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Sample records for co-60 gamma beam

  1. Calculational methods for estimating skin dose from electrons in Co-60 gamma-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; Sibata, C.H.; Attix, F.H.; Paliwal, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    Several methods have been employed to calculate the relative contribution to skin dose due to scattered electrons in Co-60 gamma-ray beams. Either the Klein-Nishina differential scattering probability is employed to determine the number and initial energy of electrons scattered into the direction of a detector, or a Gaussian approximation is used to specify the surface distribution of initial pencil electron beams created by parallel or diverging photon fields. Results of these calculations are compared with experimental data. In addition, that fraction of relative surface dose resulting from photon interactions in air alone is estimated and compared with data extrapolated from measurements at large source-surface distance (SSD). The contribution to surface dose from electrons generated in air is 50% or more of the total skin dose for SSDs greater than 80 cm

  2. Calculational methods for estimating skin dose from electrons in Co-60 gamma-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; Sibata, C.H.; Attix, F.H.; Paliwal, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    Several methods have been employed to calculate the relative contribution to skin dose due to scattered electrons in Co-60 γ-ray beams. Either the Klein--Nishina differential scattering probability is employed to determine the number and initial energy of electrons scattered into the direction of a detector, or a Gaussian approximation is used to specify the surface distribution of initial pencil electron beams created by parallel or diverging photon fields. Results of these calculations are compared with experimental data. In addition, that fraction of relative surface dose resulting from photon interactions in air alone is estimated and compared with data extrapolated from measurements at large source--surface distance (SSD). The contribution to surface dose from electrons generated in air is 50% or more of the total skin dose for SSDs greater than 80 cm

  3. Profitability of an Co 60 semi-industrial irradiator type Gamma Beam 651 Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Z, E.

    1997-01-01

    It is described the capacity in volume of processed material by irradiation interesting interesting for the industry and how many laboratory samples can be processed. It is showed the costs of the annual processing, that is, the relation between the volume of sterilized material and his cost, this give us an idea about the profits for this type of gamma irradiators designed for low capacity, where is necessary to define the effective area of sterilization using high dose dosimetry. Also have been compared the maintenance costs, operation and salaries including monetary devaluation in function of the real production of the irradiation processing. Finally, it is remarked the objectives and essential characteristics of this semi-industrial irradiator. (Author)

  4. Toxoplasma gondii gamma irradiation using Co-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    1996-01-01

    The use of nuclear power through radiation for the destruction of microorganisms which cause food deterioration, infections and toxicosis, is specifically for peaceful purposes. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa responsible for illnesses in humans and animals. One of the most common ways of transmission is through raw or poorly cooked meat. There is little information on the resistance of T. gondii to radiation. The objective of this research is to determine the Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD) of gamma radiation for those microorganisms. Suspensions of T. gondii containing approximately one million taquizoites/ml were irradiated with doses between up 0,01 up to 0,15 kGy (Kilogray) and inoculated to mice. The surviving T. gondii were re-irradiated with 0,01 up to 0,16 kGy. The irradiated protozoa were totally destroyed with a 0,15 kGy dose (MLD). Taquizoites issued from live protozoa of 0,14 kGy also were completely destroyed with dose of 0,15 kGy. No increase in resistance was observed regarding the non irradiated protozoa. (author)

  5. Co-60 gamma radiation assisted diffusion of iodine in polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathakari, N.L.; Bhoraskar, V.N. [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra 411007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra 411007 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Thin films of polypropylene having dimensions 50 mm x 15 mm x 350 {mu}m were immersed in 1 N iodine solution and then irradiated with Co-60 gamma radiation for the periods of 48, 96 and 144 h at the doses varying from 14.4 to 43.2 kGy. The films were also kept immersed in iodine solution for similar periods but without irradiation. Furthermore, the films were also directly-irradiated with Co-60 gamma radiation for similar periods and doses. The radiation-iodinated, plain-iodinated and directly-irradiated samples were characterized by using various techniques such as weight gain EDS, SEM, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy, contact angle and XRD. Weight gain, EDS and SEM collectively reveal that gamma irradiation enhances iodine intake in polypropylene. FTIR, EDS and contact angle measurements indicate that presence of iodine during irradiation resists radiation induced carbonylation of polypropylene. FTIR also shows presence of HOI (Hypoiodous acid) species instead of expected C-I bonds. UV-visible analysis unambiguously shows that presence of iodine enhances radiation induced band gap reduction process of polypropylene. XRD indicates that iodine decreases the crystallinity of polypropylene.

  6. Profitability of an Co 60 semi-industrial irradiator type Gamma Beam 651 Pt; Rentabilidad de un irradiador de Cobalto 60 semi-industrial tipo Gamma beam 651 Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Apdo. Postal 70-51, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    It is described the capacity in volume of processed material by irradiation interesting interesting for the industry and how many laboratory samples can be processed. It is showed the costs of the annual processing, that is, the relation between the volume of sterilized material and his cost, this give us an idea about the profits for this type of gamma irradiators designed for low capacity, where is necessary to define the effective area of sterilization using high dose dosimetry. Also have been compared the maintenance costs, operation and salaries including monetary devaluation in function of the real production of the irradiation processing. Finally, it is remarked the objectives and essential characteristics of this semi-industrial irradiator. (Author)

  7. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  8. The comparison of Co-60 and 4MV photons matching dosimetry during half-beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Aydin; Bilge, Hatice; Dadasbilge, Alpar; Kuecuecuek, Halil; Okutan, Murat; Merdan Fayda, Emre

    2005-01-01

    In this phantom study, we tried to compare matching dosimetry differences between half-blocking of Co-60 and asymmetric collimation of the 4MV photons during craniospinal irradiation. The dose distributions are compared and discussed. Firstly, some gaps with different sizes are left between cranial and spinal field borders. Secondly, the fields are overlapped in the same sizes. We irradiate the films located in water-equivalent solid phantoms with Co-60 and 4MV photon beams. This study indicates that the field placement errors in +/- 1mm are acceptable for both Co-60 and 4MV photon energies during craniospinal irradiation with half-beam block technique. Within these limits the dose variations are specified in +/- 5%. However, the setup errors that are more than 1mm are unacceptable for both asymmetric collimation of 4MV photon and half-blocking of Co-60

  9. Measurement of Cerenkov Radiation Induced by the Gamma-Rays of Co-60 Therapy Units Using Wavelength Shifting Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Won Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a wavelength shifting fiber that shifts ultra-violet and blue light to green light was employed as a sensor probe of a fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor. In order to characterize Cerenkov radiation generated in the developed wavelength shifting fiber and a plastic optical fiber, spectra and intensities of Cerenkov radiation were measured with a spectrometer. The spectral peaks of light outputs from the wavelength shifting fiber and the plastic optical fiber were measured at wavelengths of 500 and 510 nm, respectively, and the intensity of transmitted light output of the wavelength shifting fiber was 22.2 times higher than that of the plastic optical fiber. Also, electron fluxes and total energy depositions of gamma-ray beams generated from a Co-60 therapy unit were calculated according to water depths using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The relationship between the fluxes of electrons over the Cerenkov threshold energy and the energy depositions of gamma-ray beams from the Co-60 unit is a near-identity function. Finally, percentage depth doses for the gamma-ray beams were obtained using the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor, and the results were compared with those obtained by an ionization chamber. The average dose difference between the results of the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor and those of the ionization chamber was about 2.09%.

  10. Calculation of uncertainties in the protocol of dosimetry for Co 60 beams in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez M, S.; Carrera M, F.; Sanchez S, J.

    1998-01-01

    The objective in this work is to show how the uncertainty is possible to know in the determination of the absorbed dose in Co 60 photon beams and to establish in a rational form, tolerance levels for this. It is took as base the spanish protocol of dosimetry in Radiotherapy. We have been centered in a Co 60 beam. We utilized the statistical theory of little samples. We allowed to suggest a new approach about the treatment of the tolerance levels and the uncertainty of the measurement. After two years of experience in the practical hospitable application we have gotten to put around 1 % uncertainty in the absolute dosimetry of the Co 60 beam. The presented protocol allows to execute the accuracy requirements in the determination of absorbed doses. (Author)

  11. The primary exposure standard for Co-60 gamma radiation: characteristics and measurements procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of a cavity ionization chamber used, as a primary exposure standard, at the Laboratorio di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the ENEA in Italy. The primary standard is designed to make absolute measurements of exposure due to the Co-60 gamma radiation. The procedures for the realizationof the exposure unit are also described. Finally results of some international comparisons are reported

  12. Radiosensitivity of California Wonder pepper variety to Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas Arias, Ana Leonor; Gonzalez Nunez, Luis Manuel; Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro

    1998-01-01

    Seeds of California wonder pepper variety were irradiated with dosages among 100-800 Gy, to intervals of 100 Gy, in a source of Co 60 gamma rays, with the objective of determining its radiosensitivity and to establish the adequate interval of dosage for the mutation breeding. A decrease of the growing indicators, productivity and plant fertility was observed with the increasing of irradiation dosages and the interval among 130-460 Gy was established as the most adequate

  13. Effects of CO-60 gamma radiation on the embryonary development of Biomphalaria Glabrata (Say, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.

    1988-01-01

    Some aspects of the effects of the ionizing radiation on the embryo and on the genetical material of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are presented. The embryos weresubmitted at various stages of development to doses of 5,10,15,20 and 25 Gy of Co-60 gamma radiation. As a criteia of evaluation of the embryos radiosensitivity, four biological parameters were used: mortality, malformation, hatching and chromossomal aberrations. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Functionalization and magnetization of carbon nanotubes using Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Y.; Fu, M.J.; Tsai, C.Y. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, P.O. BOX 3-27 Longtan, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (R.O.C.) (China); Lin, F.H. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (R.O.C.) (China); Chen, K.Y., E-mail: chenky@iner.gov.tw [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, P.O. BOX 3-27 Longtan, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (R.O.C.) (China)

    2014-10-01

    Functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be used in the biological and biomedical fields as biosensors, drug delivery systems, etc., which makes research into processes for manufacturing modified CNTs quite important. In this paper, Co-60 gamma irradiation is shown to be an effective tool for fabricating functionalized and magnetized CNTs. After the Co-60 gamma irradiation, the presence of carboxylic functional groups on the CNT walls was confirmed by their Fourier transform infrared spectra, and the presence of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was verified by the X-ray diffraction patterns. The functionalized and magnetized CNTs produced using Co-60 gamma irradiation have excellent dispersion properties. The techniques for functionalizing and magnetizing CNTs are introduced in this paper, and applications of the modified CNTs will be reported after more data are gathered. - Highlights: Dispersion ability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was improved by functionalization. CNTs were easily manipulated by precipitation of magnetic nanoparticles. Our product can be used as versatile biosensor substrate for biomarker screening.

  15. A simple formula for depth dose calculation for Co-60 teletherapy beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, U.B.; Kelkar, N.Y.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of dose at all points of interest in the plane of tumour is essential for treatment planning. A very simple formula for scatter dose calculation along the central axis of a Co-60 beam has been derived. This formula uses primary dose at depth d, scatter air ratio at the depth of maximum ionisation and the effective depth of the volume, irradiating the medium. The method for calculation of percentage depth dose at any point in the principal plane has been explained in detail. The simple form of the formulation will help in improving the treatment plans for treatments of lesions using Co-60 teletherapy machines. (orig.) [de

  16. Effect of Co-60 irradiation on hyperimmune antimeningococcus globulins-gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galguera, M.; Le Riverand, E.; Padron, S.

    1990-01-01

    Globulins-gamma from voluntary blood donors immunized with the Cuban BC antimeningococcus vaccine is now being used in our country for the treatment of the meningococcus disease. This study of the effect of Co-60 irradiation on antimeningococcus globulins-gamma was carried out to try to eliminate the inconvenience shown by the traditionally used sterilization procedures (losses in the filter and persistence of viral contamination). globulins-gamma was obtained by ethanol fractionation and was irradiated at a different dose in solution with different stabilizers and it was also lyophilized. Results of the chemical controls carried out lead to the conclusion that it is possible to use radiosterilization on this product in a lyophilized form. The preservation of bactericidal activity, even after the highest irradiation doses, confirms the above mentioned. 13 refs

  17. Gamma radiation (Co60) effects on active substances and microbe burden of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Agnol, L.

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of radioactivity on active vegetal substances, samples of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller., fructus), Guarana (Paulinia cupana, Kunth, semen), Gingko (gingko biloba, L., folium), and Kawa-Kawa (Piper methysticum G. Forst, rhizoma), were treated with scaling doses (0 to 25 KGy) of gamma radiation (Co 60 ). The 'blind test' methodology was used. The active substances from each sample were analysed by qualitative and quantitative methods after radiation. There were no significant differences seen between the control sample (0 KGy) and the irradiated samples. Microbe contamination was significantly reduced, about 10000 CFU/g, with the initial 5 KGy dose. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce microbiologic contamination in medicinal plants. Before this procedure can be extended to other medicinal plants, more specific analytical methods are recommended to verify possible structural alterations in active vegetal molecules. (author)

  18. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation of Co-60 (radio-hormesis) in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Tomato seeds of the Gladiador hybrid were exposed to gamma radiation of Co-60 with the following doses: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5; 15 e 20 Gy. Analysis were performed on germination, seedlings height to cotyledon, seedling total height, seedling fresh and dry weight, plant height, stalk diameter at the root beginning, fresh and dry weight of the 5 th leaf, number of green fruits with diameter higher than 3 cm, number of green, half ripen and ripen fruits, total number of fruits, Brix and pH of fruits, average fruit weight and fruit total production. A variety of stimulation effects were observed on the different plant developing stages. The greatest stimulus for production was observed in the 10 Gy dose. The highest seedling average height and plant average height were observed for the 7,5 Gy dose. The biggest number of green fruits with diameter higher than 3 cm occurred for the 12,5 and 15 Gy treatments. Irradiation also stimulated a higher total number of fruits in all doses, having advantage the 10 Gy dose which produced 88% more fruits than control as well as 86% more weight production. The fruits pH acidified significantly in a dose of 12,5 Gy and higher. Production increased in all treatments comparing to control and the highest stimulus for production observed was for the 10, 12,5 and 15 Gy. The use of low gamma radiation doses of Co-60 applied as pre-sowing treatment in the seeds, efficiently stimulated the development of plants and the tomato production. (author)

  19. Verification of Treatment Planning System (TPS) on Beam Axis of Co-60 Teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunung-Nuraeni; Budhy-Kurniawan; Purwanto; Sugiyantari; Heru-Prasetio; Nasukha

    2001-01-01

    Cancer diseases up to now can be able to be treated by using surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The need of high level precision and accuracy on radiation dose are very important task. One of task is verification of Treatment Planning System (Tps) to the treatment of patients. The research has been done to verify Tps on beam exis of teletherapy Co-60. Result found that the different between Tps and measurements are about -2.682 % to 1.918% for simple geometry and homogeneous material, 5.278 % to 4.990 % for complex geometry, and -3.202 % to -2.090 % for more complex geometry. (author)

  20. Photon beam modelling with Pinnacle3 Treatment Planning System for a Rokus M Co-60 Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulcescu, Mihaela; Murgulet Cristian

    2008-01-01

    The basic relationships of the convolution/superposition dose calculation technique are reviewed, and a modelling technique that can be used for obtaining a satisfactory beam model for a commercially available convolution/superposition-based treatment planning system is described. A fluence energy spectrum for a Co-60 treatment machine obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation was used for modelling the fluence spectrum for a Rokus M machine. In order to achieve this model we measured the depth dose distribution and the dose profiles with a Wellhofer dosimetry system. The primary fluence was iteratively modelled by comparing the computed depth dose curves and beam profiles with the depth dose curves and crossbeam profiles measured in a water phantom. The objective of beam modelling is to build a model of the primary fluence that the patient is exposed to, which can then be used for the calculation of the dose deposited in the patient. (authors)

  1. Mechanical Property Of Zeolite-PVA Composite Mixture Irradiated By Gamma Ray Of Co-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono; Danu, Sugiarto; Las, Tamzil

    2000-01-01

    Experiment on preparation of zeolite-polyvinyl alcohol composite for absorbance materials have been done by curring using Gamma γ-ray of Co-60. Zeolite with the particles size of 60 mesh was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at the concentration of the mixture were 6,9, and 12% by weight, than they were poured into glass tube (length = 100 mm; diameter = 10 mm) and irradiated at the doses of 10, 20, 30 dan 40 kGy with the dose rate of 7,5 kGy/ hr. Parameters observed were density, compressive strength, and hardness. Experimental results showed that polyvinyl alcohol in the mixture was significant effect to density and compressive strength, where as the irradiation dose was highly significant effect to compressive strength. The effect interaction between dose and polyvinyl alcohol concentration factors had significant effect to density or compressive strength. Almost all samples have pencil hardness of 4 - 5 H, for composite containing 6 % PVA, has pencil hardness of 2 - 3 H

  2. Dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped calcium magnesium borate glass subjected to Co-60 gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, R. S., E-mail: ratnasuffhiyanni@gmail.com; Wagiran, H., E-mail: husin@utm.my; Saeed, M. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric properties of dysprosium doped calcium magnesium borate (CMB:Dy) glass are presented. This study is deemed to understand the application of calcium as the modifier in magnesium borate glass with the presence of dysprosium as the activator to be performed as TL dosimeter (TLD). The study provides fundamental knowledge of a glass system that may lead to perform new TL glass dosimetry application in future research. Calcium magnesium borate glass systems of (70-y) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} − 20 CaO – 10 MgO-(y) Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} with 0.05  mol % ≤ y ≤ 0.7  mol % of dyprosium were prepared by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous structure and TL properties of the prepared samples were determined using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TL reader; model Harshaw 4500 respectively. The samples were irradiated to Co-60 gamma source at a dose of 50 Gy. Dosimetric properties such as annealing procedure, time temperature profile (TTP) setting, optimization of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration of 0.5 mol % were determined for thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) reader used.

  3. Co60 and Cs137 gamma radiation effects on textured bscco Superconducting fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Fabelo, A.; Bouza Dominguez, J.; Cruz Inclan, Crlos M.

    2001-01-01

    Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox superconducting fibers synthesized by solid state reaction and textured by the method of zonal laser ablation were irradiated with gamma rays of 1.25 MeV and 662 keV and studied the behavior of some of its properties with the exposition dose. The measurements of dynamic magnetic susceptibility were used for the characterization of the samples. It was observed that for the dose of up to 600 kGy in the case of the Co60 and until 500 mGy for the Cs137, the fibers preserve its superconducting intragrain properties. It is an evidence of the high resistance of the material to the radiacional damage. In all the cases were verified that with the increase of the dose the Ton of the transition grows. Two possible mechanisms that play the most important role in this effect are explained in the text. The ac measurements allowed to verified the increasing behavior of the superconducting volume fraction in the sample with the exposition dose

  4. TLD postal dose quality audit service for Co-60 beams in reference conditions in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Lores, S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Alonso Villanueva, G.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the methodology and experience of the Cuban's Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory for the implementation of postal dose quality audits service for Co-60 beams in reference conditions, using TLDs. Under coordinated research project (Contract 10794) were bought (TLD -100) Tl rods type JR 1152F made in China, with dimensions of 6 mm x 1 mm x 1 mm. All of these rods were identified individually with a consecutive number made over one of its sides, using a fine tip of graphite. The method used to determinate the individual sensibility of the TL detectors was: irradiating a group of them, with the same history of irradiation and readout (100 rods approximately), four serial times in the same geometrical conditions, to read them out and to attribute to each of them a sensitivity factor. This sensitivity factor is equal to average for the 4 cycle of irradiation and readout of the quote between the TL readout from dosimeter i and the mean of all values for each cycle. The TLD signal was read using HARSHAW 2000C/B reader. The results obtained in the external verification of the accuracy of the dose determination by the TLD system were performed in cooperation with IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory at Seibersdorf in different years are shown, the results obtained of the quality audits carried out to the different services of radiotherapy of the country are analysed also. The quality audits are an useful tool for the improvement of the accuracy in the dosimetry of clinical beams of radiotherapy with Co-60, contributing this way to the improvement of the life quality to cancer patients of the Cuban system of health. (author)

  5. Comparison of W-VC-C composites against Co-60, Se-75 and Sb-125 for gamma radioisotope sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ertugrul; Tugrul, A. Beril; Buyuk, Bulent; Yilmaz, Ozan; Ovecoglu, Lutfi

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten based materials are considered to be the promising materials for nuclear applications due to the good properties. The tungsten composite materials have so many advantages in nuclear technological applications especially fusion reactor systems. In this paper, Tungsten-Vanadium carbide-Graphite (W-VC-C) which include 93% tungsten (W), 6% vanadium carbide (VC) and 1% graphite (C) also which has three different alloying time (6-12-24 hours) were produced by mechanical alloying method. Co-60, Se-75 and Sb-125 gamma radioisotopeswere used as a gamma sources in order to determine behavior of gamma attenuation properties of the composite materials. The experimental results were compared with each other to clarify effects of varying gamma energies on the tungsten based composite materials. The mass attenuation coefficients of the samples were obtained by using XCOM computer code and compared with experimental data. The gamma linear attenuation, the mass attenuation coefficients and half value thickness (HVL) of the samples were evaluated and compared with Co-60, Se-75 and Sb-125 for gamma radioisotopes. Results showed that gamma attenuation coefficients of the samples depend on gamma energies and mechanical alloying time has negatively effect on the gamma shielding properties for the all studied W-VC-C.

  6. Assessment of shielding integrity of Co-60 gamma irradiation-ray scanner at Aflao Border, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbemafo, Edwin Capacity

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the current state of the shielding integrity of the 38.7 TBq Co-60 gamma ray scanner with an average energy of 1.25 MeV operated by NICK TC Scan Limited, which has been in use for destination inspection at Aflao Border of Ghana, for the past six years, (2010-2016). The facility uses a high energy ionizing radiation in its operation; therefore continuous adequacy of the installed biological shielding is critical to the protection and safety of the workers and the general public. The workload of the facility has increased since its commissioning, requiring the review of the status of the installed shielding. Theoretical calculations for dose rates and barrier thicknesses based on tenth – value layer (TVL) concept and NCRP 151, 2005 recommendations, were done around the scanning facility using the current operational data. The results were then compared with the measured dose rates and the shielding thickness constituted during the commissioning stage, and international standards. Calculated dose rate at commissioning state ranges from 0.6μSv/hr to 2.4μSv/hr with an average dose rate of 1.43μSv/hr and that of the current operational state ranges from 1.1μSv/hr to 2.6μSv/hr with an average dose rate of 1.54μSv/hr, indicating an increase of 7.9%. Even though the dose rates were all below the recommended dose limit of 20μSvh"-"1 by NCRP, there has been an increase in dose to the staff and the general public. It has been observed that, the workload has increased three-fold from the commissioning stage to current operational state over the past six years. The assessment done on the installed shielding using the current operational data indicates that the shielding is inadequate in providing protection for the general public and the workers against X-ray radiation source of energy of at least 6MeV, and therefore the facility in its current state cannot be used to house a linear accelerator of energy up to 10MeV. (au)

  7. The effects of Co60 gamma rays on the absorption of salicylic natrium orally given to white rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiharto, Kunto; Kamal, Zainul; Mulyanto; Muryono, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of Co 60 gamma rays on the absorption of salicylic natrium orally taken by white rats after being irradiated were studied. Patients treated with radiation used to be given analgesic drugs to elicit pain. Effects of radiation on the physiology of gastrointestinal tracts of such patients are to be studied. Based on this perception some white rats were irradiated with Co 60 gamma rays at the cumulative doses of 500, 750, and 1000 rads which were fractionated to 5 daily doses of 100, 150, and 200 rads. Salicylate concentration in the rat's blood was measured with spectrophotometer. It was found that the greater the radiation dose was given, the less salicylic natrium was absorbed and at a certain dose saturation point happened. (RUW)

  8. TLD Postal service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez L, S.; Walwyn S, G.; Alonso V, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the methodology and experience of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Cuba in the establishment of the TLD Postal Service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions. Materials and methods: Through the Coordinated Project of Research (Contract 10794) its was bought 200 solid thermoluminescent detectors of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) in micro bars form with dimensions of 6 x 1 x 1 mm and of the JR 1152F type manufactured in China. All these detectors were identified individually with a serial number on one of its faces, using a graphite fine sheet. Those detectors for its irradiation are introduced in cylindrical plastic capsules developed and used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the Audit Postal Service of Dose IAEA/WHO, the capsules have one cavity equal to 3 mm for that is necessary to recover this cavity with a fine plastic tube so that the detectors remain immobile during the irradiation. The method used to determine the individual sensitivity of the thermoluminescent detectors is: to irradiate a detectors group (100 micro bars) 4 times in those same geometric conditions, with the same irradiation history and reading, then it is determine for each detector a sensitivity factor equal to the average of those readings obtained for the 4 irradiation cycles for each i detector among the average of all the reading values obtained during the 4 cycles. The thermoluminescent signal is obtained with a Harshaw 2000C/B reader manual. Results: The satisfactory results obtained in the verification of the calibration of the TLD system, using the reference irradiation service of the Seibersdorf Dosimetry Laboratory of the IAEA in three different years are shown. The results of the audits carried out to the different radiotherapy services of the country in different years are also presented. Conclusions: The experience with the detectors acquired in the project demonstrates that with an appropriate

  9. Calculation of uncertainties in the protocol of dosimetry for Co 60 beams in Radiotherapy; Calculo de incertidumbres en el protocolo de dosimetria para haces de Co 60 en Radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez M, S.; Carrera M, F.; Sanchez S, J. [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Ronda Norte s/n 21005 Huelva (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The objective in this work is to show how the uncertainty is possible to know in the determination of the absorbed dose in Co 60 photon beams and to establish in a rational form, tolerance levels for this. It is took as base the spanish protocol of dosimetry in Radiotherapy. We have been centered in a Co 60 beam. We utilized the statistical theory of little samples. We allowed to suggest a new approach about the treatment of the tolerance levels and the uncertainty of the measurement. After two years of experience in the practical hospitable application we have gotten to put around 1 % uncertainty in the absolute dosimetry of the Co 60 beam. The presented protocol allows to execute the accuracy requirements in the determination of absorbed doses. (Author)

  10. Load of Co-60 in large gamma irradiators: a safe proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Gilmara C.; Paquer, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of new Co-60 sources in industrial irradiators is an extra procedure to its operation and extremely critical. The operation requires planning, attention, responsibility and a well trained staff. Radiation level, package contamination and radioactive material escape evaluations are essential as measurement of pre-loading safety. The package transfer for the swimming pool i e the most critical moment of the operation. After sources transfer to the racks, it is necessary the monitoring of tools, package and sources through the scrubbing test. Notwithstanding to be a critical operation, the risk is minimized when it is performed according to safe rules and radiation protection, and in the process performed the individual accumulated doses does not exceed 50 to μSv

  11. Load of Co-60 in large gamma irradiators: a safe proceeding; Carregamento de Co-60 em irradiadores de grande porte: um procedimento seguro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Gilmara C.; Paquer, Daniela, E-mail: gilmara@cbesa.com.b, E-mail: daniela@cbesa.com.b [CBE Embrarad, Jarinu, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The inclusion of new Co-60 sources in industrial irradiators is an extra procedure to its operation and extremely critical. The operation requires planning, attention, responsibility and a well trained staff. Radiation level, package contamination and radioactive material escape evaluations are essential as measurement of pre-loading safety. The package transfer for the swimming pool i e the most critical moment of the operation. After sources transfer to the racks, it is necessary the monitoring of tools, package and sources through the scrubbing test. Notwithstanding to be a critical operation, the risk is minimized when it is performed according to safe rules and radiation protection, and in the process performed the individual accumulated doses does not exceed 50 to {mu}Sv

  12. Synthesis of gold nano particles with enlargement size by gamma Co-60 irradiation and investigation of anti oxidation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Dang Van Phu; Le Anh Quoc; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with size in the range of 10-53 nm were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation using water-soluble chitosan (WSC) as stabilizer and size enlargement by seed approach. Absorption wavelength (λ max ) was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy and particle size was determined from TEM images. Results showed that value of λ max increased from 523 nm (seed particles) to 525, 537 and 549 nm and the size of AuNPs increased from 10 nm (seed particles) to 20, 38 and 53 nm, respectively, for concentration ratio of Au 3+ /Au 0 (seed) of 2.5, 5 and 10. Antioxidant effect of AuNPs with size of 10, 20, 38 and 53 nm was investigated using free radical 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS .+ ). Results indicated that the smaller the particle size was (10 nm) the stronger the antioxidant effect attained. Thus, AuNPs/WSC synthesis by gamma Co-60 irradiation are promising for applications as antioxidants in cosmetics and in other fields as well. (author)

  13. PERUBAHAN KARAKTER KUANTITATIF MUCUNA PRURIENS GENERASI M1 PASCA IRRADIASI SINAR GAMMA CO-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Ulung Anggraito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens berpotensi sebagai bahan substitusi kedelai. Keragaman genetik koro benguk termasuk kategori rendah, sehingga perlu ditingkatkan keragaman genetiknya terutama pada faktor-faktor produksi. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan informasi mutasi mikro pada koro benguk generasi M1 setelah diradiasi dengan sinar gamma dari Cobalt-60. Benih koro benguk diperoleh dari Balai Pengembangan Perbenihan Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura (BP2TPH Ngipiksari, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Radiasi sinar gamma dilakukan di PAIR BATAN Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. Dosis radiasi gamma yang digunakan adalah 0; 25 Gy, 50 Gy; 100 Gy; 150 Gy, 200 Gy, dan 250 Gy. Eksperimen dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK. Parameter yang diamati adalah umur berbunga, jumlah polong, jumlah biji, berat 100 biji tanaman generasi M1. Data dianalisis menggunakan Anava, dilanjutkan dengan Uji Beda Nyata Duncan (DMRT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan dosis radiasi sinar gamma akan memperpanjang hari munculnya bunga dan berat biji, namun menurunkan jumlah polong dan jumlah biji pada tanaman generasi M1.

  14. Electrophysical properties of In P crystals, irradiated with CO-60 gamma quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, M.I.; Guseynova, M.A.; Aliyev, I.M.; Ragimov, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : n-InP monocrystals were investigated before and after gamma irradiation having a doze about 10 and also within temperature interval from 77 to 320 K. On χ(T) and σ(T) dependences it is revealed that during gamma irradiation p-type antistructural defects are generated in n-InP crystals. It gives an opportunity of receiving of not alloyed semiinsulating indium fosfide [ru

  15. Effects of gamma Co-60 radiation on the growth and development of peppermint (Mentha arvensis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thi Le Minh; Nguyen Truong Giang; Bui Thi Hong Gam; Le Quang Luan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, mints were regenerated from calluses irradiated by γ-rays (Co-60) at doses from 0 to 70 Gy. After 4 times of propagation, the M_1V_4 mints were transferred in a greenhouse for assessments of growth, development and essential oil content. Mint regenerated from calluses irradiated at low doses (0, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy) showed no morphological difference compared to the control plants. However, low-dose irradiated mints showed better effect on growth and development, and mints regenerated from 6 Gy-irradiated sample had essential oil content with 1.3 times higher than that of control group. In case of plants irradiated at higher dose (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 Gy), there were morphological variations such as stem become bigger and color of stem become purple. Especially, samples irradiated at 60 Gy showed better in growth, development and essential oil content (1.34 times higher than the control plants) and these characters were stable in M_1V_4. Among the irradiated mints, purple stem variations had the highest essential oil yield with 1.7 times higher than that of the original plants. (author)

  16. Study On In Vitro Variation Generation Of Cymbidium Labell Anna Belle By Gamma Co-60 Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Huynh Phuong Uyen; Vo Thi Thu Ha; Le Quang Luan

    2011-01-01

    Radiation ionization is one of useful methods for mutation breeding of plants. In this study, γ-ray (Co-60) was used for generating morphological variations of Cymbidium Labell Anna Belle. The lethal doses of 50% samples (LD 50 ) after 4 months cultivation were determined at 35.0 Gy for protocorm like bodies (PLBs), 37.4 Gy for in vitro shoot bubs and 70.1 Gy for plantlets. PLBs were found as suitable samples for generation of variation of mentioned Cymbidium. The dose range from 20 to 50 Gy was determined with a high ability of variation on C. Labell Anna Belle. The highest frequency of variation was obtained ca. 3.82 x 10 -3 at the dose of 30 Gy. 157 in vitro variant plantlets were selected in M 1 V 1 generation, among variations, the variations were mainly found with 5 following types: removal of chlorophyll (8 plantlets), the leaves become shorter (64 plantlets), the leaves become longer (64 plantlets), increase of leaf number (11 plantlets) and the colour of pericardium was changed from green into violet (10 plantlets). Twenty one variant lines were selected in M 1 V 2 generation. (author)

  17. Desulfurization of petroleum by Co-60 gamma irradiation and analysis of products using GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathuthu, M.; Tshivhase, V.M.; Olobatoke, R.Y.; Gaxela, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur is an undesirable hetero-atom that has negative on motor engines if present in quantities between 50 and 180.000 ppm. Research has shown that sour petroleum can be 'sweetened' by gamma irradiation to de-sulfurize the crude oil. In this research we will report experimental results of desulfurizing petroleum locally procured. The objective is to improve the quality of product delivered to the motor market and also reduce the environmental pollution due to SO 2 emissions from engines. The gamma irradiated (de-sulfurized petroleum was chemically analyzed using GC-MS. The preliminary results show that the petroleum is polymerized by gamma radiation to higher molecular mass. The un-irradiated petroleum had a sulfur concentration of 3.24% and 0.020% wt after gamma irradiation. The sulfur content was reduced by a factor of about 160 when dose was increased from zero to 50 kGys. GC-MS Chromatographs are presented for the identified hydrocarbons after gamma irradiation. (authors)

  18. Reliability studies on Si PIN photodiodes under Co-60 gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakara Rao, Y. P. [Integrated Circuits Division, Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka-560013 (India) and Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, Karnataka-570006 (India); Praveen, K. C.; Gnana Prakash, A. P. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, Karnataka-570006 (India); Rani, Y. Rejeena [Integrated Circuits Division, Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore, Karnataka-560013 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Silicon PIN photodiodes were fabricated with 250 nm SiO{sub 2} antireflective coating (ARC). The changes in the electrical characteristics, capacitance-voltage characteristics and spectral response after gamma irradiation are systematically studied to estimate the radiation tolerance up to 10 Mrad. The different characteristics studied in this investigation demonstrate that Si PIN photodiodes are suitable for high radiation environment.

  19. Calibration curve to establish the exposure dose at Co60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M.

    2000-01-01

    The biological dosimetry is an adequate method for the dose determination in cases of overexposure to ionizing radiation or doubt of the dose obtained by physical methods. It is based in the aberrations analysis produced in the chromosomes. The behavior of leisure in chromosomes is of dose-response type and it has been generated curves in distinct laboratories. Next is presented the curve for gamma radiation produced in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) laboratory. (Author)

  20. Effects of Co60 gamma radiation on the immunogenic and antigenic properties of Bothrops jararacussu venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do; Rogero, Jose R.

    1997-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to attenuate animals toxins and venoms for immunizing antisera producing animals. However, the radiation effects on antigenicity and immunogenecity have not yet been elucidated. In the present work, we investigated the effects of gamma rays on the antigenic and immunogenicity have not yet been elucidated. In the present work, we investigated the effects of gamma rays on the antigenic and immunogenic behaviour of Bothrops jararacussu venon. Venom samples (2mg/ml in 150 mM NaCl) were irradiated with 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays. These samples were submitted to antigen capture ELISA on plates coated with commercial bothropic antiserum. Results suggest a loss of reactivity of the 1000 and 2000 Gy irradiated samples. Antibodies against native and 2000 Gy irradiated venoms were produced in rabbits. Both sera able to bind native venom with a slightly higher titer for anti-irradiated serum. These data suggest that radiation promoted structural modification on the antigen molecules. However since the antibodies produced against irradiated antivenom were able to recognize native venom, there must have been preservation of some antigenic determinants. It has already been demosntrated that irradiation of proteins leads to structural modifications and unfolding of the molecules. Our data suggest that irradiation led to conformational epitopes destruction with preservation of linear epitopes and that the response against irradiated venom may be attributed to these linear antigenic determinants. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  1. Biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with gamma radiation of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can change the molecular structure and affect the biological properties of biomolecules. This has been employed to attenuate animal toxins. Crotamine is a strongly basic polypeptide from South American rattlesnake venom, composed of 42 amino acid residues. It induces skeletal muscle spasms, leading to a spastic paralysis of hind limbs in mice. The objective was to carry out biochemical and pharmacological studies of native and irradiated crotamine with Co. Crotamine was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography, using a Fast performance Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. It was irradiated at 2 mg/ml in 0.15 m NaCl with 2.0 kGy gamma radiation emitted by a Co source. Native and irradiated crotamine were evaluated by biochemical characterization, toxic activity (LD50), and biodistribution. The native and irradiated crotamine were labeled with 29.6 MBq of I using chloramine T method and separated in a Sephadex G-50 column. Male Swiss mice (35 @ 5 g) were injected IP with 0.1 mL (2.4x10 cpm/mouse) of I native crotamine or with 0.4 mL (1.3 x 10 cpm/mouse) of I irradiated crotamine. The animals were sacrificed by ether inhalation at 0.08, 0.25, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours. Blood, spleen, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. The results showed that gamma radiation did not change protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, or protein primary structure, although differences could be seen by spectroscopic techniques. Gamma radiation reduced crotamine toxicity, but did not eliminate bioactivity. Biodistribution studies showed that native and irradiated crotamine have hepatic metabolism and renal elimination. Native and irradiated crotamine have an affinity to skeletal muscle and did not cross the blood-brain barrier. (author)

  2. Effects of Co60 gamma radiation on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Embryo. II. Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.

    1990-01-01

    The morphogenetic effects of ionizing radiation were investigated in Biomphalaria glabrata embryos irradiated in the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages with 5 to 25 Gy doses of 60 CO gamma radiation. The number of malformed embryos rapidly increased with increasing radiation dose, reaching a maximum between 5th to 8th day after irradiation in all stages analyzed. Susceptibility to malformation induction was higher the younger than the age of the irradiated embryo. However, for the cleavage stage the frequency of malformed embryos was inversely proportional to radiation dose for the same radiation dose. Several types of morphogenetic malformations were obtained, among then cephalic malformations, exogastrula, shell malformations and embryos with everted stomodeum, unspecific malformations being the most frequent. The results show that the types of malformation induced by radiation probably are not radiation-specific and do not depend on the dose applied [pt

  3. Development of semi-empirical equations for In-water dose distribution using Co-60 beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Siddig Abdalla Talha

    2001-08-01

    Knowledge of absorbed dose distribution is essential for the management of cancer using Co-60 teletherapy. Since direct measurement of dose in patient is impossible, indirect assessments are always carried. In this study direct assessments in phantoms were taken for dose distribution data. Mainly we concentrated on central axis dose and isodose curves data, which are essential for treatment planning. We started by development of a semi-empirical method which uses a more restricted number of measurements and uses graphical relation to develop the dose distribution. This method was based on the decrement lines method which was introduced by Orchard (1964) to develop isodose curve. In the beginning the already developed percent depth dose, Pdd, equation was modified and used to plot the Pdd lines for randomly selected field sizes. After that the dose profiles at depths 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm for randomly selected field sizes were plotted from the direct measurement. Then with the help of the PDD's equation, an equation for the slope of decrement lines is developed. From this slope equation a relation that gives the off axial distance was found. Making use of these relations, the iso lines 80%, 50% and 20% were plotted for the field sizes: 6*6 cm 2 , 10*10 cm 2 and 18*18 cm 2 . Finally these plotted lines were compared to their correspondents from the manufacturer and those used in the hospital (Rick). (Author)

  4. Comparative nephrotoxicity of native or Co-60 gamma rays irradiated crotoxin in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Andre Moreira; Alves, Glaucie J.; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson O.; Thomazi, Gabriela O. Coelho; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do, E-mail: andrerocha@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento-Rocha, Josefa M.; Magalhaes Filho, Asterio Souza, E-mail: 0304@prof.itpacporto.com.br [Instituto Tocantinense Presidente Antonio Carlos Porto (ITPAC), Porto Nacional, TO (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and peptides with a wide spectrum of physiological targets such as the blood coagulation and cardiovascular systems and the motor end plate among others. Acute renal failure is a common complication in accidents with the South American rattlesnake. The toxin involved in this pathology is the crotoxin, a major component of the venom in terms of concentration and toxicity. Snake venoms, when irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays present a significant decrease in toxicity while the immunogenic properties of its components are preserved. The use of irradiated venom is an attractive alternative for antisera production since it might reduce the appearance of renal lesions improving the welfare and lifespan of those animals employed on antivenom production. At the present work, we have compared the effects of native and irradiated crotoxin on the mice renal function. Tubular lesions were observed in all the samples from the animal group injected with native crotoxin. Animals injected with the irradiated toxin presented alteration only after 30 minutes and 1 hour after injection. These data suggest that the onset of the renal lesions is delayed and that the severity of the lesions might be lower when using irradiated crotoxin. (author)

  5. DOSKMF2, Dose Rate Distribution in Co60 Gamma Irradiation Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remer, M.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The DOSKMF2 code calculates dose rate distributions in gamma irradiation facilities with 60 Co sources. It has been developed as a tool for the evaluation of research units for the characterization, modification and optimization as well as for the simulation, planning design and evaluation of pilot and industrial facilities. 2 - Method of solution: The basic model of DOSKMF2 contains the computation of the exposure rate, which is dependent on a system of radiation sources (line and/or point sources) at one point of the radiation field. The geometric conditions are described by two coordinate systems. The first is used to arrange the radiation sources and tubes; the second is used to describe the shielding layers in the form of concentric circles. The build-up factor is approximated by Taylor coefficients, also in the case of multi-layer configurations. Calculations of radiation fields in complex irradiation facilities are made by many organizational variants based on the basic model. The interpretation of the results is supported by some statistical calculations. It is possible to store the calculated dose rate values for further processing. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The DOSKMF2 code is presently limited to 40 irradiation tubes and 10 crossed shielding layers. This can be increased by changing dimension statements and input organization

  6. Comparative nephrotoxicity of native or Co-60 gamma rays irradiated crotoxin in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Andre Moreira; Alves, Glaucie J.; Aires, Raquel da Silva; Turibio, Thompson O.; Thomazi, Gabriela O. Coelho; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do; Nascimento-Rocha, Josefa M.; Magalhaes Filho, Asterio Souza

    2015-01-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and peptides with a wide spectrum of physiological targets such as the blood coagulation and cardiovascular systems and the motor end plate among others. Acute renal failure is a common complication in accidents with the South American rattlesnake. The toxin involved in this pathology is the crotoxin, a major component of the venom in terms of concentration and toxicity. Snake venoms, when irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays present a significant decrease in toxicity while the immunogenic properties of its components are preserved. The use of irradiated venom is an attractive alternative for antisera production since it might reduce the appearance of renal lesions improving the welfare and lifespan of those animals employed on antivenom production. At the present work, we have compared the effects of native and irradiated crotoxin on the mice renal function. Tubular lesions were observed in all the samples from the animal group injected with native crotoxin. Animals injected with the irradiated toxin presented alteration only after 30 minutes and 1 hour after injection. These data suggest that the onset of the renal lesions is delayed and that the severity of the lesions might be lower when using irradiated crotoxin. (author)

  7. TH-AB-BRA-02: Automated Triplet Beam Orientation Optimization for MRI-Guided Co-60 Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D; Thomas, D; Cao, M; O’Connor, D; Lamb, J; Sheng, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: MRI guided Co-60 provides daily and intrafractional MRI soft tissue imaging for improved target tracking and adaptive radiotherapy. To remedy the low output limitation, the system uses three Co-60 sources at 120° apart, but using all three sources in planning is considerably unintuitive. We automate the beam orientation optimization using column generation, and then solve a novel fluence map optimization (FMO) problem while regularizing the number of MLC segments. Methods: Three patients—1 prostate (PRT), 1 lung (LNG), and 1 head-and-neck boost plan (H&NBoost)—were evaluated. The beamlet dose for 180 equally spaced coplanar beams under 0.35 T magnetic field was calculated using Monte Carlo. The 60 triplets were selected utilizing the column generation algorithm. The FMO problem was formulated using an L2-norm minimization with anisotropic total variation (TV) regularization term, which allows for control over the number of MLC segments. Our Fluence Regularized and Optimized Selection of Triplets (FROST) plans were compared against the clinical treatment plans (CLN) produced by an experienced dosimetrist. Results: The mean PTV D95, D98, and D99 differ by −0.02%, +0.12%, and +0.44% of the prescription dose between planning methods, showing same PTV dose coverage. The mean PTV homogeneity (D95/D5) was at 0.9360 (FROST) and 0.9356 (CLN). R50 decreased by 0.07 with FROST. On average, FROST reduced Dmax and Dmean of OARs by 6.56% and 5.86% of the prescription dose. The manual CLN planning required iterative trial and error runs which is very time consuming, while FROST required minimal human intervention. Conclusions: MRI guided Co-60 therapy needs the output of all sources yet suffers from unintuitive and laborious manual beam selection processes. Automated triplet orientation optimization is shown essential to overcome the difficulty and improves the dosimetry. A novel FMO with regularization provides additional controls over the number of MLC segments

  8. TH-AB-BRA-02: Automated Triplet Beam Orientation Optimization for MRI-Guided Co-60 Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D; Thomas, D; Cao, M; O’Connor, D; Lamb, J; Sheng, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: MRI guided Co-60 provides daily and intrafractional MRI soft tissue imaging for improved target tracking and adaptive radiotherapy. To remedy the low output limitation, the system uses three Co-60 sources at 120° apart, but using all three sources in planning is considerably unintuitive. We automate the beam orientation optimization using column generation, and then solve a novel fluence map optimization (FMO) problem while regularizing the number of MLC segments. Methods: Three patients—1 prostate (PRT), 1 lung (LNG), and 1 head-and-neck boost plan (H&NBoost)—were evaluated. The beamlet dose for 180 equally spaced coplanar beams under 0.35 T magnetic field was calculated using Monte Carlo. The 60 triplets were selected utilizing the column generation algorithm. The FMO problem was formulated using an L2-norm minimization with anisotropic total variation (TV) regularization term, which allows for control over the number of MLC segments. Our Fluence Regularized and Optimized Selection of Triplets (FROST) plans were compared against the clinical treatment plans (CLN) produced by an experienced dosimetrist. Results: The mean PTV D95, D98, and D99 differ by −0.02%, +0.12%, and +0.44% of the prescription dose between planning methods, showing same PTV dose coverage. The mean PTV homogeneity (D95/D5) was at 0.9360 (FROST) and 0.9356 (CLN). R50 decreased by 0.07 with FROST. On average, FROST reduced Dmax and Dmean of OARs by 6.56% and 5.86% of the prescription dose. The manual CLN planning required iterative trial and error runs which is very time consuming, while FROST required minimal human intervention. Conclusions: MRI guided Co-60 therapy needs the output of all sources yet suffers from unintuitive and laborious manual beam selection processes. Automated triplet orientation optimization is shown essential to overcome the difficulty and improves the dosimetry. A novel FMO with regularization provides additional controls over the number of MLC segments

  9. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation of Co-60 (radio-hormesis) in tomato seeds; Efeitos de baixas doses de radiacao gama do Co-60 (radio-hormesis) em sementes de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Tomato seeds of the Gladiador hybrid were exposed to gamma radiation of Co-60 with the following doses: 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5; 10; 12,5; 15 e 20 Gy. Analysis were performed on germination, seedlings height to cotyledon, seedling total height, seedling fresh and dry weight, plant height, stalk diameter at the root beginning, fresh and dry weight of the 5{sup th} leaf, number of green fruits with diameter higher than 3 cm, number of green, half ripen and ripen fruits, total number of fruits, Brix and pH of fruits, average fruit weight and fruit total production. A variety of stimulation effects were observed on the different plant developing stages. The greatest stimulus for production was observed in the 10 Gy dose. The highest seedling average height and plant average height were observed for the 7,5 Gy dose. The biggest number of green fruits with diameter higher than 3 cm occurred for the 12,5 and 15 Gy treatments. Irradiation also stimulated a higher total number of fruits in all doses, having advantage the 10 Gy dose which produced 88% more fruits than control as well as 86% more weight production. The fruits pH acidified significantly in a dose of 12,5 Gy and higher. Production increased in all treatments comparing to control and the highest stimulus for production observed was for the 10, 12,5 and 15 Gy. The use of low gamma radiation doses of Co-60 applied as pre-sowing treatment in the seeds, efficiently stimulated the development of plants and the tomato production. (author)

  10. A comparison of 4 MeV Proton and Co-60 gamma irradiation induced degradation in the electrical characteristics of N-channel MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Arshiya; Vinayakprasanna, N.H.; Pradeep, T.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006 (India); Pushpa, N. [Department of PG Studies in Physics, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysore 570025 (India); Krishna, J.B.M. [IUC-DAE CSR, Kolkota 700098 (India); Gnana Prakash, A.P., E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006 (India)

    2016-07-15

    N-channel depletion MOSFETs were irradiated with 4 MeV Proton and Co-60 gamma radiation in the dose range of 100 krad(Si) to 100 Mrad(Si). The electrical characteristics of MOSFET such as threshold voltage (V{sub th}), density of interface trapped charges (ΔN{sub it}), density of oxide trapped charges (ΔN{sub ot}), transconductance (g{sub m}), mobility (μ), leakage current (I{sub L}) and drain saturation current (I{sub D} {sub Sat}) were studied as a function of dose. A considerable increase in ΔN{sub it} and ΔN{sub ot} and decrease in V{sub th,}g{sub m}, μ, and I{sub D} {sub Sat} was observed after irradiation. The results of 4 MeV Proton irradiation were compared with that of Co-60 gamma radiation and it is found that the degradation is more for the devices irradiated with 4 MeV Protons when compared with the Co-60 gamma radiation. This indicates that Protons induce more trapped charges in the field oxide region when compared to the gamma radiation.

  11. Total integrated dose testing of solid-state scientific CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 devices by irradiation with CO-60 gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A. R. V.; Gauthier, M. K.; Coss, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The total integrated dose response of three CMOS devices manufactured by Solid State Scientific has been measured using CO-60 gamma rays. Key parameter measurements were made and compared for each device type. The data show that the CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 produced by this manufacturers should not be used in any environments where radiation levels might exceed 1,000 rad(Si).

  12. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-energy electrons, x-rays and Co-60 gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Kunihiro

    1974-01-01

    Linac (Mitsubishi-Shimizu 15 MeV medical linear accelerator) electron beams with actual generated energies of 8, 10, 12 and 15 MeV were compared with X-ray beams having energies of 8 and 10 MV. The RBE values were calculated from 50 percent hatch-ability (LD 50 ) in silk-worm embryos, 30-days lethality (LDsub(50/30)) in ddY mice, and mean lethal dose (Do) in cultured mouse YL cells or human FL cells. To estimate the RBE in clinical experiments, LRD (leukocyte reduction dose) value was calculated for each patient irradiated on the chest or lumbar vertebrae. It was concluded that there is little difference in practical significance between 8 to 10 MV X-rays and 8 to 15 MeV electrons, and that the biological effects of Linac radiations are about 90 to 100 percent of the effect of 60 Co gamma rays. The RBE values gradually decreased, contrary to the elevation of energy between 8 and 15 MeV for electrons and between 8 and 10 MV for X-rays. These values were compared with those of earlier reviews of work in this field, and were briefly discussed. (Evans, J.)

  13. Evaluación no destructiva de la patogenicidad de Cercospora agavicola en vitroplántulas de agave azul tequilero irradiadas con rayos gamma Co60

    OpenAIRE

    Ángeles-Espino, A.; Virgen-Calleros, G.; Valencia-Botín, J.; Ramírez-Serrano, C.; Paredes-Gutiérrez, L.; Hurtado-De la Peña, S.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen: El cultivo del agave y el tequila tienen importancia económica y social por los empleos en campo y la industria, además por las divisas de la exportación. El tizón foliar causado por Cercospora agavicola representa un alto riesgo en la zona de Los Altos de Jalisco, debido a que el clima favorece la dispersión y germinación de las esporas. Se inocularon plántulas obtenidas a partir de yemas axilares, mismas que se irradiaron con rayos gamma Co60 a 0 Gy (testigo), 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 15 Gy, 2...

  14. Evaluation through comet assay of DNA damage induced in human lymphocytes by alpha particles. Comparison with protons and Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Kreiner, A. J.; Schuff, J. A.; Vallerga, M. B.; Taja, M. R.; Lopez, F. O.; Alvarez, D. E.; Saint Martin, G.; Burton, A.; Debray, M. E.; Kesque, J. M.; Somacal, H.; Stoliar, P.; Valda, A.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Ozafran, M. J.; Vazquez, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    Several techniques with different sensitivity to single-strand breaks and/or double strand breaks were applied to detect DNA breaks generated by high LET particles. Tests that assess DNA damage in single cells might be the appropriate tool to estimate damage induced by particles, facilitating the assessment of heterogeneity of damage in a cell population. The microgel electrophoresis (comet) assay is a sensitive method for measuring DNA damage in single cells. The objective of this work was to evaluate the proficiency of comet assay to assess the effect of high LET radiation on peripheral blood lymphocytes, compared to protons and Co-60 gamma rays. Materials and methods: Irradiations of blood samples were performed at TANDAR laboratory (Argentina). Thin samples of human peripheral blood were irradiated with different doses (0-2.5 Gy) of 20.2 MeV helium-4 particles in the track segment mode, at nearly constant LET. Data obtained were compared with the effect induced by a MeV protons and Co-60 gamma rays. Alkaline comet assay was applied. Comets were quantified by the Olive tail moment. Distribution of the helium-4 particle and protons were evaluated considering Poisson distribution in lymphocyte nuclei. The mean dose per nucleus per particle result 0.053 Gy for protons and 0.178 Gy for helium-4 particles. When cells are exposed to a dose of 0.1 Gy, the hit probability model predicts that 43% of the nuclei should have experienced and alpha traversal while with protons, 85% of the nuclei should be hit. The experimental results show a biphasic response for helium-4 particles (0.1 Gy), indicating the existence of two subpopulations: unhit and hit. Distributions of tail moment as a function of fluence and experimental dose for comets induced by helium-4 particles, protons and Co-60 gamma rays were analyzed. With helium-4 irradiations, lymphocyte nuclei show an Olive tail moment distribution flattened to higher tail moments a dose increase. However, for irradiations with

  15. Effect of Co-60 gamma radiation on optical, dielectric and mechanical properties of strontium L-ascorbate hexahydrate NLO crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileep, M. S.; Suresh Kumar, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    A potentially useful nonlinear optical semi-organic single crystal of strontium L-ascorbate hexahydrate (SLAH) was grown by solution growth slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystal is semi transparent, yellowish in color with monoclinic crystal system having space group P21 and is stable up to 198 °C. Further, SLAH crystals were irradiated with gamma rays produced by 60Co with different doses of 10 KGy, 30 KGy and 50 KGy at room temperature and then studied the effect of gamma-rays on dielectric properties, optical absorption, microhardness and SHG efficiency. The absorption study reveals that the absorbance of the grown crystal is appeared to be low throughout the visible region with a lower cutoff wavelength of 277 nm and these parameters are not affected upon gamma irradiation. The luminescence intensity of the crystal is also not affected by the irradiation. There is noticeable changes were observed in dielectric properties and hardness of the materials for different doses of gamma irradiation. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown crystal is 0.54 times that of the KDP crystal and is decreased moderately by increasing the dosage of gamma irradiation.

  16. TLD Postal service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions in Cuba; Servicio Postal TLD para auditorias de calidad de haces de Co-60 en condiciones de referencia en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez L, S.; Walwyn S, G.; Alonso V, G. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, C. Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: stefan@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the methodology and experience of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of Cuba in the establishment of the TLD Postal Service for quality audits of beams of Co-60 in reference conditions. Materials and methods: Through the Coordinated Project of Research (Contract 10794) its was bought 200 solid thermoluminescent detectors of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) in micro bars form with dimensions of 6 x 1 x 1 mm and of the JR 1152F type manufactured in China. All these detectors were identified individually with a serial number on one of its faces, using a graphite fine sheet. Those detectors for its irradiation are introduced in cylindrical plastic capsules developed and used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the Audit Postal Service of Dose IAEA/WHO, the capsules have one cavity equal to 3 mm for that is necessary to recover this cavity with a fine plastic tube so that the detectors remain immobile during the irradiation. The method used to determine the individual sensitivity of the thermoluminescent detectors is: to irradiate a detectors group (100 micro bars) 4 times in those same geometric conditions, with the same irradiation history and reading, then it is determine for each detector a sensitivity factor equal to the average of those readings obtained for the 4 irradiation cycles for each i detector among the average of all the reading values obtained during the 4 cycles. The thermoluminescent signal is obtained with a Harshaw 2000C/B reader manual. Results: The satisfactory results obtained in the verification of the calibration of the TLD system, using the reference irradiation service of the Seibersdorf Dosimetry Laboratory of the IAEA in three different years are shown. The results of the audits carried out to the different radiotherapy services of the country in different years are also presented. Conclusions: The experience with the detectors acquired in the project demonstrates that with an appropriate

  17. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Guzman, Zenaida M. [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Cervancia, Cleofas R. [Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Tolentino, Mitos M.; Abrera, Gina B.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C. [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Sabino, Noel G.; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C. [Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Feliciano, Chitho P., E-mail: cpfeliciano@pnri.dost.gov.ph [Microbiological Research and Service Laboratory, Atomic Research Division, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2011-10-15

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a {sup 60}Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D{sub 10}) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10{sup 5}-9x10{sup 3} spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D{sub min}) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to {gamma}-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. - Highlights: > We characterized Paenibacillus larvae and determined its radiation sensitivity. > We investigated the effectiveness of gamma rays in inactivating P. larvae. > Gamma radiation inactivates P. larvae. > 15 kGy is effective for the sterilization of P. larvae-infected hives. > Irradiation produces no visible changes in the hives' body, waxes and frames.

  18. Radiation inactivation of Paenibacillus larvae and sterilization of American Foul Brood (AFB) infected hives using Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Guzman, Zenaida M.; Cervancia, Cleofas R.; Dimasuay, Kris Genelyn B.; Tolentino, Mitos M.; Abrera, Gina B.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C.; Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Sabino, Noel G.; Manila-Fajardo, Analinda C.; Feliciano, Chitho P.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of gamma radiation in inactivating the Philippine isolate of Paenibacillus larvae was investigated. Spores of P. larvae were irradiated at incremental doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy) of gamma radiation emitted by a 60 Co source. Surviving spores were counted and used to estimate the decimal reduction (D 10 ) value. A dose of 0.2 kGy was sufficient to inactivate 90% of the total recoverable spores from an initial count of 10 5 -9x10 3 spores per glass plate. The sterilizing effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the spores of P. larvae in infected hives was determined. In this study, a minimum dose (D min ) of 15 kGy was tested. Beehives with sub-clinical infections of AFB were irradiated and examined for sterility. All the materials were found to be free of P. larvae indicating its susceptibility to γ-rays. After irradiation, there were no visible changes in the physical appearance of the hives' body, wax and frames. Thus, a dose of 15 kGy is effective enough for sterilization of AFB-infected materials. - Highlights: → We characterized Paenibacillus larvae and determined its radiation sensitivity. → We investigated the effectiveness of gamma rays in inactivating P. larvae. → Gamma radiation inactivates P. larvae. → 15 kGy is effective for the sterilization of P. larvae-infected hives. → Irradiation produces no visible changes in the hives' body, waxes and frames.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation (Co60) in physic-chemical and sensory properties of aged beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Lenice Magali do

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the efficiency of different doses of gamma radiation as an alternative process to improve the quality of aged beans. Beans of the 'Carioca 80' variety were submitted to an accelerated aging process according to the followings patterns: 30 deg C and 50 or 75% relative humidity and 40 deg C and 50 or 80% relative humidity, during 45 days. After that time samples were submitted to gamma irradiation at doses of 300, 600, 900 and 1200 Krad. At the same time samples of 1989, 1987 and 1983 harvest and submitted to slow aging process, 12 deg C and 50-60% relative humidity, were evaluated to comparison with former accelerated aging. All the samples were analysed on moisture and starch content, cooking time, texture and sensorial evaluation. The results showed that samples submitted to aged faster presented better quality, second the evaluated parameters, as far as irradiation applied was 300 Krad. The same happened to samples of harvest 1989 aged slowly. The 1987 and 1983 harvests, respectively, were the doses that gave better softness to the beans. This work permitted conclude that gamma irradiation is an alternative method of advantage for aged beans, for same decrease the cooking time and improvement the sensory quality of stored grain. (author)

  20. Stromal damage in the mouse small intestine after Co60 gamma or D-T neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; Hamlet, R.; Nias, A.H.; Boyle, F.C.; Fife, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Stromal constituents have been examined in mouse small intestine 3 1/2 days after irradiation with either 18-20 Gy gamma rays or 10 Gy neutrons. These doses were chosen for their equivalent effect on the number of intestinal crypts found after treatment. Despite the fact that the topography of the villi, as imaged by scanning electron microscopy, was altered by treatment, with gamma irradiated villi showing lateral or horizontal collapse while neutron irradiation produced conical villi, few changes were seen in the villous stromal compartments. There were, however, ultrastructural changes observed in the stroma of the pericryptal plate. Changes common to both radiation schedules included disorganisation of the subepithelial stroma and an increase in the number of irregular processes. Some changes after irradiation, however, were not identical in the two groups. Gamma irradiation resulted in pale, foamy cytoplasmic vesicles, the separation of smooth muscle cells and changes in the structure of the luminal aspect of arterial blood vessels while neutron irradiation produced dense cytoplasmic vesicles and electron dense bodies within the substance of peripheral nerve twigs. The fact that the variation in the topography of villi after the two types of radiation is matched by changes in the deep stroma rather than within the villi themselves indicates that the stromal pericryptal plate is of importance in the structure of the villus and the extent to which the villi have varied from the normal finger shaped structure

  1. Modifications of structural, chemical, and electrical characteristics of Er2O3/Si interface under Co-60 gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Senol; Yilmaz, Ercan

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the influences of gamma radiation on the structural, electrical, and chemical characteristics of erbium oxide (Er2O3) thin films and the possible mechanisms underlying these irradiation-induced effects. The crystallographic and morphological modifications under gamma irradiation were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively, while radiation influences on electrochemical characteristics were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, changes in electrical characteristics were analyzed on the basis of capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/ω-V) measurements. The XRD results demonstrated that small atomic displacement was observed and that the grain size of the nanostructure slightly increased. Improvements in surface roughness were observed in AFM measurements. The observed variations in the XRD and AFM measurements can be attributed to the radiation-induced local heating and microscopic atomic mobility. In addition, the XPS analysis obviously demonstrated that the oxygen vacancies increased with irradiation dose because of the breaking of Er2O3 and ErxOy bonds. Significant influences of the generated oxygen vacancies on the electrical measurements were observed, and the radiation-induced hole traps, which caused large flat band shifts, can be attributed to the generated oxygen vacancies. The results show that radiation does not degrade the physical characteristics significantly, but the generation of oxygen vacancies considerably increases the electrical sensitivity of the Er2O3 dielectric.

  2. Effect of Co-60 gamma irradiated chitosan and phosphorus fertilizer on growth, yield and trigonelline content of Trigonella foenum-graecum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ahmad Dar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural marine polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate and carrageenan; after depolymerization by different techniques, have shown promising plant growth promoting and other biological activities. Chitosan after irradiation with Co-60 gamma-rays have proven to be a miraculous plant growth promoter in different plants. Trigonelline; an anti-diabetic compound is obtained mainly from the seeds of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.. Trigonelline counteracts diabetes mellitus (DM through the operation of the mechanisms of insulin secretion, modulation of β-cell regeneration and stimulation of activity of glucose metabolism related enzymes. Considering the medicinal importance a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of Co-60 gamma irradiated chitosan (IC with soil applied phosphorus supplement on growth, biochemical and quality attributes of fenugreek. Four concentrations of irradiated chitosan were used (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg L−1 individually as well as in combination with single dose of phosphorus 40 kg ha−1. Un-irradiated chitosan (UN 40 mg L−1 and de-ionized water were used as control. IC significantly affected almost all the parameters including seed yield, trigonelline content and trigonelline yield. There were 10 treatments and among all, P40 + IC 40 mg L−1 proved to be the best, which increased total alkaloid content by 34.9%, seed yield by 125.4%, and trigonelline content by 17.8%. Contents of photosynthetic pigments and activity of nitrate reductase, carbonic anhydrase enzymes were also significantly enhanced.

  3. C-188 Co-60 sources installation and source rack loading optimization processes in a gamma irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Since 2004, the Multipurpose Gamma Facility at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute has been providing services on radiation processing for disinfection and sterilization of health care and disposable medical products as well to support research studies on modification of physical, chemical and biological properties of several materials. Recently, there was an increment in irradiation of the Cultural Heritages. This facility uses C-188 double-encapsulated radioactive Cobalt-60 sources known as pencils from manufactures outside of country. The activity of the cobalt sources decays into a stable nickel isotope with a half-life around 5.27 years, which means a loss of 12.3% annually. Then, additional pencils of Cobalt-60 are added periodically to the source rack to maintain the required capacity or installed activity of the facility. The manufacturer makes shipping of the radioactive sources inside a high density container type B(U) , by sea. This one involves many administrative, transport and radiation safety procedures. Once in the facility, the container is opened inside a deep pool water to remove the pencils. The required source geometry of the facility is obtained by loading these source pencils into predetermined diagram or positions in source modules and distributing these modules over the source rack of the facility. The dose variation can be reduced placing the higher activity source pencils near the periphery of the source rack. In this work are presented the procedures for perform the boiling leaching tests applied to the container, the Cobalt-60 sources installation, the loading processes and the source rack loading optimization. (author)

  4. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  5. The Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation effects on the Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, R.; Kaya, S.; Karacali, H.; Yilmaz, E.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the initial interface trap density (Nit) to examine device compability for microelectronics and then the Co-60 gamma irradiation responses of Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al (MOS) capacitors were investigated in various dose ranges up to 70 Gy. Pre-irradiation response of the devices was evaluated from high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) capacitance method and the Nit was calculated as 9.91 × 1011 cm-2 which shows that the HfSiO4/p-Si interface quality is convenient for microelectronics applications. The irradiation responses of the devices were carried out from flat-band and mid-gap voltage shifts obtained from stretch of capacitance characteristics prior to and after irradiation. The results show that the flat band voltages very slightly shifted to positive voltage values demonstrating the enhancement of negative charge trapping in device structure. The sensitivity of the Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors was found to be 4.41 mV/Gy for 300 nm-thick HfSiO4 gate dielectrics. This value approximately 6.5 times smaller compared to the same thickness conventional SiO2 based MOS devices. Therefore, HfSiO4 exhibits crucial irradiation tolerance in gamma irradiation environment. Consequently, HfSiO4 dielectrics may have significant usage for microelectronic technology as a radiation hard material where radiation field exists such as in space applications.

  6. Multistep carcinogenesis of normal human fibroblasts. Human fibroblasts immortalized by repeated treatment with Co-60 gamma rays were transformed into tumorigenic cells with Ha-ras oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, M; Nishitani, K; Fukushima, F; Kimoto, T

    1988-01-01

    Two normal mortal human fibroblast cell strains were transformed into immortal cell lines, SUSM-1 and KMST-6, by treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO) and Co-60 gamma rays, respectively. These immortalized cell lines showed morphological changes of cells and remarkable chromosome aberrations, but neither of them grew in soft agar or formed tumors in nude mice. The immortal cell line, KMST-6, was then converted into neoplastic cells by treatment with Harvey murine sarcoma virus (Ha-MSV) or the c-Ha-ras oncogene derived from a human lung carcinoma. These neoplastically transformed cells acquired anchorage-independent growth potential and developed tumors when transplanted into nude mice. All the tumors grew progressively without regression until the animals died of tumors. In addition, the tumors were transplantable into other nude mice. Normal human fibroblasts, on the other hand, were not transformed into either immortal or tumorigenic cells by treatment with Ha-MSV or c-Ha-ras alone. Our present data indicate that (1) the chemical carcinogen, 4NQO, or gamma rays worked as an initiator of carcinogenesis in normal human cells, giving rise to immortality, and (2) the ras gene played a role in the progression of the immortally transformed cells to more malignant cells showing anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity. In other words, the immortalization process of human cells seems to be a pivotal or rate-limiting step in the carcinogenesis of human cells.

  7. Dosis óptima de irradiación gamma con Co60 para inducción de mutagénesis en pastos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Álvarez-Holguín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La dosis letal (DL 50 y reducción media del crecimiento (RC 50 son parámetros utilizados para seleccionar dosis de irradiación adecuadas e inducir mutaciones para realizar mejoramiento genético vegetal. El objetivo fue determinar la DL 50 y RC 50 para conocer la dosis ó p tima de irradiación c on Co 60 en semilla de pasto llorón, buffel, banderita y navajita. Se evaluaron seis dosis de irradiación con Co 60 en semilla : 100, 200, 300, 450, 600 y 900 Gray (Gy y un tratamiento control (T - 0, sin irradiación. Las variables evaluadas fueron : porcentaj e de germinación (%GE, índice de velocidad de germinación (IVG, longitud de plúmula (LP y longitud de radícula (LR. Se realizó análisis de regresión y comparación de medias con la prueba de Dunnett. Mediante la ecuación de regresión se estimó la DL 50 p ara el %GE, así como RC 50 para el resto de las variables. La DL 50 se ponderó con 55%, mientras que la RC 50 se ponderó en 15% para cada una de las tres variables restantes. En general, los valores de las variables disminuyeron (P<0.05 conforme se incremen tó la dosis de irradiación, lo cual permitió determinar la DL 50 y RC 50 para cada especie. La media ponderada se obtuvo a los 628 Gy, 712 Gy, 698 Gy y 411 Gy para pasto llorón, buffel, banderita y navajita, respectivamente. Se recomiendan las dosis plantead as en este estudio, ya que esto permitirá plantear las bases para realizar mejoramiento genético a través de mutagénesis con irradiación gamma en los pastos evaluados.

  8. Re-evaluation of structural shielding designs of X-ray and CO-60 gamma-ray scanners at the Port of Tema, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori, K.

    2011-07-01

    This research work was conducted to re-evaluate the shielding designs of the 6 MeV x-ray and the 1.253 MeV Co-60 gamma ray scanners used for cargo-containerized scanning at the Port of Tema. These scanners utilize ionizing radiation, therefore adequate shielding must be provided to reduce the radiation exposure of persons in and around the facilities to acceptable levels. The purpose of radiation shielding is to protect workers and the general public from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Investigations on the facilities indicated that after commissioning, no work had been carried out to re-evaluate the shielding designs. However, workloads have increased over time neccessitating review of the installed shielding. There has been introduction of scanner units with higher radiation energy (as in the case of the x-ray scanner) posibily increasing dose rates at various location requiring review of the shielding. New structures have been dotted around the facilities without particular attention to their distances and locations with respect to the radiation source. Measurements of distances from the source axes to the points of concern for primary and leakage barrier shielding; source to container and container to the points of concern for scattered radiation shielding were taken. The primary and secondary thicknesses required for both scanners were determined based on current operational parameters and compared with the thickness constituted during the construction of the facilities. Calculated and measured dose rate beyond the shielding barriers were used to established the adequacy or otherwise of the shielding employed by the shielding designers. Values obtained fell below the 20 µSv/hr specified by NCRP 151 (2005) which showed that the primary and secondary shields of both facilities were adequate requiring no additional shielding. (author)

  9. Methodology for solving the problem of contamination in pencils of Co-60 from the CNEA (Argentine) for the recharge of the gamma irradiator of the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarreal B, J.E.; Escobar A, L.; Angeles C, A.; Cruz G, H.S.

    1992-07-01

    Presently report the methodology used to identify the source of contamination detected in a shipment with 5.0 X 10 Bq of Co-60 coming from Argentina is described, as well as the solution outlined to solve the problem. Its are presented by way of conclusion the experiences but outstanding learned in the process. (Author)

  10. Acción protectora de la melatonina sobre células mononucleares de sangre periférica humana sometidas a radiación gamma Co60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Mesa-Villanueva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Protective action of melatonin on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells exposed to gamma radiation Co60. Objective: toevaluate the protective effect of melatonin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs exposed in vitro to ionizing radiation. Materialsand methods: PBMCs drawn from healthy volunteers were incubated with 0, 1x10-5, 1x10-6 y 1x10-7 M melatonin for 10 minutes beforebeing exposed to gamma radiation (300 cGy; Co60 source. Afterwards, DNA damage was evaluated with the comet assay. Results:PBMCs pretreated with melatonin showed comet tails shorter than those without the hormone treatment, as well as a lower percentage ofcells with severe DNA damage. Conclusion: melatonin doses of 1x10-5, 1x10-6 and 1x10-7 M provide in vitro protection to PBMCs fromDNA damage (single strand breaks and alkali-labile sites induced by gamma radiation (300 cGy; Co60 source.

  11. Hydrogel wound dressing preparation at the laboratory scale by using electron beam and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapado Raneque, Manuel; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Alejandro; Peniche Covas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the preparation of hydrogel based on cross-linked networks of poly (N-vinylpirrolidone), PVP, with polyethyleneglicol and agar with 90% water and PVP nancomposites with a synthetic nanoclay, Laponite XLG, for use as burn dressings. These systems were obtained in two ways: using gamma Co-60 and electron beam radiation. The gelation obtained dose was D g = 1.72 kGy. The elastic modulus of hydrogel was independent of the method of irradiation. It was 0.39 MPa for the hydrogel irradiated with gamma Co-60 and 0.38 MPa for electron beam irradiation. The elastic modulus of the nanocomposite membrane was 1.25 MPa, three times higher. These results indicate that the PVP/Laponite XLG nanocomposite hydrogel membrane is the best choice for wound dressing applications due to its high water sorption capacity and its superior mechanical properties.

  12. Methodology for solving the problem of contamination in pencils of Co-60 from the CNEA (Argentine) for the recharge of the gamma irradiator of the ININ; Metodologia para resolver el problema de contaminacion en lapices de Co-60 procedentes del CONEA (Argentina) para la recarga del irradiador gamma del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarreal B, J.E.; Escobar A, L.; Angeles C, A.; Cruz G, H.S

    1992-07-15

    Presently report the methodology used to identify the source of contamination detected in a shipment with 5.0 X 10 Bq of Co-60 coming from Argentina is described, as well as the solution outlined to solve the problem. Its are presented by way of conclusion the experiences but outstanding learned in the process. (Author)

  13. Comparative effectiveness of gamma-rays and electron beams in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru

    1991-01-01

    Ionizing radiations which can be used for the treatment of foods are gamma-rays from Co-60 and Cs-137, accelerated electrons from a machine at an energy of 10 MeV or lower and X-rays from a machine at an energy of 5 MeV or lower. The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food held in 1980 concluded that the foods irradiated at overall average doses up to 10 kGy with the radiation listed above are wholesome for human consumption. While most of the commercial food irradiations are conducted with gamma-rays from Co-60, accelerated electrons are increasingly utilized for treating foods. An important difference between gamma-rays and accelerated electrons is the penetration capacity in materials. The penetration capacity of gamma-rays is much higher than that of accelerated electrons. Another important difference is the dose rate. The dose rates of gamma-rays from commercial Co-60 sources are 1-100 Gy/min, while those of electron beams from electron accelerators are 10 3 -10 6 Gy/s. Ideally a comparison of the effect of different types of ionizing radiation should be carried out at the same dose rate but this has been difficult due to the design of irradiators. It is very difficult to draw a definite conclusion on the difference in the effectiveness in food irradiation between gamma-rays and electron beams based on published data. This chapter deals with as many reports as possible on the comparative effectiveness of gamma-rays and electron beams and on the effect of dose rate on chemical reactions and living organisms, whether or not they demonstrate any dependency of the effect of irradiation on dose rate and type of radiation. (author)

  14. Disinfestation of export oranges and tangerines (Citrus spp) against medfly Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824) (Diptera; Tephritidae) by gamma irradiation (Co-60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.

    1990-01-01

    A gamma bean 650 cobalt-60 source was utilized for irradiation (0; 10; 50; 100; 200; 300; 400; 500; 750 and 1000 Gy) of fresh ripe fruits artificially interested by immature stages of Ceratitis capitata to determine the sterilizing and lethal doses. The sensorial and chemical analyses did not show any significant differences between the control and irradiated samples. Differences on loss of weight of oranges show that 500 and 1000 Gy doses were responsible for increasing the loss of water content. (author)

  15. Use of gamma radiation (Co60) as quarentenary treatment, to control the moth Opogona sacchari (Bojer, 1856) (Lepidoptera: Tineidade) on banana (Musa sp.) and Dracaena fragans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    1999-01-01

    This research had the aim at evaluating the physical treatment by gamma radiation as an alternative method to disinfestate bananas and Dracaena fragans stalks without roots, to exportation, infested with the moth Opogona sacchari. The moth rearing was initiated from infested D. fragans originated from Juquia, state of Sao Paulo. Gammacell 220 with Cobalt-60 with activity of 537, 82 Ci was used as an irradiator. Tests on artificial diet, bananas variety Nanicao and D. fragans stalks without roots were done, with doses varying form 5,0 to 500,0 Gy. The doses of of 140,0; 240,0 and 450,0 Gy fitted the rules of absence of adults emergency, affecting eggs with seven days old, twenty two days old larvae and eleven days old pupae, irradiated on artificial diet, respectively. The dose to disinfestate twenty two days old O. sacchari infesting D. fragans stalk sheaves without roots and bananas in bunch, used to exportation, was 300,0 Gy and to eleven days old pupae, in the some conditions, was of 450,0 Gy. The dose of gamma radiation from 50,0 to 500,0 Gy affected sprouting. (author)

  16. A comparison of three materials used in ESR dosimetry: L-α-alanine, DL-α-alanine and standard bone powder. Response to Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuglik, Z.; Sadlo, J.

    1995-01-01

    Three solid state materials: L-α-alanine, DL-α-alanine and standard bone powder were irradiated with gamma analyzed with ESR method. It was stated that the G-value of paramagnetic centres in L-α-alanine is practically the same as in DL-alpha-alanine and about 50 times higher than in non-deproteinized bone powder. The sensitivities of investigated materials are proportional to their G-values if double integrals of ESR signals are chosen as a measure of radiation effects. When first derivatives of ESR absorption bands are used to the construction of dose-response curves (peak-to-peak method) the sensitivities of all investigated materials are comparable. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Enhancement of the immunity and body weight gain in broiler by feeding with the brewer yeast β-glucan degraded by gamma Co-60 radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quang Luan; Nguyen Thanh Long

    2015-01-01

    The insoluble β-glucan extracted from the cell wall of brewer’s yeast was dispersed in deionized water for swelling, then irradiated in order to degrade into water-soluble β-glucan. The results revealed that the water-soluble β-glucan contents in the irradiated samples were increased with radiation dose to 25.89, 49.07 and 66.71%; whereas their molecular weight (Mw) decreased to 48.1, 23.0 and 10.8 kDa by gamma irradiation at 100, 200 and 300 kGy, respectively. The supplementation of poultry feed with the radiation degraded β-glucan enhanced both non-specific (total white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrocytes) and specific immune components (anti-Newcastle disease, antiGumboro disease virus and anti-infectious bronchitis virus antibodies) in the broilers. In comparison with the control, broiler fed normal poultry foodstuff without β-glucan, the supplementation of radiation degraded β-glucan not only increased the survival rate of the testing broiler about 33.3% and their average body weight of about 24.4%, but also reduced the feed conversion rate from 4.8 to 3.1 kg. The β-glucan oligosaccharides that having Mw of about 25 kDa produced by gamma irradiation at 200 kGy showed the highest effect on the growth performance and immunomodulatory capability in the immune system of the testing broilers. This product is promising to be applied for production of the safe stimulator of immunity for broiler chickens. (author)

  18. Positive results of three-dimensional planning Co60 beam through distinctive examples of location depending on the type treated in the oncology unit Pinar del Rio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazco, Julio

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this work is presented through case studies discussed in our institution, which has brought several advantages to use Planning Three-dimensional beam and cobalt 60 Theraplan Plus System, showing thus qualitative and quantitative (clinical case of lung cancer) that have achieved by the use of this new tool. To illustrate the above 5 clinical cases are chosen belonging to 5 different sites (endometrium, prostate, lung, pineal gland and brainstem) and are presented in each case the advantages provided by using the Tridimensional Planning System. (Author)

  19. A gamma beam profile imager for ELI-NP Gamma Beam System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, P.; Paternò, G.; Di Domenico, G.; Consoli, E.; Marziani, M.; Andreotti, M.; Evangelisti, F.; Squerzanti, S.; Gambaccini, M.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Tricomi, A.; Veltri, M.; Adriani, O.; Borgheresi, R.; Graziani, G.; Passaleva, G.; Serban, A.; Starodubtsev, O.; Variola, A.; Palumbo, L.

    2018-06-01

    The Gamma Beam System of ELI-Nuclear Physics is a high brilliance monochromatic gamma source based on the inverse Compton interaction between an intense high power laser and a bright electron beam with tunable energy. The source, currently being assembled in Magurele (Romania), is designed to provide a beam with tunable average energy ranging from 0.2 to 19.5 MeV, rms energy bandwidth down to 0.5% and flux of about 108 photons/s. The system includes a set of detectors for the diagnostic and complete characterization of the gamma beam. To evaluate the spatial distribution of the beam a gamma beam profile imager is required. For this purpose, a detector based on a scintillator target coupled to a CCD camera was designed and a prototype was tested at INFN-Ferrara laboratories. A set of analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to optimize the imager design and evaluate the performance expected with ELI-NP gamma beam. In this work the design of the imager is described in detail, as well as the simulation tools used and the results obtained. The simulation parameters were tuned and cross-checked with the experimental measurements carried out on the assembled prototype using the beam from an x-ray tube.

  20. Gamma spectroscopy: from steady beams to radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stezowski, O.

    2008-06-01

    The author gives an overview of his research works in the field of gamma spectroscopy. First, he recalls some results of experiments performed for the study of peculiar structures associated with different modes of nucleus rotation, and notably in the case of collective rotation of deformed and even super-deformed nuclei. Then, he details tools and methods used to experimentally determine the level scheme. The main characteristics of steady and radioactive beams are briefly presented, and their complementarities and differences are highlighted. Specific spectrometers and sensors are described. In a last chapter, the author discusses several research projects he is involved in, and more particularly the 'gamma tracking' which is the fundamental principle for gamma multi-sensors of the next generations

  1. Experience of the accomplishment of dismantling of a radiation gamma facility with Co-60 source; Experiencia de la realizacion de un cierre definitivo de una instalacion de irradiacion gamma con fuente de {sup 60} Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Reyes, Yolanda; Hernandez Alvarez, Ramon; Sarabia Molina, Igor I.; Jerez Vegueria, Pablo [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The present work describes the experience obtained by the specialists of the Cuban Regulatory Authority, as a result of the evaluation of observance, criteria of security and radiological safety, during the stage conducted in the works of dismantling of a gamma irradiator.

  2. Radiography of Co-60 in the lead cube castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoli Soembogo; Harun Al Rasyid R; Namad Sianta

    2016-01-01

    Radiography Co-60 on Carbon steel or Stainless steel has been widely applied, but for metal Lead has not yet been applied and has not yet widely known. Lead has a greater density than Carbon steel or Stainless steel and could muffle gamma radiation so it takes a longer exposure time. The result of its film radiography are also not as good as compared to radiography applications on carbon steel or Stainless steel. The study also applied digital radiography using isotope Co-60 sources and used Epson V700 scanner positive film for digitization results of conventional radiographic films. These radiographs using film AGFA D7 to get the contrast medium, medium sensitivity and good image quality. The purpose of radiography Co-60 on the cube castings Lead is to find indications of defective castings cube Lead and digitizing the results using conventional radiographic film with a positive film media scanner to process the data transfer and storage of digital data. Radiographic testing has been carried out using the isotope Co-60 on metal castings Lead with a single thickness of a single shadow method using positive film scanner media and isotope Co-60 with disabilities observation parameter Lead metal castings on radiographic film. Co-60 radiation time exposure is 3,500 hours for the thickness of the metal cube castings Lead 100 mm with the activity of 29 Ci and perpendicular SFD of 840 mm. Radiographic testing on metal cube castings Lead by the method of a single thickness of single image defects produce a parameter indicative for a cube of metal castings Lead of porosity level 2. The density mean of radiographic film was 2.051 and 2.046 for 5 minutes in a developer solution. The result of scanning positive film is in the form of digital radiography which allows for the transfer of digital data or computerized storage of digital data. This status is still within limits acceptable under the standards referred. (author)

  3. Beam dynamics in Compton ring gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bulyak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron storage rings of GeV energy with laser pulse stacking cavities are promising intense sources of polarized hard photons which, via pair production, can be used to generate polarized positron beams. In this paper, the dynamics of electron bunches circulating in a storage ring and interacting with high-power laser pulses is studied both analytically and by simulation. Both the common features and the differences in the behavior of bunches interacting with an extremely high power laser pulse and with a moderate pulse are discussed. Also considerations on particular lattice designs for Compton gamma rings are presented.

  4. Polarised and tagged gamma-ray Ladon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusci, D [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1995-11-01

    The production of polarized and tagged gamma-ray beams by the backscattering of Laser light on the relativistic electrons circulating in storage rings is discussed. the main characteristic and the experimental results of the Ladon and LEGS beams are presented. The Graal beam is introduced.

  5. Polarised and tagged gamma-ray Ladon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusci, D.

    1995-11-01

    The production of polarized and tagged gamma-ray beams by the backscattering of Laser light on the relativistic electrons circulating in storage rings is discussed. the main characteristic and the experimental results of the Ladon and LEGS beams are presented. The Graal beam is introduced

  6. Simulation on a limited angle beam gamma ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee; Moon, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Limited angle beam tomography was introduced in the medical field more than two decades ago, where it was mainly used for cardiovascular diagnostics. Later, it was also used to trace multiphase flows. In these studies, the detection systems were fixed and a scanning electron beam was rapidly swept across an xray target using deflection coils. Thus very fast scanning was possible in these studies, but their geometry resulted in a heavy and bulky system because of a complex control system and vacuum tube. Because of its heavy hardware, limited angle beam tomography has remained as indoor equipment. If the source section is replaced by a gamma ray source, limited angle beam tomography will have a very light source device. In addition, limited angle beam tomography with a gamma ray source can be designed using an open type portable gantry because it does not need a vacuum guide for an electron beam. There is a lot of need for a portable tomographic system but so far no definitive solution has been created. The inspection of industrial on-line pipes, wood telephone poles, and cultural assets are some application areas. This study introduces limited angle beam gamma ray tomography, its simulation, and image reconstruction results. Image reconstruction was performed on the virtual experimental data from a Monte Carlo simulation. Image reconstruction algorithms that are known to be useful for limited angle data were applied and their results compared

  7. TPR Measurement for Co-60 Teletherapy Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heru-Prasetio; Nasukha

    2001-01-01

    Dosage delivery to a certain tissue within radiation field should be carefully determined. Although direct measurement is possible to accomplish, calculation is still required. The usage of TPR table in calculation will give benefit in dosage delivery to patients. Before standard TPR table is used, TPR value of Co-60 teletherapy unit should be determined and compared with standard TPR table. Comparison of measured TPR and standard TPR table which is provided by BJR, showed no significant differences for 8 x 8 cm 2 , 10 x 10 cm 2 , 15 x 15 cm 2 , 20 x 20 cm 2 , and 25 x 25 cm 2 square fields, in depth of 1 cm up to 6 cm. All result of new TPR is compared to TPR table in BJR and found differences of less than 1 %. These results is satisfactory and TPR from BJR table can be used as a basis in dose calculation. (author)

  8. Beam profile measurements using nonimaging gamma optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Dawson, J.; Haberichter, W.; Lam, R.; Reed, L.; Yang, X.F.; Spencer, J.

    1995-01-01

    High energy photons produced from bremsstrahlung foils, Compton scattering or beamstrahlung from high energy e + e - collisions can be used to measure beam profiles using nonimaging optics. We describe the method and its limitations (resolution, backgrounds etc.), as well as the apparatus required to implement it. Data from a low energy test run is described as well as other possible applications, such as a 250+250 GeV linear collider and possible experiments with existing beams. (orig.)

  9. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In this note, we present detailed simulation results for the trajectory of a muon beam, traversing beam zones PPE-134 and PPE-154, produced by a 150 GeV positive hadron beam incident on collimators 9 & 10 in the H4 beam line when these collimators are placed off-beam axis to stop all hadrons and electrons. Using G4Beamline, a GEANT-4 based Monte-Carlo program, the trajectory of the muon beam has been studied for several field strengths of the GOLIATH magnet, as well as for different polarities. The position of the beam at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), located downstream the PPE-144 area, is also presented. In addition, two configurations of the two XTDV’s present in the line (XTDV.022.520 and XTDV.022.610) have been studied, with the purpose to simulate the pion contamination of the beam both in PPE134 and GIF++.

  10. Muon Beam Studies in the H4 beam line and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++)

    CERN Document Server

    Margraf, Rachel; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In this report, I summarize my work of detailed study and optimization of the muon beam configuration of H4 beam line in SPS North Area. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, I studied the properties and behavior of the muon beam in combination with the field of the large, spectrometer “ GOLIATH” magnet at -1.5, -1.0, 0, 1.0 and 1.5 Tesla, which is shown to affect the central x position of the muon beam that is delivered to the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). I also studied the muon beam for different configurations of the two XTDV beam dumps upstream of GIF++ in the H4 beam line. I will also discuss my role in mapping the magnetic field of the GOLIATH magnet in the H4 beam line.

  11. Effect of Co-60 single escape peak on detection of Cs-137 in analysis of radionuclide from research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. S.; Park, S. J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the single escape peak of 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 on the detection of Cs-137 activity is analyzed. The single escape peak of 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 is located at the 662 keV, which is very close to the energy of gamma-rays from Cs-137. This single escape peak may be mistaken for the gamma-ray peak from Cs-137 activity in the case of large area of 1173 keV peak. The detection of Cs-137 is very important to the judgment of the contamination or the leakage of the material containing the fission product like reactor pool water and in the several experiments for reactor physics such as burn-up estimation. In this work, the areas of the single escape peak of the 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 are measured with several full energy peak areas by using the HPGe detector. The critical limit by which we can decide whether the net count of 662 keV peak due to Co-60 would be significant or not is deduced. For this detection system, when the area of full energy peak is larger than 4.5 million, the single escape peak of 1173 keV gamma-rays from Co-60 can be regarded as the single significant peak. Therefore, it is confirmed that the detection of the Cs-137 activity is affected by the Co-60 in this case. Conservatively, for this detection system, it is recommended that the area of 1173 keV peak of Co-60 would be less than 2 million for neglecting the effect of Co-60. (authors)

  12. Radiosensitivity of a soybean cultivation to Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, H.; Labrada, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Hurtado, E.

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of determining the effect of radiations on physiological and productive indexes in the G7R-315 soybean variety, experiments under field and laboratory conditions were carried out. The answers to straight-line irradiation doses on the basis of arkose. We reached to the conclusion that the height under laboratory conditions and the survival at the moment of crop bring about adequate indexes to determine dose-50 in the studied material

  13. Combined in-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with radioactive ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konki J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy have been widely used as tools to study the broad variety of phenomena in nuclear structure. The SPEDE spectrometer is a new device to be used in conjunction with the MINIBALL germanium detector array to enable the detection of internal conversion electrons in coincidence with gamma rays from de-exciting nuclei in radioactive ion beam experiments at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN, Switzerland. Geant4 simulations were carried out in order to optimise the design and segmentation of the silicon detector to achieve good energy resolution and performance.

  14. High and low energy gamma beam dump designs for the gamma beam delivery system at ELI-NP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, Zafar; Matei, Catalin; Ur, Calin A.; Mitu, Iani-Octavian; Udup, Emil; Petcu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Magurele, Bucharest, Romania. The facility will use two 10 PW lasers and a high intensity, narrow bandwidth gamma beam for stand-alone and combined laser-gamma experiments. The accurate estimation of particle doses and their restriction within the limits for both personel and general public is very important in the design phase of any nuclear facility. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations are performed using FLUKA and MCNPX to design 19.4 and 4 MeV gamma beam dumps along with shielding of experimental areas. Dose rate contour plots from both FLUKA and MCNPX along with numerical values of doses in experimental area E8 of the facility are performed. The calculated doses are within the permissible limits. Furthermore, a reasonable agreement between both codes enhances our confidence in using one or both of them for future calculations in beam dump designs, radiation shielding, radioactive inventory, and other calculations releated to radiation protection. Residual dose rates and residual activity calculations are also performed for high-energy beam dump and their effect is negligible in comparison to contributions from prompt radiation.

  15. High and low energy gamma beam dump designs for the gamma beam delivery system at ELI-NP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasin, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.yasin@eli-np.ro; Matei, Catalin; Ur, Calin A.; Mitu, Iani-Octavian; Udup, Emil; Petcu, Cristian [Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics / Horia Hulubei National Institute for R& D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) is under construction in Magurele, Bucharest, Romania. The facility will use two 10 PW lasers and a high intensity, narrow bandwidth gamma beam for stand-alone and combined laser-gamma experiments. The accurate estimation of particle doses and their restriction within the limits for both personel and general public is very important in the design phase of any nuclear facility. In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations are performed using FLUKA and MCNPX to design 19.4 and 4 MeV gamma beam dumps along with shielding of experimental areas. Dose rate contour plots from both FLUKA and MCNPX along with numerical values of doses in experimental area E8 of the facility are performed. The calculated doses are within the permissible limits. Furthermore, a reasonable agreement between both codes enhances our confidence in using one or both of them for future calculations in beam dump designs, radiation shielding, radioactive inventory, and other calculations releated to radiation protection. Residual dose rates and residual activity calculations are also performed for high-energy beam dump and their effect is negligible in comparison to contributions from prompt radiation.

  16. In-beam gamma spectroscopy of /sup 82/Sr

    CERN Document Server

    Dewald, A; Gelberg, A; Kaup, U; Von Brentano, P; Zell, K O

    1981-01-01

    The excited levels of /sup 82/Sr have been investigated by means of in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy via the reactions /sup 72/Ge(/sup 12/C, 2n), /sup 66/Zn(/sup 19/F, p2n), and /sup 79/Br(/sup 6/Li, 3n). Lifetimes of excited states were measured by the recoil distance method. Excitation energies and B(E2) values have been compared with calculations using the Interacting Boson Model. (19 refs).

  17. High-$\\gamma$ Beta Beams within the LAGUNA design study

    CERN Document Server

    Orme, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Within the LAGUNA design study, seven candidate sites are being assessed for their feasibility to host a next-generation, very large neutrino observatory. Such a detector will be expected to feature within a future European accelerator neutrino programme (Superbeam or Beta Beam), and hence the distance from CERN is of critical importance. In this article, the focus is a $^{18}$Ne and $^{6}$He Beta Beam sourced at CERN and directed towards a 50 kton Liquid Argon detector located at the LAGUNA sites: Slanic (L=1570 km) and Pyh\\"{a}salmi (L=2300 km). To improve sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering, these baselines are then combined with a concurrent run with the same flux directed towards a large Water \\v{C}erenkov detector located at Canfranc (L=650 km). This degeneracy breaking combination is shown to provide comparable physics reach to the conservative Magic Baseline Beta Beam proposals. For $^{18}$Ne ions boosted to $\\gamma=570$ and $^{6}$He ions boosted to $\\gamma=350$, the correct mass ordering can be...

  18. Gamma-ray-burst beaming and gravitational-wave observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    Using the observed rate of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) it is possible to make predictions for the detectable rate of compact binary coalescences in gravitational-wave detectors. We show that the nondetection of mergers in the existing LIGO/Virgo data constrains the beaming angles and progenitor masses of gamma-ray bursts, although these limits are fully consistent with existing expectations. We make predictions for the rate of events in future networks of gravitational-wave observatories, finding that the first detection of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary coalescence associated with the progenitors of short GRBs is likely to happen within the first 16 months of observation, even in the case of only two observatories (e.g., LIGO-Hanford and LIGO-Livingston) operating at intermediate sensitivities (e.g., advanced LIGO design sensitivity, but without signal recycling mirrors), and assuming a conservative distribution of beaming angles (e.g., all GRBs beamed within θ(j) = 30°). Less conservative assumptions reduce the waiting time until first detection to a period of weeks to months, with an event detection rate of >/~10/yr. Alternatively, the compact binary coalescence model of short GRBs can be ruled out if a binary is not seen within the first two years of operation of a LIGO-Hanford, LIGO-Livingston, and Virgo network at advanced design sensitivity. We also demonstrate that the gravitational wave detection rate of GRB triggered sources (i.e., those seen first in gamma rays) is lower than the rate of untriggered events (i.e., those seen only in gravitational waves) if θ(j)≲30°, independent of the noise curve, network configuration, and observed GRB rate. The first detection in gravitational waves of a binary GRB progenitor is therefore unlikely to be associated with the observation of a GRB.

  19. Feasibility study on production of Co-60 in PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Han, Hyon Soo; Joo, Po Kook

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the safeties and the economics for Co-60 production from Wolsung PHWR and to verify the feasibility on the manufacturing of the final Co-60 source for industrial irradiation. The feasibility of reactor conversion was carried out with KEPCO collaboration. Through the site survey on the experience of Gentililly-2 in Canada, a feasibility of plant conversion, changes in design, equipment and tools for Co-60 production was verified. It was estimated that the reactor conversion would not impose adverse impact on plant safety. For the encapsulation of radiation source and storage of the final products, a modification of concrete hot cell at KAERI was primary concerns. The installation and improvement of facilities are needed to avoid cross contamination and extra radiation exposure. Main items for these are pressure gauge, separated HEPA filter the ceiling separation, extra-shielding and ceiling hoist system. At present, storage pool has got admission based on 400 kCi. But it is necessary to seismic analysis and design improvement of shielding to store 10 MCi (Co-60) which is the estimated Co-60 capacity produced by 3 PHWRs. According to present investigation, a production of Co-60 by PHWR and RIPE was seemed to be an economically feasible business and it was also expected that a joint venture will be able to realize by cooperation with MDS Nordion Co.

  20. Feasibility study on production of Co-60 in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Han, Hyon Soo; Joo, Po Kook

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the safeties and the economics for Co-60 production from Wolsung PHWR and to verify the feasibility on the manufacturing of the final Co-60 source for industrial irradiation. The feasibility of reactor conversion was carried out with KEPCO collaboration. Through the site survey on the experience of Gentililly-2 in Canada, a feasibility of plant conversion, changes in design, equipment and tools for Co-60 production was verified. It was estimated that the reactor conversion would not impose adverse impact on plant safety. For the encapsulation of radiation source and storage of the final products, a modification of concrete hot cell at KAERI was primary concerns. The installation and improvement of facilities are needed to avoid cross contamination and extra radiation exposure. Main items for these are pressure gauge, separated HEPA filter the ceiling separation, extra-shielding and ceiling hoist system. At present, storage pool has got admission based on 400 kCi. But it is necessary to seismic analysis and design improvement of shielding to store 10 MCi (Co-60) which is the estimated Co-60 capacity produced by 3 PHWRs. According to present investigation, a production of Co-60 by PHWR and RIPE was seemed to be an economically feasible business and it was also expected that a joint venture will be able to realize by cooperation with MDS Nordion Co

  1. BaSO4:Eu as an energy independent thermoluminescent radiation dosimeter for gamma rays and C6+ ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Bahl, Shaila; Singh, Birendra; Kumar, Pratik; Lochab, S. P.; Pandey, Anant

    2018-04-01

    BaSO4:Eu nanophosphor is delicately optimized by varying the concentration of the impurity element and compared to the commercially available thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) and by extension also to CaSO4:Dy (TLD-900) so as to achieve its maximum thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity. Further, the energy dependence property of this barite nanophosphor is also explored at length by exposing the phosphor with 1.25 MeV of Co-60, 0.662 MeV of Cs-137, 85 MeV and 65 MeV of Carbon ion beams. Various batches of the phosphor at hand (with impurity concentrations being 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00 mol%) are prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method out of which BaSO4:Eu with 0.20 mol% Eu exhibits the maximum TL sensitivity. Further, the optimized nanophosphor exhibits a whopping 28.52 times higher TL sensitivity than the commercially available TLD-100 and 1.426 times higher sensitivity than TLD-900, a noteworthy linear response curve for an exceptionally wide range of doses i.e. 10 Gy to 2 kGy and a simple glow curve structure. Furthermore, when the newly optimized nanophosphor is exposed with two different energies of gamma radiations, namely 1.25 MeV of Co-60 (dose range- 10-300 Gy) and 0.662 MeV of Cs-137 (dose range- 1-300 Gy), it is observed that the shape and structure of the glow curves remain remarkably similar for different energies of radiation while the TL response curve shows little to no variation. When exposed to different energies of carbon ion beam BaSO4:Eu displays energy independence at lower doses i.e. from 6.059 to 14.497 kGy. Finally, even though energy independence is lost at higher doses, the material shows high sensitivity to higher energy (85 MeV) of carbon beam compared to the lower energy (65 MeV of C6+) and saturation is apparent only after 121.199 kGy. Therefore the present nanophosphor displays potential as an energy independent TLD.

  2. Seasonal dynamics of Co60 accumulation by Elodea canadensis Rich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochenin, V.F.; Chebotina, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of Co 60 accumulation by one of the most widely distributed fresh-water plants, elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich), were studied. Accumulation was shown to vary with the season. A very low coefficient of accumulation (500-700 units) was typical for the summer period (June to August). It increased in the fall, reached its highest values (3500-4000) in mid-winter (January), and dropped sharply in the spring. Radioisotope concentrations in the plant varied similarly. The cumulative capacity of plants for Co 60 may vary by a factor of 6 to 7 during the year. It is suggested that the seasonal changes in Co 60 accumulation may be caused by both differences in the physiological state of the plants at different times of the year, and by seasonal variations in the hydrochemical regime of the water reservoir. Experiments were done to clarify which of these mechanisms is the determining factor. (V.A.P.)

  3. Gamma-ray lasing by free nuclei and by matter-antimatter beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivlin, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    I discuss the possibilities to induce the gamma-ray emission departing from attempts to use the Moessbauer effect. Three separate approaches are considered: (A) Stimulated radiative transitions in deeply cooled nuclear beams with hidden inversion; (B) external two-photon ignition of nuclear lasing accompanied by gamma-ray giant pulse emission; and (C) burst-like radiative annihilation of relativistic beams of electrons and positrons or parapositronium atoms ignited by an external beam of soft photons

  4. Nuclear physics with advanced brilliant gamma beams at ELI–NP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ur Călin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility is dedicated to nuclear physics studies with the use of extreme electromagnetic radiation. One of the main research system to be installed and operated in the facility is an outstanding high brilliance gamma beam system. The Gamma Beam System of ELI–NP will produce intense, quasi–monochromatic gamma beams via inverse Compton scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The gamma beams available at ELI–NP will allow for the performance of photo-nuclear reactions aiming to reveal the intimate structure of the atomic nucleus. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, photo-fission, photo-disintegration reactions above the particle threshold will be used to study the dipole response of nuclei, the structure of the Pygmy resonances, nuclear processes relevant for astrophysics, production and study of exotic neutron–rich nuclei.

  5. Reconstruction of Co-60 Irradiation Facility No.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshiteru; Takada, Isao; Kaneko, Hirohisa; Hirao, Toshio; Haneda, Noriyuki; Mitomo, Shouichi; Tachibana, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Kenzou

    1989-01-01

    Cobalt Irradiation Facility No.1 was constructed in 1964 as the first large scale Co-60 irradiation facility equipped a deep water pool for source storage of Co-60 sources. Recently, the reconstruction of the facility was decided because the aging of various parts of the facility became remarkable and new research programs required upgradings of the facility. Important points of upgradings are as follows: A shielding capacity of the source storage and pool is increased to 55.5 PBq from 18.5 PBq. The opening in a floor of the irradiation room which is used for the source lifting in the room, is enlarged in order to utilize a large and high intensity source. Radiation resistance of the irradiation apparatus and installed equipments in the radiation room is increased for a high dose rate irradiation. Basic structure and shape of the facility building such as shielding, pool and building roof is not changed but electrical, mechanical equipments and systems are completely renewed. To increase a reliability, the irradiation apparatus and systems are also replaced with an improved and up-to-date one designed based on operation experiences of Co-60 facilities at TRCRE through many years. In addition, auxiliary equipments such as radiation monitors, manipulators, water treatment system and so on are replaced. This report presents the reconstruction of Co-60 Irradiation Facility No.1 stressing on the replacement and modification of the irradiation apparatus. (author)

  6. Transport of Co-60 from Argentina to abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesario, R.; Pinamonti, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Co-60 bearing wastes from the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant, Argentina are transported to Canada, the United States and Mexico. Ocean transportation, terrestrial transportation, air transportation are applied, and the total activity in bulk material shipped reached 2.96x10 17 Bq. (J.P.N.)

  7. Sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in Natural Zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chales Suarez, G.; Moreno Alvarez, D.; Coutin Correa, D.

    1996-01-01

    The sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in natural zeolites under different conditions was studied. The behaviour of samples of mineral and rock from different deposit of the country was obtained and the decontamination of radioactive waters containing both radionuclides was performed; as part of the research to determine its application in the treatment of radioactive wastes in the country

  8. Co-60 uptake in some young cereal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, R.O.

    1998-01-01

    The measure of Co-60 uptake by young cereal plants is dependent on the type of soil, plant and growth conditions. Depending on the size of the uptake, a plant can be used for industrial purposes, fodder, foodstuff or for possible decontamination of the soil. Although the requirement for cobalt in higher plants is little, their contamination with Co-60 can be of interest because this radionuclide belongs to the class of the radionuclides with a great radiotoxicity. The soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is a measure of the radionuclide uptake in the plant. In this paper the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 were determined for the whole aerial part of some young plants in the cereal class that, in this stage of the development, may be used as fodder. To determine soil-to-plant TFs, plants cultivated in pots in laboratory conditions were used. The method used is similar with the plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. We have determined some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the studied soil, a brown-reddish forest type soil. The soil-to-plant TFs were calculated on the basis of the Co-60 activities determined in plant and soil dried samples. For the vegetal samples the whole aerial part of the plants was measured in millet, wheat, barley and triticale. At harvest, only a few millet plants where flowered. The results of the measurements of soil-to-plant TFs of Co-60 are the following: 0.0315±0.0017 for millet, 0.0260±0.0014 for barley, 0.0140±0.0008 for wheat and 0.0491±0.0022 for triticale. These TFs were corrected for standard conditions and were compared with data from literature. The soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 found in the aerial part of young cereals are close to those recommended for the fodder. The obtained values prove the strong dependence of the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 on the type of soil and plant. (author)

  9. Radiographic Co-60 in component of heavy equipment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoli Soembogo, Harun Al Rasyid R dan Namad Sianta

    2016-01-01

    The application of radiography using isotope Co-60 source has been used on component of heavy equipment such as component of heavy equipment casting. Components of heavy equipment casting made through metal casting of carbon steel. This study tried applying digital radiography are using isotope Co-60 sources and using scanning positive film media of Epson V700 for digitization results of conventional radiographic films. This radiography is using film AGFA D7 and Fuji 100 to obtain a contrast medium, medium sensitivity and image quality is good. The purpose radiographic Co-60 at a component of heavy equipment casting is detecting indications of the shape and type casting defects of component of heavy equipment casting thus fit for use. Radiographic test of Co-60 has been carried out on component of heavy equipment casting with single wall single image method and the results of radiographic films digitization using scanning positive film media of Epson V700 with observation parameters casting defects. Time exposure of Co-60 radiation was 10 and 15 minutes hours for metal castings of carbon steel for thickness 20.00-50.00 mm by using activity 30.05 Ci and the perpendicular distance to the source of the film is 820 mm. Scanner positive film results in the form of digital radiography which allow for the transfer of digital data or digital computerized data storage. Radiographic test results on component of heavy equipment casting with single wall single image method produce the parameter casting defect of component of heavy equipment casting in position of critical area is found shrinkage that should be repaired and in position of safety area is not found defect indication so casting defect of component of heavy equipment casting are not acceptable according to standards referenced. (author)

  10. Sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in Natural Zeolites; Sorcion de Cs-137 y Co-60 en zeolitas naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chales Suarez, G; Moreno Alvarez, D; Coutin Correa, D [Agencia de Energia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-07-01

    The sorption of Cs-137 and Co-60 in natural zeolites under different conditions was studied. The behaviour of samples of mineral and rock from different deposit of the country was obtained and the decontamination of radioactive waters containing both radionuclides was performed; as part of the research to determine its application in the treatment of radioactive wastes in the country.

  11. Comparative effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on peroxide formation in phosphatidylcholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, S.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine was irradiated in the state of a film or liposome with gamma-rays or electron beams, and the amount of peroxide was determined to compare the effects of the two types of radiation. The amounts of peroxide formed in both the film and liposome with gamma-rays were significantly larger than those with electron beams, when the samples were irradiated at the same dose. Proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin reduced the degree of peroxide formation in liposome, and the effect of gamma-rays was much larger than that of electron beams, even in the presence of protein. The results of the present investigation indicate that the effects of gamma-rays on peroxide formation in phosphatidylcholine were significantly larger than those of electron beams, irrespective of the state of the lipid

  12. Quality assurance and accuracy in Co-60 radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, F; Rebigan, F

    1995-12-01

    The characteristics of a set of 88 Co-60 sources ONCOBALT, are described. This set of radioactive sources is an original choice of a variety of cobalt sources in point of physical size and activity. It includes 5 activity groups of cells (stainless steel) among 2 and 12 mCi, 5 and 15 mm active length and 2, 2.5 and 3 mm external diameter, 4 activity groups of needle activities between 1.3 and 3.4 mCi, 15 and 20 mm active length, 1.8 mm external diameter. By an appropriate choice of activities, dimensions and geometry of irradiation we can get an error of max.5% as to the receive dose. The radioactive purity of cobalt is 99.9%. To meet the requirements in practical radiotherapy we checked the Co-60 sources by tests: tight test, mechanical test, corrosion test and contamination test that gave us full satisfaction.

  13. Treatment plan quality of tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system in comparison with that of VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Jae; Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The ViewRay{sup TM} system combines a 0.35-T MR imaging system and a radiation therapy system using a total of three Co-60 sources. It can perform static intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) with leaf widths of 1.05 cm at the plane of isocenter, at source to axis distance (SAD) of 105 cm. Since the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system can acquire near-real-time cine sagittal MR images during treatment, automated respiratory gating can be performed based on these cine images, thus, the target margins for lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) could be reduced considerably by comparison with the internal tarvet volume (ITV) approach. we compared lung SABR treatment plans of the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system with gross tumor volume (GTV) to those of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using TrueBeam STx™ (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with ITV in this study. The plan quality of the target volume of the VMAT with ITV was better than that of the GTV-based tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT for lung SABR. No significant differences for OARs were observed between the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT and VMAT. However, the plan quality of the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system was clinically acceptable. Despite the relatively poor plan quality of the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system, it still has the advantage of real-time monitoring of tumor motion during treatment.

  14. Comparison of electron beam and gamma irradiation for the sterilization of allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong il Choi; Nak Yun Sung; Hee Sub Lee; Jae Hun Kim; Myung Woo Byun; Ju Woon Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full text: For human use, it is necessary to sterilize the allograft in order to reduce the risk of infections and associated complications. In this study, we compared the effects of electron beam and gamma irradiation for the sterilization of the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) carrier with regard to the physiological and osteoinductive properties. The CMC carrier was irradiated at the various doses. and the viscosity of the irradiated CMC was measured. The viscosity of the CMC irradiated with electron beam was higher than that with gamma ray. Also, the addition of vitamin C as the radical scavenger and irradiation at -70 degree C were shown to be effective in preventing the degradation of CMC by the irradiation. To investigate the effect of irradiation on the osteoinduction of DBM, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity with C2C12 cells was measured. The ALP activity of DBM in CMC was higher when irradiated with the electron beam compared with the gamma ray. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) were extracted from DBM irradiated with electron beam and gamma ray, and it was found that the extraction efficiency of BMP was higher from DBM irradiated with the electron beam. This was reasoned for the higher APL activity of the electron beam irradiated DBM. With the advantages of electron beam such as short processing time, in-line processing, and low equipment cost, these results suggest that electron beam irradiation is recommendable for the sterilization of DBM allograft. (Author)

  15. A GIF++ Gamma Irradiation Facility at the SPS H4 Beam Line

    CERN Document Server

    Capéans-Garrido, M; Linssen, L; Moll, M; Rembser, C

    2009-01-01

    The current document describes a proposal to implement a new gamma irradiation facility, combined with a high-energy particle beam in the SPS H4 beam line in hall EHN1. This new GIF++ facility is motivated by strong needs from the LHC and sLHC detector and accelerator communities for the tests of LHC components and systems.

  16. R1800: a new Co 60 sealed source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freijo, Jose L.; Gomez, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand of Co 60 sealed sources in the international market has made necessary the development of new models of sealed sources. R 1800 type source up to 65 KCi has a design that allows to accommodate a wide spectrum of capsules with different specific activities. The company Dioxitek has developed the fabrication process and the design specifications needed to obtain the approval of the product. A first shipment of 100 KCi has been made with success to the United Kingdom in October of the current year. (author) [es

  17. Preliminary study about frequencies of unstable chromosome alterations induced by gamma beam and neutron-gamma mixed field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Mariana E.; Souza, Priscilla L.G.; Brandao, Jose Odinilson de C.; Santos, Joelan A.L.; Vilela, Eudice C.; Lima, Fabiana F.; Calixto, Merilane S.; Santos, Neide

    2011-01-01

    The estimate on approximate dose in exposed individual can be made through conventional cytogenetic analysis of dicentric, this technique has been used to support physical dosimetry. It is important to estimate the absorbed dose in case of accidents with the aim of developing an appropriate treatment and biological dosimetry can be very useful in case where the dosimetry is unavailable. Exposure to gamma and neutron radiation leads to the same biological effects such as chromosomal alterations and cancer. However, neutrons cause more genetic damage, such as mutation or more structural damage, such as chromosome alterations. The aim of research is to compare frequencies of unstable chromosome alterations induced by a gamma beam with those from neutron-gamma mixed field. Two blood samples were obtained from one healthy donor and irradiated at different sources. The first sample was exposed to mixed field neutron-gamma sources 241 AmBe at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory (NCL - CRCN/NE - PE - Brazil) and the second one was exposed to 137 Cs gamma rays at 137 Cs Laboratory (CRCN/NE - PE - Brazil), both exposures resulting in an absorbed dose of 0.66Gy. Mitotic metaphase cells were obtained by lymphocyte culture for chromosomal analysis and slides were stained with Giemsa 5%. These preliminary results showed a similarity in associated dicentrics frequency per cell (0.041 and 0.048) after 137 Cs and 241 AmBe sources irradiations, respectively. However, it was not observed centric rings frequency per cell (0.0 and 0.027). This study will be continue to verify the frequencies of unstable chromosome alterations induced by only gamma beam and neutron-gamma mixed field. (author)

  18. Preliminary study about frequencies of unstable chromosome alterations induced by gamma beam and neutron-gamma mixed field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Mariana E.; Souza, Priscilla L.G.; Brandao, Jose Odinilson de C.; Santos, Joelan A.L.; Vilela, Eudice C.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Calixto, Merilane S.; Santos, Neide [Universidade Federal de Pernanmbuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Genetica

    2011-07-01

    The estimate on approximate dose in exposed individual can be made through conventional cytogenetic analysis of dicentric, this technique has been used to support physical dosimetry. It is important to estimate the absorbed dose in case of accidents with the aim of developing an appropriate treatment and biological dosimetry can be very useful in case where the dosimetry is unavailable. Exposure to gamma and neutron radiation leads to the same biological effects such as chromosomal alterations and cancer. However, neutrons cause more genetic damage, such as mutation or more structural damage, such as chromosome alterations. The aim of research is to compare frequencies of unstable chromosome alterations induced by a gamma beam with those from neutron-gamma mixed field. Two blood samples were obtained from one healthy donor and irradiated at different sources. The first sample was exposed to mixed field neutron-gamma sources {sup 241}AmBe at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory (NCL - CRCN/NE - PE - Brazil) and the second one was exposed to {sup 137}Cs gamma rays at {sup 137}Cs Laboratory (CRCN/NE - PE - Brazil), both exposures resulting in an absorbed dose of 0.66Gy. Mitotic metaphase cells were obtained by lymphocyte culture for chromosomal analysis and slides were stained with Giemsa 5%. These preliminary results showed a similarity in associated dicentrics frequency per cell (0.041 and 0.048) after {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}AmBe sources irradiations, respectively. However, it was not observed centric rings frequency per cell (0.0 and 0.027). This study will be continue to verify the frequencies of unstable chromosome alterations induced by only gamma beam and neutron-gamma mixed field. (author)

  19. Prototype system for proton beam range measurement based on gamma electron vertex imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Rim [Neutron Utilization Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun; Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Won Gyun [Heavy-ion Clinical Research Division, Korean Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 01812 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hansang [Department of Electronics Convergence Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Hyeong, E-mail: chkim@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-11

    In proton therapy, for both therapeutic effectiveness and patient safety, it is very important to accurately measure the proton dose distribution, especially the range of the proton beam. For this purpose, recently we proposed a new imaging method named gamma electron vertex imaging (GEVI), in which the prompt gammas emitting from the nuclear reactions of the proton beam in the patient are converted to electrons, and then the converted electrons are tracked to determine the vertices of the prompt gammas, thereby producing a 2D image of the vertices. In the present study, we developed a prototype GEVI system, including dedicated signal processing and data acquisition systems, which consists of a beryllium plate (= electron converter) to convert the prompt gammas to electrons, two double-sided silicon strip detectors (= hodoscopes) to determine the trajectories of those converted electrons, and a plastic scintillation detector (= calorimeter) to measure their kinetic energies. The system uses triple coincidence logic and multiple energy windows to select only the events from prompt gammas. The detectors of the prototype GEVI system were evaluated for electronic noise level, energy resolution, and time resolution. Finally, the imaging capability of the GEVI system was tested by imaging a {sup 90}Sr beta source, a {sup 60}Co gamma source, and a 45-MeV proton beam in a PMMA phantom. The overall results of the present study generally show that the prototype GEVI system can image the vertices of the prompt gammas produced by the proton nuclear interactions.

  20. Quality of tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT treatment plans in comparison with VMAT treatment plans for spine SABR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang Heon; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Kyubo; Carlson, Joel; Park, Jong Min

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the plan quality of tri-Co-60 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for spine stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). A total of 20 patients with spine metastasis were retrospectively selected. For each patient, a tri-Co-60 IMRT plan and a volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan were generated. The spinal cords were defined based on MR images for the tri-Co-60 IMRT, while isotropic 1-mm margins were added to the spinal cords for the VMAT plans. The VMAT plans were generated with 10-MV flattening filter-free photon beams of TrueBeam STx ™ (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), while the tri-Co-60 IMRT plans were generated with the ViewRay ™ system (ViewRay inc., Cleveland, OH). The initial prescription dose was 18 Gy (1 fraction). If the tolerance dose of the spinal cord was not met, the prescription dose was reduced until the spinal cord tolerance dose was satisfied. The mean dose to the target volumes, conformity index and homogeneity index of the VMAT and tri-Co-60 IMRT were 17.8 ± 0.8 vs 13.7 ± 3.9 Gy, 0.85 ± 0.20 vs 1.58 ± 1.29 and 0.09 ± 0.04 vs 0.24 ± 0.19, respectively. The integral doses and beam-on times were 16,570 ± 1768 vs 22,087 ± 2.986 Gy cm 3 and 3.95 ± 1.13 vs 48.82 ± 10.44 min, respectively. The tri-Co-60 IMRT seems inappropriate for spine SABR compared with VMAT. Advances in knowledge: For spine SABR, the tri-Co-60 IMRT is inappropriate owing to the large penumbra, large leaf width and low dose rate of the ViewRay system.

  1. UNDERWATER ANALYSIS OF IRRADIATED REACTOR SLUGS FOR Co-60 AND OTHER RADIONUCLIDES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CASELLA, VITO

    2004-01-01

    Co-60 was produced in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors in the 1970s, and the irradiated cobalt reactor slugs were stored in a reactor basin at SRS. Since the activity rates of these slugs were not accurately known, assaying was required. A sodium iodide gamma detector was placed above a specially designed air collimator assembly, so that the slug was eight to nine feet from the detector and was shielded by the basin water. Also, 18 curium sampler slugs, used to produce Cm-244 from Pu-239, were to be disposed of with the cobalt slugs. The curium slugs were also analyzed with a High Purity Germanium (HPGE) detector in an attempt to identify any additional radionuclides produced from the irradiation. Co-60 concentrations were determined for reactor disassembly basin cobalt slugs and the 18 curium sampler slugs. The total Co-60 activity of all of the assayed slugs in this work summed to 31,783 curies on 9/15/03. From the Co-60 concentrations of the curium sampler slugs, the irradiation flux was determined for the known irradiation time. The amounts of Pu-238,-239,-240,-241,-242; Am-241,-243; and Cm-242,-244 produced were then obtained based on the original amount of Pu-239 irradiated

  2. Evaluation of Radiosensitivity of HeLa Cells Infected with Polio Virus Irradiated by Co 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Seif

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: The main purpose of radiotherapy is exposing enough doses of radiation to tumor tissue and protecting the normal tissues around it. Tumor dose for each session in radiotherapy will be considered based on radiosensitivity of the tissues. The presence of viral diseases in tumoral area can affect the radiosensitivity of cells. This study aimed to evaluate the radiosensitivity of Hela cells infected with poliomyelitis virus irradiated by Co 60. Materials & Methods: In this study, the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells, with or without the viral infection, after gamma radiation of cobalt 60, was assessed. Results: Results of comparison of the radisensitivity of infected and uninfected cells indicates that after 2 Gy irradiation by Co 60, polio infection in low, moderate and high virus load, increases the cell death by 20-30%, 30-40% and 70-90% respectively. Conclusion : Radiosensitivity of tumoral cells increase when they are infected with viral agents. Results of this study showed that non cancer diseases should be considered when prescribing dose fraction in radiotherapy of cancers.

  3. A compact neutron beam generator system designed for prompt gamma nuclear activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, J; Mostacci, D

    2011-08-01

    In this work a compact system was designed for bulk sample analysis using the technique of PGNAA. The system consists of (252)Cf fission neutron source, a moderator/reflector/filter assembly, and a suitable enclosure to delimit the resulting neutron beam. The moderator/reflector/filter arrangement has been optimised to maximise the thermal neutron component useful for samples analysis with a suitably low level of beam contamination. The neutron beam delivered by this compact system is used to irradiate the sample and the prompt gamma rays produced by neutron reactions within the sample elements are detected by appropriate gamma rays detector. Neutron and gamma rays transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP5). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determining of leakage rate of radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 in real conditioning; Odredjivanje brzine procurivanja radionuklida Co-60 i Cs-137 u realnim uslovima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, I; Peric, A; Kostadinovic, A [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1989-07-01

    In this paper, results of examination of LEAKAGE rate of radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 in real condition are given. Radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 were immobilized by cement process and conditioned in concrete containers trying to make similar scenario for repository of radioactive waste materials as in engineering trench systems. Experiments were realized with evaporator bottom concentrate (EB) from Nuclear Power Plant Krsko in which the main radionuclides are Co-60 and Cs-137. (author)

  5. Neutron beam design for low intensity neutron and gamma-ray radioscopy using small neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Two small neutron sources of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be radioisotopes were used for design of neutron beams applicable to low intensity neutron and gamma ray radioscopy (LINGR). In the design, Monte Carlo code (MCNP) was employed to generate neutron and gamma ray beams suited to LINGR. With a view to variable neutron spectrum and neutron intensity, various arrangements were first examined, and neutron-filter, gamma-ray shield and beam collimator were verified. Monte Carlo calculations indicated that with a suitable filter-shield-collimator arrangement, thermal neutron beam of 3,900 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with neutron/gamma ratio of 7x10 sup 7 , and 25 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with very large neutron/gamma ratio, respectively, could be produced by using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf(122 mu g) and a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be(37GBq)radioisotopes at the irradiation port of 35 cm from the neutron sources.

  6. Effect of Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation on Textile Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selambakkannu, S.; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Ting, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this studies gamma and electron beam irradiation was used to treat textile waste water. Comparisons between both types of irradiation in terms of effectiveness to degrade the pollutants present in textile waste water was done. Prior to irradiation, the raw wastewater was diluted using distilled water to a target concentration of COD 400 mg/l. The sample was irradiated at selected doses between the ranges of 10 kGy to 100 kGy. The results showed that irradiation has significantly contributed in the reduction of the highly colored refractory organic pollutants. The COD removal at the lowest dose, 10 kGy, was reduced to 390 mg/l for gamma and 400 mg/l for electron beam. Meanwhile, at the highest dose, 100 kGy, the COD was reduced to 125 mg/l for gamma and 144 mg/l for electron beam. The degree of removal is influenced by the dose introduced during the treatment process. As the dose increased, the higher the removal of organic pollutant was recorded. However, gamma irradiation is more effective although the differences are not significant between gamma and electron beam irradiation. On the other hand, other properties of the wastewater such as pH, turbidity, suspended solid, BOD and color also shows a gradual decrease as the dose increases for both types of irradiation. (author)

  7. MoonBEAM: Gamma-Ray Burst Detectors on SmallSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C. M.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A. M.; Jenke, P. A.; Kocevski, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Moon Burst Energetics All-sky Monitor (MoonBEAM) is a CubeSat concept of deploying gamma-ray detectors in cislunar space to improve localization precision for gamma-ray bursts by utilizing the light travel time difference between a spacecraft in Earth and cislunar orbit. MoonBEAM is designed with high TRL components to be flight ready. This instrument would probe the extreme processes in cosmic collision of compact objects and facilitate multi-messenger time-domain astronomy to explore the end of stellar life cycles and black hole formations.

  8. Study of proton beam induced gamma background in metallic backings

    CERN Document Server

    Gyuerky, G; Somorjai, E

    2003-01-01

    A low mass star burns H in the center via the pp chain. The central temperature (and the density) increases and the H-burning switches from the pp-chain to the more efficient CNO-burning. The escape of the star from the Main Sequence is powered by the onset of the CNO burning, whose bottleneck is the sup 1 sup 4 N(p,gamma) sup 1 sup 5 O reaction. Thus direct measurements of the sup 1 sup 4 N(p,gamma) sup 1 sup 5 O reaction at very low energies are needed. (R.P.)

  9. Physics of gamma knife approach on convergent beams in stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, A.; Lindner, G.; Maitz, A.H.; Kalend, A.M.; Lunsford, L.D.; Flickinger, J.C.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Presbyterian-University Hospital of Pittsburgh installed the first clinically designated Leksell gamma knife in the U.S. in August 1987. Gamma knife radiosurgery involves stereotactic target localization with the Leksell frame and subsequent closed-skull single-treatment session irradiation of a lesion with multiple highly focused gamma ray beams produced from 60Co sources. The hemispherical array of sources, the large number of small-diameter beams, and the steep dose gradients surrounding a targeted lesion make physical characterization of the radiation field complex. This paper describes the physical features and the operation of the gamma knife as well as the calibration procedures of the very small, well-collimated beams. The results of studies using in-phantom ion chamber, diode, film, and lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry were all in close agreement. Both single-beam and multiple-beam dose profiles were measured and reported for the interchangeable helmets, which have 4-, 8-, 14-, and 18-mm-diameter collimators. We also describe the dose calculation and treatment planning algorithm in the treatment planning system. Measurements of the accuracy of mechanical and radiation alignment are also performed and discussed

  10. The characteristics of epoxy resin cured by {gamma}-ray and E-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Y.C. E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr; Kang, Phil Hyun; Park, Jong Seok

    2004-10-01

    Epoxy resins are widely used as high-performance thermosetting resins for many industrial applications. In this study, the effect of an electron beam (E-beam) and {gamma}-ray irradiation on the curing of epoxy resins was investigated. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A(DGEBA), diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F(DGEBF) as epoxy resins, triarylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate(TASHFA), and triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate(TASHFP) as initiators were used in this study. The chemical and mechanical characteristics of irradiated epoxy resins were compared after curing of E-beam and {gamma}-ray irradiation up to 50 kGy in N{sub 2} and air atmosphere. We ascertained the effect of oxygen on the radiation curing of epoxy resin. The thermal properties of cured epoxy were investigated using DMA and TGA. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength were measured. The chemical structures of cured epoxy were characterized by FT-NIR. The gel fraction and the stress at yield of epoxy resins irradiated by E-beam and {gamma}-ray in N{sub 2} atmosphere were also compared with those of epoxy resins irradiated by E-beam and {gamma}-ray in air.

  11. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized ..gamma..-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/) of background-free polarized ..gamma.. rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (..delta..E = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV ..gamma.. rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the ..gamma..-ray energy up to 700 MeV.

  12. Energetics and beaming of gamma ray burst triggers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of mechanisms have been proposed to supply the energy for gamma-ray bursts (GRB) at cosmological distances. It is a common misconception that some of these, notably NS-NS mergers, cannot meet the energy requirements suggested by recent observations. We show here that GRB energies, even

  13. An analytical solution to the shielding of Co 60 teletherapy rooms based on a semiempirical equation of photon attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, D.G.; Hernandez, L.; Borroto, M.; Figueredo, M.

    1996-01-01

    A semiempirical equation of polynomial-exponential type is presented to describe the transmission data of Co-60 gamma radiation in finite materials of concrete and lead. This equation and the expression obtained for the relationship of scatter-to-incident exposure made easy the developing in computer of an analytical solution for shielding calculations of Co 60 teletherapy rooms, based on the procedures of the NCRP 49 and Simpkin's method. The standard error in the estimation of parameters is less than 1.7 % except for the attenuation of 150 'o' scattered radiation in concrete that resulted in 6.3 % for one of them. The shielding calculations were compared with the data in NCRP 49 for the same conditions with a correlation better than 99 %

  14. INFLUENCE OF INCUBATION TIME, GAMMA RAYS AND ELECTRON BEAM ON RADIATION RESISTANCE OF SOME SELECTED PATHOGENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-HIFNAWI, H.N.; EL-TABLAWY, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different growth phases on the radiation resistance, antibiotic susceptibility and pathogenicity of certain selected pathogens (Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus) was studied in mice. The obtained results showed that Escherichia coli was slightly more resistant to gamma radiation in 18 h than 24 h or 48 h but it was relatively more resistant to electron beam in 24 h and 48 h than 18 h. Candida albicans showed radiation resistance nearly the same in all incubation times in the case of gamma radiation while for electron beam, its radiation resistance was slightly more in 24 h and 48 h than in 18 h. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus recorded much more resistance to gamma radiation in the 48 h than in 24 h or 18 h whereas in the case of electron beam, it was slightly more resistant in 18 h than in 24 h and 48 h.The antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli reported that the exposure to gamma radiation at 3 kGy and electron beam at 6 kGy increase the susceptibility to the nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin. When Candida albicans was exposed to 3 kGy gamma radiation and 6 kGy electron beam, the same sensitivity to nystatin was observed in comparison with the unexposed one while the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to some antibiotics (amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin and tetracycline) was decreased after exposure to gamma radiation at 0.75 and 2 kGy and electron beam at 6 kGy, but for other antibiotics (trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole), the sensitivity was increased at 6 kGy electron beam.The lethality percent recorded after the oral ingestion of the mice with the unexposed Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were 25% and 100%, respectively, and for 6 kGy exposure to electron beam was 0% . The cotaneous disease and abscesses caused by the intradermal injection of the mice with unexposed Staphylococcus aureus was 75% and for 6 kGy exposure to electron beam was 25%.

  15. Report on salvage of a jammed cobalt-60 source of the gamma beam irradiator at Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, S.M.F.; Awal, K.O.; Ali, M.A.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report is the follow-up of a recovery plan for a Co-60 source that was presented at the proceedings of a symposium at the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna during 6-10 November 1989. This report deals mainly with technical measures adopted to salvage the jammed Co-60 source of a gamma irradiator at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture BINA, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Different tools and devices were developed to allow the remote recovery of the source. The radiation safety measures taken and the device drawings are given, together with suggestions for future use of the source with the remaining activity for irradiation purposes. (author)

  16. Relative biological effectiveness (R.B.E.) of Cf-252 vs. acute Co-60 and low dose rate Cs-137 irradiation by spleen weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Magura, C.; Beach, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    R.B.E. of Cf-252 on lymphoid tissue was assessed by radiation study of spleen weight loss following acute Co-60, and low dose rate (L.D.R.) Cs-137 and Cf-252 irradiations. Acute Co-60 and L.D.R. Cs-137 dose-response followed two component exponential curves with a 1.3-fold greater effect of L.D.R. Cs-137 vs. acute Co-60 on the first slope and 1.9-fold greater effect for the 2nd slope. L.D.R. Cf-252 response was 1.3 x greater than acute Co-60 but was 1.0 vs. L.D.R. Cs-137 for the first slope indicating a similar effect of Cf-252 mixed neutron/gamma radiation to L.D.R. gamma radiation in producing spleen shrinkage. There was no effect of different sequences and schedules of mixing acute Co-60 with Cf-252 irradiation observed by endogenous CFU-S survival. The R.B.E. of 1.0 - 1.9 indicates that lymphohemopoietic in vivo, presumably well oxygenated, does not respond acutely or as sensitively as hypoxic tumor where R.B.E. is 5 - 7. (author)

  17. Characterisation of neutron beam and gamma spectrometer for PGAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    In the second project year great efforts have been devoted in Budapest to the development of methods and procedures for neutron beam characterisation and spectrometer calibration. These are described here to provide recipes for other laboratories. Some illustrative results obtained on the former thermal guide, and partly on the new cold neutron guide are also given. Preliminary results from the benchmark experiments on flux monitors titanium standard and an unknown sample are also reported. New k o factors for elements of highest priority will be measured on the cold beam only in the near future. (author)

  18. Assessment of dose load of personnel in intratissue gamma beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavitskij, R.V.; Zamyatin, O.A.; Varennikov, O.I.; Astakhova, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    Suggest a method for retrospective assessment of levels of irradiation of small groups of personnel exposed to radiation sources. Presents estimated values of cumulative and local doses obtained by personnel during intratissue gamma beam therapy carried out by manual consecutive injections of intrastats and irradiation sources. 3 refs.; 5 tabs

  19. A simulation study on the dose distribution for a single beam of the gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-cheng; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Lee, Chung-chi; Shiau, Cheng-Ying

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the tissue heterogeneity on the dose distribution for a single beam of the gamma knife. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate both depth and radial profiles of the radiation dose in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms, respectively. The results are compared with the dose distribution calculated using the mathematical model of Gamma Plan, the treatment planning system of the gamma knife. The skull and sinus heterogeneity were simulated by a Teflon shell and an air shell, respectively. It was found that the tissue heterogeneity caused significant perturbation on the absolute depth dose at the focus as well as on the depth-dose distribution near the phantom surface and/or at the interface but little effect on the radial dose distribution. The effect of the beam aperture on the depth-dose distribution was also investigated in this study. (author)

  20. Gamma and electron beam irradiation effects on SiR-EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deepalaxmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM is widely used as Cable Insulation Material (CIM due to its good mechanical strength. Silicone Rubber (SiR is used in high temperature environments due to its good di-electric properties/hydrophobicity. The blending of SiR-EPDM may result in the improvement in their specific properties. The SiR-EPDM blend of equal composition (50:50 was prepared. When such blends are used as Cable Insulation Materials (CIM, they should perform their safety functions throughout their installed life in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP. The CIM will be exposed to Gamma irradiation at the installed locations. The short time accelerated testing was carried out, in order to forecast long-term performance of CIM. Electron beam irradiation is widely used in cable manufacturing industries to improve the performance of the polymeric materials. In the current study, on the purpose to investigate the effect of gamma/electron beam irradiation on the 50–50 composition of SiR-EPDM blend, blend was exposed to 25 Mrad dose of gamma/electron beam irradiation. The electrical and mechanical parameters like Volume Resistivity (VRY, Surface Resistivity (SRY, Tensile Strength (TS, Elongation at Break (EB, Hardness (H of the virgin, gamma/electron beam irradiated blends were determined as per ASTM/IEC standards. The nature of degradation was investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. To determine the elemental composition of the materials at the surface, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX has been done. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis has been done to study the morphological changes. The occurrence of cross-linking is found to be the mechanism for ageing in gamma/electron beam irradiated SiR-EPDM blends.

  1. The structure of neutron-rich nuclei explored via in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy of fast beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasmacher, T.; Campbell, C.M.; Church, J.A.; Dinca, D.C.; Hansen, P.G.; Olliver, H.; Perry, B.C.; Sherrill, B.M.; Terry, J.R.; Bazin, D.; Enders, J.; Gade, A.; Hu, Z.; Mueller, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy with fast exotic beams provides an efficient tool to study bound states in exotic neutron-rich nuclei. Specialized experimental techniques have been developed and explore different aspects of nuclear structure. Inelastic scattering experiments with γ-ray detection can measure the response of exotic nuclei to electromagnetic (Coulomb excitation with a heavy target) or hadronic probes (proton scattering with hydrogen target). In-beam fragmentation populates higher-lying bound states to establish levels. Single- and two-nucleon knockout reactions allow for detailed wavefunction spectroscopy of individual levels and for the measurement of spectroscopic factors. Experimental programs employing these techniques are now underway at all projectile-fragmentation facilities around the world. Here we report on several successful in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments that have been performed at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at Michigan State University with an emphasis on elucidating the evolution of nuclear structure around neutron numbers N=16, N=20, and N=28 in the π(sd) shell. (orig.)

  2. Gamma beams generation with high intensity lasers for two photon Breit-Wheeler pair production

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Humieres, Emmanuel; Ribeyre, Xavier; Jansen, Oliver; Esnault, Leo; Jequier, Sophie; Dubois, Jean-Luc; Hulin, Sebastien; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir; Arefiev, Alex; Toncian, Toma; Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2017-10-01

    Linear Breit-Wheeler pair creation is the lowest threshold process in photon-photon interaction, controlling the energy release in Gamma Ray Bursts and Active Galactic Nuclei, but it has never been directly observed in the laboratory. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility to produce collimated gamma beams with high energy conversion efficiency using high intensity lasers and innovative targets. When two of these beams collide at particular angles, our analytical calculations demonstrate a beaming effect easing the detection of the pairs in the laboratory. This effect has been confirmed in photon collision simulations using a recently developed innovative algorithm. An alternative scheme using Bremsstrahlung radiation produced by next generation high repetition rate laser systems is also being explored and the results of first optimization campaigns in this regime will be presented.

  3. Detection of mixed-range proton pencil beams with a prompt gamma slit camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priegnitz, M; Helmbrecht, S; Fiedler, F; Janssens, G; Smeets, J; Vander Stappen, F; Perali, I; Sterpin, E

    2016-01-01

    With increasing availability of proton and particle therapy centers for tumor treatment, the need for in vivo range verification methods comes more into the focus. Imaging of prompt gamma rays emitted during the treatment is one of the possibilities currently under investigation. A knife-edge shaped slit camera was recently proposed for this task and measurements proved the feasibility of range deviation detection in homogeneous and inhomogeneous targets. In the present paper, we concentrate on laterally inhomogeneous materials, which lead to range mixing situations when crossed by one pencil beam: different sections of the beam have different ranges. We chose exemplative cases from clinical irradiation and assembled idealized tissue equivalent targets. One-dimensional emission profiles were obtained by measuring the prompt gamma emission with the slit camera. It could be shown that the resulting range deviations can be detected by evaluation of the measured data with a previously developed range deviation detection algorithm. The retrieved value, however, strongly depends on the target composition, and is not necessarily in direct relation to the ranges of both parts of the beam. By combining the range deviation detection with an analysis of the slope of the distal edge of the measured prompt gamma profile, the origin of the detected range deviation, i.e. the mixed range of the beam, is also identified. It could be demonstrated that range mixed prompt gamma profiles exhibit less steep distal slopes than profiles from beams traversing laterally homogeneous material. For future application of the slit camera to patient irradiation with double scattered proton beams, situations similar to the range mixing cases are present and results could possibly apply. (paper)

  4. A dosimetric comparison of fan-beam intensity modulated radiotherapy with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for treating intermediate intracranial lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lijun; Xia Ping; Verhey, Lynn J.; Boyer, Arthur L.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate treatment plans for the fan-beam intensity modulated radiotherapy and the Gamma Knife radiosurgery for treating medium-size intracranial lesions (range 4-25 cm 3 ). Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were developed for the Leksell Gamma Knife and a fan-beam inverse treatment planning system for intensity modulated radiotherapy. Treatment plan comparisons were carried out using dose-volume histogram (DVH), tissue-volume ratio (TVR), and maximum dose to the prescription dose (MDPD) ratio. The study was carried out for both simulated targets and clinical targets with irregular shapes and at different locations. Results: The MDPD ratio was significantly greater for the Gamma Knife plans than for the fan-beam IMRT plans. The Gamma Knife plans produced equivalent TVR values to the fan-beam IMRT plans. Based on the DVH comparison, the fan-beam IMRT delivered significantly more dose to the normal brain tissue than the Gamma Knife. The results of the comparison were found to be insensitive to the target locations. Conclusion: The Gamma Knife is better than the fan-beam IMRT in sparing normal brain tissue while producing equivalent tumor dose conformity for treating medium-size intracranial lesions. However, the target dose homogeneity is significantly better for the fan-beam IMRT than for the Gamma Knife

  5. Constraints on Short, Hard Gamma-Ray Burst Beaming Angles from Gravitational Wave Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.; Clark, J. A.; Williamson, A. R.; Heng, I. S.

    2018-05-01

    The first detection of a binary neutron star merger, GW170817, and an associated short gamma-ray burst confirmed that neutron star mergers are responsible for at least some of these bursts. The prompt gamma-ray emission from these events is thought to be highly relativistically beamed. We present a method for inferring limits on the extent of this beaming by comparing the number of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) observed electromagnetically with the number of neutron star binary mergers detected in gravitational waves. We demonstrate that an observing run comparable to the expected Advanced LIGO (aLIGO) 2016–2017 run would be capable of placing limits on the beaming angle of approximately θ \\in (2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 88,14\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 15), given one binary neutron star detection, under the assumption that all mergers produce a gamma-ray burst, and that SGRBs occur at an illustrative rate of {{ \\mathcal R }}grb}=10 {Gpc}}-3 {yr}}-1. We anticipate that after a year of observations with aLIGO at design sensitivity in 2020, these constraints will improve to θ \\in (8\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 10,14\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 95), under the same efficiency and SGRB rate assumptions.

  6. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-01-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ( 37 Cs and 60 Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ( 90 Sr+ 9' 0Y e 204 Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  7. Nuclear Structure Studies with Gamma-Ray Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonchev Anton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In stable and weakly bound neutron-rich nuclei, a resonance-like concentration of dipole states has been observed for excitation energies below the neutron-separation energy. This clustering of strong dipole states has been named the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR in contrast to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR that dominates the E1 response. Understanding the PDR is presently of great interest in nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. High-sensitivity studies of E1 and M1 transitions in closed-shell nuclei using monoenergetic and 100% linearly-polarized photon beams are presented.

  8. Nuclear Structure Studies with Gamma-Ray Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, Anton; Bhatia, Chitra; Kelley, John; Raut, Rajarshi; Rusev, Gencho; Tornow, Werner; Tsoneva, Nadia

    2015-05-01

    In stable and weakly bound neutron-rich nuclei, a resonance-like concentration of dipole states has been observed for excitation energies below the neutron-separation energy. This clustering of strong dipole states has been named the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in contrast to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) that dominates the E1 response. Understanding the PDR is presently of great interest in nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. High-sensitivity studies of E1 and M1 transitions in closed-shell nuclei using monoenergetic and 100% linearly-polarized photon beams are presented.

  9. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the microbial quality of steamed tofu rolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Qian; Gao, Meixu; Li, Shurong; Wang, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of two kinds of radiation processing, gamma and electron beam (ebeam) irradiation, for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria innocua which were inoculated in pre-sterilised steamed tofu rolls was studied. The corresponding effects of both irradiation types on total bacterial counts (TBCs) in commercial steamed tofu rolls available in the market were also examined. The microbiological results demonstrated that gamma irradiation yielded D 10 values of 0.20, 0.24 and 0.22 kGy for S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. innocua, respectively. The respective D 10 values for ebeam irradiation were 0.31, 0.35 and 0.27 kGy. Gamma and ebeam irradiation yielded D 10 values of 0.48 and 0.43 kGy for total bacterial counts in commercial steamed tofu rolls, respectively. The results suggest that ebeam irradiation has similar effect on decreasing TBCs in steamed tofu rolls, and gamma irradiation is slightly more effective than ebeam irradiation in reducing the populations of pathogenic bacteria. The observed differences in D 10 -values between them might be due to the significant differences in dose rate applied, and radiation processing of soybean products to improve their microbial quality could be available for other sources of protein. - Highlights: ► Our research material is steamed tofu rolls, a kind of soybean products. ► We compared the effects of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation. ► Total bacterial and three strains of pathogens are studied in our research. ► We reported electron beam has similar decontamination effect as gamma ray. ► Radiation processing of soybean products to improve their microbial quality could be available for other sources of protein.

  10. Target size analysis of bioactive substances by radiation inactivation. Comparison with electron beam and. gamma. -ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Yuhei; Ishigaki, Isao; Hirose, Shigehisa

    1988-11-01

    The molecular sizes of various bioactive substances can be measured by the radiation inactivation method. The high energy electron beam (10 MeV) and /sup 60/Co-..gamma.. ray are mainly used for radiation inactivation method. When the practical electron accelerator (/similar to/ 3 MeV) is used for the method, the problems such as penetration and increase of temperature will arise. In this paper the radiation inactivation using 3MeV electron beam is investigated by comparison with ..gamma..-ray. When the plate type glass ampules (glass thickness 1 +- 0.1 mm) were used as the irradiation vessels, relatively uniform dose distribution was obtained. The temperature increased only from 21 degC to 35 degC by irradiation (0.77 mA, 100 passes, 100 kGy). Under the irradiation condition mentioned above, the molecular size of three enzymes were calculated from D/sub 37/ doses. The molecular sizes obtained by electron beam and ..gamma..-ray were 14,000 and 17,000 respectively for lysozyme, 33,000 for pepsin, and 191,000 and 164,000 for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. These values agreed closely with the reported molecular weight, suggesting that the 3 MeV electron beam can also be used for the radiation inactivation under limited conditions.

  11. Dosimetric Consistency of Co-60 Teletherapy Unit- a ten years Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Misba H; Mohib-Ul-Haq, M; Khan, Aijaz A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the Radiation standards and Dosimetry is to ensure that the output of the Teletherapy Unit is within ±2% of the stated one and the output of the treatment dose calculation methods are within ±5%. In the present paper, we studied the dosimetry of Cobalt-60 (Co-60) Teletherapy unit at Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS) for last 10 years. Radioactivity is the phenomenon of disintegration of unstable nuclides called radionuclides. Among these radionuclides, Cobalt-60, incorporated in Telecobalt Unit, is commonly used in therapeutic treatment of cancer. Cobalt-60 being unstable decays continuously into Ni-60 with half life of 5.27 years thereby resulting in the decrease in its activity, hence dose rate (output). It is, therefore, mandatory to measure the dose rate of the Cobalt-60 source regularly so that the patient receives the same dose every time as prescribed by the radiation oncologist. The under dosage may lead to unsatisfactory treatment of cancer and over dosage may cause radiation hazards. Our study emphasizes the consistency between actual output and output obtained using decay method. The methodology involved in the present study is the calculations of actual dose rate of Co-60 Teletherapy Unit by two techniques i.e. Source to Surface Distance (SSD) and Source to Axis Distance (SAD), used for the External Beam Radiotherapy, of various cancers, using the standard methods. Thereby, a year wise comparison has been made between average actual dosimetric output (dose rate) and the average expected output values (obtained by using decay method for Co-60.). The present study shows that there is a consistency in the average output (dose rate) obtained by the actual dosimetry values and the expected output values obtained using decay method. The values obtained by actual dosimetry are within ±2% of the expected values. The results thus obtained in a year wise comparison of average output by actual dosimetry done regularly as a part of

  12. Gamma-Ray Pulsars: Beaming Evolution, Stats and Unident. EGRET Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Yadigaroglu, I. -A.; Romani, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    We compute the variation of the beaming fraction with the efficiency of high energy gamma-ray production in the outer gap pulsar model of Romani and Yadigaroglu. This allows us to correct the fluxes observed for pulsars in the EGRET band and to derive a simple estimate of the variation of efficiency with age. Integration of this model over the population of young neutron stars gives the expected number of gamma-ray pulsars along with their distributions in age and distance. This model also sh...

  13. Study on dose distribution of therapeutic proton beams with prompt gamma measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. W. [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, C. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, D. K.; Yoon, M. Y. [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The proton beam has an advantage of the sharp dose falloff in dose distribution called Bragg peak while conventional radiation therapy modalities such as photons exhibit considerable amount of exit dose. To take advantage of this property it is important to know the exact location of the distal dose falloff. An error can cause overdose to the normal tissue or underdose to the tumor volume. The only way of finding out the dose distribution in-situ in particle therapy is to measure the gammas produced by nuclear reactions with tissue materials. Two kinds of gammas can be used: one is prompt gamma and the other is coincident gamma from the positron-emission isotopes. We chose to detect prompt gammas, and developed a prompt gamma scanning system (PGS). The proton beams of the proton therapy facility at National Cancer Center were used. The gamma distribution was compared to the dose distribution measured by an ionization chamber at three different energies of 100, 150, 200 MeV's. The two distributions were well correlated within 1-2 mm. The effect of high-energy neutron appeared as blurred distribution near the distal dose falloff at the energy of 200 MeV. We then tested the PGS shielding design by adding additional layer of paraffin plates outside of the PGS, and found that fast neutrons significantly affect the background level. But the location of the dose fall-off was nearly coincident. The analysis of gamma energy spectrum showed that cut-off energy in gamma counting can be adjusted to enhance the signal to noise ratio. Further the ATOM phantom, which has similar tissue structure to human, was used to investigate the gamma distribution for the case of inhomogeneous matter. The location of dose falloff region was found to be well defined as for water phantom. Next an actual therapy beam, which was produced by the double scattering method, was used, for which the dose falloff by the gamma distribution was completely wiped out by background neutrons. It is not

  14. Virus inactivation studies using ion beams, electron and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolko, Eduardo E. [Laboratorio de Polimeros, Grupo Aplicaciones Industriales, Unidad de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Pbro. Juan Gonzalez y Aragon 15, C.P. B1802AYA Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: smolko@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Lombardo, Jorge H. [Biotech S.A., C.P. 1754 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    Known methods of virus inactivation are based on the chemical action of some substances such as acetylethylenimine, betapropiolactone, glycidalaldehyde, formaldehyde, etc. In such a process, the viral suspension should be kept at room or higher temperatures for 24-48 h. Under these conditions, physical and chemical agents act to degrade the virus antigenic proteins. On the contrary with ionizing radiations at low temperatures, the treatment does not cause such degradation allowing the study of different viral functions. In this work, particle ({alpha}, d and ss) and {gamma} irradiations were used for partial and total inactivation of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Rauscher Leukemia Virus (RLV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). Obtention of the D{sub 37} dose from survival curves and the application of the target theory, permitted the determination of molecular weight of the nucleic acid genomes, EBR values and useful information for vaccine preparation. For RLV virus, a two target model of the RNA genome was deduced in accordance with biological information while from data from the literature and our own work on the structure of the scrapie prion, considering the molecular weight obtained by application of the theory, a new model for prion replication is presented, based on a trimer molecule.

  15. Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy at TRIUMF-ISAC: the New Frontier of Radioactive Ion Beam Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, G. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Austin, R. A. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Bricault, P.; Brown, N.; Chan, S.; Churchman, R.; Colosimo, S.; Coombes, H.; Cross, D.; Demand, G.; Drake, T. E.; Dombsky, M.; Ettenauer, S.; Finlay, P.; Furse, D.; Garnsworthy, A.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Hackman, G.; Kanungo, R.; Kulp, W. D.; Lassen, J.; Leach, K. G.; Leslie, J. R.; Mattoon, C.; Melconian, D.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E.; Sarazin, F.; Svensson, C. E.; Sumithrarachchi, S.; Schumaker, M. A.; Triambak, S.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Williams, S. J.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2009-03-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is essential to fully exploit the unique scientific opportunities at the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities such as the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC). At ISAC the 8π spectrometer and its associated auxiliary detectors is optimize for β-decay studies while TIGRESS an array of segmented clover HPGe detectors has been designed for studies with accelerated beams. This paper gives a brief overview of these facilities and also presents recent examples of the diverse experimental program carried out at the 8π spectrometer.

  16. Method of suppressing the deposition of Co-60 to primary coolant pipeways in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Michio; Tachikawa, Enzo; Goto, Satoshi; Sagawa, Chiaki; Yonezawa, Chushiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the deposition of Co-60 to primary coolant pipeways in a nuclear reactor. Method: To reduce the accumulation of Co-60 by causing chemical species of extremely similar chemical property with soluble Co-60 to be present together in coolants and replacing the deposition of Co-60 to the primary coolant pipeways in a nuclear reactor with that of the coexistent chemical spacies. Ni or Zn is used as the coexistet chemical spacies of similar chemical property with Co-60. The coexistent amount is from 5 to 10 times of the soluble Co-60 in the primary coolants. Ni or Zn solution adjusted with concentration is poured into and mixed with the coolants from a water feed source by using a high pressure constant volume pump. The amount of Co-60 taken into the pipeways caused by corrosion due to high temperature coolant is reduced to about 1/5 as compared with the case of Co-60 alone if 1 ppb of soluble Co-60 is present in water and 5 ppb of soluble Ni or Zn is added and, reduced to 1/12 if the amount of Ni or Zn is 10 ppb. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Development of Irradiation Procedure for Gamma Irradiation Chamber Bio beam GM 8000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Abdul Rahim Harun; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir

    2015-01-01

    Bio Beam GM 8000 gamma irradiation chamber obtained a conditional approval to operate on March 27, 2012, and later acquired a full approval on December 13, 2012. The objective for the procurement of this gamma chamber is to develop an acute irradiation facility for biological samples, including plants tissues, insects, pupae, microorganisms, as well as animal and human cells. To ensure a smooth and efficient operation, irradiation procedures were developed and improved over time. This paper discusses the operation and management of the Bio Beam GM 8000 facility, including irradiation procedures and sample preparation, application for services through online e-client system, consultancy, quality assurance and information dissemination to internal as well as external clients. In addition, this paper also discusses the potential, constraints and improvement measures taken to optimize the use of this facility in order to meet its objectives. (author)

  18. ADVANCED X-BAND TEST ACCELERATOR FOR HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON AND GAMMA RAY BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Barty, C P; Chu, T S; Ebbers, C A; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Adolphsen, C; Jongewaard, E N; Raubenheimer, T; Tantawi, S G; Vlieks, A E; Wang, J W

    2010-05-12

    In support of Compton scattering gamma-ray source efforts at LLNL, a multi-bunch test stand is being developed to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades. This test stand will enable work to explore the science and technology paths required to boost the current 10 Hz monoenergetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology to an effective repetition rate exceeding 1 kHz, potentially increasing the average gamma-ray brightness by two orders of magnitude. Multiple bunches must be of exceedingly high quality to produce narrow-bandwidth gamma-rays. Modeling efforts will be presented, along with plans for a multi-bunch test stand at LLNL. The test stand will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. The photoinjector will be a high gradient standing wave structure, featuring a dual feed racetrack coupler. The accelerator will increase the electron energy so that the emittance can be measured using quadrupole scanning techniques. Multi-bunch diagnostics will be developed so that the beam quality can be measured and compared with theory. Design will be presented with modeling simulations, and layout plans.

  19. Comparison of the effects of gamma ray and e-beam irradiation on the quality of minced beef during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Nam; Han, In Jun; Kim, Wang Geun; Song, Beom Seok; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Byun, Myung Woo; Hwang, Han Joon; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Jin Gyu

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of minced beef irradiated with gamma ray of e-beam at the absorbed doses from 5 to 20 kGy. The total bacterial counts of minced beef were decreased depending upon the irradiation doses, but sterilizing effect of gamma irradiation was higher than that of e-beam irradiation. The contents of malondialdegyde of minced beef were increased depending upon irradiation doses as well as storage periods (p< 0.05). Volatile basic nitrogen in minced beef was constantly increased during storage, but the increasing rate were retarded by irradiation. The hunter's color values(L*, a* and b*) of gamma or e-beam irradiated minced beef were decreased as irradiation dose increasing. Meanwhile, the quality changes of gamma irradiated samples were faster than e-beam irradiated samples

  20. Transfer Factor of Co-60 and Cs-137 from Agricultural Soil to Agricultural Plant of Rice and Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzie, D; Cerdas, T; Susilah, S; Umbara, H

    1996-01-01

    A study to estimate transfer factor of Co-60 and Cs-137 radionuclides from agricultural soil to agricultural plant of beans and rice in Serpong Nuclear Research Center Complex has been carried out. The soil used was that from off site Serpong Nuclear Research Center Complex, the agricultural plant samples were rice with variety of Cisadane, Situgintung, Seratus Malam, and Atomita 4, and for beans were peanut with variety of AH 1781 SI (parent) and A 20 psj (daughter), soybean with variety of Kerinci (parent) and Camar (daughter), and greenbean with variety of Manyar (parent) and Camar (daughter), which obtained from PAIR-BATAN Pasar Jumat. 10 kg of soil was put on the container which layered with plastic. The soil was contaminated with Co-60 and Cs-137 with activity concentration of 10 Bq/kg. Samples were counted with gamma spectrometer. The value of transfer factor was obtained by comparing activity concentration of agricultural plant with that of agricultural soil. The results of transfer factor of Co-60 for rice and beans were 0.12 x 10-2 and 1.05 x 10-2, respectively and the transfer factor of Cs-137 for rice and beans were 0.83 x 10-2 and 2.09 x 10-2, respectively. The gamma emmitter radionuclides counted from the soil of Serpong Nuclear Research Center Complex were Th-228, U-235, Ra-226, Ac-228 and K-40, with activities concentration as background were 35.39 - 101.60; 32.14 - 74.50; 23.37 - 28.57; 20.90 - 31.28 and 5.97 - 8.13 Bq/kg, respectively

  1. Development of prompt gamma measurement system for in vivo proton beam range verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Chul Hee

    2011-02-01

    In radiation therapy, most research has focused on reducing unnecessary radiation dose to normal tissues and critical organs around the target tumor volume. Proton therapy is considered to be one of the most promising radiation therapy methods with its physical characteristics in the dose distribution, delivering most of the dose just before protons come to rest at the so-named Bragg peak; that is, proton therapy allows for a very high radiation dose to the tumor volume, effectively sparing adjacent critical organs. However, the uncertainty in the location of the Bragg peak, coming from not only the uncertainty in the beam delivery system and the treatment planning method but also anatomical changes and organ motions of a patient, could be a critical problem in proton therapy. In spite of the importance of the in vivo dose verification to prevent the misapplication of the Bragg peak and to guarantee both successful treatment and patient safety, there is no practical methodology to monitor the in vivo dose distribution, only a few attempts have been made so far. The present dissertation suggests the prompt gamma measurement method for monitoring of the in vivo proton dose distribution during treatment. As a key part of the process of establishing the utility of this method, the verification of the clear relationship between the prompt gamma distribution and the proton dose distribution was accomplished by means of Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements. First, the physical properties of prompt gammas were investigated on the basis of cross-section data and Monte Carlo simulations. Prompt gammas are generated mainly from proton-induced nuclear interactions, and then emitted isotropically in less than 10 -9 sec at energies up to 10 MeV. Simulation results for the prompt gamma yield of the major elements of a human body show that within the optimal energy range of 4-10 MeV the highest number of prompt gammas is generated from oxygen, whereas over the

  2. The effect of the build-up wall at the TLD calibration using Co-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariyama, N.

    2000-01-01

    Absorbed dose in thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material at the calibration using Co-60 gamma rays depends on the TLD thickness and the wall material used for electric equilibrium condition. The relation was examined for LiF, BeO and CaF 2 TLDs sandwiched with PMMA, Teflon and Pyrex glass walls using a Monte Carlo transport code and compared with cavity ionization theory calculations. For the mismatched combination of LiF, BeO/Pyrex glass and CaF 2 /PMMA, it was found that the energy deposition did not change monotonously with TLD thickness from small cavity to large cavity value: a depression observed around 1-mm thickness for LiF/Pyrex glass and a peak around 0.6-mm thickness for CaF 2 /PMMA. The phenomena were explained by using different exponential attenuation coefficients β and β' for the weighting functions of cavity theory. Moreover, use of large cavity values was found to lead possibly to 3-5% errors in the calibration of thin TLDs. (author)

  3. Detection of an intense polychromatic gamma beam modulated at 3000 MHz; Detection d'un faisceau intense de gammas polychromatiques module a 3000 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beil, H; Veyssiere, A; Daujat, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This paper presents two methods of detection of a {gamma} beam modulated at very high frequencies. The intense modulated beam is created by means of Bremsstrahlung in a gold-target, the latter having been placed in the emerging electron beam of the Linac at Saclay. A tentative interpretation of the physical phenomena involved in the detection processes is also given. The empirical data agree reasonably well with numerical evaluations based on well established theoretical concepts concerning these phenomena. (authors) [French] Cet article presente deux facons de detecter un faisceau de {gamma} module a haute frequence. Le faisceau intense de {gamma} est cree par l'impact d'electrons (acceleres dans un accelerateur lineaire) sur une cible en or. Une tentative d'interpretation des phenomenes physiques mis en cause dans le processus de detection est donnee et les valeurs experimentales trouvees s'accordent raisonnablement bien avec les valeurs calculees a partir des considerations theoriques des phenomenes. (auteurs)

  4. Beam On Target (BOT) Produces Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) Fireballs and Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyber, H. D.

    1997-12-01

    Unlike the myriads of ad hoc models that have been offered to explain GRB, the BOT process is simply the very common process used worldwide in accelerator laboratories to produce gamma rays. The Strong Magnetic Field (SMF) model postulates an extremely intense, highly relativistic current ring formed during the original gravitational collapse of a distant galaxy when the plasma cloud was permeated by a primordial magnetic field. GRB occur when solid matter (asteroid, white dwarf, neutron star, planet) falls rapidly through the Storage Ring beam producing a very strongly collimated electromagnetic shower, and a huge amount of matter from the target, in the form of a giant, hot, expanding plasma cloud, or ``Fireball,'' is blown off. BOT satisfies all the ``severe constraints imposed on the source of this burst --'' concluded by the CGRO team (Sommer et al, Astrophys. J. 422 L63 (1994)) for the huge intense burst GRB930131, whereas neutron star merger models are ``difficult to reconcile.'' BOT expects the lowest energy gamma photons to arrive very slightly later than higher energy photons due to the time for the shower to penetrate the target. The millisecond spikes in bursts are due to the slender filaments of current that make up the Storage Ring beam. Delayed photons can be explained by a broken target ``rock.'' See H. Greyber in the book ``Compton Gamma Ray Observatory,'' AIP Conf. Proc. 280, 569 (1993).

  5. Responses of diode detectors to radiation beams from teletherapy machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinda, Lora; Nasukha

    2003-01-01

    Responses of diode detectors to radiation beams from teletherapy machines. It has been carried out responses to two sets of diode detector by using the beams of teletherapy Co-60 and medical linear accelerator. Each set of consist of 8 diode detectors was irradiated by using gamma beams from teletherapy Co-60 machines and 6 MV and 10 MV foron beams from medical linear accelerator and 6.9.12.16. and 20 MeV electron beams from medical linear accelerator. The detectors were positioned on the phantom circularly and radially and electronic equilibrium condition for all type and energy beams. It was found that every detectors had own individual response and it is not to be uniformity, since the fluctuation in between 16.6 % to 30.9 %. All detectors responses are linear to gamma and foron beams, and also for energy above 6 MeV for electron beams. Nonlinearity response occurs for 6 MeV electron beam, it is probably from the assumption of electronic equilibrium

  6. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  7. Dose rate distribution of the GammaBeam: 127 irradiator using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gual, Maritza Rodriguez; Batista, Adriana de Souza Medeiros; Pereira, Claubia; Faria, Luiz O. de; Grossi, Pablo Andrade

    2013-01-01

    The GammaBeam - 127 Irradiator is widely used for biological, chemical and medical applications of the gamma irradiation technology using Cobalt 60 radioactive at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The source has maximum activity of 60.000Ci, which is composed by 16 double encapsulated radioactive pencils placed in a rack. The facility is classified by the IAEA as Category II (dry storage facility). The aim of this work is to present a modelling developed to evaluate the dose rates at the irradiation room and the dose distribution at the irradiated products. In addition, the simulations could be used as a predictive tool of dose evaluation in the irradiation facility helping benchmark experiments in new similar facilities. The MCNPX simulated results were compared and validated with radiometric measurements using Fricke and TLDs dosimeters along several positions inside the irradiation room. (author)

  8. Localized surface grafting reactions on carbon nanofibers induced by gamma and e-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evora, M.C., E-mail: cecilia@ieav.cta.br [Institute for Advanced Studies-IEAV/DCTA, Av. Cel Jose Alberto Albano do Amarante, 1-Putim, 12228-001 São Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Araujo, J.R., E-mail: jraraujo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, E.H.M. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Strohmeier, B.R. [Thermo Fisher Scientific, 5225 Verona Road, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Silva, L.G.A., E-mail: lgasilva@ipen.br [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research- IPEN, Av. Prof lineu Prestes, 2242- Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 SP (Brazil); Achete, C.A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Methodology for the functionalization of carbon nanofibers was investigated. • Two radiation sources were used to promote grafting reactions: gamma and electron beam. • We report the optimum inhibitor concentration to achieve the functionalization. • Surface of carbon nanofibers showed an increase of oxygen content after irradiation. • The radiation-induced graphitization did not damage the overall sp{sup 2} structure. - Abstract: Electron beam and gamma-ray irradiation have potential application to modify the carbon fiber nanostructures in order to produce useful defects in the graphitic structure and create reactive sites. In this study, the methodology to functionalize carbon nanofiber (CNF), via a radiation process and using acrylic acid as a source of oxygen functional groups, was investigated. The samples were submitted to a direct grafting radiation process with electron beam and gamma-ray source. Several parameters were changed such as: acrylic acid concentration, radiation dose and percentage of inhibitor necessary to achieve functionalization, with higher percentage of oxygen functional groups on CNF surface, and better dispersion. The better results achieved were when mixing CNF in a solution of acrylic acid with 6% of inhibitor (FeSO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O) and irradiated at 100 kGy. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface composition (atomic%) showed a significant increase of oxygen content for the samples after irradiation. Also, the dispersion of the functionalized CNF in water was stable during months which may be a good indication that the functionalization process of CNF via ionizing radiation was successful.

  9. Localized surface grafting reactions on carbon nanofibers induced by gamma and e-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evora, M.C.; Araujo, J.R.; Ferreira, E.H.M.; Strohmeier, B.R.; Silva, L.G.A.; Achete, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Methodology for the functionalization of carbon nanofibers was investigated. • Two radiation sources were used to promote grafting reactions: gamma and electron beam. • We report the optimum inhibitor concentration to achieve the functionalization. • Surface of carbon nanofibers showed an increase of oxygen content after irradiation. • The radiation-induced graphitization did not damage the overall sp 2 structure. - Abstract: Electron beam and gamma-ray irradiation have potential application to modify the carbon fiber nanostructures in order to produce useful defects in the graphitic structure and create reactive sites. In this study, the methodology to functionalize carbon nanofiber (CNF), via a radiation process and using acrylic acid as a source of oxygen functional groups, was investigated. The samples were submitted to a direct grafting radiation process with electron beam and gamma-ray source. Several parameters were changed such as: acrylic acid concentration, radiation dose and percentage of inhibitor necessary to achieve functionalization, with higher percentage of oxygen functional groups on CNF surface, and better dispersion. The better results achieved were when mixing CNF in a solution of acrylic acid with 6% of inhibitor (FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O) and irradiated at 100 kGy. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the surface composition (atomic%) showed a significant increase of oxygen content for the samples after irradiation. Also, the dispersion of the functionalized CNF in water was stable during months which may be a good indication that the functionalization process of CNF via ionizing radiation was successful

  10. Therapeutic results in ovarian cancer after replacement of conventional radiotherapy by Co-60 irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, H.; Szalay, St.; Weghaupt, K.; Heckenthaler, W.; Vienna Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The use of Co-60 screen and pendular irradiation instead of conventional radiotherapy has brought about an improvement in the 5-year survival rate in patients with more advanced stages of ovarian cancer. Although the general side effects of Co-60 irradiation are considered to be more unpleasant than those of X-ray and radium therapy, severe, reversible or irreversible damage to the urogenital tract and intestinal organs was diminished by accurate planning of Co-60 therapy, so that these complications occurred less frequently than with conventional radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Radiomodifying effect of caffeine on mammalian cellular system using gamma radiation and proton beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanth, Sneha P.; Yadav, Usha; Shirsath, K.B.; Desai, Utkarsha N.; Chaurasia, Rajesh K.; Bhat, Nagesh N.; Anjaria, K.B.; Sapra, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is a commonly consumed neurostimulant in the world. Reports suggest the radiomodifying effects of caffeine against low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation when administered pre and post irradiation by releasing checkpoint arrest. In the present report, the radioprotective and radiosensitizing ability of caffeine (10μM - 2mM) were studied on Chinese Hamster Ovary (CRO) cell line against low as well as high LET radiation when administered pre, post and continuously during radiation. Effect of caffeine treatment on the genotoxicity induced by gamma and proton beam radiation was assessed by micronucleus assay. Effect of caffeine treatment on clonogenic survival of irradiated cells was also assessed

  12. Gamma, electron beam and ultraviolet radiation on control of storage rots and quality of Walla Walla onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.Y.; Stevens, C.; Yakubu, P.; Loretan, P.A.; Eakin, D.

    1988-01-01

    Walla Walla onions were irradiated with doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy of gamma rays; 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 kGy of electron beams; or 0.44 × 10 4 1.32 × 10 4 , 3.52 × 10 4 , 7.33 × 10 4 and 19.1 × 10 4 erg/mm± of UV. The onions were stored up to four weeks at 20–25 C. UV irradiated onions exhibited the greatest percentage of marketable onions and reduction in postharvest rots. Sprouting was obsened with control, UV and electron beam irradiated onions but not with gamma irradiated onions. Effect of gamma, electron beams and UV on pH, moisture, ascorbic acid and color were not significant. Onions became soft with the high dose of gamma radiation (3.0 kGy). Total sugar content was not affected by UV and electron beam but tended to be greatest at the 1.0 kGy gamma radiation. The effect of the radiation on the onion sensory scores was not clearly indicated except that 3.0 kGy gamma ray irradiated onions had the lowest firmness score

  13. Neutron and gamma ray streaming calculations for the ETF neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.

    1981-02-01

    Two-dimensional radiation transport methods have been used to estimate the effects of neutron and gamma ray streaming on the performance of the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) neutral beam injectors. The calculations take into account the spatial, angular, and spectral distributions of the radiation entering the injector duct. The instantaneous nuclear heating rate averaged over the length of the cryopumping panel in the injector is 7.5 x 10 -3 MW/m 3 which implies a total heat load of 2.2 x 10 -4 MW. The instantaneous dose rate to the ion gun insulators was estimated to be 3200 rad/s. The radial dependence of the instantaneous dose equivalent rate in the neutral beam injector duct shield was also calculated

  14. Study on the production mechanism of Co-60 in the primary loop of HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shouang; Xie Feng; Li Hong; Cao Jianzhu; Li Fu; Wei Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    Co-60 is an activated metallic erosion product, which is very important for waste management and decommissioning work of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants. Recent measurement on the samples from the primary loop of HTR-10 indicates the existence of Co-60. In current paper, the preliminary experimental results in HTR-10 will be introduced, and the production mechanism of Co-60 in the pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors will be summarized and compared with that in PWRs and Germany High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (AVR). The further experiments with decomposing the post-irradiation graphite spheres of HTR-10 are put forward, which will promote the further study to testify the production sources of Co-60 and be of great significance in the waste minimization and the decommissioning work of HTR-10. (author)

  15. Dosimetry characteristics of the Leksell gamma knife for stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, A.; Lindner, G.; Maitz, A.; Smarra, N.; Turco, R.F.; Kalend, A.M.; Lunsford, L.D.; Flickinger, J.C.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma knife radiosurgery refers to the treatment procedure that delivers very high dose to a small brain lesion with 201 highly focused beams of Co-60. The hemispheric array of these multiple sources with the sizes of beams ranging from 4, 8, 14, to 18 mm makes the determination of dosimetry characteristics of the radiation field very complex. This paper describes the structures, operations, and dose characteristics of gamma knife. Dosimetry measurements were made using ion chamber, TLD, diode, and films to calibrate the dose outputs of the combination of 201 beams of 4, 8, 14, or 18 mm in diameter irradiating from various directions. Results of measured isodose distribution and dose profiles for the various diameter beams are also presented

  16. Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) to Neutron and Co-60 γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Yong Min; Kim Kyeoung Jung

    1997-01-01

    Experiments in vitro, using human cell lines was carried out in order to establish whether or not there was a difference between oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of neutron and Co-60 γ-ray and to determine OER dependence on radiation dose. MG-63 cell line and H-460 cell line were defined as the most sensitive cell line to neutron among our laboratory holding cell lines through preliminary study. Anoxia as was produced in glove box. The box was flushed for one hour with a mixture of 5 % CO 2 in ultrapure N 2 (total oxygen concentration < 10 ppm) and irradiated with neutron and Co-60 γ-ray. Oxic condition was same as anoxic condition except being irradiated in general air condition. The lower OER was observed in neutron than in Co-60 γ-ray. The dose dependence of OER was observed in neutron and Co-60 γ-ray all. But the dose dependence of the OER is somewhat larger for Co-60 γ-ray than for neutron. In the range of 1 to 8 Gy, the OER for photon and neutron range from 1.54 to 1.94 and 1.23 to 1.26 in MG-63 cell line. In case of H-460 the OER for Co-60 γ-ray and neutron range from 1.24 to 1.60 and 1.06 to 1.07 respectively. (author). 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Design of a Compton camera for 3D prompt-{gamma} imaging during ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roellinghoff, F., E-mail: roelling@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1 and CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, IPNL, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); INSA-Lyon Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiation (CNDRI), F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Richard, M.-H., E-mail: mrichard@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1 and CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, IPNL, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); INSA-Lyon Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiation (CNDRI), F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Chevallier, M.; Constanzo, J.; Dauvergne, D. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1 and CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, IPNL, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Freud, N. [INSA-Lyon Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiation (CNDRI), F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Henriquet, P.; Le Foulher, F. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1 and CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, IPNL, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Letang, J.M. [INSA-Lyon Laboratory of Nondestructive Testing using Ionizing Radiation (CNDRI), F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Montarou, G. [LPC, CNRS/IN2P3, Clermont-F. University (France); Ray, C.; Testa, E.; Testa, M. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1 and CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, IPNL, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Walenta, A.H. [Uni-Siegen, FB Physik, Emmy-Noether Campus, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2011-08-21

    We investigate, by means of Geant4 simulations, a real-time method to control the position of the Bragg peak during ion therapy, based on a Compton camera in combination with a beam tagging device (hodoscope) in order to detect the prompt gamma emitted during nuclear fragmentation. The proposed set-up consists of a stack of 2 mm thick silicon strip detectors and a LYSO absorber detector. The {gamma} emission points are reconstructed analytically by intersecting the ion trajectories given by the beam hodoscope and the Compton cones given by the camera. The camera response to a polychromatic point source in air is analyzed with regard to both spatial resolution and detection efficiency. Various geometrical configurations of the camera have been tested. In the proposed configuration, for a typical polychromatic photon point source, the spatial resolution of the camera is about 8.3 mm FWHM and the detection efficiency 2.5x10{sup -4} (reconstructable photons/emitted photons in 4{pi}). Finally, the clinical applicability of our system is considered and possible starting points for further developments of a prototype are discussed.

  18. Progress towards a semiconductor Compton camera for prompt gamma imaging during proton beam therapy for range and dose verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, A.; Baker, C.; Boston, H.; Chung, S.; Judson, D. S.; Kacperek, A.; Le Crom, B.; Moss, R.; Royle, G.; Speller, R.; Boston, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to test a new semiconductor Compton camera for prompt gamma imaging. Our device is composed of three active layers: a Si(Li) detector as a scatterer and two high purity Germanium detectors as absorbers of high-energy gamma rays. We performed Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 toolkit to characterise the expected gamma field during proton beam therapy and have made experimental measurements of the gamma spectrum with a 60 MeV passive scattering beam irradiating a phantom. In this proceeding, we describe the status of the Compton camera and present the first preliminary measurements with radioactive sources and their corresponding reconstructed images.

  19. Kernel integration scatter model for parallel beam gamma camera and SPECT point source response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Scatter correction is a prerequisite for quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this paper a kernel integration scatter Scatter correction is a prerequisite for quantitative SPECT. In this paper a kernel integration scatter model for parallel beam gamma camera and SPECT point source response based on Klein-Nishina formula is proposed. This method models primary photon distribution as well as first Compton scattering. It also includes a correction for multiple scattering by applying a point isotropic single medium buildup factor for the path segment between the point of scatter an the point of detection. Gamma ray attenuation in the object of imaging, based on known μ-map distribution, is considered too. Intrinsic spatial resolution of the camera is approximated by a simple Gaussian function. Collimator is modeled simply using acceptance angles derived from the physical dimensions of the collimator. Any gamma rays satisfying this angle were passed through the collimator to the crystal. Septal penetration and scatter in the collimator were not included in the model. The method was validated by comparison with Monte Carlo MCNP-4a numerical phantom simulation and excellent results were obtained. The physical phantom experiments, to confirm this method, are planed to be done. (author)

  20. Fertility and fertilizing ability of cotton pollen following γ-radiation (Co60)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of Co 60 gamma radiation on the fertility and fertilizing ability of ripe cotton (Tashkent-2 variety) pollen was studied. Radiation doses were 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10kR. The generally accepted cross-pollination method was used. The viability of the pollen after irradiation was determined by the Shardakov and aceto-carmine dye method. Determination of the peroxidase activity, which in this case was used as an index of the pollen viability, made it possible to assess its physiological state. Non-irradiated flowers were used as controls. It was shown that the pollen viability depended on the radiation dose. Doses from 0.5 to 2 kR had no effect on the peroxidase activity. Irradiation decreased the percentage of viable pollen somewhat (compared to controls). A similar relation to irradiation was observed in the pollen color in the aceto-carmine test for fertility. Doses of 5-10 kR decreased the percentage of fertility of the pollen. An important factor in evaluating the radiation sensitivity of cotton pollen is the number and type of bound bolls and seeds. Studies showed that the number of bound bolls depends on the radiation dose. With doses of 0.5 and 1.5 kR an average of 78.6% bound bolls formed, compared to 80.0% in the controls. With 1 kR the number of bound rolls formed, compared to 80.0% in the controls. With these doses the shape and size of the bolls did not differ from those in the controls; the average weight was 4.3 g. Doses of 2.3 and 4kR gave an average of 66% bound bolls, i.e., 14% different from the controls. With increase in the radiation dose, the size and shape of the bolls changed significantly. Doses of 5 and 10 kR had a lethal action on formation of filled-out seed; not one filled seed was found. Thus, pollen treated with different gamma radiation doses retains its viability, depending on the radiation dose

  1. Comparison of two methods of therapy level calibration at 60Co gamma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.; Jaervinen, H.; Grimbergen, T.W.M.; Grindborg, J.E.; Chauvenet, B.; Czap, L.; Ennow, K.; Moretti, C.; Rocha, P.

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy and traceability of the calibration of radiotherapy dosimeters is of great concern to those involved in the delivery of radiotherapy. It has been proposed that calibration should be carried out directly in terms of absorbed dose to water, instead of using the conventional and widely applied quantity of air kerma. In this study, the faithfulness in disseminating standards of both air kerma and absorbed dose to water were evaluated, through comparison of both types of calibration for three types of commonly used radiotherapy dosimeters at 60 Co gamma beams at a few secondary and primary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs and PSDLs). A supplementary aim was to demonstrate the impact which the change in the method of calibration would have on clinical dose measurements at the reference point. Within the estimated uncertainties, both the air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors obtained at different laboratories were regarded as consistent. As might be expected, between the SSDLs traceable to the same PSDL the observed differences were smaller (less than 0.5%) than between PSDLs or SSDLs traceable to different PSDLs (up to 1.5%). This can mainly be attributed to the reported differences between the primary standards. The calibration factors obtained by the two methods differed by up to about 1.5% depending on the primary standards involved and on the parameters of calculation used for 60 Co gamma radiation. It is concluded that this discrepancy should be settled before the new method of calibration at 60 Co gamma beams in terms of absorbed dose to water is taken into routine use. (author)

  2. Comparison of two methods of therapy level calibration at 60Co gamma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H; Jaervinen, H; Grimbergen, T W M; Grindborg, J-E; Chauvenet, B; Czap, L; Ennow, K; Moretti, C; Rocha, P

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy and traceability of the calibration of radiotherapy dosimeters is of great concern to those involved in the delivery of radiotherapy. It has been proposed that calibration should be carried out directly in terms of absorbed dose to water, instead of using the conventional and widely applied quantity of air kerma. In this study, the faithfulness in disseminating standards of both air kerma and absorbed dose to water were evaluated, through comparison of both types of calibration for three types of commonly used radiotherapy dosimeters at 60 Co gamma beams at a few secondary and primary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs and PSDLs). A supplementary aim was to demonstrate the impact which the change in the method of calibration would have on clinical dose measurements at the reference point. Within the estimated uncertainties, both the air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors obtained at different laboratories were regarded as consistent. As might be expected, between the SSDLs traceable to the same PSDL the observed differences were smaller (less than 0.5%) than between PSDLs or SSDLs traceable to different PSDLs (up to 1.5%). This can mainly be attributed to the reported differences between the primary standards. The calibration factors obtained by the two methods differed by up to about 1.5% depending on the primary standards involved and on the parameters of calculation used for 60 Co gamma radiation. It is concluded that this discrepancy should be settled before the new method of calibration at 60 Co gamma beams in terms of absorbed dose to water is taken into routine use

  3. Proceeding of the workshop on gamma-ray spectroscopy utilizing heavy-ion, photon and RI beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Masumi; Sugita, Michiaki; Hayakawa, Takehito [eds.

    1998-03-01

    Three time since 1992, we have held the symposia entitled `Joint Spectroscopy Experiments Utilizing JAERI Tandem-Booster Accelerator` at the Tokai Research Establishment. In the symposia, we have mainly discussed the plans of experiments to be done in this joint program. The joint program started in 1994. Several experiments have been made since and some new results have already come up. This symposium `Gamma-ray Spectroscopy utilizing heavy-ion, Photon and RI beams` was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. Because this symposium is the first occasion after the program started, the first purpose of the symposium is to present and discuss the experimental results so far obtained using the JAERI Tandem-Booster. The second purpose of the symposium is to discuss new possibilities of gamma-ray spectroscopy using new resources such as RI-beam and Photon-beam. The participants from RIKEN, Tohoku University and JAERI Neutron Science Research Center presented the future plans of experiments with RI-beam at each facility. Compared with these nuclear beams, photon beam provides a completely new tool for the {gamma}-ray spectroscopy, which is achieved by inverse Compton scattering between high-energy electron and laser beams. The 23 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Self-powered detector probes for electron and gamma-ray beam monitoring in high-power industrial accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPDs are used in nuclear reactors for monitoring neutron and gamma ray fields. Responses of various SPDs to electron and gamma ray beams from industrial accelerators were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. By judicious choice of transmission filters, threshold SPD probes were investigated for on-line monitoring of the beam energy spectrum of the high-power IMPELA industrial electron accelerator. (Author) (14 figs, 16 refs.)

  5. Evaluation and comparison of gamma- and electron beam irradiation effects on total and free gossypol of cottonseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawrang, P.; Mansouri, M.H.; Sadeghi, A.A.; Ziaie, F.

    2011-01-01

    Impact of gamma- and electron beam irradiation on total and free gossypol content of cottonseed meal was assessed by exposing them to doses of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kGy. Gamma rays and electron beam showed the same effects with significant dose-dependent decrease in total and free gossypol content. Based on these results, ionizing irradiation at doses of 25 kGy and above could completely remove free gossypol and bring down total gossypol content to permissible level in poultry feed.

  6. Borosilicate glass for gamma irradiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydogan, N.; Tugrul, A. B.

    2012-11-01

    Four different types of silicate glass specimens were irradiated with gamma radiation using a Co-60 radioisotope. Glass specimens, with four different chemical compositions, were exposed to neutron and mixed neutron/gamma doses in the central thimble and tangential beam tube of the nuclear research reactor. Optical variations were determined in accordance with standardisation concept. Changes in the direct solar absorbance (αe) of borosilicate glass were examined using the increase in gamma absorbed dose, and results were compared with the changes in the direct solar absorbance of the three different type silicate glass specimens. Solar absorption decreased due to decrease of penetration with absorbed dose. αe of borosilicate increased considerably when compared with other glass types. Changes in optical density were evaluated as an approach to create dose estimation. Mixed/thermal neutron irradiation on glass caused to increse αe.

  7. Polarized beam asymmetry for. gamma. d. -->. Peta in the energy range 0. 4-0. 8 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamyan, F.V.; Arustamyan, G.V.; Galumyan, P.I.; Grabsky, V.H.; Hakopyan, H.H.; Karapetyan, V.V.; Vartapetyan, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the polarized beam asymmetry for deuteron photodisintegration ..gamma..d ..-->.. Peta have been carried out in the energy range E/sub ..gamma../ = 0.4-0.8 GeV and at angles theta/sub p//sup cm/ = 45/sup 0/-75/sup 0/. The results obtained are in disagreement with theoretical predictions which take into account the dibaryon resonance contribution. The data qualitative analysis indicates the weakness of isoscalar dibaryon amplitudes near E/sub ..gamma../ = 400 MeV. 8 references, 1 figure.

  8. Comparative study on disinfection potency of spore forming bacteria by electron-beam irradiation and gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo; Hayashi, Toru; Yasumoto, Kyoden.

    1990-01-01

    Along with gamma-ray irradiation, electron-beam irradiation (EB) is a method to disinfect microorganisms which cause food decomposition and food-poisoning. The present study was undertaken to compare sterilization efficacy of EB and gamma-ray irradiation on bacterial spores and vegetative cells under various conditions. Spores of Bacillus pumilus, a marker strain for irradiation study, and Bacillus stearothermophilus known as a thermophilic bacteria were irradiated by electron-beam and gamma-ray separately at irradiation dose of 0 to 10 kGy on combination of wet/dry and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Sterilization effect of irradiation on spores was evaluated by colony counting on agar plates. Results showed that both EB and gamma-ray irradiation gave sufficient sterilization effect on spores, and the sterilization effect increased exponentially with irradiation dose. The sterilization effect of gamma-ray irradiation was higher than that of EB in all cases. Higher disinfection effect was observed under aerobic condition. The present study suggests that oxygen supply in EB is more important than gamma-ray irradiation. No results suggesting that chlorine ion at 0.1 ppm (as available chlorine concentration) enhanced the sterilization efficacy of either EB or gamma-ray irradiation was obtained under any conditions examined. (author)

  9. Comparative study on disinfection potency of spore forming bacteria by electron-beam irradiation and gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo [Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries; Hayashi, Toru; Yasumoto, Kyoden

    1990-10-01

    Along with gamma-ray irradiation, electron-beam irradiation (EB) is a method to disinfect microorganisms which cause food decomposition and food-poisoning. The present study was undertaken to compare sterilization efficacy of EB and gamma-ray irradiation on bacterial spores and vegetative cells under various conditions. Spores of Bacillus pumilus, a marker strain for irradiation study, and Bacillus stearothermophilus known as a thermophilic bacteria were irradiated by electron-beam and gamma-ray separately at irradiation dose of 0 to 10 kGy on combination of wet/dry and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Sterilization effect of irradiation on spores was evaluated by colony counting on agar plates. Results showed that both EB and gamma-ray irradiation gave sufficient sterilization effect on spores, and the sterilization effect increased exponentially with irradiation dose. The sterilization effect of gamma-ray irradiation was higher than that of EB in all cases. Higher disinfection effect was observed under aerobic condition. The present study suggests that oxygen supply in EB is more important than gamma-ray irradiation. No results suggesting that chlorine ion at 0.1 ppm (as available chlorine concentration) enhanced the sterilization efficacy of either EB or gamma-ray irradiation was obtained under any conditions examined. (author).

  10. A New In-core Production Method of Co-60 in CANDU Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jinqi; Kim, Woosong; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Younwon [BEES Inc, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study introduces an innovative method for Co-60 production in the CANDU6 core. In this new scheme, the central fuel element is replaced by a Co-59 target and Co-60 is obtained after the fuel bundle is discharged. It has been shown that the new method can produce significantly higher amount of Co-60 than the conventional Co production method in CANDU6 reactors without compromising the fuel burnup by removing some (<50%) of the adjuster rods in the whole core. The coolant void reactivity is noticeably reduced when a Co-59 target is loaded into the central pin of the fuel bundle. Meanwhile, the peak power in a fuel bundle is just a little higher due to the central Co-59 target than in conventional CANDU6 fuel design. The basic technology for Co-60 producing was developed by MDS Nordion and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in 1946 and the same technology was adapted and applied in CANDU6 power reactors. The standard CANDU6 reactor has 21 adjuster rods which are fully inserted into the core during normal operation. The stainless steel adjuster rods are replaced with neutronically-equivalent Co-59 adjusters to produce Co-60. Nowadays, the roles of the adjuster rods are rather vague since nuclear reactors cannot be quickly restarted after a sudden reactor trip due to more stringent regulations. In some Canadian CANDU6 reactors, some or all the adjuster rods are removed from the core to maximize the uranium utilization.

  11. Clinical Realization of Sector Beam Intensity Modulation for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery: A Pilot Treatment Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lijun; Mason, Erica; Sneed, Penny K.; McDermott, Michael; Polishchuk, Alexei; Larson, David A.; Sahgal, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the clinical feasibility and potential benefits of sector beam intensity modulation (SBIM) specific to Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). Methods and Materials: SBIM is based on modulating the confocal beam intensities from individual sectors surrounding an isocenter in a nearly 2π geometry. This is in contrast to conventional GKSRS delivery, in which the beam intensities from each sector are restricted to be either 0% or 100% and must be identical for any given isocenter. We developed a SBIM solution based on available clinical planning tools, and we tested it on a cohort of 12 clinical cases as a proof of concept study. The SBIM treatment plans were compared with the original clinically delivered treatment plans to determine dosimetric differences. The goal was to investigate whether SBIM would improve the dose conformity for these treatment plans without prohibitively lengthening the treatment time. Results: A SBIM technique was developed. On average, SBIM improved the Paddick conformity index (PCI) versus the clinically delivered plans (clinical plan PCI = 0.68 ± 0.11 vs SBIM plan PCI = 0.74 ± 0.10, P=.002; 2-tailed paired t test). The SBIM plans also resulted in nearly identical target volume coverage (mean, 97 ± 2%), total beam-on times (clinical plan 58.4 ± 38.9 minutes vs SBIM 63.5 ± 44.7 minutes, P=.057), and gradient indices (clinical plan 3.03 ± 0.27 vs SBIM 3.06 ± 0.29, P=.44) versus the original clinical plans. Conclusion: The SBIM method is clinically feasible with potential dosimetric gains when compared with conventional GKSRS

  12. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized #betta#-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10 7 s - 1 ) of background-free polarized #betta# rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (δE = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV #betta# rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the #betta#-ray energy up to 700 MeV

  13. Influence of Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation on Microbial Load of Pueraria mirifica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eamsiri, J.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.; Chookaew, S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gamma ray and electron beam on the microbial load of Pueraria mirifica at selected storage period post exposure to irradiation. The samples were irradiated at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy and then analyzed for the total bacteria, total yeast and mold, and the presence of Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens after 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of storage. Results demonstrated that both irradiation techniques significantly reduced microbial contamination. As the reduction in bacteria count decreased linearly with the absorbed dose, the dose of 5 kGy was found to be sufficient in eliminating pathogens with the total bacteria count decreased to the value accepted by the Thai Industrial standard 1441/2552. In addition, we found that total bacteria, total yeast and mold and pathogens did not change significantly after storage up to 12 months post irradiation.

  14. Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization: Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam Technology for Materials Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Cabalar, Patrick Jay; Lopez, Girlie Eunice; Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of functional hybrid materials by attaching polymer chains with advantageous tailored properties to the surface of a base polymer with desirable bulk character is an attractive application of graft copolymerization. Radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) has been a popular approach for surface modification of polymers because of its merits over conventional chemical processes. RIGP, which proceeds primarily via free radical polymerization process, has the advantages such as simplicity, low cost, control over process and adjustment of the materials composition and structure. RIGP can be performed using either electron beam or gamma radiation and it can be applied to both synthetic and natural polymers. These merits make RIGP a popular research topic worldwide. Moreover, the materials synthesized and produced via RIGP has found applications, and were proposed to produce continuous impact, in the fields of medicine, agriculture, pollution remediation, rare earth and valuable metals recovery, fuel cell membrane synthesis and catalysis to name a few. From 2012 our group has performed electron beam and gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of various monomers onto polymers of natural and synthetic origins (e.g. monomers - glycidyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylonitrile, N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate; base polymers – polyethylene/polypropylene nonwoven fabric, polypropylene nonwoven fabric pineapple fibers, cellulose nonwoven fabric microcrystalline cellulose). We tested these grafted materials for heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu) and organic molecule removal from aqueous solutions and E. coli activity (using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer RAFT mediated grafting). The results clearly showed the success of materials modified via FIGP in these applications. Currently, we are studying the applications of grafted materials on treatment of waste waters from tanning industry, value addition to abaca nonwoven fabrics cell sheet

  15. Semi-Broad-Beam Gamma Spectrometry of Some Mixtures and Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kateb, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The 33- and 662-keV X rays and gamma rays from 137 Cs and the 1173- and 1333-keV gamma rays from 60 Co have been employed as single and dual beams to study the attenuation of applied materials. These materials are soil containing water, dextrose solutions, and solutions of lithium chloride, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride. In soil the measurements covered water content ranging from saturation to nearly dry points. For dextrose, the content ranged from 0.25 g.cm -3 to zero. For the chloride solutions, the salt mass fraction was varied up to the ratio 0.1667. The setup geometry was arranged with a source-detector angle of 8.63 deg to allow good reception of the 33-keV line. The results were analyzed on the basis of the dependence of the absorption of intensity (intensities) on the content of the added component. The curves are fitted with concentration-dependent expansions, the coefficients of which are tabulated. It is concluded that soft X rays (33 keV) produce the most sensitive responses to concentrations. Correspondingly, a dual energy of 33 and 1250 keV (or 1333 keV) is the preferred combination to detect a desired component in a sample

  16. Gamma-ray beam attenuation to assess the influence of soil texture on structure deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, L.F.; Bacchi, O.O.S.; Dias, N.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray beam attenuation is a non-invasive technique that permits analysis of soil porosity without disturbing the region of interest of the core sample. The technique has as additional advantage to allow measurements point by point on a millimetric scale in contrast to other methodologies that are invasive and analyze the soil properties in the bulk sample volume. Soil porosity can be used as an important parameter to quantify soil structural damages, which affect soil aeration, water movement and retention. In this study, porosities of three soils different in texture were measured at various positions in order to analyze the impact of the sampling procedure on the structure of each particular soil texture. The gamma-ray attenuation system consisted of an 241 Am radioactive source having an activity of 3.7 GBq, collimated with cylindrical lead collimators of 2 mm diameter. The results obtained show the presence of dense regions near the edges of samples and that different soil textures can suffer distinct deformations at sampling. (author)

  17. Analytical solution for shielding in teletherapy rooms with Co60 according to semiempirical equation of attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, D.G.; Borroto, M.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the parameters for a semiempirical equation of an exponential-polynomial type for the description of the transmission data of the different qualities of the Co-60 radiation in finite means of concrete (2350 kg m -3 ) and lead. This equation and the expression obtained for the relationship of scatter-to-incident exposure, help in the development of a computerized analytical solution of the Simpkin's method for shielding calculations in Co-60 teletherapy rooms. The results were compared with the values offered in the NCRP-49 for the same conditions, obtaining an acceptable correlation. (authors). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Effects of gamma ray and electron-beam irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Michiko; Miyahara, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    An extension of the approval for food irradiation is desired due to the increase in the incidence of food poisoning in the world. One anaerobic (Clostridium perfringens) and four facultatively anaerobic (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis) bacteria irradiated with gamma ray or electron beam (E-beam) were tested in terms of survival on agar under packaging atmosphere. Using pouch pack, effects of two irradiations on survival of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were evaluated comparatively. E-beam irradiation was more effective than gamma ray irradiation in decreasing the lethal dose 10% (D 10 ) value of B. cereus at 4 deg C, slightly more effective in that of E. coli O157, and similarly effective in that of the other three bacteria at 4 deg C. The gamma irradiation of the bacteria without incubation at 4 deg C before irradiation was more effective than that of the bacteria with incubation overnight at 4 deg C before irradiation in decreasing the D10 values of these bacteria (B. cereus, E. coli O157, and L. monocytogenes). Furthermore, ground beef patties inoculated with bacteria were irradiated with 1 kGy by E-beam (5 MeV) at 4 deg C. The inoculated bacteria in the 1-9 mm beef patties were killed by 1 kGy E-beam irradiation and some bacteria in more than 9 mm beef patties were not killed by the irradiation. (author)

  19. Study of the properties of inverted liquid sugar processed with gamma radiation and electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, Priscilla

    2007-01-01

    Brazil occupies position of prominence in the sugar market and high consumption of this ingredient in the liquid form, in special for the beverages and food industries. The liquid sugar presents advantages in relation to the bulk granulated system such as easiness of the handling and dosage, reduced space for the storage, reduction of the losses, costs and hand of workmanship, improvement of the sanitizing and great possible variation in the ratios of different mixtures of sugars. The inverted liquid sugar is a solution of sucrose, glucose and fructose in water. This ingredient receives this name because during its production it has an inversion of the optic power of rotation of the solution. In the productive process of the inverted sugar some points occur that can generate contamination by microorganisms, so its become important the development of techniques that propitiate the efficient sanitizing of this raw material. This work aims at to consider two alternative techniques of microbiologic control: gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 and radiation with electron beam. The study was lead in the doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy. Concentration of sucrose presented in syrup decreased with the radiation indicating the scission of glycosidic linkage in addition with the glucose and fructose formation, generating the increase in solids soluble. The acid compounds formation occurred, confirmed by the reduction of pH, that it was proportional with the increase of the radiation dose. The biggest doses had provoked change of color in the syrup by the long molecular chain polymers formation. Viscosity in the samples processed by gamma radiation increased in relation to the control, indicating the prevalence of polymerization of molecules, whereas in the radiation with electron beam the polymerization was only observed in the sample that received the dose of 50 kGy, In the sensorial analysis, the judges had pointed significant difference (5%) in the flavor among

  20. Influence of gamma and e-beam irradiation on microhardness of recycled polyolefin-rubber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabaev, B.G.; Gafurov, U.G.; Fainleib, A.M.; Tolstov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The dose dependencies of surface Vickers microhardness (H) for gamma and e-beam irradiated (E=5 MeV) recycled polyethylene-rubber and polypropylene-rubber composites has been investigated. The new techniques for measuring of polymer surface microhardness using decoration of indenter imprint under load lower 100g are developed. The measurements under 50g load shown the microhardness sharp decreasing for e-beam irradiation up to dose 50-150 kGy. The optimal dose D opt for improving of viscoelastic properties at minimal microhardness HV for HDPE-rubber blends-100 kGy and PP-rubber blends-75 kGy are defined. The microhardness change depend on irradiation dose can be explained by concurrence of irradiation stimulated chain cross-linking, oxidation and destruction processes. In our work samples of polyolefin powder were irradiated in air to form peroxide and hydroperoxide groups and heated to form polar groups capable of improving the compatibility with the radiation devulcanized rubber particles. The absolute value of microhardness of polyolefin-rubber composites extremely low for polyolefins and close to microhardness of high elastic rubber. The viscoelastic properties can be explained by new model of formation mixing amorphous interface between semicrystalline polyolefin and devulcanized rubber. The work was supported by EC (STCU Project U3009). (author)

  1. Effect of beam channel plugging on the outcome of gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massager, Nicolas; Nissim, Ouzi; Murata, Noriko; Devriendt, Daniel; Desmedt, Francoise; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Regis, Jean; Levivier, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We studied the influence of using plugs for brainstem protection during gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), with special emphasis on irradiation doses delivered to the trigeminal nerve, pain outcomes, and incidence of trigeminal dysfunction. Methods and Materials: A GKR procedure for TN using an anterior cisternal target and a maximum dose of 90 Gy was performed in 109 patients. For 49 patients, customized beam channel blocking (plugs) were used to reduce the dose delivered to the brainstem. We measured the mean and integrated radiation doses delivered to the trigeminal nerve and the clinical course of patients treated with and without plugs. Results: We found that blocking increases the length of trigeminal nerve exposed to high-dose radiation, resulting in a significantly higher mean dose to the trigeminal nerve. Significantly more of the patients with blocking achieved excellent pain outcomes (84% vs. 62%), but with higher incidences of moderate and bothersome trigeminal nerve dysfunction (37% mild/10% bothersome with plugs vs. 30% mild/2% bothersome without). Conclusions: The use of plugs to protect the brainstem during GKR treatment for TN increases the dose of irradiation delivered to the intracisternal trigeminal nerve root and is associated with an important increase in the incidence of trigeminal nerve dysfunction. Therefore, beam channel blocking should be avoided for 90 Gy-GKR of TN

  2. Prompt gamma-ray analysis using JRR-3M cold and thermal neutron guide beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, C.; Haji Wood, A.K.; Magara, M.; Hoshi, M.; Tachikawa, E.; Sawahata, H.; Ito, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A permanent and stand-alone neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA) system, usable at both cold and thermal neutron beam guides of JRR-3M has been constructed. Neutron flux at the sample positions were 1.4x10 8 and 2.4x10 7 n cm -2 s -1 for the cold and thermal neutrons, respectively. The γ-ray spectrometer is equipped to acquire three modes of spectra simultaneously: single mode, Compton suppression mode and pair mode, in an energy range up to 12 MeV. Owing to the cold neutron guide beam and the low γ-ray background system, analytical sensitivities and detection limits better than those in other PGA systems have been achieved. Analytical sensitivity and detection limit for 73 elements were measured. Boron, Gd, Sm and Cd are the most sensitive elements with detection limits down to 1 to 10 ng. For some elements such as F, Al, V, Eu and Hf, decay γ-rays are more sensitive compared to their respective prompt γ-ray. Analytical sensitivity of several heavy elements through detection of characteristic X-rays was higher than that through the prompt γ-ray detection. Analytical applicability of some sensitive elements such as B, H, Gd and Sm were examined. Isotopic analysis of Ni and Si were also examined. (author)

  3. Design study of a Compton camera for prompts-gamma imaging during ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    Ion beam therapy is an innovative radiotherapy technique using mainly carbon ion and proton irradiations. Its aim is to improve the current treatment modalities. Because of the sharpness of the dose distributions, a control of the dose if possible in real time is highly desirable. A possibility is to detect the prompt gamma rays emitted subsequently to the nuclear fragmentations occurring during the treatment of the patient. In a first time two different Compton cameras (double and single scattering) have been optimised by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The response of the camera to a photon point source with a realistic energy spectrum was studied. Then, the response of the camera to the irradiation of a water phantom by a proton beam was simulated. It was first compared with measurement performed with small-size detectors. Then, using the previous measurements, we evaluated the counting rates expected in clinical conditions. In the current set-up of the camera, these counting rates are pretty high. Pile up and random coincidences will be problematic. Finally we demonstrate that the detection system is capable to detect a longitudinal shift in the Bragg peak of ± 5 mm, even with the current reconstruction algorithm. (author)

  4. Detection of irradiated fresh fruits treated by e-beam or gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Lamy-Freund, Maria Tereza; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Since about 1990, the amount of commercially irradiated food products available worldwide has increased. Commercial irradiation of foods has been allowed in Brazil since 1973 and now more than 20 different food products are approved. Among these products are a number of fresh fruits which may be irradiated for insect disinfestation, to delay ripening and to extend shelf-life. Today, there is a growing interest to apply radiation for the treatment of fruits instead of using fumigation or e.g. vapour-heat treatments, and an increased international trade in irradiated fruits is expected. To ensure free consumer choice, methods to identify irradiated foods are highly desirable. In this work, three detection methods for irradiated fruits have been employed: DNA Comet Assay, the half-embryo test and ESR. Both electron-beam (e-beam) and gamma rays were applied in order to compare the response with these two different kinds of radiation. Fresh fruits such as oranges, lemons, apples, watermelons and tomatoes were irradiated with doses in the range 0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kGy. For analysis, the seeds of the fruits were utilized. Both DNA Comet Assay and the half-embryo test enabled an easy identification of the radiation treatment. However, under our conditions, ESR measurements were not satisfactory

  5. Evaluation of an ionization chamber response at small distances during dosimetry of gamma radiation beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, Luciana C.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lafonso@ipen.br; mppalbu@ipen.br; lcaldas@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The beam dosimetry measurements of a gamma irradiator, utilized for calibration of mainly portable radiation monitors, at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, have been taken between the source-instrument distance of 1 m and 4 m. Due to the source decay and instruments with higher dose rate ranges, calibrations at distances smaller than 1 m are necessary. For this purpose, a 30 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber calibrated against a secondary standard system was utilized. The use of this chamber is appropriate, because it can be totally irradiated. The behavior of this ionization chamber was studied in terms of: repeatability, stability and current leakage, using a {sup 90}Sr+{sup 90}Y source. The repeatability test presented uncertainties lower than {+-}0.5%. Analyzing the stability results, the variation did not exceed {+-}1.0%. The current leakage did not exceed 0.5% of the reference value. The measurements at the irradiator beams were taken at smaller distances than 1 m (in steps of 10 cm). The distance square inverse law was verified for both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co sources; the variations did not exceed {+-}5%, according to the ISO 4037-1 standard. (author)

  6. Evaluation of an ionization chamber response at small distances during dosimetry of gamma radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Luciana C.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2007-01-01

    The beam dosimetry measurements of a gamma irradiator, utilized for calibration of mainly portable radiation monitors, at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, have been taken between the source-instrument distance of 1 m and 4 m. Due to the source decay and instruments with higher dose rate ranges, calibrations at distances smaller than 1 m are necessary. For this purpose, a 30 cm 3 ionization chamber calibrated against a secondary standard system was utilized. The use of this chamber is appropriate, because it can be totally irradiated. The behavior of this ionization chamber was studied in terms of: repeatability, stability and current leakage, using a 90 Sr+ 90 Y source. The repeatability test presented uncertainties lower than ±0.5%. Analyzing the stability results, the variation did not exceed ±1.0%. The current leakage did not exceed 0.5% of the reference value. The measurements at the irradiator beams were taken at smaller distances than 1 m (in steps of 10 cm). The distance square inverse law was verified for both 137 Cs and 60 Co sources; the variations did not exceed ±5%, according to the ISO 4037-1 standard. (author)

  7. Molecular level analyses of mechanical properties of PTFE sterilized by Co-60 γ-ray irradiation for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Matsugaki, Aira; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hirata, Isao; Kato, Koichi; Oda, Takashi; Sato, Mamoru; Okazaki, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Recently, Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation has become markedly popular for the sterilization of biomedical materials, including expanded PTFE. However, its effect on the properties of PTFE has not been thoroughly examined. In this study, changes in the properties of PTFE before and after irradiation were analyzed physicochemically and discussed crystallographically. The tensile breaking strengths of PTFE decreased markedly on irradiation at 1 kGy, and were maintained at almost one fourth of the original value (44.3±2.5 N/mm2) ranging from 5 to 100 kGy. XPS analysis indicated that the atomic concentrations of carbon (C) and fluorine (F) of PTFE were not different among samples irradiated at various dosages. Raman spectra of PTFE showed a slight increase of the absorption peak intensity at 735 cm-1 in an irradiation dosage-dependent manner. X-ray diffraction showed that the crystal size of PTFE (56.7±1.0 nm) became smaller after radiation at 100 kGy (48.5±0.6 nm). These results are consistent with the above results of Raman analysis. It is suggested that the observed changes in the mechanical properties of PTFE may be due to nano-scale C-C bond scission by gamma ray irradiation, and not due to the formation of micro-scale cracks.

  8. Test of Compton camera components for prompt gamma imaging at the ELBE bremsstrahlung beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso-González, F.; Golnik, C.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Kormoll, T.; Rohling, H.; Schöne, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Pausch, G.

    2014-05-01

    In the context of ion beam therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density map, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At OncoRay and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), a Compton camera setup is being developed consisting of two scatter planes: two CdZnTe (CZT) cross strip detectors, and an absorber consisting of one Lu2SiO5 (LSO) block detector. The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT framework. The setup has been tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which is used in this experiment to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons with up to 12.5 MeV energy and a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Their spectrum has similarities with the shape expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical environment, and the flux is also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The charge sharing effect of the CZT detector is studied qualitatively for different energy ranges. The LSO detector pixel discrimination resolution is analyzed and it shows a trend to improve for high energy depositions. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured detector signals, to be used for background suppression, exhibits a time resolution of 3 ns FWHM for the CZT detector and of 2 ns for the LSO detector. A time walk correction and pixel-wise calibration is applied for the LSO detector, whose resolution improves up to 630 ps. In conclusion, the detector setup is suitable for time-resolved background suppression in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the quantitative comparison with simulations and the test of imaging algorithms. Experiments at proton

  9. Test of Compton camera components for prompt gamma imaging at the ELBE bremsstrahlung beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso-González, F; Golnik, C; Berthel, M; Dreyer, A; Enghardt, W; Kormoll, T; Rohling, H; Pausch, G; Fiedler, F; Heidel, K; Schöne, S; Schwengner, R; Wagner, A

    2014-01-01

    In the context of ion beam therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density map, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At OncoRay and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), a Compton camera setup is being developed consisting of two scatter planes: two CdZnTe (CZT) cross strip detectors, and an absorber consisting of one Lu 2 SiO 5 (LSO) block detector. The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT framework. The setup has been tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which is used in this experiment to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons with up to 12.5 MeV energy and a repetition rate of 13 MHz. Their spectrum has similarities with the shape expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical environment, and the flux is also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The charge sharing effect of the CZT detector is studied qualitatively for different energy ranges. The LSO detector pixel discrimination resolution is analyzed and it shows a trend to improve for high energy depositions. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured detector signals, to be used for background suppression, exhibits a time resolution of 3 ns FWHM for the CZT detector and of 2 ns for the LSO detector. A time walk correction and pixel-wise calibration is applied for the LSO detector, whose resolution improves up to 630 ps. In conclusion, the detector setup is suitable for time-resolved background suppression in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the quantitative comparison with simulations and the test of imaging algorithms. Experiments at proton

  10. Performance analysis of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for WDM-based systems for Gamma-Gamma distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2017-03-02

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme (TPMBS) for Free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred for practical consideration over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gamma-Gamma fading conditions. Specifically, we statistically analyze the characteristics in operation under conventional heterodyne detection (HD) scheme for both adaptive modulation (AM) case in addition to non-AM case (i.e., coherentnon-coherent binary modulation). Then, based on the statistically derived results, we evaluate the outage probability (CDF) of a selected beam, the average spectral efficiency (ASE), the average number of selected beams (ANSB), and the average bit error rate (BER). Some selected results shows that we can obtain the higher spectral efficiency and simultaneously reduce the potential increasing of the complexity of implementation caused by applying the selection based beam selection scheme without a considerable performance loss.

  11. Co-60 and Ca-45 autoradiography in cerebral ischemia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, H; Krop-van Gastel, W; Korf, J

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotopes of divalent Co (Co-57 in Single photon emission tomography (SPECT)and Co-55 in positron emission tomography (PET) have clinically been applied to visualize Ca related brain damage. The cerebral uptake of Ca-45 and Co-60 in a unilateral stroke model in the rat was compared; 100 mu Ci

  12. Soil-plant transfer factors of Co-60 for alfalfa lettuce and spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, Radu Octavian

    1997-01-01

    The transfer of Co-60 from soil into plants is a less studied problem. Soil-plant transfer factors for Co-60 known from literature vary by about four orders of magnitude for each kind of plants. We have calculated the average values and have determined the field of variability of the known transfer factors. These indicated us that alfalfa, lettuce and spinach have in this order the greatest absorption capacity of Co-60 from soil. We have determined the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the utilized soil. This is a brown reddish forest type soil. The plants have been cultivated in pots by plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. The results of our measurements of soil-to-plant transfer factors of 60-Co are the followings: 0.0612 ± 0.0047 for alfalfa, 0.0960 ± 0.0072 for lettuce and 0.1446 ± 0.0107 for spinach. These values prove the strong dependence of the type of soil and plant of the soil-plant transfer factors for Co-60. (author)

  13. Final product analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of aqueous solutions of metoprolol tartrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slegers, Catherine [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: catherine.slegers@cham.ucl.ac.be; Tilquin, Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    The radiostability of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions and the influence of the absorbed dose (0-50 kGy), dose rate (e-beam (EB) vs. gamma ({gamma})) and radioprotectors (pharmaceutical excipients) are investigated by HPLC-UV analyses and through computer simulations. The use of radioprotecting excipients is more promising than an increase in the dose rate to lower the degradation of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions for applications such as radiosterilization. The decontamination of metoprolol tartrate from waste waters by EB processing appears highly feasible.

  14. Process for hardening an alkyd resin composition using ionizing radiation. [electron beams, gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T; Murata, K; Maruyama, T

    1969-11-27

    In an alkyd resin composition having free hydroxide radicals and containing a conjugated unsaturated fatty acid and/or oil as a component thereof, a process for hardening an alkyd resin composition comprises the steps of dissolving into a vinyl monomer, the product obtained by the semi-esterification reaction of said hydroxide radicals with acid anhydrides having polymerizable radicals and hardening by ionizing radiation to provide a coating with a high degree of cross-linking, with favorable properties such as toughness, hardness, chemical resistance and resistance to weather and with the feasibility of being applied as the ground and finish coat on metals, wood, paper, outdoor construction or the like. Any kind of ionization radiation, particularly accelerated electron beams, ..gamma.. radiation can be used at 50/sup 0/C to -5/sup 0/C for a few seconds or minutes, permitting continuous operation. In one example, 384 parts of phthalic anhydride, 115 parts of pentaerythritol, 233 parts of trimethylol ethane, 288 parts of tung fatty acid and 49 parts of para-tertiary-butyl benzoic acid are mixed and heated with 60 parts of xylene to an acid value of 12. In addition, 271 parts of maleic anhydride and 0.6 parts of hydroquinone are admixed with the content and heated to terminate the reaction. 100 parts of a 50% stylene solution of this alkyd resin are mixed with 1 part of a 60% toluene solution of cobalt naphthenate, and then coated on a glass plate and irradiated with high energy electron beams of 300 kV with a dose of 5 Mrad for 1 sec.

  15. {gamma}-spectroscopy and radioactive beams: search for highly deformed exotic nuclei; Detection {gamma} et faisceaux radioactifs: recherche de noyaux exotiques tres deformes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosse, B

    2006-07-15

    This work is devoted to the search for highly deformed nuclei under extreme conditions of isospin, located near the proton drip-line, around A {approx} 130. The experiment was performed at GANIL (Caen) with the SPIRAL radioactive beam facility. The nuclei of interest were produced by fusion-evaporation reactions induced by the neutron deficient Kr{sup 76} radioactive beam (T1/2 = 14.8 h). {gamma}-rays were detected by the EXOGAM array, composed of 11 segmented germanium clover detectors, for which a new segment calibration method has been developed. To extract fusion-evaporation events of a overwhelming background due to the radioactivity of the beam, the EXOGAM array was coupled with the light charged particle detector DIAMANT and the high acceptance VAMOS spectrometer. The latter was used for the first time to detect fusion-evaporation residues. The detailed data analysis allowed us to demonstrate that the EXOGAM + DIAMANT + VAMOS coupling is operational and essential to investigate the structure of these nuclei. Furthermore, the first {gamma} transition was observed in the very exotic odd-odd Pm{sup 130} nucleus. The results have been interpreted with static and dynamic self-consistent microscopic calculations in collaboration with the Theoretical Physicists of the IPN Lyon. (author)

  16. How gamma-rays and electron-beam irradiation would affect the antimicrobial activity of differently processed wild mushroom extracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M J; Fernandes, Â; Barreira, J C M; Lourenço, I; Fernandes, D; Moura, A; Ribeiro, A R; Salgado, J; Antonio, A; Ferreira, I C F R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of irradiation (gamma-rays and electron-beams), up to 10 kGy, in the antimicrobial activity of mushroom species (Boletus edulis, Hydnum repandum, Macrolepiota procera and Russula delica) differently processed (fresh, dried, freeze) were evaluated. Clinical isolates with different resistance profiles from hospitalized patients in Local Health Unit of Mirandela, Northeast of Portugal, were used as target micro-organisms. The mushrooms antimicrobial activity did not suffer significant changes that might compromise applying irradiation as a possible mushroom conservation technology. Two kGy dose (independently of using gamma-rays or electron-beams) seemed to be the most suitable choice to irradiate mushrooms. This study provides important results in antimicrobial activity of extracts prepared from irradiated mushroom species. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  18. Genetic effects of gamma ray and ion beam irradiation on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Muneharu; Sakata, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Fumio; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Shimizu, Keiichi; Ishiguro, Etsuji

    2003-01-01

    This study was aimed to clarify the optimum conditions to induce a mutation in Setaria italica (L.) using gamma irradiation and selection of S.italica mutants as to agricultural phenotype was conducted. Ten kinds of rice species assigned into temperate Japan type, tropical Japan type and India type were used as the subjects for investigation of differences in sensitivity to ion-beam among species. In addition, the optimum dose to induce a gene mutation in BY-2 cell was determined. In either test groups, the number of subjects that reached the ear formation was 2/3 of inoculated number in either test groups. Since there was no correlation between the number of subjects leading to ear formation and radiation dose, a dose less than 100 Gy was thought to have no lethal effects on young seedlings on the day 2 after germination. It was indicated that growing damages such as lowering of ear length and fertility did not affect production of S.italica and rice mutants. The incidence of xantha mutation was high in S. italica, but it was 1/5 -1/10 of that of albino mutant in the rice, indicating that such differences in mutation rate might be due to the differences of the number of related genes, but not the high rate of mutation per gene. (M.N.)

  19. Identification of in-beam gamma rays in {sup 181}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Penttila, H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The interest in studying the neutron-deficient Hg isotopes stems from the fact that they are located in a region of the nuclear landscape where shape changes occur and where very large deformations were predicted. More specifically, the investigation of odd-A nuclei enables one to identify the orbitals located in the vicinity of the Fermi surface which play a crucial role in determining global properties such as nuclear shapes. Prior to this experiment, the {sup 183}Hg nucleus studied by this collaboration was the lightest odd-A Hg isotope known. From a recent experiment performed at the FMA in conjunction with 10 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors from the Argonne Notre Dame gamma-ray facility, it was possible to identify transitions in {sup 181}Hg following the {sup 144}Sm({sup 40}Ar,3n) reaction at a beam energy of 175 MeV. A level scheme was constructed and the transitions were regrouped into three rotational bands. One of these is proposed to be built on the [521]1/2{sup -} groundstate and the two others are interpreted as signature partner bands built on the [624]9/2{sup +} configuration. The statistics in this experiments were not sufficient to obtain multipolarity information and an additional measurement was proposed.

  20. Disinfection of sewage sludge by gamma radiation, electron beams and alternative methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessel, T.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage sludges generally contain high concentrations of pathogens, even after digestion or other conventional treatments for stabilization. Disinfection can be effected by irradiation (e.g. gamma or electron beam), by heat treatment (pasteurization or thermophilic stabilization), and by changing the pH (lime treatment). Irradiation is a simple and reliable process for disinfection with special advantages and favorable side-effects. Irradiation can be combined with oxygenation, heat or other treatments, with favorable synergistic effects. The total costs for the irradiation treatment of sewage sludges are comparable to those of alternative disinfection methods. Most of the worldwide practical experience has been obtained at the sewage-sludge irradiation plant in Geiselbullach (10 km west of Munich, Germany), which was continuously in operation from 1973 to 1993. A multidisciplinary research programme was conducted during the first 8 years. In subsequent years, the plant was operated commercially for sewage-sludge disinfection, without public funds. Other demonstration or research plants for sewage-sludge irradiation have been reported in the USA, India, Russia, Japan, Austria, Germany and Hungary. (author)

  1. MoonBEAM: A Beyond Earth-Orbit Gamma-Ray Burst Detector for Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C. M.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A. M.; Jenke, P. A.; Kocevski, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Moon Burst Energetics All-sky Monitor (MoonBEAM) is a CubeSat concept of deploying gamma-ray detectors in cislunar space to improve localization precision for gamma-ray bursts by utilizing the light travel time difference between different orbits. We present here a gamma-ray SmallSat concept in Earth-Moon L3 halo orbit that is capable of rapid response and provide a timing baseline for localization improvement when partnered with an Earth-orbit instrument. Such an instrument would probe the extreme processes in cosmic collision of compact objects and facilitate multi-messenger time-domain astronomy to explore the end of stellar life cycles and black hole formations.

  2. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies eval...

  3. Tests for removal of Co-60 and Eu-154 from irradiated graphite in the TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsene, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The irradiated graphite in Romania is mainly generated in the thermal columns of TRIGA and WWER-S research reactors (about 9 tones). It was found that the radionuclide content of the graphite irradiated in the TRIGA research reactor is mainly due to C-14 (103 Bq/g), Eu-152 (600-700 Bq/g) and Co-60 (130-150 Bq/g) and low amounts of Eu-154 and Cs-137, depending on location in the thermal column and on irradiation history. In order to minimize the waste inventory and volume in view of their final disposal, in the present paper we show the results of experiments performed for developing and optimizing methods for the chemical decontamination of the irradiated graphite. These procedures are based on strong alkaline solutions for Eu-152 and strong acid solutions for Co-60. The influence of the process parameters on the decontamination factor is investigated. (authors)

  4. Effect of Rain Acidity Upon Mobility of Cs-134 and Co-60 in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangchuay, S.; Harvey, N.W.; Sriyotha, P.

    1998-01-01

    This research was aimed to study the effects of groundwater and acid rain upon the mobility of radionuclides (Cs-134 and Co-60) in contaminated top soil. Clay soil was homogeneously packed in columns with dimension φ.12.5 cm. * 50 cm.. At the top 5 cm. of the columns, soil contaminated with radionuclides was added with the same consistency. Column were kept standing for 4 months in an artificial water table kept at 3 cm. from the bottom. During this period artificial acid rain with pH3, 4.5 and 6 was applied weekly at the top. Soil samples were taken every 30 days for examination of total and extracable radioactivity. It was shown that with the aide of the rain radionuclide movement down the profile was greater, with Co-60 > Cs-134. However acidity of the rain shown no effect on their movement

  5. Absorbed dose modeled for a liquid circulating around a Co-60 irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangussi, J.

    2013-01-01

    A model for the distribution of the absorbed dose in a volume of liquid circulating into an active tank containing a Co-60 irradiator is presented. The absorbed dose, the stir process and the liquid recirculation into the active tank are modeled. The absorbed dose for different fractions of the volume is calculated. The necessary irradiation times for the achievement of the required absorbed dose are evaluated. (author)

  6. 東海研究所Co-60照射室25年史

    OpenAIRE

    長山 尚; 大久保 隆; 出井 数彦; 辻村 重男

    1984-01-01

    東海研究所・Co-60照射室は昭和33年に完成以来今日に至るまで、所内外の多様なガンマ線照射要求に応え、幅広い照射サービスを実施して来た。この間、建屋、設備の改造修理が数多く行われ、またCo-60線源も数回補充増強された。本報告は、(1)ケーブの遮断の補強、放射線遮断窓の保守交換、線源貯蔵孔の変更など、ケーブ関係設備の保守改造、(2)線源の仕様、組立作業、(3)主要実験装置の概略、(4)建屋増改築、(5)所内外利用者の研究テーマ、試験テーマの推移、について述べたもので、Co-60照射室の25年間に至る活動の記録である。...

  7. LC-MS analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of metoprolol tartrate in aqueous solution: Structure elucidation and formation mechanism of radiolytic products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slegers, Catherine [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: catherine.slegers@skynet.be; Maquille, Aubert [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium); Deridder, Veronique [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium); Sonveaux, Etienne [Unite de Chimie Pharmaceutique et de Radiopharmacie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Tilquin, Bernard [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    E-beam and gamma products from the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ({+-})-metoprolol tartrate, saturated in nitrogen, are analyzed by HPLC with on-line mass and UV detectors. The structures of 10 radiolytic products common to e-beam and gamma irradiations are elucidated by comparing their fragmentation pattern to that of ({+-})-metoprolol. Two of the radiolytic products are also metabolites. Different routes for the formation of the radiolytic products are proposed.

  8. LC-MS analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of metoprolol tartrate in aqueous solution: Structure elucidation and formation mechanism of radiolytic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slegers, Catherine; Maquille, Aubert; Deridder, Veronique; Sonveaux, Etienne; Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Tilquin, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    E-beam and gamma products from the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of (±)-metoprolol tartrate, saturated in nitrogen, are analyzed by HPLC with on-line mass and UV detectors. The structures of 10 radiolytic products common to e-beam and gamma irradiations are elucidated by comparing their fragmentation pattern to that of (±)-metoprolol. Two of the radiolytic products are also metabolites. Different routes for the formation of the radiolytic products are proposed

  9. The HYLOCOMIUM SPLENDENS use for research of Ignalina NPP vicinity contamination by Cs 137 and Co 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiponas, D.; Marchiulenene, D.

    2002-01-01

    The superficial distribution of Cs 137 and Co 60 and specific activity of these radionuclides in Hylocomium splendens in Ignalina NPP vicinity was investigated. The increase of Cs 137 and Co 60 specific activity in Hylocomium splendens was linked with increasing of these radionuclides activity in atmospheric deposits

  10. Gamma ray tracking with the AGATA demonstrator. A novel approach for in-beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkenbach, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) employs the novel method of γ-ray tracking (GRT), where all locations of energy depositions within the Ge crystal detector volume are used by computer algorithms to reconstruct the various simultaneous interactions of the measured radiation. The interaction positions are determined by Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) algorithms that compare the measured and digitized signals with the information of a signal database comprising position dependent calculated sets of detector signals. The result of a detailed comparison between measured and calculated signals yields the position of each interaction point. The GRT algorithms rely on this precise position of the deposited energy as an input to reconstruct the initial γ-rays from the full sequence of the different interactions in the detector. Within this thesis a computer program library was developed, providing software routines to calculate the position dependent detector signals of the highly segmented HPGe detectors. The currently used signal databases of all AGATA detectors were generated by this software package and computer library. Part of the computing is based on individual detector properties which were deduced from detailed characterisation measurements. Details of the library, the used routines and the needed characteristics of the detector system are described, this includes a precise measurement of the crystal axis orientation of the AGATA HPGe crystals. The second part of this thesis is dealing with the analysis of one of the first in-beam experiments performed with the AGATA demonstrator setup at the LNL in Italy. The experiment aimed for a spectroscopic investigation of neutron rich actinides from Thorium to Plutonium produced after multi-nucleon transfer reactions. For this purpose a 136 Xe beam with an energy of 1 GeV bombarded onto a 238 U target. The fast beam like particles after the transfer reactions were identified by the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA. The

  11. Tumor induction in mice after local irradiation with single doses of either carbon-ion beams or gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Ando, Yutaka; Kobashi, Gen

    2014-12-01

    To determine the dose-dependent relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for tumor prevalence in mice receiving single localized doses to their right leg of either carbon ions (15, 45 or 75 keV/μm) or 137Cs gamma rays. A total of 1647 female C3H mice were irradiated to their hind legs with a localized dose of either reference gamma rays or 15, 45 or 75 keV/μm carbon-ion beams. Irradiated mice were evaluated for tumors twice a month during their three-year life span, and the dimensions of any tumors found were measured with a caliper. The tumor induction frequency was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The incidence of tumors from 50 Gy of 45 keV/μm carbon ions was marginally higher than those from 50 Gy of gamma rays. However, 60 Gy of 15 keV/μm carbon ions induced significantly fewer tumors than did gamma rays. RBE values of 0.87 + 0.12, 1.29 + 0.08 or 2.06 + 0.39 for lifetime tumorigenesis were calculated for 15, 45 or 75 keV/μm carbon-ion beams, respectively. Fibrosarcoma predominated, with no Linear Energy Transfer (LET)-dependent differences in the tumor histology. Experiments measuring the late effect of leg skin shrinkage suggested that the carcinogenic damage of 15 keV/μm carbon ions would be less than that of gamma rays. We conclude that patients receiving radiation doses to their normal tissues would face less risk of secondary tumor induction by carbon ions of intermediate LET values compared to equivalent doses of photons.

  12. Beam-helicity associated electroproduction of real photons ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}N in the {Delta}-resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Argentina); Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    The beam-helicity asymmetry in associated electroproduction of real photons, ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}N, in the {Delta}(1232)-resonance region is measured using the longitudinally polarized HERA positron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target. Azimuthal Fourier amplitudes of this asymmetry are extracted separately for two channels, ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}{sup 0}p and ep {yields} e{gamma}{pi}{sup +}n, from a data set collected with a recoil detector. All asymmetry amplitudes are found to be consistent with zero.

  13. Dose mapping using MCNP code and experiment for SVST-Co-60/B irradiator in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Hung; Tran, Khac An

    2010-06-01

    By using MCNP code and ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB) dosimeters the simulations and measurements of absorbed dose distribution in a tote-box of the Cobalt-60 irradiator, SVST-Co60/B at VINAGAMMA have been done. Based on the results Dose Uniformity Ratios (DUR), positions and values of minimum and maximum dose extremes in a tote-box, and efficiency of the irradiator for the different dummy densities have been gained. There is a good agreement between simulation and experimental results in comparison and they have valuable meanings for operation of the irradiator. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A gonadal shield with appropriate wall thicknesses for Co-60-teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, J.

    1982-01-01

    A gonadal shield for men has been designed especially for use in Co-60-teletherapy of ventral fields in supine position. It has been made by simple means in the clinical workshop. The thickness of the top, sides, and botton are equal to about 3 half value layers for scattered radiation incident in the respective directions. Radiation dose rate to the testicles during irradiation of a large abdominal field ('inverted Y') was measured in a phantom and was found to be 7.1% of tumour dose rate without shield and 0.9% with gonadal shield. (orig.) [de

  15. Suppressing effects of glucan on micronuclei induced by Co60 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorvatovicova, D.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of glucan on the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of A/Ph mouse bone marrow induced by Co 60 irradiation were examined. Suppressing effect of three glucan derivatives was statistically significant (P 3 substituent (DS 0.89). Intraperitoneal application of glucan has to be done earlier than one hour after irradiation. The suppressive effects of glucans can be explained by their ability to trap OH radicals and so decrease the clastogenic effect of irradiation. The results may be useful for therapeutic application of glucan with radiation therapy. (orig.) [de

  16. Monte Carlo based demonstration of sufficiently dimensioned shielding for a Co-60 testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, Michael; Beck, Peter; Latocha, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The electrical properties of electronic equipment can be changed in an ionized radiation field. The knowledge of these changes is necessary for applications in space, in air traffic and nuclear medicine. Experimental tests will be performed in Co-60 radiation fields in the irradiation facility (TEC facility) of the Seibersdorf Labor GmbH that is in construction. The contribution deals with a simulation that is aimed to calculate the local dose rate within and outside the building for demonstration of sufficient dimensioning of the shielding in compliance with the legal dose rate limits.

  17. Effect of Co60 irradiation on capillary changes in the rat periosteum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    There exist considerable literatures on the vascular changes by tolerance dose or over tolerance dose irradiation, but little work has been done to study the effect of under tolerance dose irradiation on capillary changes. The purpose of this study was to observe capillary changes in the periosteum of rats after Co 60 irradiation. The vascularity of the periosteum was observed with vascular resin casts and scanning electron microscope at 3 days to 30 weeks after the heads were exposed to 10 Gy or 20 Gy of Co 60 γ ray. The results were as follows: In rats irradiated with 10 Gy, leakage of resin from the fine blood vessels was observed at 3 weeks. Decrease in the diameter of small blood vessels and decrease of capillary networks were observed at 5 weeks. These changes improved at 7 weeks. In rats irradiated with 20 Gy, leakage of resin and decrease in the diameter of the small blood vessels were observed at 2 weeks. The number of small blood vessels was decreased at 4 weeks. These changes improved at 7 weeks. (author) 60 refs

  18. IPN's of Acrylic Acid and N-Isopropylacrylamide by Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burillo, G.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, temperature and pH sensitive hydrogels have been investigated widely because of their unique properties and versatile applications in medicine and biotechnology, as well as drug delivery. However a serious limitation of hydrogels in many applications is the low mechanical strength of such gels when highly swollen. To overcome this problem, sensitive hydrogels were prepared with satisfactory mechanical properties as a semi-interpenetranting network, where one of them is a mechanically stable polymer. In this work temperature sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and a pH sensitive monomer, acrylic acid (AAc) were prepared as an interpenetranting network by a sequential method. Poly (AAc) hydrogels were prepared in glass tubes 3 mm inner diameter, at room temperature from an aqueous solutions 50%vol under argon atmosphere, and irradiated with a Co 6 0 gamma source, at doses from 5 to 30 kGy and dose rate of 3 kGy/h. Poly (AAc) hydrogels were also prepared by electron beam irradiation with a Van de Graaff at a dose rate of 19.4 kGy/min, and radiation doses from 10 to 30 kGy. After polymerization and crosslinking, the gels were washed in water during 48 h, and dried in vacuo to constant weight. Poly (NIPAAm) as secondary gel was synthetized directly within the primary gels in aqueous solution with the croslinker N, N' methylenebisacrylamide (BIS), the accelerator N,N,N , N tetramethyl ethylenediamidne TMEDA, and potasium persulfate as initiator. Equilibrium swelling properties of hydrogels were studied in pH 2.2-8 range and temperature 10-45degree; LCST and pH critic point of the IPN's were determined; the composition of the interpenetrating network was measured by elemental analysis, and the morphological structure characterized by SEM. The volume of the cells of PAAC hydrogels decreased with increase in radiation dose, their mechanic hardness increased and they lost elasticity. The interpenetrating networks of samples with PAAc irradiated

  19. Overview of in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy at the RIBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doornenbal, Pieter [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-07-07

    At the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory stable primary beams are accelerated up to 345 MeV/u and incident on a primary target to produce cocktail secondary beams with the fragment separator BigRIPS ranging from the lightest nuclei up to the lead region. For in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy, the secondary beams impinge on a reaction target at energies between 100 and 300 MeV/u. Reaction residues are identified with the ZeroDegree spectrometer and γ-rays detected with the NaI(Tl) based DALI2 array. This conference paper outlines the experimental setup and presents recent exemplary results.

  20. Radiative corrections to the beam spin asymmetry in photon electroproduction e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonvieille, H.; Bensafa, I. [LPC-Clermont-Fd, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63170 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-11-15

    We have measured at MAMI the beam single spin asymmetry (SSA) in exclusive photon electroproduction (e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma}) with a longitudinally polarized beam, in the region of the {delta}(1232) resonance. In this document the value of the radiative correction to this asymmetry is obtained for our kinematics. Although the correction is expected to be very small and negligible, its value is needed as a confirmation and for the purpose of systematic error estimate. The parameter of kinematics are given as follows: four-momentum transfer of the virtual photon, Q{sup 2} = 0.35 GeV{sup 2}; total energy in the ({gamma}p) center of mass, W=1.190 GeV; polarization of the virtual photon, {epsilon}=0.48; azimuthal angle (lepton-hadron planes), {phi} = 220 angle; polar angle of Compton scattering in center of mass, {theta}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}} in [0 angle, 40 angle]; incoming electron beam energy, E{sub e} = 0.88 GeV; scattered electron energy, E{sub 0}' = 0.40 GeV; polar angle of scattered electron {theta}{sub e} = 59.9 angle. The radiative correction is calculated by the radcorr code written by M. Vanderhaeghen, in a version adapted to beam spin asymmetries.In practice, the conclusions are twofold: - the asymmetry that was measured in the VCS channel does not need to be corrected for radiative effects, given the large statistical error bar attached to the experimental values (an asymmetry of 1-10 % with a statistical error bar of 3-4 %); - a systematic error {delta}SSA{sub syst} on the asymmetry will be considered, related to uncertainties in the calculation of the radiative correction (at least two of them have been mentioned here: the cross section model and the soft photon limit). To estimate this error a 100 % variation of the radiative correction was assumed. For the radiative correction itself the maximal value found was taken. Therefore one can take: {delta}SSA{sub syst} = {+-}2.7 x 10{sup -3}.

  1. Gamma-H2AX foci in cells exposed to a mixed beam of X-rays and alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the cellular effects of exposure to mixed beams of high and low linear energy transfer radiation. So far, the effects of combined exposures have mainly been assessed with clonogenic survival or cytogenetic methods, and the results are contradictory. The gamma-H2AX assay has up to now not been applied in this context, and it is a promising tool for investigating the early cellular response to mixed beam irradiation. Purpose To determine the dose response and repair kinetics of gamma-H2AX ionizing radiation-induced foci in VH10 human fibroblasts exposed to mixed beams of 241Am alpha particles and X-rays. Results VH10 human fibroblasts were irradiated with each radiation type individually or both in combination at 37°C. Foci were scored for repair kinetics 0.5, 1, 3 and 24 h after irradiation (one dose per irradiation type), and for dose response at the 1 h time point. The dose response effect of mixed beam was additive, and the relative biological effectiveness for alpha particles (as compared to X-rays) was of 0.76 ± 0.52 for the total number of foci, and 2.54 ± 1.11 for large foci. The repair kinetics for total number of foci in cells exposed to mixed beam irradiation was intermediate to that of cells exposed to alpha particles and X-rays. However, for mixed beam-irradiated cells the frequency and area of large foci were initially lower than predicted and increased during the first 3 hours of repair (while the predicted number and area did not). Conclusions The repair kinetics of large foci after mixed beam exposure was significantly different from predicted based on the effect of the single dose components. The formation of large foci was delayed and they did not reach their maximum area until 1 h after irradiation. We hypothesize that the presence of low X-ray-induced damage engages the DNA repair machinery leading to a delayed DNA damage response to the more complex DNA damage induced by alpha particles. PMID:23121736

  2. Walking beam furnace provided with an apparatus for detecting the position of a material by the use of gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, F

    1970-05-27

    A material fed to the vicinity of an extraction port of a walking beam furnace is extracted by the arm of an extractor which is disposed outside the furnace and inserted into the furnace such that the material is placed on the arm. In order that the position of the material in the furnace immediately before the extraction may assume its predetermined condition, it is necessary to measure the material position with the detecting apparatus and to conduct precise positioning. Modulated light has been generally utilized for the measurement. In the prior art, the light is prone to be intercepted by atomized oil or on account of the incomplete combustion of fuel gas, and detector malfunctions often occur. This invention utilizes gamma rays, and measures the material position on the basis of the product between the density and thickness of the object to be detected. When the gamma rays are directed from the ceiling of the furnace perpendicularly towards the hearth, it is difficult to distinguish the material from scale which exfoliates from the material and which deposits on the hearth. When the gamma rays are directed horizontally from the side wall of the furnace, the accurate position of the material cannot be detected when the material is conveyed in the furnace in an inclined state. According to this invention, therefore, a gamma ray source is provided near the end of the ceiling wall of the furnace in the direction of the width, while a detector is provided near the lowermost part of the opposite side wall, so that the gamma rays are directed obliquely across the path of the material.

  3. Evaluation of the Kerma at the entrance of the labyrin thin in facilities with Co-60 HDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujades, M. C.; Granero, D.; Ballester, F.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Vijande, J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the kerma's collision at the entrance of the labyrinth adapting the methodology of the NCRP-151 to a bunker of brachytherapy with Co-60, similar to the one carried out in a previous work with HDR Ir-192. To validate the result is simulated using techniques Monte Carlo (MC) two typical designs of HDR with Co-60 bunker. (Author)

  4. Measurement of characteristic prompt gamma rays emitted from oxygen and carbon in tissue-equivalent samples during proton beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polf, Jerimy C; Panthi, Rajesh; Mackin, Dennis S; McCleskey, Matt; Saastamoinen, Antti; Roeder, Brian T; Beddar, Sam

    2013-09-07

    The purpose of this work was to characterize how prompt gamma (PG) emission from tissue changes as a function of carbon and oxygen concentration, and to assess the feasibility of determining elemental concentration in tissues irradiated with proton beams. For this study, four tissue-equivalent water-sucrose samples with differing densities and concentrations of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen were irradiated with a 48 MeV proton pencil beam. The PG spectrum emitted from each sample was measured using a high-purity germanium detector, and the absolute detection efficiency of the detector, average beam current, and delivered dose distribution were also measured. Changes to the total PG emission from (12)C (4.44 MeV) and (16)O (6.13 MeV) per incident proton and per Gray of absorbed dose were characterized as a function of carbon and oxygen concentration in the sample. The intensity of the 4.44 MeV PG emission per incident proton was found to be nearly constant for all samples regardless of their carbon concentration. However, we found that the 6.13 MeV PG emission increased linearly with the total amount (in grams) of oxygen irradiated in the sample. From the measured PG data, we determined that 1.64 × 10(7) oxygen PGs were emitted per gram of oxygen irradiated per Gray of absorbed dose delivered with a 48 MeV proton beam. These results indicate that the 6.13 MeV PG emission from (16)O is proportional to the concentration of oxygen in tissue irradiated with proton beams, showing that it is possible to determine the concentration of oxygen within tissues irradiated with proton beams by measuring (16)O PG emission.

  5. Preliminary design of betavoltaic battery using Co-60 and Pm-147 with GaAs substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waris, A., E-mail: awaris@fi.itb.ac.id; Basar, K. [Nuclear Physics & Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusumawati, Y.; Alfarobi, A. S.; Aji, I. K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Battery is very important for the present daily life, especially for portable devices. The longer utilization time the better performance of battery. Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts energy from beta decays of radioactive nuclide into electric current. One of merits of the later battery is the life time that can be more than ten years without recharging. To develop the betavoltaic battery for energy source of portable devices we have performed a preliminary simulation design of betavoltaic battery using Pm-147 and Co-60 a beta emitter radionuclides with n-GaAs substrate. From the results we found that the combination of Pm-147 with n-GaAs substrate results in 9.0% of efficiency and higher output current compared to references.

  6. Preliminary design of betavoltaic battery using Co-60 and Pm-147 with GaAs substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, A.; Basar, K.; Kusumawati, Y.; Alfarobi, A. S.; Aji, I. K.

    2016-01-01

    Battery is very important for the present daily life, especially for portable devices. The longer utilization time the better performance of battery. Betavoltaic battery is a device that converts energy from beta decays of radioactive nuclide into electric current. One of merits of the later battery is the life time that can be more than ten years without recharging. To develop the betavoltaic battery for energy source of portable devices we have performed a preliminary simulation design of betavoltaic battery using Pm-147 and Co-60 a beta emitter radionuclides with n-GaAs substrate. From the results we found that the combination of Pm-147 with n-GaAs substrate results in 9.0% of efficiency and higher output current compared to references.

  7. Assessment Of Co60 Industrial Irradiators According To Basic Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Mohamed El Refaie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring safe and easy operation providing relative uniform dose in the product and maximizing radiation utilization are the basic design principles for each Co60 industrial irradiator to maintain radiation safety. The study shows an assessment for four industrial irradiators to determine which active results were been maintained by using basic design principles. Different designs elements of the chosen irradiators have been illustrated and studied. The study shows that IRASM and ROBO industrial irradiators satisfy all basic design principles. IAEA-NR3772 irradiator maintains only two of the three basic design principles due to rotating door. Brevion irradiator satisfies only the principle of relative uniform radiation dose in product. Without affecting radiation safety this study proposes a new design of the irradiator to maximize energy utilization by adding a new track for low density products and also a static irradiation for cultural heritage beside the main track of high density products.

  8. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Gyunggi-do 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Jun-Sang [Animal Products Processing Division, National Livestock Research Institute, RDA, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keehyuk [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejeon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang-Do [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Ansung, Gyunggi-do 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun, E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.k [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10{sup 1} CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D{sub 10} values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  9. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ham, Jun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Keehyuk; Ha, Sang-Do; Jo, Cheorun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10 1 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D 10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  10. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ham, Jun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Keehyuk; Ha, Sang-Do; Jo, Cheorun

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation of the food-borne pathogens ( Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) in sliced and pizza cheeses commercially available in the Korean market. Total aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold in the cheeses ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 Log CFU/g. Irradiation of 1 kGy for sliced cheese and 3 kGy for pizza cheese were sufficient to lower the total aerobic bacteria to undetectable levels (10 1 CFU/g). Pathogen inoculation test revealed that gamma irradiation was more effective than electron beam irradiation at the same absorbed dose, and the ranges of the D 10 values were from 0.84 to 0.93 kGy for L. monocytogenes and from 0.60 to 0.63 kGy for S. aureus. Results suggest that a low dose irradiation can improve significantly the microbial quality and reduce the risk of contamination of sliced and pizza cheeses by the food-borne pathogens which can potentially occur during processing.

  11. Effects of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on reduction of microbial load and antioxidant properties of Chum-Hed-Thet (Cassia alata (L.) Roxb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakhongsil, P.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.; Chookaew, S.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the growing demands of herbal medicines, Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. has been reported to have various phytochemical activities. It has also been called in Thai as Chum-Hed-Thet. In this study, C. alata (L.) Roxb. powder were exposed to gamma and electron beam irradiation at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. At the dose of 10 kGy, both of gamma and electron beam irradiation were sufficient in reducing microbial load of irradiated samples as specified in Thai pharmacopoeia (2005). These include the total aerobic microbial count of bacteria of 0.05). Therefore, both of radiation by gamma ray or electron beam at 10 kGy was sufficient in elimination of microbial flora and did not significantly affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of C. alata (L.) Roxb.

  12. In vitro study of dose rate effect on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastykova, V.; Novotny, J. jr.; Vachelova, J.; Davidkova, M.; Liscak, R.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of the study is to evaluate the radiobiological effect of the dose rate changes in Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) clinical conditions. In principle there are two reasons why dose rate on LGK is reduced during patient irradiation: 1) Co-60 sources decay with a half-life of 5.26 years and 2) using multiple iso-centers and conformal treatment plans (e.g. with blocked beams). This pilot study is an experimental work performed in vitro with medulloblastoma DAOY cells. Are there effects caused by low dose rate which could negatively influence the clinical outcome of the radiosurgery? (authors)

  13. An Event Observed as a Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) and a Terrestrial Electron Beam (TEB) by Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbro, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Cramer, E.; Dwyer, J. R.; Roberts, O.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are sub-ms, intense flashes of gamma-rays. They are due to the acceleration of electrons with relativistic energies in thunderstorms that emit gamma-rays via bremsstrahlung. When these photons reach the upper atmosphere, they can produce secondary electrons and positrons that escape the atmosphere and propagate along the Earth's magnetic field line. Space instruments can detect these charged particles, known as Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs), after traveling thousands of kilometers from the thunderstorm. We present an event that was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) as both a TGF and a TEB. To our knowledge this is the first such event that has ever been observed. We interpret the first pulse as a TGF with a duration of 0.2 ms. After 0.5 ms a second pulse is seen with a duration of 2 ms that we interpret as a TEB. Confirming this interpretation, a third pulse is seen 90 ms later, which is understood as a TEB magnetic mirror pulse. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) detected a sferic, under the spacecraft footprint and within the southern magnetic footprint that is simultaneous with the first pulse. Along with the sferic, this unique observation allows us for the first time to test TGF and TEB models for the same event. We present Monte Carlo simulations of the first two pulses, including pitch angles for electrons and positrons, to see if the models can consistently describe the TGF/TEB spectra and time profiles originating from the same source.

  14. Radiosensitivity of lentil beam (Lens culinaris L.) to gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyu; Ryu, Jaihyunk; Jeong, Sang Wook; Kim, Jin Baek; Kang, Si Young; Kwon, Soon Jae [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    We examined damages from gamma-irradiation and determined the optimal gamma ray dose for mutation breeding in lentil (Lens culinaris L.) bean. Four individual lines (L-C, L-2, L-8 and L-9), that have remarkable adaptability in South Korea were gamma-irradiated at doses of 50, 70, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 Gy. The germination rate of seed decreased as the dose increased over 50 Gy in all lines. However, LD{sub 50} and RD{sub 50} were different among lines. The median lethal doses (LD50) were approximately 127 (L-C), 74 (L-2), 95 (L-8), and 144 (L-9) Gy. The median reduction doses (RD{sub 50}) for plant height, number of leaves, root length, and flash weight were 156, 176, 150, and 180 Gy for L-C, 253, 198, 127, and 142 Gy for L-2, 188, 175, 200, and 190 Gy for L-8, and 162, 210, 224, and 184 for L-9, respectively. The growth characteristics of the M1 generation decreased as the dose increased over 70 Gy. The optimal doses of gamma irradiation for mutation breeding of lentil were determined to be 70 Gy (L-2, L-8) and 100 Gy (L-C, L-9). We performed the comet assay to observe nuclear DNA damage induced by gamma-irradiation. In comet assay, a clear difference was identified over 100 Gy treatments. With increasing doses of gamma-ray in the range of 50 to 500 Gy, the rate of head DNA was decreased significantly from 97.5% to 81.6%. Tail length was consecutively increased from 1.9 μm to 17.4 μm. Our result provides basic information for construction of mutant pools in lentils.

  15. Radiosensitivity of lentil beam (Lens culinaris L.) to gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Kyu; Ryu, Jaihyunk; Jeong, Sang Wook; Kim, Jin Baek; Kang, Si Young; Kwon, Soon Jae

    2017-01-01

    We examined damages from gamma-irradiation and determined the optimal gamma ray dose for mutation breeding in lentil (Lens culinaris L.) bean. Four individual lines (L-C, L-2, L-8 and L-9), that have remarkable adaptability in South Korea were gamma-irradiated at doses of 50, 70, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 Gy. The germination rate of seed decreased as the dose increased over 50 Gy in all lines. However, LD_5_0 and RD_5_0 were different among lines. The median lethal doses (LD50) were approximately 127 (L-C), 74 (L-2), 95 (L-8), and 144 (L-9) Gy. The median reduction doses (RD_5_0) for plant height, number of leaves, root length, and flash weight were 156, 176, 150, and 180 Gy for L-C, 253, 198, 127, and 142 Gy for L-2, 188, 175, 200, and 190 Gy for L-8, and 162, 210, 224, and 184 for L-9, respectively. The growth characteristics of the M1 generation decreased as the dose increased over 70 Gy. The optimal doses of gamma irradiation for mutation breeding of lentil were determined to be 70 Gy (L-2, L-8) and 100 Gy (L-C, L-9). We performed the comet assay to observe nuclear DNA damage induced by gamma-irradiation. In comet assay, a clear difference was identified over 100 Gy treatments. With increasing doses of gamma-ray in the range of 50 to 500 Gy, the rate of head DNA was decreased significantly from 97.5% to 81.6%. Tail length was consecutively increased from 1.9 μm to 17.4 μm. Our result provides basic information for construction of mutant pools in lentils

  16. The PRESPEC liquid-hydrogen target for in-beam gamma spectroscopy of exotic nuclei at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louchart, C.; Gheller, J.M.; Chesny, Ph.; Authelet, G.; Rousse, J.Y.; Obertelli, A.; Boutachkov, P.; Pietri, S.; Ameil, F.; Audirac, L.; Corsi, A.; Dombradi, Z.; Gerl, J.; Gillibert, A.; Korten, W.; Mailleret, C.; Merchan, E.; Nociforo, C.; Pietralla, N.; Ralet, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a new liquid hydrogen and deuterium target dedicated to in-beam γ spectroscopy experiments in inverse kinematics at relativistic incident energies at GSI/FAIR. Target thicknesses from 10 to 80 mm can be achieved for an effective diameter of 60 mm. The target-cell and entrance window are maded of 200μm thick Mylar. The design has the advantage of being free of absorbing material at forward angles and 90°, allowing the detection of photons in a wide angular range. A commissioning experiment with a 54 Cr beam at 130 MeV/nucleon has been performed at GSI, using the Rare Isotopes INvestigation at GSI (RISING) detectors. The target has been shown to behave as expected and is ready for experiments at fragmentation Radioactive-Ion Beam Facilities. -- Highlights: • We report on a new liquid hydrogen target for gamma spectroscopy experiments at FAIR. • A commissioning experiment has been performed at GSI, using the RISING detectors. • The target behaves as expected and is ready for experiments

  17. Geiger-Mueller counter for mixed neutron-gamma beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Ma, I.-C.

    1978-01-01

    A Geiger-Mueller (G-M) dosimeter has been constructed and employed to measure the gamma-ray component of absorbed dose in a cyclotron produced fast neutron field. This instrument is waterproof for measurements in a liquid medium, and read-out is accompanied with any standard scaler. (Auth.)

  18. Comparative studies on PADC polymeric detector treated by gamma radiation and Ar ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Saftawy, A.A.; Abdel Reheem, A.M.; Kandil, S.A.; Abd El Aal, S.A.; Salama, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The induced defects on PADC polymer by low energy Ar ions bombardments have been investigated and evaluated with respect to gamma rays. • Low energy ions in the range of 3 keV is not examined elsewhere. And offers a competitive irradiation tool to gamma. • The structure, hardness and wear resistance enhanced after irradiation. • The optical properties changed, the optical band gap decreased and the refractive index enhanced. • The used ion source proves efficiency in improving surface properties of PADC polymer in comparison to the obtained results by the powerful energy source, gamma rays. - Abstract: In the present study, a comparative analysis and evaluation of the induced defects in polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) polymeric detector exposed to Ar+ and gamma radiation were made. To get insight into the structure defects due to irradiation, X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was employed. The PADC surface structure changed after irradiation due to the reduction in the surface crystalline structure and the formation of disordered systems. Also, surface morphology changes were traced using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and showed minor surface irregularities after gamma irradiation and large changes upon Ar+ irradiation. Additionally, micro-hardness and friction coefficient of the irradiated samples were investigated and found to increase after irradiation. UV–vis spectroscopy was used to estimate the optical band gap energy which considered as the basis for calculating the number of conjugated carbon atoms responsible for the blackening effect and color changes took place over the PADC surface. It was found that as the applied dose increased, the band gap decreased and the number of carbon clusters get larger. The refractive index and the dispersion parameters for the studied polymer were calculated and discussed. Also, the induced defects on the polymer surface which serve as a non-radiative centers resulting in reduced

  19. Comparative studies on PADC polymeric detector treated by gamma radiation and Ar ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Saftawy, A.A., E-mail: aama1978@yahoo.com [Accelerators & Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel Reheem, A.M. [Accelerators & Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Kandil, S.A. [Cyclotron project, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El Aal, S.A. [Central Lab. for Elemental & Isotopic Analysis, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Salama, S. [Radiation Protection & Civil Defense Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The induced defects on PADC polymer by low energy Ar ions bombardments have been investigated and evaluated with respect to gamma rays. • Low energy ions in the range of 3 keV is not examined elsewhere. And offers a competitive irradiation tool to gamma. • The structure, hardness and wear resistance enhanced after irradiation. • The optical properties changed, the optical band gap decreased and the refractive index enhanced. • The used ion source proves efficiency in improving surface properties of PADC polymer in comparison to the obtained results by the powerful energy source, gamma rays. - Abstract: In the present study, a comparative analysis and evaluation of the induced defects in polyallyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) polymeric detector exposed to Ar+ and gamma radiation were made. To get insight into the structure defects due to irradiation, X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was employed. The PADC surface structure changed after irradiation due to the reduction in the surface crystalline structure and the formation of disordered systems. Also, surface morphology changes were traced using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and showed minor surface irregularities after gamma irradiation and large changes upon Ar+ irradiation. Additionally, micro-hardness and friction coefficient of the irradiated samples were investigated and found to increase after irradiation. UV–vis spectroscopy was used to estimate the optical band gap energy which considered as the basis for calculating the number of conjugated carbon atoms responsible for the blackening effect and color changes took place over the PADC surface. It was found that as the applied dose increased, the band gap decreased and the number of carbon clusters get larger. The refractive index and the dispersion parameters for the studied polymer were calculated and discussed. Also, the induced defects on the polymer surface which serve as a non-radiative centers resulting in reduced

  20. Effects of gamma radiation and electron beam on samples of the Brazil nuts artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Ednei Assuncao Antunes

    2012-01-01

    The high level of contamination by aflatoxin produced by fungi in lots of Brazil nuts and the strict control by importing countries in relation to the levels of toxins in food, European Union countries decided in 2003 by the return of these lots products from Brazil. Despite the economic loss represented by contamination by toxigenic fungi in Brazil nuts, a major product of extractive Northern of Brazil, studies are still preliminary as the control of contamination aflatoxigenic fungal using methods such as gamma radiation (G.R) and mainly, electron beam (E.B). These facts motivated this research, which aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation and application of electron beam in samples of Brazil nut artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus. This goal, we were studied 50 samples of the Brazil nut previously inoculated with spores of A. flavus and subsequently incubated at 30 °C in relative humidity controlled at 93%. After incubation, period of 15 days, the average water activity of the samples was 0.80, the samples were divided into 5 groups that received the following doses of radiation: control (0 kGy), 5 and 10 kGy 5 E.B and G.R. The mycobiota was performed by serial dilution, plated on surface using potato dextrose agar. The results demonstrated that treatment with E.B using a dose of 5 kGy and 10 kGy resulted in reduced growth of A. flavus in 74% (37/50) and 94% (47/50) of samples. The samples treated with G.R at the dose of 5 kGy and 10 kGy no fungal growth occurred in 92% (46/50) 100% (50/50) of. The study of aflatoxins showed that doses of E.B of 5 kGy and 10 kGy reduced levels of AFB1 at 53.32% and 65.66% respectively. The application of gamma rays at doses of 5 and 10 kGy reduced levels of toxins in 70.61% and 84.15% respectively. This result may be attributed to higher penetrability of gamma radiation. Sensory analysis showed greater acceptance of the judges for the samples irradiated with E.B and G.R at the dose of 10 kGy. We concluded

  1. Gamma radiation effects with Co-60 for radurization and radicidation in fillets and fish eggs of the Merluccius Merluccius hubbsi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Rodriguez, E

    1982-01-01

    Part I: theoretical considerations: introduction, methodology in the processing of foods, physical-chemical action of the radiations, microbiologycal aspects, action of the radiation and of the drops temperatures, physiologic aspects, changes taken place in the stored fish, changes taken place by the ionizing radiation in the biological structures. II: Experimental work, generalities of experimental work, objectives, materials and methods of the experimental work, presentation of results, conclusions

  2. SU-F-T-375: Optimization of a New Co-60 Machine for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: A Monte Carlo Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibani, O; Fan, J; Tahanout, F; Eldib, A; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a wide range of dose output for intensity modulation purposes while minimizing the beam penumbra for a new rotating cobalt therapy system. The highest dose rate needs to be maximized as well. Methods: The GEPTS Monte Carlo system is used to calculate the dose distribution from each tested Co-60 head for a wide range of field sizes (1×1 to 40×40 cm2). This includes the transport of photons (and secondary electrons) from the source through the collimation system (primary collimator, Y and × jaws, and MLCs) and finally in the water phantom. Photon transport includes Compton scattering (with electron binding effect), Rayleigh scattering, Photoelectric effect (with detailed simulation of fluorescence x-rays). Calculations are done for different system designs to reduce geometric penumbra and provide dose output modulation. Results: Taking into account different clinical requirements, the choice of a movable head (SAD = 70 to 80 cm) is made. The 120-leaf MLC (6-cm thick) entrance is at 32 cm from the bottom of the source (to reduce penumbra while allowing larger patient clearance). Three system designs (refereed here as S1–3) were simulated with different effective source sizes (2mm, 10mm and 17mm diameter). The effective point source is at mid-height of the 25-mm-long source. Using a 12000-Ci source, the designed Co-60 head can deliver a wide range of dose outputs (0.5 − 4 Gy/mn). A dose output of 2.2 Gy/mn can be delivered for a 10cm × 10cm field size with 1-cm penumbra using a 10mm effective source. Conclusion: A new 60Co-based VMAT machine is designed to meet different clinical requirements in term of dose output and beam penumbra. Outcomes from this study can be used for the design of 60Co machines for which a renewed interest is seen.

  3. An Experimental Study on the Effects of Co-60 Irradiation on the Rat Tongue Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kee; Lee, Sang Rae [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-02-15

    It is known that radiation therapy is a kind of treatment choices of the maxillofacial tumors. This study is designed to investigate the effects of irradiation on rat's tongue tissues as functional tissues which relate to taste, mastication, and pronunciation. 88 rats (Sprague Dawley branch, male) were divided into control group of 4 and experimental group of 84. Experimental group was singly exposed to Co-60 irradiation with 8, 13, 18 Gy in the head and neck region. Animals were sacrificed on 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days after the irradiation. The specimens were observed by histopathological examination employing H-E stain and Van-Gieson stain. The results were follows; 1. The tongue tissue were severely swollen on the 1 hour after irradiation, but gradually decreased in course of time. 2. The basal cells of epithelium of tongue proliferated at initial stage of irradiation, but gradually decreased. The Keratin layer were gradually increased. 4. The tissue changes after irradiation were gradually increased by the degree of irradiation.

  4. Onset of behavioral effects in mice exposed to 10 Gy Co-60 radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, D.M.; Landauer, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of 10 Gray (Gy) Co-60 radiation on social behavior, locomotor activity, and body weight were assessed in individually housed male Swiss-Webster mice. In experiment 1, aggressive behavior was evaluated prior to irradiation and for 7 d postirradiation by placing an untreated intruder in the irradiated or sham-irradiated resident's home cage for 5 min. Offensive aggressive behavior was not affected significantly by radiation until day 7 postirradiation, when attack latency increased, the frequency and duration of fighting decreased, and the frequency of bites, lunges, and chases decreased. Untreated intruder mice paired with irradiated resident mice showed a decrease in the duration of defensive upright postures and a decrease in the frequency of defensive upright postures, squeaks, and escapes on day 7 postirradiation. In experiment 2, locomotor activity and body weight were monitored for 7 d postirradiation. Body weight was decreased in irradiated mice beginning 4 d postirradiation. Locomotor activity was suppressed in irradiated animals 90 min after irradiation and remained depressed throughout the 7-d testing period. 25 refs

  5. Study on gamma and electron beam sterilization of third generation cephalosporins cefdinir and cefixime in solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Babita K., E-mail: singhbab2001@rediffmail.co [Department of Chemistry, RTM Nagpur University Campus, Amravati Road, Nagpur 440033 (India); Parwate, Dilip V. [Department of Chemistry, RTM Nagpur University Campus, Amravati Road, Nagpur 440033 (India); Das Sarma, Indrani B. [Jhulelal Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India); Shukla, Sudhir K. [Central Forensic Science Laboratory, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co source and 2 MeV e-beam was studied on two thermolabile cephalosporin antibiotics viz cefdinir and cefixime in solid state. The parameters studied to assess radiolytic degradation were loss of chemical and microbiological potency, change in optical rotation, electronic and vibrational absorption characteristics, thermal behavior and color modification. ESR spectroscopic study, HPLC related impurity profile, thermogram and Raman spectrum are applied in deducing the nature of radiolytic impurities and their formation hypotheses. Cefixime is radiation sensitive, whereas cefdinir has acceptable radiation resistance at 25 kGy dose. The nature of radiolytic related impurities and their concentrations indicates that the lactam ring is not highly susceptible to direct radiation attack, which otherwise is considered very sensitive to stress (thermal, chemical and photochemical).

  6. Study on gamma and electron beam sterilization of third generation cephalosporins cefdinir and cefixime in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Babita K.; Parwate, Dilip V.; Das Sarma, Indrani B.; Shukla, Sudhir K.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation from 60 Co source and 2 MeV e-beam was studied on two thermolabile cephalosporin antibiotics viz cefdinir and cefixime in solid state. The parameters studied to assess radiolytic degradation were loss of chemical and microbiological potency, change in optical rotation, electronic and vibrational absorption characteristics, thermal behavior and color modification. ESR spectroscopic study, HPLC related impurity profile, thermogram and Raman spectrum are applied in deducing the nature of radiolytic impurities and their formation hypotheses. Cefixime is radiation sensitive, whereas cefdinir has acceptable radiation resistance at 25 kGy dose. The nature of radiolytic related impurities and their concentrations indicates that the lactam ring is not highly susceptible to direct radiation attack, which otherwise is considered very sensitive to stress (thermal, chemical and photochemical).

  7. Comparison of the changes of the antigenicities of a hen's egg albumin by a gamma and an electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Soo-Young; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the radiation types of a gamma ray and an electron beam for the inhibition and reduction of a food allergy. OVA (2 mg/ml) were irradiated at 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Patterns detected by the SDS-PAGE and an immunoblot showed that the intact OVA band disappeared and that it was dependant upon the radiation doses regardless of the radiation types. Binding abilities of the irradiated OVA against the monoclonal IgG and the egg allergic patients' IgE decreased due to a conformational change of the epitope, but differences from using the two different radiation types were not observed. The results indicate that both the radiation types can be used for an inhibition and a reduction of a food allergy regardless of the radiation types

  8. Development and Application of Chlorinated, Fluorinated and Technological Polymer Films Modified by Grafting Process Using Electron Beam and Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoli, J E [Nuclear Energy National Commission, Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Sao Judas Tadeu, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Geraldo, A B.C.; Moura, E; Somesari, E S.R.; Silveira, C G; Oikawa, H; Moreira, N S; Forbicini, C [Nuclear Energy National Commission, Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tenorio, E [FATEC, Tatui (Brazil); Augusto, C G [IFSP, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Sao Judas Tadeu, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Panzarini, L C.G.A. [FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The ionizing irradiation (electron beam and gamma irradiation) induced grafting to fluorinated and chlorinated polymeric films were studied. Styrene grafting onto fluorinated and perfluorinated polymers and their ulterior sulfonation constitute a process to produce ionomers for many applications. The modification of polyvinylchloride with dimethylaminethylmethacrylate-heparin grafting attempt for the fact that grafting can be applied in packaging industry as an alternative for decreasing of plasticizer or another chemical species migration, in many cases nocivus contaminant for human health, and, in the specific study of this project, to obtain a less thrombogenic polymer surface to be used in medical applications. The results indicate mutual styrene grafting performed by industrial EB accelerator can be a fast alternative to produce ionomers that can compete in market. The numerical method to simulate diffusion process evolved is simple and fast and applied to fit experimental results. (author)

  9. Calibration of the Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) at a polarized hard X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloser, P.F.; Legere, J.S.; McConnell, M.L.; Macri, J.R.; Bancroft, C.M.; Connor, T.P.; Ryan, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50-500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module containing a single CsI(Na) calorimeter element, at the center of the MAPMT, surrounded by 60 plastic elements. The prototype has been combined with custom readout electronics and software to create a complete 'engineering model' of the GRAPE instrument. This engineering model has been calibrated using a nearly 100% polarized hard X-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We find modulation factors of 0.46±0.06 and 0.48±0.03 at 69.5 and 129.5 keV, respectively, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present details of the beam test, data analysis, and simulations, and discuss the implications of our results for the further development of the GRAPE concept.

  10. Evaluation of stability of stereotactic space defined by cone-beam CT for the Leksell Gamma Knife Icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDahlawi, Ismail; Prasad, Dheerendra; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2017-05-01

    The Gamma Knife Icon comes with an integrated cone-beam CT (CBCT) for image-guided stereotactic treatment deliveries. The CBCT can be used for defining the Leksell stereotactic space using imaging without the need for the traditional invasive frame system, and this allows also for frameless thermoplastic mask stereotactic treatments (single or fractionated) with the Gamma Knife unit. In this study, we used an in-house built marker tool to evaluate the stability of the CBCT-based stereotactic space and its agreement with the standard frame-based stereotactic space. We imaged the tool with a CT indicator box using our CT-simulator at the beginning, middle, and end of the study period (6 weeks) for determining the frame-based stereotactic space. The tool was also scanned with the Icon's CBCT on a daily basis throughout the study period, and the CBCT images were used for determining the CBCT-based stereotactic space. The coordinates of each marker were determined in each CT and CBCT scan using the Leksell GammaPlan treatment planning software. The magnitudes of vector difference between the means of each marker in frame-based and CBCT-based stereotactic space ranged from 0.21 to 0.33 mm, indicating good agreement of CBCT-based and frame-based stereotactic space definition. Scanning 4-month later showed good prolonged stability of the CBCT-based stereotactic space definition. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Effect of Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam on Microbiological Quality and Protein Patterns of 4 Selected Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chookaew, S.; Eamsir, J.; Pewlong, W.; Sajjabut, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gamma ray and electron beam on microbiological quality and protein pattern of four selected beans: mung beans, soy beans, peanuts and black beans. All beans samples were exposed to irradiation at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 kGy before evaluated for their microbiological quality using AOAC method and protein analysis by gel electrophoresis. Results showed that the amount of bacteria, yeast and mold of irradiated mung beans and peanuts were reduced, whereas these microbiological quality values remained relatively the same for irradiated soy beans and black beans compared to non-irradiated samples. In terms of protein analysis, the protein patterns of the irradiated beans were of the same quality as the non-irradiated samples. To further tested the effect of irradiation on the bean's protein at higher doses, all four selected beans were exposed to gamma ray at 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy. We found that the protein patterns of mung beans, peanuts and black beans were altered at doses above 50 kGy.

  12. Prompt-gamma spectrometry for the optimization of reactor neutron beams in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, G.I.; Komkov, M.M.; Leonov, V.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to select the optimal spectral composition and size for the reactor neutron beams applied to in vivo analysis and therapy in biomedical research it is necessary to determine the spatial slow-neutron flux distributions produced by the beam in the irradiated object and to calculate or measure the neutron dose equivalents of both the original spectrum and the moderated neutrons. In this study the maximum neutron dose equivalents are found by spectrometry of the prompt-γ emission from the interaction of neutrons with atomic nuclei in the irradiated object. Different spectral distributions were produced by using an unfiltered beam together with filters of quartz, cadmium, 10 B, iron, aluminum, and sulfur. The phantom used was a tank filled with an aqueous solution of urea. Cadmium-containing organs were simulated. For in vivo neutron-activation analysis of human tissues at a depth of 2-5 cm it was found advisable to use neutrons of 20-40 keV mean energy with a beam area of at least 45 cm 2

  13. Single-crystal filters for attenuating epithermal neutrons and gamma rays in reactor beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rustad, B.M.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bahnsen, A.

    1965-01-01

    Cross section of representative samples of bismuth and quartz were measured at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures over neutron energy range of 0.0007 to 2.0 ev to obtain data for design of single-crystal 32-cm bismuth filters for attenuating fast neutrons and γ-rays in reactor beams; filters may...

  14. Prospects and Challenges in Application of Gamma and Electron Beam Processing of Nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampa, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    Application of radiation techniques for nanotechnology has been known for years. X-ray, EB and ion beam lithography are a good example of applications. By using electron beams, ion beams and X-Rays structures as small as 10 nm can be produced. Ion track membranes with track diameters from 10 nm to 100 nm are used as such or as templates for electroplating of nanowires of metal, semiconductor and magnetic materials. In the near future X-Rays, focused ion beams and electron beams will be used for nanolithography and 3D fabrication; heavy ion beams on the other hand can be useful for fabrication of nanopores and nanowires. The use of radiation has proved to be an essential technique in the fabrication of nanostructures with high resolution as the radiation beams can be focused into a few nanomater scales or less. Three groups of products could be considered to be fabricated by radiation techniques: nanoparticles, nanogels and nanocomposites. Nanoparticles has application in electronic devices and bioactive systems. Their radiation synthesis in aqueous dispersions started in the late seventies. Literature describe the radiolytic reduction of many metal ions either single metal or in combination with another metal to generate metallic or bimetallic mixtures as well as core-shell structures. To obtain metallic particles from their parent ions one only needs to ensure reductive conditions during the irradiation. By control over the dose rate delivered to the sample the radiolytic approach can offer the fine control over the rate of generation on the growing species. Nanogels are particles of polymer gels having the dimensions in the order of nanometers. They are applied in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, as the bioactive substances delivery systems. Depending on the irradiation parameters (radiation dose, dose rate, polymer concentration, irradiation temperature) molecules with different structures (such as long-chain branches, nanogels, microgel or microgel

  15. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP1-01: Prompt Gamma Imaging with a Multi-Knife-Edge Slit Collimator: Evaluation for Use in Proton Beam Range Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ready, J [UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Negut, V; Mihailescu, L [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, K [UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and characterize a multi-slit collimated imaging system for use in prompt gamma range verification of proton therapy. Methods: Acrylic (PMMA) targets were irradiated with a 50 MeV proton beam. With the collimator placed 13 cm from the beam axis, photons of energy from 2–7 MeV were measured. Image reconstruction provided 2-dimensional distribution of gamma rays. Estimated Bragg peak location was compared with 1-dimensional profiles of photon images. Shifts in Bragg peak were simulated by physically moving the targets in 1 mm increments. Results: The imaging system measured prompt gamma emissions resulting from a 50 MeV proton beam, at currents up to 2 nA, incident on a PMMA target. Overall system detection efficiency was approximately 2.6×10{sup −5} gamma/proton. With delivery of 1×10{sup 11} protons, shifts of 1 mm in the target location were detected in 2D prompt gamma images and 1D profiles. With delivery of 1×10{sup 8} protons, shifts of approximately 3 mm were detectable. Conclusion: This work has characterized the performance of a prototype multi-slit collimated imaging system. The system can produce 2D images of prompt gamma distributions and detect shifts in Bragg peak location down to 1 mm. These results encourage further development and optimization of the system for clinical proton beam applications. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number: DENA0000979 through the Nuclear Science and Security Consortium.

  16. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  17. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  18. Combined in-beam electron and gamma-ray spectroscopy of (184,186)Hg

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, M; Rahkila, P; Butler, P A; Larsen, A C; Sandzelius, M; Scholey, C; Carrol, R J; Papadakis, P; Jakobsson, U; Grahn, T; Joss, D T; Watkins, H V; Juutinen, S; Bree, N; Cox, D; Huyse, M; Uusitalo, J; Leino, M; Ruotsalainen, P; Nieminen, P; Srebrny, J; Van Duppen, P; Herzan, A; Greenlees, P T; Julin, R; Herzberg, R D; Hauschild, K; Pakarinen, J; Page, R D; Peura, P; Gaffney, L P; Kowalczyk, M; Rinta-Antila, S; Saren, J; Lopez-Martens, A; Sorri, J; Ketelhut, S

    2011-01-01

    By exploiting the SAGE spectrometer a simultaneous measurement of conversion electrons and gamma rays emitted in the de-excitation of excited levels in the neutron-deficient nuclei (184,186)Hg was performed. The light Hg isotopes under investigation were produced using the 4n channels of the fusion-evaporation reactions of (40)Ar and (148,150)Sm. The measured K- and L-conversion electron ratios confirmed the stretched E2 nature of several transitions of the yrast bands in (184,186)Hg. Additional information on the E0 component of the 2(2)(+) -> 2(1)(+) transition in (186)Hg was obtained.

  19. An experimental study on the effects of Co-60 irradiation in the rat periodontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dai Hee; Lee, Sang Hee [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Division of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-11-15

    It is known that radiation therapy is a kind of treatment choices of the maxillofacial tumors. This study is designed to investigate the irradiation effects on rat's periodontal tissues as functional tissues which relate to tooth-support, hard tissue formation and destruction. 20 rats (Sprague-Dowley branch, male) were devided into control group of 4 and experimental groups of 16. Experimental group was singly expose to Co-60 irradiation with 10 Gy in the head and neck region. Animals were sacrificed on 2 days, 2 weeks after the irradiation. The specimens were ob served by histopathological examination employing H-E stain, van-Gieson stain and PA-ACH fluorescent stain. The results were as follows: 1. Cementoblasts and osteoblasts were gradually lost and rearranged along the external surfaces of the cementum and alveolar bone, but osteoclasts were almost not affected.2. The cell numbers of the periodontal ligament were decreased due to the cellular atrophy and degeneration, but recovered almost normal on the 3rd week after irradiation. 3. The collagen fibers within the periodontal ligament were irregularly oriented, became finer and decreased in num ber. 4. The vessels of the periodontal ligament were decreased at the initial stage but increased again on the 2nd wee k after irradiation, and the hemorrhagic appearances, occurred within the tissues, due to the arterial destruction, were lasted until 3 weeks after irradiation. 5. The glycogen within the the periodontal ligament was gradually increased and stored in the matrices of the cemental side on the 1st week after irradiation, but recovered almost normally on the 3rd week after irradiation.

  20. Cardiovascular changes in atherosclerotic ApoE-deficient mice exposed to Co60 (γ radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumarathasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence for a role of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this work was to identify changes in oxidative and nitrative stress pathways and the status of the endothelinergic system during progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice after single and repeated exposure to ionizing radiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: B6.129P2-ApoE tmlUnc mice on a low-fat diet were acutely exposed (whole body to Co60 (γ (single dose 0, 0.5, and 2 Gy at a dose rate of 36.32 cGy/min, or repeatedly (cumulative dose 0 and 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.1 cGy/min for 5 d/wk, over a period of 4 weeks. Biological endpoints were investigated after 3-6 months of recovery post-radiation. The nitrative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine and the vasoregulator peptides endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in plasma were increased (p<0.05 in a dose-dependent manner 3-6 months after acute or chronic exposure to radiation. The oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane was not affected by radiation, while plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decreased (p<0.05 after treatment. At 2Gy radiation dose, serum cholesterol was increased (p = 0.008 relative to controls. Percent lesion area increased (p = 0.005 with age of animal, but not with radiation treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations are consistent with persistent nitrative stress and activation of the endothelinergic system in ApoE-/- mice after low-level ionizing radiation exposures. These mechanisms are known factors in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Exclusive radiation therapy of endometrial carcinoma using HDR Co-60 and Cf-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inciura, A.; Janulionis, E.; Atkocius, V.

    2000-01-01

    Although the main treatment of endometrial cancer is surgery, the gross spread of carcinoma in pelvis, elderly age of the patients and serious therapeutical diseases do not allow to operate 20% of the patients. For these patients only radical treatment decision is the combined radiation therapy. However, using various modalities of combined radiotherapy, the treatment results are not satisfying: only 52% of patients survive 5 years. There was implemented a new method of combined radiotherapy, using a three-channel applicator with two-positional locating of HDR Co-60 radioactive sources (group I). A new method of brachytherapy for endometrial carcinoma using a HDR Cf 252 sources (group II) was implemented too. For group I the medium total dose of the point A was 77.6 Gy, point I - 69.6 Gy. point 2 - 84.2 Gy, point B - 52.6 Gy, For group II the medium total dose the points A, 3 and 4 was 50 iGy. For group I 1 year overaII survival rate was 85%, 3 year - 73%. The 3 year survival rate for stage I was 79%, for stage II - 89%, for stage III - 33%. 3 year survival for highly virulent tumours - 56% and for low virulent (adenocarcinoma) - 82% was statistically different. The loss of tumour differentiation correlated with the worse prognosis: 3 year survival for G1 and G2 tumours was 92%, for G3 - 45%. Low hemoglobin level was also associated with low survival rate: 2 year survival for Hb≥120g/l was 85% and Hb<120g/l - 23%. 1 year survival rate was 87%, 3 year - 66%, 5 year - 58% for group II, treated with Cf-252. Radiation complications occurred for 13.8% of the patients for group I and 6.2% for group II. Good survival rates and a small number of complications sufficiently proofed treatment method. (author)

  2. An experimental study on the effects of Co-60 irradiation in the rat periodontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dai Hee; Lee, Sang Hee

    1986-01-01

    It is known that radiation therapy is a kind of treatment choices of the maxillofacial tumors. This study is designed to investigate the irradiation effects on rat's periodontal tissues as functional tissues which relate to tooth-support, hard tissue formation and destruction. 20 rats (Sprague-Dowley branch, male) were devided into control group of 4 and experimental groups of 16. Experimental group was singly expose to Co-60 irradiation with 10 Gy in the head and neck region. Animals were sacrificed on 2 days, 2 weeks after the irradiation. The specimens were ob served by histopathological examination employing H-E stain, van-Gieson stain and PA-ACH fluorescent stain. The results were as follows: 1. Cementoblasts and osteoblasts were gradually lost and rearranged along the external surfaces of the cementum and alveolar bone, but osteoclasts were almost not affected.2. The cell numbers of the periodontal ligament were decreased due to the cellular atrophy and degeneration, but recovered almost normal on the 3rd week after irradiation. 3. The collagen fibers within the periodontal ligament were irregularly oriented, became finer and decreased in num ber. 4. The vessels of the periodontal ligament were decreased at the initial stage but increased again on the 2nd wee k after irradiation, and the hemorrhagic appearances, occurred within the tissues, due to the arterial destruction, were lasted until 3 weeks after irradiation. 5. The glycogen within the the periodontal ligament was gradually increased and stored in the matrices of the cemental side on the 1st week after irradiation, but recovered almost normally on the 3rd week after irradiation.

  3. Experimental Comparison of Knife-Edge and Multi-Parallel Slit Collimators for Prompt Gamma Imaging of Proton Pencil Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Julien; Roellinghoff, Frauke; Janssens, Guillaume; Perali, Irene; Celani, Andrea; Fiorini, Carlo; Freud, Nicolas; Testa, Etienne; Prieels, Damien

    2016-01-01

    More and more camera concepts are being investigated to try and seize the opportunity of instantaneous range verification of proton therapy treatments offered by prompt gammas emitted along the proton tracks. Focusing on one-dimensional imaging with a passive collimator, the present study experimentally compared in combination with the first, clinically compatible, dedicated camera device the performances of instances of the two main options: a knife-edge slit (KES) and a multi-parallel slit (MPS) design. These two options were experimentally assessed in this specific context as they were previously demonstrated through analytical and numerical studies to allow similar performances in terms of Bragg peak retrieval precision and spatial resolution in a general context. Both collimators were prototyped according to the conclusions of Monte Carlo optimization studies under constraints of equal weight (40 mm tungsten alloy equivalent thickness) and of the specificities of the camera device under consideration (in particular 4 mm segmentation along beam axis and no time-of-flight discrimination, both of which less favorable to the MPS performance than to the KES one). Acquisitions of proton pencil beams of 100, 160, and 230 MeV in a PMMA target revealed that, in order to reach a given level of statistical precision on Bragg peak depth retrieval, the KES collimator requires only half the dose the present MPS collimator needs, making the KES collimator a preferred option for a compact camera device aimed at imaging only the Bragg peak position. On the other hand, the present MPS collimator proves more effective at retrieving the entrance of the beam in the target in the context of an extended camera device aimed at imaging the whole proton track within the patient. PMID:27446802

  4. Experimental Comparison of Knife-Edge and Multi-Parallel Slit Collimators for Prompt Gamma Imaging of Proton Pencil Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Julien; Roellinghoff, Frauke; Janssens, Guillaume; Perali, Irene; Celani, Andrea; Fiorini, Carlo; Freud, Nicolas; Testa, Etienne; Prieels, Damien

    2016-01-01

    More and more camera concepts are being investigated to try and seize the opportunity of instantaneous range verification of proton therapy treatments offered by prompt gammas emitted along the proton tracks. Focusing on one-dimensional imaging with a passive collimator, the present study experimentally compared in combination with the first, clinically compatible, dedicated camera device the performances of instances of the two main options: a knife-edge slit (KES) and a multi-parallel slit (MPS) design. These two options were experimentally assessed in this specific context as they were previously demonstrated through analytical and numerical studies to allow similar performances in terms of Bragg peak retrieval precision and spatial resolution in a general context. Both collimators were prototyped according to the conclusions of Monte Carlo optimization studies under constraints of equal weight (40 mm tungsten alloy equivalent thickness) and of the specificities of the camera device under consideration (in particular 4 mm segmentation along beam axis and no time-of-flight discrimination, both of which less favorable to the MPS performance than to the KES one). Acquisitions of proton pencil beams of 100, 160, and 230 MeV in a PMMA target revealed that, in order to reach a given level of statistical precision on Bragg peak depth retrieval, the KES collimator requires only half the dose the present MPS collimator needs, making the KES collimator a preferred option for a compact camera device aimed at imaging only the Bragg peak position. On the other hand, the present MPS collimator proves more effective at retrieving the entrance of the beam in the target in the context of an extended camera device aimed at imaging the whole proton track within the patient.

  5. Laue optics for nuclear astrophysics: New detector requirements for focused gamma-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, N. [INAF - IASF Roma, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: nicolas.barriere@iasf-roma.inaf.it; Ballmoos, P. von [CESR - UMR 5187, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse (France); Abrosimov, N.V. [IKZ, Max Born-Str. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bastie, P. [LSP UMR 5588, 140 Av. de la physique, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Camus, T. [CESR - UMR 5187, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse (France); Courtois, P.; Jentschel, M. [ILL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Knoedlseder, J. [CESR - UMR 5187, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse (France); Natalucci, L. [INAF - IASF Roma, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Roudil, G.; Rousselle, J. [CESR - UMR 5187, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse (France); Wunderer, C.B. [SSL, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94708 (United States); Kurlov, V.N. [Institute of Solid State Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-21

    Nuclear astrophysics presents an extraordinary scientific potential for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. But in order to take full advantage of this potential, telescopes should be at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than present technologies. Today, Laue lenses have demonstrated their capability of focusing gamma-rays in the 100 keV-1 MeV domain, enabling the possibility of building a new generation of instruments for which sensitive area is decoupled from collecting area. Thus we have now the opportunity of dramatically increase the signal/background ratio and hence improve significantly the sensitivity. With a lens, the best detector is no longer the largest possible within a mission envelope. The point spread function of a Laue lens measures a few centimeters in diameter, but the field of view is limited by the detector size. Requirements for a focal plane instrument are presented in the context of the Gamma-Ray Imager mission (proposed to European Space Agency, ESA in the framework of the first Cosmic Vision AO): a 15-20 cm a side finely pixellated detector capable of Compton events reconstruction seems to be optimal, giving polarization and background rejection capabilities and 30 arcsec of angular resolution within a field of view of 5 arc min.

  6. PARP-1 is a key player in controlling apoptosis induced by high LET carbon ion beam and low LET gamma radiation in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Ghosh, Utpal; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P.; Sarma, Asitikantha

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 inhibitors have long been used as chemo-sensitizer or radio-sensitizer and specific PARP-1 inhibitors are also in clinical trial for the treatment of various cancers. PARP-1 is not only involved in DNA repair but also plays very complex role in induction of apoptosis in postirradiation condition. Our objective is to investigate role of PARP-1 in apoptosis triggered by high LET carbon ion beam (CIB) and low LET gamma. We have treated HeLa and PARP-1 knock down HeLa (Hsil) cells with various doses of CIB and gamma. We measured DNA damage by comet assay and various apoptotic parameters such as nuclear fragmentation, activation of caspase-3,8,9, AIF translocation etc. We observed higher DNA breaks and also higher apoptosis in HsiI cells compared with HeLa cells. Both CIB and gamma treatment results G2/M arrest but unlike gamma CIB makes S-phase delay, implicating that gamma and CIB triggers different pathway after DNA damage. Cell death by CIB or by gamma increased up on knocking down of PARP-1 but increase is higher for high LET CIB compared with low LET gamma. Furthermore, expression level of PARP-1 controls the intensity of overall apoptosis in cells in post-irradiation condition. So, combination of PARP-1 inhibition with high LET CIB could be a promising tool to combat cancer. (author)

  7. Increasing the terms of storing of pasteurized meat cans by means of gamma-beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, N.; Jotov, I.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a study to establish the feasibility of storing canned meat at room temperature after combined treatment first with heat and then with low doses of gamma rays, are reported. It was found that the total counts of aerobic microorganisms in irradiated samples at any stage of the study did not exceed the levels allowed by the existing standards for pasteurized canned foods; the characteristics of the products corresponded to those of high-grade foods throughout the study period; the combined treatment by heat (F=0.26) and radiation (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 Mrad) enabled pasteurized canned products to be stored up to one year at room temperature; the most suitable dose, from organoleptic, microbiological, and physicochemical viewpoints, was 0.4 Mrad. (E.T.)

  8. Applications of resonance-averaged gamma-ray spectroscopy with tailored beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of techniques based on the direct experimental averaging over compound nuclear capturing states has proved valuable for investigations of nuclear structure. The various methods that have been employed are described, with particular emphasis on the transmission filter, or tailored beam technique. The mathematical limitations on averaging imposed by the filter band pass are discussed. It can readily be demonstrated that a combination of filters at different energies can form a powerful method for spin and parity predictions. Several recent examples from the HFBR program are presented

  9. Applications of resonance-averaged gamma-ray spectroscopy with tailored beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of techniques based on the direct experimental averaging over compound nuclear capturing states has proved valuable for investigations of nuclear structure. The various methods that have been employed are described, with particular emphasis on the transmission filter, or tailored beam technique. The mathematical limitations on averaging imposed by the filtre band pass are discussed. It can readily be demonstrated that a combination of filters at different energies can form a powerful method for spin and parity predictions. Several recent examples from the HFBR program are presented. (author)

  10. DNA damage response signaling in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells following gamma and carbon beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Narang, Himanshi; Sarma, Asitikantha; Krishna, Malini

    2011-11-01

    Carbon beams (5.16MeV/u, LET=290keV/μm) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the signaling differences between γ-rays and carbon ion-irradiation. A549 cells were irradiated with 1Gy carbon or γ-rays. Carbon beam was found to be three times more cytotoxic than γ-rays despite the fact that the numbers of γ-H2AX foci were same. Percentage of cells showing ATM/ATR foci were more with γ-rays however number of foci per cell were more in case of carbon irradiation. Large BRCA1 foci were found in all carbon irradiated cells unlike γ-rays irradiated cells and prosurvival ERK pathway was activated after γ-rays irradiation but not carbon. The noteworthy finding of this study is the early phase apoptosis induction by carbon ions. In the present study in A549 lung adenocarcinoma, authors conclude that despite activation of same repair molecules such as ATM and BRCA1, differences in low and high LET damage responses might be due to their distinct macromolecular complexes rather than their individual activation and the activation of cytoplasmic pathways such as ERK, whether it applies to all the cell lines need to be further explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SU-E-J-142: Prompt Gamma Emission Measurements From a Passively Scattered Proton Beam On Targets Containing 16O, 12C and 14N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyasugiththan, J [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa); Department of Clinical Oncology, Teaching Hospital, Jeffna (Sri Lanka); Peterson, S [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To measure the prompt gamma emission from the important elements found in tissue ({sup 16}O,{sup 12}C and {sup 14}N) in a clinical passive-scatter treatment environment. Methods: The targets (composed of water, Perspex, graphite and liquid nitrogen) were irradiated with a 200 MeV passive-scatter proton beam and the discrete prompt gamma energy spectra was detected by a high resolution 2′ × 2′ LaBr. detector. In order to reduce the high level of radiation produced by the beam line elements, the detector was surrounded by 10 cm of lead to attenuate the scattered gamma-rays entering the detector with an extra 5 cm thick layer of lead added along the beam direction. A 10 cm thick collimator with a 5 cm × 10 cm rectangular opening was also used. Results: The prompt gamma peaks at 6.13 MeV and 4.44 MeV were clearly identified as a Result of the inelastic nuclear reaction between the protons and the 16O atoms found in the water target. The 6.13 MeV peak was 5% higher than the peak at 4.44 MeV for the water target. The 4.44 MeV peak was the only identified emission in the prompt gamma energy spectra from the graphite target ({sup 12}C). The expected 2.313 MeV peak form the{sup 14}N (liquid nitrogen target) was identified, but the other expected {sup 14}N peaks could not be resolved. Conclusion: Prompt gamma measurements with a passive-scatter proton beam are possible, but the presence of a high amount of background radiation from the patient final collimator presents a challenge at the treatment isocenter. The prominent prompt gamma peaks at 6.13 MeV and 4.44 MeV were identified from the water, Perspex and graphite targets. The prompt gammas from the liquid nitrogen target were difficult to see, but may not be significant in the in-vivo verification process.

  12. Spin and parity assignments to dipole excitations of the odd-mass nucleus {sup 207}Pb from nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments with linearly-polarized {gamma}-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietralla, N; Fritzsche, M; Savran, D [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Li, T C [Nuclear Structure Laboratory, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Ahmed, M W; Tonchev, A P; Tornow, W; Weller, H R [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL), Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Werner, V, E-mail: pietralla@ikp.tu-darmstadt.d [A.W. Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory (WNSL), Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Pb({gamma}-vector ,{gamma}') photon scattering reactions were studied [1] with the nearly monochromatic, linearly polarized photon beams at the High Intensity {gamma}-ray Source (HI{gamma}S) at the DFELL. Azimuthal scattering intensity asymmetries measured with respect to the polarization plane of the beam have been used for the first time to assign both the spin and parity quantum numbers of dipole excited states of {sup 206,207,208}Pb at excitation energies in the vicinity of 5.5 MeV. Evidence for dominant particle-core coupling is deduced from these results along with information on excitation energies and electromagnetic transition matrix elements.

  13. Comparing Effects Of GAMMA And Electron Beam Irradiation On Microbiological And Biochemical Characters Of Selected Egyptian Aromatic Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, S.A.; YUSSEF, B.M.; SHAMS EL DIEEN, N.M.; ABDALLA, M.

    2009-01-01

    Selected Egyptian aromatic herbs (AH) which face demand for exporting abroad, such as spearmint (Mentha viridis Linn.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), were exposed to gamma and electron beam (EB) irradiation at different doses (5 and 10 kGy). The evaluation of irradiation efficiency was based on microbiological and biochemical studies including changes in volatile compounds and antioxidative activity. The microbiological assay revealed presence of high load levels in raw AH with log of total bacteria of rosemary (6.862 cfu.g-1) and spearmint (6.762 cfu.g -1 ) while marjoram was the lowest one (5.771 cfu.g -1 ). The highest levels of the log of total molds and yeast counts were observed in marjoram (5.097 cfu.g -1 ) while the less levels were observed in rosemary and spearmint. Using gamma irradiation was more effective than EB in decontamination of microbes either in reducing numbers to safe levels at 5 kGy or completely elimination at high dose (10 kGy) in all tested samples. Some specific bacteria were present in AH such as Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens at different levels whereas the log of E. faecalis was detected only in marjoram and spearmint with heavy load as 4.554 and 3.427 cfu.g -1 , respectively, while rosemary was less than 2 cfu.g -1 . Irradiation with both sources at 5 kGy reduced the count by about 2 log cycles in marjoram and 1 log cycle in spearmint. No colonies of the same microbe were detected at high dose (10 kGy) in all herbs with exception of marjoram. The log of B. cereus contamination was higher in spearmint than marjoram then rosemary. Irradiation of AH at 5 kGy reduced these values whereas high dose (10 kGy) caused complete elimination of B. cereus.GLC analysis of AH volatile oils showed presence of 22 compounds in spearmint included mainly carvon specific smells of spearmint besides monoterpens as α- -pinen (1.6%), Β-pinen (2.06%), limonene (4.75%). Also

  14. Use of hydroxyapatite prepared by sol-gel method for gamma ray and electron beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiloo, N.; Ziaie, F.; Hesami, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this research, radiation dosimetry was made through measuring free radicals induced in synthetic hydroxyapatite using EPR spectroscopy. At the first step, the hydroxyapatite nano-powders were synthesized via sol-gel method. The produced powders were passed through a thermal treatment, weighted and packed. Then, the samples were irradiated at different dose rates using 60 Co γ-ray and 10 MeV electron beam radiation at a high dose range. The hydroxyapatite signal intensity of hydroxyapatite samples were measured at room temperature in the air. Subsequently, the variations of the EPR signal intensities were constructed as peak-to-peak signal amplitude and were compared with alanine and bone powder samples. The results showed that the EPR signal intensity of the hydroxyapatite samples are several times higher than alanine and bone powder and are saturated at the higher dose rates in comparison with other species.

  15. Gamma-Ray Pulsars: Beaming Evolution, Statistics, and Unidentified EGRET Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadigaroglu, I.-A.; Romani, Roger W.

    1995-08-01

    We compute the variation of the beaming fraction with the efficiency of high-energy γ-ray production in the outer gap pulsar model of Romani and Yadigaroglu. This allows us to correct the fluxes observed for pulsars in the EGRET band and to derive a simple estimate of the variation of efficiency with age. Integration of this model over the population of young neutron stars gives the expected number of γ-ray pulsars along with their distributions in age and distance. This model also shows that many of the unidentified EGRET plane sources should be pulsars and predicts the γ-ray fluxes of known radio pulsars. The contribution of unresolved pulsars to the background flux in the EGRET band is found to be ˜5%.

  16. Application of the Sunna dosimeter film in gamma and electron beam radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Wojnárovits, L.

    2000-01-01

    The OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) based Sunna film containing a microcrystalline dispersion of LIF in a polymer matrix has been recently introduced for high-dose dosimetry. Our previous investigations revealed the applicability of the system in the dose range of 0.01-100 kGy, but irradi...... significant in the case of OSL analysis for doses above 5 kGy. The applicability of two types of Sunna films in electron and gamma radiation processing is discussed in the paper. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) based Sunna film containing a microcrystalline dispersion of LIF in a polymer matrix has been recently introduced for high-dose dosimetry. Our previous investigations revealed the applicability of the system in the dose range of 0.01-100 k......Gy, but irradiation temperature and dose rate effects above 5 kGy reduced its usefulness. The recent discovery of the use of spectrophotometric analysis in the UV range for measuring doses above 5 kGy is a suitable option, while the OSL analysis can be applied for measuring lower doses due to the lack of temperature...

  17. Cytogenetic effect of reactor beams of mixed neutrons and gamma rays on spermatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; El-Dawy, H.A.; Hassan, N.H.A; Khattab, F.I.

    1997-01-01

    Spermatocytes metaphase- 1 - chromosomes of young adult male mice irradiated at 42.5 r of mixed neutrons and gamma rays were investigated at the intervals of 1,2,3 and 4 weeks post-irradiation. The induced chromosomal aberrations were: ring-four (RIV), chain-four (CIV), chain three plus one univalent (CIII+1), chain hexavalent (CVI), autosomal univalent X-Y univalent and polyploidy. The percentage of abnormal spermatocytes with respect to the time intervals between treatment and sacrifice were studied in both subgroups irradiated at 42.5 R. and 58.5 R. The frequencies of abnormal spermatocytes reached 10.7%, 16%, 20% and 18.7 at the intervals of 1,2,3 and 4 weeks post - irradiation for the dose 42.5 R. respectively. In the subgroups exposed to 58.5 R the percentage of abnormal spermatocytes was 17.3%, 24.7%, 30.7% and 22.0% after the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks, respectively

  18. A dual beam study with isotopic X- and gamma-rays for in vivo lymph pool assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, F.P.; Preuss, L.E.; Jedlenski, D.E.; Beninson, J.

    1986-01-01

    Dual beam absorptiometry utilizes differential absorption of X- and gamma rays of differing energy to determine an absorber's component ratio. This principle has been applied to diverse physical and biological problems. Our method, using the 22 and 88 keV emissions from 109 Cd, resolves the lean and non-lean mammalian tissue fractions. Accuracy of 1%, and reproducibility of 1-2% is attainable in in vitro measurements. Techniques have been developed to apply this system to the more complicated applications involved in human studies. A scanning device capable of measuring limbs has been developed. Mathematical treatment provides an integrated value of lean fraction over the scanned area. Lymphedema is a painful malady in which blockage of lymph flow causes swelling and distension of the extremities. Compressive therapy is the preferred medical treatment. There has been no accurate quantitative index of the efficacy of this therapy. Our research program uses dual beam analysis as a unique quantitative measure of the lymph transport. Lymph pool change is equated to change in the lean. Five measurements are made on subjects undergoing a two week regimen of compressive therapy. These absorptiometric results are analyzed for correlation to other indices of treatment effect. Data shows a progressive decrease in the lean tissue component over the treatment period. Changes seen vary with the individual and the severity of involvement. This study showed that the largest transport rate occurs in the first treatment days. Absorptiometry accurately monitors total adipose mass, total non-adipose mass, extremety cross section, and change in lymph pooling. (orig.)

  19. Effect of γ-rays Co60 on the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces Vini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talipova, Sh.; Gulyamova, N.; Balasanyan, I.A.

    1978-01-01

    The fermentation activity of the local strains of yeast Saccharomyces vini, irradiated with the doses of 150-200 Krad of Co gamma-rays is studied. The strains effective for viniculture have been selected. It is noted that in irradiated yeast at the dose of 200 krad fermentation activity is enhanced, i.e. the rate and the energy of fermentation are increased. It has been found that irradiated yeast strains will completely ferment grape 24 hours earlier than in the control group. Wine prepared with irradiated strains by organoleptic indices is better than wine made with the Rkatsiteli-6 control industrial race

  20. The effect of gamma ray on growth and anatomy structure of garlic leaf (A. sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiyarsih, S.; Aliudin

    1990-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in Experimental Garden Banaran, East Java. This experiment used Complete Randomized Design with 10 replications and 7 treatments as followed: garlic seeds were radiated by gamma Co 60, with dosage 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 krad. The result of this experiment showed that radiated treatment of gamma Co 60 ray decreased growth percentage, plants became dwarf, root growth was short, and dosage 10 and 12 krad resulted in rotten root. Also radiation of gamma Co 60 decreased number of stomata and diameter of trachea became smaller

  1. The acid-base balance in women with neoplasmatic process of the genitals and the effect of Co60 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszkiewicz, T.; Markowska, J.; Glogowska, Z.; Simm, S.; Herwichowska, K.

    1980-01-01

    The acid-base balance parameters were determined in 34 women with neoplasmatic process in the genital organs (2 and 3 stage of development) before and after Co 60 therapy. Blood gasometery (capillary blood samples were drawn from the finger, ear-lobe and neoplasm-involved uterine cervix) served as basis for the study. After treatment an increase of the pCo 2 bicarbonates and base reserve values were noted in the capillary blood samples collected from the finger or ear-lobe and a decrease of the hydrogen ions concentration in the capillary blood drawn from the uterine cervix were met. The changes in electroneutrality of organism fluids were tested considering the treatment effects. After Co 60 treatment an increase of the pO 2 was demonstrated in both examined groups. (author)

  2. Cs-137 and Co-60 concentrations in water from the Savannah River and water-treatment plants downstream of SRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In preparation for restart of L-Reactor, a comprehensive environmental sampling and analysis program was initiated in March 1983 to determine Cs-137 concentrations in off-site water downstream from Savannah River Plant (SRP). Concentrations of Co-60 also are determined in this sampling and analysis program. This report summarizes the first three months of results. Cesium-137 concentrations are reported for finished water from the Beaufort-Jasper, Port Wentworth and North Augusta water treatment plants for weekly continuous samples during April through June 1983. The very low concentrations of cesium-137 in finished water from downstream water treatment plants showed significant changes during this time. The changes in concentration occurred smoothly and correlate with changes in river flow. No changes in concentration during April through June can be attributed to L-Reactor's only cold water test which occurred June 8 and 9. No Co-60 was observed in any samples

  3. Fireproofing and heat insulating performance improvement of EG/ATH modified intumescent flame retardant coating treated under Co-60 radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuehong; Luan, Weiling; Jiang, Tao

    2017-12-01

    New intumescent flame retardant (IFR) coatings with different fire retardants were prepared in this paper. Expandable graphite (EG) and Aluminium hydroxide (ATH) were respectively added into the conventional IFR coating system, which included ammonium polyphosphate (APP) / pentaerythritol (PER) / melamine (MEL). The fireproofing time and heat insulating properties of the additives acted as fire retardants were investigated via thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and fire resistance test of homemade big panel test. The morphology of the char layer structure was achieved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highlight of the paper was that the coating samples were pretreated under Co-60 radiation. The influence of radiation on the fire resistance time and char layer height was investigated. The results showed that the prepared IFR coatings can be used in Co-60 radiation for more than 90 min when encountering fire. It would be a reference for radiation shielding in nuclear environment.

  4. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial quality evaluation and effective decontamination of nutraceutically valued lotus seeds by electron beams and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Sridhar, K.R.; Karim, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Lotus seeds are nutraceutically valued natural plant produce, which succumbs to microbial contamination, predominantly to toxigenic moulds. Results of the present study revealed seed coat portion to harbor higher proportion of microbial load, particularly fungi than cotyledon portion. Among the mycotoxins analyzed, aflatoxins (B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ) were below detectable limits, while the seeds were devoid of Ochratoxin-A (OTA). Application of different doses of electron beam and gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 30 kGy) for decontamination purpose revealed significant dose-dependent decrease in the fungal contaminants (P<0.05). However, the contaminant yeasts could survive up to 10 kGy dose, which could be completely eliminated at 15 kGy. From the results obtained, a dose range between 10 and 15 kGy is recommended for complete decontamination, as these doses have also been shown earlier to have minimal effects on nutritional and functional properties of lotus seeds.

  6. Determination of a cross-sectional void fraction in a tube bundle using a single beam gamma densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichard, J.; Mezoul, B.; Peturaud, P.; Thomas, B.

    1991-06-01

    In order to qualify 3-dimensional two-phase flow computer codes modelling average flows in tube bundles, cross-section average void fractions must be measured over sub-channels. On the VATICAN mockup, such void fractions(integrated on the mockup thickness) are determined using a single (narrow) beam gamma densitometer. But to avoid a refined exploration of each measurement mesh, for each test, empirical calibration curves have been developed in a regular mesh of the mockup, in axial flow conditions. These calibration curves, which evaluate the sought cross-sectional value as a function of a chordal void fraction (right in the inter-rod gap) depend only on heat flux density and pressure. The data are consistent with the ARMAND-MASSENA and LELLOUCHE-ZOLOTAR slip correlations, and they are fitted by 3rd degree polynomials, for each heat flux density investigated, with a good accuracy. Unfortunately, preliminary testing and analysis indicate that the use of these calibration curves in subcooled boiling and transverse mixing zones might result in significant uncertainties and errors

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-bake cookie dough by gamma and electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough and to determine the effect on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Cookie dough inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Listeria monocytogenes was subjected to gamma and electron beam irradiation, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. As the radiation dose increased, the inactivation effect increased among all tested pathogens. After 3.0 kGy of gamma and electron beam irradiation, numbers of inoculated pathogens were reduced to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g). The D 10 -values of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes in cookie dough treated with gamma rays were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.71 kGy, respectively, which were similar to those treated by electron beam with the same dose. Based on the D 10 -value of pathogens in cookie dough, L. monocytogenes showed more resistance to both treatments than did E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Color values and textural characteristics of irradiated cookie dough were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control. These results suggest that irradiation can be applied to control pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough products without affecting quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent results on the effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of DWPF glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Tosten, M.H.; Beam, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the durability and microstructure of a simulated nuclear waste glass from the Savannah River Site has been carefully investigated. Three large pieces of glass were irradiated with a Co-60 source to three doses up to a maximum dose of 3.1 x 10 10 rad. Internal samples of the large pieces of irradiated and unirradiated glass were leached in deionized water to investigate durability changes and were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate microstructure changes. Leach tests were performed in triplicate at 90 degree C with crushed glass samples in deionized water. A statistical analysis of the results indicated to the 95% confidence level that the radiation did not affect the glass durability. Careful examination by TEM indicated no effect of gamma radiation on the microstructure of the glass although severe damage could be induced by the electron beam from the microscope. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Effect of gama irradiation (Co60 in the control of Enterococci spp. and Escherichia coli in chilled chicken (Gallus gallus heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Braga Batista Soares Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the irradiation process in the control of Enterococci spp. and Escherichia coli in chilled chicken heart samples acquired in an industry located in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using irradiation doses of 1.5 kGy, 3, 0 kGy and 4.5 kGy. These microorganisms are related to fecal contamination, and are indicators of the sanitary processing conditions of the foodstuffs. The bacteriological analyses were conducted applying the methodologies and standards recommended by Brazilian norms resolution no. 12 (BRASIL, 2001 and instruction no. 62 (BRASIL, 2003 Regarding Escherichia coli, no statistically significant difference among the four groups (control, 1.5 kGy, 3.0 kGy and 4.5 kGy was observed (p> 0.05. The Most Probable Number (MPN for Enterococci spp. was not proven in the investigated samples. Thus, the Co60 gamma irradiation process was effective in eliminating Escherichia coli, and the lowest dose, of 1.5 kGy, was enough to abolish this enteropathogen from the evaluated samples.

  10. Radiosensitizing effect of nitric oxide in tumor cells and experimental tumors irradiated with gamma rays and proton beams; Efecto radiosensibilizador del oxido nitrico en celulas tumorales y en tumores experimentales irradiados con radiacion gamma y con haces de protones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policastro, Lucia L; Duran, Hebe; Molinari, Beatriz L [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Radiobiologia; Schuff, Juan A; Kreiner, Andres J; Burlon, Alejandro A; Debray, Mario E; Kesque, Jose M; Ozafran, Mabel J; Vazquez, Monica E [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Davidson, Jorge; Davidson, Miguel [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Somacal, Hector R; Valda, Alejandro A [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin , Villa Ballester (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia

    2003-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to be a radiosensitizer of mammalian cells under hypoxic conditions. In a previous study, we demonstrated an enhancement in radiation response induced by NO in mouse tumor cells under aerobic conditions, with an increasing effect as a function of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of NO in tumor cells and in experimental tumors irradiated with {gamma} rays and proton beams. Irradiations were performed with a {sup 137}Cs {gamma} source and with proton beams generated by the TANDAR accelerator. Tumor cells were treated with the NO donor DETA-NO and the sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) was calculated using the {alpha} parameter of the survival curve fitted to the linear-quadratic model. Tumor cells irradiated with protons were radio sensitized by DETA-NO only in the more malignant cells irradiated with low LET protons (2.69{+-}0.08 keV/{mu}m). For higher LET protons there were no radiosensitizing effect. For human tumor cells pre-treated with DETA-NO and irradiated with {gamma} rays, a significantly greater effect was demonstrated in the malignant cells (MCF-7) as compared with the near normal cells (HBL-100). Moreover, a significant decrease in tumor growth was demonstrated in mice pre-treated with the NO donor spermine and irradiated with {gamma} rays and low LET protons as compared with mice irradiated without pre-treatment with the NO donor. In conclusion, we demonstrated a differential effect of NO as a radiosensitizer of malignant cells, both with {gamma} rays and low LET protons. This selectivity, coupled to the in vivo inhibition of tumor growth, is of great interest for the potential use of NO releasing agents in radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Tolerance of mango cv. ´Ataulfo' to irradiation with Co-60 vs. hydrothermal phytosanitary treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Simuta, Y.; Hernández, Emilio; Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Liedo, Pablo; Escobar-López, Arseny; Montoya, Pablo; Bravo, Bigail; Hallman, Guy J.; Bustos, M. Emilia; Toledo, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The use of ionizing irradiation or the use of hot water treatment (HWT) has been demonstrated as a successful commercial phytosanitary treatment during the past two decades. Several countries currently use this technology for commercial treatments to meet plant quarantine requirements. However, hydrothermal treatment has been found to significantly affect the firmness of ;Ataulfo; mango fruit, the susceptibility to damage by cold and it also accelerates their maturation. In this study, we focused on the effect of irradiation doses on the sensorial quality and the physiochemical properties of mango cv ;Ataulfo; compared with the traditional hot water treatment. We found that doses of 150 Gy and 300 Gy of gamma radiation can be applied successfully as well as the hot water treatment. There was no significant difference in between irradiation treatments in terms of weight loss, external and internal color, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and firmness, and consumer's acceptance. There was no adverse effect of color appearance, odor and flavor, indicating that consumers will have the willingness to buy and consume irradiated mangoes. Irradiation of mangoes can be a successful post-harvest treatment as an alternative to the hot water treatment.

  12. Thermoluminescence properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles irradiated by gamma rays and 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Numan, E-mail: nsalah@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, Najlaa D. [Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Habib, Sami S. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Lochab, S.P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Carbon ions beam is recently recognized as an ideal cancer treatment modality, because of its excellent local tumor control. These ions have a high relative biological effectiveness resulting from high linear energy transfer (LET) and their sharp Bragg peak. However, the dose of those energetic ions needs to be measured with great precision using a proper dosimeter. Aluminum Oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is a highly luminescent phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry using thermoluminesence (TL) technique. In this work nanoparticles of this material activated by different elements like Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays irradiation. Tb doped sample is found to be the most sensitive sample, which could be selected for exposure to 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam in the fluence range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The obtained result shows that C ion beam irradiated sample has a simple glow curve structure with a prominent glow peak at around 230 °C. This glow curve has a dosimetric peak better than those induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10{sup 9}–10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.285–28.5 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The wide linear response of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles along with the low fading makes this low cost nanomaterial a good candidate for C ion beam dosimetry. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped with Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were synthesised. • They were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays and C ion beam irradiation. • Tb doped sample is the most sensitive sample to gamma rays. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb was exposed to 85 MeV C{sup 6+} ion beam in the fluence range 10{sup 9}-10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. • The glow peak induced by C ions has a linear response in the range 10{sup 9

  13. Thermoluminescence properties of Al2O3:Tb nanoparticles irradiated by gamma rays and 85 MeV C6+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, Numan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Habib, Sami S.; Lochab, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ions beam is recently recognized as an ideal cancer treatment modality, because of its excellent local tumor control. These ions have a high relative biological effectiveness resulting from high linear energy transfer (LET) and their sharp Bragg peak. However, the dose of those energetic ions needs to be measured with great precision using a proper dosimeter. Aluminum Oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is a highly luminescent phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry using thermoluminesence (TL) technique. In this work nanoparticles of this material activated by different elements like Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays irradiation. Tb doped sample is found to be the most sensitive sample, which could be selected for exposure to 85 MeV C 6+ ion beam in the fluence range 10 9 –10 13 ions/cm 2 . The obtained result shows that C ion beam irradiated sample has a simple glow curve structure with a prominent glow peak at around 230 °C. This glow curve has a dosimetric peak better than those induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10 9 –10 11 ions/cm 2 , corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.285–28.5 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The wide linear response of Al 2 O 3 :Tb nanoparticles along with the low fading makes this low cost nanomaterial a good candidate for C ion beam dosimetry. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Al 2 O 3 doped with Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were synthesised. • They were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays and C ion beam irradiation. • Tb doped sample is the most sensitive sample to gamma rays. • Al 2 O 3 :Tb was exposed to 85 MeV C 6+ ion beam in the fluence range 10 9 -10 13 ions/cm 2 . • The glow peak induced by C ions has a linear response in the range 10 9 -10 11 ions/cm 2

  14. The {sup 14}N(p, {gamma}){sup 15}O reaction studied at low and high beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, Michele

    2012-07-01

    The Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle consists of a set of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium and release energy in the stars. It determines the luminosity of low-metal stars at their turn-off from the main-sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, so its rate enters the calculation of the globular clusters' age, an independent lower limit on the age of the universe. The cycle contributes less than 1% to our Sun's luminosity, but it produces neutrinos that can in principle be measured on Earth in underground experiments and bring direct information of the physical conditions in the solar core, provided that the nuclear reaction rate is known with sufficient precision. The {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction is the slowest reaction of the Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle and establishes its rate. Its cross section is the sum of the contributions by capture to different excited levels and to the ground state in {sup 15}O. Recent experiments studied the region of the resonance at E{sub p} = 278 keV. Only one modern data set from an experiment performed in 1987 is available for the high-energy domain. Both energy ranges are needed to constrain the fit of the excitation function in the R-matrix framework and to obtain a reliable extrapolated S-factor at the very low astrophysical energies. The present research work studied the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction in the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) underground facility at three proton energies 0.36, 0.38, 0.40MeV, and in Dresden in the energy range E{sub p} = 0.6 - 2MeV. In both cases, an intense proton beam was sent on solid titanium nitride sputtered targets, and the prompt photons emitted from the reaction were detected with germanium detectors. At LUNA, a composite germanium detector was used. This enabled a measurement with dramatically reduced summing corrections with respect to previous studies. The cross sections for capture to the ground state and to the excited states

  15. Quantification of Arabinose content and batter volume in elite black gram mutants induced by gamma rays and electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanniarajan, C.; Sri Subalakhshmi, V.K.I.; Se Shamyugtha; Rajeswaran, G.; Monica, R.; Veni, K.

    2017-01-01

    Black gram (Vignamungo (L) Hepper) is one among the mostly preferred sources of protein, especially in vegetarian diet. One of the most notable biochemical attributes of black gram is Arabinose. As it plays a vital role in the yeast metabolism, it has a direct correlation with the battering quality of Black gram. MDU 1 variety has the highest Arabinose content of 7.5 per cent and VBN(Bg)4yields higher. Both the varieties have indeterminate growth habit. Hence, these two varieties were chosen and treated with Gamma rays and Electron beam of 100–500 Gy and 200–600 Gy respectively. Twenty desirable mutants were selected in M6 generation based on determinate growth habit and high yield with short duration. These mutants were tested for the Arabinose content along with MDU 1 and VBN (Bg)4, using Bial (1902) method. The results of the selected M6 generation mutants revealed that only three mutants excelled in Arabinose content than MDU 1. Two mutants were found to retain the same Arabinose content as that of MDU 1.Three mutants containing higher Arabinose content, one with lower Arabinose content and the parents were further analysed for batter quantity. The unveiled fact is that the increase in Arabinose content increases the batter volume to a certain extent (Arabinose = 10 %). Eventually, with a due course of increase in Arabinose content, the batter volume decreases. The results were tested for significance and were found to be significant. In this present investigation, it was found that the optimum Arabinose content is 10 per cent, which showed an increased batter volume. It has to be further confirmed by using advanced biochemical and molecular methods. (author)

  16. Gamma spectrometry on MANITU 271-01 gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Minkema, J.

    1994-08-01

    A series of irradiation experiments (271-series) is being performed of the sustain programme for material development and characterization of the NET (Next European Torus). In the framework of the first irradiation experiment 271-01, with irradiation up to 0.2 dpa, four gamma scan wires have been examined by gamma scanning. The purpose of the gamma scan wires (GSW) is to get information about the neutron fluence distribution in the capsules during irradiation. In the stainless steel wires the nuclides Co-58, Mu-54, Fe-59 and Co-60 are produced, are characteristic for fast and thermal neutron reactions. (orig./HP)

  17. SU-E-T-94: An Advanced Rotating Gamma Ray System for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Chibani, O; Li, J; Chen, L [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mora, G [Universidade de Lisboa, Codex, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Co-60 beams have unique dosimetric properties that are ideally suited for cranial treatments. Co-60 sources with cone-shaped collimators provide conformal dose distributions allowing for ablative treatments with rapid dose falloff to spare nearby critical structures. This work investigates a novel, image-guided, rotational Gamma ray system that provides both superior dose conformity/gradient and accurate stereotaxy for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: The SupeRay system (Cyber Medical Corp., China) consists of a rotating source chamber containing 30 gamma sources focusing at the isocenter with 4 collimators measuring 3, 4, 8 and 16mm in diameter. A novel switch design enables the 30 Gamma sources to be turned off at any arbitrarily selected 60° interval in order to avoid critical structures. The 3D treatment couch provides automatic treatment positioning between individual shots and the kV imaging system provides orthogonal images with a spatial resolution of 0.24mm to facilitate target localization. Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute dose distributions and compare with measurements and other Gamma ray SRS systems. Results: Monte Carlo results confirmed the SupeRay design parameters including output factors and 3D dose distributions. Its beam penumbra/dose gradient is similar to or slightly better than that of the Elekta Gamma Knife. The penumbra in the (x,y,z) direction was (7.38mm,7.38mm,3.86mm) for the 16mm collimator, (4.83mm,4.83mm,3.12mm) for the 8mm collimator, and (3.03mm,3.03mm,2.38mm) for the 4mm collimator, respectively, on the SupeRay system while it was (9.5mm,10.0mm,2.9mm), (4.3mm,4.3mm,2.9mm) and (3.2mm,3.2mm,1.9mm) for the same collimator sizes, respectively, on the Perfexion system. The kV imaging system together with a non-invasive relocatable frame provides accurate target localization (<0.5mm) for cases requiring multiple treatment fractions. Conclusion: Because of the unique dosimetric properties of Co-60 sources

  18. SU-E-T-335: Dosimetric Investigation of An Advanced Rotating Gamma Ray System for Imaged Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C; Eldib, A; Chibani, O; Li, J; Chen, L; Li, C; Mora, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-60 beams have unique dosimetric properties for cranial treatments and thoracic cancers. The conventional concern about the high surface dose is overcome by modern system designs with rotational treatment techniques. This work investigates a novel rotational Gamma ray system for image-guided, external beam radiotherapy. Methods: The CybeRT system (Cyber Medical Corp., China) consists of a ring gantry with either one or two treatment heads containing a Gamma source and a multileaf collimator (MLC). The MLC has 60 paired leaves, and the maximum field size is either 40cmx40cm (40 pairs of 0.5cm central leaves, 20 pairs of 1cm outer leaves), or 22cmx40cm (32 pairs of 0.25cm central leaves, 28 pairs of 0.5cm outer leaves). The treatment head(s) can swing 35° superiorly and 8° inferiorly, allowing a total of 43° non-coplanar beam incident. The treatment couch provides 6-degrees-of-freedom motion compensation and the kV cone-beam CT system has a spatial resolution of 0.4mm. Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute dose distributions and compare with measurements. A retrospective study of 98 previously treated patients was performed to compare CybeRT with existing RT systems. Results: Monte Carlo results confirmed the CybeRT design parameters including output factors and 3D dose distributions. Its beam penumbra/dose gradient was similar to or better than that of 6MV photon beams and its isocenter accuracy is 0.3mm. Co-60 beams produce lower-energy secondary electrons that exhibit better dose properties in low-density lung tissues. Because of their rapid depth dose falloff, Co-60 beams are favorable for peripheral lung tumors with half-arc arrangements to spare the opposite lung and critical structures. Superior dose distributions were obtained for head and neck, breast, spine and lung tumors. Conclusion: Because of its accurate dose delivery and unique dosimetric properties of C-60 sources, CybeRT is ideally suited for advanced SBRT as well as

  19. SU-E-T-335: Dosimetric Investigation of An Advanced Rotating Gamma Ray System for Imaged Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C; Eldib, A; Chibani, O; Li, J; Chen, L [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li, C [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Mora, G [Universidade de Lisboa, Codex, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Co-60 beams have unique dosimetric properties for cranial treatments and thoracic cancers. The conventional concern about the high surface dose is overcome by modern system designs with rotational treatment techniques. This work investigates a novel rotational Gamma ray system for image-guided, external beam radiotherapy. Methods: The CybeRT system (Cyber Medical Corp., China) consists of a ring gantry with either one or two treatment heads containing a Gamma source and a multileaf collimator (MLC). The MLC has 60 paired leaves, and the maximum field size is either 40cmx40cm (40 pairs of 0.5cm central leaves, 20 pairs of 1cm outer leaves), or 22cmx40cm (32 pairs of 0.25cm central leaves, 28 pairs of 0.5cm outer leaves). The treatment head(s) can swing 35° superiorly and 8° inferiorly, allowing a total of 43° non-coplanar beam incident. The treatment couch provides 6-degrees-of-freedom motion compensation and the kV cone-beam CT system has a spatial resolution of 0.4mm. Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute dose distributions and compare with measurements. A retrospective study of 98 previously treated patients was performed to compare CybeRT with existing RT systems. Results: Monte Carlo results confirmed the CybeRT design parameters including output factors and 3D dose distributions. Its beam penumbra/dose gradient was similar to or better than that of 6MV photon beams and its isocenter accuracy is 0.3mm. Co-60 beams produce lower-energy secondary electrons that exhibit better dose properties in low-density lung tissues. Because of their rapid depth dose falloff, Co-60 beams are favorable for peripheral lung tumors with half-arc arrangements to spare the opposite lung and critical structures. Superior dose distributions were obtained for head and neck, breast, spine and lung tumors. Conclusion: Because of its accurate dose delivery and unique dosimetric properties of C-60 sources, CybeRT is ideally suited for advanced SBRT as well as

  20. Performance analysis of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for WDM-based systems for Gamma-Gamma distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Yoon, Chang Seok; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme (TPMBS) for Free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has

  1. Simultaneous quantification of Li, Ti and O in Lithium titanate by particle induced gamma-ray emission using 8 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, R.; Tripathi, R.; Sodaye, S.; Sudarshan, K.; Pujari, P.K.; Rout, P.C.; Mukherjee, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous quantification of Li, Ti and O in lithium titanate (Li 2 TiO 3 ) is difficult by particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) using low energy (∼4 MeV) proton beam. PIGE method using 8 MeV proton beam at BARC-TIFR pelletron facility was standardized for compositional characterization of sol-gel synthesized Li 2 TiO 3 by determining concentrations of Li, Ti and O simultaneously. Thick targets of samples, synthetic samples and standards were prepared in graphite matrix. Beam current variation was normalized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) using a thin gold foil. The gamma-rays of 478, 981 and 6129 keV were measured from 7 Li(p, p'γ) 7 Li, 48 Ti(p, p'γ) 48 Ti and 16 O(p, p'γ) 16 O nuclear reactions for quantification of Li, Ti and O, respectively. The method was validated by determining concentrations of Li, TI and O in a synthetic sample. (author)

  2. In-situ investigation of crack propagation in {gamma}-TiAl alloys using atomic force, focus ion beam and scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Farasat; Goeken, Mathias [Lehrstuhl Allgemeine Werkstoffeigenschaften, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Pyczak, Florian [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The present study is focused on crack propagation mechanism in Ti-45Al-1Cr and Ti-45Al-5Nb alloys with lamellar microstructure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a versatile technique to study the crack propagation in-situ. AFM was employed to investigate the local deformations near the crack tip. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) supplements the in-situ observations and was used to get a basic understanding of the crack propagation path over larger distances.A focused ion beam (FIB) was used to investigate the structures and deformation traces underneath the surface. It is concluded that the {gamma}/{alpha}2 interfaces act as favorable sites for new interfacial crack nucleation and also for interlamellar crack propagation. Nucleation of new cracks was often preceded by the interaction of deformation twins with interfaces and also by strong shear band activity in the {gamma}-TiAl lamellae visible as significant surface topography in AFM.Mostly the underneath crack path follows the {gamma}/{alpha}2 interface similar to the situation observed at the surface. The local misorientation measured with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) shows {gamma}-lamellae as the region of high deformation as compare to neighboring {alpha}2 -lamellae around the crack tip and its surroundings.

  3. Research on securing no bacteria and nonfeverish property for disposable medical appliances. Inactivation of endotoxin by Co-60 γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari; Tanamoto, Kenichi; Haijima, Yuji.

    1996-01-01

    The contamination by fever-causing endotoxin has become a large problem in medical treatment field. In the industry manufacturing disposable medical appliances, the method of manufacturing endotoxin-free products is an important subject, and the development of the methods of inactivating and eliminating efficiently endotoxin is desired. As a part of this development, the possibility of inactivating endotoxin with Co-60 γ ray was examined. The sample was the endotoxin originated from E.Coli R3 F653 strain. For the irradiation, the Co-60 γ ray irradiation apparatus of 185 T-Bq in National Institute of Hygienic Sciences was used. The measurement of the activity of endotoxin was carried out by limulus test synthetic substrate method. The activity value of the endotoxin in aqueous solution decreased logarithmically with the increasing irradiation dose, and this decreasing tendency was not affected by the initial concentration of the endotoxin. The experiment of recovering freezing-dried endotoxin from a vial is described. The results of inactivating the endotoxin in dry system by γ ray are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Standard Practice for Minimizing Dosimetry Errors in Radiation Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices Using Co-60 Sources

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recommended procedures for the use of dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), to determine the absorbed dose in a region of interest within an electronic device irradiated using a Co-60 source. Co-60 sources are commonly used for the absorbed dose testing of silicon electronic devices. Note 1—This absorbed-dose testing is sometimes called “total dose testing” to distinguish it from “dose rate testing.” Note 2—The effects of ionizing radiation on some types of electronic devices may depend on both the absorbed dose and the absorbed dose rate; that is, the effects may be different if the device is irradiated to the same absorbed-dose level at different absorbed-dose rates. Absorbed-dose rate effects are not covered in this practice but should be considered in radiation hardness testing. 1.2 The principal potential error for the measurement of absorbed dose in electronic devices arises from non-equilibrium energy deposition effects in the vicinity o...

  5. Thick-target neutron, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production for protons below 12 MeV on nickel and carbon beam-stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear model calculations using the GNASH code are described for protons below 12 MeV incident on nickel and carbon isotopes, for beam stop design in the Los Alamos Accelerator Production of Tritium Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project. The GNASH calculations apply Hauser-Feshbach and preequilibrium reaction theories and can make use of pre-calculated direct reaction cross sections to low-lying residual nucleus states. From calculated thin target cross sections, thick target 6.7 MeV and 12 MeV proton-induced production of neutrons, gamma rays, and radionuclides are determined. Emission spectra of the secondary neutrons and gamma rays are also determined. The model calculations are validated through comparisons with experimental thin- and thick-target measurements. The results of this work are being utilized as source terms in MCNP analyses for LEDA

  6. SU-F-T-215: An Investigation Of Multi-Scanner CT Hounsfield Unit Calibration for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy Using 3D Gamma Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Li, X; Liu, G; Liu, Q; Liang, J; Ding, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We compare and investigate the dosimetric impacts on pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton treatment plans generated with CT calibration curves from four different CT scanners and one averaged ‘global’ CT calibration curve. Methods: The four CT scanners are located at three different hospital locations within the same health system. CT density calibration curves were collected from these scanners using the same CT calibration phantom and acquisition parameters. Mass density to HU value tables were then commissioned in a commercial treatment planning system. Five disease sites were chosen for dosimetric comparisons at brain, lung, head and neck, adrenal, and prostate. Three types of PBS plans were generated at each treatment site using SFUD, IMPT, and robustness optimized IMPT techniques. 3D dose differences were investigated using 3D Gamma analysis. Results: The CT calibration curves for all four scanners display very similar shapes. Large HU differences were observed at both the high HU and low HU regions of the curves. Large dose differences were generally observed at the distal edges of the beams and they are beam angle dependent. Out of the five treatment sites, lung plans exhibits the most overall range uncertainties and prostate plans have the greatest dose discrepancy. There are no significant differences between the SFUD, IMPT, and the RO-IMPT methods. 3D gamma analysis with 3%, 3 mm criteria showed all plans with greater than 95% passing rate. Two of the scanners with close HU values have negligible dose difference except for lung. Conclusion: Our study shows that there are more than 5% dosimetric differences between different CT calibration curves. PBS treatment plans generated with SFUD, IMPT, and the robustness optimized IMPT has similar sensitivity to the CT density uncertainty. More patient data and tighter gamma criteria based on structure location and size will be used for further investigation.

  7. Comparative feasibility of gamma, electron beam and x-rays facilities at the Kuala Lumpur International airport (KLIA), Sepang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad Lebai Juri; Sidek Othman; Wan Mashol Wan Zain; Ridzuan Ismail

    1997-01-01

    Malaysia is one of the world's leading producers of rubber, palm oil and cocoa beans. There is a great concern within the commodity industries of the possible outbreak of plant diseases yet to be detected in the country but endemic in the South American tropics and Africa. The risk of transferring the diseases to Malaysia are high because of increasing contacts between Malaysia and the South American countries and Africa through trades, tourism and the South-South cooperation. Diseases of particular importance are the South American leaf blight (SALB) of rubber, vascular wilts of oil palm and witches'broom of cocoa caused by Microcyclus ulei, Fusarium oxysporum f sp. elaeidies and Crinipellis pemiciosa (Stahel) Singer respectively. Recent estimates by the Agriculture Department of Malaysia indicated in the event of large scale attack by SALB on rubber would result in revenue loss of a staggering RM 3-3.5 billion per annum, an equivalent of 70% loss in rubber acreage. This excludes massive unemployment in the rubber industry and cost of cleaning up activities to eradicate and free plantations of SALB. Recurring attacks of the diseases cannot be discounted given the fact that spores of fungi can remain dormant for years but still viable. Stringent control and quarantine steps are presently being exercised by the authorities to intercept at airports and hence prevent entry of infectious plant diseases in Malaysia. Many of the measures using chemicals, ultra violet light (UV), steam sterilization, air blowers etc. are not sufficiently effective in killing fungi especially when spores are carried in the personal belongings of air-passengers. There was suggestion that ionizing radiation offers alternative to the present methods for intercepting pathogens at the port of entry. This paper will firstly, discuss results on the investigations carried out to compare the effectiveness of various ionizing radiation sources, i.e., gamma, electron beam and x-rays; chemicals and UV

  8. The Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Image Guided Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Initial Clinical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Winnie; Cho, Young-Bin [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ansell, Steve [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Laperriere, Normand; Ménard, Cynthia; Millar, Barbara-Ann [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh [Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto University Health Network, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Macfeeters-Hamilton Centre for Neuro-oncology, Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kongkham, Paul; Bernstein, Mark [Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto University Health Network, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chung, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.chung.md@gmail.com [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: The present study used cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to measure the inter- and intrafraction uncertainties for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using the Leksell Gamma Knife (GK). Methods and Materials: Using a novel CBCT system adapted to the GK radiosurgery treatment unit, CBCT images were acquired immediately before and after treatment for each treatment session within the context of a research ethics board–approved prospective clinical trial. Patients were immobilized in the Leksell coordinate frame (LCF) for both volumetric CBCT imaging and GK-SRS delivery. The relative displacement of the patient's skull to the stereotactic reference (interfraction motion) was measured for each CBCT scan. Differences between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans were used to determine the intrafraction motion. Results: We analyzed 20 pre- and 17 post-treatment CBCT scans in 20 LCF patients treated with SRS. The mean translational pretreatment setup error ± standard deviation in the left-right, anteroposterior, and craniocaudal directions was −0.19 ± 0.32, 0.06 ± 0.27, and −0.23 ± 0.2 mm, with a maximum of −0.74, −0.53, and −0.68 mm, respectively. After an average time between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans of 82 minutes (range 27-170), the mean intrafraction error ± standard deviation for the LCF was −0.03 ± 0.05, −0.03 ± 0.18, and −0.03 ± 0.12 mm in the left-right, anteroposterior, and craniocaudual direction, respectively. Conclusions: Using CBCT on a prototype image guided GK Perfexion unit, we were able to measure the inter- and intrafraction positional changes for GK-SRS using the invasive frame. In the era of image guided radiation therapy, the use of CBCT image guidance for both frame- and non–frame-based immobilization systems could serve as a useful quality assurance tool. Our preliminary measurements can guide the application of achievable thresholds for inter- and intrafraction

  9. The Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Image Guided Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Initial Clinical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Winnie; Cho, Young-Bin; Ansell, Steve; Laperriere, Normand; Ménard, Cynthia; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Zadeh, Gelareh; Kongkham, Paul; Bernstein, Mark; Jaffray, David A.; Chung, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study used cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to measure the inter- and intrafraction uncertainties for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using the Leksell Gamma Knife (GK). Methods and Materials: Using a novel CBCT system adapted to the GK radiosurgery treatment unit, CBCT images were acquired immediately before and after treatment for each treatment session within the context of a research ethics board–approved prospective clinical trial. Patients were immobilized in the Leksell coordinate frame (LCF) for both volumetric CBCT imaging and GK-SRS delivery. The relative displacement of the patient's skull to the stereotactic reference (interfraction motion) was measured for each CBCT scan. Differences between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans were used to determine the intrafraction motion. Results: We analyzed 20 pre- and 17 post-treatment CBCT scans in 20 LCF patients treated with SRS. The mean translational pretreatment setup error ± standard deviation in the left-right, anteroposterior, and craniocaudal directions was −0.19 ± 0.32, 0.06 ± 0.27, and −0.23 ± 0.2 mm, with a maximum of −0.74, −0.53, and −0.68 mm, respectively. After an average time between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans of 82 minutes (range 27-170), the mean intrafraction error ± standard deviation for the LCF was −0.03 ± 0.05, −0.03 ± 0.18, and −0.03 ± 0.12 mm in the left-right, anteroposterior, and craniocaudual direction, respectively. Conclusions: Using CBCT on a prototype image guided GK Perfexion unit, we were able to measure the inter- and intrafraction positional changes for GK-SRS using the invasive frame. In the era of image guided radiation therapy, the use of CBCT image guidance for both frame- and non–frame-based immobilization systems could serve as a useful quality assurance tool. Our preliminary measurements can guide the application of achievable thresholds for inter- and intrafraction

  10. Gamma ray induced fruit quality variations in banana variety Nendran (Musa Paradasiaca L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha Devi, D.S.; Nayer, N.K.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma ray induced fruit quality variation was envisaged to analyse the direct effect of Co 60 gamma rays in banana variety Nendran. Fruit quality analysis showed that the total soluble solids and acidity decreased and total sugar and sugar acid ratio increased with increase in dose of gamma ray exposures. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  11. Dose distribution in the area of the operative cicatrice and the problem of local reccurences during postoperative external beam gamma therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, Y.; Ivanova, K.; Penchev, V.

    1982-01-01

    Five-year experience is recorded with treatment of 503 patients with breast cancer, who received postoperative external beam gamma therapy, and the developement of local reccurences. Results are reported of dosimetric studies in the irradiated area, especially the thoracic wall, where total focal doses of 50 had been realized. The clinical results of treatment are discussed on this basis. Comparison is made with data available in the literature on the incidence, localization and time of development of local reccurences and the methods of treatment of the basic disease. The need of postoperative radiation treatment, particularly in the later stages of the disease, is pointed out. (authors)

  12. Determination of boron in ceramic reference materials by prompt gamma activation analysis using focused neutron guided beam of JRR-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, T.; Kuroiwa, T.; Chiba, K.; Matsue, H.

    2008-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis using a focused thermal neutron guided beam at JAEA JRR-3M was applied to the determination of B in ceramic certified reference materials (BAM CRM S-003 Silicon Carbide Powder and NMIJ CRM 8004-a Silicon Nitride Powder). Cl and Si were used as internal standards to obtain linear calibration curves of B. The analytical result of B in BAM CRM S-003 was in good agreement with the certified value. The relative expanded measurement uncertainties (k = 2) were 4.8% for BAM CRM S-003 and 4.9% for NMIJ CRM 8004-a. (author)

  13. Estimation of Ni63, Pu241, Pu242 and Am243 from Co60, Pu239, and Cm244 activities in groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Part B Permit for F ampersand H Seepage Basins calls for analysis of several constituents of concern in groundwater monitoring wells. Four of these analytes are the radionuclides Ni 63 , Pu 241 , Pu 242 , and Am 243 . These are currently not being analyzed due to their very difficult, tedious analytical schemes coupled with their relatively low activity values. This report demonstrates how the activity value for Ni 63 , a week beta emitter, can be estimated from that of Co 60 , an easily detectable, high-energy gamma emitter. Similarly, estimates of Pu 241 , a beta emitter, and the alpha-emitting Pu 242 can be made from the activity value of the more easily detected Pu 239 . Am 243 can be estimated from the activity of Cm 244 , which is easier to detect because of a shorter half-life (higher specific activity) and the emission of higher energy alpha particles. These correlations are made under very specific parameters in order to ensure the validity of this approach. Therefore, assumptions must be established setting ground rules for establishing these activity relationships. Bases for these assumptions are explained and/or referenced. Their degree of uncertainty limits the accuracy of the data so that the term ''estimate'' is used. Such soundly-based, conservative estimates for these four rads can provide a tool for evaluating any hazards from their presence over the next several years. Hopefully, during this time, sufficient advances will be made in their radiochemical analyses and in counting techniques so that in the future, their activities may be quantitatively determined more easily and also more cost effectively

  14. Correlation between Co-60 and X-ray exposures on radiation-induced charge buildup in silicon-on-insulator buried oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Loemker, Rhonda Ann; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.; Witczak, StevenN C.; Riewe, Leonard Charles; Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.-L.; Fleetwood, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Large differences in charge buildup in SOI buried oxides can result between x-ray and Co-60 irradiations. The effects of bias configuration and substrate type on charge buildup and hardness assurance issues are explored

  15. Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation in gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon) and house rat (Rattus rattus rufescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, V.P.; Agrawal, M.; Gupta, C.

    1976-01-01

    Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation has been studied in domestic and desert rat species. A significant elevation in the serum transaminases activity was noticed both in gerbil and house rat. Alkaline phosphatase and plasma cholesterol levels were also increased indicating an early radiation impairment of the liver tissue, which was later confirmed by histological studies. A steady fall in liver glycogen in irradiated gerbils was strikingly in contrast to an increase in irradiated house rat. Drastic depletion in liver glycogen, changes in the serum enzyme levels and the severity of the hepatic necrosis in gerbils point out that desert mammalian species are much more sensitive to radiation hazard as compared with domestic ones. (orig.) [de

  16. Monte Carlo dosimetric characterization of the Flexisource Co-60 high-dose-rate brachytherapy source using PENELOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansa, Julio F; Guerrero, Rafael; Torres, Javier; Lallena, Antonio M

    60 Co sources have been commercialized as an alternative to 192 Ir sources for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. One of them is the Flexisource Co-60 HDR source manufactured by Elekta. The only available dosimetric characterization of this source is that of Vijande et al. [J Contemp Brachytherapy 2012; 4:34-44], whose results were not included in the AAPM/ESTRO consensus document. In that work, the dosimetric quantities were calculated as averages of the results obtained with the Geant4 and PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) codes, though for other sources, significant differences have been quoted between the values obtained with these two codes. The aim of this work is to perform the dosimetric characterization of the Flexisource Co-60 HDR source using PENELOPE. The MC simulation code PENELOPE (v. 2014) has been used. Following the recommendations of the AAPM/ESTRO report, the radial dose function, the anisotropy function, the air-kerma strength, the dose rate constant, and the absorbed dose rate in water have been calculated. The results we have obtained exceed those of Vijande et al. In particular, the absorbed dose rate constant is ∼0.85% larger. A similar difference is also found in the other dosimetric quantities. The effect of the electrons emitted in the decay of 60 Co, usually neglected in this kind of simulations, is significant up to the distances of 0.25 cm from the source. The systematic and significant differences we have found between PENELOPE results and the average values found by Vijande et al. point out that the dosimetric characterizations carried out with the various MC codes should be provided independently. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS): a versatile tool for radioactive beam physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, G. C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Chen, A.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Cline, D.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gagon-Moisan, F.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Hackman, G.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Savajols, H.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, D. P.; Svensson, C. E.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Wu, C. Y.

    2007-05-01

    TIGRESS is a new generation γ-ray spectrometer designed for use with radioactive beams from ISAC. This paper gives an overview of the project and presents results from the first radioactive beam experiment with TIGRESS, the Coulomb excitation of 20,21Na.

  18. A comparison of mutagenic effects of common wheat by electron beam, fast neutron and 60Co gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Daochang; Wang Linqing

    1988-02-01

    After winter wheat was irradiated by electron beam, fast neutron and γ-rays, respectively, the RBE value of electron beam to both fast neutrons and γ-rays was less than one, the RBE value of fast neutron to γ-rays was largely more than one. This results indicated that biological effect of M 1 generation induced by electron beam was less than that of fast neutrons very much, and similar to γ-ray irradiation. With electron beam irradiation, the half-lethal doses of M 1 generation were from 185 to 370 Gy, closer to 370 Gy, the lethal doses from 740 to 925 Gy. M 2 mutation efficiency with electron beam treatment was larger as compared with that with both fast neutrons and γ-rays. A wider mutation spectrum and higher mutation efficiency compared with other physical mutagens can be obtained with electron beam irradiation, about 30% higher than that with γ-ray irradiation. The best doses of irradiation with electron beam were 370 to 555 Gy. Fast neutrons, a better dose of which was 25 Gy, could induce more mutants than that with γ-rays in M 2 generation. The dose in which biological injury reached to 50% was the best dose for M 2 mutants by electron beam irradiation

  19. Adaptive fractionated stereotactic Gamma Knife radiotherapy of meningioma using integrated stereotactic cone-beam-CT and adaptive re-planning (a-gkFSRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieler, F.; Wenz, F.; Abo-Madyan, Y.; Schweizer, B.; Polednik, M.; Herskind, C.; Giordano, F.A.; Mai, S. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    The Gamma Knife Icon (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) allows frameless stereotactic treatment using a combination of cone beam computer tomography (CBCT), a thermoplastic mask system, and an infrared-based high-definition motion management (HDMM) camera system for patient tracking during treatment. We report on the first patient with meningioma at the left petrous bone treated with adaptive fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (a-gkFSRT). The first patient treated with Gamma Knife Icon at our institute received MR imaging for preplanning before treatment. For each treatment fraction, a daily CBCT was performed to verify the actual scull/tumor position. The system automatically adapted the planned shot positions to the daily position and recalculated the dose distribution (online adaptive planning). During treatment, the HDMM system recorded the intrafractional patient motion. Furthermore, the required times were recorded to define a clinical treatment slot. Total treatment time was around 20 min. Patient positioning needed 0.8 min, CBCT positioning plus acquisition 1.65 min, CT data processing and adaptive planning 2.66 min, and treatment 15.6 min. The differences for the five daily CBCTs compared to the reference are for rotation: -0.59 ± 0.49 /0.18 ± 0.20 /0.05 ± 0.36 and for translation: 0.94 ± 0.52 mm/-0.08 ± 0.08 mm/-1.13 ± 0.89 mm. Over all fractions, an intrafractional movement of 0.13 ± 0.04 mm was observed. The Gamma Knife Icon allows combining the accuracy of the stereotactic Gamma Knife system with the flexibility of fractionated treatment with the mask system and CBCT. Furthermore, the Icon system introduces a new online patient tracking system to the clinical routine. The interfractional accuracy of patient positioning was controlled with a thermoplastic mask and CBCT. (orig.) [German] Das Gamma Knife Icon (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Schweden) ermoeglicht die stereotaktische Behandlung von Patienten mittels Cone-beam-Computertomographie (CBCT

  20. Adaptive fractionated stereotactic Gamma Knife radiotherapy of meningioma using integrated stereotactic cone-beam-CT and adaptive re-planning (a-gkFSRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieler, F.; Wenz, F.; Abo-Madyan, Y.; Schweizer, B.; Polednik, M.; Herskind, C.; Giordano, F.A.; Mai, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma Knife Icon (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) allows frameless stereotactic treatment using a combination of cone beam computer tomography (CBCT), a thermoplastic mask system, and an infrared-based high-definition motion management (HDMM) camera system for patient tracking during treatment. We report on the first patient with meningioma at the left petrous bone treated with adaptive fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (a-gkFSRT). The first patient treated with Gamma Knife Icon at our institute received MR imaging for preplanning before treatment. For each treatment fraction, a daily CBCT was performed to verify the actual scull/tumor position. The system automatically adapted the planned shot positions to the daily position and recalculated the dose distribution (online adaptive planning). During treatment, the HDMM system recorded the intrafractional patient motion. Furthermore, the required times were recorded to define a clinical treatment slot. Total treatment time was around 20 min. Patient positioning needed 0.8 min, CBCT positioning plus acquisition 1.65 min, CT data processing and adaptive planning 2.66 min, and treatment 15.6 min. The differences for the five daily CBCTs compared to the reference are for rotation: -0.59 ± 0.49 /0.18 ± 0.20 /0.05 ± 0.36 and for translation: 0.94 ± 0.52 mm/-0.08 ± 0.08 mm/-1.13 ± 0.89 mm. Over all fractions, an intrafractional movement of 0.13 ± 0.04 mm was observed. The Gamma Knife Icon allows combining the accuracy of the stereotactic Gamma Knife system with the flexibility of fractionated treatment with the mask system and CBCT. Furthermore, the Icon system introduces a new online patient tracking system to the clinical routine. The interfractional accuracy of patient positioning was controlled with a thermoplastic mask and CBCT. (orig.) [de

  1. Influence of 60Co gamma radiation on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) and beams Phaseolus vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes Rego, A.F. de; Rodrigues, Z.A.; Oliveira, M.L. de; Santana, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Influence of gamma radiation on Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh, 1833) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) and the beans Phaseolus vulgaris (L.). The effects of 60 CO gamma radiation, 50 Gy, on both Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) seedbeans and adults of Zabrotes subfasciatus were studied using the no free choise method. Radiation decreased insect fertility hence insect population and it damage loss of weight and germination of seedbeans. However, radiation resulted in abnamal seedlings, showing various degrees of morphological malformation, although there was no effect on germination rates or seedling vigor. (Author) [pt

  2. EXILL - a high-efficiency, high-resolution setup for gamma-spectroscopy at an intense cold neutron beam facility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jentschel, M.; Blanc, A.; de France, G.; Koster, U.; Leoni, S.; Mutti, P.; Simpson, G. S.; Krtička, M.; Tomandl, Ivo; Valenta, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), č. článku P11003. ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumentation for neutron sources * gamma detectors * spectrometers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  3. A comprehensive study on HDR brachytherapy treatments of cervical cancers: using the first Co-60 BEBIG Multisource Unit in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naheed Rukhsana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The report presents an extraordinary synthesis of customer acceptance procedures (CAP, quality assurance tests (QA in the treatment of cervical cancer patients, using the first Co-60 Multisource Unit® in Bangladesh. The QA and commissioning required measurements and emergency tests verifying the functional limits of parameters acceptable for the new HDR afterloader. Acceptable limits were: 1 the deviation between specified and measured source strength: ± 3%; 2 the positional accuracy and uniformity: ± 1 mm; 3 the temporal accuracy (i.e. timer error and linearity and end error: ± 1% or 30 sec.; 4 treatment planning system (digitizer and localization software: ± 3% or 1 mm; 5 the distance from line to first dwell position and all the others: 5 mm and 10 mm (± 1 mm. Material and methods: Till February 2011, 47 patients were treated with HDR with more than 140 insertions applied. Amongst them, 12 patients were in stage IIB and IIIB, 22 were postoperative (IA and IB while the remaining 13 patients were with unknown stage. All the cases with stage IIB and IIIB received concurrent chemo-radiation and brachytherapy. Postoperative patients received EBRT (50 Gy and HDR according to the institutional protocol. CT scans were completed before HDR-plus planning with a good reproducibility (± 2% and were documented in repeating the plan for the same set up of a patient. Absorbed dose (Gy to a point P, at a distance of “r” in centimeters from a source of the Reference Air Kerma Rate (RAKR has been utilized for the QA of the source, where source strength measurement was accomplished. Results: All methods and analysis applicable to the QA and commissioning of Co-60 have been investigated and systematically analyzed, measured and documented before the treatment of a patient. Studies and safety requirements of this HDR remote afterloader were carried out. Acceptance and the QA were imperative to justify functionality and dependability in

  4. A comprehensive study on HDR brachytherapy treatments of cervical cancers: using the first Co-60 BEBIG Multisource Unit in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sadiq R; Banu, Parvin A; Rukhsana, Naheed

    2011-06-01

    The report presents an extraordinary synthesis of customer acceptance procedures (CAP), quality assurance tests (QA) in the treatment of cervical cancer patients, using the first Co-60 Multisource Unit ® in Bangladesh. The QA and commissioning required measurements and emergency tests verifying the functional limits of parameters acceptable for the new HDR afterloader. Acceptable limits were: 1) the deviation between specified and measured source strength: ± 3%; 2) the positional accuracy and uniformity: ± 1 mm; 3) the temporal accuracy (i.e. timer error and linearity and end error): ± 1% or 30 sec.; 4) treatment planning system (digitizer and localization software): ± 3% or 1 mm; 5) the distance from line to first dwell position and all the others: 5 mm and 10 mm (± 1 mm). Till February 2011, 47 patients were treated with HDR with more than 140 insertions applied. Amongst them, 12 patients were in stage IIB and IIIB, 22 were postoperative (IA and IB) while the remaining 13 patients were with unknown stage. All the cases with stage IIB and IIIB received concurrent chemo-radiation and brachytherapy. Postoperative patients received EBRT (50 Gy and HDR) according to the institutional protocol. CT scans were completed before HDR-plus planning with a good reproducibility (± 2%) and were documented in repeating the plan for the same set up of a patient. Absorbed dose (Gy) to a point P, at a distance of "r" in centimeters from a source of the Reference Air Kerma Rate (RAKR) has been utilized for the QA of the source, where source strength measurement was accomplished. All methods and analysis applicable to the QA and commissioning of Co-60 have been investigated and systematically analyzed, measured and documented before the treatment of a patient. Studies and safety requirements of this HDR remote afterloader were carried out. Acceptance and the QA were imperative to justify functionality and dependability in delivering the treatment. Implications of these studies

  5. Electron beam sterilization of water discharged from sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Teijiro; Arai, Hidehiko; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Machi, Sueo; Kondo, Masaki; Minemura, Takashi; Nakao, Akio; Seike, Yasuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    At present, the water treated at city sewerages is discharged to rivers after the chlorine sterilization, but it was clarified recently that this chlorine treatment produces carcinogenic organic chlorine compounds, and residual chlorine exerts harmful effect to aquatics, therefore, it is desirable to develop the sterilization techniques substituting for chlorine treatment. Already many reports elucidated that irradiation is effective for the sterilization of the water discharged from sewerage. However, as the technical subject for putting radiation process in practical use, the treatment of large quantity was a problem. Recently by the progress of the technology of manufacturing electron accelerators, the equipment with large power output which can treat in large quantity was developed, and it has become applicable also to sewage treatment. Therefore, the authors examined the practicality of electron beam process as the substitute technology for chlorine sterilizaiton. In the case of using electron beam, though the power output of accelerators is large, the flight range of electron beam in water is short. The comparison of the sterilization effect of electron beam with that of Co-60 gamma ray, the effects of water depth, discharged water quality and water velocity on the sterilization effect and so on were experimentally examined. (K.I.)

  6. Disinfection of Water and Wastewater Using Gamma Irradiation in Isfahan Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the disinfection of water and wastewater, water samples were collected from raw and filtered water and wastewater samples were taken from the effluent of the secondary sedimentation, polished effluent (1-day retention time, and also from filtered (rapid sand filter effluent. The samples were irradiated with gamma collimated beam in a batch system using a Co-60 therapeutic gamma radiation machine with a radioactive source emission rate of 405.38CGy/min at different doses of 20-160 Gy and 80-240 Gy, respectively. The samples were analyzed before and after irradiation for total and fecal coliforms. It was observed that nearly 100% reduction was achieved in total and fecal coliforms in water samples treated with a dose of 160 Gy. Depending on effluent quality, disinfection efficiencies achieved using 240 Gy gamma irradiation for inactivation of total coliforms in wastewater samples were 83, 64, and 56 percent for filtered, clarified, and secondary effluents, respectively. The same values were nearly 81, 58, and 46 percent, respectively, for inactivation of fecal coliforms. At lower doses of 120-240Gy, the coliform bacteria were successfully inactivated. It was concluded that a linear correlation holds between the dose delivered and the inactivation of microorganisms, so that inactivation increases with increasing irradiation time.

  7. Measurement of beam asymmetries in the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{eta} with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutz, Eric Paul-Maria

    2011-07-01

    The photoproduction of mesons off the nucleon provides an excellent tool to gain further insight into the structure of baryons and their excitation spectrum. A large number of final states yielding various resonance contributions are accessible in photoproduction experiments. Especially in the regime of high-lying resonances, the photoproduction of multi-meson final states is of increasing importance, giving access to sequential decays of such resonances via e.g. {delta}(1232)P{sub 33} or N(1535)S{sub 11} in the intermediate state. For a complete understanding of the processes involved, however, it is insufficient to measure only unpolarized total and differential cross sections. The extraction of polarization observables from data obtained using polarized beams and targets is mandatory to constrain theoretical models and analyses and to uniquely determine the amplitudes participating in a given process. This work presents the analysis of data taken with the Crystal-Barrel/TAPS experiment at the accelerator facility ELSA in Bonn, using a linearly polarized photon beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. The detector system is optimized for the detection of multi-photon final states. The data has been selected for the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{eta} {yields} p4{gamma} for an incoming photon energy range of 970 MeV to 1650 MeV. In this range, photon polarizations of up to 50% have been achieved. From this data, all polarization observables accessible with a linearly polarized photon beam and an unpolarized target have been extracted. This includes the beam asymmetry sum, determined as a function of various invariant masses and angles using a quasi two-body approach, along with the three-body asymmetries I{sup c} and I{sup s}. The latter two observables are unique to the acoplanar kinematics of multi-meson final states and have been measured for the first time within this work. The comparison of the results to solutions derived from various theoretical

  8. Study of X-Ray and $\\gamma$-Ray Spectra from Antiprotonic Atoms at the Slowly Extracted Antiproton Beam of LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will study the X-ray spectra of antiprotonic atoms and the $\\gamma$ spectra of residual nuclei after the antiproton absorption. We intend to begin with measurements on selected isotopically pure targets. Strong interaction effects, the antiproton absorption and the atomic cascade are analysed through the measurement of energies, lineshapes, relative and absolute intensities of all observable lines. The experiments are continued to determine st in resolved fine structure levels and in different isotopes of the same element. Coincidence techniques may be applied. All components of the experimental set-up are already existing from previous experiments and we could begin the measurements with any slowly extracted beam of low energy at LEAR.

  9. Comparison of the changes of the antigenicities of a hen's egg albumin by a gamma and an electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Department of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji-Hyun [Department of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Department of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo-Young [Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of medicine, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Department of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-05-15

    The study was conducted to compare the radiation types of a gamma ray and an electron beam for the inhibition and reduction of a food allergy. OVA (2 mg/ml) were irradiated at 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Patterns detected by the SDS-PAGE and an immunoblot showed that the intact OVA band disappeared and that it was dependant upon the radiation doses regardless of the radiation types. Binding abilities of the irradiated OVA against the monoclonal IgG and the egg allergic patients' IgE decreased due to a conformational change of the epitope, but differences from using the two different radiation types were not observed. The results indicate that both the radiation types can be used for an inhibition and a reduction of a food allergy regardless of the radiation types.

  10. The effects of proton-beam quality on the production of gamma rays for nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graybill, R.; Morgado, R.E.; Cappiello, C.C.

    1994-05-01

    The authors describe a method for performing nuclear-resonance absorption with the proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. The objective was to assess the suitability of the pulsed beam from an RFQ to image nitrogen compared to electrostatic accelerators. This choice of accelerator results in trade-offs in performance and complexity, in return for the prospect of higher average current. In spite of a reduced resonance attenuation coefficient in nitrogen, they successfully produced three-dimensional tomographic images of real explosives in luggage the first time the unoptimized system was operated. The results and assessments of the initial laboratory measurements are reported

  11. The effects of proton-beam quality on the production of gamma rays for nuclear resonance absorption in nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graybill, R. [ed.; Morgado, R.E.; Cappiello, C.C. [and others

    1994-05-01

    The authors describe a method for performing nuclear-resonance absorption with the proton beam from a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. The objective was to assess the suitability of the pulsed beam from an RFQ to image nitrogen compared to electrostatic accelerators. This choice of accelerator results in trade-offs in performance and complexity, in return for the prospect of higher average current. In spite of a reduced resonance attenuation coefficient in nitrogen, they successfully produced three-dimensional tomographic images of real explosives in luggage the first time the unoptimized system was operated. The results and assessments of the initial laboratory measurements are reported.

  12. The Design of a Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Beam for BNCT Purpose at the TRIGA Mark II Reactor in Pavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, S.; Bazani, A.; Ballarini, F.; Bortolussi, S.; Protti, N.; Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Section of Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    In preclinical and clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy studies the knowledge of the amount of {sup 10}B in blood and tissues is very important. The boron concentration measurements method used in Pavia (Italy) is based on the charged particles spectrometry of thin tissue cuts irradiated in the Thermal Column of the TRIGA reactor of the University. In order to perform measurements in biological liquids such as blood and urine, or in other tissue that cannot be cut in slices, a Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility is being designed, which measures {sup 10}B concentration detecting the prompt gamma from boron nuclear capture reaction. At the TRIGA reactor in Pavia, there are four horizontal channels, potentially available for PGNAA. The choice of the suitable channel, and the design of its configuration, were achieved using the Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP4c2. To perform the simulations, an input code already validated, describing the reactor structure and the neutron source, was used. The calculations were implemented applying non-analog techniques for the neutron transport, that are necessary to obtain a sufficient statistic in every positions along the channel and especially at its end. The selection of the channel for PGNAA installation was carried out by comparing the simulated fluxes obtained in the different channels at the present configuration. The channel shielded by the core reflector was chosen, because the graphite lowers the fast component of the neutrons, with no need to insert additional material in the facility. The thermal flux at its end is 1.7 x 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} s with thermal-to-total neutron flux ratio around 0.8. Subsequently a bismuth block for gamma radiation shielding and blocks of single crystal sapphire as filter for fast neutron component were inserted in the channel. Other components of the facility that are under study are a collimator and the beam catcher. (author)

  13. Absorbed dose to water comparison between NE 2561 and NE 2671 chambers using IAEA, HPA and NACP protocols for gamma ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Taufik Dolah; Noriah Mod Ali; Taiman Kadni

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study to evaluate the performance of NE 2571 chamber in comparison with NE 2561 chamber in determination of the absorbed dose to water in gamma ray beam. In this study NE 2561 is taking as a reference standard chamber while NE 2571 as a working standard. Irradiation of chamber (alternately) was performed at a reference depth, 5 cm, inside the IAEA water phantom. Both chambers were exposed to 13 difference exposures of gamma rays. The values of absorbed dose to water were then determined using IAEA, HPA and NACP protocols. Deviations of absorbed dose determined by NE 2561 and NE 2571 were calculated for each protocol. result obtained in terms of [protocol, μ (mean deviation) ± σ s e (standard error)] were (IAEA, 1.12 ± 0.04], [HPA, 0.09 ± 0.04], and [NCP, 0.09 ± 0.04]. It can be concluded that NE 2571 shown acceptable performance as it is within acceptable limit ± 3%. (Author)

  14. Performance evaluation of a drag-disc turbine transducer and three-beam gamma densitometer under transient two-phase flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalezny, C.L.; Chen, L.L.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    One of the primary variables measured in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program is mass flow rate. LOFT uses drag-disc turbine tranducers (DTT) and a three-beam gamma densitometer to measure parameters from which mass flow may be computed. The transducer combination was performance tested under transient conditions in the blowdown loop at the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF). The performance tests consisted of three partial blowdowns of different durations starting from the same initial conditions. The reference mean mass flow rate was determined by measuring the amount of water required to reestablish initial conditions after each partial blowdown. The average mass flow rates computed from the output of the drag disc, turbine, and gamma densitometer were compared to the reference mean mass flow rates over three blowdown intervals. The tests indicated that the equal phase velocity mass measurement model provided excellent results through the use of the turbine and densitometer, and drag disc and densitometer when the phase velocities were nearly equal

  15. An experimental study of the effect of Co-60 irradiation on the healing process of extraction wounds in white rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Young Jun; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Dental Radiology, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-11-15

    Because of the development of rampant caries, osteomyelitis and osteoradionecrosis that occur after radiation therapy of oral cancers, extraction of teeth at or near the malignant lesion has been done in the past. Few, however, have studied the radiation effect on the healing of extraction wounds. The study is concerned with the effect of Co-60 irradiation on the healing process of extraction wounds in rats. Fifty six, male, Sprague-Dawley rats are used. The right first molar of the mandible is extracted from all animals. They are divided into three experimental groups of 14 each and a control group of 14. There experimental groups are irradiated respectively with 200 rad, 400 rad and 600 rad and a pair of rats in each group are killed on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after irradiation. Two animals from the control group are killed on the day when the experimental rats are killed. The irradiated hemimandibles are fixed in 10% neutral formalin, decalcified in 5% trichloroacetic acid, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. The sections are stained in hematoxylin and eosin, van Gison, Masson's trichrome or silver nitrate. Results show that in general radiation effects on healing extraction wounds are dose dependent; i.e., the higher is the dose, the greater is the histologic changes observed: 1. Irradiation tends to retard blood clot organization and epithelial regeneration. 2. An increase in the number of giant cells and osteoclasts is noted after irradiation. 3. Formation of regenerating connective tissues around and within the extraction site is compromised, and a clear reduction of primitive mesenchymal type connective cells is noted. 4. The healing process begins along the lateral aspect of the extraction socket in the control, while irregular histologic appearances of the trabecular pattern is present in the experimental rats.

  16. Attenuation of a non-parallel beam of gamma radiation by thick shielding-application to the determination of the 235U enrichment with NaI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortreau, Patricia; Berndt, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    The traditional method used to determine the Uranium enrichment by nondestructive analysis is based on the 'enrichment meter principle' [1]. It involves measuring the intensity of the 186 keV net peak area of 235 U in 'quasi-infinite' samples. A prominent factor, which affects the peak intensity, is the presence of gamma absorbing material (e.g., container wall, detector cover) between the sample and the detector. Its effect is taken into consideration in a commonly called 'wall thickness' correction factor. Often calculated on the basis of approximations, its performance is adequate for small attenuation factors applicable to the case of narrow beams. However these approximations do not lead to precise results when wide non-parallel beams are attenuated through thick container walls. This paper is dedicated to the calculation by numerical integration of the geometrical correction factor (K wtc ) which describes the effective mean path length of the radiation through the absorbing layer. This factor was calculated as a function of various measurement parameters (types and dimensions of the detector, of the collimator and of the shielding) for the most commonly used collimator shapes and detectors. Both coherent scattering (Rayleigh) and incoherent scattering (Compton) are taken into account for the calculation of the radiation interaction within the detector

  17. 10 μ m-thick four-quadrant transmissive silicon photodiodes for beam position monitor application: electrical characterization and gamma irradiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafí, J. M.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Godignon, P.; Matilla, O.; Juanhuix, J.; Fontserè, A.; Molas, B.; Pothin, D.; Fajardo, P.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon photodiodes are very useful devices as X-ray beam monitors in synchrotron radiation beamlines. Owing to Si absorption, devices thinner than 10 μ m are needed to achieve transmission over 90% for energies above 10 keV . In this work, new segmented four-quadrant diodes for beam alignment purposes are fabricated on both ultrathin (10 μ m-thick) and bulk silicon substrates. Four-quadrant diodes implementing different design parameters as well as auxiliary test structures (single diodes and MOS capacitors) are studied. An extensive electrical characterization, including current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) techniques, is carried out on non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated devices up to 100 Mrad doses. Special attention is devoted to the study of radiation-induced charge build-up in diode interquadrant isolation dielectric, as well as its impact on device interquadrant resistance. Finally, the devices have been characterized with an 8 keV laboratory X-ray source at 108 ph/s and in BL13-XALOC ALBA Synchroton beamline with 1011 ph/s and energies from 6 to 16 keV . Sensitivity, spatial resolution and uniformity of the devices have been evaluated.

  18. Comparison of electron beam and gamma ray irradiations effects on ruminal crude protein and amino acid degradation kinetics, and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari, F.; Ghoorchi, T.; Shawrang, P.; Mansouri, H.; Torbati-Nejad, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) treatments at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy on ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein (CP), amino acid (AA), and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). Ionizing radiations of EB and GR had significant effects (P 0.05). Irradiation processing caused decrement in AA degradation after 16 h of ruminal incubation (P<0.05). EB irradiation was more effective than GR irradiation in lessening the ruminal degradability of AA (P<0.05). EB and GR treatments at a dose of 75 kGy increased in vitro digestibility of CSM numerically. This study showed that EB could cause CP and AA bypass rumen as well as GR. Therefore, ionizing irradiation processing can be used as an efficient method in improving nutritional value of CSM. - Highlights: ► Irradiation was effective on reducing ruminal degradability of cottonseed meal. ► Ionizing radiations, especially electron beam, lessened ruminal degradability of amino acid substantially. ► Irradiation processing could be used as a safe and efficient method in improving nutritional value of cottonseed meal.

  19. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60 and Mn-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuhr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Lysimeter experiments were undertaken in a controlled experimental field to study the root uptake of Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60 and Mn-54 under outdoor conditions. Parallel experiments were set up using the Kick - Brauckman experimental pots under greenhouse and the Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The results obtained from the three types of experiments are compared. (H.K.)

  20. Example of dealing with the accident during therapeutical application of Co-60 at one institute of oncology and radiology in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Z.; Perisic, J.; Vukcevic, M.; Joksic, G.; Spasojevic-Tisma, V.; Cuknic, O.; Milanovic, S.; Djuric, J.; Konstantinovic, J.; Ilic, Z.)

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an example of dealing with the accident during therapeutical application of Co-60 to a gynaecological patient. The accident happened when the sonde with Ca-60 drop out from the original postament, and was held by nurse and with bare hands storaged into his own special container [sr

  1. Adaptive fractionated stereotactic Gamma Knife radiotherapy of meningioma using integrated stereotactic cone-beam-CT and adaptive re-planning (a-gkFSRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieler, F; Wenz, F; Abo-Madyan, Y; Schweizer, B; Polednik, M; Herskind, C; Giordano, F A; Mai, S

    2016-11-01

    The Gamma Knife Icon (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) allows frameless stereotactic treatment using a combination of cone beam computer tomography (CBCT), a thermoplastic mask system, and an infrared-based high-definition motion management (HDMM) camera system for patient tracking during treatment. We report on the first patient with meningioma at the left petrous bone treated with adaptive fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (a-gkFSRT). The first patient treated with Gamma Knife Icon at our institute received MR imaging for preplanning before treatment. For each treatment fraction, a daily CBCT was performed to verify the actual scull/tumor position. The system automatically adapted the planned shot positions to the daily position and recalculated the dose distribution (online adaptive planning). During treatment, the HDMM system recorded the intrafractional patient motion. Furthermore, the required times were recorded to define a clinical treatment slot. Total treatment time was around 20 min. Patient positioning needed 0.8 min, CBCT positioning plus acquisition 1.65 min, CT data processing and adaptive planning 2.66 min, and treatment 15.6 min. The differences for the five daily CBCTs compared to the reference are for rotation: -0.59 ± 0.49°/0.18 ± 0.20°/0.05 ± 0.36° and for translation: 0.94 ± 0.52 mm/-0.08 ± 0.08 mm/-1.13 ± 0.89 mm. Over all fractions, an intrafractional movement of 0.13 ± 0.04 mm was observed. The Gamma Knife Icon allows combining the accuracy of the stereotactic Gamma Knife system with the flexibility of fractionated treatment with the mask system and CBCT. Furthermore, the Icon system introduces a new online patient tracking system to the clinical routine. The interfractional accuracy of patient positioning was controlled with a thermoplastic mask and CBCT.

  2. In-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of two-step fragmentation reactions at relativistic energies. The case of {sup 36}Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doornenbal, P.

    2007-10-23

    A two-step fragmentation experiment has been performed at GSI with the RISING setup. It combines the fragment separator FRS, which allows for the production of radioactive heavy ions at relativistic energies, with a high resolution {gamma}-spectrometer. This combination offers unique possibilities for nuclear structure investigations like the test of shell model predictions far from stability. Within the present work the question if the N=14(16) shell stabilisation in Z=8 oxygen isotopes and the N=20 shell quenching in {sup 32}Mg are symmetric with respect to the isospin projection quantum number Tz has been addressed. New {gamma}-ray decays were found in the neutron deficient {sup 36}Ca and {sup 36}K by impinging a radioactive ion beam of {sup 37}Ca on a secondary {sup 9}Be target. The fragmentation products were selected with the calorimeter telescope CATE and the emitted {gamma}-rays were measured with Ge Cluster, MINIBALL, and BaF{sub 2} HECTOR detectors. For {sup 36}Ca the 2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}0{sub g.s.}{sup +} transition energy was determined to be 3015(16) keV, which is the heaviest T=2 nucleus from which {gamma}-spectroscopic information has been obtained so far. A comparison between the experimental 2{sub 1}{sup +} energies of {sup 36}Ca and its mirror nucleus {sup 36}S yielded a mirror energy difference of {delta}E{sub M}=-276(16) keV. In order to understand the large {delta}E{sub M} value, the experimental single-particle energies from the A=17, T=1/2 mirror nuclei were taken and applied onto modified isospin symmetric USD interactions in shell model calculations. These calculations were in agreement with the experimental result and showed that the experimental single-particle energies may account empirically for the one body part of Thomas-Ehrman and/or Coulomb effects. A method to extract the lifetime of excited states in fragmentation reactions was investigated. Therefore, the dependence between the lifetime of an excited state and the average de

  3. Definition of the absolute energy of beam particles from tandem EGP-10K by means of gamma-spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Goryunov, O Y; Mozhzhukhyin, E M

    2003-01-01

    The attachment of absolute energy of proton beam from tandem EGP-10K to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency of field device put in rotated magnet-analyzer SP-88 has been made. The determination of beam energy was made with the aid of sup 8 sup 9 Y(p, n) sup 8 sup 9 Zr reaction, where the threshold is 3656 keV. 587 keV level from decay of sup 8 sup 9 Zr was used for identification of the reaction. It was determined that NMR frequency f = 16253,5 sup + sup 4 sup , sup 8 sub - sub 8 sub , sub 3 Kc/s corresponds to 4272 KeV proton energy.

  4. Test beam studies of possibilities to separate particles with gamma factors above 103 with straw based Transition Radiation Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, N.; Cherry, M. L.; Doronin, S. A.; Filippov, K.; Fusco, P.; Konovalov, S.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Kramarenko, V.; Loparco, F.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Ponomarenko, D.; Pyatiizbyantseva, D.; Radomskii, R.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Savchenko, A.; Shulga, E.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnov, Yu; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spinelli, P.; Teterin, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Vorobev, K.; Zhukov, K.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of hadron production in the TeV energy range are one of the tasks of the future studies at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main goal of these experiments is a study of the fundamental QCD processes at this energy range, which is very important not only for probing of the Standard Model but also for ultrahigh-energy cosmic particle physics. One of the key elements of these experiments measurements are hadron identification. The only detector technology which has a potential ability to separate hadrons in this energy range is Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) technology. TRD prototype based on straw proportional chambers combined with a specially assembled radiator has been tested at the CERN SPS accelerator beam. The test beam results and comparison with detailed Monte Carlo simulations are presented here.

  5. SU-F-T-28: Evaluation of BEBIG HDR Co-60 After-Loading System for Skin Cancer Treatment Using Conical Surface Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W Y [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Meigooni, A S [Department of Radiation Therapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Han, D [Departemt of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the possibility of utilizing the BEBIG HDR 60Co remote after-loading system for malignant skin surface treatment using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation technique. Methods: First TG-43 parameters of BEBIG-Co-60 and Nucletron Ir-192-mHDR-V2 brachytherapy sources were simulated using MCNP6 code to benchmark the sources against the literature. Second a conical tungsten-alloy with 3-cm diameter of Planning-Target-Volume (PTV) at surface for use with a single stepping HDR source is designed. The HDR source is modeled parallel to treatment plane at the center of the conical applicator with a source surface distance (SSD) of 1.5-cm and a removable plastic end-cap with a 1-mm thickness. Third, MC calculated dose distributions from HDR Co-60 for conical surface applicator were compared with the simulated data using HDR Ir-192 source. The initial calculations were made with the same conical surface applicator (standard-applicator) dimensions as the ones used with the Ir-192 system. Fourth, the applicator wall-thickness for the Co-60 system was increased (doubled) to diminish leakage dose to levels received when using the Ir-192 system. With this geometry, percentage depth dose (PDD), and relative 2D-dose profiles in transverse/coronal planes were normalized at 3-mm prescription-depth evaluated along the central axis. Results: PDD for Ir-192 and Co-60 were similar with standard and thick-walled applicator. 2D-relative dose distribution of Co-60, inside the standard-conical-applicator, generated higher penumbra (7.6%). For thick-walled applicator, it created smaller penumbra (<4%) compared to Ir-192 source in the standard-conicalapplicator. Dose leakage outside of thick-walled applicator with Co-60 source was approximately equal (≤3%) with standard applicator using Ir-192 source. Conclusion: Skin cancer treatment with equal quality can be performed with Co-60 source and thick-walled conical applicators instead of Ir-192 with standard applicators. These conical

  6. Obtaining the mass attenuation coefficient of the wood to a beam of gamma-ray of 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The quality of wood produced in Brazil reforestation has been the subject of many discussions in the Forestry Sector. SeEKXing to produce a rapid growth and wood quality, the Forestry Sector, found in Applied Nuclear Physics, a precise method of determining the density of wood known as ad hoc technique of attenuation of gamma-ray. The radioisotope used in this technique is that it has a picture 241 Am peak of 59.6 keV gamma-ray. This work has the objective of determining the mass attenuation coefficient of wood of the genus Eucalyptus for 241 Am radioisotope. We used 324 samples of wood from six different treatments: a seminal of Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of E. grandis; three clones of the hybrid E. grandis x E. urophylla. The same assay was used for the six treatments. It was determined the basic density of the samples by the method of immersion in water and then the basic density was converted into apparent density in the moisture equilibrium and it was determined the attenuation coefficient of mass. Preliminary results showed that the attenuation coefficient of mass did not vary between treatments, and its average value 0.1822 ± 0.0015. It was to here that the attenuation coefficient of mass in the wood of the genus Eucalyptus in moisture equilibrium can be constant. (author)

  7. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  8. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  9. Procedures for calibration of clinical dosemeters of radiotherapy with gamma radiation Co-60 in the IPEN-CNEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Willian B.; Santos, Gelson P.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2009-01-01

    The periodic calibration of clinic dosimeters is a very important task, because those measurement systems performing the control quality of the radioactive source and for that assure the control quality of the patient dose estimative. This paper shows the calibration procedures and routine improved in the calibration laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP to be applied to the clinic dosimeters following international and national recommendations and yet the spend care that the clients should have with the utilization of that measurement systems for control quality of the radiotherapy procedures, for reduce the dose received for patient, and workers, and for increase the confidence level of the measurements.(author)

  10. On some peculiarities of oil-resisting rubbers production from nitrile rubber of different composition by the use of Co60 gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedov, Sh.M.; Nelikzade, M.M.; Mamedov, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The physicomechanical properties and swelling of vulcanizates were studied by means of radiation vulcanization. The test samples were preheated and formed by a press at 154 deg C for 3 min. Irradiation was performed in atmosphere on 60 Co (dosage 0.48 Mrad/hr). Irradiation caused decrease in tensile strength, as well as relative and permanent elongation; at the same time it considerably strengthened rubber hardness. All the rubber samples showed greater strength after irradiation under 5.7-13.8 Mrad. Depending on the dosage (3.6-13.8 Mrad), the relative and permanent elongation of vulcanizates obtained with the aid of altax was found to decrease, while strength and swelling increased. The swelling of rubber samples obtained with thiurad and thiuradaltax compounds decreased. Hence the advisability of using that rubber for manufacture of petroleum-resistant products

  11. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Stabilized in Dextran Solution by Gamma Co-60 Ray Irradiation and Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles/Dextran Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Ha Nu Diem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs in spherical shape with diameter of 6–35 nm stabilized by dextran were synthesized by γ-irradiation method. The AuNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of pH, Au3+ concentration, and dextran concentration on the size of AuNPs was investigated. Results indicated that the smallest AuNPs size (6 nm and the largest AuNPs size (35 nm were obtained for pH of 1 mM Au3+/1% dextran solution of 5.5 and 7.5, respectively. The smaller Au3+ concentration favored smaller size and conversely the smaller dextran concentration favored bigger size of AuNPs. AuNPs powders were prepared by spay drying, coagulation, and centrifugation and their sizes were also evaluated. The purity of prepared AuNPs powders was also examined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. Thus, the as-prepared AuNPs stabilized by biocompatible dextran in solution and/or in powder form can be potentially applied in biomedicine and pharmaceutics.

  12. Radiorestoration properties of several cytokinin-like substances on the normal tissues of Jerusalem artichoke treated by Co60 gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonard, Robert; Bayonove, Jacqueline

    1976-01-01

    6 cytokinin-like substances, particularly zeatin and isopentenyladenin (IPA) contained in yeast extract and their RNA prove to be effective radiorestorative agents on Jerusalem artichoke tissues cultivated in vitro; and their restorative activity is greater than that of kinetin [fr

  13. Comparison of skin doses to large fields using tangential beams from cobalt-60 gamma rays and 4-MV x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, W.F.; Peterson, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    Excess radiation to the skin during external beam megavoltage radiation therapy has reportedly caused excessive erythema in patients treated with the Clinac 4 linear accelerator on sloping surfaces, but not for similar treatments with cobalt-60. Doses at the epidermal level were measured under geometries simulating sloping surfaces for a Clinac 4 and an Eldorado 8 cobalt-60 teletherapy machine. For equal doses to the axilla, doses to the epidermal layer were similar. When the tumor dose was calculated for the mediastinum, the dose to the skin in the axillary region was 12% higher for the Clinac 4

  14. Study of gamma-ray emission by proton beam interaction with injected Boron atoms for future medical imaging applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petringa, G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Caliri, C.; Cuttone, G.; Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Larosa, G.; Manna, R.; Manti, L.; Marchese, V.; Marchetta, C.; Margarone, Daniele; Milluzzo, G.; Picciotto, A.; Romano, F.; Romano, F.P.; Russo, A.D.; Russo, G.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, Mar (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku C03049. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Instrumentation for particle-beam therapy * spallation source targets * radioisotope production * neutrino and muon sources Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  15. Comparison of proton microbeam and gamma irradiation for the radiation hardness testing of silicon PIN diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, M.; Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Majer, M.; Jung, H. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, N. H.

    2013-09-01

    Simple and cost-effective solutions using Si PIN diodes as detectors are presently utilized in various radiation-related applications in which excessive exposure to radiation degrades their charge transport properties. One of the conventional methods for the radiation hardness testing of such devices is time-consuming irradiation with electron beam or gamma-ray irradiation facilities, high-energy proton accelerators, or with neutrons from research reactors. Recently, for the purpose of radiation hardness testing, a much faster nuclear microprobe based approach utilizing proton irradiation has been developed. To compare the two different irradiation techniques, silicon PIN diodes have been irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source and with a 6 MeV proton microbeam. The signal degradation in the silicon PIN diodes for both irradiation conditions has been probed by the IBIC (ion beam induced charge) technique, which can precisely monitor changes in charge collection efficiency. The results presented are reviewed on the basis of displacement damage calculations and NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) concept.

  16. Gamma- irradiation to increase crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomai, Matongo

    2000-01-01

    Brief background information on past research activities on the use of Co-60 Gamma Irraditor in production of medical products such as sterilised biological tissue grafts and surgical Gloves and in food preservation.The general results of the application of Radiation Mutation Breeding is discussed from the current research activities involving Beans,Pumpkins,Cotton Seeds,Finger Millet,Wheat,Groundnuts and Rice.The focus is to demonstrate the great potential of the technique in increasing food security

  17. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1978-03-01

    Results of literature survey and evaluation of relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays are presented. Evaluations were made for 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 48 Sc, 48 V, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 203 Hg, and 207 Bi. For eight of the nuclides, the half-lives were also evaluated. (auth.)

  18. Influence of source configuration on spectral composition of gamma-ray beams from 60Co teletherapy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, M.; Soares, C.G.; Jackson, B.; Lanoue, P.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements were made of the photon spectra of simulated 60 Co teletherapy beams. Various source configurations and source environments of practical interest were employed for this purpose. The sources consisted of activated cobalt pellets packed into steel capsules. Several combinations of capsule diameters and heights of pellet layers were used. The spacer materials filling the remaining capsule volume were chosen to be of high, intermediate, or low atomic number. The capsules could be inserted, one at a time, into a compartment of either tungsten or brass, simulating the central section of popular commercial 60 Co teletherapy units. There also was some choice in the atomic number of the structural elements holding the capsules in place in the compartment. The largest contribution of scattered photons was found to occur when the materials close to the source pellets had atomic numbers in the vicinity of 30. (author)

  19. Radiosensitizing effect of nitric oxide in tumor cells and experimental tumors irradiated with gamma rays and proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policastro, Lucia L.; Duran, Hebe; Molinari, Beatriz L.; Somacal, Hector R.; Valda, Alejandro A.

    2003-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to be a radiosensitizer of mammalian cells under hypoxic conditions. In a previous study, we demonstrated an enhancement in radiation response induced by NO in mouse tumor cells under aerobic conditions, with an increasing effect as a function of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of NO in tumor cells and in experimental tumors irradiated with γ rays and proton beams. Irradiations were performed with a 137 Cs γ source and with proton beams generated by the TANDAR accelerator. Tumor cells were treated with the NO donor DETA-NO and the sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) was calculated using the α parameter of the survival curve fitted to the linear-quadratic model. Tumor cells irradiated with protons were radio sensitized by DETA-NO only in the more malignant cells irradiated with low LET protons (2.69±0.08 keV/μm). For higher LET protons there were no radiosensitizing effect. For human tumor cells pre-treated with DETA-NO and irradiated with γ rays, a significantly greater effect was demonstrated in the malignant cells (MCF-7) as compared with the near normal cells (HBL-100). Moreover, a significant decrease in tumor growth was demonstrated in mice pre-treated with the NO donor spermine and irradiated with γ rays and low LET protons as compared with mice irradiated without pre-treatment with the NO donor. In conclusion, we demonstrated a differential effect of NO as a radiosensitizer of malignant cells, both with γ rays and low LET protons. This selectivity, coupled to the in vivo inhibition of tumor growth, is of great interest for the potential use of NO releasing agents in radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Co-60線源の分離による照射効率と線量均一度の向上

    OpenAIRE

    星 龍夫

    1986-01-01

    線源を2分割し、適当な間隔をおいて配置すると効率的で均一な照射を行なえることを実証した。またCo-60線状線源を中心におく円筒型照射装置及びCo-60平板線源によって照射するコンベア照射装置の照射性能を高めるため線源間隔の最適地を求めた。

  1. Improvement of air transport data and wall transmission/reflection data in the SKYSHINE code. (1) Calculation of line beam response function for gamma-ray skyshine analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Makoto [Visible Information Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Harima, Yoshiko; Ishikawa, Satoshi [CRC Research Inst. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Hirayama, Hideo [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Hayashi, Katsumi; Tayama, Ryuichi [Hitachi Engineering Co. Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Hayashida, Yoshihisa [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The line-beam response functions (LBRFs) of a key component of a computationally simple gamma-ray skyshine analysis are generated using an electron-photon cascade Monte Carlo code EGS4. The LBRFs R(E{sub 0}, {phi}, x) are given with the air-kerma (Gy per photon), 7 photon source energies ranging from 0.5 to 10 MeV, for source-detector distances between 10 and 2,000 meters, and at 19 emission angles from 0 - 170 degrees, as measured from the source-detector axis. Especially, the values of R(E{sub 0}, {phi}=0.0 and 0.1, x) are extremely larger than the ones of LBRFs produced by the point kernel model or the COHORT code. The LBRF is accurately approximated by a four-parameter formula. Values of four parameters for the approximate LBRF are described by monotonic and smooth curves with respect to the energy E{sub 0} and the emitted angle {phi}. (author)

  2. Positronium formation in NaY-zeolites studied by lifetime, positron beam Doppler broadening and 3-gamma detection techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Schut, H; Kolar, Z I; Veen, A V; Clet, G

    2000-01-01

    Results of positron annihilation measurements on NaY pressed powders and deposited thin films using slow positron beam and conventional fast positron techniques are presented. In lifetime experiments using an external sup sup 2 sup sup 2 Na source an averaged long lifetime of 1.8 ns with a sum intensity of 27% was observed in pressed powders in the presence of air at room temperature (RT). In literature this lifetime is ascribed to positrons annihilating in water filled alpha or beta cages Habrowska, A.M., Popiel, E.S., 1987. Positron annihilation in zeolite 13X. J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2419. By means of isotopic exchange some of the Na was replaced by sup sup 2 sup sup 2 Na. These powders showed a long lifetime component of 7-8 ns with an intensity increasing from 1 to 12% when heated under normal atmosphere from RT to 200 deg. C. No significant increase of the shorter (1.5 ns) lifetime was observed, while its intensity dropped from 13.4 to 6.6%. Both effects are ascribed to the loss of water from alpha cages onl...

  3. Effect of electron beam irradiation on structural and thermal properties of gamma poly (vinylidene fluoride) (γ-PVDF) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongyang; Wang, Xuemei; Fu, Chao; Chen, Chunhai; Ran, Xianghai

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we successfully prepared the pure PVDF film containing almost exclusive γ-phase (γ-PVDF) using 15 wt% solution in N, N-dimethylformamide. These γ-PVDF films were irradiated by 3.0 MeV electron beam in vacuum at room temperature up to 358 kGy. The effect of the irradiation on the chemical structural and thermal properties of pristine and irradiated γ-PVDF films were detailedly investigated by FTIR, XRD and DSC, respectively. DSC results show that two single and different melting endotherms from the successive heating curves correspond to γ-phase and α-phase, respectively. FTIR results show that the characteristic absorption peaks corresponding to γ-phase do not shift, and the C˭C bond formation is not significantly observed in the irradiated γ-PVDF films until above 30 kGy. XRD results show that the crystal form of γ-PVDF is not influenced significantly by irradiation. All PVDF films exhibit a single melting endotherm, irrespective of the irradiation dose. Two superpositioned crystallization peaks were observed for PVDF films only irradiated at high dose of 232 and 358 kGy, which can be related to the fractionated crystallization of irradiated PVDF. The dependences of thermal characteristics on the irradiation dose were detailedly investigated by DSC in this study.

  4. Effect of dose rate on inactivation of microorganisms in spices by electron-beams and gamma-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Islam, Md.S.

    1994-01-01

    Total aerobic bacteria in spices used in this study were determined to be 1 x 10 6 to 6 x 10 7 per gram. A study on the inactivation of microorganisms in spices showed that doses of 6-9 kGy of EB (electron-beams) or γ-irradiation were required to reduce the total aerobic bacteria to below 10 3 per gram. However, a little increase of resistance was observed on the inactivation of total aerobic bacteria in many spices in case of EB irradiation. These differences of radiation sensitivities between EB and γ-rays was explained by dose rate effect on oxidation damage to microorganisms from the results of radiation sensitivities of Bacillus pumilus and B. megaterium spores at dry conditions. On the other hand, these high dose rate of EB irradiation suppressed the increase of peroxide values in spices at high dose irradiation up to 80 kGy. However, components of essential oils in spices were not changed even irradiated up to 50 kGy with EB and γ-rays. (author)

  5. X-ray and gamma radiography devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    When we are using this technique, we also must familiar with the device and instrument that used such as gamma projector, crawler, x-ray tubes and others. So this chapter discussed detailed on device used for radiography work. For the x-ray and gamma, their characteristics are same but the source to produce is a big different. X-ray produced from the machine meanwhile, gamma produce from the source such as Co-60 and IR-192. Both are electromagnetic waves. So, the reader can have some knowledge on what is x-ray tube, discrete x-ray and characteristic x-ray, how the machine works and how to control a machine, what is source for gamma emitter, how to handle the projector and lastly difference between x-ray and gamma. Of course this cannot be with the theory only, so detailed must be learned practically.

  6. VCS-SSA Mainz Experiment. Measurement of the beam spin asymmetry in (e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma}) and (e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0}). Final analysis - MEMO I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonvieille, H.; Bensafa, I. [LPC-Clermont-Fd, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63170 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-02-15

    This note gives details on the final analysis of the VCS-SSA experiment in terms of Beam Spin Asymmetry. It summarizes the changes between the first and second pass analysis. Then the measured asymmetry is presented for both channels e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma} and e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0} including systematic studies. The final experimental result is briefly compared to some model predictions. (authors)

  7. Verification of the dose in the inspection modules of Co-60 from Mexicali, B.C.N. through thermoluminescent dosimetry; Verificacion de la dosis en los modulos de inspeccion de Co-60 de Mexicali, B.C. mediante dosimetria termoluminiscente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, D.; Azorin, J.; Rivera, T. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    On the February and April 2005 months, there entered in operation two inspection modules, in the mexican border city of Mexicali. B.C.N., those which they work based on gamma rays, emitted by sources of {sup 60} Co; this fact generate a concern, on the part of the population of this city. Soon after these events, a group of personages of the local politics, they began a campaign, in favor of closing these modules, based on the supposition, of that the emitted radiation by these sources, represents a danger for health of people that uses the international crossing located to a side of the porter lodge 1, as well as of the population in general. As service to the community border of Mexico specifically to the population of Mexicali, B.C.N. city, inhabitants of this city, municipal, state and federal authorities and, the outstanding preoccupation of the Republic Senate (Commission of Border Affairs), the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) they requested the support of the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and of the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) to verify the radiation levels in the facilities of the sources of {sup 60} Co of the porter lodges of Mexicali-Calexico proceeding to the monitoring of this facilities in the period of 14-17 June 2005, 17 using thermoluminescent dosemeters elaborated in Mexico. (Au0010th.

  8. The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) and recent results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonchev, A.P. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States)]. E-mail: tonchev@tunl.duke.edu; Boswell, M. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Karwowski, H.J. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and TUNL, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [North Carolina State University and TUNL, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Tornow, W. [Duke University and TUNL, Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 0308 (United States); Wu, Y.K. [Duke University and Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0319 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    The high intensity {gamma}-ray source (HI{gamma}S) utilizes intra-cavity backscattering of free electron laser photons from the Duke electron storage ring to produce a unique monoenergetic beam of high-flux {gamma}-rays with high polarization and selectable energy resolution. At present, {gamma}-ray beams with energies from 2 to 58 MeV are available with intensities as high as 10{sup 5}-5 x 10{sup 6} {gamma}/s, energy spreads of 3% or better, and nearly 100% linear polarization. The quality and intensity of the {gamma}-ray beams at HI{gamma}S are responsible for the unprecedented performance of this facility in a broad range of research programs in nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear applications. Recent results from excitation of isomeric states in ({gamma}, n) reactions and parity assignments of dipole states determined via the ({gamma}, {gamma}') reaction are presented.

  9. Verification of the dose in the inspection modules of Co-60 from Mexicali, B.C.N. through thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz C, D.; Azorin, J.; Rivera, T.

    2005-01-01

    On the February and April 2005 months, there entered in operation two inspection modules, in the mexican border city of Mexicali. B.C.N., those which they work based on gamma rays, emitted by sources of 60 Co; this fact generate a concern, on the part of the population of this city. Soon after these events, a group of personages of the local politics, they began a campaign, in favor of closing these modules, based on the supposition, of that the emitted radiation by these sources, represents a danger for health of people that uses the international crossing located to a side of the porter lodge 1, as well as of the population in general. As service to the community border of Mexico specifically to the population of Mexicali, B.C.N. city, inhabitants of this city, municipal, state and federal authorities and, the outstanding preoccupation of the Republic Senate (Commission of Border Affairs), the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS) they requested the support of the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and of the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) to verify the radiation levels in the facilities of the sources of 60 Co of the porter lodges of Mexicali-Calexico proceeding to the monitoring of this facilities in the period of 14-17 June 2005, 17 using thermoluminescent dosemeters elaborated in Mexico. (Author)

  10. A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongming; Xing Shilin; Wang Zhongmin

    1986-01-01

    A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system is described. A detector and a pulse shape discriminator are suitable for the neutron-gamma discriminating system. The influence of the constant fraction discriminator threshold energy on the neutron-gamma resolution properties is shown. The neutron-gamma timing distributions from an 241 Am-Be source, 2.5 MeV neutron beam and 14 MeV neutron beam are presented

  11. A third generation tomography system with fifteen detectors and a gamma-ray source in fan beam geometry simulated by Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velo, A.F.; Alvarez, A.G.; Carvalho, D.V.S.; Fernandez, V.; Somessari, S.; Sprenger, F.F.; Hamada, M.M.; Mesquita, C.H., E-mail: chmesqui@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNP4C, of a multichannel third generation tomography system containing a two radioactive sources, {sup 192}Ir (316.5 - 468 KeV) and {sup 137}Cs (662 KeV), and a set of fifteen NaI(Tl) detectors, with dimensions of 1 inch diameter and 2 inches thick, in fan beam geometry, positioned diametrically opposite. Each detector moves 10 steps of 0,24 deg , totalizing 150 virtual detectors per projection, and then the system rotate 2 degrees. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the viability of this configuration. For this, a multiphase phantom containing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA ((ρ ≅ 1.19 g/cm{sup 3})), iron (ρ ≅ 7.874 g/cm{sup 3}), aluminum (ρ ≅ 2.6989 g/cm{sup 3}) and air (ρ ≅ 1.20479E-03 g/cm{sup 3}) was simulated. The simulated number of histories was 1.1E+09 per projection and the tally used were the F8, which gives the pulse height of each detector. The data obtained by the simulation was used to reconstruct the simulated phantom using the statistical iterative Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method Technique (ML-EM) algorithm. Each detector provides a gamma spectrum of the sources, and a pulse height analyzer (PHA) of 10% on the 316.5 KeV and 662 KeV photopeaks was performed. This technique provides two reconstructed images of the simulated phantom. The reconstructed images provided high spatial resolution, and it is supposed that the temporal resolution (spending time for one complete revolution) is about 2.5 hours. (author)

  12. Study of neutron-rich nuclei structure around the N=28 shell closure using the in-beam gamma spectroscopy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, B.

    2007-10-01

    For a few years now, a loss of magicity in neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron drip-line at N=28 has been suggested and observed. Deformation in these nuclei has been observed. The deformation was explained in S isotopes as being due to a moderate reduction of the N=28 shell closure together with a proton induced collectivity originating from the near degeneracy of the proton d3/2 and s1/2 orbitals. As a consequence, the observed deformation seems to result from a subtle interplay between neutron and proton excitations. Since the proton configuration in the Si isotopes is expected to be more stable due to the Z=14 sub-shell gap, 42 Si was considered as a key nucleus in order to distinguish the different effects responsible for the structural changes observed at N=28. Even if it is at the limits of our technical possibilities, an in-beam gamma-spectroscopy experiment using two-step fragmentation and one or several nucleons knockout reaction mechanisms was performed at GANIL. The measurement of the energy of the first excited state in 42 Si, combined with the observation of 38,40 Si and the spectroscopy of 41,43 P, has given evidence for the loss of magicity at N=28 far from stability. Modifications of the effective interaction used in modern shell model calculations have been completed following this investigation, increasing its predictive character. This study confirms the role of the tensor force and the density dependence of the spin-orbit interaction in the collapse of the N=28 shell closure. (author)

  13. A third generation tomography system with fifteen detectors and a gamma-ray source in fan beam geometry simulated by Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velo, A.F.; Alvarez, A.G.; Carvalho, D.V.S.; Fernandez, V.; Somessari, S.; Sprenger, F.F.; Hamada, M.M.; Mesquita, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNP4C, of a multichannel third generation tomography system containing a two radioactive sources, 192 Ir (316.5 - 468 KeV) and 137 Cs (662 KeV), and a set of fifteen NaI(Tl) detectors, with dimensions of 1 inch diameter and 2 inches thick, in fan beam geometry, positioned diametrically opposite. Each detector moves 10 steps of 0,24 deg , totalizing 150 virtual detectors per projection, and then the system rotate 2 degrees. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the viability of this configuration. For this, a multiphase phantom containing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA ((ρ ≅ 1.19 g/cm 3 )), iron (ρ ≅ 7.874 g/cm 3 ), aluminum (ρ ≅ 2.6989 g/cm 3 ) and air (ρ ≅ 1.20479E-03 g/cm 3 ) was simulated. The simulated number of histories was 1.1E+09 per projection and the tally used were the F8, which gives the pulse height of each detector. The data obtained by the simulation was used to reconstruct the simulated phantom using the statistical iterative Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method Technique (ML-EM) algorithm. Each detector provides a gamma spectrum of the sources, and a pulse height analyzer (PHA) of 10% on the 316.5 KeV and 662 KeV photopeaks was performed. This technique provides two reconstructed images of the simulated phantom. The reconstructed images provided high spatial resolution, and it is supposed that the temporal resolution (spending time for one complete revolution) is about 2.5 hours. (author)

  14. Radiation breeding researches in gamma field. Results of researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Abstract of radiation breeding researches and outline of gamma field in IRB (Institute of Radiation Breeding) are described. The gamma field is a circular field of 100 m radius with 88.8TBqCo-60 source at the center. The field is surrounded by a shielding dike of 8 m in height. The effects of gamma irradiation on the growing plants, mutant by gamma radiation and plant molecular biological researches using mutant varieties obtained by the gamma field are explained. For examples, Japanese pear, chrysanthemum, Cytisus, Eustoma grandiflorum, Manila grass, tea and rose are reported. The mutant varieties in the gamma field, nine mutant varieties of flower colors in chrysanthemum, evergreen mutant lines in Manila grass, selection of self-compatible mutants in tea plant, and the plants of the gamma field recently are shown. (S.Y.)

  15. Elimination of salmonella from fermented pork by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noochpramul, K.; Loaharanu, P.

    1974-01-01

    A fermented pork product, locally known as ''Nham'', is usually contaminated with salmonella and occasionally with Trichinella spiralis and Taenea solium. This product is always eaten raw as cooking destroys its delicate flavour. A survey made on the MPN of salmonella revealed that much less than 100 salmonella was found in one gram of the product. Nham was inoculated with S. derby, S. anatum, S. newport, or S. paratyphi B, the most common serotypes of salmonella found in this product, at 10 6 , 10 4 , or 10 2 per gram. The inoculated product was irradiated by the gamma beam-650 Co-60 irradiator at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 Mrad. Dosage at 0.4 Mrad eliminated salmonella as much as 10 6 per g; 0.3 Mrad eliminated 10 6 /g of S. newport and S. paratyphi B and 10 4 /g of S. derby and S. anatum; and 0.2 Mrad eliminated 10 2 /g of all serotypes of salmonella in the product. No changes in the organoleptic properties of irradiated Nham was found when irradiated at 0.3 Mrad or less. Dosage at 0.2 Mrad appeared to be sufficient for commercial irradiation of Nham for the elimination of salmonella

  16. Development of a purification technology for treatment of medium- and low-activity radioactive waste of radiochemical production from Co-60 and Cs-137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apalkov Gleb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological flowchart of purification of medium- and low-activity waste from Co-60 and Cs-137 is developed and introduced. The developed purification scheme has been successfully tested using genuine medium- and low-level liquid radioactive waste of radiochemical production containing complexing and colloid forming components complexons, surfactants. The optimal conditions of the presented method of purification ensure reduction of the residual specific activity of 60Co and 137Cs radionuclides in the solution to less than 0,9 Bq per litre.

  17. Quantitative modifications of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in inoperable patients irradiated with Co60 in the area of neck and interpleural space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Enke, S.A.; Strauss, L.G.; Gajzer, S.; Georgi, M.

    1987-01-01

    Several parameters of red and white blood components were determined in twelve patients submitted to Co 60 -irradiations for inoperable tumors in the area of neck and interpleural space. Some statistically significant, dose-dependent modifications were found for leucocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes. A considerable radiogenic reduction was demonstrated especially for helper cells, suppressor cells and natural killer cells. A different radiosensitivity could not be proved for these lymphocyte subpopulations. A possible influence of disease-specific endogenous as well as exogenous factors was discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Study of Textile Surface Characteristic Modification by Using Electron Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswani Gitawati; Rany Saptaaji

    2007-01-01

    The success of accelerator technology application in various field of industry, medical and pharmacy, environment, agricultural, food increase each year as the increasing of people needs, not excepted for surface treatment of fibers and textiles in textile industry. This writing aim is to asses the application of electron beam accelerator for textile surface treatment on finishing step. Surface treatment was done with electron beam low energy (100 - 500 keV), and because of its low penetration it was suitable used to gain the improvement of chemical, physical and mechanical properties of textile surface such as adhesion, wettability, printability, dyes-intake, crease recovery, wrinkle-resistance, flammability, abrasion resistance, soil and stain release to get better result. Modification of fibers and textiles surface properties on finishing process can be caused by crosslinking, grafting and degradation reactions. The assesment results showed that the greatest impact on commercial application of radiation in textiles were crease recovery and surface modification of wetting properties (soil and stain release). The radiation dose used for those purposes were 5 - 50 kGy. The bach process of graft textiles surface modification before and after irradiation by Co-60 source (gamma energies of 1.33 and 1.17 MeV) and continue process by electron beam were presented. The assesment results were reported in this paper. (author)

  19. Space-qualified optical thin films by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, C.N.; Chen, H.P.; Chiu, P.K.; Lin, Y.W.; Chen, F.Z.; Tsai, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    Optical interference coatings designed for use in a space-grade multispectral assembly in a complementary metal-oxide‐semiconductor sensor were deposited on glass by ion-beam-assisted deposition for a Cassegrain-type space-based remote-sensing platform. The patterned multispectral assembly containing blue, green, red, near infrared, and panchromatic multilayer high/low alternated dielectric band-pass filter arrays in a single chip was fabricated by a mechanical mask and the photolithography process. The corresponding properties of the films were investigated by in situ optical monitoring and spectrometry. It was found that the optical properties were significantly improved by employing ion-beam-assisted deposition. The average transmittances were above 88% for the multispectral assembly, with a rejection transmittance of less than 1% in the spectral range 350–1100 nm. To estimate the optical stability of optical coatings for aerospace applications, a space environment assuming a satellite orbiting the Earth at an altitude of near 800 km was simulated by a Co 60 gamma (γ) radiation test. - Highlights: ►Parameters of optical filters were optimized by using admittance loci analysis. ►Higher index of refraction of films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition. ►The dielectric filters have acceptable resistance after γ radiation exposure

  20. A study about the effects of gamma radiation and electron beam irradiation in the detection of genetically modified maize (Zea Mays)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crede, Ricardo Gandara

    2005-01-01

    The major technique to detect genetically modified organism - GMO is the polymerase chain reaction - PCR. The PCR is a method that allows the enlargement in vitro of DNA segments, using two starters ('primers') that hybridize with the opposing ribbons, in regions that match the segment to be amplified. For that, the DNA is disnatured (92-96 deg C), the 'primers' are hybridized (30 deg C a 60 deg C ) and, after that, the DNA synthesis is made with a DNA-polymerase and nucleotides (dNTPs) (72 deg C), for some repetitive cycles. The development of the PCR allowed great advances in Molecular Biology, mainly for analysis of genes, diagnosis of illnesses and pathogens, among some other examples. Currently, the PCR has been very much used for the identification of transgenic constituents in foods. In the detection of genetically modified grains, the PCR technique showed to be highly sensitive, because it allows identifying one genetically modified grain amongst a million of normal grains. Nowadays, the analysis through the PCR method is the only capable to discriminate an organism genetically modified from a not transgenic one. The identification of foods that were made of transgenic grains, as soy and maize, through the PCR technique is still controversial. Therefore the result of the test is more trustworthy when it is positive. Or either, the detection absence does not mean that the product does not have, in fact, transgenic ingredients. It happens because to detect a DNA sequence, is necessary to preserve a minimum portion of the DNA. However, what happens many times in the industrialization process is that, in the manipulation of the ingredients, the DNA can be degraded (for example, for heat or radiation) and, consequently, is not detectable any longer. This work has as a main objective the study of the viability on the use of the PCR in the detection of GMO's in radiated foods containing maize. For the irradiation of the material, a source of 60 Co Irradiator Gamma

  1. Critical appraisal of RapidArc radiosurgery with flattening filter free photon beams for benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife: a treatment planning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacioglu, Ufuk; Ozen, Zeynep; Yilmaz, Meltem; Arifoglu, Alptekin; Gunhan, Basri; Kayalilar, Namik; Peker, Selcuk; Sengoz, Meric; Gurdalli, Salih; Cozzi, Luca

    2014-05-21

    To evaluate the role of RapidArc (RA) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of benign brain lesions in comparison to GammaKnife (GK) based technique. Twelve patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS, n = 6) or cavernous sinus meningioma (CSM, n = 6) were planned for both SRS using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RA. 104 MV flattening filter free photon beams with a maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min were selected. Data were compared against plans optimised for GK. A single dose of 12.5 Gy was prescribed. The primary objective was to assess treatment plan quality. Secondary aim was to appraise treatment efficiency. For VS, comparing best GK vs. RA plans, homogeneity was 51.7 ± 3.5 vs. 6.4 ± 1.5%; Paddick conformity Index (PCI) resulted 0.81 ± 0.03 vs. 0.84 ± 0.04. Gradient index (PGI) was 2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6. Mean target dose was 17.1 ± 0.9 vs. 12.9 ± 0.1 Gy. For the brain stem, D(1cm3) was 5.1 ± 2.0 Gy vs 4.8 ± 1.6 Gy. For the ipsilateral cochlea, D(0.1cm3) was 1.7 ± 1.0 Gy vs. 1.8 ± 0.5 Gy. For CSM, homogeneity was 52.3 ± 2.4 vs. 12.4 ± 0.6; PCI: 0.86 ± 0.05 vs. 0.88 ± 0.05; PGI: 2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.8 ± 0.5; D(1cm3) to brain stem was 5.4 ± 2.8 Gy vs. 5.2 ± 2.8 Gy; D(0.1cm3) to ipsi-lateral optic nerve was 4.2 ± 2.1 vs. 2.1 ± 1.5 Gy; D(0.1cm3) to optic chiasm was 5.9 ± 3.1 vs. 4.5 ± 2.1 Gy. Treatment time was 53.7 ± 5.8 (64.9 ± 24.3) minutes for GK and 4.8 ± 1.3 (5.0 ± 0.7) minutes for RA for schwannomas (meningiomas). SRS with RA and FFF beams revealed to be adequate and comparable to GK in terms of target coverage, homogeneity, organs at risk sparing with some gain in terms of treatment efficiency.

  2. Research on degradation of vacuum O-rings under gamma radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ino, H; Saitô, Y; Kubo, T; Kinsho, M

    2003-01-01

    The high-intensity proton accelerator being constructed by JAERI and KEK will generates greater beam power than conventional accelerators. The radiation emission due to beam losses will therefore increase. Since vacuum O-rings installed in the accelerator will be degraded badly by the radiation, there is need to find an O-ring that has more resistant to radiation. To find an O-ring that has better radiation resistant than that of the fluororubber used for conventional accelerators in general, some O-rings which are expected to have enough resistant to the radiation were irradiated, and estimated a degradation by measurement of outgassing rate, hardness, permeation time of helium gas, and an outward observation. Most of the O-rings were irradiated in an oxygen free atmosphere and in the air. The irradiations were carried out at room temperature in Co-60 gamma irradiation facility until a dose of 1 MGy was reached. The radiation resistance of PURE-RUBBER O-ring showed somewhat better than that of the fluororubb...

  3. SU-F-T-31: Shape and Isodose Distributions in Co60 HDR Brachytherapy for Different Utero-Vaginal Time Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G [Faculty of Sciences, Montevideo, Montevideo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Piriz, G [Hospital Pereyra Rossell, Montevideo, Montevideo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To optimize the dose in bladder and rectum and show the different shapes of the isodose volumes in Co60-HDR brachytherapy, considering different utero and vaginal sources dwell ratio times (TU:TV). Methods: Besides Ir192-HDR, new Co60-HDR sources are being incorporated. We considered different TU:TV times and computed the dosis in bladder, rectum and at the reference points of the Manchester system. Also, we calculated the isodose volume and shape in each case. We used a EZAG-BEBIG Co0.A86 model with TPS HDRplus3.0.4. and LCT42-7, LCT42-2(R,L) applicators. A reference dose RA= 1.00 Gy was given to the A-right point. We considered the TU:TV dwell time ratios 1:0.25, 1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4. Given TU:TV, the stop time at each dwell position is fixed for each applicator. Results: Increasing TU:TV systematically results in a decreasing of the dose in bladder and rectum, e.g. 9% and 27% reduction were found in 1:0.25 with respect to 1:1, while 12% and 34% increase were found in 1:4 with respect to 1:1. Also, the isodose volume parameters height (h), width (w), thickness (t) and volume (hwt) increased from the 1:0.25 case to the 1:4 value: hwt is 25% lower and 31% higher than the 1:1 reference volume in these cases. Also w decreased for higher TU:TV and may compromise the tumoral volume coverage, decreasing 17% in the 1:0.25 case compared to the 1:1 case. The shape of the isodose volume was obtained for the different TU:TV considered. Conclusion: We obtained the shape of isodose volumes for different TU:TV values in gynecological Co60-HDR. We studied the dose reduction in bladder and rectum for different TU:TV ratios. The volume parameters and hwt are strongly dependent on this ratio. This information is useful for a quantitative check of the TPS and as a starting point towards optimization.

  4. The gamma-ray radiation preservation technology for files and books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chengfa; Tian Kaizen; Zhang Yunlu; Gan Saohan; Wang Zhengfu; Xiang Jiafang

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a radiation appliance using CO-60 Gamma-ray to preserve the files and books is introduced. The lump and transport radiation techniques for processing files and books with this radiation appliance is described. The cost of preserving files and books with this method has been estimated. Comparison of this method with other processing techniques has been taken. (author)

  5. Installation of the product transport system and control system for the Co-60 irradiator at the Institute of Investigations of the Alimentary Industry (IIIA), La Havana, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac An; Le Minh Tuan; Pham Thi Thu Hong; Nguyen Thanh Cuong; Huynh Dong Phuong; Ha Thanh Viet; Truong Vu Thanh Nhan

    2016-01-01

    Under the protocol of international cooperation in science and technology between Vietnam and Cuba - “Installation of the product transport system and control system for the Cobalt-60 irradiator at the Institute of Investigations of the Alimentary Industry (IIIA)”, the renovation of the irradiator has been started since 2012 and carried out by Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA). The renovation work comprises the installation of the tote box transport system that was designed and constructed by Isotope Institute Budapest, Hungary, the installation of the PLC based control system which were designed and constructed by VINAGAMMA, installations of technological systems and training Cuban irradiator operators. The project has been successfully implemented and the industrial Co-60 irradiator with new control system has been put into operation. (author)

  6. The comparison between the humoral response and the neutralizing capacity of sheep serum inoculated with natural venom and Co60 irradiated venom from Crotalus durissus terrificus (Laurenti, 1768)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Crotalus durissus terrificus venom was irradiated with Co 60 to investigate the effects of antigen-irradiation on antivenom production in sheep. Twelve sheep were divided in two groups of 6. One group received irradiated, while the other received natural venom. Three doses of antigen were given at monthly intervals. The toxic activity of the venom was assessed by LD 50 in mice. Weekly blood samples were obtained to evaluate anti-crotalic serum titers by indirect ELISA, neutralization capacity, and serum potency. A complete blood count, plasma protein and fibrinogen concentration, and serum albumin and globulin were also determined. At end of the experiment, the animals were challenged with ovine LD 50 , without clinical abnormalities. (author)

  7. Measurement of Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) for the Radiation Beam from Neutron Source Reactor YAYOI -Comparisons with Cyclotron Neutron and 60Co Gamma Ray-

    OpenAIRE

    HIROAKI, WAKABAYASHI; SHOZO, SUZUKI; AKIRA, ITO; Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokyo; Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo; Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo

    1983-01-01

    Radiation biology and/or therapy research and development for a research reactor beam need specific RBEs of neutrons as well as of specific reactions. RBEs for reactor beams measured in situ condition are interesting because actual radiation effects on each biological system are different depending on detailed conditions of irradiation. A small powered research reactor (Fast Neutron Source Reactor: YAYOI) was examined here as a neutron beam source for obtaining survival curves in a manner usu...

  8. Beam-Beam Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities

  9. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  10. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  11. New analytical methods for materials characterization using the techniques of nuclear activation reactions induced by thermal neutrons and accelerated ion beams, coupled to gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincu, Emanuela

    1999-01-01

    data from nuclear activation reactions. In the theoretical part of the thesis (Chapter 2) an explanation for the 'critical' phenomena discussed in the CPAA literature was advanced. In Chapters 3-4, new analytical formulae were derived, based on new nuclear parameters (z 0 , z), which are similar to the known (k 0 , k) parameters for the NAA field. A new, absolute standardization method, without any reference standard was also described. Chapter 5 presents new, original applications for determining the energy of the accelerated ion beams and thickness of thin materials, while the Chapter 6 describes two practical methods for optimizing the experiments: the Unitary (CPAA-NAA) analytical method based on the new parameters (z 0 , z), and the Optographic Method based on the specific evolution of each radionuclide. A new concept of the software for processing the experimental data from nuclear activation was developed for CPAA and NAA, and a database of the specific nuclear data was constructed (Chapter 7) by using the 'Fox-Pro' operating system. The experimental CPAA setup (Chapter 8) was a newly constructed reaction vacuum chamber based on the author's design, which allowed an accurate control of the electrical charge transferred to the target and reproducibility of irradiation; the analysis of the gamma-ray spectra from both types of irradiation was carried out by a spectrometer with a high resolution HPGe detector. In conclusion (Chapter 9) this thesis is significant for the field of analysis by nuclear activation (CPAA, and NAA) due to the original contributions to the theoretical, methodological, experimental and specific software and calculation methods. (author)

  12. SU-E-T-442: Geometric Calibration and Verification of a GammaPod Breast SBRT System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C [Univ Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Xcision Medical Systems, Columbia, MD (United States); Niu, Y; Maton, P; Hoban, P [Xcision Medical Systems, Columbia, MD (United States); Mutaf, Y [Univ Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The first GammaPod™ unit for prone stereotactic treatment of early stage breast cancer has recently been installed and calibrated. Thirty-six rotating circular Co-60 beams focus dose at an isocenter that traverses throughout a breast target via continuous motion of the treatment table. The breast is immobilized and localized using a vacuum-assisted stereotactic cup system that is fixed to the table during treatment. Here we report on system calibration and on verification of geometric and dosimetric accuracy. Methods: Spatial calibration involves setting the origin of each table translational axis within the treatment control system such that the relationship between beam isocenter and table geometry is consistent with that assumed by the treatment planning system. A polyethylene QA breast phantom inserted into an aperture in the patient couch is used for calibration and verification. The comparison is performed via fiducial-based registration of measured single-isocenter dose profiles (radiochromic film) with kernel dose profiles. With the table calibrations applied, measured relative dose distributions were compared with TPS calculations for single-isocenter and dynamic (many-isocenter) treatment plans. Further, table motion accuracy and linearity was tested via comparison of planned control points with independent encoder readouts. Results: After table calibration, comparison of measured and calculated single-isocenter dose profiles show agreement to within 0.5 mm for each axis. Gamma analysis of measured vs calculated profiles with 3%/2mm criteria yields a passing rate of >99% and >98% for single-isocenter and dynamic plans respectively. This also validates the relative dose distributions produced by the TPS. Measured table motion accuracy was within 0.05 mm for all translational axes. Conclusion: GammaPod table coordinate calibration is a straightforward process that yields very good agreement between planned and measured relative dose distributions

  13. Distillation columns inspection through gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marco

    1999-09-01

    The application of nuclear energy is very wide and it allows the saving of economic resources since the investigation of a certain process is carried out without stop the plant. The gamma scanning of oil c racking c olumns are practical examples, they allow to determine the hydraulic operation of the inspected columns. A source of Co-60 22mCi and a detector with a crystal of INa(TI) are used. This paper shows the results got from a profile carried out in a column distillation

  14. Comparison of gamma, neutron and proton irradiations of multimode fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, M.E.; Dorsey, K.L.; Askins, C.G.; Friebele, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of pure gamma, pure proton, and mixed neutron-gamma irradiation fields on a set of both pure and doped silica core multimode fibers have been investigated. Only slight differences are found in the radiation response of pure and doped silica core fibers exposed to gamma or mixed neutron-gamma fields, indicating that Co-60 sources can be used to simulate the effects of the mixed field (except in the case of a pure neutron environment). Although it is noted that neither mix field nor gamma sources adequately simulate the effects of proton irradiation of doped silica core fibers, a good correspondence is found in the case of the pure silica core waveguide. 13 references

  15. Gamma-ray shielding design and performance test of WASTEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Seiichiro; Aoyama, Saburo; Tashiro, Shingo; Nagai, Shiro

    1984-06-01

    The Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) was planned in 1978 to test the safety performance of HLW vitrified forms under the simulated conditions of long term storage and disposal, and completed in August 1981. The designed feature of the facility is to treat the vitrified forms contain actual high-level wastes of 5 x 10 4 Ci in maximum with 5 units of concrete shilded hot cells (3 units : Bate-Gamma cells, 2 units : Alpha-Gamma cells) and one units of Alpha-Gamma lead shielded cell, and to store radioactivity of 10 6 Ci in maximum. The safety performance of this facility is fundamentally maintained with confinement of radioactivity and shielding of the radiation. This report describes the method of gamma-ray shielding design, evaluation of the shielding test performed by using sealded gamma-ray sources(Co-60). (author)

  16. SU-F-303-17: Real Time Dose Calculation of MRI Guided Co-60 Radiotherapy Treatments On Free Breathing Patients, Using a Motion Model and Fast Monte Carlo Dose Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D; O’Connell, D; Lamb, J; Cao, M; Yang, Y; Agazaryan, N; Lee, P; Low, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate real-time dose calculation of free-breathing MRI guided Co−60 treatments, using a motion model and Monte-Carlo dose calculation to accurately account for the interplay between irregular breathing motion and an IMRT delivery. Methods: ViewRay Co-60 dose distributions were optimized on ITVs contoured from free-breathing CT images of lung cancer patients. Each treatment plan was separated into 0.25s segments, accounting for the MLC positions and beam angles at each time point. A voxel-specific motion model derived from multiple fast-helical free-breathing CTs and deformable registration was calculated for each patient. 3D images for every 0.25s of a simulated treatment were generated in real time, here using a bellows signal as a surrogate to accurately account for breathing irregularities. Monte-Carlo dose calculation was performed every 0.25s of the treatment, with the number of histories in each calculation scaled to give an overall 1% statistical uncertainty. Each dose calculation was deformed back to the reference image using the motion model and accumulated. The static and real-time dose calculations were compared. Results: Image generation was performed in real time at 4 frames per second (GPU). Monte-Carlo dose calculation was performed at approximately 1frame per second (CPU), giving a total calculation time of approximately 30 minutes per treatment. Results show both cold- and hot-spots in and around the ITV, and increased dose to contralateral lung as the tumor moves in and out of the beam during treatment. Conclusion: An accurate motion model combined with a fast Monte-Carlo dose calculation allows almost real-time dose calculation of a free-breathing treatment. When combined with sagittal 2D-cine-mode MRI during treatment to update the motion model in real time, this will allow the true delivered dose of a treatment to be calculated, providing a useful tool for adaptive planning and assessing the effectiveness of gated treatments

  17. Predicting corrosion of 316L stainless steel capsule by low level radioactive wastes (Am-241 and Co-60) in underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunoo, R.

    2013-07-01

    Most of radioactive wastes in Ghana are of low level in activity, (i.e LLRW) and are currently kept under lock in a secured room. The proposed plan by the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission is to seal the LLRW In 316L stainless steel disposal capsule for borehole repository. The research presented in this thesis was aimed at predicting the rate of both uniform and pitting corrosion of the 316L stainless steel disposal capsule by LLRW that will be kept in the capsule as a function of temperature, PH and chloride concentration for a period of up to 1000 years of disposal. The prediction analysis was based on the point defect deterministic model which assumed Schottky defects as the defect of the oxide formed on the surfaces of the disposal capsule. Faradays law and Fick first law of diffusion were used to determine the current across the internal and external surfaces of the capsule used to predict the uniform corrosion rate and corrosion loss of the 316L stainless steel disposal capsule. By imposing chlorine on the external environment of the disposal capsule, pit growth rate and pit depth of capsule were also predicted over a period of 1000 years. The capsule containing disused Am-241 source at activity level of 1.67×10 3 Bq had an average uniform corrosion rate of 3.65×10 -7 m/year and average pit growth rate of 1.79×10 -6 m/year while the corrosion rate and pit growth rate of the capsule containing disused Co-60 with activity level of 2.78×10 8 Bq were 6.9×10 -7 m/year and 2.1×10 -6 m/year respectively at PH value of 8 and repository temperature of 75°C and chloride concentration of 0.5 M. The uniform corrosion rate indicated that at PH=8 and T=75°C, 80.04% of the disposal capsule containing disused Am-241 would remain whiles 62.34% of that containing Co-60 disused source would remain after 1000 years when undergoing uniform corrosion, and an arbitrary position on the disposal capsule will have a pit depth of 1.98×10 -3 m after 100 years. Hence the integrity

  18. SU-F-T-317: Skin Exposure Outside the Treatment Field During Treatment of Breast Cancer with Tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J; Kim, J; Park, S [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, K [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate exposure outside the treatment field when treating breast cancer with tri-Co-60 magnetic resonance (MR) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. Methods: A total of 7 patients who treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) technique were selected prospectively for this study (prescription dose = 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions). Every patient treated with two plans, one was an initial plan and the other was an adaptive plan generated after finishing 5 fractions (a total of 14 plans). Every plan was calculated with and without magnetic field in the treatment planning system. The EBT3 films were attached on the front and the back of 1 cm bolus, and then it was placed on the patient body vertically to cover patient’s jaw and shoulder. After measurements, the maximum point dose and the mean dose of whole area of EBT3 film were acquired. Results: In the treatment plan with magnetic field, low dose stream outside the patient body was observed, almost reaching the patient’s jaw or shoulder, while it was not observed without magnetic field. The average values of the measured maximum and mean doses at the front of bolus were 30.1 ± 11.1 cGy (7.8% of the daily dose) and 14.7 ± 3.3 cGy (3.8%), respectively. At the back of bolus, those values were 6.0 ± 1.9 cGy (1.6%) and 5.1 ± 1.6 cGy (1.3%), respectively. The largest maximum dose at the front was 54.2 cGy (14.1%) while it was 20.7 cGy (5.4%) at the back. The average decrease of the maximum dose by the bolus was 24.0 ± 11.0 cGy. Conclusion: Due to magnetic field, dose stream outside the patient body can be generated during breast cancer treatment with the tri-Co-60 MR-IGRT system. Since this dose stream irradiated skin outside the treatment field, it should be shielded. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1C1A1A01054192).

  19. On the possibility of gamma-laser pumping occurring at a charged particle counter motion and in density-modulated electron beams by a high frequency intensive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksyuta, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    The given report deals with the problem of motion and radiation of relativistic electron in a field of opposite plane density-modulated relativistic electron beam. Physical essence of high-frequency intensive radiation origin could be explained, first by the additional Lorentz reduction of the electron beam modulation period (modulation period Λ in a laboratory co-ordinate system reduces by a factor γ as compared with the modulation period in a beam co-ordinate system) and, secondly, a simultaneous γ-fold increase of transverse components of relativistic electrons of the beam electric and magnetic fields. Such a moving modulated electron beam can be regarded as a dynamic micro-ondulator. Unlike static micro-ondulators we can observe here one more positive moment along with a small period Λ = Λ'/γ, i.e. the electric and magnetic fields in a transverse direction are changed according to the law of exp(-2πx/Λ'). It means that charged particle interaction with a dynamic micro-ondulator will be effective in a wide range of transverse distances, i.e., to get an intensive short wave radiation one can use charged particle beams with rather large apertures which leads to an additional radiation intensity increase. A discussion is given showing that the proposed dynamic modulator possesses some essential merits. A detailed calculation is presented. (author)

  20. Effects of gamma radiation and electron beam on samples of the Brazil nuts artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus; Efeitos da radiacao gama e feixe de eletrons sobre amostras de castanhas-do-Brasil inoculadas artificialmente com Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Ednei Assuncao Antunes

    2012-07-01

    The high level of contamination by aflatoxin produced by fungi in lots of Brazil nuts and the strict control by importing countries in relation to the levels of toxins in food, European Union countries decided in 2003 by the return of these lots products from Brazil. Despite the economic loss represented by contamination by toxigenic fungi in Brazil nuts, a major product of extractive Northern of Brazil, studies are still preliminary as the control of contamination aflatoxigenic fungal using methods such as gamma radiation (G.R) and mainly, electron beam (E.B). These facts motivated this research, which aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation and application of electron beam in samples of Brazil nut artificially inoculated with Aspergillus flavus. This goal, we were studied 50 samples of the Brazil nut previously inoculated with spores of A. flavus and subsequently incubated at 30 °C in relative humidity controlled at 93%. After incubation, period of 15 days, the average water activity of the samples was 0.80, the samples were divided into 5 groups that received the following doses of radiation: control (0 kGy), 5 and 10 kGy 5 E.B and G.R. The mycobiota was performed by serial dilution, plated on surface using potato dextrose agar. The results demonstrated that treatment with E.B using a dose of 5 kGy and 10 kGy resulted in reduced growth of A. flavus in 74% (37/50) and 94% (47/50) of samples. The samples treated with G.R at the dose of 5 kGy and 10 kGy no fungal growth occurred in 92% (46/50) 100% (50/50) of. The study of aflatoxins showed that doses of E.B of 5 kGy and 10 kGy reduced levels of AFB1 at 53.32% and 65.66% respectively. The application of gamma rays at doses of 5 and 10 kGy reduced levels of toxins in 70.61% and 84.15% respectively. This result may be attributed to higher penetrability of gamma radiation. Sensory analysis showed greater acceptance of the judges for the samples irradiated with E.B and G.R at the dose of 10 kGy. We concluded

  1. Measurement of (n,xn) reaction cross-sections using prompt {gamma} spectroscopy at neutron beams with high instantaneous flux; Mesure de sections efficaces de reaction (n,xn) par spectroscopie {gamma} prompte aupres d'un faisceau a tres haut flux instantane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukic, S

    2004-10-15

    The work presented in this thesis is situated in the context of the GEDEON program of neutron cross-section measurements. This program is motivated by the perspectives recently opened by projects of nuclear waste treatment and energy production. There is an obvious lack of experimental data on (n,xn) reactions in the databases, especially in the case of very radioactive isotopes. An important technique to measure cross-sections of these reactions is the prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at white pulsed neutron beams with very high instantaneous flux. In this work, inelastic scattering and (n,xn) reactions cross-section measurements were performed on a lead sample from threshold to 20 MeV by prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at the white neutron beam generated by GELINA facility in Geel, Belgium. Digital methods were developed to treat HPGe CLOVER detector signals and separate {gamma}-rays induced by the fastest neutrons from those belonging to the flash. Partial cross-sections for the production of several transitions in natural lead were measured and analyzed using theoretical calculations in order to separate the contributions of different reactions leading to the same residual isotope. Total cross-sections of the reactions in question were estimated. The results were compared to the TALYSS code theoretical calculations, as well as to other experimental results. This experiment has served to validate the method and it opens the way to measure (n,xn) reactions cross-sections with high instantaneous neutron flux on actinides, particularly the U{sup 233}(n,2n) reaction which is important for the thorium cycle. (author)

  2. Dosimetric comparison on tissue interfaces with TLD dosimeters, L-alanine, EDR2 films and Penelope simulation for a Co-60 source and linear accelerator in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega R, J. L.; Cayllahua, F.; Apaza, D. G.; Javier, H.

    2015-10-01

    Percentage depth dose curves were obtained with TLD-100 dosimeters, EDR2 films and Penelope simulation at the interfaces in an inhomogeneous mannequin, composed by equivalent materials to the human body built for this study, consisting of cylindrical plates of solid water-bone-lung-bone-solid water of 15 cm in diameter and 1 cm in height; plates were placed in descending way (4-2-8-2-4). Irradiated with Co-60 source (Theratron Equinox-100) for small radiation fields 3 x 3 cm 2 and 1 x 1 cm 2 at a surface source distance of 100 cm from mannequin. The TLD-100 dosimeters were placed in the center of each plate of mannequin irradiated at 10 Gy. The results were compared between these measurement techniques, giving good agreement in interfaces better than 97%. This study was compared with the same characteristics of another study realized with other equivalent materials to human body not homogeneous acrylic-bone-cork-bone-acrylic. The percentage depth dose curves were obtained with mini-dosimeters L-alanine of 1 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height and 3.5 to 4.0 mg of mass with spectrometer band K (EPR). The mini-dosimeters were irradiated with a lineal accelerator PRIMUS Siemens 6 MV. The results of percentage depth dose of L-alanine mini-dosimeters show a good agreement with the percentage depth dose curves of Penelope code, better than 97.7% in interfaces of tissues. (Author)

  3. Tenth value layers for 60Co gamma rays and for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x rays in concrete for beams of cone angles between 0 degrees and 14 degrees calculated by Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Adnan K; Biggs, Peter J

    2007-05-01

    The calculation of shielding barrier thicknesses for radiation therapy facilities according to the NCRP formalism is based on the use of broad beams (that is, the maximum possible field sizes). However, in practice, treatment fields used in radiation therapy are, on average, less than half the maximum size. Indeed, many contemporary treatment techniques call for reduced field sizes to reduce co-morbidity and the risk of second cancers. Therefore, published tenth value layers (TVLs) for shielding materials do not apply to these very small fields. There is, hence, a need to determine the TVLs for various beam modalities as a function of field size. The attenuation of (60)Co gamma rays and photons of 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV bremsstrahlung x ray beams by concrete has been studied using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP version 4C2) for beams of half-opening angles of 0 degrees , 3 degrees , 6 degrees , 9 degrees , 12 degrees , and 14 degrees . The distance between the x-ray source and the distal surface of the shielding wall was fixed at 600 cm, a distance that is typical for modern radiation therapy rooms. The maximum concrete thickness varied between 76.5 cm and 151.5 cm for (60)Co and 18 MV x rays, respectively. Detectors were placed at 630 cm, 700 cm, and 800 cm from the source. TVLs have been determined down to the third TVL. Energy spectra for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV x rays for 10 x 10 cm(2) and 40 x 40 cm(2) field sizes were used to generate depth dose curves in water that were compared with experimentally measured values.

  4. Thermoluminescent response of aluminium oxide thin films subject to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, A.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Villagran, E.; Gonzalez, P.R

    2006-07-01

    The thermoluminescent (TL) properties of amorphous aluminium oxide thin films (thicknesses as low as 0.3 {mu}m) subjected to gamma (Co-60) irradiation are reported. Aluminium oxide thin films were prepared by laser ablation from an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} target using a Nd: YAG laser with emission at the fundamental line. The films were exposed to gamma radiation (Co-60) in order to study their TL response. Thermoluminescence glow curves exhibited two peaks at 110 and 176 C. The high temperature peak shows good stability and 30% fading in the first 5 days after irradiation. A linear relationship between absorbed dose and the thermoluminescent response for doses span from 150 mGy to 100 Gy was observed. These results suggest that aluminium oxide thin films are suitable for detection and monitoring of gamma radiation. (Author)

  5. Chromosomal rearrangements in interspecific hybrids between Nicotiana gossei Domin and N. tabacum L., obtained by crossing with pollen exposed to helium ion beams or gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, S.; Inoue, M.; Ohmido, N.; Fukui, K.; Tanaka, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is very difficult to obtain interspecific hybrids between Nicotiana tabacum L. (2n=48) and N. gossei Domin (2n=36), because of strong cross incompatibility. We had already obtained interspecific hybrids between these two species, crossing N. gossei flower with N. tabacum pollen exposed to He ions or gamma-rays. Here, we analyze chromosome constitution of these hybrids by genomic in situ hybridization. In root tip cells of the two hybrids obtained with He ion exposure, most mitotic cells contained 18 chromosomes of N. gossei and 24 chromosomes of N. tabacum. However, in some cells, translocations and insertions between parental genomes were observed. On the other hand, in a hybrid obtained by gamma-ray irradiation, intergenomic rearrangements were not observed, although mitotic cells showed 19 hybridization signals with N. gossei DNA in 41 chromosomes. Such chromosomal changes in structure or constitution may be related to overcoming cross incompatibility between these two species

  6. Behavior of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility in ybco bula ceramics irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Fabelo, A.; Bouza Dominguez, J.; Cruz Inclan, Carlos M.

    2001-01-01

    Using measurements of the ac susceptibility, the behavior with the irradiation dose of YBa2Cu3O7- bulk ceramics synthesized by the classic reaction method in solid state, was studied. A Co60 gamma chamber model MPX-G-25M and a Cs137 source were employed as gamma ray sources. The behavior of the beginning temperature of the normal - superconducting state transition with the exposition dose show, independently of the incident gamma energy, a monotonous growth until reaching a threshold dose, after which, observe a fall, more abrupt in the case of the Co60. This behavior can be explained using the model that postulates the ability of the gamma radiation, in certain dose intervals, to stimulate the structural reordering in the oxygen sublattice. When the irradiation process takes place in the Co60 gamma chamber, the behavior of the superconducting volume fraction of the sample characterizes by the initial sharp fall with the dose, followed with an attenuation of the decrement. In the case of Cs137 irradiation, the behavior of the superconducting volume fraction is similar to the behavior of the Ton with the dose

  7. Comment on ‘Imaging of prompt gamma rays emitted during delivery of clinical proton beams with a Compton camera: feasibility studies for range verification’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Arkadiusz

    2016-12-01

    The origin ensemble (OE) algorithm is a new method used for image reconstruction from nuclear tomographic data. The main advantage of this algorithm is the ease of implementation for complex tomographic models and the sound statistical theory. In this comment, the author provides the basics of the statistical interpretation of OE and gives suggestions for the improvement of the algorithm in the application to prompt gamma imaging as described in Polf et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 7085).

  8. Comment on 'Imaging of prompt gamma rays emitted during delivery of clinical proton beams with a Compton camera: feasibility studies for range verification'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Arkadiusz

    2016-12-21

    The origin ensemble (OE) algorithm is a new method used for image reconstruction from nuclear tomographic data. The main advantage of this algorithm is the ease of implementation for complex tomographic models and the sound statistical theory. In this comment, the author provides the basics of the statistical interpretation of OE and gives suggestions for the improvement of the algorithm in the application to prompt gamma imaging as described in Polf et al (2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 7085).

  9. $\\gamma$- spectroscopy of n-rich $^{95,96}$Rb nuclei by the incomplete fusion reaction of $^{94}$Kr on $^{7}$Li: Introduction to HIE-ISOLDE studies of n-rich Sb and Tl isotopes with Sn and Hg radioactive beams.

    CERN Document Server

    Fornal, B; Bednarczyk, P; Cieplicka, N; Krolas, W; Maj, A; Leoni, S; Benzoni, G; Blasi, N; Bottoni, S; Bracco, A; Camera, F; Crespi, F; Million, B; Morales, A; Wieland, O; Rusek, K; Lunardi, S; Mengoni, D; Recchia, F; Ur, CA; Valiente-Dobon, J; de France, G; Clement, E; Elseviers, J; Flavigny, F; Huyse, M; Raabe, R; Sambi, S; Van Duppen, P; Sferrazza, M; Simpson, G; Georgiev, G; Sotty, C; Blazhev, A; German, R; Siebeck, B; Seidlitz, M; Reiter, P; Warr, N; Boenig, S; Ilieva, S; Kroell, T; Scheck, M; Thurauf, M; Gernhaeuser, R; Mucher, D; Janssens, R; Carpenter, MP; Zhu, S; Marginean, NM; Balabanski, D; Kowalska, M

    2012-01-01

    $\\gamma$- spectroscopy of n-rich $^{95,96}$Rb nuclei by the incomplete fusion reaction of $^{94}$Kr on $^{7}$Li: Introduction to HIE-ISOLDE studies of n-rich Sb and Tl isotopes with Sn and Hg radioactive beams.

  10. On the absorbed dose determination method in high energy electrons beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.; Avadanei, C.

    2008-01-01

    The absorbed dose determination method in water for electron beams with energies in the range from 1 MeV to 50 MeV is presented herein. The dosimetry equipment for measurements is composed of an UNIDOS.PTW electrometer and different ionization chambers calibrated in air kerma in a Co 60 beam. Starting from the code of practice for high energy electron beams, this paper describes the method adopted by the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in NILPRP - Bucharest

  11. Comparison of IAEA protocols for clinical electron beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.; Soukup, M.

    2002-01-01

    In most beam calibration protocols so far used in clinical practice, the method recommended for the determination of absorbed dose to water in high-energy electron beams is based on either an exposure or an air kerma calibration factor of an ionisation chamber in a C0 60 gamma-ray or 2 MV x-ray beam. These protocols are complex and the overall uncertainty in the absorbed dose to water under reference conditions is about 3-4%. The new generation of protocols, namely IAEA TRS 398, are based on absorbed dose-to-water standards in photon beams from Co 60 and accelerator beams. The possible errors in absorbed dose determination in reference conditions in practical clinical dosimetry caused by replacement of TRS 277 and TRS 381 protocols for a new TRS 398 protocol were carefully studied for clinical electron beams in energy range 6-20 MeV. All measurements were performed on Varian CLINAC 2100 C linear accelerator. The electron beam energy ranged from 6 to 20 MeV. Basically three different detectors were used for measurements: PTW Roos plane-parallel ionization chamber, calibrated PTW 30002 Farmer type, ionization, Scanditronix electron diode detector. Measurements of central axis percentage depth doses were made by diode using Wellhoefer WP700 beam scanner in 40 cm x 40 cm x 50 cm water phantom. A reference chamber or semiconductor diode mounted on electron treatment cone was used to correct beam output variations for a chamber or diode measurements during scanning. Absolute dose measurements were carried out with Roos plane-parallel chamber connected to PTW UNIDOS electrometer always for preselected number of monitor units. In a new IAEA dosimetry protocol clinical reference dosimetry for electron beam is performed at depth of d ref = 0.6R 50 - 0.1 [cm] instead of d max as in previous ones. To check the stability of electron beams for energy and to establish d ref and standard deviation for reference depth position, the depth dose curves obtained during the quality

  12. Study of the properties of inverted liquid sugar processed with gamma radiation and electron beam; Estudo das propriedades do acucar liquido invertido processado com radiacao gama e feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podadera, Priscilla

    2007-07-01

    Brazil occupies position of prominence in the sugar market and high consumption of this ingredient in the liquid form, in special for the beverages and food industries. The liquid sugar presents advantages in relation to the bulk granulated system such as easiness of the handling and dosage, reduced space for the storage, reduction of the losses, costs and hand of workmanship, improvement of the sanitizing and great possible variation in the ratios of different mixtures of sugars. The inverted liquid sugar is a solution of sucrose, glucose and fructose in water. This ingredient receives this name because during its production it has an inversion of the optic power of rotation of the solution. In the productive process of the inverted sugar some points occur that can generate contamination by microorganisms, so its become important the development of techniques that propitiate the efficient sanitizing of this raw material. This work aims at to consider two alternative techniques of microbiologic control: gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 and radiation with electron beam. The study was lead in the doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy. Concentration of sucrose presented in syrup decreased with the radiation indicating the scission of glycosidic linkage in addition with the glucose and fructose formation, generating the increase in solids soluble. The acid compounds formation occurred, confirmed by the reduction of pH, that it was proportional with the increase of the radiation dose. The biggest doses had provoked change of color in the syrup by the long molecular chain polymers formation. Viscosity in the samples processed by gamma radiation increased in relation to the control, indicating the prevalence of polymerization of molecules, whereas in the radiation with electron beam the polymerization was only observed in the sample that received the dose of 50 kGy, In the sensorial analysis, the judges had pointed significant difference (5%) in the flavor among

  13. Gamma-gamma angular correlation measurement in the 100 Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchian, G.

    1990-01-01

    An angular correlation automatic spectrometer with two Ge(Li) detectors has been developed. The spectrometer moves automatically, controlled by a microcomputer. The gamma-gamma directional angular correlations of coincidence transitions have been measured in 100 Ru nuclide, following the β + and electron capture of 100 Rh. The 100 Rh source has been produced with 100 Ru(p,n) 100 Rh reaction, using the proton beam of the Cyclotron Accelerator insiding in 100 Ru isotope. (author)

  14. Attenuation of a non-parallel beam of gamma radiation by thick shielding-application to the determination of the {sup 235}U enrichment with NaI detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortreau, Patricia [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, TP 800 Via Fermi, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: patricia.mortreau@jrc.it; Berndt, Reinhard [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, TP 800 Via Fermi, Ispra (VA) (Italy)

    2005-09-21

    The traditional method used to determine the Uranium enrichment by nondestructive analysis is based on the 'enrichment meter principle' [1]. It involves measuring the intensity of the 186 keV net peak area of {sup 235}U in 'quasi-infinite' samples. A prominent factor, which affects the peak intensity, is the presence of gamma absorbing material (e.g., container wall, detector cover) between the sample and the detector. Its effect is taken into consideration in a commonly called 'wall thickness' correction factor. Often calculated on the basis of approximations, its performance is adequate for small attenuation factors applicable to the case of narrow beams. However these approximations do not lead to precise results when wide non-parallel beams are attenuated through thick container walls. This paper is dedicated to the calculation by numerical integration of the geometrical correction factor (K {sub wtc}) which describes the effective mean path length of the radiation through the absorbing layer. This factor was calculated as a function of various measurement parameters (types and dimensions of the detector, of the collimator and of the shielding) for the most commonly used collimator shapes and detectors. Both coherent scattering (Rayleigh) and incoherent scattering (Compton) are taken into account for the calculation of the radiation interaction within the detector.

  15. Project, construction and characterization of ionization chambers for use as standard systems in X and gamma radiation beams; Projeto, construcao e caracterizacao de camaras de ionizacao para utilizacao como sistemas padroes em feixes de radiacao X e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perini, Ana Paula

    2013-07-01

    Ionization chambers present some advantages in relation to other dosimeters: easiness of handling, low energy dependence and high precision. The advantages associated to ionization chambers and the large number of diagnostic radiology exams and therapeutic treatments motivated the development of this PhD program. In this project ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied in diagnostic radiology and therapy beam dosimetry, with high precision and performance, in compliance with international recommendations. They were assembled in a simple way, utilizing low-cost national materials, so they can be reproduced and applied at calibration laboratories. The project of these ionization chambers presents some differences in relation to commercial ionization chambers, as the materials utilized and geometrical arrangements. Besides the development of the ionization chambers to be utilized in standard X-ray beam dosimetry as work standard systems, two graphite parallel-plate ionization chambers were developed and characterized to be applied as reference standard systems for determining the air kerma rates of gamma radiation sources. Comparing the air kerma rates determined with the reference standard of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN, a Farmer ionization chamber, with the values of the air kerma rates obtained with the graphite ionization chambers, the maximum differences obtained were only 1.7% and 1.2% for the G1 and G2 graphite ionization chambers, respectively. Moreover, these ionization chambers presented correction factors close to 1.000, which is ideal for an ionization chamber be characterized as a reference standard system. (author)

  16. Gamma irradiation technology for composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Guillermo R; Gonzalez, Maria E.

    2003-01-01

    A composite of sugar cane bagasse and low-density polyethylene was prepared. Gamma -radiation of Cobalt-60 (Co 60 ) and reactive additives were used, to make compatible the lignocellulosic fibers with the polymeric matrix. Gamma-radiation was applied in different stages with different purposes: a) Irradiation of cellulosic fibers treated or not with reactive additive, in presence of air, to produce macro radicals increasing their reactivity during extrusion with polyethylene. A homogeneous and fusible material resulted that can be used as raw material in thermoforming processes with cost in between that of its constitutive elements; b) Irradiation of final products, to produce the cross-linking of polymeric chains. The fibers remain trapped in the cross-linked matrix. A homogeneous and infusible material with high mechanical properties was obtained. (author)

  17. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Gamma Knife Gamma Knife® is a radiation therapy that uses computerized ... If you're scheduled for radiation therapy using Gamma Knife®, a treatment team consisting of a radiation ...

  18. Design Study for Direction Variable Compton Scattering Gamma Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, T.; Omer, M.; Negm, H.; Choi, Y. W.; Kinjo, R.; Yoshida, K.; Konstantin, T.; Kimura, N.; Ishida, K.; Imon, H.; Shibata, M.; Shimahashi, K.; Komai, T.; Okumura, K.; Zen, H.; Masuda, K.; Hori, T.; Ohgaki, H.

    2013-03-01

    A monochromatic gamma ray beam is attractive for isotope-specific material/medical imaging or non-destructive inspection. A laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma ray source which is based on the backward Compton scattering of laser light on high-energy electrons can generate energy variable quasi-monochromatic gamma ray. Due to the principle of the LCS gamma ray, the direction of the gamma beam is limited to the direction of the high-energy electrons. Then the target object is placed on the beam axis, and is usually moved if spatial scanning is required. In this work, we proposed an electron beam transport system consisting of four bending magnets which can stick the collision point and control the electron beam direction, and a laser system consisting of a spheroidal mirror and a parabolic mirror which can also stick the collision point. Then the collision point can be placed on one focus of the spheroid. Thus gamma ray direction and collision angle between the electron beam and the laser beam can be easily controlled. As the results, travelling direction of the LCS gamma ray can be controlled under the limitation of the beam transport system, energy of the gamma ray can be controlled by controlling incident angle of the colliding beams, and energy spread can be controlled by changing the divergence of the laser beam.

  19. Comparison of absorbed-dose-to-water units for Co-60 and high-energy x-rays between PTB and LNE-LNHB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaunay, F.; Gouriou, J.; Le Roy, M.; Ostrowsky, A.; Sommier, L.; Vermesse, D.; Kapsch, R.P.; Illemann, J.; Krauss, A.

    2012-01-01

    During the Euramet project JRP7 'External Beam Cancer Therapy', PTB and LNE-LNHB used primary standards to determine the absorbed dose to water under IMRT conditions (in small fields). PTB used a water calorimeter to determine the absorbed-dose-to-water references in 6 MV and 10 MV beams for field sizes of 10 cm * 10 cm and 3 cm * 3 cm while LNE-LNHB used graphite calorimeters in 6MV and 12MV beams for field sizes of 10 cm * 10 cm, 4 cm * 4 cm and 2 cm * 2 cm. The purpose of this study is to compare PTB and LNE-LNHB new absorbed-dose-to-water references. LNE-LNHB sent an Exradin A1SL ionization chamber traceable to its primary standard to the PTB for calibration in 60 Co and in linac beams and PTB sent a PTW 31010 ionization chamber traceable to its primary standard to LNE-LNHB for calibration in 60 Co and in linac beams. Calculated Sw,air will be used as beam quality specifier for the ionization chamber comparison at different field sizes. The standard uncertainties (k = 1) of PTB and LNE-LNHB calibration coefficients lie respectively between 0.25% ( 60 Co) and 0.40% (linac) and between 0.29% and 0.46%. PTB and LNE-LNHB absorbed-dose-to-water references developed for this project, based respectively on water calorimetry and on graphite calorimetry, agree within 1.5 standard deviations for field size of 10 cm * 10 cm down to 2 cm * 2 cm and for beams of 6 MV to 10 MV. (authors)

  20. First measurement of the polarisation asymmetry of a gamma-ray beam between 1.7 to 74 MeV with the HARPO TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, P.; Amano, S.; Attié, D.; Bernard, D.; Bruel, P.; Calvet, D.; Colas, P.; Daté, S.; Delbart, A.; Frotin, M.; Geerebaert, Y.; Giebels, B.; Götz, D.; Hashimoto, S.; Horan, D.; Kotaka, T.; Louzir, Marc; Minamiyama, Y.; Miyamoto, S.; Ohkuma, H.; Poilleux, Patrick; Semeniouk, I.; Sizun, P.; Takemoto, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Wang, S.

    2016-07-01

    Current γ-ray telescopes suffer from a gap in sensitivity in the energy range between 100 keV and 100 MeV, and no polarisation measurement has ever been done on cosmic sources above 1 MeV. Past and present e+e- pair telescopes are limited at lower energies by the multiple scattering of electrons in passive tungsten converter plates. This results in low angular resolution, and, consequently, a drop in sensitivity to point sources below 1 GeV. The polarisation information, which is carried by the azimuthal angle of the conversion plane, is lost for the same reasons. HARPO is an R&D program to characterise the operation of a gaseous detector (a Time Projection Chamber or TPC) as a high angular-resolution and sensitivity telescope and polarimeter for γ-rays from cosmic sources. It represents a first step towards a future space instrument in the MeV-GeV range. We built and characterised a 30cm cubic demonstrator [SPIE 91441M], and put it in a polarised γ-ray beam at the NewSUBARU accelerator in Japan. Data were taken at photon energies from 1.74MeV to 74MeV and with different polarisation configurations. We describe the experimental setup in beam. We then describe the software we developed to reconstruct the photon conversion events, with special focus on low energies. We also describe the thorough simulation of the detector used to compare results. Finally we will present the performance of the detector as extracted from this analysis and preliminary measurements of the polarisation asymmetry. This beam-test qualification of a gas TPC prototype in a γ-ray beam could open the way to high-performance -ray astronomy and polarimetry in the MeV-GeV energy range in the near future.

  1. Effect of the gamma irradiation on the bio-sorption of Cr (Vi) by orange peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo L, V.; Barrera D, C. E.; Sanchez M, V.; Urena N, F.

    2009-01-01

    The orange peel (Citrus sp.) is a bioadsorbent that contains functional groups able to remove Cr (Vi). To study the effect of gamma irradiation in the sorption capacity, the Nn materials were irradiated with gamma rays using a Co 60 source to dose from 10 to 3500 KGy (Nlγ). The biomass irradiation with gamma rays was successful since it increased the hexavalent chromium removal obtaining a maximum removal percentage of 100%. Sorption isotherms were realized to determine the concentration effect of initial Cr (Vi), the ph effect of the solution and the relationship m/v. (Author)

  2. Conceptual design of gamma irradiator (ISG-500) for preservation of farming product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Budihardjo; Dian F Atmoko; Syamsurijjal Ramja; Sutomo; A Suntoro; Pudjijanto MS; Nada Mamada

    2010-01-01

    A conceptual design of gamma irradiator ISG-500 for a preservation of farming product has been done. The design of gamma irradiator are multi purpose with the activity of radiation source used at 2x250 kCi cobalt-60. This gamma irradiator will be built by using local materials, like as for the building structure construction, the mechanical and electrical systems and for the instrumentation and control systems. The sources of radiation that will be used is Co60 pencil types (C 188 - Nordion), concrete structured building according to BAPETEN rule and the numbers of carriers that will be used are 15 carriers. (author)

  3. SU-F-T-347: An Absolute Dose-Volume Constraint Based Deterministic Optimization Framework for Multi-Co60 Source Focused Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, B; Liu, B; Li, Y; Guo, B; Xu, X; Wei, R; Zhou, F [Beihang University, Beijing, Beijing (China); Wu, Q [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Treatment plan optimization in multi-Co60 source focused radiotherapy with multiple isocenters is challenging, because dose distribution is normalized to maximum dose during optimization and evaluation. The objective functions are traditionally defined based on relative dosimetric distribution. This study presents an alternative absolute dose-volume constraint (ADC) based deterministic optimization framework (ADC-DOF). Methods: The initial isocenters are placed on the eroded target surface. Collimator size is chosen based on the area of 2D contour on corresponding axial slice. The isocenter spacing is determined by adjacent collimator sizes. The weights are optimized by minimizing the deviation from ADCs using the steepest descent technique. An iterative procedure is developed to reduce the number of isocenters, where the isocenter with lowest weight is removed without affecting plan quality. The ADC-DOF is compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) using the same arbitrary shaped target (254cc), with a 15mm margin ring structure representing normal tissues. Results: For ADC-DOF, the ADCs imposed on target and ring are (D100>10Gy, D50,10, 0<12Gy, 15Gy and 20Gy) and (D40<10Gy). The resulting D100, 50, 10, 0 and D40 are (9.9Gy, 12.0Gy, 14.1Gy and 16.2Gy) and (10.2Gy). The objectives of GA are to maximize 50% isodose target coverage (TC) while minimize the dose delivered to the ring structure, which results in 97% TC and 47.2% average dose in ring structure. For ADC-DOF (GA) techniques, 20 out of 38 (10 out of 12) initial isocenters are used in the final plan, and the computation time is 8.7s (412.2s) on an i5 computer. Conclusion: We have developed a new optimization technique using ADC and deterministic optimization. Compared with GA, ADC-DOF uses more isocenters but is faster and more robust, and achieves a better conformity. For future work, we will focus on developing a more effective mechanism for initial isocenter determination.

  4. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for pulsar optical and gamma-ray emission where relativistic electrons beams: (i) scatter the blackbody photons from the polar cap surface giving inverse Compton gamma-rays and (ii) produce synchrotron optical photons in the light cylinder region which are then inverse Compton scattered giving other gamma-rays. The model is applied to the Vela pulsar, explaining the first gamma-ray pulse by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons near the light cylinder and the second gamma-ray pulse partly by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons and partly by inverse Compton scattering of the thermal blackbody photons near the star surface. (author)

  5. Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Development of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume produces apomictic seeds lead to low genetic variation. In order to induce genetic variation, germinated seeds were exposed to Gamma irradiation (Co-60 at doses of 10 to 100 Gy. Seed irradiation was conducted at Center for the Application of Isotope and Irradiation Technology -National Nuclear Energy Agency (CAIRT, Indonesia. Morphology and yield of M1 generation were observed. Results showed that irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy close to LD50 with survival rate 56%. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy delayed seeds germination.  Germination rates gradually increased and reached maximum at 4 weeks after planting (WAP for control plants, and 14 WAP of irradiated plants. At 16 WAP, germination rate of 10 Gy irradiated plants was 56% and 84% for those of control plants. Irradiation induced chimera as indicated by short petiole, variegated and abnornal shape of leaflets. Some irradiated plants entered dormancy at 8-10 weeks later than control ones. Prolong vegetative periode lead the plants to produce heavier corms. This study revealed the possibility to induce variation of A. muelleri by using gamma irradition. Keywords: Amorphophallus muelleri, gamma irradiation (Co-60, morphological variation, mutation breeding

  6. Gamma and Proton-Induced Dark Current Degradation of 5T CMOS Pinned Photodiode 0.18 mu{m} CMOS Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Nuns, T.; David, J.-P.; Gilard, O.; Vaillant, J.; Fereyre, P.; Prevost, V.; Boutillier, M.

    2014-02-01

    The radiation tolerance of a 0.18 μm technology CMOS commercial image sensor has been evaluated with Co60 and proton irradiations. The effects of protons on the hot pixels and dynamic bias and duty cycle conditions during gamma irradiations are studied.

  7. SU-F-J-125: Effects of Couch Position Variability On Dosimetric Accuracy with An MRI-Guided Co-60 Radiation Therapy Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, P; Thomas, D; Agazaryan, N; Cao, M; Low, D; Yang, Y; Lamb, J [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance in radiation therapy brings real-time imaging and adaptive planning into the treatment vault where it can account for interfraction and intrafraction movement of soft tissue. The only commercially-available MRI-guided radiation therapy device is a three-head 60Co and MRI system with an integrated treatment planning system (TPS). An up to 20% attenuation of the beam by the couch is well modeled in the TPS. However, variations in the patient’s day-to-day position introduce discrepancies in the actual couch position relative its location as modeled in the treatment plan. For this reason, our institution avoids plans with beams that pass through or near the couch edges. This study looks at plans without restriction on beam angles and investigates the effects of couch shift by simulating shifts of the couch relative to the patient, in order to determine whether couch edge avoidance restrictions can be lifted. Methods: A total of 27 plans from 23 patients were investigated. Couch shifts of 1 and 2 cm were introduced in combinations of lateral and vertical direction to simulate variations in patient positioning on the couch giving 16 shifted plans per reference plan. The shift values of 1 and 2 cm were based on shifts recorded in 320 treatment fractions. Results: Measured couch attenuation versus TPS modeled agreed within 2.1%. Planning Target Volume (PTV) D95 changed less than 1% for 1 and 2 cm couch shifts in only the x-direction and less than 3% for all directions. Conclusion: The dosimetry of all plans with shifts up to ±2 cm was within reasonable clinical tolerances. Robustness of a plan to couch shifts can be tested in the TPS. Inclusion of beams traversing the couch edges should be considered if an improvement in plan quality or delivery time can be achieved.

  8. The possibility of gamma ray sterilization by using ITU TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilge, A.N.; Tugrul, B.; Yavuz, H.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma rays are one of the effective method for sterilization which is preferred for a long time. Generally Co-60 radioisotope sources betatrons or accelerators are used for the sterilization. In this work, it was aimed to find the possibilities of the sterilization by gamma rays obtained in ITU TRIGA Mark-II radial tube. Radiation dosages are measured in the radial tube and several medical products are irradiated. Irradiation is arranged according to the desired dosages. Irradiated sterilized goods (mainly medical products) tested and checked at the Governmental Medical Health Center and results compared with literature. It can be seen that this kind of irradiation is a good tool for sterilization. Unfortunately, because of the stability of the radial tube and impracticality of the system it is rather difficult to compete with industrial system using Co-60 and accelerators. Nevertheless, this type of irradiation is also applicable for the purpose of the sterilization by using ITU TRIGA Mark II. (author)

  9. Bolt beam propagation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokair, I. R.

    BOLT (Beam on Laser Technology) is a rocket experiment to demonstrate electron beam propagation on a laser ionized plasma channel across the geomagnetic field in the ion focused regime (IFR). The beam parameters for BOLT are: beam current I(sub b) = 100 Amps, beam energy of 1--1.5 MeV (gamma =3-4), and a Gaussian beam and channel of radii r(sub b) = r(sub c) = 1.5 cm. The N+1 ionization scheme is used to ionize atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere. This scheme utilizes 130 nm light plus three IR lasers to excite and then ionize atomic oxygen. The limiting factor for the channel strength is the energy of the 130 nm laser, which is assumed to be 1.6 mJ for BOLT. At a fixed laser energy and altitude (fixing the density of atomic oxygen), the range can be varied by adjusting the laser tuning, resulting in a neutralization fraction axial profile of the form: f(z) = f(sub 0) e(exp minus z)/R, where R is the range. In this paper we consider the propagation of the BOLT beam and calculate the range of the electron beam taking into account the fact that the erosion rates (magnetic and inductive) vary with beam length as the beam and channel dynamically respond to sausage and hose instabilities.

  10. Technical Note: Dosimetric effects of couch position variability on treatment plan quality with an MRI-guided Co-60 radiation therapy machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Phillip E., E-mail: pechow@mednet.ucla.edu; Thomas, David H.; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Cao, Minsong; Low, Daniel A.; Yang, Yingli; Steinberg, Michael L.; Lee, Percy; Lamb, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance in radiation therapy brings real-time imaging and adaptive planning into the treatment vault where it can account for interfraction and intrafraction movement of soft tissue. The only commercially available MRI-guided radiation therapy device is a three-head {sup 60}Co and MRI system with an integrated treatment planning system (TPS). Couch attenuation of the beam of up to 20% is well modeled in the TPS. Variations in the patient’s day-to-day position introduce discrepancies in the actual couch attenuation as modeled in the treatment plan. For this reason, the authors’ institution avoids plans with beams that pass through or near the couch edges. This study investigates the effects of differential beam attenuation by the couch due to couch shifts in order to determine whether couch edge avoidance restrictions can be lifted. Couch shifts were simulated using a Monte Carlo treatment planning system and ion chamber measurements performed for validation. Methods: A total of 27 plans from 23 patients were investigated. Couch shifts of 1 and 2 cm were introduced in combinations of lateral and vertical directions to simulate patient position variations giving 16 shifted plans per reference plan. The 1 and 2 cm shifts were based on shifts recorded in 320 treatment fractions. Results: Following TG176 recommendations for measurement methods, couch attenuation measurements agreed with TPS modeled attenuation to within 2.1%. Planning target volume D95 changed less than 1% for 1 and 2 cm couch shifts in only the x-direction and less than 3% for all directions. Conclusions: Dosimetry of all plans tested was robust to couch shifts up to ±2 cm. In general, couch shifts resulted in clinically insignificant dosimetric deviations. It is conceivable that in certain cases with large systematic couch shifts and plans that are particularly sensitive to shifts, dosimetric changes might rise to a clinically significant level.

  11. Dosimetric comparison on tissue interfaces with TLD dosimeters, L-alanine, EDR2 films and Penelope simulation for a Co-60 source and linear accelerator in radiotherapy; Comparacion dosimetrica en interfaces de tejidos con dosimetros TLD, L-alanina, peliculas EDR2 y simulacion Penelope para una fuente de Co-60 y acelerador lineal en radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega R, J. L.; Cayllahua, F.; Apaza, D. G.; Javier, H., E-mail: josevegaramirez@yahoo.es [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Independencia s/n, Arequipa (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    Percentage depth dose curves were obtained with TLD-100 dosimeters, EDR2 films and Penelope simulation at the interfaces in an inhomogeneous mannequin, composed by equivalent materials to the human body built for this study, consisting of cylindrical plates of solid water-bone-lung-bone-solid water of 15 cm in diameter and 1 cm in height; plates were placed in descending way (4-2-8-2-4). Irradiated with Co-60 source (Theratron Equinox-100) for small radiation fields 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} and 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} at a surface source distance of 100 cm from mannequin. The TLD-100 dosimeters were placed in the center of each plate of mannequin irradiated at 10 Gy. The results were compared between these measurement techniques, giving good agreement in interfaces better than 97%. This study was compared with the same characteristics of another study realized with other equivalent materials to human body not homogeneous acrylic-bone-cork-bone-acrylic. The percentage depth dose curves were obtained with mini-dosimeters L-alanine of 1 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height and 3.5 to 4.0 mg of mass with spectrometer band K (EPR). The mini-dosimeters were irradiated with a lineal accelerator PRIMUS Siemens 6 MV. The results of percentage depth dose of L-alanine mini-dosimeters show a good agreement with the percentage depth dose curves of Penelope code, better than 97.7% in interfaces of tissues. (Author)

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on garlic storage under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyoubi, Zouhair; Sharabi, N.E.

    1993-02-01

    Garlic cloves were exposed to 30, 60, and 100 Gy of gamma radiation using Co 60 as a sources, to study the effect of different doses on the sprout inhibition of garlic. All the doses applied were effective. No sprout occurred in any of the treatments subjected to natural storage conditions. The effect of irradiation was evident in limiting the weight decrease. It reached 12 - 19% in 1987 and 1988 experiments respectively after 320 days of storage. Irradiation had no effect on the garlic consumptive specifications compared to the control. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Conversion of lignocellulosic waste by gamma irradiation and fungal fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Xuan Tham; Nguyen Duy Hang; Tran Huu Do; Hoang Thi My Linh; Nguyen Duy Lam

    2000-01-01

    Effects of microbial elimination (initially contaminated bacteria and fungi) were confirmed at wide range of irradiation doses (15-30 kGy) with gamma rays of Co-60 for substrates with sawdusts, sugar cane baggasse, rice straw, oil palm fibre and others. Some changes of main components of basic polysaccharides and nitrogen sources in substrates under irradiation and fermentations have been examined to confirm effective conversions and assimilations of inorganic nitrogen into protein, particularly using N-15 tracer techniques. Biomass obtained by fungal fermentations would be used for animal feed and spent compots were useful for biofertilizer production. (author)

  14. A pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Hermann; Stroebele, Julia; Schreiner, Thomas; Hirtl, Albert; Georg, Dietmar [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); PEG MedAustron, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a flexible pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy. Dose distributions were calculated using the newly developed pencil beam algorithm and validated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Methods: The algorithm was based on the established theory of fluence weighted elemental pencil beam (PB) kernels. Using a new real-time splitting approach, a minimization routine selects the optimal shape for each sub-beam. Dose depositions along the beam path were determined using a look-up table (LUT). Data for LUT generation were derived from MC simulations in water using GATE 6.1. For materials other than water, dose depositions were calculated by the algorithm using water-equivalent depth scaling. Lateral beam spreading caused by multiple scattering has been accounted for by implementing a non-local scattering formula developed by Gottschalk. A new nuclear correction was modelled using a Voigt function and implemented by a LUT approach. Validation simulations have been performed using a phantom filled with homogeneous materials or heterogeneous slabs of up to 3 cm. The beams were incident perpendicular to the phantoms surface with initial particle energies ranging from 50 to 250 MeV/A with a total number of 10{sup 7} ions per beam. For comparison a special evaluation software was developed calculating the gamma indices for dose distributions. Results: In homogeneous phantoms, maximum range deviations between PB and MC of less than 1.1% and differences in the width of the distal energy falloff of the Bragg-Peak from 80% to 20% of less than 0.1 mm were found. Heterogeneous phantoms using layered slabs satisfied a {gamma}-index criterion of 2%/2mm of the local value except for some single voxels. For more complex phantoms using laterally arranged bone-air slabs, the {gamma}-index criterion was exceeded in some areas giving a maximum {gamma}-index of 1.75 and 4.9% of the voxels showed {gamma}-index values larger than one. The calculation precision of the

  15. Differential gene expression in primary fibroblasts induced by proton and cobalt-60 beam irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Bassler, Niels; Grzanka, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    profile: entrance, mid-SOBP and at the SOBP distal edge. Dose was delivered in three fractions × 3.5 Gy(RBE) (RBE 1.1). Cobalt-60 (Co-60) irradiation was used as reference. Real-time qPCR was performed to determine gene expression levels for 17 genes associated with inflammation response, fibrosis...... and angiogenesis. RESULTS: Differences in median gene expression levels were observed for multiple genes such as IL6, IL8 and CXCL12. Median IL6 expression was 30%, 24% and 47% lower in entrance, mid-SOBP and SOBP distal edge groups than in Co-60 irradiated cells. No genes were found to be oppositely regulated...... fibroblast cultures. Inflammatory factors were generally less extensively upregulated by proton irradiation compared with Co-60 photon irradiation. These effects may possibly influence the development of normal tissue damage in patients treated with proton beam therapy....

  16. Polymeric materials obtained by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.; Moraru, R.; Martin, D.; Radoiu, M.; Marghitu, S.; Oproiu, C.

    1995-01-01

    Research activities in the field of electron beam irradiation of monomer aqueous solution to produce polymeric materials used for waste waters treatment, agriculture and medicine are presented. The technologies and special features of these polymeric materials are also described. The influence of the chemical composition of the solution to ba irradiated, absorbed dose level and absorbed dose rate level are discussed. Two kinds of polyelectrolytes, PA and PV types and three kinds of hydrogels, pAAm, pAAmNa and pNaAc types, the production of which was first developed with IETI-10000 Co-60 source and then adapted to the linacs built in Accelerator Laboratory, are described. (author)

  17. Gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.; Cesarsky, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This article overviews the gamma astronomy research. Sources already observed, and what causes to give to them; the galactic radiation and its interpretation; techniques already used and current projects [fr

  18. Gamma Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemantsverdriet, J.W.; Butz, Tilman; Ertl, G.; Knözinger, H.; Schüth, F.

    2008-01-01

    No abstract. The sections in this article are 1 Introduction 2 Mössbauer Spectroscopy 3 Time-Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) 4 Conclusions and Outlook Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy; gamma spectroscopy; perturbed angular correlation; TDPAC

  19. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  20. Ageing effects in As10Se90 chalcogenide glasses induced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchak, R.; Shpotyuk, O.; Shpotyuk, M.; Gorecki, Cz.; Kozdras, A.

    2005-01-01

    The peculiarities of gamma-induced (Co 60 source, 1.85 MGy absorbed dose) ageing phenomena in As 10 Se 90 chalcogenide glasses are investigated for the first time. The analogy between the observed radiation-induced ageing and the thermally induced one in vitreous selenium is emphasized. Like to thermal treatment, gamma-irradiation leads to an increase in the glass transition temperature and the relaxation rate towards a thermodynamic equilibrium of supercooled liquid, the value of this increase being greater in the case of radiation influence

  1. Elaboration of Co-60 sources on gilding vyns, with beta efficiencies 80 % or better and its activity measure by the coincidences method; Elaboracion de fuentes de Co-60 sobre vyns dorado, con eficiencias beta del 80 % o mejor y su medida de actividad por el metodo de coincidencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A.; Ortiz C, A

    1991-12-15

    The measuring technique of radioactive activity by the coincidences method 4 {pi} {beta}{sup -} {gamma} it requires of the elaboration of radioactive sources on thin supports in order to flows the biggest percentage of beta particles, those of the order of the 80 % or but. In this work a procedure for the elaboration of this type of sources, with gilding Vyns is reported. (Author)

  2. In Vivo Assessment of Gamma Rays, Electron-beam Irradiation plus a Commercial Toxin Binder (Milbond-TX As an Anti-Aflatoxin B1 in a Chicken Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hasanpour

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aspergillus flavus is the most important fungus for production of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. This study evaluated the ability of gamma rays (GRs and electron-beam irradiation (EBI to counteract the deleterious effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in a chicken model. Methods: Overall, 168 one-day-old male Coturnix quails were assigned to eight treatments for 42 d in Tehran, Iran, in 2010 and 2011. Two dietary inclusion rates of AFB1 (0 and 2 ppm and toxin binders, such as 0, 27 kGy doses of GRs, 27 kGy doses of EBI, and 0.3% of commercial toxin binder-milbond-TX, were tested in a 2×4 factorial manner. Serum biochemical parameters, immune response, and dietary treatments on factors associated with kidney and lipid profiles were determined on day 42. Results: AFB1 significantly decreased the hematological parameters (Hematocrit in 21 and 42 d, immune response (White blood cell (WBC, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L and sheep red blood cell (SRBC, and blood chemical factors (glucose, albumin, total protein, and triglycerides compared to the control diet (P<0.05. It also significantly increased the calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL levels (P<0.05. The addition of toxin binders, such as GRs, EBI, and milbond-TX, in the contaminated diets significantly diminished the inhibitory effects of dietary AFB1 (P<0.05 on the hematological parameters, immune response, blood chemical factors, and factors associated with kidney and lipids profile with no differences compared to the control diet. Conclusion: The addition of these toxin binders may reduce the adverse effects produced by the presence of AFB1 in Japanese quails’ diets.

  3. Beam-beam phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    In colliding beam storage rings the beam collision regions are generally so short that the beam-beam interaction can be considered as a series of evenly spaced non-linear kicks superimposed on otherwise stable linear oscillations. Most of the numerical studies on computers were carried out in just this manner. But for some reason this model has not been extensively employed in analytical studies. This is perhaps because all analytical work has so far been done by mathematicians pursuing general transcendental features of non-linear mechanics for whom this specific model of the specific system of colliding beams is too parochial and too repugnantly physical. Be that as it may, this model is of direct interest to accelerator physicists and is amenable to (1) further simplification, (2) physical approximation, and (3) solution by analogy to known phenomena

  4. Monte Carlo based demonstration of sufficiently dimensioned shielding for a Co-60 testing facility; Monte-Carlo-basierter Nachweis der ausreichend dimensionierten Abschirmung einer {sup 60}Co-Pruefanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wind, Michael; Beck, Peter; Latocha, Marcin [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2015-07-01

    The electrical properties of electronic equipment can be changed in an ionized radiation field. The knowledge of these changes is necessary for applications in space, in air traffic and nuclear medicine. Experimental tests will be performed in Co-60 radiation fields in the irradiation facility (TEC facility) of the Seibersdorf Labor GmbH that is in construction. The contribution deals with a simulation that is aimed to calculate the local dose rate within and outside the building for demonstration of sufficient dimensioning of the shielding in compliance with the legal dose rate limits.

  5. SU-G-BRB-15: Verifications of Absolute and Relative Dosimetry of a Novel Stereotactic Breast Device: GammaPodTM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S; Mossahebi, S; Yi, B; Prado, K; Mutaf, Y [University of Maryland School Of Medicine (United States); Niu, Y [Xcision Medical Systems, Rockville, MD (United States); Yu, C [University of Maryland School Of Medicine (United States); Xcision Medical Systems, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A dedicated stereotactic breast radiotherapy device, GammaPod, was developed to treat early stage breast cancer. The first clinical unit was installed and commissioned at University of Maryland. We report our methodology of absolute dosimetry in multiple calibration conditions and dosimetric verifications of treatment plans produced by the system. Methods: GammaPod unit is comprised of a rotating hemi-spherical source carrier containing 36 Co-60 sources and a concentric tungsten collimator providing beams of 15 and 25 mm. Absolute dose calibration formalism was developed with modifications to AAPM protocols for unique geometry and different calibration medium (acrylic, polyethylene or liquid water). Breast cup-size specific and collimator output factors were measured and verified with respect to Monte-Carlo simulations for single isocenter plans. Multiple isocenter plans were generated for various target size, location and cup-sizes in phantoms and 20 breast cancer patients images. Stereotactic mini-farmer chamber, OSL and TLD detectors as well as radio-chromic films were used for dosimetric measurements. Results: At the time of calibration (1/14/2016), absolute dose rate of the GammaPod was established to be 2.10 Gy/min in acrylic for 25 mm for sources installed in March 2011. Output factor for 15 mm collimator was measured to be 0.950. Absolute dose calibration was independently verified by IROC-Houston with a TLD/Institution ratio of 0.99. Cup size specific output measurements in liquid water for single isocenter were found to be within 3.0% of MC simulations. Point-dose measurements of multiple isocenter treatment plans were found to be within −1.0 ± 1.2 % of treatment planning system while 2-dimensional gamma analysis yielded a pass rate of 97.9 ± 2.2 % using gamma criteria of 3% and 2mm. Conclusion: The first GammaPod treatment unit for breast stereotactic radiotherapy was successfully installed, calibrated and commissioned for patient treatments

  6. Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Saucedo Luna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control, 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g∙g−1 in control sample to 0.382 g∙g−1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiation dose. The reducing sugars content varying from 0.018 to 0.184 g∙g−1 of dry weight with the largest rise occurring in the sample irradiated at 3500 kGy. The concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose were determined. The changes generated in physico-chemical properties were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and termogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG. The results show that OP was affected, but not significantly, which suggests that lignocellulose and sugars profiles were partially degraded after gamma irradiation.

  7. Gamma ray irradiation characteristics of SM fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Ryuichi; Okano, Hiroaki; Hashiba, Keichi; Nakai, Hisanori

    1987-01-01

    1.3 μm range single mode (SM) optical fibers have been used for wide application of mainly long distance communication. At present, in order to realize the larger capacity and longer distance between relay points, the development of 1.5 μm range SM fibers of low dispersion and small loss has been actively promoted. As for the radiation withstanding property of SM fibers, report is scarce. The authors reported on the gamma ray irradiation characteristics of 1.3 μm range SM fibers, but since 1.5 μm range SM fibers are designed with the different structure from that of 1.3 μm fibers, it is necessary to evaluate from new viewpoint. In this report, mainly on the structure having triangular distribution, the effect that the manufacturing condition and the structural defects of glass exert on the gamma ray irradiation characteristics is described. The specimens were mainly dispersion shift type fibers (DSF), and for comparison, single window, double window and 1.3 μm SM fibers were examined. Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated, and the optical loss and electron spin resonance were measured. By low temperature and low speed drawing, the good result in the optical loss was obtained. The presence of oxygen at the time of sintering materials had no effect. The dependence of the ESR on the drawing condition was not very remarkable. (Kako, I.)

  8. Optical remote diagnostics of atmospheric propagating beams of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl JR., Robert R.

    1990-03-06

    Data is obtained for use in diagnosing the characteristics of a beam of ionizing radiation, such as charged particle beams, neutral particle beams, and gamma ray beams. In one embodiment the beam is emitted through the atmosphere and produces nitrogen fluorescence during passage through air. The nitrogen fluorescence is detected along the beam path to provide an intensity from which various beam characteristics can be calculated from known tabulations. Optical detecting equipment is preferably located orthogonal to the beam path at a distance effective to include the entire beam path in the equipment field of view.

  9. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The light pulse output of a scintillator, on which incident collimated gamma rays impinge, is detected by an array of photoelectric tubes each having a convexly curved photocathode disposed in close proximity to the scintillator. Electronic circuitry connected to outputs of the phototubes develops the scintillation event position coordinate electrical signals with good linearity and with substantial independence of the spacing between the scintillator and photocathodes so that the phototubes can be positioned as close to the scintillator as is possible to obtain less distortion in the field of view and improved spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar photocathode gamma cameras

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protein, amino acids and carbohydrate contents of soya-gari diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbadu, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Soya-gari diet, prepared by enrichment of gari (Manihot esculanta Cranz) with soya flour, methionine, lysine and salt mixture was irradiated with doses of 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 Krad from a Co 60 γ irradiator. Gamma irradiation of the soya-gari diet with doses as high as 500 Krad had no significant effect on the amino acids, total proteins, soluble carbohydrates, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin contents. (author)

  11. Laser-Electron-Gamma-Source. Progress report, July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, D.H.; Fineman, B.; Giordano, G.; Kistner, OC.; Matone, G.; Sandorfi, A.M.; Schaerf, C.; Thorn, C.E.; Ziegler, W.

    1986-07-01

    When completed, the Laser Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) is expected to provide intense beams of monochromatic and polarized (circular or linear) gamma rays with energies up to 500 MeV. The gamma-ray beams will be produced by Compton backscattering uv laser light from the electrons circulating in a storage ring. Progress with installation of the facility is described, particularly the Ar-ion laser and tagging spectrometer. Tests of the tagging spectrometer coponents is reported, and a second laser is described for higher energy operation. Estimates are given of expected beam parameters. Experimental equipment for the planned research projects to be carried out at the LEGS facility is discussed

  12. Study of neutron-rich nuclei structure around the N=28 shell closure using the in-beam gamma spectroscopy technique; Etude de la structure des noyaux riches en neutrons autour de la fermeture de couches N=28 par spectroscopie gamma en ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastin, B

    2007-10-15

    For a few years now, a loss of magicity in neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron drip-line at N=28 has been suggested and observed. Deformation in these nuclei has been observed. The deformation was explained in S isotopes as being due to a moderate reduction of the N=28 shell closure together with a proton induced collectivity originating from the near degeneracy of the proton d3/2 and s1/2 orbitals. As a consequence, the observed deformation seems to result from a subtle interplay between neutron and proton excitations. Since the proton configuration in the Si isotopes is expected to be more stable due to the Z=14 sub-shell gap, {sup 42}Si was considered as a key nucleus in order to distinguish the different effects responsible for the structural changes observed at N=28. Even if it is at the limits of our technical possibilities, an in-beam gamma-spectroscopy experiment using two-step fragmentation and one or several nucleons knockout reaction mechanisms was performed at GANIL. The measurement of the energy of the first excited state in {sup 42}Si, combined with the observation of {sup 38,40}Si and the spectroscopy of {sup 41,43}P, has given evidence for the loss of magicity at N=28 far from stability. Modifications of the effective interaction used in modern shell model calculations have been completed following this investigation, increasing its predictive character. This study confirms the role of the tensor force and the density dependence of the spin-orbit interaction in the collapse of the N=28 shell closure. (author)

  13. Radiation effect on silicon transistors in mixed neutrons-gamma environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, J.; Shweikani, R.; Ghazi, N.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of gamma and neutron irradiations on two different types of transistors, Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) and Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT), were investigated. Irradiation was performed using a Syrian research reactor (RR) (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR)) and a gamma source (Co-60 cell). For RR irradiation, MCNP code was used to calculate the absorbed dose received by the transistors. The experimental results showed an overall decrease in the gain factors of the transistors after irradiation, and the JFETs were more resistant to the effects of radiation than BJTs. The effect of RR irradiation was also greater than that of gamma source for the same dose, which could be because neutrons could cause more damage than gamma irradiation.

  14. A conceptual gamma shield design using the DRP model computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, E E [Reactor Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Rahman, F A [National Center of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this investigation is to assess basic areas of concern in the development of reactor shielding conceptual design calculations. A spherical shield model composed of low carbon steel and lead have been constructed to surround a Co-60 gamma point source. two alternative configurations have been considered in the model computation. The numerical calculations have been performed using both the ANISN code and DRP model computation together with the DLC 75-Bugle 80 data library. A resume of results for deep penetration in different shield materials with different packing densities is presented and analysed. The results showed that the gamma fluxes attenuation is increased with increasing distribution the packing density of the shield material which reflects its importance of considering it as a safety parameter in shielding design. 3 figs.

  15. Pocket PC-based portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamontip Ploykrachang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A portable gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Pocket PC has been developed. A 12-bit pipeline analog-to-digitalconverter (ADC associated with an implemented pulse height histogram function on field programmable gate array (FPGAoperating at 15 MHz is employed for pulse height analysis from built-in pulse amplifier. The system, which interfaces withthe Pocket PC via an enhanced RS-232 serial port under the microcontroller facilitation, is utilized for spectrum acquisition,display and analysis. The pulse height analysis capability of the system was tested and it was found that the ADC integralnonlinearity of ±0.45% was obtained with the throughput rate at 160 kcps. The overall system performance was tested usinga PIN photodiode-CsI(Tl crystal coupled scintillation detector and gamma standard radioactive sources of Cs-137 andCo-60. Low cost and the compact system size as a result of the implemented logical function are also discussed.

  16. Gamma radiation effects on pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz L.; Arthur, Valter; Salgado, Jocelem M.; Spoto, Marta H. Fillet; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on characteristics of pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.). Just now, they are gained attention of researchers due their nutritional properties, between then is the pequi fruits. Fruits come from Goias State was classified, washed and processed to separate the endocarp (edible part) from pericarp. The endocarps were packing in polyethylene bags with 150 g, labeled and submitted to radiation process (0.0, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy doses) on multipurpose irradiator located in IPEN/USP. The samples were analyzed to chemical (pH, trititable acidity, deg Brix, ratio TSS/TTA, lipids, ash, humidity, protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity) and physical properties (loss weight, texture and color). The irradiation process using gamma rays from Co 60 was effective to protect pequi fruits in postharvest period. (author)

  17. Slaughterhouse sewage treatment using gamma radiation - economical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Rita; Botelho, M. Luisa; Branco, Joaquim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a financial viability study for the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry. Five scenarios were studied, including the current practice, representing different types of treatments and goals, e.g.: water reuse and/or sludge add value as agriculture fertilizers. Cost-benefit analysis, including the net present value (NPV) of each scenario, was used as a technique to compare the relative value of various strategies. Taking in account that the initial investment is amortized after 20 years, the implementation of Co-60 treatment with 20% water reuse and sludge application as agriculture fertilizers represents the most profitable project with the highest NPV. Therefore, the implementation of gamma radiation technology on a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment industry is not only technically viable as well as economically feasible. (author)

  18. Effects of Acute Gamma Irradiation on Amaryllis Orange Bio gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Shakinah Salleh; Shuhaimi Shamsuddin; Suhaimi Musa; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Ornamental and landscaping plants have their own demand. Color variations, shape and flower shelf life are among the important value-added characters in improvement of new varieties of ornamental plants. Mutation induction using ionizing radiation is an alternative way for obtaining plant with desirable traits. Improvement of ornamental plant Amaryllis 'Orange Bio gamma' was carried out by exposing bulbs with gamma rays at dose 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50 Gy using Bio Beam GM8000 gamma irradiation chamber at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Effect of radiation on the growth of bulbs was observed. Data on shoot and root length was recorded after 6 weeks. From the observation, the increasing dose has caused a reduction in shoot length and inhibited the root production. This paper will discuss the effects of acute gamma irradiation on the plant morphology. The result and observation obtained is useful for future work on lily improvement and will be included into Bio Beam GM8000 irradiation database. (author)

  19. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.

    1978-01-01

    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  20. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  1. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  2. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  3. Multiple hard interactions in $\\gamma\\gamma$ and $\\gamma$p physics at LEP and HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, J.M.; Seymour, M.H.; Storrow, J.K.; Walker, R.

    1995-01-01

    At e^+e^- and ep colliders, the large fluxes of almost on-shell photons accompanying the lepton beams lead to the photoproduction of jets. As the centre-of-mass energy is increased, regions of smaller x in the parton densities are explored and these are regions of high parton density. As a result, the probability for more than one hard partonic scattering occurring in a single \\gamma \\gamma or \\gamma p collision can become significant. This effect has been simulated using an eikonal prescription combined with the HERWIG Monte Carlo program. The possible effects of multiple hard interactions on event shapes and jet cross sections have been studied in this framework at a range of energies relevant to HERA and LEPII. The results indicate that the effects could be significant.

  4. BEAM applications to polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi

    1994-01-01

    Recently papers about beam applications to polymers have been increasing rapidly both in the fundamental and applied fields. Fairly large number of papers have been published in the fundamental aspects of radiation effects of beam applications to polymers such as pulse radiolysis and high density electronic excitation effects. A number of papers have been published in the more applied aspects of beam applications to polymers such as radiation processing and curing. The present paper describes recent beam applications to polymers. 1. Radiation Effects on Polymers; Radiation effects on polymers have been studied for more than 40 years. Most of work on radiation effects on polymers has been carried out by using high energy photon (gamma-ray) and electron beams, since polymers are sensitive to any kinds of ionizing radiation. Even non-ionizing radiation such as ultraviolet and visible light excites electronic excited states of polymers and then photo-chemical reactions of polymers are induced from the electronic excited states. Studies on radiation effects of other ionizing radiation on polymers have not been so popular for a long time. Recently application of new radiation such as ion beams to polymers have been worthy of remark in fields of advanced science and technology, since new radiation beams induce different radiation effects from those induced by high energy gamma-rays and electrons. 2. Beam Applications of Polymers; Recent progress in beam applications to polymers such as radiation processing and curing, x-ray and electron beam microlithography, and applications of new beams such as ion beams to polymers has been reviewed. (author)

  5. Measurement of proton polarization in the reaction. gamma. /ital p//r arrow//ital p/. pi. /sup 0/ at an angle theta/sup *//sub. pi. /sup 0//=80/degree/ in a linearly polarized photon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, R. O.; Avakyan, E. O.; Avetisyan, A. E.; Aivazyan, R. B.; Arestakesyan, G. A.; Bagdasryan, A. S.; Vartapetyan, G. A.; Garibyan, Y. A.; Eganov, V. S.; Karapetyan, A. P.; and others

    1988-12-01

    Measurements are reported of the energy dependence of the /ital p//sub /ital xz// and /ital P//sub /ital y// components of the polarization vector of the recoil protons in the reaction ..gamma../ital p//r arrow//ital p/..pi../sup 0/ for a ..pi../sup 0/-meson production angle theta/sup *//sub ..pi../sup 0// =80/degree/ in the c.m.s. in the ..gamma..-ray energy range /ital E//sub ..gamma../=730--1066 MeV. The experimental data are compared with the results of various phenomenological analyses.

  6. Gamma radiation influence on Cladonia substellata (lichen) and its effects on limestone rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Helena P. de B.; Colaco, Waldeciro; Pereira, Eugenia C.; Silva, Nicacio H. da

    2009-01-01

    The lichens play an important role in decomposition of the rocky substrate, through the chemical weathering of their substances. This work aimed to determine the influence of gamma Ray on usnic acid production of Cladonia substellata and the influence of chelates formation in limestone rocks. Samples with 2.5 g of C. substellata were packed on paper envelopes for irradiation submission to gamma on a Co-60 source. They received 10 different doses: 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 80 Gy. Lichen irradiation was conducted on the gamma irradiator (Co-60), and packed over powdered limestone. Lichen samples were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and rocky samples by X-Ray Diffractometry. The X-ray diffractogram obtained from the analysis of limestone not subjected to the action of lichen - control sample was compared with limestone subjected to C. substellata irradiated at doses 10, 30 and 80Gy. Increased production of the usnic acid and changes on the rocky samples were noted. We realized that C. substellata increments the usnic acid biosynthesis as the gamma radiation dose is increased, but there is a limit to it. The chelating effect of the usnic acid on limestone was proportional to the produced amount of the substance, which could be extrapolated to natural conditions, where excessive radiation may influence pedogenesis and ecological succession. (author)

  7. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.; Kotschak, O.; Conrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera with a simplified setup as compared with the state of engineering is described permitting, apart from good localization, also energy discrimination. Behind the usual vacuum image amplifier a multiwire proportional chamber filled with trifluorine bromium methane is connected in series. Localizing of the signals is achieved by a delay line, energy determination by means of a pulse height discriminator. With the aid of drawings and circuit diagrams, the setup and mode of operation are explained. (ORU) [de

  8. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  9. Gamma teletopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1987-06-01

    The mapping of gamma sources radiation emission in a nuclear plant is an important safety point. A remote gamma ray mapping process was developed in SPS/CEA/SACLAY. It uses the ''pinhole camera'' principle, precursor of photography. It mainly consists of a radiation proof box, with a small orifice, containing sensitive emulsions at the opposite. A first conventional photographic type emulsion photographs the area. A second photographic emulsion shows up the gamma radiations. The superim position of the two shots gives immediate informations of the precise location of each source of radiation in the observed area. To make easier the presentation and to improve the accuracy of the results for radiation levels mapping, the obtained films are digitally processed. The processing assigns a colours scale to the various levels of observed radiations. Taking account physical data and standard parameters, it gets possible to estimate the dose rate. The device is portable. Its compactness and fully independent nature make it suitable for use anywhere. It can be adapted to a remote automatic handling system, robot... so as to avoid all operator exposure when the local dose rate is too high [fr

  10. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations

  11. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.

  12. A modeling of fuzzy logic controller on gamma scanning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjoni Amir

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of controller to set the high position and direction of the source of gamma radiation isotope Co-60 and Nal(TL) detector of gamma scanning device by using fuzzy logic controller FLC have been done. The high positions and in the right direction of gamma radiation and Nal (TI) detector obtained the optimal enumeration. The counting data obtained from gamma scanning device counting system is affected by the instability of high position and direction of the gamma radiation source and Nal(TI) detector or the height and direction are not equal between the gamma radiation source and Nal(TI) detector. Assumed a high position and direction of radiation sources can be fixed while the high position detector h (2, 1,0, -1, -2) can be adjusted up and down and the detector can be changed direction to the left or right angle ω (2, 1 , 0, -1, -2) when the position and direction are no longer aligned with the direction of the source of gamma radiation, the counting results obtained will not be optimal. Movement detector direction towards the left or right and the high detector arranged by the DC motor using fuzzy logic control in order to obtain the amount of output fuzzy logic control which forms the optimal output quantity count. The variation of height difference h between the source position of the gamma radiation detector and change direction with the detector angle ω becomes the input variable membership function (member function) whereas the fuzzy logic for the output variable membership function of fuzzy logic control output is selected scale fuzzy logic is directly proportional to the amount of optimal counting. From the simulation results obtained by the relationship between th