-cathode stacked microbial electrodeionization cell (SMEDIC)

    KAUST Repository

    Chehab, Noura A.

    2014-11-01

    A microbial desalination cell was developed that contained a stack of membranes packed with ion exchange resins between the membranes to reduce ohmic resistances and improve performance. This new configuration, called a stacked microbial electro-deionization cell (SMEDIC), was compared to a control reactor (SMDC) lacking the resins. The SMEDIC+S reactors contained both a spacer and 1.4±0.2. mL of ion exchange resin (IER) per membrane channel, while the spacer was omitted in the SMEDIC-S reactors and so a larger volume of resin (2.4±0.2. mL) was used. The overall extent of desalination using the SMEDIC with a moderate (brackish water) salt concentration (13. g/L) was 90-94%, compared to only 60% for the SMDC after 7 fed-batch cycles of the anode. At a higher (seawater) salt concentration of 35. g/L, the extent of desalination reached 61-72% (after 10 cycles) for the SMEDIC, compared to 43% for the SMDC. The improved performance was shown to be due to the reduction in ohmic resistances, which were 130. Ω (SMEDIC-S) and 180. Ω (SMEDIC+S) at the high salt concentration, compared to 210. Ω without resin (SMDC). These results show that IERs can improve performance of stacked membranes for both moderate and high initial salt concentrations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Optimal scheduling of biocide dosing for seawater-cooled power and desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Abdullah Bin

    2011-02-13

    Thermal desalination systems are typically integrated with power plants to exploit the excess heat resulting from the power-generation units. Using seawater in cooling the power plant and the desalination system is a common practice in many parts of the world where there is a shortage of freshwater. Biofouling is one of the major problems associated with the usage of seawater in cooling systems. Because of the dynamic variation in the power and water demands as well as the changes in the characteristics of seawater and the process, there is a need to develop an optimal policy for scheduling biocide usage and cleaning maintenance of the heat exchangers. The objective of this article is to introduce a systematic procedure for the optimization of scheduling the dosing of biocide and dechlorination chemicals as well as cleaning maintenance for a power production/thermal desalination plant. A multi-period optimization formulation is developed and solved to determine: the optimal levels of dosing and dechlorination chemicals; the timing of maintenance to clean the heat-exchange surfaces; and the dynamic dependence of the biofilm growth on the applied doses, the seawater-biocide chemistry, the process conditions, and seawater characteristics for each time period. The technical, economic, and environmental considerations of the system are accounted for. A case study is solved to elucidate the applicability of the developed optimization approach. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Increasing Desalination by Mitigating Anolyte pH Imbalance Using Catholyte Effluent Addition in a Multi-Anode Bench Scale Microbial Desalination Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Robert J.

    2013-09-03

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) uses exoelectrogenic bacteria to oxidize organic matter while desalinating water. Protons produced from the oxidation of organics at the anode result in anolyte acidification and reduce performance. A new method was used here to mitigate anolyte acidification based on adding non-buffered saline catholyte effluent from a previous cycle to the anolyte at the beginning of the next cycle. This method was tested using a larger-scale MDC (267 mL) containing four anode brushes and a three cell pair membrane stack. With an anolyte salt concentration increased by an equivalent of 75 mM NaCl using the catholyte effluent, salinity was reduced by 26.0 ± 0.5% (35 g/L NaCl initial solution) in a 10 h cycle, compared to 18.1 ± 2.0% without catholyte addition. This improvement was primarily due to the increase in buffering capacity of the anolyte, although increased conductivity slightly improved performance as well. There was some substrate loss from the anolyte by diffusion into the membrane stack, but this was decreased from 11% to 2.6% by increasing the anolyte conductivity (7.6 to 14 mS/cm). These results demonstrated that catholyte effluent can be utilized as a useful product for mitigating anolyte acidification and improving MDC performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. State of the art in the process design of large sea water desalination plants; Estado del arte en el diseno del proceso de plantas desaladoras de agua de mar de gran capacidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Sanchez, J. M.; Sanchez Castillo, N.; Sanchez Castillo, R.

    2008-07-01

    The desalination of seawater is used in commercial operations worldwide in order to obtain large quantities of proper water for population supply, irrigation or industrial uses. The designs of the processes which are involved in desalination are changing all the time. In this paper the evolution of the processes of seawater desalination plants will be discussed. It will focus on large Reverse Osmosis desalination plants: also it will discuss the reasons of this evolution. (Author) 8 refs.

  19. Technical review and evaluation of the economics of water desalination: Current and future challenges for better water supply sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination capacity has rapidly increased in the last decade because of the increase in water demand and a significant reduction in desalination cost as a result of significant technological advances, especially in the reverse osmosis process. The cost of desalinated seawater has fallen below US$0.50/m3 for a large scale seawater reverse osmosis plant at a specific location and conditions while in other locations the cost is 50% higher (US$1.00/m3) for a similar facility. In addition to capital and operating costs, other parameters such as local incentives or subsidies may also contribute to the large difference in desalted water cost between regions and facilities. Plant suppliers and consultants have their own cost calculation methodologies, but they are confidential and provide water costs with different accuracies. The few existing costing methodologies and software packages such as WTCost© and DEEP provide an estimated cost with different accuracies and their applications are limited to specific conditions. Most of the available cost estimation tools are of the black box type, which provide few details concerning the parameters and methodologies applied for local conditions. Many desalination plants built recently have greater desalinated water delivery costs caused by special circumstances, such as plant remediation or upgrades, local variation in energy costs, and site-specific issues in raw materials costs (e.g., tariffs and transportation). Therefore, the availability of a more transparent and unique methodology for estimating the cost will help in selecting an appropriate desalination technology suitable for specific locations with consideration of all the parameters influencing the cost. A techno-economic evaluation and review of the costing aspects and the main parameters influencing the total water cost produced by different desalination technologies are herein presented in detail. Some recent developments, such as the increase of unit capacity

  20. Optimizing desalinated sea water blending with other sources to meet magnesium requirements for potable and irrigation waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Noa; Eben-Chaime, Moshe; Oron, Gideon

    2013-05-01

    Sea water desalination provides fresh water that typically lacks minerals essential to human health and to agricultural productivity. Thus the rising proportion of desalinated sea water consumed by both the domestic and agricultural sectors constitutes a public health risk. Research on low-magnesium water irrigation showed that crops developed magnesium deficiency symptoms that could lead to plant death, and tomato yields were reduced by 10-15%. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported on a relationship between sudden cardiac death rates and magnesium intake deficits. An optimization model, developed and tested to provide recommendations for Water Distribution System (WDS) quality control in terms of meeting optimal water quality requirements, was run in computational experiments based on an actual regional WDS. The expected magnesium deficit due to the operation of a large Sea Water Desalination Plant (SWDP) was simulated, and an optimal operation policy, in which remineralization at the SWDP was combined with blending desalinated and natural water to achieve the required quality, was generated. The effects of remineralization costs and WDS physical layout on the optimal policy were examined by sensitivity analysis. As part of the sensitivity blending natural and desalinated water near the treatment plants will be feasible up to 16.2 US cents/m(3), considering all expenses. Additional chemical injection was used to meet quality criteria when blending was not feasible. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of seawater-quality and water treatment procedures on the active bacterial assemblages at two desalination sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, C-L de O; Barbe, C; West, N J; Rapenne, S; Lebaron, P

    2011-07-15

    Inorganic and organic compounds, particles and microorganisms in intake waters are mainly responsible for fouling of reverse osmosis membranes, which reduces the efficiency of the desalination process. The characterization of seawater quality to better predict its fouling potential remains a challenge for the desalination field and little is known about the seasonal variability of water quality parameters in the coastal waters used to supply desalination plants. In this study, standard water quality methods were combined with flow cytometry and molecular methods (16S rRNA sequencing and fingerprinting) to assess in parallel, the physicochemical properties, the microbial abundance and the active microbial community composition of the intake waters and their associated pretreated waters at two desalination sites from July 2007 to July 2008. The overall assessment of quality parameters revealed that microfiltration followed by slow sand filtration were the most efficient in removing microorganisms than the conventional dual media filtration routinely used in full-scale desalination plants, and that all treatments were inefficient for organic matter reduction. Temporal variation of the environmental parameters such as temperature, turbidity and silt density index only moderately affected the bacterial community structure in raw waters, but that interestingly, water treatment compartments changed the composition and diversity of the metabolically active bacterial populations and thus create distinct ecological post-treatment niches.

  2. Microbial desalination cell for enhanced biodegradation of waste engine oil using a novel bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis moh3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Babuskin, S; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Radha, K Krishnan; Sukumar, M

    2014-01-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a bioelectrochemical system developed recently from microbial fuel cells (MFCs), for producing green energy from organic wastes along with desalination of saltwater. MDC is proved to be a better performer than MFC in terms of power output and chemical oxygen demand removal, with desalination as an additional feature. This study investigates the application potential of MDC for integrated biodegradation of waste engine oil. This study showed, for the first time, that waste engine oil could be used as an organic substrate in MDC, achieving biodegradation of engine oil along with considerable desalination and power production. Utilization of these wastes in MDC can protect the environment from waste engine oil contamination. Indigenous oil-degrading bacteria were isolated and identified from engine oil contaminated sludge. Degradation of waste engine oil by these novel isolates was studied in batch cultures and optimized the growth conditions. The same cultures when used in MDC, gave enhanced biodegradation (70.1 +/- 0.5%) along with desalination (68.3 +/- 0.6%) and power production (3.1 +/- 0.3 mW/m2). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were performed to characterize the degradation metabolites in the anolyte of MDC which clearly indicated the biodegradation of long chain, branched and cyclic hydrocarbons present in waste engine oil.

  3. Perceptions and Acceptance of Desalinated Seawater for Irrigation: A Case Study in the Níjar District (Southeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Aznar-Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increasing demand for irrigation water—but, at the same time, with the constraints in the supply from traditional resources—desalinated seawater has been recognized as one of the alternative sources of water to increase the supply for agricultural irrigation. However, its use among farmers has not yet started to expand. Policy makers need to understand what is causing the low acceptance levels of farmers, and how their attitudes could be improved. This is the first study that has conducted an analysis of farmers’ perceptions and acceptance of the use of desalinated seawater for irrigation. The study is based on collected data from a survey completed by farmers in southeastern Spain who do not use desalinated seawater. The main results indicate that desalinated seawater as a water supply source has the lowest acceptance level for farmers. Barriers for its use are price, the need for additional fertilization, and the perception that it would negatively affect the yield and crop quality. The farmers’ general level of knowledge about the impact of using desalinated seawater in agriculture is extremely low. Furthermore, farmers consider it a priority that their startup investment should be subsidized and that water prices should be reduced. Based on the study findings, this paper makes recommendations for the decision-making process in order to improve farmers’ acceptance levels.

  4. Drinking desalinated seawater for a long time induces anomalies in the development of new-born albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Allam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to elucidate the abnormalities in the development of rat brains, livers, kidney and behaviours after drinking desalinated seawater prenatally. Three types of drinking water were employed as an experimental probe (bottled water, filtered desalinated seawater and tap desalinated seawater to investigate neurobehavioral and morphological changes in the development of pup rats. Female rats from each group were administered water from their birth until gestation and lactation. The 1st and 2nd generation pups were divided into three groups: Group C, mothers and pups administered with bottled drinking water (the control group; Group F, mothers and pups administered with filtered drinking water; Group T, mothers and pups administered with unfiltered desalinated seawater (tap water. Morphological changes (CNS aberration and neurobehavioral changes were studied. The aberrations recorded in the tissues (brain, liver, kidney and spinal cord of rats from groups T and F may be due to oxidative stress in these tissues such as reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, peroxidase and super oxide dismutase. In conclusion, drinking desalinated seawater for a long time may cause teratogenic effects in the development of New-born rats.

  5. Wind energy and desalination in the context of Mauritania; Energie eolienne et dessalement dans le contexte mauritanien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semega, B.M. [Nouakchott Univ., (Mauritania). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2008-04-15

    This article discussed the feasibility of using wind power for the desalination of sea water in the African country of Mauritania, where potable water is extremely scarce. Renewable energy, particularly solar and wind energy, may hold the solution to this developing country's economic and social development as well as its environmental concerns. Although wind power technology has developed rapidly in the past decade in Mauritania, the desalination process using wind power remains relatively unknown. Desalination of sea water can be performed by distillation or through reverse osmosis. From 1968 to 1974, Mauritania relied on the distillation process for its drinking water, but the procedure was then stopped because of maintenance problems and high energy costs. In 1984, the town of Guelb installed the first reverse osmosis facility. Many other desalination projects were subsequently installed to take advantage of sea water as a resource to produce drinking water. These other desalination processes which used solar or thermal energy are more costly than wind power. It was concluded that the combination of wind power and reverse osmosis could reduce the price of salt water by 30 per cent or more. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Gialis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for supplying arid regions with potable water, but extensive brine discharge may affect marine biota. To avoid this impact, we explore the option of directing the desalination effluent to a solar saltworks for brine concentration and salt production, in order to achieve a zero discharge desalination plant. In this context, we conducted a survey in order to evaluate the potential of transferring desalination brine to solar saltworks, so that its disposal to the sea is avoided. Our analysis showed that brine transfer by trucks is prohibitively expensive. In order to make the zero discharge desalination plant economically feasible, efforts should be directed into developing a more efficient technology that will result in the production of only a fraction of the brine that is produced from our systems today.

  7. Coastal Residents Ocean Literacy about Seawater Desalination and its Impacts on Marine Ecosystems in the Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraola, S.; Heck, N.; Mirza Ordshahi, B.; Paytan, A.; Petersen, K. L.; Haddad, B.; Potts, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    The current lack of available freshwater in California has brought about the consideration of utilizing seawater desalination to provide a consistent drinking water source for local residents of coastal areas. Public literacy about this technology and its impacts on the ocean is vital to making informed policy decisions about marine resources and ecosystems, which may empower local communities to become more involved stewards of the ocean. Our study evaluates public literacy about seawater desalination and its impacts on the ocean. Data was collected using a questionnaire-based survey from a randomly selected sample of residents and marine stakeholders in coastal communities around Monterey Bay. The study explored (1) self-assessed and accurate knowledge about marine impacts from seawater desalination and (2) what shapes public literacy concerning pertinent ocean issues in communities near a National Marine Sanctuary. Our findings show to what extent the public is prepared to engage in meaningful discussions about marine issues and seawater desalination and if an understanding of the ocean shapes perceptions on saltwater desalination.

  8. Efficiency improvement of seawater desalination processes: the case of the W.E.B. Aruba N.V. on the island of Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchena, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Seawater desalination is known worldwide as the most important source for the production of drinking water in arid areas where there are practically no natural water resources and consequently insufficient surface water or groundwater. However the desalination technology still remains a very costly

  9. Experimental Study on Desalination System Using the Waste Heat of Nuclear Power Plants and Solar Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaswneh, Khalid; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study a new desalination system using the waste heat of nuclear power plant or solar energy system is under consideration. An experiment study will performed to evaluate the performance of the system. In this paper, the experimental design of the system and steady-state and transient analysis, using MATLAB and MARS code respectively, will be presented. A new desalination system using the waste heat from nuclear power plants or solar energy was proposed and the design of an experimental facility to evaluate the system's performance was presented. The analytical steady-state analysis using MATLAB and transient MARS calculations have been performed. An Experiment will be performed to verify the model. Moreover a feasibility study for the proposed design and a comparison with the conventional desalination system will be performed.

  10. Simulating the impact of brine from desalination plants on the salinity of the Persian/Arabian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Ibrahim, H. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle East has an arid climate and very little freshwater from river runoff, which has forced a rapid expansion of desalination plants in the region in order to meet current and future freshwater demand due to rising population. The Gulf is the source of feedwater and sink of concentrated discharge (brine) for plants producing more than half of the world's desalination capacity. Moreover, the Gulf is one of the most saline water bodies in the world due to large evaporation that far exceeds the input of freshwater from precipitation and river runoff. An increase in salinity at the regional scale due to brine discharge may reduce the quality of feedwater to plants and efficiency of desalination, and at the basin scale, a rise in salinity may change the dynamics of water circulation and adversely impact the marine biota. Here we present modeling results from simulating the impact of desalination on the natural Gulf environment using a coupled Gulf-atmosphere regional model (GARM). GARM is the first two-way coupled model developed for the Gulf system. The hydrodynamic component of GARM is the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) and the atmosphere component of GARM is the MIT regional climate model (MRCM), both of which have been widely used in simulating regional ocean and atmospheric dynamics. Desalination activity is incorporated into GARM as a boundary condition and the Gulf system is simulated for a ten-year time period in order to quantify the impact of brine discharge both at regional and basin scales. These results will be useful for desalination plant design and planning for current and future water security in the region.

  11. Effect of initial salt concentrations on cell performance and distribution of internal resistance in microbial desalination cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Euntae; Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are modified microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that concurrently produce electricity and desalinate seawater, but adding a desalination compartment and an ion-exchange membrane may increase the internal resistance (Ri), which can limit the cell performance. However, the effects of a desalination chamber and initial NaCl concentrations on the internal resistances and the cell performances (i.e. Coulombic efficiency (CE), current and power density) of MDCs have yet to be thoroughly explored; thus, the cell performance and Ri distributions of MDCs having different initial concentrations and an MFC having no desalination chamber were compared. In the MDCs, the current and power density generation increased from 2.82 mA and 158.2 mW/m2 to 3.17 mA and 204.5 mW/m2 when the initial NaCl concentrations were increased from 5 to 30 g/L, as a consequence of the internal resistances decreasing from 2432.0 to 2328.4 Ω. And even though the MFC has a lower Ri than the MDCs, lower cell performances (current: 2.59 mA; power density: 141.6 mW/m2 and CE: 62.1%) were observed; there was no effect of improved junction potential in the MFC. Thus, in the MDCs, the higher internal resistances due to the addition of a desalination compartment can be offset by reducing the electrolyte resistance and improving the junction potential at higher NaCl concentrations.

  12. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis – low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis – low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor – reverse osmosis – advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m3 d−1 of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m3 produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  13. The Physical, Chemical and Microbial Quality of Treated Water in Qom s Desalination Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Yari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and objectives

    Water is the basis of life and health. The health of food and water supply plays an important role in human health. One of the methods of water desalination is membrane filter reverse osmosis method. This method is used for desalination of drinking water supply in Qom.

    Methods

    This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study designed to determine the quality of treated water in Qom desalination plant in year 2002. Inlet and outlet water samples of this plant were examined by the standard examination methods and the collected data were compared with national and international standards. Excel software was used for statistical analysis.

    Results

    The results showed that the residual chlorine concentration, total hardness and fluoride concentration were lower than the minimum standard limit set for drinking water. The pH was also lower than the minimum standard limit. Microbial contamination was detected in 6% of samples.

    Conclusion

    The results show that the acidity of water was lower than standard in whole plant. This gives corrosive properties to the water and increases the dissolution of materials, which are in contact with this water. In order to eliminate the secondary contamination, the concentration of residual chlorine should be 1 mg/l. But, none of the measurements showed a concentration as high as this value. As fluoride is an important element for health and growth of bone and teeth, especially in growing children, fluoride should be added to the drinking water. As the relationship between hardness of water and cardiovascular diseases has been established, it can be concluded that this drinking water supply can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in long time. Dilution of this water is recommended to adjust various factors to the standard limits and keep the total dissolved solids low.

  14. Local desalination treatment plant wastewater reuse and evaluation potential absorption of salts by the halophyte plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Kalantari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of arid and semi-arid areas and consequently water scarcity are affected by climate change. This can influence on availability and quality of water while demands on food and water are increasing. As pressure on freshwater is increasing, utilization of saline water in a sustainable approach is inevitable. Therefore, bioremediation using salt tolerant plants that is consistent with sustainable development objectives might be an alternative and effective approach. In this study, saline wastewater from a local desalination treatment plant was utilized to irrigate four halophyte plants, including Aloevera, Tamarix aphylla, Rosmarinus officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla. A field experiment was designed and conducted in Zarrindasht, south of Iran in years 2012-2013 accordingly. Two irrigation treatments consisting of freshwater with salinity of 2.04 dS.m-1 and desalination wastewater with salinity of 5.77dSm-1 were applied. The experiment was designed as a split plot in the form of randomized complete block design (RCB with three replications. The results of variance analysis, ANOVA, on salt concentration in Aloevera showed that there was no significant difference between the effects of two irrigation water qualities except for Na. In Rosmarinus officinalis, only the ratio of K/Na showed a significant difference. None of the examined salt elements showed a significant difference in Tamarix aphylla irrigated with both water qualities. In Matricaria chamomilla, only Mg and K/Na ratio showed a significant difference (Duncan 5%. As a result, no significant difference was observed in salt absorption by the examined plants in treatments which were irrigated by desalination wastewater and freshwater. This could be a good result that encourages the use of similar wastewater to save freshwater in a sustainable system.

  15. Application of nanosilver surface modification to RO membrane and spacer for mitigating biofouling in seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ling; Lin, Justin Chun-Te; Huang, Chihpin

    2009-08-01

    Biofouling is one the most critical problems in seawater desalination plants and science has not yet found effective ways to control it. Silver compounds and ions are historically recognized for their effective antimicrobial activity. Nanosilver particles have been applied as a biocide in many aspects of disinfection, including healthcare products and water treatment. This study proposes an innovative biofouling control approach by surface modification of the RO membrane and spacer with nanosilver coating. A chemical reduction method was used for directly coating nanosilver particles on the membrane sheet and spacer. The surface-modified membrane and spacer were tested for their antifouling performance in a cross-flow flat-sheet membrane cell, which is a part of a pilot plant in Wukan desalination plant. The silver-coating membranes and spacers, along with an unmodified membrane sheet, were tested in the membrane cell and compared on the basis of their antifouling performance. Permeate flux decline and salt rejection was continuously monitored through the testing period. Meanwhile regrowth of microbial populations on the membrane cell was quantified by a unique microbial counting every three to four days. The results showed that both silver-coated membrane (Ag-cM) with uncoated spacer and silver-coated spacer (Ag-cS) with uncoated membrane performed better than the unmodified membrane and spacer (Un-MS), in terms of much slower decrease in permeate flux and TDS rejection. However, the effect of silver-coated spacer on antimicrobial activity was more lasting. In the silver-coated spacer test, there was almost no multiplication of cells detected on the membrane during the whole testing period. Besides, the cells adhering to the membrane seemed to lose their activity quickly. According to the RO performance and microbial growth morphology, the nanosilver coating technology is valuable for use in biofouling control in seawater desalination.

  16. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  17. Analysis and optimization of a solar thermal power generation and desalination system using a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leovigildo

    Using a novel approach for a Photovoltaic-Thermal (PV-T) panel system, analytical and optimization analyses were performed for electricity generation as well as desalinated water production. The PV-T panel was design with a channel under it where seawater would be housed at a constant pressure of 2.89 psia and ambient temperature of 520°R. The surface of the PV panel was modeled by a high absorption black chrome surface. Irradiation flux on the surface and the heat addition on the saltwater were calculated hourly between 9:00am and 6:00pm. At steady state conditions, the saturation temperature of 600°R was limited at PV tank-channel outlet and the evaporation rate was measured to be 2.53 lbm/hr-ft2. The desorbed air then passed through a turbine, where it generated electrical power at 0.84 Btu/hr, condensing into desalinated water at the outlet. Optimization was performed for max capacity yield based on available temperature distribution of 600°R to 1050°R at PV tank-channel outlet. This gave an energy generation range for the turbine of 0.84 Btu/hr to 3.84 Btu/hr, while the desalinated water production range was 2.53 lbm/hr-ft2 to 10.65 lbm/hr-ft2. System efficiency was found to be between 7.5% to 24.3%. Water production efficiency was found to be 40% to 43%.

  18. Investigating geochemical aspects of managed aquifer recharge by column experiments with alternating desalinated water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen-Eliraz, Gefen; Russak, Amos; Nitzan, Ido; Guttman, Joseph; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) events are occasionally carried out with surplus desalinated seawater that has been post-treated with CaCO 3 in infiltration ponds overlying the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. This water's chemical characteristics differ from those of any other water recharged to the aquifer and of the natural groundwater. As the MAR events are short (hours to weeks), the sediment under the infiltration ponds will intermittently host desalinated and natural groundwater. As part of comprehensive research on the influence of those events, column experiments were designed to simulate the alternation of the two water types: post-treated desalinated seawater (PTDES) and natural groundwater (GW). Each experiment included three stages: (i) saturation with GW; (ii) inflow of PTDES; (iii) inflow of GW. Three runs were conducted, each with different sediments extracted from the field and representing a different layer below the infiltration pond: (i) sand (<1% CaCO 3 ), (ii) sand containing 7% CaCO 3 , and (iii) crushed calcareous sandstone (35% CaCO 3 ). The results from all columns showed enrichment of K + and Mg 2+ (up to 0.4meq/L for 20 pore volumes) when PTDES replaced GW, whereas an opposite trend of Ca 2+ depletion (up to 0.5meq/L) was observed only in the columns that contained a high percentage of CaCO 3 . When GW replaced PTDES, depletion of Mg 2+ and K + was noted. The results indicated that adsorption/desorption of cations are the main processes causing the observed enrichment/depletion. It was concluded that the high concentration of Ca 2+ (relative to the total concentration of cations) and the low concentration of Mg 2+ in the PTDES relative to natural GW are the factors controlling the main sediment-water interaction. The enrichment of PTDES with Mg 2+ may be viewed as an additional post-treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Desalination Brine and Sulfate-Dominated Saltwater in a Euryhaline Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsco, Allison; Sikder, Rafid; Schlenk, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Desalination is a promising sustainable solution to meet growing water needs of cities across the United States. However, the environmental impacts of the resulting filtrate (brine) discharged to surface water need to be evaluated before large-scale desalination can be successful in the United States. Developing fish are especially sensitive to changes in salinity and varying ionic composition. Limited research is available on the impacts of hypersalinity on chronic vertebrate embryonic development, particularly on sublethal effects. To investigate this, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were treated with: (1) graphite filtered freshwater; (2) artificial seawater [17, 35, 42, 56, and 70 parts per thousand (ppt)]; (3) effluent from a desalination facility at Monterey Bay Aquarium, CA, diluted to 75, 50, and 25% with 35 ppt artificial seawater to simulate mixing (39, 42, 46, and 50 ppt); (4) artificial San Joaquin River water (CA, USA) (9, 13, and 17 ppt); and (5) artificial San Joaquin River water diluted to 75, 50, and 25% with artificial seawater to simulate estuarine mixing in the San Francisco Bay (13, 19, 24, and 30 ppt). Percent hatch, survival post hatch, deformities, swim bladder inflation, and median day to hatch were recorded to calculate EC50 (50% effect concentration) and NOEC (no observable effect concentration) values. No significant difference was observed between artificial seawater and Monterey Bay aquarium effluent (EC50 = 45-55 ppt). However, San Joaquin River water decreased survival post hatch and increased deformities in comparison to artificial seawater and San Joaquin River water mixed with seawater, suggesting that unique ion compositions may play a role in embryo and larval toxicity.

  20. Performance investigation of an advanced multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination system with quantum performance improvement. The proposed multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle utilizes a single heat source i.e., low-temperature hot water (as low as 55°C). Passive heating of the feed water (no direct heating) is adopted using total internal heat recovery from the kinetic energy of desorbed vapor and water vapor uptake potential of the adsorbent. Thus, the evaporation in the MEAD cycle ensues at low temperatures ranging from 35°C to 7°C yet providing significantly high performance ratio. The energy from the regenerated vapor is recovered for multiple evaporation/condensation of saline water by a water-run-around circuit between the top brine temperature (TBT) effect and the AD condenser. The adsorbent material is the hydrophilic mesoporous silica gel with high pore surface area. Numerical simulation for such a cycle is developed based on experimentally verified model extending to multi-effect cycle. The system is investigated under several operation conditions such as cycle time allocation, heat source temperature and the number of intermediate effects. It is observed that most of the evaporating-condensing effects operate at low temperature i.e., below 35°C as opposed to conventional multi-effect distillation (MED) cycle. For a MEAD cycle with 7 intermediate effects, the specific water production rate, the performance ratio and the gain output ratio are found to be 1.0m3/htonne of silica gel, 6.3 and 5.1, respectively. Low scaling and fouling potentials being evaporation at low temperatures yet high recovery ratio makes the cycle suitable for effectively and efficiently handling highly concentrated feed water such as produced water, brine rejected from other desalination plants and zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Using microbial desalination cells to reduce water salinity prior to reverse osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Mehanna, Maha

    2010-01-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new method to reduce the salinity of one solution while generating electrical power from organic matter and bacteria in another (anode) solution. Substantial reductions in the salinity can require much larger volumes of the anode solution than the saline water, but any reduction of salinity will benefit the energy efficiency of a downstream reverse osmosis (RO) desalination system. We investigated here the use of an MDC as an RO pre-treatment method using a new type of air-cathode MDC containing three equally sized chambers. A single cycle of operation using a 1 g L -1 acetate solution reduced the conductivity of salt water (5 g L-1 NaCl) by 43 ± 6%, and produced a maximum power density of 480 mW m-2 with a coulombic efficiency of 68 ± 11%. A higher concentration of acetate (2 g L-1) reduced solution conductivity by 60 ± 7%, and a higher salt concentration (20 g L-1 NaCl) reduced solution conductivity by 50 ± 7%. The use of membranes with increased ion exchange capacities further decreased the solution conductivity by 63 ± 2% (20 g L-1 NaCl). These results demonstrate substantial (43-67%) desalination of water is possible using equal volumes of anode solution and salt water. These results show that MDC treatment could be used to substantially reduce salt concentrations and thus energy demands for downstream RO processing, while at the same time producing electrical power. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Simulation-based Analysis of the Differences in the Removal Rate of Chlorides, Nitrates and Sulfates by Electrokinetic Desalination Treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Due to their abundance in the natural environment, chloride, nitrate and sulfate salts are considered the main responsible for the salt-induced decay processes in building materials and sculptures. Electro-desalination techniques, enhanced with carbonated clay buffer poultice placed between...... than chlorides and nitrates. A physicochemical model for electrochemically-induced reactive-transport processes is described and used for a theoretical analysis of the influence of the chemical interactions on the removal rate of the target ions. Simulations for the electro-desalination of a brick...

  3. On the use of wind energy to power reverse osmosis desalination plant: A case study from Tenes (Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmas, Djamila Abdeslame; Merzouk, Nachida Kasbadji [Wind Energy Division, Renewable Energy Development Center, BP. 62, Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Kherba, Nabila; Hacene, Fouad Boukli [University Hassiba Ben Bouali of Chlef (Algeria); Merzouk, Mustapha [Mechanical Department, University Saad Dahlab of Blida (Algeria); Mahmoudi, Hacene [Wind Energy Division, Renewable Energy Development Center, BP. 62, Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); University Hassiba Ben Bouali of Chlef (Algeria); Goosen, Mattheus F.A. (Alfaisal University, P.O. Box 50927, Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia)

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to provide a detailed analysis of wind energy resources for seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO), in a case study region of Tenes Algeria, by using commercial Wasp software. An economic analysis of the environmental benefits was also done using RETScreen software to give details about financial investment hazards and CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. An energy yield and economical analysis was performed of a hypothetical wind farm consisting of 5 wind turbines of type Bonus 2 MW. It was found that wind energy can successfully power a SWRO desalination plant in the case study region. (author)

  4. Mild desalination demo pilot: New normalization approach to effectively evaluate electrodialysis reversal technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel Bisselink

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Key performance indicators for characterization of nanofiltration performance are well developed, similar key performance indicators for electrodialysis reversal are however underdeveloped. Under the E4Water project Dow Benelux BV and Evides Industriewater BV operate a pilot facility to compare both technologies for their application to mildly desalinate a variety of brackish water streams. Normalized pressure drop, normalized current efficiency and normalized membrane resistance proved to be a useful tool to interpret process performance and to initiate a cleaning procedure if required. The availability of these normalized key performance indicators enables optimization and process monitoring and control of electrodialysis reversal independent of the continuously changing conditions of the feed water.

  5. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Aipeng; Jiangzhou, Shu; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO) units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP) of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality. PMID:24701180

  6. Exceptional ion rejection ability of directional solvent for non-membrane desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rish, Daniel; Luo, Shirui; Kurtz, Brien; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    The recently demonstrated directional solvent extraction (DSE) is promising for very low temperature, membrane-free water desalination. In this paper, we combine atomistic simulations and experimental validation to demonstrate that the currently used directional solvent, decanoic acid, can reject all major salt ions in seawater, with very high rejection rates. The salinities of the DSE recovered water show that ion rejection rates are ˜98%-99%—similar to those of the best reverse osmosis membranes. Our test also shows that the DSE process can desalt seawater to produce fresh water that meets drinking water standards.

  7. Desalination of Produced Water via Gas Hydrate Formation and Post Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a two-step desalination process, in which produced water is cleaned by forming gas hydrate in it and subsequently dewatering the hydrate to remove the residual produced water trapped in between the hydrate crystals. All experiments were performed with pressure in the range of 450 to 800psi and temperature in the range of -1 to 1°C using CO? as guest molecule for the hydrate crystals. The experiments were conducted using artificial produced waters containing different amoun...

  8. INVESTIGATIONS ON LOW TEMPERATURE FLASH EVAPORATION DESALINATION FOR SMALL-SCALE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    G. Jims John Wessley; P. Koshy Mathews

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental study of a flash evaporation based desalination system that can cater to the small-scale fresh water needs of coastal and arid areas. The proposed small-scalesystem consists of an evaporator, water-cooled condenser and a vacuum pump to produce the required vacuum in the evaporator. The effect of inlet brine water temperature at various flow rate and evaporator pressure on the fresh water yield is evaluated. A maximum fresh water yield of 4 l/h is obtained ...

  9. Gathering straw energy balance for co-generation in sugarcane mills; Balanco energetico do recolhimento da palha para cogeracao de energia em usinas de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, Joao Paulo Soto; Bizzo, Waldir Antonio; Carvalho, Danilo Jose; Berton, Rafael Piatto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Linero, Francisco Antonio Barba [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira (CTC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: jpsveiga@fem.unicamp.br, bizzo@fem.unicamp.br, linero@ctc.com.br, liar@fem.unicamp.br, rpberton@fem.unicamp.br

    2012-11-01

    With the requirement and expansion of sugarcane harvest without burning the straw in the field of began to be seen as a potential fuel for co-generation sugarcane mills together bagasse. This study examined the productivity and three ways of gathering and transportation of straw in order to determine the potential energy available in biomass residues and their respective energy consumption on gathering and transport operations. To this were determined parameters for the production of waste per hectare, minimum quantity to be left in the field for maintenance of soil organic carbon and erosion reducing, the amount of straw recovered and milled at the mill, material humidity and diesel and electricity consumption of each step to obtain the final balance of energy recovered. (author)

  10. Simulation of an air conditioning absorption refrigeration system in a co-generation process combining a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky, I.; Gamboa, S.A.; Rivera, W. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia - UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Romero, R.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas - UAEM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Isaza, C.A. [Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin (Colombia). Instituto de Energia y Termodinamica; Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia - UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad-UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Moreira, J. [Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad-UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    In this work, a computer simulation program was developed to determine the optimum operating conditions of an air conditioning system during the co-generation process. A 1 kW PEMFC was considered in this study with a chemical/electrical theoretical efficiency of 40% and a thermal efficiency of 30% applying an electrical load of 100%. A refrigeration-absorption cycle (RAC) operating with monomethylamine-water solutions (MMA-WS), with low vapor generation temperatures (up to 80 C) is proposed in this work. The computer simulation was based on the refrigeration production capacity at the maximum power capacity of the PEMFC. Heat losses between the fuel cell and the absorption air conditioning system at standard operating conditions were considered to be negligible. The results showed the feasibility of using PEMFC for cooling, increasing the total efficiency of the fuel cell system. (author)

  11. Observations and Prediction of Recovered Quality of Desalinated Seawater in the Strategic ASR Project in Liwa, Abu Dhabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Stuyfzand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To be able to overcome water shortages, Abu Dhabi Emirate started an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR project with desalinated seawater (DSW as source water near Liwa. It is the largest DSW-ASR project in the world (stored volume ~10 Mm3/year, and should recover potable water for direct use. DSW is infiltrated into a desert dune sand aquifer using “sand-covered gravel-bed” recharge basins. In this study, we evaluate the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical stratification of the (suboxic target aquifer, and water quality changes of DSW during trial infiltration runs. We predict water quality changes of DSW after 824 d of infiltration, during 90 d of intensive recovery (67% recovered without storage (scenario A, as well as after 10 years of storage (scenario B, with significant bubble drift. Monitoring of preceding trials revealed a lack of redox reactions; little carbonate dissolution and Ca/Na exchange; much SiO2 dissolution; a strong mobilization of natural AsO43−, B, Ba, F, CrO42−, Mo, Sr and V from the (suboxic aquifer; and immobilization of PO4, Al, Cu, Fe and Ni from DSW. The Easy-Leacher model was applied in forward and reverse mode including lateral bubble drift, to predict water quality of the recovered water. We show that hydrogeochemical modeling of a complex ASR-system can be relatively easy and straightforward, if aquifer reactivity is low and redox reactions can be ignored. The pilot observations and modeling results demonstrate that in scenario A recovered water quality still complies with Abu Dhabi’s drinking water standards (even up to 85% recovery. For scenario B, however, the recovery efficiency declines to 60% after which various drinking water standards are exceeded, especially the one for chromium.

  12. Isotope and ion selectivity in reverse osmosis desalination: geochemical tracers for man-made freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Vengosh, Avner; Guerrot, Catherine; Millot, Romain; Pankratov, Irena

    2008-07-01

    A systematic measurement of ions and 2H/1H, 7Li/6Li, 11B/10B, 18O/ 16O, and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes in feed-waters, permeates, and brines from commercial reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants in Israel (Ashkelon, Eilat, and Nitzana) and Cyprus (Larnaca) reveals distinctive geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of fresh water generated from desalination of seawater (SWRO) and brackish water (BWRO). The degree of isotope fractionation during the passage of water and solutes through the RO membranes depends on the medium (solvent-water vs. solutes), chemical speciation of the solutes, their charge, and their mass difference. O, H, and Sr isotopes are not fractionated during the RO process. 7Li is preferentially rejected in low pH RO, and B isotope fractionation depends on the pH conditions. Under low pH conditions, B isotopes are not significantly fractionated, whereas at high pH, RO permeates are enriched by 20 per thousand in 11B due to selective rejection of borate ion and preferential permeation of 11B-enriched boric acid through the membrane. The specific geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of SWRO provide a unique tool for tracing "man-made" fresh water as an emerging recharge component of natural water resources.

  13. INFLUENCE OF NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENT ON SCALE DEPOSITION IN MULTI-STAGE FLASH THERMAL DESALINATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman E Al-Rawajfeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scale formation represents a major operational problem encountered in thermal desalination plants. In current installed plants, and to allow for a reasonable safety margin, sulfate scale deposition limits the top brine temperature (TBT in multi-stage flash (MSF distillers up to 110-112oC. This has significant effect on the unit capital, operational and water production cost. In this work, the influence of nanofiltration (NF pretreatment on the scale deposition potential and increasing TBT in MSF thermal desalination plants is modeled on the basis of mass transfer with chemical reaction of solutes in the brine. Full and partial NF-pretreatment of the feed water were investigated. TBT can be increased in MSF by increasing the percentage of NF-treated feed. Full NF pretreatment of the make-up allows TBT in the MSF plant to be raised up to 175oC in the case of di hybrid NF-MSF and up to 165oC in the case of tri hybrid NF-RO-MSF. The significant scale reduction is associated with increasing flashing range, unit recovery, unit performance, and will lead to reduction in heat transfer surface area, pumping power and therefore, water production cost.

  14. Optimization study of small-scale solar membrane distillation desalination systems (s-SMDDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsuan; Chang, Cheng-Liang; Hung, Chen-Yu; Cheng, Tung-Wen; Ho, Chii-Dong

    2014-11-24

    Membrane distillation (MD), which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS) is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS) is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m(2) and 23 m(2) are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m(3) and $5.16/m(3) for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction.

  15. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance investigation on a 4-bed adsorption desalination cycle with internal heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2016-10-08

    Multi-bed adsorption cycle with the internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator is investigated for desalination application. A numerical model is developed for a 4-bed adsorption cycle implemented with the master-and-slave configuration and the aforementioned internal heat recovery scheme. The present model captures the reversed adsorption/desorption phenomena frequently associated with the unmatched switching periods. Mesoporous silica gel and water vapor emanated from the evaporation of the seawater are employed as the adsorbent and adsorbate pair. The experimental data and investigation for such configurations are reported for the first time at heat source temperatures from 50 °C to 70 °C. The numerical model is validated rigorously and the parametric study is conducted for the performance of the cycle at assorted operation conditions such as hot and cooling water inlet temperatures and the cycle times. The specific daily water production (SDWP) of the present cycle is found to be about 10 m/day per tonne of silica gel for the heat source temperature at 70 °C. Performance comparison is conducted for various types of adsorption desalination cycles. It is observed that the AD cycle with the current configuration provides superior performance whilst is operational at unprecedentedly low heat source temperature as low as 50 °C.

  17. Microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell for CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-05-01

    Mineral carbonation can be used for CO2 sequestration, but the reaction rate is slow. In order to accelerate mineral carbonation, acid generated in a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) was examined to dissolve natural minerals rich in magnesium/calcium silicates (serpentine), and the alkali generated by the same process was used to absorb CO2 and precipitate magnesium/calcium carbonates. The concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ dissolved from serpentine increased 20 and 145 times by using the acid solution. Under optimal conditions, 24mg of CO2 was absorbed into the alkaline solution and 13mg of CO2 was precipitated as magnesium/calcium carbonates over a fed-batch cycle (24h). Additionally, the MEDCC removed 94% of the COD (initially 822mg/L) and achieved 22% desalination (initially 35g/L NaCl). These results demonstrate the viability of this process for effective CO2 sequestration using renewable organic matter and natural minerals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Field tests of a natural vacuum solar desalination system using hybrid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Eko Y.; Napitupulu, Richard A. M.; Siagian, Parulian; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    This study deals with field test of a natural vacuum solar desalination system using hybrid type solar collector. In order to perform the tests, a natural vacuum solar desalination has been designed and fabricated. The dimension of evaporator is 1000 mm ×1000 mm × 200 mm, while dimension of solar collector is 1000 mm ×1500 mm. The system is tested by exposing to solar radiation in Medan city of Indonesia for five days. The solar radiations during test are 8.79 MJ/m2, 10.14 MJ/m2, 6.88 MJ/m2, 11.05 MJ/m2, and 11.36 MJ/m2, respectively. The produced fresh waters are 160 ml, 180 ml, 118 ml, 206 ml, 220 ml, respectively. The conclusions are as follows. The produced fresh water is still very low due to the heat from the solar collector is not transferred perfectly to the evaporator. There produced fresh water is strongly affected by solar irradiation. It is recommended to minimize the heat loss from the evaporator and the transfer fluid.

  19. Removal efficiency of nickel and lead from industrial wastewater using microbial desalination cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaienia, Fariba; Asadipour, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Malakootian, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new method of desalination. Its energy is supplied through microbial metabolism of organic materials. In this study, synthetic samples were provided with concentration of 25, 50, 75, 100 mg/L Ni and Pb. Removal efficiency of each metal was analyzed after 60, 90, 120 min, psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and 3-4, 4-5, 5-6 mg/L dissolved oxygen. Optimum conditions for removing Ni and Pb were achieved in 100, 4.5 and 4.6 mg/L dissolved oxygen, respectively, 26 °C and 120 min. Nickel and led were removed from wastewaters of Isfahan electroplating industry and steel company. The maximum removal efficiencies of Ni and Pb in real samples were 68.81 and 70.04%. MDC can be considered as a good choice for removing Ni and Pb from industrial wastewater. Due to microorganisms for decomposing organic material in municipal wastewater, metals from industrial wastewater can be removed simultaneously.

  20. Feasibility study of an electrodialysis system for in-home water desalination in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor G. Nayar

    Full Text Available Poor quality of drinking water delivered to homes by state utilities, and a large reliance on brackish ground water resources in parts of urban India, has resulted in the adoption of in-home water treatment solutions. The only existing in-home water treatment solution capable of desalination is reverse osmosis (RO. However, existing RO products can recover only 25–50% of the feed water supplied as usable product water. In this study, an alternative solution that relies on electrodialysis (ED was designed and experimentally shown to achieve a recovery of 80%, producing 12 L/h of water at the desired salinity of 350 ppm from a feed salinity of 3000 ppm. The cost and size of the proposed system were also found to be comparable to existing in-home RO systems. In-home ED water treatment systems could compete with existing RO products while providing the advantage of improved water-conservation in water-stressed India. Keywords: Electrodialysis, Desalination, Reverse osmosis, Brackish water

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF ICE FORMATION ON TEPLOOBMENNOGO SIDE OF THETHERMOELECTRIC DESALINATION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gajiyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The necessity of the use of technology and analytically summarizes the methods of desalination of seawater and brackish waters. Tasked to investigate the processes occurring in the desalination plant with the continuous process of freezing of ice on heat transfer surface with a film mode of fluid motion.To solve this problem the article deals with mathematical cal model of ice formation on heat transfer surfaces and thermo-electric distiller. The model allows us to estimate the rise time and the thickness of the ice under specified conditions of temperature and flow of water. It is shown that the use of thermoelectric converters allows the flexibility to adjust the mode of ice formation. Solved the problem of determining the maximum thickness of the ice at which freezing is possible film of water flowing through it at a predetermined temperature of the cooling plate and the cooling capacity of the thermoelectric battery.It is established that the performance of thermoelectric opreznitive of the system increases due to the increase in the number of cooled surfaces, and the use of the heat from the hot junction of the converters for melting of ice increases the energy efficiency of the system as a whole. 

  2. Improving the performance of water desalination through ultra-permeable functionalized nanoporous graphene oxide membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Azamat, Jafar; Erfan-Niya, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the water desalination performance of nanoporous graphene oxide (NPGO) membranes. The simulated systems consist of a NPGO as a membrane with a functionalized pore in its center immersed in an aqueous ionic solution and a graphene sheet as a barrier. The considered NPGO membranes are involved four types of pore with different size and chemistry. The results indicated that the NPGO membrane has effective efficiency in salt rejection as well as high performance in water flux. For all types of pore with the radius size of 2.9-4.5 Å, the NPGO shows salt rejection of >89%. Functional groups on the surface and edge of pores have a great effect on water flux. To precisely understand the effect of functional groups on the surface of nanostructured membranes, nanoporous graphene was simulated under the same condition for comparison. Hydrophilic groups on the surface make the NPGO as an ultra-permeable membrane. As a result, the obtained water flux for NPGO was about 77% greater than graphene. Also, it was found that the water flux of NPGO is 2-5 orders of magnitude greater than other existing reverse osmosis membranes. Therefore, the investigated systems can be recommended as a model for the water desalination.

  3. Development of Omniphobic Desalination Membranes Using a Charged Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongho; Boo, Chanhee; Ryu, Won-Hee; Taylor, André D; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-05-04

    In this study, we present a facile and scalable approach to fabricate omniphobic nanofiber membranes by constructing multilevel re-entrant structures with low surface energy. We first prepared positively charged nanofiber mats by electrospinning a blend polymer-surfactant solution of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) and cationic surfactant (benzyltriethylammonium). Negatively charged silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were grafted on the positively charged electrospun nanofibers via dip-coating to achieve multilevel re-entrant structures. Grafted SiNPs were then coated with fluoroalkylsilane to lower the surface energy of the membrane. The fabricated membrane showed excellent omniphobicity, as demonstrated by its wetting resistance to various low surface tension liquids, including ethanol with a surface tension of 22.1 mN/m. As a promising application, the prepared omniphobic membrane was tested in direct contact membrane distillation to extract water from highly saline feed solutions containing low surface tension substances, mimicking emerging industrial wastewaters (e.g., from shale gas production). While a control hydrophobic PVDF-HFP nanofiber membrane failed in the desalination/separation process due to low wetting resistance, our fabricated omniphobic membrane exhibited a stable desalination performance for 8 h of operation, successfully demonstrating clean water production from the low surface tension feedwater.

  4. Electroadsorption Desalination with Carbon Nanotube/PAN-Based Carbon Fiber Felt Composites as Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhou, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition method is used to prepare CNT (carbon nanotube)/PCF (PAN-based carbon fiber felt) composite electrodes in this paper, with the surface morphology of CNT/PCF composites and electroadsorption desalination performance being studied. Results show such electrode materials with three-dimensional network nanostructures having a larger specific surface area and narrower micropore distribution, with a huge number of reactive groups covering the surface. Compared with PCF electrodes, CNT/PCF can allow for a higher adsorption and desorption rate but lower energy consumption; meanwhile, under the condition of the same voltage change, the CNT/PCF electrodes are provided with a better desalination effect. The study also found that the higher the original concentration of the solution, the greater the adsorption capacity and the lower the adsorption rate. At the same time, the higher the solution's pH, the better the desalting; the smaller the ions' radius, the greater the amount of adsorption. PMID:24963504

  5. Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsuan; Chang, Cheng-Liang; Hung, Chen-Yu; Cheng, Tung-Wen; Ho, Chii-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD), which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS) is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS) is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m2 and 23 m2 are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m3 and $5.16/m3 for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction. PMID:25421065

  6. Value engineering application for conceptual design of seawater desalination plant in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantasa Salve Prastica Rian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta has 10.2 million inhabitants. It has thoughtful problem about clean water availability. Today, only 54% of clean water availability could be supplied to citizens in Jakarta. The urgent need of new clean water resources is highly demanding for Jakarta future life. By employing abundant sea water in the northern part of Jakarta, desalination is a highly effective way that has been proven through value engineering. A conceptual design of desalination project is completed through FAST diagram and benchmarking method. According to life cycle cost analysis, it results IRR 13%, net product value Rp3.782 trillion, payback period of 13.39 years, and benefit cost ratio of 3.00. To make this project complete and reasonable, the public-private partnership should be conducted for modal sharing. This research piloted four analyzed scenarios. The best alternative scenario makes the government budget 60% for initial cost, spend half for operational and maintenance cost, and obtain 20% from the whole project revenue.

  7. Preparation, Characterization and Performance of Templated Silica Membranes in Non-Osmotic Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladewig, Bradley P.; Tan, Ying Han; Lin, Chun Xiang C.; Ladewig, Katharina; Diniz da Costa, João C.; Smart, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In this work we investigate the potential of a polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol-polyethylene glycol, tri-block copolymer as a template for a hybrid carbon/silica membrane for use in the non-osmotic desalination of seawater. Silica samples were loaded with varying amounts of tri-block copolymer and calcined in a vacuum to carbonize the template and trap it within the silica matrix. The resultant xerogels were analyzed with FTIR, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and N2 sorption techniques, wherein it was determined that template loadings of 10 and 20% produced silica networks with enhanced pore volumes and appropriately sized pores for desalination. Membranes were created via two different routes and tested with feed concentrations of 3, 10 and 35 ppk of NaCl at room temperature employing a transmembrane pressure drop of 85% (in most cases >95%) and fluxes higher than 1.6 kg m−2 h−1. Furthermore, the carbonized templated membranes displayed equal or improved performance compared to similarly prepared non-templated silica membranes, with the best results of a flux of 3.7 kg m−2 h−1 with 98.5% salt rejection capacity, exceeding previous literature reports. In addition, the templated silica membranes exhibited superior hydrostability demonstrating their potential for long-term operation. PMID:28879954

  8. Water and Salt Transport Properties of Triptycene-Containing Sulfonated Polysulfone Materials for Desalination Membrane Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongxi; Aboki, Joseph; Ji, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ruilan; Geise, Geoffrey M

    2018-01-31

    A series of triptycene-containing sulfonated polysulfone (TRP-BP) materials was prepared via condensation polymerization, and the desalination membrane-relevant fundamental water and salt transport properties (i.e., sorption, diffusion, and permeability coefficients) of the polymers were characterized. Incorporating triptycene into sulfonated polysulfone increased the water content of the material compared to sulfonated polysulfone materials that do not contain triptycene. No significant difference in salt sorption was observed between TRP-BP membranes and other sulfonated polysulfone membranes, suggesting that the presence of triptycene in the polymer did not dramatically affect thermodynamic interactions between salt and the polymer. Both water and salt diffusion coefficients in the TRP-BP membranes were suppressed relative to other sulfonated polysulfone materials with comparable water content, and these phenomena may result from the influence of triptycene on polymer chain packing and/or free-volume distribution, which could increase the tortuosity of the transport pathways in the polymers. Enhanced water/salt diffusivity selectivity was observed for some of the TRP-BP membranes relative to those materials that did not contain triptycene, and correspondingly, incorporation of triptycene into sulfonated polysulfone resulted in an increase, particularly for acid counterion form TRP-BP materials, in water/salt permeability selectivity, which is favorable for desalination membrane applications.

  9. Calcium phosphate scaling during wastewater desalination on oligoamide surfaces mimicking reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinam, Karthik; Oren, Yoram; Petry, Winfried; Schwahn, Dietmar; Kasher, Roni

    2018-01-01

    Desalinated domestic wastewater is an indispensable water resource in arid regions; however, its recovery can be limited by calcium phosphate scaling and fouling of the membrane. Here we investigated calcium phosphate mineralization on oligoamide surfaces that mimics reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane surfaces. We used a solution that simulates desalination of secondary treated domestic wastewater effluents for calcium phosphate mineralization experiments with oligoamide-coated gold surfaces. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry showed that calcium phosphate and carbonate precipitated on RO mimetic surfaces. The rate of precipitation on oligoamide sensors was monitored by a quartz crystal microbalance, showing that scaling was more intense on the RO than the NF mimetic surface and that excessive carboxyl functional groups on both surfaces promoted scaling. Filtration experiments of similar solutions with commercial membranes showed that scaling was more intense on the RO membranes than on the NF membranes, which supported the results obtained with the oligoamide model surfaces. The results of this study can be implemented in developing RO and NF membranes to prevent calcium phosphate scaling and consequently lower water-treatment costs of domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of vapor absorption cooling on humidification-dehumidification (HDH desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chiranjeevi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The desalination yield in humidification-dehumidification (HDH process is increased by proposing cooling plant integration with two stage operation. The current work is targeted on the investigation of vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR parameters on overall energy utilization factor (EUF. The dephlegmator heat is recovered internally in VAR instead of rejecting to environment. This work can be used to control the operational conditions of VAR to enhance the desalination and cooling together. The studied process parameters in VAR are strong solution concentration, separator or generator temperature, dephlegmator effectiveness, circulating water inlet temperature and evaporator temperature. Out of these five variables, lower limit of separator temperature, upper limit of dephlegmator effectiveness and lower limit of circulating water temperature are fixed in the specified range to attain the optimum strong solution concentration and optimum evaporator temperature. At the specified boundaries of three variables, the optimized strong solution concentration and evaporator temperature are 0.47 and 10 °C respectively. At this condition, the maximized cycle EUF is 0.358.

  11. Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-12-01

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+, at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ˜98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems.

  12. The influence of humic acids on desalination process with the use of electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorzek Martyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With every year amount of drinking water in the world becomes smaller. One of the possible way to solve the problem with water scarcity is desalination. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of electrodialysis for salt removal in the presence of organic matter. During the tests installation PCCell BED-1-System was applied. Desalination was conducted with the use of standard ion-exchange membranes. The treated solutions contained 0.5 and 1 g NaCl/dm3. The solution poured into a diluate chamber was also supplemented with humic acids (concentration amounted to 5, 10 and 15 mg/dm3. The current intensity was equal to 0.11 A (current density equal to 1.72 mA/cm2. The process was terminated when voltage reached 24 V. During the tests conductivity, colour and voltage was monitored. Also specific electrical energy demand (EC was calculated. It has been found that electrodialysis can be used as an effective method for salt removal. In most cases conductivity was reduced by approximately 90%. The main factor which influenced EC and process duration was mineral salt content. Besides, it has been observed that organic matter had a slight impact on the process course.

  13. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units of an adsorption desalination (AD) cycle. By recovering the latent heat of condenser and dumping it into the evaporative process of the evaporator, it elevates the evaporating temperature and hence the adsorption pressure seen by the adsorbent. From isotherms, this has an effect of increasing the vapour uptake. In the proposed configurations, one approach is simply to have a run-about water circuit between the condenser and the evaporator and a pump is used to achieve the water circulation. This run-around circuit is a practical method for retrofitting purposes. The second method is targeted towards a new AD cycle where an encapsulated condenser-evaporator unit is employed. The heat transfer between the condensing and evaporative vapour is almost immediate and the processes occur in a fully integrated vessel, thereby minimizing the heat transfer resistances of heat exchangers. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  14. Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD, which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m2 and 23 m2 are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m3 and $5.16/m3 for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction.

  15. Performance Investigation of O-Ring Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module for Water Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Alhathal Alanezi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new O-ring flat sheet membrane module design was used to investigate the performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD for water desalination using two commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF flat sheet hydrophobic membranes. The design of the membrane module proved its applicability for achieving a high heat transfer coefficient of the order of 103 (W/m2 K and a high Reynolds number (Re. VMD experiments were conducted to measure the heat and mass transfer coefficients within the membrane module. The effects of the process parameters, such as the feed temperature, feed flow rate, vacuum degree, and feed concentration, on the permeate flux have been investigated. The feed temperature, feed flow rate, and vacuum degree play an important role in enhancing the performance of the VMD process; therefore, optimizing all of these parameters is the best way to achieve a high permeate flux. The PTFE membrane showed better performance than the PVDF membrane in VMD desalination. The obtained water flux is relatively high compared to that reported in the literature, reaching 43.8 and 52.6 (kg/m2 h for PVDF and PTFE, respectively. The salt rejection of NaCl was higher than 99% for both membranes.

  16. Numerical simulation of solar-assisted multi-effect distillation (SMED) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2013-01-01

    We present a simulation model for the transient behavior of solar-assisted seawater desalination plant that employs the evacuated-tube collectors in conjunction with a multieffect distillation plant of nominal water production capacity of 16m3/day. This configuration has been selected due to merits in terms of environment-friendliness and energy efficiency. The solar-assisted multi-effect distillation system comprises 849 m2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 280 m3 water storage tanks, auxiliary heater, and six effects and a condenser. The present analysis employs a baseline configuration, namely; (i) the local solar insolation input (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia), (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a heating water demand, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from the solar tank drops below the set point. It is observed that the annual collector efficiency and solar fraction decrease from 57.3 to 54.8% and from 49.4 to 36.7%, respectively, with an increase in the heating water temperature from 80 to 90 °C. The overall water production rate and the performance ratio increase slightly from 0.18 to 0.21 kg/s and from 4.11 to 4.13, respectively. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  17. Omniphobic Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane for Desalination of Shale Gas Produced Water by Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Chanhee; Lee, Jongho; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-11-15

    Microporous membranes fabricated from hydrophobic polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) have been widely used for membrane distillation (MD). However, hydrophobic MD membranes are prone to wetting by low surface tension substances, thereby limiting their use in treating challenging industrial wastewaters, such as shale gas produced water. In this study, we present a facile and scalable approach for the fabrication of omniphobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes that repel both water and oil. Positive surface charge was imparted to an alkaline-treated PVDF membrane by aminosilane functionalization, which enabled irreversible binding of negatively charged silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) to the membrane through electrostatic attraction. The membrane with grafted SiNPs was then coated with fluoroalkylsilane (perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane) to lower the membrane surface energy. Results from contact angle measurements with mineral oil and surfactant solution demonstrated that overlaying SiNPs with ultralow surface energy significantly enhanced the wetting resistance of the membrane against low surface tension liquids. We also evaluated desalination performance of the modified membrane in direct contact membrane distillation with a synthetic wastewater containing surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and mineral oil, as well as with shale gas produced water. The omniphobic membrane exhibited a stable MD performance, demonstrating its potential application for desalination of challenging industrial wastewaters containing diverse low surface tension contaminants.

  18. Integrating tunable anion exchange with reverse osmosis for enhanced recovery during inland brackish water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; SenGupta, Arup K

    2015-05-05

    For inland brackish water desalination by reverse osmosis or RO, concentrate or reject disposal poses a major challenge. However, enhanced recovery and consequent reduction in the reject volume using RO processes is limited by the solubility of ions present in the feedwater. One of the most common and stubborn precipitate formed during desalination is calcium sulfate. Reducing or eliminating the presence of sulfate would allow the process to operate at higher recoveries without threat to membrane scaling. In this research, this goal is accomplished by using an appropriate mixture of self-regenerating anion exchange resins that selectively remove and replace sulfate by chloride prior to the RO unit. Most importantly, the mixed bed of anion exchange resins is self-regenerated with the reject brine from the RO process, thus requiring no addition of external chemicals. The current work demonstrates the reversibility of the hybrid ion exchange and RO (HIX-RO) process with 80% recovery for a brackish water composition representative of groundwater in San Joaquin Valley in California containing approximately 5200 mg/L of total dissolved solids or TDS. Consequently, the reject volume can be reduced by 50% without the threat of sulfate scaling and use of antiscaling chemicals can be eliminated altogether. By appropriately designing or tuning the mixed bed of anion exchange resins, the process can be extended to nearly any composition of brackish water for enhanced recovery and consequent reduction in the reject volume.

  19. Design and development of an air humidifier using finite difference method for a solar desalination plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiranjeevi, C.; Srinivas, T.

    2017-11-01

    Humidifier is an important component in air humidification-dehumidification desalination plant for fresh water production. Liquid to air flow rate ratio is optimization is reported for an industrial cooling towers but for an air humidifier it is not addressed. The current work is focused on the design and analysis of an air humidifier for solar desalination plant to maximize the yield with better humidification, using finite difference method (FDM). The outlet conditions of air from the humidifier are theoretically predicted by FDM with the given inlet conditions, which will be further used in the design calculation of the humidifier. Hot water to air flow rate ratio and inlet hot water temperature are identified as key operating parameters to evaluate the humidifier performance. The maximum and optimal values of mass flow rate ratio of water to air are found to be 2.15 and 1.5 respectively using packing function and Merkel Integral. The height of humidifier is constrained to 1.5 m and the diameter of the humidifier is found as 0.28m. The performance of humidifier and outlet conditions of air are simulated using FDM and compared with experimental results. The obtained results are within an agreeable range of deviation.

  20. A solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2014-07-10

    Abstract: Increasing the productivity of solar stills has been the focus of intensive research. Many introduced developments, however, require complex components and entail notable increases in cost and land requirements. Developing a compact, productive, and easy-to-operate system is a main challenge. This paper describes a sustainable modification of the solar still that significantly enhances its productivity without forsaking its basic features. A simple amendment in the form of a slowly rotating drum is introduced allowing the formation of thin water films that evaporate rapidly and are continually renewed. The performance of this system was compared against a control without the introduced drum. Throughout the experiment, the new system gave considerably higher yield than the control with an average increase in daily productivity of 200%. Moreover, during sunshine hours, the increase in yield could surpass 6–8 times that of the control. Important parameters such as ease of handling, material availability, efficacy, low cost, safe water quality, and space conservation are maintained. One side-benefit of this design is solving stagnation problems that usually develop in conventional stills. The new simple modification in this study presents a cost-effective and efficient design to solar stills especially in areas with abundant sunshine.

  1. On the optimal design of forward osmosis desalination systems with NH3-CO2-H2O solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzani, Matteo; Pérez-Calvo, José Francisco; Sutter, Daniel; Mazzotti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Membrane-based forward osmosis, especially when NH3-CO2-H2O mixtures are adopted as draw solutions, is a promising new process for clean water production, including seawater desalination and wastewater treatment. In such a process, water is first removed from the feed (e.g. seawater) by exploiting

  2. Efficiency investigation of a new-design air solar plate collector used in a humidification-dehumidification desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Amara, Mahmoud; Houcine, Imed; Guizani, Aman-Allah; Maalej, Mohammed [Institut National de Recherche Scientifique et Tecnique, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this research is to experimentally study the efficiency of a new-design plate collector used to heat air in a new desalination humidification-dehumidification process. In fact, in such processes, the air solar collectors work at unusual experimental parameters (forced convection, elevated air humidity, high solar irradiation). At these stressed experimental conditions, few published works are available in literature. Furthermore, the comparison of the efficiency of collectors running with normal air humidity content (about 10-20 g kg{sup -1}) and air of elevated humidity (20-50 g kg{sup -1}) have not been published to our knowledge. In the present investigation, a new air solar plate collector was designed and developed for its use in a desalination process. Moreover, a characterization of such collector was performed under different experimental conditions. The effect of different parameters, namely: the solar radiation, the wind velocity, the ambient temperature, the air mass flow rate, the inlet air humidity and temperature, on the collector efficiency was also investigated. The collector was optimized for its use in a new solar desalination process. In fact, the air solar collector was designed in order to lower its economic cost making them applicable for water desalination. (Author)

  3. Water Storage Instead of Energy Storage for Desalination Powered by Renewable Energy—King Island Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Tafech

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we scrutinized the energy storage options used in mitigation of the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources for desalination process. In off-grid islands and remote areas, renewable energy is often combined with appropriate energy storage technologies (ESTs to provide a consistent and reliable electric power source. We demonstrated that in developing a renewable energy scheme for desalination purposes, product (water storage is a more reliable and techno-economic solution. For a King Island (Southeast Australia case-study, electric power production from renewable energy sources was sized under transient conditions to meet the dynamic demand of freshwater throughout the year. Among four proposed scenarios, we found the most economic option by sizing a 13 MW solar photovoltaic (PV field to instantly run a proportional RO desalination plant and generate immediate freshwater in diurnal times without the need for energy storage. The excess generated water was stored in 4 × 50 ML (mega liter storage tanks to meet the load in those solar deficit times. It was also demonstrated that integrating well-sized solar PV with wind power production shows more consistent energy/water profiles that harmonize the transient nature of energy sources with the water consumption dynamics, but that would have trivial economic penalties caused by larger desalination and water storage capacities.

  4. Formation of hazardous inorganic by-products during electrolysis of seawater as a disinfection process for desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung Soo; Oh, Sang Guen; Hwang, Youn Young; Yu, Hye-Weon; Kang, Joon-Wun; Kim, In S

    2010-11-01

    From our previous study, an electrochemical process was determined to be a promising tool for disinfection in a seawater desalination system, but an investigation on the production of several hazardous by-products is still required. In this study, a more intensive exploration of the formation patterns of perchlorate and bromate during the electrolysis of seawater was conducted. In addition, the rejection efficiencies of the targeted by-products by membrane processes (microfiltration and seawater reverse osmosis) were investigated to uncover the concentrations remaining in the final product from a membrane-based seawater desalination system for the production of drinking water. On the electrolysis of seawater, perchlorate did not provoke any problem due to the low concentrations formed, but bromate was produced at a much higher level, resulting in critical limitation in the application of the electrochemical process to the desalination of seawater. Even though the formed bromate was rejected via microfiltration and reverse osmosis during the 1st and 2nd passes, the residual concentration was a few orders of magnitude higher than the USEPA regulation. Consequently, it was concluded that the application of the electrochemical process to seawater desalination cannot be recommended without the control of bromate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Competitive migration behaviors of multiple ions and their impacts on ion-exchange resin packed microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kuichang; Yuan, Lulu; Wei, Jincheng; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2013-10-01

    Mixed ion-exchange resins packed microbial desalination cell (R-MDC) could stabilize the internal resistance, however, the impacts of multiple ions on R-MDC performance was unclear. This study investigated the desalination performance, multiple ions migration behaviors and their impacts on R-MDCs fed with salt solution containing multiple anions and cations. Results showed that R-MDC removed multiple anions better than multiple cations with desalination efficiency of 99% (effluent conductivity NO3(-)>Cl(-) for anions and Ca(2+)≈Mg(2+)>NH4(+)>Na(+) for cations, jointly affected by both their molar conductivity and exchange selectivity on resins. After long-term operation, the existence of higher concentration Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) caused the electric conductivity of mixed resins decrease and scaling on the surface of cation-exchange membrane adjoined with cathode chamber, suggesting that R-MDC would be more suitable for desalination of water with lower hardness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In Situ Spatially and Temporally Resolved Measurements of Salt Concentration between Charging Porous Electrodes for Desalination by Capacitive Deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suss, M.E.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Baumann, T.E.; Stadermann, M.; Santiago, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging water desalination technique. In CDI, pairs of porous electrode capacitors are electrically charged to remove salt from brackish water present between the electrodes. We here present a novel experimental technique allowing measurement of spatially and

  7. Indirect desalination of Red Sea water with forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis for water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2011-10-01

    The use of energy still remains the main component of the costs of desalting water. Forward osmosis (FO) can help to reduce the costs of desalination, and extracting water from impaired sources can be beneficial in this regard. Experiments with FO membranes using a secondary wastewater effluent as a feed water and Red Sea water as a draw solution demonstrated that the technology is promising. FO coupled with low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) was implemented for indirect desalination. The system consumes only 50% (~1.5 kWh/m3) of the energy used for high pressure seawater RO (SWRO) desalination (2.5-4 kWh/m3), and produces a good quality water extracted from the impaired feed water. Fouling of the FO membranes was not a major issue during long-term experiments over 14 days. After 10 days of continuous FO operation, the initial flux declined by 28%. Cleaning the FO membranes with air scouring and clean water recovered the initial flux by 98.8%. A cost analysis revealed FO per se as viable technology. However, a minimum average FO flux of 10.5 L/m2-h is needed to compete with water reuse using UF-LPRO, and 5.5 L/m2-h is needed to recover and desalinate water at less cost than SWRO. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2016-05-03

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m2 of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m3 seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%.

  9. The Energy-Water Nexus: An Analysis and Comparison of Various Configurations Integrating Desalination with Renewable Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary M. Gold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation studies desalination powered by wind and solar energy, including a study of a configuration using PVT solar panels. First, a water treatment was developed to estimate the power requirement for brackish groundwater reverse-osmosis (BWRO desalination. Next, an energy model was designed to (1 size a wind farm based on this power requirement and (2 size a solar farm to preheat water before reverse osmosis treatment. Finally, an integrated model was developed that combines results from the water treatment and energy models. The integrated model optimizes performances of the proposed facility to maximize daily operational profits. Results indicate that integrated facility can reduce grid-purchased electricity costs by 88% during summer months and 89% during winter when compared to a stand-alone desalination plant. Additionally, the model suggests that the integrated configuration can generate $574 during summer and $252 during winter from sales of wind- and solar-generated electricity to supplement revenue from water production. These results indicate that an integrated facility combining desalination, wind power, and solar power can potentially reduce reliance on grid-purchased electricity and advance the use of renewable power.

  10. Application of a Hybrid Uf-Ro Process to Geothermal Water Desalination. Concentrate Disposal and Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available M embrane-based water desalination processes and hybrid technologies are often considered as a technologically and economically viable alternative for desalination of geothermal waters. This has been confirmed by the results of pilot studies concerning the UF-RO desalination of geothermal waters extracted from various geological structures in Poland. The assessment of the feasibility of implementing the water desalination process analysed on an industrial scale is largely dependent on the method and possibility of disposing or utilising the concentrate. The analyses conducted in this respect have demonstrated that it is possible to use the solution obtained as a balneological product owing to its elevated metasilicic acid, fluorides and iodides ions content. Due to environmental considerations, injecting the concentrate back into the formation is the preferable solution. The energy efficiency and economic analysis conducted demonstrated that the cost effectiveness of implementing the UF-RO process in a geothermal system on an industrial scale largely depends on the factors related to its operation, including without limitation the amount of geothermal water extracted, water salinity, the absorption parameters of the wells used to inject water back into the formation, the scale of problems related to the disposal of cooled water, local demand for drinking and household water, etc. The decrease in the pressure required to inject water into the formation as well as the reduction in the stream of the water injected are among the key cost-effectiveness factors. Ensuring favourable desalinated water sale terms (price/quantity is also a very important consideration owing to the electrical power required to conduct the UF-RO process.

  11. Circulatory osmotic desalination driven by a mild temperature gradient based on lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Yeongbong; Nakayama, Daichi; Noh, Minwoo; Jang, Sangmok; Kim, Taeho; Lee, Yan

    2013-11-28

    Abrupt changes in effective concentration and osmotic pressure of lower critical solution temperature (LCST) mixtures facilitate the design of a continuous desalination method driven by a mild temperature gradient. We propose a prototype desalination system by circulating LCST mixtures between low and high temperature (low T and high T) units. Water molecules could be drawn from a high-salt solution to the LCST mixture through a semipermeable membrane at a temperature lower than the phase transition temperature, at which the effective osmotic pressure of the LCST mixture is higher than the high-salt solution. After transfer of water to the high T unit where the LCST mixture is phase-separated, the water-rich phase could release the drawn water into a well-diluted solution through the second membrane due to the significant decrease in effective concentration. The solute-rich phase could be recovered in the low T unit via a circulation process. The molar mass, phase transition temperature, and aqueous solubility of the LCST solute could be tuneable for the circulatory osmotic desalination system in which drawing, transfer, release of water, and the separation and recovery of the solutes could proceed simultaneously. Development of a practical desalination system that draws water molecules directly from seawater and produces low-salt water with high purity by mild temperature gradients, possibly induced by sunlight or waste heat, could be attainable by a careful design of the molecular structure and combination of the circulatory desalination systems based on low- and high-molar-mass LCST draw solutes.

  12. Geochemical processes in a calcareous sandstone aquifer during managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Yonatan; Russak, Amos; Siebner, Hagar; Bernstein, Anat; Katz, Yoram; Guttman, Jospeh; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In the last three years we monitor Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) of post-treated desalinated seawater (PTDES) in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. The PTDES are stabilized with CaCO3 during post-treatment in the desalination plant and their chemical composition differs from those of any other water recharged to the aquifer and of the natural groundwater. We use suction cups in the unsaturated zone, shallow observation wells within the pond and production wells that encircles the MAR Menashe site, to study the geochemical processes during MAR with PTDES. Ion-enrichment (remineralization) of the recharged water was observed in both unsaturated zone and shallow observation wells samples. Enrichment occurs mainly in the first few meters below the pond surface by ion-exchange processes. Mg2+ enrichment is most prominent due to its deficiency in the PTDES. It is explained by ion-exchange with Ca2+, as the PTDES (enriched with Ca2+) infiltrates through a calcareous-sandstone aquifer with various amount of adsorbed Mg2+ (3-27 meq/kg). Hence, the higher concentration of Ca+2 in the PTDES together with its higher affinity to the sediments promotes the release of Mg2+ ions to the recharged water. Water isotopes analysis of the production wells were used to estimate residence time and mixing with local groundwater. At the end of 2016, it was found that the percentage of PTDES in adjacent down-gradient production wells was around 10%, while more distant or up-gradient wells show no mixing with PTDES. The distinct isotope contrast between the recharged desalinated seawater (δ2H=+11.2±0.2‰) and the local groundwater (δ2H ranged from -22.7 to -16.7‰) is a promising tool to evaluate future mixing processes at the Menshae MAR site. Using the Menashe MAR system for remineralization could be beneficial as a primary or complementary post-treatment technique. However, the sustainability of this process is

  13. Biofouling of reverse-osmosis membranes during tertiary wastewater desalination: microbial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ashhab, Ashraf; Herzberg, Moshe; Gillor, Osnat

    2014-03-01

    Reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination is frequently used for the production of high-quality water from tertiary treated wastewater (TTWW). However, the RO desalination process is often hampered by biofouling, including membrane conditioning, microbial adhesion, and biofilm growth. The vast majority of biofilm exploration concentrated on the role of bacteria in biofouling neglecting additional microbial contributors, i.e., fungi and archaea. To better understand the RO biofouling process, bacterial, archaeal and fungal diversity was characterized in a laboratory-scale RO desalination plant exploring the TTWW (RO feed), the RO membrane and the RO feed tube biofilms. We sequenced 77,400 fragments of the ribosome small subunit-encoding gene (16S and 18S rRNA) to identify the microbial community members in these matrices. Our results suggest that the bacterial, archaeal but not fungal community significantly differ from the RO membrane biofouling layer to the feedwater and tube biofilm (P < 0.01). Moreover, the RO membrane supported a more diverse community compared to the communities monitored in the feedwater and the biofilm attached to the RO feedwater tube. The tube biofilm was dominated by Actinobacteria (91.2 ± 4.6%), while the Proteobacteria phylum dominated the feedwater and RO membrane (at relative abundance of 92.3 ± 4.4% and 71.5 ± 8.3%, respectively), albeit comprising different members. The archaea communities were dominated by Crenarchaeota (53.0 ± 6.9%, 32.5 ± 7.2% and 69%, respectively) and Euryarchaeota (43.3 ± 6.3%, 23.2 ± 4.8% and 24%, respectively) in all three matrices, though the communities' composition differed. But the fungal communities composition was similar in all matrices, dominated by Ascomycota (97.6 ± 2.7%). Our results suggest that the RO membrane is a selective surface, supporting unique bacterial, and to a lesser extent archaeal communities, yet it does not select for a fungal community. Copyright © 2013

  14. Improved aquifer characterization and the optimization of the design of brackish groundwater desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malivaa, Robert G.

    2011-07-01

    Many water scarce regions possess brackish-water resources that can be desalted to provide alternative water supplies. Brackish groundwater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is less expensive than seawater systems because of reduced energy and pretreatment requirements and lesser volumes of concentrate that require disposal. Development of brackish groundwater wellfields include the same hydraulic issues that affect conventional freshwater wellfields. Managing well interference and prevention of adverse impacts such as land subsidence are important concerns. RO systems are designed to treat water whose composition falls within a system-specific envelope of salinities and ion concentrations. A fundamental requirement for the design of brackish groundwater RO systems is prediction of the produced water chemistry at both the start of pumping and after 10-20 years of operation. Density-dependent solute-transport modeling is thus an integral component of the design of brackish groundwater RO systems. The accuracy of groundwater models is dependent upon the quality of the hydrogeological data upon which they are based. Key elements of the aquifer characterization are the determination of the three-dimensional distribution of salinity within the aquifer and the evaluation of aquifer heterogeneity with respect to hydraulic conductivity. It is necessary to know from where in a pumped aquifer (or aquifer zone) water is being produced and the contribution of vertical flow to the produced water. Unexpected, excessive vertical migration (up-coning) of waters that are more saline has adversely impacted some RO systems because the salinity of the water delivered to the system exceeded the system design parameters. Improved aquifer characterization is possible using advanced geophysical techniques, which can, in turn, lead to more accurate solute-transport models. Advanced borehole geophysical logs, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, were run as part of the exploratory test

  15. Procedure to determine the convenience of installing a co-generation system; Procedimiento para determinar la conveniencia de instalar un sistema de cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos; Acosta Torres, Aracely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this article a methodology for the selection of the co-generation system better adapted to the energy needs of an industry is presented, covering the following schemes: a) Satisfy the thermal demand and deliver to the net the excess electricity generated. b) Reduce the functioning level of the machine and produce electricity in accordance with the internal demand. The thermal demand will be satisfied, for instance, integrating a boiler in the cycle. c) Satisfy the electric demand and utilize only in part the available heat. d) Or else, reduce the operation level of the machine and produce only the necessary thermal energy, taking from the net the electric energy needed to cover the total demand. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para la seleccion del sistema de cogeneracion que mejor se adapte a las necesidades energeticas de una industria, cubriendo los siguientes esquemas: a) Satisfacer la demanda termica y ceder a la red el exceso de energia electrica generada. b) Reducir el nivel de funcionamiento de la maquina y producir electricidad de acuerdo a la demanda interna. La demanda termica se cubrira, por ejemplo, integrando una caldera al ciclo. c) Satisfacer la demanda electrica y, utilizar solo en parte el calor disponible. d) O bien, reducir el nivel de operacion de la maquina y solo producir la energia termica necesaria, tomando de la red la energia electrica para cubrir la demanda total.

  16. Co-generation of electricity and syngas on proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cell with a perovskite layer as a precursor of a highly efficient reforming catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tingting; Zhu, Ankang; Guo, Youmin; Wang, Chunchang; Huang, Shouguo; Chen, Huili; Yang, Guangming; Wang, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a proton conducting solid oxide fuel cell (layered H+-SOFC) is prepared by introducing a La2NiO4perovskite oxide with a Ruddlesden-Popper structure as a catalyst layer onto a conventional NiO + BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3-δ (NiO + BZCY4) anode for in situ CO2 dry reforming of methane. The roles of the La2NiO4 catalyst layer on the reforming activity, coking tolerance, electrocatalytic activity and operational stability of the anodes are systematically studied. The La2NiO4 catalyst layer exhibits greater catalytic performance than the NiO + BZCY4 anode during the CO2 dry reforming of methane. An outstanding coking resistance capability is also demonstrated. The layered H+-SOFC consumes H2 produced in situ at the anode and delivers a much higher power output than the conventional cell with the NiO + BZCY4 anode. The improved coking resistance of the layered H+-SOFC results in a steady output voltage of ∼0.6 V under a constant current density of 200 mA cm-2. In summary, the H+-SOFC with La2NiO4 perovskite oxide is a potential energy conversion device for CO2 conversion and utilization with co-generation of electricity and syngas.

  17. Co-generation of biofuels for transportation and heat for district heating systems-an assessment of the national possibilities in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeskog, Andrea [Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Hansson, Julia, E-mail: julia.hansson@chalmers.s [Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Berndes, Goeran [Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad University, SE-301 18 Halmstad (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    Biomass gasification with subsequent synthesis to liquid or gaseous biofuels generates heat possible to use in district heating (DH) systems. The purpose here is to estimate the heat sink capacity of DH systems in the individual EU nations and assess the possibilities for biomass-gasification-based co-generation of synthetic biofuels for transportation and heat (CBH) for DH systems in the EU countries. The possibilities are assessed (i) assuming different levels of competiveness relative to other heat supply options of CBH corresponding to the EU target for renewable energy for transportation for 2020 and (ii) assuming that the potential expansion of the DH systems by 2020 is met with CBH. In general, the size of the DH heat sinks represented by the existing national aggregated DH systems can accommodate CBH at a scale that is significant compared to the 2020 renewable transportation target. The possibilities for CBH also depend on its cost-competitiveness compared to, e.g., fossil-fuel-based CHP. The possible expansion of the DH systems by 2020 represents an important opportunity for CBH and is also influenced by the potential increase in the use of other heat supply options, such as, industrial waste heat, waste incineration, and CHP.

  18. Co-generation of biofuels for transportation and heat for district heating systems. An assessment of the national possibilities in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeskog, Andrea; Hansson, Julia; Berndes, Goeran [Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad University, SE-301 18 Halmstad (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    Biomass gasification with subsequent synthesis to liquid or gaseous biofuels generates heat possible to use in district heating (DH) systems. The purpose here is to estimate the heat sink capacity of DH systems in the individual EU nations and assess the possibilities for biomass-gasification-based co-generation of synthetic biofuels for transportation and heat (CBH) for DH systems in the EU countries. The possibilities are assessed (1) assuming different levels of competiveness relative to other heat supply options of CBH corresponding to the EU target for renewable energy for transportation for 2020 and (2) assuming that the potential expansion of the DH systems by 2020 is met with CBH. In general, the size of the DH heat sinks represented by the existing national aggregated DH systems can accommodate CBH at a scale that is significant compared to the 2020 renewable transportation target. The possibilities for CBH also depend on its cost-competitiveness compared to, e.g., fossil-fuel-based CHP. The possible expansion of the DH systems by 2020 represents an important opportunity for CBH and is also influenced by the potential increase in the use of other heat supply options, such as, industrial waste heat, waste incineration, and CHP. (author)

  19. Incineration of Pre-Treated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW for Energy Co-Generation in a Non-Densely Populated Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The planning actions in municipal solid waste (MSW management must follow strategies aimed at obtaining economies of scale. At the regional basin, a proper feasibility analysis of treatment and disposal plants should be based on the collection and analysis of data available on production rate and technological characteristics of waste. Considering the regulations constraint, the energy recovery is limited by the creation of small or medium-sized incineration plants, while separated collection strongly influences the heating value of the residual MSW. Moreover, separated collection of organic fraction in non-densely populated area is burdensome and difficult to manage. The paper shows the results of the analysis carried out to evaluate the potential energy recovery using a combined cycle for the incineration of mechanically pre-treated MSW in Basilicata, a non-densely populated region in Southern Italy. In order to focalize the role of sieving as pre-treatment, the evaluation on the MSW sieved fraction heating value was presented. Co-generative (heat and power production plant was compared to other MSW management solutions (e.g., direct landfilling, also considering the environmental impact in terms of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  20. Solar energy water desalination in the United States and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, W.; William, J.

    1981-01-01

    Five solar energy water desalination systems were designed to deliver 6000 cubic m/day of desalted water from either seawater or brackish water. Two systems will be selected for pilot plant construction. The pilot plants will have capacities in the range of 100 to 400 m/day. Goals of the Project Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Solar Energy, under the auspices of the United States-Saudi Arabian Joint Commission on Economic Cooperation, are to: (1) cooperate in the field of solar energy technology for the mutual benefit of the two countries, including the development and stimulation of solar industries within the two countries; (2) advance the development of solar energy technology in the two countries; and (3) facilitate the transfer between the two countries of technology developed under this agreement.