WorldWideScience

Sample records for cns compartments contributions

  1. Water transport between CNS compartments: contributions of aquaporins and cotransporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, N; Zeuthen, T

    2010-01-01

    or hydrocephalus. The molecular pathways by which water molecules cross the cell membranes of the brain are not well-understood, although the discovery of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in the brain improved our understanding of some of these transport processes, particularly under pathological conditions. In the present...

  2. COMPARTMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Janos X; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    of the localization of a protein, it is thus necessary to consult multiple databases and prediction tools. To address this, we present the COMPARTMENTS resource, which integrates all sources listed above as well as the results of automatic text mining. The resource is automatically kept up to date with source...

  3. Ascl1 (Mash1) lineage cells contribute to discrete cell populations in CNS architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Euiseok J; Battiste, James; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Johnson, Jane E

    2008-08-01

    Ascl1 (previously Mash1) is a bHLH transcription factor essential for neuronal differentiation and specification in the nervous system. Although it has been studied for its role in several neural lineages, the full complement of lineages arising from Ascl1 progenitor cells remains unknown. Using an inducible Cre-flox genetic fate-mapping strategy, Ascl1 lineages were determined throughout the brain. Ascl1 is present in proliferating progenitor cells but these cells are actively differentiating as evidenced by rapid migration out of germinal zones. Ascl1 lineage cells contribute to distinct cell types in each major brain division: the forebrain including the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, and thalamic nuclei, the midbrain including superior and inferior colliculi, and the hindbrain including Purkinje and deep cerebellar nuclei cells and cells in the trigeminal sensory system. Ascl1 progenitor cells at early stages in each CNS region preferentially become neurons, and at late stages they become oligodendrocytes. In conclusion, Ascl1-expressing progenitor cells in the brain give rise to multiple, but not all, neuronal subtypes and oligodendrocytes depending on the temporal and spatial context, consistent with a broad role in neural differentiation with some subtype specification.

  4. Contribution of Schwann Cells to Remyelination in a Naturally Occurring Canine Model of CNS Neuroinflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Kegler

    Full Text Available Gliogenesis under pathophysiological conditions is of particular clinical relevance since it may provide evidence for regeneration promoting cells recruitable for therapeutic purposes. There is evidence that neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR-expressing cells emerge in the lesioned CNS. However, the phenotype and identity of these cells, and signals triggering their in situ generation under normal conditions and certain pathological situations has remained enigmatic. In the present study, we used a spontaneous, idiopathic and inflammatory CNS condition in dogs with prominent lympho-histiocytic infiltration as a model to study the phenotype of Schwann cells and their relation to Schwann cell remyelination within the CNS. Furthermore, the phenotype of p75NTR-expressing cells within the injured CNS was compared to their counter-part in control sciatic nerve and after peripheral nerve injury. In addition, organotypic slice cultures were used to further elucidate the origin of p75NTR-positive cells. In cerebral and cerebellar white and grey matter lesions as well as in the brain stem, p75NTR-positive cells co-expressed the transcription factor Sox2, but not GAP-43, GFAP, Egr2/Krox20, periaxin and PDGFR-α. Interestingly, and contrary to the findings in control sciatic nerves, p75NTR-expressing cells only co-localized with Sox2 in degenerative neuropathy, thus suggesting that such cells might represent dedifferentiated Schwann cells both in the injured CNS and PNS. Moreover, effective Schwann cell remyelination represented by periaxin- and P0-positive mature myelinating Schwann cells, was strikingly associated with the presence of p75NTR/Sox2-expressing Schwann cells. Intriguingly, the emergence of dedifferentiated Schwann cells was not affected by astrocytes, and a macrophage-dominated inflammatory response provided an adequate environment for Schwann cells plasticity within the injured CNS. Furthermore, axonal damage was reduced in brain stem areas

  5. Thyroid Hormone in the CNS: Contribution of Neuron-Glia Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Mami

    2018-01-01

    The endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS) are intimately linked. Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the regulation of development and differentiation of neurons and neuroglia and hence for development and function of the CNS. T3 (3,3',5-triiodothyronine), an active form of TH, is important not only for neuronal development but also for differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and for microglial development. In adult brain, T3 affects glial morphology with sex- and age-dependent manner and therefore may affect their function, leading to influence on neuron-glia interaction. T3 is an important signaling factor that affects microglial functions such as migration and phagocytosis via complex mechanisms. Therefore, dysfunction of THs may impair glial function as well as neuronal function and thus disturb the brain, which may cause mental disorders. Investigations on molecular and cellular basis of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism will help us to understand changes in neuron-glia interaction and therefore consequent psychiatric symptoms. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans.

  7. Analyzing panel acoustic contributions toward the sound field inside the passenger compartment of a full-size automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Moondra, Manmohan; Beniwal, Ravi

    2015-04-01

    The Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS)-based nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is utilized to analyze panel acoustic contributions toward the acoustic field inside the interior region of an automobile. Specifically, the acoustic power flows from individual panels are reconstructed, and relative contributions to sound pressure level and spectrum at any point of interest are calculated. Results demonstrate that by correlating the acoustic power flows from individual panels to the field acoustic pressure, one can correctly locate the panel allowing the most acoustic energy transmission into the vehicle interior. The panel on which the surface acoustic pressure amplitude is the highest should not be used as indicative of the panel responsible for the sound field in the vehicle passenger compartment. Another significant advantage of this HELS-based NAH is that measurements of the input data only need to be taken once by using a conformal array of microphones in the near field, and ranking of panel acoustic contributions to any field point can be readily performed. The transfer functions between individual panels of any vibrating structure to the acoustic pressure anywhere in space are calculated not measured, thus significantly reducing the time and effort involved in panel acoustic contributions analyses.

  8. Evaluating the contribution of differences in lean mass compartments for resting energy expenditure in African American and Caucasian American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadney, M M; Shareef, F; Marwitz, S E; Brady, S M; Yanovski, S Z; DeLany, J P; Yanovski, J A

    2018-04-26

    Resting energy expenditure (REE), adjusted for total lean mass (LM), is lower in African American (AA) than Caucasian American (CA) children. Some adult studies suggest that AA-CA differences in lean mass compartments explain this REE difference. Similar data are limited in children. To evaluate differences in compartment-specific lean mass between AA and CA children and examine the individual contributions of high-metabolic rate-at-rest trunk lean mass (TrLM) and low-metabolic-rate-at-rest appendicular lean mass (AppLM) for AA-CA differences in REE. We studied a convenience sample of 594 AA (n = 281) and CA (n = 313) children. REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. ANCOVAs were performed to examine AA-CA differences in TrLM, AppLM and REE. After accounting for age, sex, height, pubertal development, bone mass and adiposity, REE was evaluated adjusting for total LM (model A) and separately adjusting for TrLM and AppLM (model B). African American children had greater adjusted AppLM (17.8 ± 0.2 [SE] vs. 16.0 ± 0.2 kg, p < 0.001) and lower TrLM (17.2 ± 0.2 vs. 17.7 ± 0.2 kg, p = 0.022) than CA children. REE adjusted for total LM was 77 ± 16 kcal/d lower in AA than CA (p < 0.001). However, after accounting separately for AppLM and TrLM, the discrepancy in REE between the groups declined to 28 ± 19 kcal/d (p = 0.14). In the adjusted model, both TrLM (p < 0.001) and AppLM (p < 0.027) were independently associated with REE. In children, AA-CA differences in REE appear mostly attributable to differences in body composition. Lower REE in AA children is likely due to lower TrLM and greater AppLM. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Contribution of Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and GALT to the Intestinal Foxp3+ Regulatory T-Cell CompartmentSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke Geem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs in the intestine promote immune tolerance to enteric antigens. Previous studies have shown that C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7-dependent migration of intestinal dendritic cells to the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN is involved in peripheral Foxp3+ Treg accumulation in the intestine and the establishment of oral tolerance. However, the relative contribution of this CCR7+ dendritic cell–mLN–Treg axis to the total intestinal Foxp3+ Treg pool during the steady-state remains unclear. In this study, the contribution of CCR7, as well as the mLN and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, to the intestinal Foxp3+ Treg compartment in the small intestine (SI and large intestine (LI was assessed. Methods: Intestinal Foxp3+ Tregs were quantitated in Ccr7-/- mice and in mice devoid of secondary lymphoid organs—including mLN and GALT—owing to a deficiency in lymphotoxin (LT signaling. Specific analyses of Foxp3+Helios+ thymically derived (tTregs and Foxp3+Helios- peripherally derived (pTregs in the SI and LI, as well as the role for the mLN in supporting Foxp3+ pTreg development using the B6.Cg-Tg(TcraTcrb425Cbn/J/ovalbumin (OVA feeding system, were performed. Results: Foxp3+ Tregs were enriched in the intestine relative to the mLN, independent of CCR7. In the absence of the mLN and GALT, normal frequency and numbers of Foxp3+ Tregs were observed in LTα-deficient (Lta-/- mice. However, Foxp3+Helios- pTregs were decreased in the SI of Lta-/- mice, corresponding with defective Foxp3+ pTreg expansion to OVA. In the LI, however, the proportion of Foxp3+Helios- pTregs and Foxp3+ pTreg induction to OVA was comparable between Lta-/- and Lta+/+ mice, which coincided with preferential expression of Treg-inducing/immunoregulatory cytokines. Conclusions: The overall size of the intestinal Foxp3+Treg pool is not impacted significantly by CCR7, mLN, or GALT during the steady-state. However, m

  10. Observations at the CNS-PNS border of ventral roots connected to a neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sten Remahl

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that numerous sprouts originating from a neuroma, after nerve injury in neonatal animals, can invade spinal nerve roots. In this study the border between the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS-PNS border of ventral roots in kittens was examined with both light and electron microscopy after early postnatal sciatic nerve resection. A transient ingrowth of substance P positive axons was observed into the CNS, but no spouts remained 6 weeks after the injury. Using serial sections and electron microscopy it was possible to identify small bundles of unmyelinated axons that penetrated from the root fascicles for a short distance into the CNS. These axons ended blindly, sometimes with a growth cone-like terminal swelling filled with vesicles. The axon bundles were accompanied by p75 positive cells in both the root fascicles and the pia mater, but not in the CNS. It may thus be suggested that neurotrophin presenting p75 positive cells could facilitate axonal growth into the pia mater and that the lack of such cells in the CNS compartment might contribute to the failure of growth into the CNS. A maldevelopment of myelin sheaths at the CNS-PNS border of motor axons was observed and it seems possible that this could have consequences for the propagation of action potential across this region after neonatal nerve injury.

  11. Patellofemoral compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.; Quinn, S.F.; Erickson, S.J.; Cox, I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the normal and abnormal patellofemoral compartment with axial MR imaging. Anatomic cryotome sections of the patellofemoral compartment were correlated with the corresponding MR images for identification of ligamentous structures and cartilaginous surfaces. Two hundred fifty-four patients who underwent both arthroscopy and axial MR imaging of the patellofemoral compartment underwent axial MR examinations, which included gradient-echo (TR 23, TE 14, flip angle 30 degrees), T1- weighted (TR 400, TE 20), and proton and T2-weighted (2,500/20/80) sequences. The results from the cryotome-MR correlation show that axial MR images of the patellofemoral compartment accurately depict the major ligamentous and cartilaginous components. The MR arthroscopic correlation showed that all pulse sequences were unreliable in depicting the more superficial changes of chondromalacia and the evaluation on synovial plica

  12. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  13. Basic Concepts of CNS Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of this review are to: (1) provide a set of concepts to aid in the understanding of complex processes which occur during central nervous system (CNS) development; (2) illustrate how they contribute to our knowlege of adult brain anatomy; and (3) delineate how modifications of normal developmental processes may affect the structure and…

  14. Study of biological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    The several types of biological compartments are studied such as monocompartmental system, one-compartment balanced system irreversible fluxes, two closed compartment system, three compartment systems, catenary systems and mammilary systems [pt

  15. CNS role evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J L; Baumgartner, R G

    1996-01-01

    THE CNS ROLE has been actualized in a variety of ways. Flexibility-inherent in the role-and the revolution in health care consciousness tend to place the CNS at risk for criticism regarding value to the organization. At Vanderbilt University Medical Center, a CNS task force evaluated the current reality of CNS practice and recommended role changes to include the financial analysis of patient care. After incorporating a financial perspective into our present practice, we have embarked on an interesting journey of post-Master's degree study, that of the tertiary care nurse practitioner. This practice option could elevated the clinical and financial aspects of providing cost-effective health care to a more autonomous role form; however, the transition has been challenging. Since 1990, the American Nurses Association has recommended that nursing school curricula change to meet the needs of the health care environment and provide increased career flexibility through creating one advanced degree incorporating both CNS and NP functions. Swiftly moving past differences and toward similarities will bridge the gap for advanced practice nurses in the future.

  16. Supratentorial CNS malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Clinical suspicion of a developmental anomaly of the central nervous system (CNS) is a frequent indication for performing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the brain. Classification systems for malformation of the CNS are constantly revised according to newer scientific research. Developmental abnormalities can be classified in two main types. The first category consists of disorders of organogenesis in which genetic defects or any ischemic, metabolic, toxic or infectious insult to the developing brain can cause malformation. These malformations result from abnormal neuronal and glial proliferation and from anomalies of neuronal migration and or cortical organization. They are divided into supra- and infratentorial and may involve grey or white matter or both. The second category of congenital brain abnormalities is disorders of histogenesis which result from abnormal cell differentiation with a relatively normal brain appearance. Supratentorial CNS malformations could be divided into anomalies in telencephalic commissure, holoprosencephalies and malformations in cortical development. There are three main telencephalic commissures: the anterior commissure, the hippocampal commissure and the corpus callosum. Their morphology (hypoplasia, hyperplasia, agenesis, dysgenesis, even atrophy) reflects the development of the brain. Their agenesis, complete or partial, is one of the most commonly observed features in the malformations of the brain and is a part of many syndromes. Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are heterogeneous group of disease which result from disruption of 3 main stages of cortical development. The common clinical presentation is refractory epilepsy and or developmental delay. The most common MCD are heterotopias, focal cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria, schizencephaly, pachygyria and lizencephaly. The exact knowledge of the brain anatomy and embryology is mandatory to provide a better apprehension of the

  17. Management of CNS tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of tumors of the CNS has undergone a number of changes based on the impact of CT. The use of intraoperative US for the establishment of tumor location and tumor histology is demonstrated. MR imaging also is beginning to make an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the CNS. Examples of MR images are shown. The authors then discuss the important aspects of tumor histology as it affects management and newer concepts in surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy on tumor treatment. The role of intraoperative placement of radioactive sources, the utilization of heavy particle radiation therapy, and the potential role of other experimental radiation therapy techniques are discussed. The role of hyperfractionated radiation and of neutrons and x-ray in a mixed-beam treatment are discussed in perspective with standard radiation therapy. Current chemotherapy techniques, including intraarterial chemotherapy, are discussed. The complications of radiation therapy alone and in combination with chemotherapy in the management of primary brain tumors, brain metastases, and leukemia are reviewed. A summary of the current management of pituitary tumors, including secreting pituitary adenomas and chromophobe adenomas, are discussed. The treatment with heavy particle radiation, transsphenoidal microsurgical removal, and combined radiotherapeutic and surgical management are considered. Tumor metastasis management of lesions of the brain and spinal cord are considered

  18. ACUTE COMPARTMENT SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle destruction, muscle fibrosis, contractures and permanent disability and at worst case scenario of amputation (3,4). As reported by Frink et al (3) on their study on acute compartment syndrome it can occur even when there is no fracture. Also general surgeons have reported acute compartment syndrome.

  19. Flavonoids and the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Saaby, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids are present in almost all terrestrial plants, where they provide UV-protection and colour. Flavonoids have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. The flavonoids can be divided into several classes depending on their structure....... Flavonoids are present in food and medicinal plants and are thus consumed by humans. They are found in plants as glycosides. Before oral absorption, flavonoids undergo deglycosylation either by lactase phloridzin hydrolase or cytosolic ß-glucocidase. The absorbed aglycone is then conjugated by methylation......, sulphatation or glucuronidation. Both the aglycones and the conjugates can pass the blood-brain barrier. In the CNS several flavones bind to the benzodiazepine site on the GABA(A)-receptor resulting in sedation, anxiolytic or anti-convulsive effects. Flavonoids of several classes are inhibitors of monoamine...

  20. Isolated vasculitis of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, F.; Reith, W.

    2000-01-01

    Vasculitis is a rare cause for disease of the CNS. The isolated vasculitis of the CNS is restricted to the CNS whereas other forms of vasculitis affect various organs including the CNS. Headache, encephalopathy, focal deficits and epileptic seizures are the major symptoms suggestive for vasculitis. One major criterion of the isolated vasculitis of the CNS is the lack of evidence for other vasculitis forms or for pathology of other organs. Angiography displays multifocal segmental stenosis of intracranial vessels. MRI demonstrates multiple lesions which in part show enhancement after gadolinium. A definite diagnosis can only be made on the grounds of biopsy from leptomeninges and parenchyma. Therapy consists of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamid. (orig.) [de

  1. Flavonoids and the CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Jäger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are present in almost all terrestrial plants, where they provide UV-protection and colour. Flavonoids have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. The flavonoids can be divided into several classes depending on their structure. Flavonoids are present in food and medicinal plants and are thus consumed by humans. They are found in plants as glycosides. Before oral absorption, flavonoids undergo deglycosylation either by lactase phloridzin hydrolase or cytosolic β-glucocidase. The absorbed aglycone is then conjugated by methylation, sulphatation or glucuronidation. Both the aglycones and the conjugates can pass the blood-brain barrier. In the CNS several flavones bind to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA-receptor resulting in sedation, anxiolytic or anti-convulsive effects. Flavonoids of several classes are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A or B, thereby working as anti-depressants or to improve the conditions of Parkinson’s patients. Flavanols, flavanones and anthocyanidins have protective effects preventing inflammatory processes leading to nerve injury. Flavonoids seem capable of influencing health and mood.

  2. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  3. 3rd ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The Electronic Navigation Research Institute (ENRI) held its third International Workshop on ATM / CNS in 2013 with the theme of "Drafting the future sky". There is worldwide activity taking place in the research and development of modern air traffic management (ATM) and its enabling technologies in Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS). Pioneering work is necessary to contribute to the global harmonization of air traffic management and control. At this workshop, leading experts in  research, industry and academia from around the world met to share their ideas and approaches on ATM/CNS related topics.

  4. Therapeutic potential of agmatine for CNS disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neis, Vivian B; Rosa, Priscila B; Olescowicz, Gislaine; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2017-09-01

    Agmatine is a neuromodulator that regulates multiple neurotransmitters and signaling pathways. Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of this molecule, which seems to be mediated by a reduction in oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and proapoptotic signaling. Since these events are implicated in acute and chronic excitotoxicity-related disorders (ischemia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders) as well as in nociception, agmatine has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Agmatine also stimulates the expression of trophic factors and adult neurogenesis, contributing to its ability to induce endogenous repair mechanisms. Therefore, considering its wide range of biological effects, this review summarizes the current knowledge about its protective and regenerative properties in the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CNS infections in immunocompetent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article gives a review of the most frequent infective agents reasonable for CNS infections in immunocompetent patients as well as their localisation and imaging specifications. MRI scanning is the gold standard to detect inflammatory conditions in the CNS. Imaging can be normal or nonspecifically altered although the infection is culturally or bioptically proven. There are no pathognomonic, pathogen-specific imaging criteria. The localization and dimension of the inflammation depends on the infection pathway. (orig.) [de

  6. Application of empowerment theory for CNS practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Catalano, J M

    1993-11-01

    Power is necessary for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) to successfully conduct objectives of practice in bureaucratic hospital settings. To obtain power, the CNS could use strategies of an empowerment theory to fully operationalize roles in hospitals. This article will discuss how the CNS may be empowered utilizing strategies in four empowering categories. In addition, the many benefits of empowering the CNS are reviewed.

  7. Innate Interferons Regulate CNS Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieu, Ruthe; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Mariboe, Anne

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) whose pathology is characterised by demyelination and axonal damage. This results from interplay between CNS-resident glia, infiltrating leukocytes and a plethora of cytokines and chemokines. Currently...... potential IFN-inducing receptor that signals through NF-kB. Receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK) belongs to the TNF-receptor superfamily and has been shown to induce IFN-beta in medullary thymic epithelial cells affecting autoimmune regulatory processes and osteoclast precursor cells in association to bone...

  8. Genetic models for CNS inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Wekerle, H; Antel, J

    2001-01-01

    The use of transgenic technology to over-express or prevent expression of genes encoding molecules related to inflammation has allowed direct examination of their role in experimental disease. This article reviews transgenic and knockout models of CNS demyelinating disease, focusing primarily on ...

  9. CNS complications of rotavirus gastroenteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volosinova, D.

    2010-01-01

    Rotavirus infection may be accompanied by serious complications, e.g. disabilities central nervous system (CNS). Theory rotavirus penetration across the blood-brain barrier and subsequent rota-associated convulsions by the 2-year case-history of the patient. Rotavirosis minor gastrointestinal symptoms may lead to erroneous diagnosis. (author)

  10. Compartment syndrome without pain!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    We report the case of a young male patient who underwent intra-medullary nailing for a closed, displaced mid-shaft fracture of tibia and fibula. He was commenced on patient controlled analgesia post-operatively. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome in the patient\\'s leg was delayed because he did not exhibit a pain response. This ultimately resulted in a below-knee amputation of the patient\\'s leg. We caution against the use of patient controlled analgesia in any traumatised limb distal to the hip or the shoulder.

  11. Modeling of compartment fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, P.; Siccama, A.; Visser, D.; Komen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fire accident in a containment is a serious threat to nuclear reactors. Fire can cause substantial loss to life and property. The risk posed by fire can also exceed the risk from internal events within a nuclear reactor. Numerous research efforts have been performed to understand and analyze the phenomenon of fire in nuclear reactor and its consequences. Modeling of fire is an important subject in the field of fire safety engineering. Two approaches which are commonly used in fire modeling are zonal modeling and field modeling. The objective of this work is to compare zonal and field modeling approach against a pool fired experiment performed in a well-confined compartment. Numerical simulations were performed against experiments, which were conducted within PRISME program under the framework of OECD. In these experiments, effects of ventilation flow rate on heat release rate in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment is investigated. Time dependent changes in gas temperature and oxygen mass fraction were measured. The trends obtained by numerical simulation performed using zonal model and field model compares well with experiments. Further validation is needed before this code can be used for fire safety analyses. (author)

  12. Mathematical model for the contribution of individual organs to non-zero y-intercepts in single and multi-compartment linear models of whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiyala, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models for the dependence of energy expenditure (EE) on body mass and composition are essential tools in metabolic phenotyping. EE scales over broad ranges of body mass as a non-linear allometric function. When considered within restricted ranges of body mass, however, allometric EE curves exhibit 'local linearity.' Indeed, modern EE analysis makes extensive use of linear models. Such models typically involve one or two body mass compartments (e.g., fat free mass and fat mass). Importantly, linear EE models typically involve a non-zero (usually positive) y-intercept term of uncertain origin, a recurring theme in discussions of EE analysis and a source of confounding in traditional ratio-based EE normalization. Emerging linear model approaches quantify whole-body resting EE (REE) in terms of individual organ masses (e.g., liver, kidneys, heart, brain). Proponents of individual organ REE modeling hypothesize that multi-organ linear models may eliminate non-zero y-intercepts. This could have advantages in adjusting REE for body mass and composition. Studies reveal that individual organ REE is an allometric function of total body mass. I exploit first-order Taylor linearization of individual organ REEs to model the manner in which individual organs contribute to whole-body REE and to the non-zero y-intercept in linear REE models. The model predicts that REE analysis at the individual organ-tissue level will not eliminate intercept terms. I demonstrate that the parameters of a linear EE equation can be transformed into the parameters of the underlying 'latent' allometric equation. This permits estimates of the allometric scaling of EE in a diverse variety of physiological states that are not represented in the allometric EE literature but are well represented by published linear EE analyses.

  13. Kidney compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-09-01

    A multiparameter kidney compartment model which quantitates the amount of iodohippurate concentration as a function of time in the blood, tissue, kidneys and bladder is developed from a system of differential equations which represent first order kinetics. The kinetic data are obtained using a gamma camera and an HP5407 computer system which allows one to delineate areas of interest for the blood and tissue, kidneys, and bladder thus separating the data into four data sets. The estimated tubular transit times have a high ratio of the signal to the variance whereas the estimates of the amount of iodohippurate in the blood, tissue and kidneys have a low ratio of the signal to the variance. Application of this model to patient data requires better statistics than available with conventional 131 I-hippurate doses; thus a true test of the efficacy awaits availability of 123 I-hippurate

  14. Nanomedicines for the Treatment of CNS Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jessica L; Mahato, Ram I

    2017-03-01

    Targeting and delivering macromolecular therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) has been a major challenge. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main obstacle that must be overcome to allow compounds to reach their targets in the brain. Therefore, much effort has been channelled into improving transport of therapeutics across the BBB and into the CNS including the use of nanoparticles. In this thematic issue, several reviews and original research are presented that address "Nanomedicines for CNS Diseases." The articles in this issue are concentrated on either CNS-HIV disease or CNS tumors. In regards to CNS-HIV disease, there are two reviews that discuss the role of nanoparticles for improving the delivery of HIV therapeutics to the CNS. In addition, there are two original articles focusing on therapies for CNS-HIV, one of them uses nanoparticles for delivery of siRNA specific to a key protein in autophagy to microglia, and another discusses nanoparticle delivery of a soluble mediator to suppress neuroinflammation. Furthermore, a comprehensive review about gene therapy for CNS neurological diseases is also included. Finally, this issue also includes review articles on enhanced drug targeting to CNS tumors. These articles include a review on the use of nanoparticles for CNS tumors, a review on functionalization (ligands) of nanoparticles for drug targeting to the brain tumor by overcoming BBB, and the final review discusses the use of macrophages as a delivery vehicle to CNS tumors. This thematic issue provides a wealth of knowledge on using nanomedicines for CNS diseases.

  15. An invertebrate model for CNS drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Qadi, Sonia; Schiøtt, Morten; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABC efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier (BBB), namely the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), restrain the development of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. Consequently, early screening of CNS drug candidates is pivotal to identify those affected by efflux activity. Therefore, simple,...... barriers. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest a conserved mechanism of brain efflux activity between insects and vertebrates, confirming that this model holds promise for inexpensive and high-throughput screening relative to in vivo models, for CNS drug discovery....

  16. Oral Session 03: CNS Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to space radiation may have impacts on brain function, either during or following missions. It is most important to determine how low doses of protons and high-LET irradiation elicit changes in brain function. Within this framework, the role of oxidative stress should also be assessed, as well as other possible interaction mechanisms involving, e.g., genetic, environmental, and sex-dependent risk factors. The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to radiation. It plays an essential role in memory formation and consolidation and is one of the most investigated brain components for its responses to radiation. The hippocampus is also one of the first brain structures to be damaged in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, an important potential late impairment following irradiation. In ‘Section 3: CNS risk’, six papers have been presented focused on these issues. For details the reader is directed to the specific papers. Here a very short summary follows

  17. Causes of CNS inflammation and potential targets for anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falip, Mercé; Salas-Puig, Xavier; Cara, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important endogenous defence mechanisms in an organism. It has been suggested that inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of a number of human epilepsies and convulsive disorders, and there is clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that inflammatory processes within the CNS may either contribute to or be a consequence of epileptogenesis. This review discusses evidence from human studies on the role of inflammation in epilepsy and highlights potential new targets in the inflammatory cascade for antiepileptic drugs. A number of mechanisms have been shown to be involved in CNS inflammatory reactions. These include an inflammatory response at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), immune-mediated damage to the CNS, stress-induced release of inflammatory mediators and direct neuronal dysfunction or damage as a result of inflammatory reactions. Mediators of inflammation in the CNS include interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). IL-1β, BBB and high-mobility group box-1-TLR4 signalling appear to be the most promising targets for anticonvulsant agents directed at inflammation. Such agents may provide effective therapy for drug-resistant epilepsies in the future.

  18. microRNAs in CNS disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocerha, Jannet; Kauppinen, Sakari; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2009-01-01

    RNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and are reported to mediate pivotal roles in many aspects of neuronal functions. Disruption of miRNA-based post-transcriptional regulation has been implicated in a range of CNS disorders as one miRNA is predicted to impact...

  19. Double-compartment wrist arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Pittman, C.; Belsole, R.; Greene, T.L.; Rayhack, J.; Clark, R.A.; King, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Seventy patients with clinical wrist problems were studied with double-compartment wrist arthrography. Midcarpal and radiocarpal compartment arthrograms were obtained in all patients. Digital subtraction technique was used to subtract out contrast from the first compartmental injection. Digital technique also allowed a dynamic record of each injection, which helped determine sites of intercompartmental communication. Postarthrography exercises recorded on videotape were performed after each injection. There were 34 normal studies. Abnormalities in the other 36 patients included: scapholunate communication (n = 9), lunatotriquetral communication (n = 6), communication with tendon sheaths (n = 4), communication with distal radioulnar compartment (n = 14), abnormal synovium process (n = 9), and communication through the radial or ulnar collateral ligament (n = 3). Double-compartment wrist arthrography may provide additional information for complex problems of the wrist

  20. Confinement by compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpf, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Feasibility studies of yet undefined sub-seabed repositories require assessment models and codes which are easier to be applied, more versatile and more concise in displaying the results. This contribution on assessment is presented, running on a microcomputer, which can make use of sophisticated general circulation ocean models and which shows a way of representing results for activity, barrier affectivity and sensitivity

  1. 4th ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book is a compilation of selected papers from the 4th ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS (EIWAC2015). The work focuses on novel techniques for aviation infrastructure in air traffic management (ATM) and communications, navigation, surveillance, and informatics (CNSI) domains. The contents make valuable contributions to academic researchers, engineers in the industry, and regulators of aviation authorities. As well, readers will encounter new ideas for realizing a more efficient and safer aviation system. .

  2. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  3. Glucocorticoid treatment of MCMV infected newborn mice attenuates CNS inflammation and limits deficits in cerebellar development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kosmac

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the developing fetus with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a major cause of central nervous system disease in infants and children; however, mechanism(s of disease associated with this intrauterine infection remain poorly understood. Utilizing a mouse model of HCMV infection of the developing CNS, we have shown that peripheral inoculation of newborn mice with murine CMV (MCMV results in CNS infection and developmental abnormalities that recapitulate key features of the human infection. In this model, animals exhibit decreased granule neuron precursor cell (GNPC proliferation and altered morphogenesis of the cerebellar cortex. Deficits in cerebellar cortical development are symmetric and global even though infection of the CNS results in a non-necrotizing encephalitis characterized by widely scattered foci of virus-infected cells with mononuclear cell infiltrates. These findings suggested that inflammation induced by MCMV infection could underlie deficits in CNS development. We investigated the contribution of host inflammatory responses to abnormal cerebellar development by modulating inflammatory responses in infected mice with glucocorticoids. Treatment of infected animals with glucocorticoids decreased activation of CNS mononuclear cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-β and IFNγ in the CNS while minimally impacting CNS virus replication. Glucocorticoid treatment also limited morphogenic abnormalities and normalized the expression of developmentally regulated genes within the cerebellum. Importantly, GNPC proliferation deficits were normalized in MCMV infected mice following glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings argue that host inflammatory responses to MCMV infection contribute to deficits in CNS development in MCMV infected mice and suggest that similar mechanisms of disease could be responsible for the abnormal CNS development in human infants infected in-utero with HCMV.

  4. Persistent Inflammation Alters the Function of the Endogenous Brain Stem Cell Compartment

    OpenAIRE

    Pluchino, Stefano; Muzio, Luca; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Salani, Giuliana; Porcheri, Cristina; Brambilla, Elena; Cavasinni, Francesca; Bergamaschi, Andrea; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Comi, Giancarlo; Martino, Gianvito; Imitola, Jaime; Deleidi, Michela; Khoury, Samia Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Endogenous neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are considered a functional reservoir for promoting tissue homeostasis and repair after injury, therefore regenerative strategies that mobilize these cells have recently been proposed. Despite evidence of increased neurogenesis upon acute inflammatory insults (e.g. ischaemic stroke), the plasticity of the endogenous brain stem cell compartment in chronic CNS inflammatory disorders remains poorly characterized. Here we show that persistent brain in...

  5. CNS embryonal tumours: WHO 2016 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, J C; Hawkins, C; Pietsch, T; Jacques, T S

    2018-02-01

    Embryonal tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) present a significant clinical challenge. Many of these neoplasms affect young children, have a very high mortality and therapeutic strategies are often aggressive with poor long-term outcomes. There is a great need to accurately diagnose embryonal tumours, predict their outcome and adapt therapy to the individual patient's risk. For the first time in 2016, the WHO classification took into account molecular characteristics for the diagnosis of CNS tumours. This integration of histological features with genetic information has significantly changed the diagnostic work-up and reporting of tumours of the CNS. However, this remains challenging in embryonal tumours due to their previously unaccounted tumour heterogeneity. We describe the recent revisions made to the 4th edition of the WHO classification of CNS tumours and review the main changes, while highlighting some of the more common diagnostic testing strategies. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  6. Clearance of an immunosuppressive virus from the CNS coincides with immune reanimation and diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGavern Dorian B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Once a virus infection establishes persistence in the central nervous system (CNS, it is especially difficult to eliminate from this specialized compartment. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to fully understand scenarios during which a persisting virus is ultimately purged from the CNS by the adaptive immune system. Such a scenario can be found following infection of adult mice with an immunosuppressive variant of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV referred to as clone 13. In this study we demonstrate that following intravenous inoculation, clone 13 rapidly infected peripheral tissues within one week, but more slowly inundated the entire brain parenchyma over the course of a month. During the establishment of persistence, we observed that genetically tagged LCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL progressively lost function; however, the severity of this loss in the CNS was never as substantial as that observed in the periphery. One of the most impressive features of this model system is that the peripheral T cell response eventually regains functionality at ~60–80 days post-infection, and this was associated with a rapid decline in virus from the periphery. Coincident with this "reanimation phase" was a massive influx of CD4 T and B cells into the CNS and a dramatic reduction in viral distribution. In fact, olfactory bulb neurons served as the last refuge for the persisting virus, which was ultimately purged from the CNS within 200 days post-infection. These data indicate that a functionally revived immune response can prevail over a virus that establishes widespread presence both in the periphery and brain parenchyma, and that therapeutic enhancement of an existing response could serve as an effective means to thwart long term CNS persistence.

  7. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown.......Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  8. Diagnostic value of kinetic analysis using dynamic FDG PET in immunocompetent patients with primary CNS lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Yuka; Monden, Toshihide; Sasakawa, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accumulation of FDG in immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma using qualitative and quantitative PET images and to compare baseline with follow-up PET after therapy. Twelve immunocompetent patients with CNS lymphoma were examined. Dynamic emission data were acquired for 60 min immediately following injection of FDG. In seven patients, repeated PET studies were performed after treatment. Applying a three-compartment five-parameter model, K 1 , k 2 , k 3 , k 4 , vascular fraction (V B ) and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMR Glc ) were obtained. We evaluated the FDG uptake visually using qualitative and parametric images and quantitatively using parametric images. A total of 12 lesions were identified in ten patients with newly diagnosed CNS lymphoma. On visual analysis, ten lesions showed an increase on qualitative images, eight showed an increase on K 1 images, 12 showed an increase on k 3 images and ten showed an increase on CMR Glc images. On quantitative analysis, k 2 , k 3 and CMR Glc values of the lesion were significantly different from those of the normal grey matter (p 3 and CMR Glc images. The K 1 , k 2 , k 3 and CMR Glc values after treatment were significantly different from those obtained before treatment (p 3 , using dynamic FDG PET might be helpful for diagnosis of CNS lymphoma and for monitoring therapeutic assessment. (orig.)

  9. Imaging of iliopsoas compartment disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, L.; Saint Maurice, J.P.; Le Quen, O.; Bazille, A.; Miquel, A.; Frouge, C.; Blery, M.

    1997-01-01

    Infection, neoplastic involvement, and hemorrhage, are the most frequent pathologies that involve the ilio-psoas compartment. The extension from contiguous pathological structures and particularly digestive and urological organs, are often the origin of abscess formation or malignant tumours. The radiological findings including ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging, show a low specificity, which improves if the clinical history is known. The final diagnosis is confirmed by puncture or biopsy. (author)

  10. Numerical treatment of compartment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einarsson, B.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes and interactive program RADIO (Radioactive Decay Information Online) for studying the radioactive decay process, with applications to many ecological problems, but not necessarily involving radioactive processes. Starting with the compartment coefficients and initial values of the various compartments the problem is solved as a system of linear ordinary differential equations. The method of solution is the direct use of matrix exponentials or the backward differences method. A program INVERS is also available for the solution of the inverse problem, that is parameter estimation in a system of linear ordinary differential equations when the solution is available pointwise. The output can be printed on a line printer either from a result file or from the plot file, which of course also can be used to produce graphic output. The plot file is processed by the plotting program VISION or by the auxiliary printing program RADAR. Another file can be used for a later restart from the point of time where the previous computation was aborted or from an arbitrary point of time if the relevant starting information is available. This is useful in order to avoid the manual input of a compartment matrix if it is similar to one used before. When the program RADIO is run the user answers to the question asked by the program. The programs are written in Fortran 77 for the Digital Equipment VAX 11 with graphical presentation on a Tektronix 4010, and are available from the author. (Author)

  11. Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Sayar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities’ compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy.

  12. Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Yan Kit; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-02-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear is very rare. It can involve the superficial posterior compartment alone or progress to involve all the 4 compartments of the lower legs. Those patients with high pain tolerance and minor trauma can lead to delayed presentation. Immediate fasciotomy is the treatment of choice. Therapeutic Level IV, Case Study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  13. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 25.787 Stowage compartments. (a) Each compartment for the stowage of cargo, baggage, carry-on articles, and... to compartments located below, or forward, of all occupants in the airplane. If the airplane has a...

  14. The Extracellular Environment of the CNS: Influence on Plasticity, Sprouting, and Axonal Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lindsey H.

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS) becomes highly structured and organized as the nervous system matures. The extracellular space of the CNS along with its subdomains plays a crucial role in the function and stability of the CNS. In this review, we have focused on two components of the neuronal extracellular environment, which are important in regulating CNS plasticity including the extracellular matrix (ECM) and myelin. The ECM consists of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and tenascins, which are organized into unique structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs associate with the neuronal cell body and proximal dendrites of predominantly parvalbumin-positive interneurons, forming a robust lattice-like structure. These developmentally regulated structures are maintained in the adult CNS and enhance synaptic stability. After injury, however, CSPGs and tenascins contribute to the structure of the inhibitory glial scar, which actively prevents axonal regeneration. Myelin sheaths and mature adult oligodendrocytes, despite their important role in signal conduction in mature CNS axons, contribute to the inhibitory environment existing after injury. As such, unlike the peripheral nervous system, the CNS is unable to revert to a “developmental state” to aid neuronal repair. Modulation of these external factors, however, has been shown to promote growth, regeneration, and functional plasticity after injury. This review will highlight some of the factors that contribute to or prevent plasticity, sprouting, and axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. PMID:29849554

  15. P-glycoprotein trafficking as a therapeutic target to optimize CNS drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas P; Sanchez-Covarubias, Lucy; Tome, Margaret E

    2014-01-01

    The primary function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)/neurovascular unit is to protect the central nervous system (CNS) from potentially harmful xenobiotic substances and maintain CNS homeostasis. Restricted access to the CNS is maintained via a combination of tight junction proteins as well as a variety of efflux and influx transporters that limits the transcellular and paracellular movement of solutes. Of the transporters identified at the BBB, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has emerged as the transporter that is the greatest obstacle to effective CNS drug delivery. In this chapter, we provide data to support intracellular protein trafficking of P-gp within cerebral capillary microvessels as a potential target for improved drug delivery. We show that pain-induced changes in P-gp trafficking are associated with changes in P-gp's association with caveolin-1, a key scaffolding/trafficking protein that colocalizes with P-gp at the luminal membrane of brain microvessels. Changes in colocalization with the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of caveolin-1, by pain, are accompanied by dynamic changes in the distribution, relocalization, and activation of P-gp "pools" between microvascular endothelial cell subcellular compartments. Since redox-sensitive processes may be involved in signaling disassembly of higher-order structures of P-gp, we feel that manipulating redox signaling, via specific protein targeting at the BBB, may protect disulfide bond integrity of P-gp reservoirs and control trafficking to the membrane surface, providing improved CNS drug delivery. The advantage of therapeutic drug "relocalization" of a protein is that the physiological impact can be modified, temporarily or long term, despite pathology-induced changes in gene transcription. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metallothionein expression and roles in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena

    2002-01-01

      Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight (6-7 kDa) nonenzymatic proteins (60-68 amino acid residues, 25-30% being cysteine) expressed ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. In the central nervous system (CNS), three MT isoforms are known, namely MT-I to MT-III. MT-I and MT-II (MT...

  17. Novel CNS drug discovery and development approach: model-based integration to predict neuro-pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Elizabeth C M; van den Brink, Willem; Yamamoto, Yumi; de Witte, Wilhelmus E A; Wong, Yin Cheong

    2017-12-01

    CNS drug development has been hampered by inadequate consideration of CNS pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and disease complexity (reductionist approach). Improvement is required via integrative model-based approaches. Areas covered: The authors summarize factors that have played a role in the high attrition rate of CNS compounds. Recent advances in CNS research and drug discovery are presented, especially with regard to assessment of relevant neuro-PK parameters. Suggestions for further improvements are also discussed. Expert opinion: Understanding time- and condition dependent interrelationships between neuro-PK and neuro-PD processes is key to predictions in different conditions. As a first screen, it is suggested to use in silico/in vitro derived molecular properties of candidate compounds and predict concentration-time profiles of compounds in multiple compartments of the human CNS, using time-course based physiology-based (PB) PK models. Then, for selected compounds, one can include in vitro drug-target binding kinetics to predict target occupancy (TO)-time profiles in humans. This will improve neuro-PD prediction. Furthermore, a pharmaco-omics approach is suggested, providing multilevel and paralleled data on systems processes from individuals in a systems-wide manner. Thus, clinical trials will be better informed, using fewer animals, while also, needing fewer individuals and samples per individual for proof of concept in humans.

  18. CNS penetration of ART in HIV-infected children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hof, Malon; Blokhuis, Charlotte; Cohen, Sophie; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Pistorius, M. C. M.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2018-01-01

    Background: Paediatric data on CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected children and explore associations with neurocognitive function. Patients and methods: Antiretroviral drug levels were measured in paired

  19. CNS adverse events associated with antimalarial agents. Fact or fiction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, P. A.; ter Kuile, F. O.

    1995-01-01

    CNS adverse drug events are dramatic, and case reports have influenced clinical opinion on the use of antimalarials. Malaria also causes CNS symptoms, thus establishing causality is difficult. CNS events are associated with the quinoline and artemisinin derivatives. Chloroquine, once considered too

  20. CNS effects following the treatment of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, N.; Quaghebeur, G.

    2012-01-01

    Corporeal and central nervous system (CNS) axis chemotherapy and radiotherapy have long been used for the effective treatment and prophylaxis of CNS, body malignancies, and leukaemias. However, they are not without their problems. Following the proliferation of magnetic resonance neuroimaging in recent years it has become clear that the spectrum of toxicity that these therapies produce ranges from subclinical white matter changes to overt brain necrosis. The effects are both direct and indirect and via different pathological mechanisms. Chronic and progressive changes can be detected many years after the initial intervention. In addition to leucoencephalopathic changes, grey matter changes are now well described. Changes may be difficult to distinguish from tumour recurrence, though may be reversible and remediable, and are thus very important to differentiate. In this review toxic effects are classified and their imaging appearances discussed, with reference to specific syndromes.

  1. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  2. Interneuron progenitor transplantation to treat CNS dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad O Chohan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the inadequacy of endogenous repair mechanisms diseases of the nervous system remain a major challenge to scientists and clinicians. Stem cell based therapy is an exciting and viable strategy that has been shown to ameliorate or even reverse symptoms of CNS dysfunction in preclinical animal models. Of particular importance has been the use of GABAergic interneuron progenitors as a therapeutic strategy. Born in the neurogenic niches of the ventral telencephalon, interneuron progenitors retain their unique capacity to disperse, integrate and induce plasticity in adult host circuitries following transplantation. Here we discuss the potential of interneuron based transplantation strategies as it relates to CNS disease therapeutics. We also discuss mechanisms underlying their therapeutic efficacy and some of the challenges that face the field.

  3. Cerebral blood flow variations in CNS lupus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.J.; Tobin, M.; Fazekas, F.; Chawluk, J.; Jamieson, D.; Freundlich, B.; Grenell, S.; Freemen, L.; Reivich, M.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF), over time, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and varying neurologic manifestations including headache, stroke, psychosis, and encephalopathy. For 20 paired xenon-133 CBF measurements, CBF was normal during CNS remissions, regardless of the symptoms. CBF was significantly depressed during CNS exacerbations. The magnitude of change in CBF varied with the neurologic syndrome. CBF was least affected in patients with nonspecific symptoms such as headache or malaise, whereas patients with encephalopathy or psychosis exhibited the greatest reductions in CBF. In 1 patient with affective psychosis, without clinical or CT evidence of cerebral ischemia, serial SPECT studies showed resolution of multifocal cerebral perfusion defects which paralleled clinical recovery

  4. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment options for Primary CNS Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Altaf Ali; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Jabbar, Adnan; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2018-03-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive brain tumour that is uniformly fatal. The rarity of the disease and the poor response to treatment makes it difficult to reach a consensus with regards to treatment options. In this review, the authors have discussed different treatment modalities used in the management of PCNSL including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, as well as the results of recent clinical trials on treatment options for PCNSL.

  6. Engineering progress of CNS concept in Hanaro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.O.; Park, K.N.; Park, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy research Institute (KAERI) strives to provide utilizing facilities on and around the Hanaro reactor in order to activate advanced researches by neutron application. As one of the facilities to be installed, the conceptual design work of CNS was started in 1996 with a project schedule of 5 years so that its installation work can be finished by the year 2000. And the major engineering targets of this CNS facility are established for a minimum physical interference with the present facilities of the Hanaro, a reach-out of very-high-gain factors in the cold neutron flux, a simplicity of the maintenance of the facility, and a safety in the operation of the facility as well as the reactor. For the conceptual design of Hanaro CNS, the experience of utilization and production of cold neutron at WWR-M reactor Gatchina, Russia has been used with that of elaborations for PIK reactor in design for neutron guide systems and instruments. (author)

  7. Forearm Compartment Syndrome: Evaluation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Justin M; Ilyas, Asif M; Thoder, Joseph J

    2018-02-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is uncommon but can have devastating consequences. Compartment syndrome is a result of osseofascial swelling leading to decreased tissue perfusion and tissue necrosis. There are numerous causes of forearm compartment syndrome and high clinical suspicion must be maintained to avoid permanent disability. The most widely recognized symptoms include pain out of proportion and pain with passive stretch of the wrist and digits. Early diagnosis and decompressive fasciotomy are essential in the treatment of forearm compartment syndrome. Closure of fasciotomy wounds can often be accomplished by primary closure but many patients require additional forms of soft tissue coverage procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prophylactic CNS therapy in childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Hiyoshi, Yasuhiko; Fujimoto, Takeo

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of CNS-prophylaxis with high-dose methotrexate (MTX). Seventy children with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) entered to this study between July 1978 and December 1980. According to initial white blood count (WBC), they were stratified to induce remission with; vincristine and prednine in low initial WBC ( lt 25,000/mm 3 ) group and these two agents plus adriamycin in high initial WBC ( gt 25,000/mm 3 ) group. After inducing remission, 62 children who achieved CR, received different CNS-prophlaxis; using a regimen of three doses of weekly high-dose MTX (1,000 mg/m 2 ) 6-hour infusion, which was repeated every 12 weeks-Group A (n = 14); high-dose MTX followed by 2400 rad cranial irradiation plus three doses of i.t. MT X-Group B (n = 15), 2400 rad cranial irradiation plus three doses of i.t. MTX-Group C (n = 16), and in 17 patients with high initial WBC, same as in Group A-Group D (n = 17). During an intravenous 6-h infusion of MTX at a dose of 1,000 mg/m 2 , the CSF concentration of MTX rose to 2.3 +- 2.4 x 10 -6 M after initiation of infusion and remained in 10 -7 M level for 48 hours. CNS-leukemia terminated complete remission in one of 14 children in Group A, two of 15 in Group B, two of 16 in Group C and two of 17 in Group D. The cumulative incidence of CNS-leukemia at 20 months calculated by the technique of Kaplan and Meier was 0% i n Group A, 18.1% in Group B, 7.1% in Group C and 50.8% in Group D. There was no statistical difference among Groups A, B and C. These data suggested that CNS-prophylaxis with high-dose intravenous MTX was effective as well as 2400 rad cranial irradiation plus three doses of i.t. MTX in childhood ALL with low initial WBC. (author)

  9. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  10. Cancers of the Brain and CNS: Global Patterns and Trends in Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Mortazavi, S A R; Paknahad, M

    2018-03-01

    Miranda-Filho et al. in their recently published paper entitled "Cancers of the brain and CNS: global patterns and trends in incidence" provided a global status report of the geographic and temporal variations in the incidence of brain and CNS cancers in different countries across continents worldwide. While the authors confirm the role of genetic risk factors and ionizing radiation exposures, they claimed that no firm conclusion could be drawn about the role of exposure to non-ionizing radiation. The paper authored by Miranda-Filho et al. not only addresses a challenging issue, it can be considered as a good contribution in the field of brain and CNS cancers. However, our correspondence addresses a basic shortcoming of this paper about the role of electromagnetic fields and cancers and provides evidence showing that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs), at least at high levels and long durations, can increases the risk of cancer.

  11. Central Nervous System (CNS Disease Triggering Takotsubo Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo syndrome (TTS is usually triggered by psychological or physical stress. One of the many physical sources of stress are central nervous system (CNS disorders. CNS disorders most frequently triggering TTS include subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, migraine, and intracerebral bleeding. More rare CNS-triggers of TTS include posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, encephalitis, or traumatic brain or spinal cord injury. TTS triggered by any of the CNS disorders needs to be recognized since adequate treatment of TTS may improve the general outcome from the CNS disorder as well. Neurologists need to be aware of TTS as a complication of specific CNS disorders but TTS may be triggered also by CNS disorders so far not recognised as causes of TTS.

  12. SINS/CNS Nonlinear Integrated Navigation Algorithm for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celestial Navigation System (CNS has characteristics of accurate orientation and strong autonomy and has been widely used in Hypersonic Vehicle. Since the CNS location and orientation mainly depend upon the inertial reference that contains errors caused by gyro drifts and other error factors, traditional Strap-down Inertial Navigation System (SINS/CNS positioning algorithm setting the position error between SINS and CNS as measurement is not effective. The model of altitude azimuth, platform error angles, and horizontal position is designed, and the SINS/CNS tightly integrated algorithm is designed, in which CNS altitude azimuth is set as measurement information. GPF (Gaussian particle filter is introduced to solve the problem of nonlinear filtering. The results of simulation show that the precision of SINS/CNS algorithm which reaches 130 m using three stars is improved effectively.

  13. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical

  14. Immune regulation and CNS autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antel, J P; Owens, T

    1999-01-01

    The central nervous system is a demonstrated target of both clinical and experimental immune mediated disorders. Immune regulatory mechanisms operative at the levels of the systemic immune system, the blood brain barrier, and within the CNS parenchyma are important determinants of the intensity...... and duration of the tissue directed injury. Convergence of research, involving direct manipulation of specific cells and molecular mediators in animal models and in vitro analysis of human immune and neural cells and tissues, is providing increasing insight into the role of these immune regulatory functions...

  15. Unrecognized anterior compartment syndrome following ankle fracture surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyahi, Aksel; Uludag, Serkan; Akman, Senol; Demirhan, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    A 35-year-old male sustained a lateral malleolar fracture while playing football. The fracture was treated by open reduction and internal fixation with a tourniquet. The next day, the patient returned with pain and swelling of the ankle and was admitted again to the hospital with a suspected diagnosis of cellulitis. Ten hours later, the patient developed the symptoms of anterior compartment syndrome. Emergency open fasciotomy of the anterior compartment was performed. The retrospective analysis of the patient's history was suggestive of a predisposition to an exercise-induced compartment syndrome. We think that exertional increase of the compartmental pressure before the injury and the tourniquet used during surgery contributed together to the development of compartment syndrome. Physicians should be vigilant in identifying the features of compartment syndrome when managing patients injured during a sporting activity.

  16. Novel agents in CNS myeloma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzetti, Alessandro; Cerase, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system localization of multiple myeloma (CNS-MM) accounts for about 1% of all MM.Treatment is still unsatisfactory. Many treatments have been described in the literature: chemotherapy (CHT), intrathecal therapy (IT), and radiotherapy (RT), with survivals reported between one month and six months. Recent drugs such as the immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) and proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib) have changed the treatment of patients with MM, both younger and older, with a significant improvement in response and survival. The activity of new drugs in CNSMM has been reported but is still not well known. Bortezomib does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), and IMID’s seem to have only a minimal crossover. The role of novel agents in CNS MM management will be discussed as well as the potential role of other new immunomodulatory drugs (pomalidomide) and proteasome inhibitors that seem to cross the BBB and hold promise into the treatment of this rare and still incurable localization of the disease.

  17. Malignant lymphoma in central nervous system (CNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, Kenji; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Akiguchi, Ichiro; Kameyama, Masakuni; Nishimura, Toshio.

    1984-01-01

    A 71-year-old male was admitted to Kohka Public Hospital on January 4, 1980, because of frequent vomiting and recent memory loss. Two weeks before admission upper G-I series showed no abnormalities. Physical and neurological examinations revealed no abnormalities except for slightly apathetic appearance and recent memory loss. Mild pleocytosis and marked increase of protein in CSF were observed. CT scan on January 17 showed high density areas in both medial sides of temporal lobes with remarkable contrast enhancement. His memory and, consciousness disturbances gradually aggravated, accompanied by abnormal density spreading around the ventricle walls like ventriculitis. He was transfered to Kyoto University Hospital on March 17, and malignant lymphoma was diagnosed on the basis of CSF cytology. Radiation and chemotherapy alleviated the CNS involvement and he regained normal mental function. On June 16, he developed pneumonia followed by status epilepticus. Autopsy findings revealed no lymphoid cell infiltration, but fibrous tissues in both hippocampal gyri and lymphomatous cells in the liver, which could not be suspected on clinical examinations. Apparent malignant lymphoma cells were not found in lymph nodes. This case indicated peculiar evolution of malignant lymphoma from liver to CNS or vice versa. We could not decide which organ was primary. CT findings of this case was very interesting; they resembled ventriculitis, which simulate tumors such as medulloblastoma or ependymoma spreading under ependymal lining. (author)

  18. Abdominal compartment syndrome with acute reperfusion syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleeva, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome was recognized clinically in the 19th century when Marey and Burt observed its association with declines in respiratory function. Abdominal compartment syndrome is first used as a medical terminology from Fietsman in a case of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A condition caused by abnormally increased pressure within the abdomen. Causes of abdominal compartment syndrome include trauma, surgery, or infection. Common symptoms: abdominal distension, fast heart rate, insufficient urine production, or low blood pressure Medical procedure: nasogastric intubation Surgery: laparotomy Specialists: radiologist, primary care provider (PCP), surgeon, and emergency medicine doctor [6, 10]. Keywords: Stomach. Gastroparesis . Diabetes Mellitus [bg

  19. A hematopoietic contribution to microhemorrhage formation during antiviral CD8 T cell-initiated blood-brain barrier disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Holly L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which susceptibility to brain hemorrhage is derived from blood-derived factors or stromal tissue remains largely unknown. We have developed an inducible model of CD8 T cell-initiated blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption using a variation of the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV model of multiple sclerosis. This peptide-induced fatal syndrome (PIFS model results in severe central nervous system (CNS vascular permeability and death in the C57BL/6 mouse strain, but not in the 129 SvIm mouse strain, despite the two strains' having indistinguishable CD8 T-cell responses. Therefore, we hypothesize that hematopoietic factors contribute to susceptibility to brain hemorrhage, CNS vascular permeability and death following induction of PIFS. Methods PIFS was induced by intravenous injection of VP2121-130 peptide at 7 days post-TMEV infection. We then investigated brain inflammation, astrocyte activation, vascular permeability, functional deficit and microhemorrhage formation using T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in C57BL/6 and 129 SvIm mice. To investigate the contribution of hematopoietic cells in this model, hemorrhage-resistant 129 SvIm mice were reconstituted with C57BL/6 or autologous 129 SvIm bone marrow. Gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted MRI was used to visualize the extent of CNS vascular permeability after bone marrow transfer. Results C57BL/6 and 129 SvIm mice had similar inflammation in the CNS during acute infection. After administration of VP2121-130 peptide, however, C57BL/6 mice had increased astrocyte activation, CNS vascular permeability, microhemorrhage formation and functional deficits compared to 129 SvIm mice. The 129 SvIm mice reconstituted with C57BL/6 but not autologous bone marrow had increased microhemorrhage formation as measured by T2*-weighted MRI, exhibited a profound increase in CNS vascular permeability as measured by three-dimensional volumetric analysis of

  20. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Surgical Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, affect ... timely surgical intervention is crucial. Key words: .... On the second postoperative day, he was noted to be restless ... Although surgery is very effective in managing ACS.

  1. Compartment syndrome in a labrador retriever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Bailey, M.Q.; Schertel, E.R.; Valentine, A.

    1994-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is an elevation of interstitial pressure in a closed osseofascial compartment that results in microvascular compromise. This report documents a clinical syndrome in the crus of a fourteen-month-old intact male Labrador Retriever which was consistent with trauma-induced compartment syndrome. A six month history of recurring trauma or complications resulted in the need for referral. Survey radiography and ultrasonography aided in the diagnosis, but the definitive answer was provided by femoral angiography. The patient was successfully treated and was discharged with normal limb function. One year later, there were no complications observed. Compartment syndrome is not uncommon in humans, and is routinely considered in certain blunt and most penetrating traumas. However, few reports of this complication in animals are found

  2. Multi-compartment microscopic diffusion imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kaden, Enrico; Kelm, Nathaniel D.; Carson, Robert P.; Does, Mark D.; Alexander, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-compartment model for microscopic diffusion anisotropy imaging. The aim is to estimate microscopic features specific to the intra- and extra-neurite compartments in nervous tissue unconfounded by the effects of fibre crossings and orientation dispersion, which are ubiquitous in the brain. The proposed MRI method is based on the Spherical Mean Technique (SMT), which factors out the neurite orientation distribution and thus provides direct estimates of the microsco...

  3. Transplanting oligodendrocyte progenitors into the adult CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.J.M.; Blakemore, W.F.; Cambridge Univ.

    1997-01-01

    This review covers a number of aspects of the behaviour of oligodendrocyte progenitors following transplantation into the adult CNS. First, an account is given of the ability of transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitors, grown in tissue culture in the presence of PDGF and bFGF, to extensively remyelinate focal areas of persistent demyelination. Secondly, we describe how transplanted clonal cell lines of oligodendrocyte progenitors will differentiate in to astrocytes as will oligodendrocytes following transplantation into pathological environments in which both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are absent, thereby manifesting the bipotentially demonstrable in vitro but not during development. Finally, a series of studies examining the migratory behaviour of transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitors (modelled using the oligodendrocyte progenitor cell line CG4) are described. (author)

  4. Biomarkers for CNS involvement in pediatric lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Tamar B; Putterman, Chaim; Goilav, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    CNS disease, or central neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (cNPSLE), occurs frequently in pediatric lupus, leading to significant morbidity and poor long-term outcomes. Diagnosing cNPSLE is especially difficult in pediatrics; many current diagnostic tools are invasive and/or costly, and there are no current accepted screening mechanisms. The most complicated aspect of diagnosis is differentiating primary disease from other etiologies; research to discover new biomarkers is attempting to address this dilemma. With many mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cNPSLE, biomarker profiles across several modalities (molecular, psychometric and neuroimaging) will need to be used. For the care of children with lupus, the challenge will be to develop biomarkers that are accessible by noninvasive measures and reliable in a pediatric population. PMID:26079959

  5. Palmitoylethanolamide in CNS health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Russo, Roberto; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria

    2014-08-01

    The existence of acylethanolamides (AEs) in the mammalian brain has been known for decades. Among AEs, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is abundant in the central nervous system (CNS) and conspicuously produced by neurons and glial cells. Antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective properties of PEA have been mainly related to the reduction of neuronal firing and to control of inflammation. Growing evidence suggest that PEA may be neuroprotective during CNS neurodegenerative diseases. Advances in the understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of PEA have potentiated its interest as useful biological tool for disease management. Several rapid non-genomic and delayed genomic mechanisms of action have been identified for PEA as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α dependent. First, an early molecular control, through Ca(+2)-activated intermediate- and/or big-conductance K(+) channels opening, drives to rapid neuronal hyperpolarization. This is reinforced by the increase of the inward Cl(-) currents due to the modulation of the gamma aminobutyric acid A receptor and by the desensitization of the transient receptor potential channel type V1. Moreover, the gene transcription-mediated mechanism sustains the long-term anti-inflammatory effects, by reducing pro-inflammatory enzyme expression and increasing neurosteroid synthesis. Overall, the integration of these different modes of action allows PEA to exert an immediate and prolonged efficacious control in neuron signaling either on inflammatory process or neuronal excitability, maintaining cellular homeostasis. In this review, we will discuss the effect of PEA on metabolism, behavior, inflammation and pain perception, related to the control of central functions and the emerging evidence demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy in several neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying

  7. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  8. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P., E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  9. New Brain Tumor Entities Emerge from Molecular Classification of CNS-PNETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Dominik; Orr, Brent A; Toprak, Umut H

    2016-01-01

    with a recurrent genetic alteration and distinct histopathological and clinical features. These new molecular entities, designated "CNS neuroblastoma with FOXR2 activation (CNS NB-FOXR2)," "CNS Ewing sarcoma family tumor with CIC alteration (CNS EFT-CIC)," "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with MN1 alteration...

  10. Hypothyroid-induced acute compartment syndrome in all extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Matthew C; Chae, Jung Hee

    2016-12-20

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an uncommon complication of uncontrolled hypothyroidism. If unrecognized, this can lead to ischemia, necrosis and potential limb loss. A 49-year-old female presented with the sudden onset of bilateral lower and upper extremity swelling and pain. The lower extremity anterior compartments were painful and tense. The extensor surface of the upper extremities exhibited swelling and pain. Motor function was intact, however, limited due to pain. Bilateral lower extremity fasciotomies were performed. Postoperative Day 1, upper extremity motor function decreased significantly and paresthesias occurred. She therefore underwent bilateral forearm fasciotomies. The pathogenesis of hypothyroidism-induced compartment syndrome is unclear. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-induced fibroblast activation results in increased glycosaminoglycan deposition. The primary glycosaminoglycan in hypothyroid myxedematous changes is hyaluronic acid, which binds water causing edema. This increases vascular permeability, extravasation of proteins and impaired lymphatic drainage. These contribute to increased intra-compartmental pressure and subsequent ACS. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  11. Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Haisan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS, tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P<0.002. Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments’ variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy.

  12. A philosophy for CNS radiotracer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Bittner, Genevieve C; Ricq, Emily L; Hooker, Jacob M

    2014-10-21

    Decades after its discovery, positron emission tomography (PET) remains the premier tool for imaging neurochemistry in living humans. Technological improvements in radiolabeling methods, camera design, and image analysis have kept PET in the forefront. In addition, the use of PET imaging has expanded because researchers have developed new radiotracers that visualize receptors, transporters, enzymes, and other molecular targets within the human brain. However, of the thousands of proteins in the central nervous system (CNS), researchers have successfully imaged fewer than 40 human proteins. To address the critical need for new radiotracers, this Account expounds on the decisions, strategies, and pitfalls of CNS radiotracer development based on our current experience in this area. We discuss the five key components of radiotracer development for human imaging: choosing a biomedical question, selection of a biological target, design of the radiotracer chemical structure, evaluation of candidate radiotracers, and analysis of preclinical imaging. It is particularly important to analyze the market of scientists or companies who might use a new radiotracer and carefully select a relevant biomedical question(s) for that audience. In the selection of a specific biological target, we emphasize how target localization and identity can constrain this process and discuss the optimal target density and affinity ratios needed for binding-based radiotracers. In addition, we discuss various PET test-retest variability requirements for monitoring changes in density, occupancy, or functionality for new radiotracers. In the synthesis of new radiotracer structures, high-throughput, modular syntheses have proved valuable, and these processes provide compounds with sites for late-stage radioisotope installation. As a result, researchers can manage the time constraints associated with the limited half-lives of isotopes. In order to evaluate brain uptake, a number of methods are available

  13. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  14. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ar.leao@uol.com.br; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  15. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrin, N S Ahmad; Ibrahim, N

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model

  16. Fifth CNS international steam generator conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Fifth CNS International Steam Generator Conference was held on November 26-29, 2006 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In contrast with other conferences which focus on specific aspects, this conference provided a wide ranging forum on nuclear steam generator technology from life-cycle management to inspection and maintenance, functional and structural performance characteristics to design architecture. The 5th conference has adopted the theme: 'Management of Real-Life Equipment Conditions and Solutions for the Future'. This theme is appropriate at a time of transition in the industry when plants are looking to optimize the performance of existing assets, prevent costly degradation and unavailability, while looking ahead for new steam generator investments in life-extension, replacements and new-build. More than 50 technical papers were presented in sessions that gave an insight to the scope: life management strategies; fouling, cleaning and chemistry; replacement strategies and new build design; materials degradation; condition assessment/fitness for service; inspection advancements and experience; and thermal hydraulic performance

  17. Analysis of perfusion weighted image of CNS lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ho; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Keon Ha; Jeon, Pyoung; Byun, Hong Sik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is difficult to differentiate CNS lymphoma from other tumors such as malignant gliomas, metastases, or meningiomas with conventional MR imaging, because the imaging findings are overlapped between these tumors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perfusion weighted MR imaging findings of CNS lymphomas and to compare the relative cerebral blood volume ratios between CNS lymphomas and other tumors such as high grade gliomas, metastases, or meningiomas. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings and clinical records in 13 patients with pathologically proven CNS lymphoma between January 2006 and November 2008. We evaluated the relative cerebral blood volume ratios of tumor, which were obtained by dividing the values obtained from the normal white matter on MRI. Results: Total 13 patients (M:F = 8:5; age range 46-67 years, mean age 52.3 years) were included. The CNS lymphomas showed relatively low values of maximum relative CBV ratio in most patients regardless of primary or secondary CNS lymphoma. Conclusion: Perfusion weighted image may be helpful in the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma in spite of primary or secondary or B cell or T cell.

  18. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  19. Effects of combustible stacking in large compartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of fire in case of various distributions of combustible materials in a large compartment. Large compartments often represent a challenge for structural fire safety, because of lack of prescriptive rules to follow and difficulties of taking into account the effect...... of non uniform distribution of the combustible materials and fire propagation. These aspects are discussed in this paper with reference to an industrial steel building, taken as case study. Fires triggered by the burning of wooden pallets stored in the premises have been investigated with respect...

  20. Autoimmune process in CNS under Cs-137 inner irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisyany, N.I.; Liubich, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune hypothesis as to the development of radiation-induced brain injuries stands high among the concepts of the CNS post-radiation damage pathogenesis. To study the changes occurring in a living organism affected by a small-dose radiation due to incorporated radionuclides as well as to create adequate models are of critical importance in the post-Chernobyl period. The effects of chronic small-dose inner radiation on the development of autoimmune responses were evaluated by determining the level of the CNS proteins and protein-induced antibodies to the CNS components. (author)

  1. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  2. Developmental hyperoxia alters CNS mechanisms underlying hypoxic ventilatory depression in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Corey B; Grandgeorge, Samuel H; Bavis, Ryan W

    2013-12-01

    Newborn mammals exhibit a biphasic hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), but the relative contributions of carotid body-initiated CNS mechanisms versus central hypoxia on ventilatory depression during the late phase of the HVR are not well understood. Neonatal rats (P4-5 or P13-15) were treated with a nonselective P2 purinergic receptor antagonist (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, or PPADS; 125mgkg(-1), i.p.) to pharmacologically denervate the peripheral chemoreceptors. At P4-5, rats reared in normoxia showed a progressive decline in ventilation during a 10-min exposure to 12% O2 (21-28% decrease from baseline). No hypoxic ventilatory depression was observed in the older group of neonatal rats (i.e., P13-15), suggesting that the contribution of central hypoxia to hypoxic ventilatory depression diminishes with age. In contrast, rats reared in moderate hyperoxia (60% O2) from birth exhibited no hypoxic ventilatory depression at either age studied. Systemic PPADS had no effect on the ventilatory response to 7% CO2, suggesting that the drug did not cross the blood-brain barrier. These findings indicate that (1) CNS hypoxia depresses ventilation in young, neonatal rats independent of carotid body activation and (2) hyperoxia alters the development of CNS pathways that modulate the late phase of the hypoxic ventilatory response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of galectin-3 in prion infections of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Simon W.F.; Riemer, Constanze; Madela, Kazimierz; Hsu, Daniel K.; Liu, Fu-Tong; Gueltner, Sandra; Heise, Ines; Baier, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a multi-functional protein and participates in mediating inflammatory reactions. The pronounced overexpression of galectin-3 in prion-infected brain tissue prompted us to study the role of this protein in a murine prion model. Immunofluorescence double-labelling identified microglia as the major cell type expressing galectin-3. Ablation of galectin-3 did not affect PrP Sc -deposition and development of gliosis. However, galectin-3 -/- -mice showed prolonged survival times upon intracerebral and peripheral scrapie infections. Moreover, protein levels of the lysosomal activation marker LAMP-2 were markedly reduced in prion-infected galectin-3 -/- -mice suggesting a role of galectin-3 in regulation of lysosomal functions. Lower mRNA levels of Beclin-1 and Atg5 in prion-infected wild-type and galectin-3 -/- -mice indicated an impairment of autophagy although autophagosome formation was unchanged. The results point towards a detrimental role of galectin-3 in prion infections of the CNS and suggest that endo-/lysosomal dysfunction in combination with reduced autophagy may contribute to disease development

  4. Human abuse liability evaluation of CNS stimulant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romach, Myroslava K; Schoedel, Kerri A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Psychoactive drugs that increase alertness, attention and concentration and energy, while also elevating mood, heart rate and blood pressure are referred to as stimulants. Despite some overlapping similarities, stimulants cannot be easily categorized by their chemical structure, mechanism of action, receptor binding profile, effects on monoamine uptake, behavioral pharmacology (e.g., effects on locomotion, temperature, and blood pressure), therapeutic indication or efficacy. Because of their abuse liability, a pre-market assessment of abuse potential is required for drugs that show stimulant properties; this review article focuses on the clinical aspects of this evaluation. This includes clinical trial adverse events, evidence of diversion or tampering, overdoses and the results of a human abuse potential study. While there are different types of human experimental studies that can be employed to evaluate stimulant abuse potential (e.g., drug discrimination, self-administration), only the human abuse potential study and clinical trial adverse event data are required for drug approval. The principal advances that have improved human abuse potential studies include using study enrichment strategies (pharmacologic qualification), larger sample sizes, better selection of endpoints and measurement strategies and more carefully considered interpretation of data. Because of the methodological advances, comparisons of newer studies with historical data is problematic and may contribute to a biased regulatory framework for the evaluation of newer stimulant-like drugs, such as A2 antagonists. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Air pollution: mechanisms of neuroinflammation and CNS disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Michelle L; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2009-09-01

    Air pollution has been implicated as a chronic source of neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that produce neuropathology and central nervous system (CNS) disease. Stroke incidence and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease pathology are linked to air pollution. Recent reports reveal that air pollution components reach the brain; systemic effects that impact lung and cardiovascular disease also impinge upon CNS health. While mechanisms driving air pollution-induced CNS pathology are poorly understood, new evidence suggests that microglial activation and changes in the blood-brain barrier are key components. Here we summarize recent findings detailing the mechanisms through which air pollution reaches the brain and activates the resident innate immune response to become a chronic source of pro-inflammatory factors and ROS, culminating in CNS disease.

  6. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-08

    Jul 8, 2014 ... information that they represent. The extensive ... physiology and behaviour in the wild type and in these mutants .... taste information is processed in the CNS. 2. ..... gene affecting the specificity of the chemosensory neurons of.

  7. Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacogenetic, and Other Factors Influencing CNS Penetration of Antiretrovirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Nwamaka Nwogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow. In this review, we provide an overview of the various factors influencing CNS penetration of ARV drugs with an emphasis on those commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. We also summarize some key associations between ARV drug penetration, CNS efficacy, and neurotoxicity.

  8. Experimental investigation on the flow around a simplified geometry of automotive engine compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hondt, Marion; Gilliéron, Patrick; Devinant, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    In the current sustainable development context, car manufacturers have to keep doing efforts to reduce the aerodynamic drag of automotive vehicle in order to decrease their CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions. The cooling airflow, through the engine compartment of vehicles, contributes from 5 to 10% to the total aerodynamic drag. By means of simplified car geometry, equipped with an engine compartment, the configurations that favor a low contribution to total drag are identified. PIV (particle image velocimetry) velocity measurements in the wake of the geometry allow explaining these drag reductions. Besides, the cooling flow rate is also assessed and gives indications on the configurations that favor the engine cooling.

  9. CNS Involvement in AML Patient Treated with 5-Azacytidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantina Vasilatou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS involvement in acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a rare complication of the disease and is associated with poor prognosis. Sometimes the clinical presentation can be unspecific and the diagnosis can be very challenging. Here we report a case of CNS infiltration in a patient suffering from AML who presented with normal complete blood count and altered mental status.

  10. CNS-directed gene therapy for lysosomal storage diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sands, Mark S; Haskins, Mark E

    2008-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of inherited metabolic disorders usually caused by deficient activity of a single lysosomal enzyme. As most lysosomal enzymes are ubiquitously expressed, a deficiency in a single enzyme can affect multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system (CNS). At least 75% of all LSDs have a significant CNS component. Approaches such as bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) can effectively treat the systemic dis...

  11. Leg 201Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A.; Lecocq, J.

    2004-01-01

    Leg 201 Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have 201 Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg 201 Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of 201 Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest 201 Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: 201 Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  12. Sleep disorders in children after treatment for a CNS tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Lisa M; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Van Santen, Hanneke M; Schouten-Van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N

    2012-08-01

    The long-term survival of children with a central nervous system (CNS) tumour is improving. However, they experience late effects, including altered habits and patterns of sleep. We evaluated the presence and type of sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in these children, and its associations with clinical characteristics and daily performance (fatigue and psychosocial functioning). In a cross-sectional study at the outpatient clinic of the Emma Children's Hospital AMC (February-June 2010), sleep, fatigue and psychosocial functioning were analysed in 31 CNS tumour patients (mean age: 11.8years; 20 boys) and compared with 78 patients treated for a non-CNS malignancy (mean age: 9.7years; 41 boys) and norm data. Questionnaires applied were the Sleep Disorder Scale for Children, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Sleeping habits and endocrine deficiencies were assessed with a self-developed questionnaire. Increased somnolence was found in CNS tumour patients compared with those with a non-CNS malignancy (8.8±2.8 versus 7.5±2.7; Psleep. No specific risk factors were identified for a sleep disorder in CNS tumour patients, but their excessive somnolence was correlated with lower fatigue related quality of life (QoL) (r=-0.78, Psleep quality and diminish fatigue. © 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jeff L; Michael Morey, A; Kadrmas, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg–Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models. (paper)

  14. The longest telomeres: a general signature of adult stem cell compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ignacio; Canela, Andres; Vera, Elsa; Tejera, Agueda; Cotsarelis, George; Blasco, María A.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of adult stem cells and their location (niches) is of great relevance for regenerative medicine. However, stem cell niches are still poorly defined in most adult tissues. Here, we show that the longest telomeres are a general feature of adult stem cell compartments. Using confocal telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomapping), we find gradients of telomere length within tissues, with the longest telomeres mapping to the known stem cell compartments. In mouse hair follicles, we show that cells with the longest telomeres map to the known stem cell compartments, colocalize with stem cell markers, and behave as stem cells upon treatment with mitogenic stimuli. Using K15-EGFP reporter mice, which mark hair follicle stem cells, we show that GFP-positive cells have the longest telomeres. The stem cell compartments in small intestine, testis, cornea, and brain of the mouse are also enriched in cells with the longest telomeres. This constitutes the description of a novel general property of adult stem cell compartments. Finally, we make the novel finding that telomeres shorten with age in different mouse stem cell compartments, which parallels a decline in stem cell functionality, suggesting that telomere loss may contribute to stem cell dysfunction with age. PMID:18283121

  15. Herpes simplex virus replication compartments can form by coalescence of smaller compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Travis J; McNamee, Elizabeth E.; Day, Cheryl; Knipe, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) uses intranuclear compartmentalization to concentrate the viral and cellular factors required for the progression of the viral life cycle. Processes as varied as viral DNA replication, late gene expression, and capsid assembly take place within discrete structures within the nucleus called replication compartments. Replication compartments are hypothesized to mature from a few distinct structures, called prereplicative sites, that form adjacent to cellular nuclear matrix-associated ND10 sites. During productive infection, the HSV single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8 localizes to replication compartments. To further the understanding of replication compartment maturation, we have constructed and characterized a recombinant HSV-1 strain that expresses an ICP8 molecule with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to its C terminus. In transfected Vero cells that were infected with HSV, the ICP8-GFP protein localized to prereplicative sites in the presence of the viral DNA synthesis inhibitor phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) or to replication compartments in the absence of PAA. A recombinant HSV-1 strain expressing the ICP8-GFP virus replicated in Vero cells, but the yield was increased by 150-fold in an ICP8-complementing cell line. Using the ICP8-GFP protein as a marker for replication compartments, we show here that these structures start as punctate structures early in infection and grow into large, globular structures that eventually fill the nucleus. Large replication compartments were formed by small structures that either moved through the nucleus to merge with adjacent compartments or remained relatively stationary within the nucleus and grew by accretion and fused with neighboring structures

  16. Multi-compartment Aerosol Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Santarpia, Joshua; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Omana, Michael Alexis; Rivera, Danielle; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony

    2017-06-01

    A simple aerosol transport model was developed for a multi-compartmented cleanroom. Each compartment was treated as a well-mixed volume with ventilating supply and return air. Gravitational settling, intercompartment transport, and leakage of exterior air into the system were included in the model. A set of first order, coupled, ordinary differential equations was derived from the conservation equations of aerosol mass and air mass. The system of ODEs was then solved in MATLAB using pre-existing numerical methods. The model was verified against cases of (1) constant inlet-duct concentration, and (2) exponentially decaying inlet-duct concentration. Numerical methods resulted in normalized error of less than 10 -9 when model solutions were compared to analytical solutions. The model was validated against experimental measurements from a single field test and showed good agreement in the shape and magnitude of the aerosol concentration profile with time.

  17. A modern definition of mediastinal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brett W; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Bhora, Faiz Y; Rosado de Christenson, Melissa L; Nakajima, Jun; Boiselle, Phillip M; Detterbeck, Frank C; Marom, Edith M

    2014-09-01

    Division of the mediastinum into compartments is used to help narrow the differential diagnosis of newly detected mediastinal masses, to assist in planning biopsy and surgical procedures, and to facilitate communication among clinicians of multiple disciplines. Several traditional mediastinal division schemes exist based upon arbitrary landmarks on the lateral chest radiograph. We describe a modern, computed tomography-based mediastinal division scheme, which has been accepted by the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group as a new standard. This clinical classification defines a prevascular (anterior), a visceral (middle), and a paravertebral (posterior) compartment, with anatomic boundaries defined clearly by computed tomography. It is our intention that this definition be used in the reporting of clinical cases and the design of prospective clinical trials.

  18. Hermetic compartments leak-tightness enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murani, J.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the enhancement of the nuclear safety of the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 NPP actions for the increase of the leak tightness are performed. The reconstruction has been done in the following directions: hermetic compartments leak tightness enhancement; air lock installation; installation of air lock in SP 4 vent system; integrated leakage rate test to hermetic compartments with leak detection. After 'major' leaks on the hermetic boundary components had been eliminated, since 1994 works on a higher qualitative level began. The essence of the works consists in the detection and identification of leaks in the structural component of the hermetic boundary during the planned refueling outages. The results of the Small Reconstruction and gradual enhancement of leak tightness are presented

  19. Cross-species genomics matches driver mutations and cell compartments to model ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert A.; Wright, Karen D.; Poppleton, Helen; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M.; Finkelstein, David; Pounds, Stanley B.; Rand, Vikki; Leary, Sarah E.S.; White, Elsie; Eden, Christopher; Hogg, Twala; Northcott, Paul; Mack, Stephen; Neale, Geoffrey; Wang, Yong-Dong; Coyle, Beth; Atkinson, Jennifer; DeWire, Mariko; Kranenburg, Tanya A.; Gillespie, Yancey; Allen, Jeffrey C.; Merchant, Thomas; Boop, Fredrick A.; Sanford, Robert. A.; Gajjar, Amar; Ellison, David W.; Taylor, Michael D.; Grundy, Richard G.; Gilbertson, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the biology that underlies histologically similar but molecularly distinct subgroups of cancer has proven difficult since their defining genetic alterations are often numerous, and the cellular origins of most cancers remain unknown1–3. We sought to decipher this heterogeneity by integrating matched genetic alterations and candidate cells of origin to generate accurate disease models. First, we identified subgroups of human ependymoma, a form of neural tumor that arises throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Subgroup specific alterations included amplifications and homozygous deletions of genes not yet implicated in ependymoma. To select cellular compartments most likely to give rise to subgroups of ependymoma, we matched the transcriptomes of human tumors to those of mouse neural stem cells (NSCs), isolated from different regions of the CNS at different developmental stages, with an intact or deleted Ink4a/Arf locus. The transcriptome of human cerebral ependymomas with amplified EPHB2 and deleted INK4A/ARF matched only that of embryonic cerebral Ink4a/Arf−/− NSCs. Remarkably, activation of Ephb2 signaling in these, but not other NSCs, generated the first mouse model of ependymoma, which is highly penetrant and accurately models the histology and transcriptome of one subgroup of human cerebral tumor. Further comparative analysis of matched mouse and human tumors revealed selective deregulation in the expression and copy number of genes that control synaptogenesis, pinpointing disruption of this pathway as a critical event in the production of this ependymoma subgroup. Our data demonstrate the power of cross-species genomics to meticulously match subgroup specific driver mutations with cellular compartments to model and interrogate cancer subgroups. PMID:20639864

  20. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lemeng; Jongedijk, Esmer; Bouwmeester, Harro; Van Der Krol, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated local GDP availability for each compartment but resulted in different product levels. A GDP synthase from Picea abies (PaGDPS1) was shown to boost GDP production. PaGDPS1 was also targeted to plastids, cytosol or mitochondria and PaGDPS1 and GES were coexpressed in all possible combinations. Geraniol and geraniol-derived products were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. GES product levels were highest for plastid-targeted GES, followed by mitochondrial- and then cytosolic-targeted GES. For each compartment local boosting of GDP biosynthesis increased GES product levels. GDP exchange between compartments is not equal: while no GDP is exchanged from the cytosol to the plastids, 100% of GDP in mitochondria can be exchanged to plastids, while only 7% of GDP from plastids is available for mitochondria. This suggests a direct exchange mechanism for GDP between plastids and mitochondria. Cytosolic PaGDPS1 competes with plastidial GES activity, suggesting an effective drain of isopentenyl diphosphate from the plastids to the cytosol. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids­ amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA;232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root­ soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with incre

  2. Salus: Kernel Support for Secure Process Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Strackx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer devices are increasingly being used to perform security and privacy critical tasks. The software used to perform these tasks is often vulnerable to attacks, due to bugs in the application itself or in included software libraries. Recent work proposes the isolation of security-sensitive parts of applications into protected modules, each of which can be accessed only through a predefined public interface. But most parts of an application can be considered security-sensitive at some level, and an attacker who is able to gain inapplication level access may be able to abuse services from protected modules. We propose Salus, a Linux kernel modification that provides a novel approach for partitioning processes into isolated compartments sharing the same address space. Salus significantly reduces the impact of insecure interfaces and vulnerable compartments by enabling compartments (1 to restrict the system calls they are allowed to perform, (2 to authenticate their callers and callees and (3 to enforce that they can only be accessed via unforgeable references. We describe the design of Salus, report on a prototype implementation and evaluate it in terms of security and performance. We show that Salus provides a significant security improvement with a low performance overhead, without relying on any non-standard hardware support.

  3. Anti-α4 antibody treatment blocks virus traffic to the brain and gut early, and stabilizes CNS injury late in infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Campbell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Four SIV-infected monkeys with high plasma virus and CNS injury were treated with an anti-α4 blocking antibody (natalizumab once a week for three weeks beginning on 28 days post-infection (late. Infection in the brain and gut were quantified, and neuronal injury in the CNS was assessed by MR spectroscopy, and compared to controls with AIDS and SIV encephalitis. Treatment resulted in stabilization of ongoing neuronal injury (NAA/Cr by 1H MRS, and decreased numbers of monocytes/macrophages and productive infection (SIV p28+, RNA+ in brain and gut. Antibody treatment of six SIV infected monkeys at the time of infection (early for 3 weeks blocked monocyte/macrophage traffic and infection in the CNS, and significantly decreased leukocyte traffic and infection in the gut. SIV - RNA and p28 was absent in the CNS and the gut. SIV DNA was undetectable in brains of five of six early treated macaques, but proviral DNA in guts of treated and control animals was equivalent. Early treated animals had low-to-no plasma LPS and sCD163. These results support the notion that monocyte/macrophage traffic late in infection drives neuronal injury and maintains CNS viral reservoirs and lesions. Leukocyte traffic early in infection seeds the CNS with virus and contributes to productive infection in the gut. Leukocyte traffic early contributes to gut pathology, bacterial translocation, and activation of innate immunity.

  4. Anti-α4 antibody treatment blocks virus traffic to the brain and gut early, and stabilizes CNS injury late in infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer H; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Autissier, Patrick; Nolan, David J; Tse, Samantha; Miller, Andrew D; González, R Gilberto; Salemi, Marco; Burdo, Tricia H; Williams, Kenneth C

    2014-12-01

    Four SIV-infected monkeys with high plasma virus and CNS injury were treated with an anti-α4 blocking antibody (natalizumab) once a week for three weeks beginning on 28 days post-infection (late). Infection in the brain and gut were quantified, and neuronal injury in the CNS was assessed by MR spectroscopy, and compared to controls with AIDS and SIV encephalitis. Treatment resulted in stabilization of ongoing neuronal injury (NAA/Cr by 1H MRS), and decreased numbers of monocytes/macrophages and productive infection (SIV p28+, RNA+) in brain and gut. Antibody treatment of six SIV infected monkeys at the time of infection (early) for 3 weeks blocked monocyte/macrophage traffic and infection in the CNS, and significantly decreased leukocyte traffic and infection in the gut. SIV - RNA and p28 was absent in the CNS and the gut. SIV DNA was undetectable in brains of five of six early treated macaques, but proviral DNA in guts of treated and control animals was equivalent. Early treated animals had low-to-no plasma LPS and sCD163. These results support the notion that monocyte/macrophage traffic late in infection drives neuronal injury and maintains CNS viral reservoirs and lesions. Leukocyte traffic early in infection seeds the CNS with virus and contributes to productive infection in the gut. Leukocyte traffic early contributes to gut pathology, bacterial translocation, and activation of innate immunity.

  5. Evaluation of acute compartment syndrome of extremities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    compartment syndrome in children; Acute compartment syndrome and fasciotomy. INTRODUCTIONᴪ .... these patients were manipulated under general anaesthesia ... of these children. The clinical diagnosis of increased ICP is not easy.

  6. Compartment syndrome can also be seen in the forearm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Broholm, Rikke; Bülow, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome is a challenge for the clinician and symptomatic similar to neuropathies, tenosynovitis, stress fractures and referred pain from lumbar cervicalis. Thus, chronic compartment syndrome of the upper extremities is probably an underdiagnosed condition. In patients...

  7. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Photographic Film PH1.25 (available from the American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N... stowage compartments and compartments for stowing small items such as magazines and maps) must be self...

  8. Actuarial risk of isolated CNS involvement in Ewing's sarcoma following prophylactic cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigg, M.E.; Makuch, R.; Glaubiger, D.

    1985-01-01

    Records of 154 patients with Ewing's sarcoma treated at the National Cancer Institute were reviewed to assess the incidence and risk of developing isolated central nervous system (CNS) Ewing's sarcoma. Sixty-two of the 154 patients had received CNS irradiation and intrathecal (i.t.) methotrexate as part of their initial therapy to prevent the occurrence of isolated CNS Ewing's sarcoma. The risk of developing isolate CNS Ewing's sarcoma was greatest within the first two years after diagnosis and was approximately 10%. The overall risk of CNS recurrence in the group of patients receiving DNS treatment was similar to the group receiving no therapy directed to the CNS. The occurrence of isolated CNS involvement was not prevented by the use of CNS irradiation and i.t. methotrexate. Because of a lack of efficacy to the CNS irradiation regimen, current treatment regimens do not include therapy directed to CNS

  9. Bovine-associated CNS species resist phagocytosis differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) cause usually subclinical or mild clinical bovine mastitis, which often remains persistent. Symptoms are usually mild, mostly only comprising slight changes in the appearance of milk and possibly slight swelling. However, clinical mastitis with severe signs has also been reported. The reasons for the differences in clinical expression are largely unknown. Macrophages play an important role in the innate immunity of the udder. This study examined phagocytosis and killing by mouse macrophage cells of three CNS species: Staphylococcus chromogenes (15 isolates), Staphylococcus agnetis (6 isolates) and Staphylococcus simulans (15 isolates). Staphylococcus aureus (7 isolates) was also included as a control. Results All the studied CNS species were phagocytosed by macrophages, but S. simulans resisted phagocytosis more effectively than the other CNS species. Only S. chromogenes was substantially killed by macrophages. Significant variations between isolates were seen in both phagocytosis and killing by macrophages and were more common in the killing assays. Significant differences between single CNS species and S. aureus were observed in both assays. Conclusion This study demonstrated that differences in the phagocytosis and killing of mastitis-causing staphylococci by macrophages exist at both the species and isolate level. PMID:24207012

  10. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks and...

  11. Pericytes Stimulate Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Differentiation during CNS Remyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alerie Guzman De La Fuente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the neurovascular niche in CNS myelin regeneration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that, upon demyelination, CNS-resident pericytes (PCs proliferate, and parenchymal non-vessel-associated PC-like cells (PLCs rapidly develop. During remyelination, mature oligodendrocytes were found in close proximity to PCs. In Pdgfbret/ret mice, which have reduced PC numbers, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC differentiation was delayed, although remyelination proceeded to completion. PC-conditioned medium accelerated and enhanced OPC differentiation in vitro and increased the rate of remyelination in an ex vivo cerebellar slice model of demyelination. We identified Lama2 as a PC-derived factor that promotes OPC differentiation. Thus, the functional role of PCs is not restricted to vascular homeostasis but includes the modulation of adult CNS progenitor cells involved in regeneration.

  12. Can injured adult CNS axons regenerate by recapitulating development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Brett J; Bradke, Frank

    2017-10-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neurons typically fail to regenerate their axons after injury. During development, by contrast, neurons extend axons effectively. A variety of intracellular mechanisms mediate this difference, including changes in gene expression, the ability to form a growth cone, differences in mitochondrial function/axonal transport and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. In turn, these intracellular processes are linked to extracellular differences between the developing and adult CNS. During development, the extracellular environment directs axon growth and circuit formation. In adulthood, by contrast, extracellular factors, such as myelin and the extracellular matrix, restrict axon growth. Here, we discuss whether the reactivation of developmental processes can elicit axon regeneration in the injured CNS. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Enteral Feeding in Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V Grigoryev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate the choice of a gastrointestinal tract (GIT function support regimen as a mode for correction of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS. Subjects and methods. Forty-three patients with different causes of inadequate GIT function of various origin and ACS (disseminated peritonitis (45%, pancreatitis (24%, and severe concomitant injury (31% were examined. Group 1 (control received complete parenteral nutritional feeding (n=23; APACHE II scores, 21±4; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 33.5%. In Group II (study, complete parenteral feeding in the first 24 hours after stabilization was supplemented with GIT function support with Pepsisorb (Nutricia in doses of 500, 1000, and 1500 ml on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively (n=20; APACHE II scores, 20±6; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 37.1%. During early enteral nutritional support, the SOFA score was significantly less than that in Group 1 on days 2—3; the oxygenation index significantly increased on day 3; the value of intra-abdominal hypertension decreased to the control values. The positive effect of the GIT function support regimen on regression of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS was confirmed by the lowered levels of biological markers (von Willebrand factor (WF and endothelin-1 as markers of endothelial damage of MODS. Correlation analysis showed a direct correlation between the markers of endothelial damage and the SOFA scores (r=0.34; p=0.05 for WF and r=0.49;p=0.03 for endothelin. Conclusion. The GIT function support regimen via early enteral alimentation with Peptisorb, which was initiated in the first 24 hours after admission, is able to level off the manifestations of the early stages of the abdominal compartment syndrome, with the acceptable values of oxygen balance and water-electrolyte and osmotic homeostasis being achieved. Key words: abdominal compartment syndrome, nutritional support, biological markers, oxygenation index

  14. Multi-compartment linear noise approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challenger, Joseph D; McKane, Alan J; Pahle, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The ability to quantify the stochastic fluctuations present in biochemical and other systems is becoming increasing important. Analytical descriptions of these fluctuations are attractive, as stochastic simulations are computationally expensive. Building on previous work, a linear noise approximation is developed for biochemical models with many compartments, for example cells. The procedure is then implemented in the software package COPASI. This technique is illustrated with two simple examples and is then applied to a more realistic biochemical model. Expressions for the noise, given in the form of covariance matrices, are presented. (paper)

  15. [Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M.; Hilligsø, Jens Georg

    2008-01-01

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various...... medical and surgical conditions increase the intraabdominal volume. When the content exceeds the compliance of the abdominal wall, the IAP rises. Increased IAP affects the functioning of the brain, lungs, circulation, kidneys, and bowel. The treatment of ACS is a reduction of IAP Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2/11...

  16. Chronic intermittent hypoxia exerts CNS region-specific effects on rat microglial inflammatory and TLR4 gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M C Smith

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep is a hallmark of sleep apnea, causing significant neuronal apoptosis, and cognitive and behavioral deficits in CNS regions underlying memory processing and executive functions. IH-induced neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to cognitive deficits after IH. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that IH would differentially induce inflammatory factor gene expression in microglia in a CNS region-dependent manner, and that the effects of IH would differ temporally. To test this hypothesis, adult rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (2 min intervals of 10.5% O2 for 8 hours/day during their respective sleep cycles for 1, 3 or 14 days. Cortex, medulla and spinal cord tissues were dissected, microglia were immunomagnetically isolated and mRNA levels of the inflammatory genes iNOS, COX-2, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 and the innate immune receptor TLR4 were compared to levels in normoxia. Inflammatory gene expression was also assessed in tissue homogenates (containing all CNS cells. We found that microglia from different CNS regions responded to IH differently. Cortical microglia had longer lasting inflammatory gene expression whereas spinal microglial gene expression was rapid and transient. We also observed that inflammatory gene expression in microglia frequently differed from that in tissue homogenates from the same region, indicating that cells other than microglia also contribute to IH-induced neuroinflammation. Lastly, microglial TLR4 mRNA levels were strongly upregulated by IH in a region- and time-dependent manner, and the increase in TLR4 expression appeared to coincide with timing of peak inflammatory gene expression, suggesting that TLR4 may play a role in IH-induced neuroinflammation. Together, these data indicate that microglial-specific neuroinflammation may play distinct roles in the effects of intermittent hypoxia in different CNS regions.

  17. New Brain Tumor Entities Emerge from Molecular Classification of CNS-PNETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Dominik; Orr, Brent A; Toprak, Umut H; Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T W; Capper, David; Sill, Martin; Buchhalter, Ivo; Northcott, Paul A; Leis, Irina; Ryzhova, Marina; Koelsche, Christian; Pfaff, Elke; Allen, Sariah J; Balasubramanian, Gnanaprakash; Worst, Barbara C; Pajtler, Kristian W; Brabetz, Sebastian; Johann, Pascal D; Sahm, Felix; Reimand, Jüri; Mackay, Alan; Carvalho, Diana M; Remke, Marc; Phillips, Joanna J; Perry, Arie; Cowdrey, Cynthia; Drissi, Rachid; Fouladi, Maryam; Giangaspero, Felice; Łastowska, Maria; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Pietsch, Torsten; Hagel, Christian; Gojo, Johannes; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Slavc, Irene; Haberler, Christine; Jouvet, Anne; Holm, Stefan; Hofer, Silvia; Prinz, Marco; Keohane, Catherine; Fried, Iris; Mawrin, Christian; Scheie, David; Mobley, Bret C; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Santi, Mariarita; Buccoliero, Anna M; Dahiya, Sonika; Kramm, Christof M; von Bueren, André O; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Herold-Mende, Christel; Frühwald, Michael C; Milde, Till; Hasselblatt, Martin; Wesseling, Pieter; Rößler, Jochen; Schüller, Ulrich; Ebinger, Martin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Frank, Stephan; Grobholz, Rainer; Vajtai, Istvan; Hans, Volkmar; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Zitterbart, Karel; Collins, V Peter; Aronica, Eleonora; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stephanie; Dufour, Christelle; Grill, Jacques; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Wolter, Marietta; Schuhmann, Martin U; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; van Meter, Timothy; Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Snuderl, Matija; Forrester, Lynn Ann; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; van Sluis, Peter; Wolf, Stephan; Mikkelsen, Tom; Gajjar, Amar; Aldape, Kenneth; Moore, Andrew S; Taylor, Michael D; Jones, Chris; Jabado, Nada; Karajannis, Matthias A; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Lichter, Peter; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M; Ellison, David W; Korshunov, Andrey; Kool, Marcel

    2016-02-25

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring predominantly in young children but also affecting adolescents and adults. Herein, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of institutionally diagnosed CNS-PNETs display molecular profiles indistinguishable from those of various other well-defined CNS tumor entities, facilitating diagnosis and appropriate therapy for patients with these tumors. From the remaining fraction of CNS-PNETs, we identify four new CNS tumor entities, each associated with a recurrent genetic alteration and distinct histopathological and clinical features. These new molecular entities, designated "CNS neuroblastoma with FOXR2 activation (CNS NB-FOXR2)," "CNS Ewing sarcoma family tumor with CIC alteration (CNS EFT-CIC)," "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with MN1 alteration (CNS HGNET-MN1)," and "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR alteration (CNS HGNET-BCOR)," will enable meaningful clinical trials and the development of therapeutic strategies for patients affected by poorly differentiated CNS tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dosimetric Comparison and Potential for Improved Clinical Outcomes of Paediatric CNS Patients Treated with Protons or IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armoogum, Kris S., E-mail: kris.armoogum@nhs.net [Department of Radiotherapy Physics, Royal Derby Hospital, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Uttoxeter Road, Derby DE22 3NE (United Kingdom); Thorp, Nicola [The Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHS Foundation Trust, Clatterbridge Road, Bebington, Wirral CH63 4JY (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-28

    Background: We compare clinical outcomes of paediatric patients with CNS tumours treated with protons or IMRT. CNS tumours form the second most common group of cancers in children. Radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of many of these patients but also contributes to late side effects in long term survivors. Radiation dose inevitably deposited in healthy tissues outside the clinical target has been linked to detrimental late effects such as neurocognitive, behavioural and vascular effects in addition to endocrine abnormalities and second tumours. Methods: A literature search was performed using keywords: protons, IMRT, CNS and paediatric. Of 189 papers retrieved, 10 were deemed relevant based on title and abstract screening. All papers directly compared outcomes from protons with photons, five papers included medulloblastoma, four papers each included craniopharyngioma and low grade gliomas and three papers included ependymoma. Results: This review found that while proton beam therapy offered similar clinical target coverage, there was a demonstrable reduction in integral dose to normal structures. Conclusions: This in turn suggests the potential for superior long term outcomes for paediatric patients with CNS tumours both in terms of radiogenic second cancers and out-of-field adverse effects.

  19. Dosimetric Comparison and Potential for Improved Clinical Outcomes of Paediatric CNS Patients Treated with Protons or IMRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris S. Armoogum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compare clinical outcomes of paediatric patients with CNS tumours treated with protons or IMRT. CNS tumours form the second most common group of cancers in children. Radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of many of these patients but also contributes to late side effects in long term survivors. Radiation dose inevitably deposited in healthy tissues outside the clinical target has been linked to detrimental late effects such as neurocognitive, behavioural and vascular effects in addition to endocrine abnormalities and second tumours. Methods: A literature search was performed using keywords: protons, IMRT, CNS and paediatric. Of 189 papers retrieved, 10 were deemed relevant based on title and abstract screening. All papers directly compared outcomes from protons with photons, five papers included medulloblastoma, four papers each included craniopharyngioma and low grade gliomas and three papers included ependymoma. Results: This review found that while proton beam therapy offered similar clinical target coverage, there was a demonstrable reduction in integral dose to normal structures. Conclusions: This in turn suggests the potential for superior long term outcomes for paediatric patients with CNS tumours both in terms of radiogenic second cancers and out-of-field adverse effects.

  20. Phantom limb pain: a case of maladaptive CNS plasticity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Herta; Nikolajsen, Lone; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2006-01-01

    might be a phenomenon of the CNS that is related to plastic changes at several levels of the neuraxis and especially the cortex. Here, we discuss the evidence for putative pathophysiological mechanisms with an emphasis on central, and in particular cortical, changes. We cite both animal and human...

  1. Neurolymphomatosis: An International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grisariu (Sigal); B. Avni (Batia); T.T. Batchelor (Tracy); M.J. van den Bent (Martin); F. Bokstein (Felix); D. Schiff (David); O. Kuittinen (Outi); M.C. Chamberlain (Marc C.); P. Roth (Patrick); A. Nemets (Anatoly); E. Shalom (Edna); D. Ben-Yehuda (Dina); T. Siegal (Tali)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractNeurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare clinical entity. The International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group retrospectively analyzed 50 patients assembled from 12 centers in 5 countries over a 16-year period. NL was related to non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 90% and to acute leukemia in 10%.

  2. Metallothionein Expression and Roles During Neuropathology in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena

    2006-01-01

    , their receptors and neurotrophins (TGFb, TGFb-Receptor, bFGF, bFGF-Receptor, VEGF, NT-3, NT-4/5, NGF); angiogenesis; and growth cone formation. Hence, MT-I+II enhance CNS tissue repair as seen clearly after the cryogenic injury, after which MT-I+II promote substitution of the necrotic lesion cavity with a glial...

  3. Glypicans and FGFs in CNS Development and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important events during central nervous system (CNS) development is the communication between cells. Cell-to-cell signaling implicates the interaction between a signaling molecules (or ligands) and their receptors. Ligand-receptor interaction is a tightly regulated process and is

  4. Problems of prophylactic CNS radiotherapy in acute children's leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek, V.; Pribylova, O.; Abrahamova, J.; Hynieova, H.; Hrodek, O.

    1980-01-01

    The prophylactic treatment of the CNS was conducted by cobalt teletherapy of the cranium and by intrathecal application of MTX after the induction of primary remission in 70 children with acute leukemia throughout 5 years up to the end of 1978. The method of the combined radio- and chemoprophylaxis of the CNS was being changed during the years, especially as far as the radiation dose for the cranium was concerned. A detailed analysis made in a group of 59 children with the minimum interval of 18 months from the beginning of the treatment showed the best results after the application of a dose of 24 Gy/3 weeks. Following this procedure the relapse of leukemia in the CNS occurred in 9% only, whereas on the application of doses of 20 Gy and lower it occurred in 35 to 40%. On the whole 24 out of 59 children, i.e. 41%, are surviving, 35 children, i.e. 59%, died. Mostly complete, but only temporary, epilation was an invariable consequence of the irradiation of the cranium. The somnolence syndrome was only sporadically observed. It cannot be excluded, however, that some of its forms in patients discharged from hospital escaped attention. No case was recorded of serious impairment of the CNS of the leukoencephalopathic type. Up to now the psychomotor, intellectual and emotional development of the surviving children has been normal. (author)

  5. Sleep disorders in children after treatment for a CNS tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Lisa M.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; van Santen, Hanneke M.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term survival of children with a central nervous system (CNS) tumour is improving. However, they experience late effects, including altered habits and patterns of sleep. We evaluated the presence and type of sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in these children, and its associations with

  6. Applications of Genomic Sequencing in Pediatric CNS Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavle, Abhishek A; Lin, Frank Y; Parsons, D Williams

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in genome-scale sequencing methods have resulted in a significant increase in our understanding of the biology of human cancers. When applied to pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors, these remarkable technological breakthroughs have facilitated the molecular characterization of multiple tumor types, provided new insights into the genetic basis of these cancers, and prompted innovative strategies that are changing the management paradigm in pediatric neuro-oncology. Genomic tests have begun to affect medical decision making in a number of ways, from delineating histopathologically similar tumor types into distinct molecular subgroups that correlate with clinical characteristics, to guiding the addition of novel therapeutic agents for patients with high-risk or poor-prognosis tumors, or alternatively, reducing treatment intensity for those with a favorable prognosis. Genomic sequencing has also had a significant impact on translational research strategies in pediatric CNS tumors, resulting in wide-ranging applications that have the potential to direct the rational preclinical screening of novel therapeutic agents, shed light on tumor heterogeneity and evolution, and highlight differences (or similarities) between pediatric and adult CNS tumors. Finally, in addition to allowing the identification of somatic (tumor-specific) mutations, the analysis of patient-matched constitutional (germline) DNA has facilitated the detection of pathogenic germline alterations in cancer genes in patients with CNS tumors, with critical implications for genetic counseling and tumor surveillance strategies for children with familial predisposition syndromes. As our understanding of the molecular landscape of pediatric CNS tumors continues to advance, innovative applications of genomic sequencing hold significant promise for further improving the care of children with these cancers.

  7. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE.Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number.Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  8. Role of resident CNS cell populations in HTLV-1-associated neuroinflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoutre, Veronique; Jain, Pooja; Quann, Kevin; Wigdahl, Brian; Khan, Zafar K

    2009-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus discovered, is the etiologic agent for a number of disorders; the two most common pathologies include adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and a progressive demyelinating neuroinflammatory disease, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The neurologic dysfunction associated with HAM/TSP is a result of viral intrusion into the central nervous system (CNS) and the generation of a hyperstimulated host response within the peripheral and central nervous system that includes expanded populations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This robust, yet detrimental immune response likely contributes to the death of myelin producing oligodendrocytes and degeneration of neuronal axons. The mechanisms of neurological degeneration in HAM/TSP have yet to be fully delineated in vivo and may involve the immunogenic properties of the HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax. This comprehensive review characterizes the available knowledge to date concerning the effects of HTLV-1 on CNS resident cell populations with emphasis on both viral and host factors contributing to the genesis of HAM/TSP.

  9. Modeling malware propagation using a carrier compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Guillén, J. D.; Martín del Rey, A.

    2018-03-01

    The great majority of mathematical models proposed to simulate malware spreading are based on systems of ordinary differential equations. These are compartmental models where the devices are classified according to some types: susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, etc. As far as we know, there is not any model considering the special class of carrier devices. This type is constituted by the devices whose operative systems is not targeted by the malware (for example, iOS devices for Android malware). In this work a novel mathematical model considering this new compartment is considered. Its qualitative study is presented and a detailed analysis of the efficient control measures is shown by studying the basic reproductive number.

  10. The upper hand on compartment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dolan, Roisin T

    2012-11-01

    Metacarpal fractures are common injuries, accounting for approximately 30% to 40% of all hand fractures and with a lifetime incidence of 2.5%. Traditionally regarded as an innocuous injury, metacarpal fractures tend to be associated with successful outcomes after closed reduction and immobilization. Hand compartment syndrome (HCS) is a rare clinical entity with potential devastating consequences in terms of loss of function and quality-of-life outcomes. We discuss the case of a 44-year-old woman presenting with multiple closed metacarpal fractures as a result of low-energy trauma, complicated by acute HCS. We review the presentation, clinical assessment, and optimal surgical management of acute HCS with reference to international literature.

  11. Multi-compartment iodine calculations with FIPLOC/IMPAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewig, F.; Allelein, H.J.; Schwarz, S.; Weber, G.

    1996-01-01

    The multi-compartment containment code FIPLOC for the simulation of severe accidents in LWR plants was extended by the integration of the iodine model IMPAIR-3. The iodine model which originally was only drafted for chains of compartments was changed for arbitrary compartment configurations and tightly coupled to the thermal hydraulic part. A main progress with the coupled version FIPLOC-3.0 is the sophisticated modelling of the aerosol iodine behaviour. In a PWR accident the mass of iodine is mainly released in form of CsI aerosol from the primary circuit. In IMPAIR-3 the aerosol behaviour of the species CsI, AgI and IO 3 - is modelled in a very simplified way causing large uncertainties in the calculated distributions. The behaviour of these three aerosol species is treated by the aerosol model MAEROS/MGA. Agglomeration, particle growth by condensation and all deposition processes are calculated. The solubility effect for the hygroscopic species CsI and IO 3 - are comprehended. Furthermore the impact of the iodine decay heat on the thermal hydraulic behaviour is considered. In order to test the code development a preliminary FIPLOC-3.0 calculation was done simulating a German PWR containment for the core melt scenario ND* according to the German risk study phase B. IN the calculation a contact of the core melt with the sump water was assumed and the containment vent line was opened after 70 hours. The result show that the different iodine species are distributed inhomogeneously within the containment. The CsI-aerosol concentrations differ by two orders of magnitude and the I 2 -concentration even by three orders of magnitude. Most of the iodine is assumed to be released as CsI aerosol out of the primary circuit. Since it fastly deposits its contribution to the release into the environment is minor. CsI is however dissolved in the sump, where mainly the gaseous I 2 is created which can react in the containment atmosphere to IO 3 - . (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 12

  12. An experimental study on crib fires in a closed compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhurandher Bhisham Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on burning behavior of fire in closed compartments is presented. Fire experiments were performed in a closed compartment of interior dimensions 4 × 4 × 4 m (length × width × height with ply board cribs as fire source. The parameters including the gas temperature, mass loss rate, heat flux, flame temperature, and compartment pressure were measured during the experiments. Experimental results indicated that the providing sudden ventilation to the closed compartment had great influence on the behavior of fire. The mass loss rate of the burning crib increased by 150% due to sudden ventilation which results in the increase in heat release rate by 198 kW. From the perspective of total heat flux, compartment pressure, and gas temperatures closed compartment with sudden ventilation were more hazardous.

  13. Evaluation of the neuromuscular compartments in the peroneus longus muscle through electrical stimulation and accelerometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Mendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscles are innervated exclusively by a nerve branch and possess definite actions. However, mammalian skeletal muscles, such as the trapezius, the medial gastrocnemius, and the peroneus longus, are compartmentalized. In the peroneus longus muscle, multiple motor points, which innervate individual neuromuscular compartments (NMC, the superior (S-NMC, anteroinferior (AI-NMC, and posteroinferior (PI-NMC, have been described. The contribution of each neuromuscular compartment to the final action of the muscle is fundamental for the rehabilitation of patients afflicted by neurological and muscle dysfunctions. Interventions are often based on electrical principles that take advantage of the physiological characteristics of muscles and nerves to generate therapeutic effects. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of stimulating the different neuromuscular compartments (NMCs of the peroneus longus muscle on the motor threshold (MT and acceleration of the foot. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study comprising 37 subjects. The three NMCs of the peroneus longus muscle were stimulated, and the acceleration of the foot and the motor threshold of each NMC were evaluated. A repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections of two intra-subjects factors was performed. RESULTS: The stimulation of the different NMCs did not result in any differences in MT (F=2.635, P=0.079. There were significant differences between the axes of acceleration caused by the stimulation of the different NMCs (F=56,233; P=0.000. The stimulation of the posteroinferior compartment resulted in the greatest acceleration in the X-axis (mean 0.614; standard deviation 0.253. CONCLUSIONS: The posteroinferior compartment primarily contributes to the eversion movement of the foot. NMCs have specific functional roles that contribute to the actions of the muscles to which they belong.

  14. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremyslov, Valera V; Cole, Rex A; Fowler, John E; Dolja, Valerian V

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  15. The shifting landscape of metastatic breast cancer to the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Matthew R; Fukui, Olivia; Chew, Brandon; Bhatia, Sanjay; Karlovits, Steven

    2013-07-01

    The improved survival following the diagnosis of breast cancer has potentially altered the characteristics and course of patients presenting with CNS involvement. We therefore sought to define our current cohort of breast cancer patients with metastatic disease to the CNS in regard to modern biomarkers and clinical outcome. Review of clinical and radiographic records of women presenting to a tertiary medical center with the new diagnosis of CNS metastatic disease from breast cancer. This was a retrospective review from patients identities obtained from two prospective databases. There were 88 women analyzed who were treated over the period of January 2003 to February 2010, average age 56.9 years. At the time of initial presentation of CNS disease, 68 % of patients had multiple brain metastases, 17 % had a solitary metastasis, and 15 % had only leptomeningeal disease (LMD). The median survival for all patients from the time of diagnosis of breast disease was 50.0 months, and 9.7 months from diagnosis of CNS involvement. The only factor related to overall survival was estrogen receptor-positive pathology (57.6 v. 38.2 months, p = .02 log-rank); those related to survival post CNS diagnosis were presentation with LMD (p = .004, HR = 3.1, Cox regression) and triple-negative hormonal/HER2 status (p = .02, HR = 2.3, Cox regression). Patients with either had a median survival of 3.1 months (no patients in common). Of the 75 patients who initially presented with metastatic brain lesions, 20 (26 %) subsequently developed LMD in the course of their disease (median 10.4 months), following which survival was grim (1.8 months median). Symptoms of LMD were most commonly lower extremity weakness (14/33), followed by cranial nerve deficits (11/33). The recently described Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) tumor index stratified median survival at 2.5, 5.9, 13.1, and 21.7 months, respectively, for indices of 1-4 (p = .004, log-rank), which

  16. A human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Frank C; Cooper, Dylan; Huffman, Gretchen; Bartkus, Edward; Wilbur, Lee

    2013-10-01

    Fresh human cadavers provide an effective model for procedural training. Currently, there are no realistic models to teach fascial compartment pressure measurement. We created a human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model and studied its feasibility with a pre-post design. Three faculty members, following instructions from a common procedure textbook, used a standard handheld intra-compartment pressure monitor (Stryker(®), Kalamazoo, MI) to measure baseline pressures ("unembalmed") in the anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior compartments of the lower legs of a fresh human cadaver. The right femoral artery was then identified by superficial dissection, cannulated distally towards the lower leg, and connected to a standard embalming machine. After a 5-min infusion, the same three faculty members re-measured pressures ("embalmed") of the same compartments on the cannulated right leg. Unembalmed and embalmed readings for each compartment, and baseline readings for each leg, were compared using a two-sided paired t-test. The mean baseline compartment pressures did not differ between the right and left legs. Using the embalming machine, compartment pressure readings increased significantly over baseline for three of four fascial compartments; all in mm Hg (±SD): anterior from 40 (±9) to 143 (±44) (p = 0.08); lateral from 22 (±2.5) to 160 (±4.3) (p cadaver using a standard embalming machine. Set-up is minimal and the model can be incorporated into teaching curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Disruption of motor behavior and injury to the CNS induced by 3-thienylboronic acid in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfán-García, E.D.; Pérez-Rodríguez, M. [Academias de Fisiología Humana, Bioquímica y Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón s/n, 11340 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Espinosa-García, C. [Departamento de Biología de la Reproducción, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana (UAM), 09310 Ciudad de México (Mexico); Castillo-Mendieta, N.T.; Maldonado-Castro, M.; Querejeta, E.; Trujillo-Ferrara, J.G. [Academias de Fisiología Humana, Bioquímica y Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón s/n, 11340 Ciudad de México (Mexico); and others

    2016-09-15

    The scarcity of studies on boron containing compounds (BCC) in the medicinal field is gradually being remedied. Efforts have been made to explore the effects of BCCs due to the properties that boron confers to molecules. Research has shown that the safety of some BCCs is similar to that found for boron-free compounds (judging from the acute toxicological evaluation). However, it has been observed that the administration of 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induced motor disruption in CD1 mice. In the current contribution we studied in deeper form the disruption of motor performance produced by the intraperitoneal administration of 3TB in mice from two strains (CD1 and C57BL6). Disruption of motor activity was dependent not only on the dose of 3TB administered, but also on the DMSO concentration in the vehicle. The ability of 3TB to enter the Central Nervous System (CNS) was evidenced by Raman spectroscopy as well as morphological effects on the CNS, such as loss of neurons yielding biased injury to the substantia nigra and striatum at doses ≥ 200 mg/kg, and involving granular cell damage at doses of 400 mg/kg but less injury in the motor cortex. Our work acquaints about the use of this compound in drug design, but the interesting profile as neurotoxic agent invite us to study it regarding the damage on the motor system. - Highlights: • Intraperitoneal 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induces tremor in CD1 or C57BL6 mice. • Injury on CNS as well as motor disruption is dose-dependent. • Damage is greater in basal ganglia than in cerebellum or motor cortex. • The DMSO as vehicle plays a key role in the induced effect. • Motor disruption seems to involve basal ganglia and cerebellum damage.

  18. Disruption of motor behavior and injury to the CNS induced by 3-thienylboronic acid in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfán-García, E.D.; Pérez-Rodríguez, M.; Espinosa-García, C.; Castillo-Mendieta, N.T.; Maldonado-Castro, M.; Querejeta, E.; Trujillo-Ferrara, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The scarcity of studies on boron containing compounds (BCC) in the medicinal field is gradually being remedied. Efforts have been made to explore the effects of BCCs due to the properties that boron confers to molecules. Research has shown that the safety of some BCCs is similar to that found for boron-free compounds (judging from the acute toxicological evaluation). However, it has been observed that the administration of 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induced motor disruption in CD1 mice. In the current contribution we studied in deeper form the disruption of motor performance produced by the intraperitoneal administration of 3TB in mice from two strains (CD1 and C57BL6). Disruption of motor activity was dependent not only on the dose of 3TB administered, but also on the DMSO concentration in the vehicle. The ability of 3TB to enter the Central Nervous System (CNS) was evidenced by Raman spectroscopy as well as morphological effects on the CNS, such as loss of neurons yielding biased injury to the substantia nigra and striatum at doses ≥ 200 mg/kg, and involving granular cell damage at doses of 400 mg/kg but less injury in the motor cortex. Our work acquaints about the use of this compound in drug design, but the interesting profile as neurotoxic agent invite us to study it regarding the damage on the motor system. - Highlights: • Intraperitoneal 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induces tremor in CD1 or C57BL6 mice. • Injury on CNS as well as motor disruption is dose-dependent. • Damage is greater in basal ganglia than in cerebellum or motor cortex. • The DMSO as vehicle plays a key role in the induced effect. • Motor disruption seems to involve basal ganglia and cerebellum damage.

  19. Prediction of human CNS pharmacokinetics using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamamoto, Yumi; Valitalo, Pyry A.; Wong, Yin Cheong; Huntjens, Dymphy R.; Proost, Johannes H.; Vermeulen, An; Krauwinkel, Walter; Beukers, Margot W.; Kokki, Hannu; Kokki, Merja; Danhof, Meindert; van Hasselt, Johan G. C.; de Lange, Elizabeth C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of drug concentration-time profiles at the central nervous system (CNS) target-site is critically important for rational development of CNS targeted drugs. Our aim was to translate a recently published comprehensive CNS physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model from rat to human,

  20. Tendencies the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Jimenez Medina, Jose

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) and that chemotherapy (QMT) is used even more, as well as the other drugs. A bibliographic review was made to update the knowledge on the current trends and perspectives of RT applied to CNS tumors. The following were found among them: a) combinations of RT and CMT; b) radiosensitizers incorporated to the radiant treatment; c) angiogenesis inhibitors associated with RT; d) the scale-up or increase of the RT doses thanks to the development of new technologies, such as 3 D conformal radiotherapy, intensity- modulated radiotherapy, surgery and others. Another field of research is that of the changes in the rhythm or fractioning of the RT: hyperfractionated, accelerated, combinations of both, etc., which will allow mainly to increase the dosage scale-up

  1. CNS-targets in control of energy and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinridders, André; Könner, A Christine; Brüning, Jens C

    2009-12-01

    The exceeding efforts in understanding the signals initiated by nutrients and hormones in the central nervous system (CNS) to regulate glucose and energy homeostasis have largely revolutionized our understanding of the neurocircuitry in control of peripheral metabolism. The ability of neurons to sense nutrients and hormones and to adopt a coordinated response to these signals is of crucial importance in controlling food intake, energy expenditure, glucose and lipid metabolism. Anatomical lesion experiments, pharmacological inhibition of signaling pathways, and, more recently, the analysis of conditional mouse mutants with modifications of hormone and nutrient signaling in defined neuronal populations have broadened our understanding of these complex neurocircuits. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of the CNS in sensing and transmitting nutritional and hormonal signals to control energy and glucose homeostasis and aims to define them as potential novel drug targets for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo; Tamaki, Norihiko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Katayama, Kazuaki; Mochizuki, Matsuto

    1989-01-01

    The fetus central nervous system was evaluated morphologically by ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT scan to analyze the prenatal diagnostic value for CNS anomalies. A total of 31 patients with 42 lesions had been diagnosed during the preceding 7 years. The patients included 24 with hydrocephalus, three with anencephaly, three with myeloschisis, three with holoprosencephaly, three with an encephalocele, two with a Dandy-Walker cyst, one with hydroencephalodysplasia, one with an intracranial neoplasm, one with sacrococcygeal teratoma, and one with sacral agenesis. Compared with US and MRI, CT proved to be more accurate in the detection of spine and cranium-bone morphology. This finding seems to be valuable in the diagnosis of spina bifida, cranium bifidum and some cases of hypertensive hydrocephalus, especially in the axial view. MRI was definitely superior in the anatomico-pathological diagnosis of cerebral dysgenesis, ventriculomegaly, intracranial tumors, and other brain parenchymal changes in view of multi-dimensional analysis. The most considerable disadvantage of MRI in the diagnosis of a fetus CNS anomaly is the poor information about spine and cranium morphology. A super-conducting MRI system is still insufficient to demonstrate the spinal cord of a fetus. US was routinely used, and the multidimensional slices were useful for screening the CNS abnormalies. Some of the fetus brain lesions, such as intracranial hematomas, had a specific echogenecity on US. However, US sometimes failed to demarcate the cerebral parenchymal or subdural morphological changes because its artifacts had hyperchoic shadows. While US, MRI, and CT were valuable diagnostic tools in the morphological evaluation of fetus CNS and its related anomalies, each modality has different diagnostic advantages and disadvantages. Improvement can be expected when these diagnostic imaging modalities are complementary, depending upon the nature of the anatomy. (J.P.N.)

  3. Primary CNS lymphoma in nonimmunocompromised patients magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, J.; Fernandez, J.M.; Galarraga, M.I.; Pozo, A.; Montes, A.; Ablanedo, P.

    1995-01-01

    Prymary lymphoma of the CNS (PLCNS) is a relatively infrequent malignant tumor that has become increasingly common over the past decade. The radiological signs, although not pathognomonic, are quite specific and suggestive of the correct diagnosis, thus facilitating therapeutic management. We present six cases of PLCNS in nonimmunocopromised patients studied by MR in our hospital over the past two and a half years. We describe theradiological findings, correlating them with those mentioned in the literature. 14 refs

  4. Melanocortin signaling in the CNS directly regulates circulating cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Tilve, Diego; Hofmann, Susanna M; Basford, Joshua; Nogueiras, Ruben; Pfluger, Paul T; Patterson, James T; Grant, Erin; Wilson-Perez, Hilary E; Granholm, Norman A; Arnold, Myrtha; Trevaskis, James L; Butler, Andrew A; Davidson, William S; Woods, Stephen C; Benoit, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol circulates in the blood in association with triglycerides and other lipids, and elevated blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol carries a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the blood is thought to be beneficial. Circulating cholesterol is the balance among dietary cholesterol absorption, hepatic synthesis and secretion, and the metabolism of lipoproteins by various tissues. We found that the CNS is also an impo...

  5. Computerized tomography data on CNS affection in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, M.M.; Bliznyuk, O.I.; Todua, F.I.; Tumanova, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the brain was employed in 40 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Clinical cerebral pathology was obvious in 30 and absent in 10 patients. By CT cerebral symptoms were divided of 4 groups. Clinical symptom complexes of CNS defects and SLE were reflected on definite CT images correlated with focal damage to the brain. CT picture of enlarged subarachnoid space, ventricles and basal cisterns can be observed in SLE patients without neurological symptoms. This indicated likely subclinical cerebral affection

  6. EMMPRIN, an upstream regulator of MMPs, in CNS biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Hahn, Jennifer Nancy; Yong, V Wee

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are engaged in pathologies associated with infections, tumors, autoimmune disorders and neurological dysfunctions. With the identification of an upstream regulator of MMPs, EMMPRIN (Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, CD147), it is relevant to address if EMMPRIN plays a role in the pathology of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. This would enable the possibility of a more upstream and effective therapeutic target. Indeed, conditions including gliomas, Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and other insults such as hypoxia/ischemia show elevated levels of EMMPRIN which correlate with MMP production. In contrast, given EMMPRIN's role in CNS homeostasis with respect to regulation of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and interactions with adhesion molecules including integrins, we need to consider that EMMPRIN may also serve important regulatory or protective functions. This review summarizes the current understanding of EMMPRIN's involvement in CNS homeostasis, its possible roles in escalating or reducing neural injury, and the mechanisms of EMMPRIN including and apart from MMP induction. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanisms of CNS invasion and damage by parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensson, Krister; Masocha, Willias; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) is a most devastating complication of a parasitic infection. Several physical and immunological barriers provide obstacles to such an invasion. In this broad overview focus is given to the physical barriers to neuroinvasion of parasites provided at the portal of entry of the parasites, i.e., the skin and epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, and between the blood and the brain parenchyma, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A description is given on how human pathogenic parasites can reach the CNS via the bloodstream either as free-living or extracellular parasites, by embolization of eggs, or within red or white blood cells when adapted to intracellular life. Molecular mechanisms are discussed by which parasites can interact with or pass across the BBB. The possible targeting of the circumventricular organs by parasites, as well as the parasites' direct entry to the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory nerve pathway, is also highlighted. Finally, examples are given which illustrate different mechanisms by which parasites can cause dysfunction or damage in the CNS related to toxic effects of parasite-derived molecules or to immune responses to the infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CNS Involvement in Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: CT and MR Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Woong

    2007-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disorder that is characterized by proliferation of benign histiocytes, and this commonly involves the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and central nervous system (CNS). We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings in a case of CNS HLH that showed multiple ring enhancing masses mimicking abscess or another mass on the CT and MR imaging. emophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disorder that is characterized by nonmalignant diffuse infiltration of multiple organs, including the central nervous system (CNS), by lymphocytes and histiocytes (1). Many radiologic reports describing diffuse white matter infiltrations, parenchymal atrophy and calcification have been published, but the characteristics of these findings remain non-specific, especially in immunocompromised patients. We present here a case of HLH in a 3-year-old boy who presented with multiple ring enhancing lesions involving the brain. In conclusion, although the CT and MRI findings of HLH with ring enhancing parenchymal lesions are nonspecific and mimic abscess, and especially in the immunosuppressed patients, increased diffusion at the center on DWI may be a finding of HLH to differentiate it from abscess, which has restricted diffusion at the center. However, the pathologic correlation with DWI according to the lesion stage certainly needs further study with a larger number of patients

  9. Adverse CNS-effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiter, C H; Deckert, J

    1996-11-01

    In 1962 propranolol, the first beta adrenoceptor antagonist (beta blocker), was brought on to the market. There is now a host of different beta blockers available, and these compounds are among the most commonly prescribed groups of drugs. The efficacy of beta blockers has been proven predominantly for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Beta blockers are also used for certain types of CNS disorders, such as anxiety disorders, essential tremor and migraine. While low toxicity means that they have a favorable risk-benefit ratio, given the high intensity of use, it is essential to have a comprehensive knowledge of adverse events. Adverse events of beta blockers that can be related to the CNS are quite often neglected, even in textbooks of clinical pharmacology or review articles, and thus often misdiagnosed. The following article, therefore, after summarizing the use of beta blockers for CNS indications, critically reviews the literature on centrally mediated adverse events. General pharmacological features of beta blockers and their molecular basis of action will briefly be addressed to the extent that they are or may become relevant for central nervous pharmacotherapy and side-effects.

  10. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Flageole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not.

  11. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    bends? Effect of diving behaviour and physiology on modelled gas exchange for three species: Ziphius cavirostris, Mesoplodon densirostris and Hyperoodon...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine...is to develop methods to estimate marine mamal tissue compartment sizes, and tissue gas solubility. We aim to improve the data available for the

  12. [Progress of midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lihong; Wang, Jinhuang; Li, Yang; Liu, Dalie

    2018-02-01

    To review the research progress of midfacial fat compartments, and to thoroughly understand its current state of the anatomy and the aging morphologic characters of midfacial fat compartments, as well as the current status of clinical applications. The recent literature concerning the midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications were extensively reviewed and analyzed. Midfacial fat layer has been considered as a fusion and a continuous layer, experiencing a global atrophy when aging. As more anatomical researches have done, recent studies have shown that midfacial fat layer is broadly divided into superficial and deep layers, which are both divided into different fat compartments by fascia, ligaments, or muscles. Midfacial fat compartments tend to atrophy with age, specifically in the deep fat compartments while hypertrophy in the superficial fat compartments. Clinical applications show that fat volumetric restoration with deep medial cheek fat and Ristow's space can restore the appearance of midface effectively. In recent years, the researches of midfacial fat compartments have achieved obvious progress, which will provide new ideas and basis for fat volumetric restoration. Corresponding treatments are selected based on different sites and different layers with different aging changes, reshaping a more youthful midface.

  13. Multi-compartment Fire Modeling for Switchgear Room using CFAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, multi-compartment fire modeling for fire propagation scenario from SWGR A to SWGR B is performed using CFAST. New fire PSA method (NUREG/CR-6850) requires that the severity factor is to be calculated by fire modeling. If fire modeling is not performed, the severity factor should be estimated as one conservatively. Also, the possibility of the damages of components and cables located at adjacent compartments should be considered. Detailed fire modeling of multi-compartment fires refers to the evaluation of fire-generated conditions in one compartment that spread to adjacent ones. In general, the severity factor for multi-compartment fire scenario is smaller than that of single compartment scenario. Preliminary quantification of Hanul Unit 3 fire PSA was performed without fire modeling. As a result of quantification, multi-compartment scenario, fire propagation scenario from switchgear room (SWGR) A to SWGR B, is one of significant contributor to the CDF. In this study, fire modeling of multi-compartment was performed by Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) to identify the possibility of fire propagation. As a result of fire simulation, it is identified that fire propagation has little influences

  14. Multi-compartment Fire Modeling for Switchgear Room using CFAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, multi-compartment fire modeling for fire propagation scenario from SWGR A to SWGR B is performed using CFAST. New fire PSA method (NUREG/CR-6850) requires that the severity factor is to be calculated by fire modeling. If fire modeling is not performed, the severity factor should be estimated as one conservatively. Also, the possibility of the damages of components and cables located at adjacent compartments should be considered. Detailed fire modeling of multi-compartment fires refers to the evaluation of fire-generated conditions in one compartment that spread to adjacent ones. In general, the severity factor for multi-compartment fire scenario is smaller than that of single compartment scenario. Preliminary quantification of Hanul Unit 3 fire PSA was performed without fire modeling. As a result of quantification, multi-compartment scenario, fire propagation scenario from switchgear room (SWGR) A to SWGR B, is one of significant contributor to the CDF. In this study, fire modeling of multi-compartment was performed by Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) to identify the possibility of fire propagation. As a result of fire simulation, it is identified that fire propagation has little influences.

  15. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS): Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Eun-Mi; Lee, Byoung Dae

    2014-12-01

    Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Microtubule-Targeting Agents Enter the Central Nervous System (CNS: Double-edged Swords for Treating CNS Injury and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Mi Hur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules have been among the most successful targets in anticancer therapy and a large number of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs are in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of several malignancies. Given that injury and diseases in the central nervous system (CNS are accompanied by acute or chronic disruption of the structural integrity of neurons and that microtubules provide structural support for the nervous system at cellular and intracellular levels, microtubules are emerging as potential therapeutic targets for treating CNS disorders. It has been postulated that exogenous application of MTAs might prevent the breakdown or degradation of microtubules after injury or during neurodegeneration, which will thereby aid in preserving the structural integrity and function of the nervous system. Here we review recent evidence that supports this notion and also discuss potential risks of targeting microtubules as a therapy for treating nerve injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. 25th Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Destexhe, Alain; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sekulić, Vladislav; Skinner, Frances K.; Wójcik, Daniel K.; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Cserpán, Dorottya; Somogyvári, Zoltán; Kim, Jae Kyoung; Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Kresimir; Elices, Irene; Arroyo, David

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents A1 Functional advantages of cell-type heterogeneity in neural circuits Tatyana O. Sharpee A2 Mesoscopic modeling of propagating waves in visual cortex Alain Destexhe A3 Dynamics and biomarkers of mental disorders Mitsuo Kawato F1 Precise recruitment of spiking output at theta frequencies requires dendritic h-channels in multi-compartment models of oriens-lac...

  18. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  19. The epidermis comprises autonomous compartments maintained by distinct stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Page, Mahalia E; Lombard, Patrick; Ng, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    populations. In contrast, upon wounding, stem cell progeny from multiple compartments acquire lineage plasticity and make permanent contributions to regenerating tissue. We further show that oncogene activation in Lrig1(+ve) cells drives hyperplasia but requires auxiliary stimuli for tumor formation....... In summary, our data demonstrate that epidermal stem cells are lineage restricted during homeostasis and suggest that compartmentalization may constitute a conserved mechanism underlying epithelial tissue maintenance....

  20. Wrist arthrography: The value of the three compartment injection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinsohn, E.M.; Coren, A.B.; Palmer, A.K.; Zinberg, E.

    1987-10-01

    Arthrography of the wrist was performed on 50 consecutive patients with obscure post-traumatic wrist pain by injecting contrast separately into the radiocarpal joint, midcarpal compartment, and distal radioulnar joint. When distal radioulnar joint and midcarpal compartment injections were added to the standard radiocarpal injection, many significant unsuspected abnormalities were identified. Of the 25 triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities identified, six (24%) were found only with the distal radioulnar joint injection. Of the 29 abnormal communications between the midcarpal compartment and the radiocarpal joint, ten (35%) were found only with the midcarpal injection. Similarly, five of 29 (17%) of the abnormal radiocarpal-midcarpal communications would have been missed if a midcarpal injection alone had been performed. These findings indicate that separate injections into the radiocarpal joint, midcarpal compartment, and distal radioulnar joint are needed to identify a large number of abnormalities not seen with injections into one compartment alone.

  1. Computation of thermal comfort inside a passenger car compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezrhab, A.; Bouzidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model to study the behaviour of thermal comfort inside the passenger car compartment according to climatic conditions and materials that compose the vehicle. The specifically developed numerical model is based on the nodal method and the finite difference method. Its specificities are: (i) the transient mode, (ii) the taking into account of the combined convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, (iii) the coupling of two spectral bands (short-wave and long-wave radiation) and two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse). The compartment is subdivided in several solid nodes (materials constituting the compartment) and fluid nodes (volumes of air inside the compartment). The establishment of the heat balance for each node gives the evolution of its temperature. Effects of solar radiation, types of glazing, car colour and radiative properties of materials constituting the compartment are investigated

  2. Functional outcome of tibial fracture with acute compartment syndrome and correlation to deep posterior compartment pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Saumitra; Naik, Monappa A; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Rao, Sharath K

    2017-05-18

    To measure single baseline deep posterior compartment pressure in tibial fracture complicated by acute compartment syndrome (ACS) and to correlate it with functional outcome. Thirty-two tibial fractures with ACS were evaluated clinically and the deep posterior compartment pressure was measured. Urgent fasciotomy was needed in 30 patients. Definite surgical fixation was performed either primarily or once fasciotomy wound was healthy. The patients were followed up at 3 mo, 6 mo and one year. At one year, the functional outcome [lower extremity functional scale (LEFS)] and complications were assessed. Three limbs were amputated. In remaining 29 patients, the average times for clinical and radiological union were 25.2 ± 10.9 wk (10 to 54 wk) and 23.8 ± 9.2 wk (12 to 52 wk) respectively. Nine patients had delayed union and 2 had nonunion who needed bone grafting to augment healing. Most common complaint at follow up was ankle stiffness (76%) that caused difficulty in walking, running and squatting. Of 21 patients who had paralysis at diagnosis, 13 (62%) did not recover and additional five patients developed paralysis at follow-up. On LEFS evaluation, there were 14 patients (48.3%) with severe disability, 10 patients (34.5%) with moderate disability and 5 patients (17.2%) with minimal disability. The mean pressures in patients with minimal disability, moderate disability and severe disability were 37.8, 48.4 and 58.79 mmHg respectively ( P fractures causes severe functional disability in majority of patients. These patients are prone for delayed union and nonunion; however, long term disability is mainly because of severe soft tissue contracture. Intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) correlates with functional disability; patients with relatively high ICP are prone for poor functional outcome.

  3. CONTRIBUTION OF RADON FLOWS AND RADON SOURCES TO THE RADON CONCENTRATION IN A DWELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; STOOP, P; PUT, LW

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented for analysis of the radon concentrations in a compartment in terms of contributions from transport by flows of air between compartments and from radon sources in the compartment. Measurements were made to study the effect of increased natural ventilation of the

  4. Compartmented pyruvate in perfused working heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenger, R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyruvate compartmentation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were studied in isolated perfused working guinea pig hearts. The mean intracellular pyruvate (Pyr) contents increased with perfusate Pyr (0-2 mM) but varied only slightly with glucose (0-10 mM) and additional insulin (0.04-5 U/l), respectively. With 5-10 mM glucose plus 5 U/l insulin, but not with Pyr or lactate (Lac) as substrates, a near equilibrium between the LDH and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase seemed to exist. Evidence for an inhibitory effect of Pyr on the activity of the LDH system of the perfused hearts was not obtained. With [U- 14 C]glucose as sole substrate, the specific activity of coronary venous Lac was near half that of precursor glucose. 14 CO 2 production was thus in quantitative agreement with rates of pyruvate oxidation that were determined as glucose uptake minus (Pyr + Lac) release. In contrast, with 0.2 mM [1- 14 C]Pyr plus 5 mM glucose, the ratio of 14 CO 2 production to specific activity of Lac overestimated Pyr oxidation judged from myocardial substrate balances and O 2 uptake, respectively; here, at least three pools of [ 14 C]HCO-3 and [ 14 C]lac, respectively, were kinetically demonstrable during washout of trace amounts of 14 C-labeled Pyr. Evidently, the specific activity of Lac was equivalent to that of mitochondrial oxidized Pyr provided [ 14 C]glucose was the sole or major precursor of cellular pyruvate. However, exogenously applied [1- 14 C]Pyr of high specific activity seemed to induce intracellular formation of both a highly and lowly labeled Pyr; the latter Pyr compartment did not seem in ready equilibrium with the cell physiologically prevailing highly labeled Pyr pool

  5. Mathematical properties and parameter estimation for transit compartment pharmacodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, James W T

    2008-07-03

    One feature of recent research in pharmacodynamic modelling has been the move towards more mechanistically based model structures. However, in all of these models there are common sub-systems, such as feedback loops and time-delays, whose properties and contribution to the model behaviour merit some mathematical analysis. In this paper a common pharmacodynamic model sub-structure is considered: the linear transit compartment. These models have a number of interesting properties as the length of the cascade chain is increased. In the limiting case a pure time-delay is achieved [Milsum, J.H., 1966. Biological Control Systems Analysis. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York] and the initial behaviour becoming increasingly sensitive to parameter value perturbation. It is also shown that the modelled drug effect is attenuated, though the duration of action is longer. Through this analysis the range of behaviours that such models are capable of reproducing are characterised. The properties of these models and the experimental requirements are discussed in order to highlight how mathematical analysis prior to experimentation can enhance the utility of mathematical modelling.

  6. Shigella subverts the host recycling compartment to rupture its vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Weiner, Allon; Aulner, Nathalie; Schmitt, Christine; Elbaum, Michael; Shorte, Spencer L; Danckaert, Anne; Enninga, Jost

    2014-10-08

    Shigella enters epithlial cells via internalization into a vacuole. Subsequent vacuolar membrane rupture allows bacterial escape into the cytosol for replication and cell-to-cell spread. Bacterial effectors such as IpgD, a PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that generates PI(5)P and alters host actin, facilitate this internalization. Here, we identify host proteins involved in Shigella uptake and vacuolar membrane rupture by high-content siRNA screening and subsequently focus on Rab11, a constituent of the recycling compartment. Rab11-positive vesicles are recruited to the invasion site before vacuolar rupture, and Rab11 knockdown dramatically decreases vacuolar membrane rupture. Additionally, Rab11 recruitment is absent and vacuolar rupture is delayed in the ipgD mutant that does not dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P₂ into PI(5)P. Ultrastructural analyses of Rab11-positive vesicles further reveal that ipgD mutant-containing vacuoles become confined in actin structures that likely contribute to delayed vacular rupture. These findings provide insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of vacuole progression and rupture during Shigella invasion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  8. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikalai Malinouski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells.Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events.We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells.

  9. Lower limb compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M M; Jayne, D

    2011-05-01

      In spite of recent advances in technology and technique, laparoscopic colorectal surgery is associated with increased operating times when compared with open surgery. This increases the risk of acute lower limb compartment syndrome. The aim of this review was to gain a better understanding of postoperative lower limb compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery and to suggest strategies to avoid its occurrence. A MEDLINE search was performed using the keywords 'compartment syndrome', 'laparoscopic surgery' and 'Lloyd-Davies position' between 1970 and 2008. All relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed. A total of 54 articles were retrieved. Of the 30 articles in English, five were reviews, six were original articles and 19 were case reports, of which only one was following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The remaining 24 were non-English articles. Of these, two were reviews and 22 were case reports, of which only one was following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The incidence of acute compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery is unknown. The following are believed to be risk factors for acute lower limb compartment syndrome: the Lloyd-Davies operating position with exaggerated Trendelenburg tilt, prolonged operative times and improper patient positioning. Simple strategies are suggested to reduce its occurrence. Simple preventative measures have been identified which may help to reduce the incidence of acute lower limb compartment syndrome. However, if suspected, timely surgical intervention with four-compartment fasciotomy remains the standard of care. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang; Erban, Radek

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  11. Characteristics of patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel E; Raikin, Steven; Garras, David N; Vitanzo, Peter; Labrador, Hallie; Espandar, Ramin

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a condition that causes reversible ischemia and lower extremity pain during exercise. To date there are few large studies examining the characteristics of patients with CECS. This study aimed to present these characteristics by examining the largest published series of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of the disorder. An IRB-approved, retrospective review was undertaken of patients with a suspected diagnosis of CECS undergoing pre- and postexercise compartment pressure testing between 2000 and 2012. Patients were evaluated for gender, age, duration of symptoms, pain level, specific compartments involved, compartment pressure measurements, and participation and type of athletics. Two-hundred twenty-six patients (393 legs) underwent compartment pressure testing. A diagnosis of CECS was made in 153 (67.7%) patients and 250 (63.6%) legs with elevated compartment measurements; average age of the patients was 24 years (range, 13-69 years). Female patients accounted for 92 (60.1%) of those with elevated pressures. Anterior and lateral compartment pressures were elevated most frequently, with 200 (42.5%) and 167 (35.5%) compartments, respectively. One hundred forty-one (92.2%) patients reported participation in sports, with running being the most common individual sport and soccer being the most common team sport. Duration of pain prior to diagnosis averaged 28 months. Although there is ample literature pertaining to the diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithm of the condition, few papers have described the type of patient most likely to develop CECS. This is the largest study to date to evaluate the type of patient likely to present with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Level III, retrospective review.

  12. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang

    2014-11-25

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  13. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan; Le Blanc, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  14. Endovascular transplantation of stem cells to the injured rat CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Johan; Soederman, Mikael; Andersson, Tommy; Holmin, Staffan [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Le Blanc, Katarina [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Stem Cell Research, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Immunology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Transplantation procedures using intraparenchymal injection of stem cells result in tissue injury in addition to associated surgical risks. Intravenous injection of mesenchymal stem cells gives engraftment to lesions, but the method has low efficiency and specificity. In traumatic brain injuries (TBI), there is a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and an inflammatory response, which increase migration of cells from blood to parenchyma. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of intra-arterial administration on cellular engraftment. Experimental TBI was produced in a rat model. Endovascular technique was used to administer human mesenchymal stem cells in the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. Evaluation of engraftment and side effects were performed by immunohistochemical analysis of the brain and several other organs. The results were compared to intravenous administration of stem cells. Intra-arterial transplantion of mesenchymal stem cells resulted in central nervous system (CNS) engraftment without thromboembolic ischemia. We observed a significantly higher number of transplanted cells in the injured hemisphere after intra-arterial compared to intravenous administration both 1 day (p<0.01) and 5 days (p<0.05) after the transplantation. Some cells were also detected in the spleen but not in the other organs analyzed. Selective intra-arterial administration of mesenchymal stem cells to the injured CNS is a minimally invasive method for transplantation. The method is significantly more efficient than the intravenous route and causes no side effects in the current model. The technique can potentially be used for repeated transplantation to the CNS after TBI and in other diseases. (orig.)

  15. Multi-compartment iodine calculations with FIPLOC/IMPAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewig, F; Allelein, H J [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schwarz, S; Weber, G [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The multi-compartment containment code FIPLOC for the simulation of severe accidents in LWR plants was extended by the integration of the iodine model IMPAIR-3. The iodine model was changed for arbitrary compartment configurations and tightly coupled to the thermal hydraulic part. A main progress with the coupled version FIPLOC-3.0 is the sophisticated modelling of the aerosol iodine behaviour. In a PWR accident the mass of iodine is mainly released in form of CsI aerosol from the primary circuit. In IMPAIR-3 the aerosol behaviour of the species CsI, AgI and IO{sub 3}{sup -} is modelled in a very simplified way causing large uncertainties in the calculated distributions. The behaviour of these three aerosol species is treated by the aerosol model MAEROS/MGA. Agglomeration, particle growth by condensation and all deposition processes are calculated. The solubility effect for the hygroscopic species CsI and IO{sub 3}{sup -} are comprehended. Furthermore the impact of the iodine decay heat on the thermal hydraulic behaviour is considered. In order to test the code development a preliminary FIPLOC-3.0 calculation was done simulating a German PWR containment for the core melt scenario ND* according to the German risk study phase B. IN the calculation a contact of the core melt with the sump water was assumed and the containment vent line was opened after 70 hours. The result show that the different iodine species are distributed inhomogeneously within the containment. The CsI-aerosol concentrations differ by two orders of magnitude and the I{sub 2}-concentration even by three orders of magnitude. Most of the iodine is assumed to be released as CsI aerosol out of the primary circuit. Since it fastly deposits its contribution to the release into the environment is minor. CsI is however dissolved in the sump, where mainly the gaseous I{sub 2} is created which can react in the containment atmosphere to IO{sub 3}{sup -}. (author) 11 figs., 3 tabs., 12 refs.

  16. Immune and inflammatory responses in the CNS : Modulation by astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; aschner, michael; hidalgo, juan

    2008-01-01

    Beyond their long-recognized support functions, astrocytes are active partners of neurons in processing information, synaptic integration, and production of trophic factors, just to name a few. Both microglia and astrocytes produce and secrete a number of cytokines, modulating and integrating...... the communication between hematogenous cells and resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS). This review will address (1) the functions of astrocytes in the normal brain and (2) their role in surveying noxious stimuli within the brain, with particular emphasis on astrocytic responses to damage or disease...

  17. Kynurenines in CNS disease: regulation by inflammatory cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian M.; Charych, Erik; Lee, Anna W.; Möller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolizes the essential amino acid tryptophan and generates a number of neuroactive metabolites collectively called the kynurenines. Segregated into at least two distinct branches, often termed the “neurotoxic” and “neuroprotective” arms of the KP, they are regulated by the two enzymes kynurenine 3-monooxygenase and kynurenine aminotransferase, respectively. Interestingly, several enzymes in the pathway are under tight control of inflammatory mediators. Recent years have seen a tremendous increase in our understanding of neuroinflammation in CNS disease. This review will focus on the regulation of the KP by inflammatory mediators as it pertains to neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24567701

  18. CARR-CNS with crescent-shape moderator cell and sub-cooling helium jacket around cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qingfeng; Feng, Quanke; Kawai, Takeshi; Cheng, Liang; Shen, Feng; Yuan, Luzheng

    2005-01-01

    The new type of the moderator cell was developed for the Cold Neutron Source (CNS) of the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) which is now constructing at the China Institute of Atomic Energy in Beijing. A crescent-shape moderator cell covered by the sub-cooling helium jacket is adopted. A crescent-shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for corresponding it to the 4 cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen not liquid deuterium were used as a cold moderator. The sub-cooling helium jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the inner shell. Such a type of a moderator cell is suitable for the CNS with higher nuclear heating. The cold helium gas flows down firstly into the sub-cooling helium jacket and then flows up to the condenser. Therefore, the theory of the self-regulation for the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable

  19. Strength analysis of CARR-CNS with crescent-shape moderator cell and helium sub-cooling jacket covering cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingfeng; Feng Quanke; Kawai Takeshi; Shen Feng; Yuan Luzheng; Cheng Liang

    2005-01-01

    The new type of the moderator cell was developed for the cold neutron source (CNS) of the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) which is now being constructed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy in Beijing. A crescent-shape moderator cell covered by the helium sub-cooling jacket is adopted. The structure of the moderator cell is optimized by the stress FEM analysis. A crescent-shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for fitting it to the four cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen, not liquid deuterium, was used as a cold moderator. The helium sub-cooling jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the outer shell of the moderator cell. Such a type of a moderator cell is suitable for the CNS with higher nuclear heating. The cold helium gas flows down first into the helium sub-cooling jacket and then flows up to the condenser. The theory of the self-regulation suitable to the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable and validated

  20. CARR-CNS with crescent-shape moderator cell and sub-cooling helium jacket surrounding cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qingfeng; Feng, Quanke; Kawai, Takeshi; Shen, Feng; Yuan, Luzheng

    2005-01-01

    The new type of the moderator cell was developed for the Cold Neutron Source (CNS) of the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) which is now constructing at the China Institute of Atomic Energy in Beijing. A crescent-shape moderator cell covered by the sub-cooling helium jacket is adopted. A crescent-shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for corresponding it to the 4 cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen not liquid deuterium were used as a cold moderator. The sub-cooling helium jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the inner shell. Such a type of a moderator cell is suitable for the CNS with higher nuclear heating. The cold helium gas flows down firstly into the sub-cooling helium jacket and then flows up to the condenser. Therefore, the theory of the self-regulation for the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable

  1. The farnesoid-X-receptor in myeloid cells controls CNS autoimmunity in an IL-10-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucke, Stephanie; Herold, Martin; Liebmann, Marie; Freise, Nicole; Lindner, Maren; Fleck, Ann-Katrin; Zenker, Stefanie; Thiebes, Stephanie; Fernandez-Orth, Juncal; Buck, Dorothea; Luessi, Felix; Meuth, Sven G; Zipp, Frauke; Hemmer, Bernhard; Engel, Daniel Robert; Roth, Johannes; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Wiendl, Heinz; Klotz, Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Innate immune responses by myeloid cells decisively contribute to perpetuation of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity and their pharmacologic modulation represents a promising strategy to prevent disease progression in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Based on our observation that peripheral immune cells from relapsing-remitting and primary progressive MS patients exhibited strongly decreased levels of the bile acid receptor FXR (farnesoid-X-receptor, NR1H4), we evaluated its potential relevance as therapeutic target for control of established CNS autoimmunity. Pharmacological FXR activation promoted generation of anti-inflammatory macrophages characterized by arginase-1, increased IL-10 production, and suppression of T cell responses. In mice, FXR activation ameliorated CNS autoimmunity in an IL-10-dependent fashion and even suppressed advanced clinical disease upon therapeutic administration. In analogy to rodents, pharmacological FXR activation in human monocytes from healthy controls and MS patients induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype with suppressive properties including control of effector T cell proliferation. We therefore, propose an important role of FXR in control of T cell-mediated autoimmunity by promoting anti-inflammatory macrophage responses.

  2. Organic Pollutant Penetration through Fruit Polyester Skin: A Modified Three-compartment Diffusion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yungui; Li, Qingqing; Chen, Baoliang

    2016-03-24

    The surface of plants is covered by a continuous but heterogeneous cuticular membrane (CM). Serving as the first protective barrier, the uptake and transport behavior of organic pollutants at this interface continue to engage the research efforts of environmental chemist. To date, the contributions of cuticular components as a defense against the organic pollutants penetration remain unresolved. In this study, the unsteady-state penetration characteristics of phenanthrene (PHE) through isolated fruit CM was investigated. PHE penetration was differentiated by three cuticular compartments: epicuticular waxes (EW), cuticle proper (CP) and cuticular layer (CL). The driving force for PHE penetration was ascribed to the sharp concentration gradient built up endogenously by cuticular compartments with different lipophilic affinities. A modified penetration model was established and verified in terms of its general suitability for the hydrophobic chemicals and CMs of various plant species (apple, tomato and potato). The new three-compartment model demonstrates much higher accuracy in characterizing the uptake and transport behavior of semivolatile chemicals with fewer limitations in terms of environmental conditions and complexity (e.g., coexisting contaminants and temperature). This model could contribute to a more comprehensive understanding on the role of polymeric lipids in the organic pollutant sorption and transport into plants.

  3. The subapical compartment : a traffic center in membrane polarity development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, D; Tyteca, D; van IJzendoorn, SCD

    2004-01-01

    Spatially separated apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains that have distinct functions and molecular compositions are a characteristic feature of epithelial cell polarity. The subapical compartment (SAC), also known as the common endosome (CE), where endocytic pathways from both surfaces

  4. 14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flight, and stress concentrations and fatigue effects must be accounted for. (c) If landings may be made... small compartment. The size Ho must be computed by the following formula: Ho=PAs where, Ho=Maximum...

  5. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  6. Environmental fate and transport analysis with compartment modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Keith W

    2012-01-01

    .... Discussing various modeling issues in a single volume, this text provides an introduction to a specific numerical modeling technique called the compartment approach and offers a practical user's guide to the GEM...

  7. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the forearm of a rower

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICP) measurement (Fig. 1). Testing of the flexor compart- ments revealed a raised resting pressure of 16 ... the following values suggestive of CECS in the lower limb: A pre- ... toxin decreases muscle mass and therefore causes a reduction of.

  8. Neurotransmitter synthesis from CNS glutamine for central control of breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoop, B.; Systrom, D.; Chiang, C.H.; Shih, V.E.; Kazemi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The maximum rate at which CNS glutamine (GLN) derived from glutamate (GLU) can be sequestered for synthesis of neurotransmitter GLU and/or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been determined in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. A total of 57 animals were studied under normal, hypoxic (Pa/sub O2/ greater than or equal to 20 mmHg), or hypercapnic (Pa/sub CO2/ less than or equal to 71 mm Hg) conditions. Thirteen of these were bilaterally vagotomized and carotid body denervated and studied only under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. In 5 animals cerebrospinal fluid GLN transfer rate constant k was measured using 13 N-ammonia tracer. Measured cerebral cortical (CC) and medullary (MED) GLN concentrations c are found to vary with GLU metabolic rate r according to c-C/sub m/r/(r+R), where r, the product of k and corresponding tissue GLU concentration, is assumed equal to the maximum GLN metabolic rate via pathways other than for neurotransmitter synthesis. The constants C/sub m/ and R are the predicted maximum GLN concentration and its maximum rate of sequestration for neurotransmitter synthesis, respectively. For both CNS tissue types in all animals, C/sub m/ = 20.9 +- 7.4 (SD) mmoles/kg wet wt(mM) and R = 6.2 +- 2.3 mM/min. These values are consistent with results obtained in anesthetized rats

  9. Primary CNS lymphoma as a cause of Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Cory; Voll, Chris; Macaulay, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Korsakoff syndrome presents with memory dysfunction with retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia, limited insight into dysfunction, and confabulation. The most common etiology of Korsakoff syndrome is thiamine deficiency secondary to alcoholism. There are limited case reports of structural lesions causing Korsakoff syndrome. A 46-year-old male with a long history of alcoholism presented with a history of confusion, amnesia, and confabulation with no localizing features on neurological examination. The patient showed no clinical change with intravenous thiamine. Computed tomography of the brain revealed a heterogenous, enhancing mass lesion centered within the third ventricle, with other lesions found throughout cortical and subcortical regions. The patient was given dexamethasone i.v. without noticeable clinical improvement but with marked radiological improvement with mass reduction. Stereotactic biopsy revealed a diagnosis of primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Most patients presenting with Korsakoff syndrome have thiamine deficiency; however, mass lesions can produce an identical clinical picture. This is the first case report of a patient with primary CNS lymphoma presenting as Korsakoff syndrome.

  10. Glibenclamide for the Treatment of Acute CNS Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marc Simard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available First introduced into clinical practice in 1969, glibenclamide (US adopted name, glyburide is known best for its use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2, where it is used to promote the release of insulin by blocking pancreatic KATP [sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1-Kir6.2] channels. During the last decade, glibenclamide has received renewed attention due to its pleiotropic protective effects in acute CNS injury. Acting via inhibition of the recently characterized Sur1-Trpm4 channel (formerly, the Sur1-regulated NCCa-ATP channel and, in some cases, via brain KATP channels, glibenclamide has been shown to be beneficial in several clinically relevant rodent models of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neonatal encephalopathy of prematurity, and metastatic brain tumor. Glibenclamide acts on microvessels to reduce edema formation and secondary hemorrhage, it inhibits necrotic cell death, it exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects and it promotes neurogenesis—all via inhibition of Sur1. Two clinical trials, one in TBI and one in stroke, currently are underway. These recent findings, which implicate Sur1 in a number of acute pathological conditions involving the CNS, present new opportunities to use glibenclamide, a well-known, safe pharmaceutical agent, for medical conditions that heretofore had few or no treatment options.

  11. Ascl1 (Mash1) lineage cells contribute to discrete cell populations in CNS architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Euiseok J.; Battiste, James; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Johnson, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Ascl1 (previously Mash1) is a bHLH transcription factor essential for neuronal differentiation and specification in the nervous system. Although it has been studied for its role in several neural lineages, the full complement of lineages arising from Ascl1 progenitor cells remains unknown. Using an inducible Cre-flox genetic fate mapping strategy, Ascl1 lineages were determined throughout the brain. Ascl1 is present in proliferating progenitor cells but these cells are actively differentiatin...

  12. Histochemical characterization of CNS development in mice: A methodological contribution for evaluation of teratogenic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plendl, J.; Schmahl, W.

    1986-01-01

    In the NMRI-mouse strain Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) showed an outstanding histochemical affinity to some newly developed neuro-glial cells on gestation day 13 and in front of all to the vessel endothelium from gestation day 8 on. The latter affinity pattern, however, was not homogenously distributed within the embryo, but clearly showed varying intensities with advancing cell differentiation. The latter finding was intensely studied at the embryonal central nervous system during the late organogenesis stage (days 10 to 13). Two hours after X-irradiation with 1.0 Gy some irregular DBA-positive patches were found on the surface of neuronal cells which otherwise seemed to be still unaffected. The DBA-affinity of these cells was intensified until 6 hours post irradiation. Simultaneously it was evident that these cells were pre-necrotic. After phagocytotic elimination of these cells the remaining nervous structures were completely DBA-negative. These findings indicate to a possible use of DBA for evaluation of an early lesion pattern in neuroteratological studies. (orig.)

  13. Microbial investigations of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Joulian, C.; Coulon, S.; Le Marrec, C.; Garrido, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep sedimentary rocks are now considered to contain a significant part of the total bacterial population, but are microbiologically unexplored. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned and sub-sampled on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible, the nine cores: two in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, two in the Dogger, five in the Triassic compartments. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the five Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized bars chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the core by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analysed. The microbial exploration we started can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for six metabolic groups to try to find microbial cells still viable. This type of experiment is difficult because of the small proportion of cultivable species, especially in these extreme environmental samples. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. Here, the limits are the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. The five Triassic samples were partly crushed in powder and inoculated in the six culture media with four NaCl concentrations, because this type of rock is known as saline or hyper-saline, and incubated at three temperatures: 30 deg. C, 55 deg. C under agitation and 70 deg. C. First results will be presented. The direct extraction of DNA needs a complete method optimisation to adapt existent procedures (using commercial kit and classical

  14. Topology Optimization of Spacecraft Transfer Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Borovikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe subject of this research is topology optimization of the adapter of a spacecraft transfer compartment. The finite element topology optimization [1] is widely used for simple structure elements [6, 7]. It is argued that using this method in conjunction with additive technology (3D - printing it is possible to create construction designs with the best weight characteristics. However, the paper shows that when applying this method to a complex construction design the optimization results are highly sensitive to optimization algorithm parameters. The goal of this research is to study parameters of the topology optimization algorithm and the influence of their variations on results.1.      Problem formulation   A commercial software Altair HyperWorks/OptiStruct (student’s license performed numerical calculations. The paper presents a detailed description of the finite element model.The main features of the proposed model are as follows:-          Simplicity with non-complicated geometry;-          Building a finite element model in terms of computing time minimization;-          Using the lumped mass elements to simulate the impacts of the conjugates on the adapter;-          A limit of material strength, decreased by an order of magnitude, to eliminate stress concentrators;-          The gravitational load applied corresponds to the loads for the Angara-A5 launcher [8]. 2.      Method of solutionA brief description of the SIMP-method realized in the Altair HyperWorks/OptiStruct software is given.3.      ResultsPerformed numerical calculations, and shown the influence of variations of algorithm parameters (DISCRETE, MATINIT, MINDIM, MAXDIM on construction design as well as the parameters SINGLE and SPLIT used to reveal restrictions on manufacturing.Shown that, depending on variations of parameters, an adapter construction strives to «truss» or «shell» type. Described

  15. Nuclear innovation through collaboration. 35th Annual CNS conference and 39th CNS/CNA student conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) held its 35th Annual Conference in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada on May 31 to June 3, 2015, combined with the 39th Annual CNS/CNA Student Conference. With the theme of the conference, 'Nuclear Innovation through Collaboration', more than 425 delegates, exhibitors and students were in attendance. The conference commenced with two strong plenary sessions on Utility Collaborations to Improve Lifetime Performance; and, Performance Improvement Programs: Goals and Experience. The second day consisted of the panel discussions on International Developments in Used Nuclear Fuel Repository Programs, and two plenary sessions on: Enterprise Risk Management; and, Vendor Role in a Continuously Improving Industry. The third day contained a number of interesting features, including plenary sessions on Waste Management and Decommissioning; Developing Technologies and Resources, and a panel discussion on the Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel. All three days of the conference also contained parallel sessions with over 100 technical papers presented at the main and student sessions. The technical session titles were: Refurbishment and Life Extension; Thermalhydraulics; Nuclear Materials; WMD - Radiation Monitoring; Safety and Licensing; Communication; Safety and Licensing; Instrumentation and Control; Advanced Reactor Designs; WMD - Deep Geological Repository Packaging; Reactor Physics; Chemistry and Materials; Advanced Fuel Cycles; Waste Management and Decommissioning; and, Medical Physics and Radiation Biology.

  16. Nuclear innovation through collaboration. 35th Annual CNS conference and 39th CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) held its 35th Annual Conference in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada on May 31 to June 3, 2015, combined with the 39th Annual CNS/CNA Student Conference. With the theme of the conference, 'Nuclear Innovation through Collaboration', more than 425 delegates, exhibitors and students were in attendance. The conference commenced with two strong plenary sessions on Utility Collaborations to Improve Lifetime Performance; and, Performance Improvement Programs: Goals and Experience. The second day consisted of the panel discussions on International Developments in Used Nuclear Fuel Repository Programs, and two plenary sessions on: Enterprise Risk Management; and, Vendor Role in a Continuously Improving Industry. The third day contained a number of interesting features, including plenary sessions on Waste Management and Decommissioning; Developing Technologies and Resources, and a panel discussion on the Transportation of Used Nuclear Fuel. All three days of the conference also contained parallel sessions with over 100 technical papers presented at the main and student sessions. The technical session titles were: Refurbishment and Life Extension; Thermalhydraulics; Nuclear Materials; WMD - Radiation Monitoring; Safety and Licensing; Communication; Safety and Licensing; Instrumentation and Control; Advanced Reactor Designs; WMD - Deep Geological Repository Packaging; Reactor Physics; Chemistry and Materials; Advanced Fuel Cycles; Waste Management and Decommissioning; and, Medical Physics and Radiation Biology.

  17. The role of each compartment in a two-compartment vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, G J; Cheong, Y W; Hong, J H; Hur, W

    2014-10-01

    A vertical flow reactor (VFR) has been suggested for remediation of ferruginous mine drainage that passes down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, a VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of the effort to explore the operation of a VFR, showing dynamic changes in the head differences, ochre depths, and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations in the effluent flow. The analysis showed that VFR operation time extended from 148.5 days to 163 days in an equally divided and to 168.4 days in asymmetrically (0.72:0.28) divided two-compartment VFR, suggesting that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximizes the VFR operation time. A constant head filtration in the first compartment maximized filtration efficiency and thus prolonged VFR longevity in the two-compartment VFR. Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with the permeability of the ochre bed to maximize the VFR operation time and minimize the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation affected the optimum ratio of the compartment area and reduced the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The VFR operation time can be prolonged significantly from 764 days to 3620 days by increasing the rate of ochre formation, much more than by accelerating the Fe(II) oxidation. During the prolonged VFR operation, ochre formed largely in the first compartment, while overflowing mine water with reduced iron content was effectively filtered in the second compartment. These results not only provide a better understanding of VFR operation but also suggest the direction of evolution of two-compartment VFR toward a compact and highly efficient facility integrated with an aerated cascade and with automatic coagulant feeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential expression of metallothioneins in the CNS of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C; Carrasco, J; Hidalgo, J

    2001-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS. Metallothioneins-I+II are antioxidant proteins induced in the CNS by immobilisation stress, trauma or degenerative diseases which have been postulated to play a neuroprotective role, while the CNS isoform metallothionein......-III has been related to Alzheimer's disease. We have analysed metallothioneins-I-III expression in the CNS of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Moreover, we have examined the putative role of interferon-gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in the control of metallothioneins expression...

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the nuclear compartment of neurons and glial cells in aging and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirici, Daniel; Pirici, Ionica; Mogoanta, Laurentiu; Margaritescu, Otilia; Tudorica, Valerica; Margaritescu, Claudiu; Ion, Daniela A; Simionescu, Cristiana; Coconu, Marieta

    2012-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are well-recognized denominators for extracellular matrix remodeling in the pathology of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Recent data on non-nervous system tissue showed intracellular and even intranuclear localizations for different MMPs, and together with this, a plethora of new functions have been proposed for these intracellular active enzymes, but are mostly related to apoptosis induction and malign transformation. In neurons and glial cells, on human tissue, animal models and cell cultures, different active MMPs have been also proven to be located in the intra-cytoplasmic or intra-nuclear compartments, with no clear-cut function. In the present study we show for the first time on human tissue the nuclear expression of MMP-9, mainly in neurons and to a lesser extent in astrocytes. We have studied ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients, as well as aged control patients. Age and ischemic suffering seemed to be the best predictors for an elevated MMP-9 nuclear expression, and there was no evidence of a clear-cut extracellular proteolytic activity for this compartment, as revealed by intact vascular basement membranes and assessment of vascular densities. More, the majority of the cells expressing MMP-9 in the nuclear compartment also co-expressed activated-caspase 3, indicating a possible link between nuclear MMP-9 localization and apoptosis in neuronal and glial cells following an ischemic or hemorrhagic event. These results, besides showing for the first time the nuclear localization of MMP-9 on a large series of human stroke and aged brain tissues, raise new questions regarding the unknown spectrum of the functions MMPs in human CNS pathology. © 2011 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  20. Single Cell Electroporation Method for Mammalian CNS Neurons in Organotypic Slice Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, Naofumi; Hayano, Yasufumi; Yamada, Akito; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko

    Axon tracing is an essential technique to study the projection pattern of neurons in the CNS. Horse radish peroxidase and lectins have contributed to revealing many neural connection patterns in the CNS (Itaya and van Hoesen, 1982; Fabian and Coulter, 1985; Yoshihara, 2002). Moreover, a tracing method with fluorescent dye has enabled the observation of growing axons in living conditions, and demon strated a lot of developmental aspects in axon growth and guidance (Harris et al., 1987; O'Rourke and Fraser, 1990; Kaethner and Stuermer, 1992; Halloran and Kalil, 1994; Yamamoto et al., 1997). More recently, genetically encoded fluores cent proteins can be used as a powerful tool to observe various biological events. Several gene transfer techniques such as microinjection, biolistic gene gun, viral infection, lipofection and transgenic technology have been developed (Feng et al., 2000; Ehrengruber et al., 2001; O'Brien et al., 2001; Ma et al., 2002; Sahly et al., 2003). In particular, the electroporation technique was proved as a valuable tool, since it can be applied to a wide range of tissues and cell types with little toxicity and can be performed with relative technical easiness. Most methods, including a stand ard electroporation technique, are suitable for gene transfer to a large number of cells. However, this is not ideal for axonal tracing, because observation of individ ual axons is occasionally required. To overcome this problem, we have developed an electroporation method using glass micropipettes containing plasmid solutions and small current injection. Here we introduce the method in detail and exemplified results with some example applications and discuss its usefulness.

  1. 6. CNS international conference on CANDU maintenance. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The 6th CNS International Conference on CANDU Maintenance took place in Toronto, Ontario on November 16-18, 2003. The theme for the conference was 'Maintenance for Life'. About 270 delegates attended the conference held by the Canadian Nuclear Society. The conference consisted of four parallel sessions, a pattern that continued throughout the conference. Papers were grouped under the following headings: Fuel Channels and End Fittings - Assessments; Fuel Channels and End Fittings - Inspections; Fuel Channels and End Fittings - Maintenance; Fuel Channels and End Fittings - Universal Delivery Machine; Water Upgrading; Performance and Plant Life Improvement; Steam Generator Life Management; Steam Generator Modifications; Steam Generators - Inspections; Steam Generators - Assessments; Maintenance Programs; Feeder Inspections; Feeder Assessment and Mitigation; Valve Maintenance; Instrumentation and Control; Inspection Technology; and Fuel Handling

  2. Resveratrol Neuroprotection in Stroke and Traumatic CNS injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mary; Dempsey, Robert J; Vemuganti, Raghu

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a stilbene formed in many plants in response to various stressors, elicits multiple beneficial effects in vertebrates. Particularly, resveratrol was shown to have therapeutic properties in cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Resveratrol-induced benefits are modulated by multiple synergistic pathways that control oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Despite the lack of a definitive mechanism, both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that resveratrol can induce a neuroprotective state when administered acutely or prior to experimental injury to the CNS. In this review, we discuss the neuroprotective potential of resveratrol in stroke, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, with a focus on the molecular pathways responsible for this protection. PMID:26277384

  3. Brain abscess with an unexpected finding: Actinomyces meyeri CNS infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiset, Andreas Halgreen; Thomsen, Marianne Kragh; Wejse, Christian

    -up. The source of infection was most likely periodontitis with spread to the lungs from aspiration or oropharyngeal secretion into the respiratory tract, alternatively from haematogenous spread. Conclusions: We report of the successful treatment of a cerebral abscess caused by A. meyeri with narrow spectrum......Background: CNS infection caused by Actinomyces spp. is rare and the subtype Actinomyces meyeri even rarer. Risk factors include periodontal disease and alcohol overuse. We present a case report of a 54-year-old female with dental and lung foci. Case history: A female was hospitalised with tonic...... oedema. By MRI an abscess was suspected and the patient was transferred to the department of neurosurgery, where drainage was performed. Microscopy revealed gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rods and iv. treatment with ceftriaxone 4g x 1 and metronidazole 1g x 1 was commenced. Pus cultures showed...

  4. Gene therapy for CNS diseases – Krabbe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Rafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief report of the 19th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy that took place from May 4th through May 7th, 2016 in Washington, DC, USA. While the meeting provided many symposiums, lectures, and scientific sessions this report mainly focuses on one of the sessions on the "Gene Therapy for central nervous system (CNS Diseases" and specifically on the "Gene Therapy for the globoid cell leukodystrophy or Krabbe disease. Two presentations focused on this subject utilizing two animal models of this disease: mice and dog models. Different serotypes of adeno-associate viral vectors (AAV alone or in combination with bone marrow transplantations were used in these research projects. The Meeting of the ASGCT reflected continuous growth in the fields of gene and cell therapy and brighter forecast for efficient treatment options for variety of human diseases.

  5. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in the choroid plexus: a potential link between vascular pro-inflammatory mediators and the CNS during peripheral tissue inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K.; Yang, H.-Y. T.; Berk, J. D.; Tran, J. H.; Iadarola, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    During peripheral tissue inflammation, inflammatory processes in the CNS can be initiated by blood-borne pro-inflammatory mediators. The choroid plexus, the site of CSF production, is a highly specialized interface between the vascular system and CNS, and thus, this structure may be an important element in communication between the vascular compartment and the CNS during peripheral tissue inflammation. We investigated the potential participation of the choroid plexus in this process during peripheral tissue inflammation by examining expression of the SCYA2 gene which codes for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). MCP-1 protein was previously reported to be induced in a variety of cells during peripheral tissue inflammation. In the basal state, SCYA2 is highly expressed in the choroid plexus as compared to other CNS tissues. During hind paw inflammation, SCYA2 expression was significantly elevated in choroid plexus, whereas it remained unchanged in a variety of brain regions. The SCYA2-expressing cells were strongly associated with the choroid plexus as vascular depletion of blood cells by whole-body saline flush did not significantly alter SCYA2 expression in the choroid plexus. In situ hybridization suggested that the SCYA2-expressing cells were localized to the choroid plexus stroma. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of SCYA2 increase, we examined genes in the NF-κβ signaling cascade including TNF-α, IL-1β and IκBα in choroid tissue. Given that we also detected increased levels of MCP-1 protein by ELISA, we sought to identify potential downstream targets of MCP-1 and observed altered expression levels of mRNAs encoding tight junction proteins TJP2 and claudin 5. Finally, we detected a substantial up-regulation of the transcript encoding E-selectin, a molecule which could participate in leukocyte recruitment to the choroid plexus along with MCP-1. Together, these results suggest that profound changes occur in the choroid plexus during

  6. Radioprotection of mouse CNS endothelial cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubimova, N.; Coultas, P.; Martin, R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Radioprotection using the minor groove binding DNA ligand Hoechst 33342 has been demonstrated in vitro, and more recently in vivo, in mouse lung. Intravenous administration was used for the lung studies, and both endothelial and alveolar epithelial cells-showed good up-take. Radiation damage to the endothelial cell population has also been postulated as important in late developing radionecrosis of spinal cord and brain. Endothelial cell density in brain can be readily determined by a fluorescent-histochemical technique. Treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and subsequent injection with L-DOPA results in an accumulation of dopamine (DA) in CNS endothelial cells. DA is converted to a fluorophore by exposure to paraformaldehyde, and cell numbers assayed by fluorescence microscopy. Earlier studies used this technique to monitor post-irradiation changes in endothelial cell density in rodent brain and showed the loss, within 24 hours, of a sensitive subpopulation comprising about 15% of the endothelial cells. Ten minutes after intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 (80mg/kg) the ligand is confined by its limited penetration to the endothelial cells in mouse brain. When we irradiated at this time, there was protection against early endothelial cell loss. Ablation of the sensitive subpopulation in unprotected mice takes place over a dose range of 1 to 3 Gy γ-rays, but doses between 12 to 20 Gy are required in the presence of ligand. This protection equates to a very high dose modification factor of about 7 and possibly reflects a suppression of apoptosis in the sensitive endothelial subpopulation. The extent to which there is enhanced survival in the endothelial population as a whole and how the observed protection affects late CNS necrosis development has yet to be determined. However present results clearly show potential for the use of DNA-binding radioprotectors with limited penetration for investigations into the relative significance of

  7. Bortezomib-related neuropathy may mask CNS relapse in multiple myeloma: A call for diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad Bilal; De Mel, Sanjay; Abid, Muhammad Abbas; Tan, Kong Bing; Chng, Wee Joo

    2016-07-02

    Neuropathy is a common adverse effect of bortezomib. Isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse in MM remains exceedingly rare and carries a dismal prognosis. We present an unusual case of bortezomib related neuropathy masking a CNS relapse of MM. A 57-year-old female was diagnosed with standard-risk MM with clinical and cytogenetic features not typically associated with CNS involvement. She was treated with 4 cycles of bortezomib/cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone (VCD) and achieved a VGPR, after which she underwent an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) followed by bortezomib maintenance. Six months after ASCT she developed symptoms suggestive of peripheral neuropathy which was attributed to bortezomib. However the symptoms persisted despite discontinuation of bortezomib. Imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analysis subsequently confirmed a CNS relapse. CNS involvement in MM (CNS-MM) is uncommon and is considered an aggressive disease. Recently published literature has reported biomarkers with prognostic potential. However, isolated CNS relapse is even less common; an event which carries a very poor prognosis. Given the heterogeneous neurologic manifestations associated with MM, clinical suspicion may be masked by confounding factors such as bortezomib-based therapy. The disease may further remain incognito if the patient does not exhibit any of the high risk features and biomarkers associated with CNS involvement. In the era of proteasome inhibitor (PtdIns)/immunomodulator (IMID)-based therapy for MM which carries neurologic adverse effects, it is prudent to consider CNS relapse early. This case further highlights the need for more robust biomarkers to predict CNS relapse and use of newer novel agents which demonstrate potential for CNS penetration.

  8. Drug Delivery to CNS: Challenges and Opportunities with Emphasis on Biomaterials Based Drug Delivery Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhla, Ekta; Shah, Viral; Baviskar, Kalpesh

    2016-01-01

    The current epoch has witnessed a lifestyle impregnated with stress, which is a major cause of several neurological disorders. High morbidity and mortality rate due to neurological diseases and disorders have generated a huge social impact. Despite voluminous research, patients suffering from fatal and/or debilitating CNS diseases such as brain tumors, HIV, encephalopathy, Alzheimer's, epilepsy, Parkinson's, migraine and multiple sclerosis outnumbered those suffering from systemic cancer or heart diseases. The brain being a highly sensitive neuronal organ, has evolved with vasculature barriers, which regulates the efflux and influx of substances to CNS. Treatment of CNS diseases/disorders is challenging because of physiologic, metabolic and biochemical obstacles created by these barriers which comprise mainly of BBB and BCFB. The inability of achieving therapeutically active concentration has become the bottleneck level difficulty, hampering the therapeutic efficiency of several promising drug candidates for CNS related disorders. Parallel maturation of an effective CNS drug delivery strategy with CNS drug discovery is the need of the hour. Recently, the focus of the pharmaceutical community has aggravated in the direction of developing novel and more efficient drug delivery systems, giving the potential of more effective and safer CNS therapies. The present review outlines several hurdles in drug delivery to the CNS along with ideal physicochemical properties desired in drug substance/formulation for CNS delivery. The review also focuses on different conventional and novel strategies for drug delivery to the CNS. The article also assesses and emphasizes on possible benefits of biomaterial based formulations for drug delivery to the CNS.

  9. Membrane order in the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaea, David B; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. We find that after a brief incubation to allow endocytosis, NR12S is distributed between the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment. The NR12S reports that the endocytic recycling compartment is more highly ordered than the plasma membrane. We also find that the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment are differentially affected by altering cellular cholesterol levels. The membrane order of the plasma membrane, but not the endocytic recycling compartment, is altered significantly when cellular cholesterol content is increased or decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that changes in cellular cholesterol differentially alter membrane order within different organelles.

  10. Measurement of compartment elasticity using pressure related ultrasound: a method to identify patients with potential compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, R M; Hingmann, S J; Kobbe, P; Weber, C; Grice, J E; Zimmerman, F; Jeromin, S; Gansslen, A; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an in-vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intracompartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mm Hg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mm Hg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (Δd). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. RESULTS With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mm Hg) occurred. The Pearson's coefficient showed a high correlation (r2 = -0.960). The intraobserver reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). CONCLUSIONS Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete

  11. EBI2 Is Highly Expressed in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions and Promotes Early CNS Migration of Encephalitogenic CD4 T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wanke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrival of encephalitogenic T cells at inflammatory foci represents a critical step in development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the animal model for multiple sclerosis. EBI2 and its ligand, 7α,25-OHC, direct immune cell localization in secondary lymphoid organs. CH25H and CYP7B1 hydroxylate cholesterol to 7α,25-OHC. During EAE, we found increased expression of CH25H by microglia and CYP7B1 by CNS-infiltrating immune cells elevating the ligand concentration in the CNS. Two critical pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-23 (IL-23 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, maintained expression of EBI2 in differentiating Th17 cells. In line with this, EBI2 enhanced early migration of encephalitogenic T cells into the CNS in a transfer EAE model. Nonetheless, EBI2 was dispensable in active EAE. Human Th17 cells do also express EBI2, and EBI2 expressing cells are abundant within multiple sclerosis (MS white matter lesions. These findings implicate EBI2 as a mediator of CNS autoimmunity and describe mechanistically its contribution to the migration of autoreactive T cells into inflamed organs.

  12. Increased pressure within the abdominal compartment: intra-abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Ball, Chad G; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews recent developments related to intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH)/abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and clinical practice guidelines published in 2013. IAH/ACS often develops because of the acute intestinal distress syndrome. Although the incidence of postinjury ACS is decreasing, IAH remains common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill/injured patients. Many risk factors for IAH include those findings suggested to be indications for use of damage control surgery in trauma patients. Medical management strategies for IAH/ACS include sedation/analgesia, neuromuscular blocking and prokinetic agents, enteral decompression tubes, interventions that decrease fluid balance, and percutaneous catheter drainage. IAH/ACS may be prevented in patients undergoing laparotomy by leaving the abdomen open where appropriate. If ACS cannot be prevented with medical or surgical management strategies or treated with percutaneous catheter drainage, guidelines recommend urgent decompressive laparotomy. Use of negative pressure peritoneal therapy for temporary closure of the open abdomen may improve the systemic inflammatory response and patient-important outcomes. In the last 15 years, investigators have better clarified the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and appropriate prevention of IAH/ACS. Subsequent study should be aimed at understanding which treatments effectively lower intra-abdominal pressure and whether these treatments ultimately affect patient-important outcomes.

  13. Effectiveness of Prescription-Based CNS Stimulants on Hospitalization in Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Christopher; Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Asztalos, Marton

    2018-01-01

    were used to investigate the effectiveness of CNS stimulants in patients with schizophrenia between 1995 and 2014; a mirror-image model with 605 individuals, using paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests, and a follow-up study with 789 individuals, using a conditional risk-set model. RESULTS: CNS...

  14. CNS metastasis from malignant uveal melanoma: a clinical and histopathological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, S K; Lindegaard, J; Isager, P

    2008-01-01

    was observed in two cases (14%). The amount of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes was pronounced in three cases (23%). CONCLUSION: The proportion of uveal melanoma patients having CNS metastasis was 0.7%. Eleven patients had multiple organ metastases, and the average time from the initial CNS symptoms to death...

  15. Abbreviated exposure to hypoxia is sufficient to induce CNS dysmyelination, modulate spinal motor neuron composition, and impair motor development in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O Watzlawik

    Full Text Available Neonatal white matter injury (nWMI is an increasingly common cause of cerebral palsy that results predominantly from hypoxic injury to progenitor cells including those of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Existing mouse models of nWMI utilize prolonged periods of hypoxia during the neonatal period, require complex cross-fostering and exhibit poor growth and high mortality rates. Abnormal CNS myelin composition serves as the major explanation for persistent neuro-motor deficits. Here we developed a simplified model of nWMI with low mortality rates and improved growth without cross-fostering. Neonatal mice are exposed to low oxygen from postnatal day (P 3 to P7, which roughly corresponds to the period of human brain development between gestational weeks 32 and 36. CNS hypomyelination is detectable for 2-3 weeks post injury and strongly correlates with levels of body and brain weight loss. Immediately following hypoxia treatment, cell death was evident in multiple brain regions, most notably in superficial and deep cortical layers as well as the subventricular zone progenitor compartment. PDGFαR, Nkx2.2, and Olig2 positive oligodendrocyte progenitor cell were significantly reduced until postnatal day 27. In addition to CNS dysmyelination we identified a novel pathological marker for adult hypoxic animals that strongly correlates with life-long neuro-motor deficits. Mice reared under hypoxia reveal an abnormal spinal neuron composition with increased small and medium diameter axons and decreased large diameter axons in thoracic lateral and anterior funiculi. Differences were particularly pronounced in white matter motor tracts left and right of the anterior median fissure. Our findings suggest that 4 days of exposure to hypoxia are sufficient to induce experimental nWMI in CD1 mice, thus providing a model to test new therapeutics. Pathological hallmarks of this model include early cell death, decreased OPCs and hypomyelination in early postnatal life

  16. Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Colleen Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007. We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission.

  17. HB-GAM (pleiotrophin) reverses inhibition of neural regeneration by the CNS extracellular matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveliev, Mikhail; Fenrich, Keith K.; Kislin, Mikhail; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Varjosalo, Markku; Kajander, Tommi; Mugantseva, Ekaterina; Ahonen-Bishopp, Anni; Khiroug, Leonard; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Rougon, Geneviève; Rauvala, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans inhibit regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We report here that HB-GAM (heparin-binding growth-associated molecule; also known as pleiotrophin), a CS-binding protein expressed at high levels in the developing CNS, reverses the role of the CS chains in neurite growth of CNS neurons in vitro from inhibition to activation. The CS-bound HB-GAM promotes neurite growth through binding to the cell surface proteoglycan glypican-2; furthermore, HB-GAM abrogates the CS ligand binding to the inhibitory receptor PTPσ (protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma). Our in vivo studies using two-photon imaging of CNS injuries support the in vitro studies and show that HB-GAM increases dendrite regeneration in the adult cerebral cortex and axonal regeneration in the adult spinal cord. Our findings may enable the development of novel therapies for CNS injuries. PMID:27671118

  18. Programs and subroutines for calculating cadmium body burdens based on a one-compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.V.; Novak, K.M.

    1980-08-01

    A pair of FORTRAN programs for calculating the body burden of cadmium as a function of age is presented, together with a discussion of the assumptions which serve to specify the underlying, one-compartment model. Account is taken of the contributions to the body burden from food, from ambient air, from smoking, and from occupational inhalation. The output is a set of values for ages from birth to 90 years which is either longitudinal (for a given year of birth) or cross-sectional (for a given calendar year), depending on the choice of input parameters

  19. Therapy of CNS leukemia with intraventricular chemotherapy and low-dose neuraxis radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinherz, P.; Jereb, B.; Galicich, J.

    1985-01-01

    Successful treatment of CNS leukemic relapse has been frustrated by frequent local recurrence and eventual marrow relapse. The authors describe the treatment of meningeal leukemia in 39 children with intrathecal remission induction followed by the placement of an Ommaya reservoir to facilitate the administration and distribution of chemotherapeutic agents into the CSF. Six hundred or 900 rad of craniospinal radiation and maintenance intraventricular and intrathecal chemotherapy was then administered. Systemic reinduction therapy was added in the later cases. Sixteen children (41%) experienced no further events, with 17+ months to 13+ years (median, 25 months) follow-up . Eleven patients (28%) had CNS recurrence, nine (23%) bone marrow (BM) relapse, and two (5%) testicular relapse as the next adverse event. The course of patients with first isolated CNS relapse differed from that of the others. Eleven (69%) of 16 patients treated for first isolated CNS relapse are alive and 9 are event free, while only 35% of patients whose CNS relapse occurred simultaneously or after recurrent disease at other sites are alive (P = .04). Seven of 23 in the later group are event free. The difference is due to the increased incidence of BM relapse in the later group (30% v 6%; P = .04). For patients with first isolated CNS relapse, the life-table median CNS remission duration is 42 months. The projected CNS relapse-free survival and event-free survival 8 to 10 years after CNS relapse are 40% and 32%, respectively. Headache, nausea, and emesis of short duration were frequent during therapy. In three patients, the reservoir had to be removed for infection. No patient suffered neurologic deficit related to the reservoir. The therapy described can reduce the CNS relapse rate with manageable toxicity

  20. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Coulon, S.; Joulian, C.; Garrido, F.; Ollivier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  1. TIME COURSE MODIFICATIONS INDUCED BY PERINATAL ASPHYXIA IN RAT CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Capani

    2015-04-01

    of estradiol treatment we were able to revert some of these alterations using PI3K/Akt/GSK3. Overall these results demonstrate that synaptic dysfunction following PA might be produced by early changes in the actin organization and long-term misfolding and aggregation of proteins in the PSDs. Therefore, we hypothesize that the synaptic and neuronal cytoskeleton changes induced by PA in the rat CNS could lead to the cellular dysfunction and death in adult animals. Estradiol appears as a new therapeutic tool to slacken the damage induces by perinatal asphyxia on the CNS.

  2. Liraglutide Reduces CNS Activation in Response to Visual Food Cues Only After Short-term Treatment in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Kulve, Jennifer S; Veltman, Dick J; van Bloemendaal, Liselotte; Barkhof, Frederik; Drent, Madeleine L; Diamant, Michaela; IJzerman, Richard G

    2016-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are associated with reduced appetite and body weight. We investigated whether these effects could be mediated by the central nervous system (CNS). We performed a randomized crossover study in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 20, mean age 59.3 ± 4.1 years, mean BMI 32 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)), consisting of two periods of 12-week treatment with either liraglutide 1.8 mg or insulin glargine. Using functional MRI, we determined the effects of treatment on CNS responses to viewing food pictures in the fasted condition and 30 min after meal intake. After 12 weeks, the decrease in HbA1c was larger with liraglutide versus insulin glargine (Δ-0.7% vs. -0.2%, P food pictures in insula and putamen (P ≤ 0.02). In addition, liraglutide enhanced the satiating effect of meal intake on responses in putamen and amygdala (P ≤ 0.05). Differences between liraglutide and insulin glargine were not observed after 12 weeks. Compared with insulin, liraglutide decreased CNS activation significantly only after short-term treatment, suggesting that these effects of GLP-1RA on the CNS may contribute to the induction of weight loss, but not necessarily to its maintenance, in view of the absence of an effect of liraglutide on CNS activation in response to food pictures after longer-term treatment. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  3. Growth of Malignant Non-CNS Tumors Alters Brain Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Nersisyan, Lilit; Mandal, Rupasri; Wishart, David; Mancini, Maria; Sidransky, David; Kolb, Bryan; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Cancer survivors experience numerous treatment side effects that negatively affect their quality of life. Cognitive side effects are especially insidious, as they affect memory, cognition, and learning. Neurocognitive deficits occur prior to cancer treatment, arising even before cancer diagnosis, and we refer to them as “tumor brain.” Metabolomics is a new area of research that focuses on metabolome profiles and provides important mechanistic insights into various human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging. Many neurological diseases and conditions affect metabolic processes in the brain. However, the tumor brain metabolome has never been analyzed. In our study we used direct flow injection/mass spectrometry (DI-MS) analysis to establish the effects of the growth of lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and sarcoma on the brain metabolome of TumorGraft™ mice. We found that the growth of malignant non-CNS tumors impacted metabolic processes in the brain, affecting protein biosynthesis, and amino acid and sphingolipid metabolism. The observed metabolic changes were similar to those reported for neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging, and may have potential mechanistic value for future analysis of the tumor brain phenomenon. PMID:29515623

  4. Fluids and barriers of the CNS: a historical viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liddelow Shane A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tracing the exact origins of modern science can be a difficult but rewarding pursuit. It is possible for the astute reader to follow the background of any subject through the many important surviving texts from the classical and ancient world. While empirical investigations have been described by many since the time of Aristotle and scientific methods have been employed since the Middle Ages, the beginnings of modern science are generally accepted to have originated during the 'scientific revolution' of the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe. The scientific method is so fundamental to modern science that some philosophers consider earlier investigations as 'pre-science'. Notwithstanding this, the insight that can be gained from the study of the beginnings of a subject can prove important in the understanding of work more recently completed. As this journal undergoes an expansion in focus and nomenclature from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF into all barriers of the central nervous system (CNS, this review traces the history of both the blood-CSF and blood-brain barriers from as early as it was possible to find references, to the time when modern concepts were established at the beginning of the 20th century.

  5. CNS fungal meningitis to the "Top of the basilar"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Logan CS; Kirschner RC; Simonds GR

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system(CNS) infections are a rare complication of epidural steroid injections and without strong clinical suspicion, fungal organisms may be overlooked among the long differential of causes of meningitis.Rare sequela of fungal meningitis is the development of stroke.To our knowledge, we present the first case of post epidural steroid injection(ESI) fungal meningitis leading toa basilar artery stroke, otherwise known as“top of the basilar” syndrome.We present a49-year-old female with a history ofESIs who presented to the emergency department with headache, neck stiffness, and abdominal pain.She was discharged after her labs and symptoms were deemed inconsistent with meningitis.She was eventually admitted and twelve days after her originalED visit, she was diagnosed with meningitis and started on anti-fungal treatment.She was discharged88 days later but was readmitted due to left sided weakness and mental status changes.She quickly lost motor and bulbar functions.AnMRA showed diminished distal flow through the basilar artery, suggesting near complete occlusion.Although appropriate long term anti-fungal treatment was started, the patient still succumbed to a rare vascular event.Physicians who are treating patients forESI meningitis should be aware of the potential for vasculitic and encephalitic complications.

  6. Electrophysiological CNS-processes related to associative learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Gert R J; Schachtman, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    The neurophysiology of human associative memory has been studied with electroencephalographic techniques since the 1930s. This research has revealed that different types of electrophysiological processes in the human brain can be modified by conditioning: sensory evoked potentials, sensory induced gamma-band activity, periods of frequency-specific waves (alpha and beta waves, the sensorimotor rhythm and the mu-rhythm) and slow cortical potentials. Conditioning of these processes has been studied in experiments that either use operant conditioning or repeated contingent pairings of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (classical conditioning). In operant conditioning, the appearance of a specific brain process is paired with an external stimulus (neurofeedback) and the feedback enables subjects to obtain varying degrees of control of the CNS-process. Such acquired self-regulation of brain activity has found practical uses for instance in the amelioration of epileptic seizures, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It has also provided communicative means of assistance for tetraplegic patients through the use of brain computer interfaces. Both extra and intracortically recorded signals have been coupled with contingent external feedback. It is the aim for this review to summarize essential results on all types of electromagnetic brain processes that have been modified by classical or operant conditioning. The results are organized according to type of conditioned EEG-process, type of conditioning, and sensory modalities of the conditioning stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress preconditioning of spreading depression in the locust CNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne I Rodgers

    Full Text Available Cortical spreading depression (CSD is closely associated with important pathologies including stroke, seizures and migraine. The mechanisms underlying SD in its various forms are still incompletely understood. Here we describe SD-like events in an invertebrate model, the ventilatory central pattern generator (CPG of locusts. Using K(+ -sensitive microelectrodes, we measured extracellular K(+ concentration ([K(+](o in the metathoracic neuropile of the CPG while monitoring CPG output electromyographically from muscle 161 in the second abdominal segment to investigate the role K(+ in failure of neural circuit operation induced by various stressors. Failure of ventilation in response to different stressors (hyperthermia, anoxia, ATP depletion, Na(+/K(+ ATPase impairment, K(+ injection was associated with a disturbance of CNS ion homeostasis that shares the characteristics of CSD and SD-like events in vertebrates. Hyperthermic failure was preconditioned by prior heat shock (3 h, 45 degrees C and induced-thermotolerance was associated with an increase in the rate of clearance of extracellular K(+ that was not linked to changes in ATP levels or total Na(+/K(+ ATPase activity. Our findings suggest that SD-like events in locusts are adaptive to terminate neural network operation and conserve energy during stress and that they can be preconditioned by experience. We propose that they share mechanisms with CSD in mammals suggesting a common evolutionary origin.

  8. Well-leg compartment syndrome after gynecological laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard-Kjer, Diana H; Boesgaard-Kjer, Daniel; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome in the lower extremities after surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but severe complication requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Several circumstances predispose to this condition as a consequence of increased intra-compartmental pressure, such as posit...

  9. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  10. Talofibular compartment of the ankle joint after recent ankle sprain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrand, A.; Mortensson, W.; Norman, O.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of predicting the condition of the anterior talofibular ligament from the shape of the lateral compartment of the ankle joint was investigated in patients with recent ankle sprain. The diagnostic value of the method was found to be restricted. (Auth.)

  11. Volume of the effect compartment in simulations of neuromuscular block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigrovic, Vladimir; Proost, Johannes H.; Amann, Anton; Bhatt, Shashi B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The study examines the role of the volume of the effect compartment in simulations of neuromuscular block (NMB) produced by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Methods: The molar amount of the postsynaptic receptors at the motor end plates in muscle was assumed constant; the apparent

  12. A wolf in wolf's clothing the abdominal compartment syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdomen. These findings are consistent with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal compartment syndrome. In 1 case trauma was remote from the abdomen .... although they tend to develop most often in those who have undergone major vascular operations or suffered abdominal trauma. The effects of the pressure on the bowel ...

  13. "Compartment"-syndrom på underben, atypisk traumemekanisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael H; Nielsen, Henrik Toft; Wester, Jens Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is a limb threatening condition which warrants emergency treatment. We describe a case of a 37-year-old man with acute CS developed without major trauma. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment by decompressive fasciotomy is of vital importance in order to preserve limb...

  14. Surgical treatment for ~brain compartment syndrome' in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Traumatic brain injury accounts for a high percentage of deaths in children. Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) due to brain swelling within the closed compartment of the skull leads to death or severe neurological disability if not effectively treated. We report our experience with 12 children who presented with ...

  15. Intraabdominal Compartment Syndrome Complicating Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Narain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome can result from many different causes. We present a case where this dangerous syndrome occurred in the operating room during a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. It was initially recognized by an elevation in the peak inspiratory pressure. We report the typical physiologic changes that occur with this syndrome and its treatment options.

  16. The anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niftrik, L.A.M.P. van; Fuerst, J.A.; Damste, J.S.S.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.

    2004-01-01

    Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single

  17. The anammoxosome : An intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Niftrik, L.A. van; Fuerst, J.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.

    2004-01-01

    Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single

  18. Compartment syndrome and popliteal vascular injury complicating unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Nanne Pieter; Van Raay, Jos J. J. A. M.; van Horn, Jim R.

    Popliteal vascular injury and the compartment syndrome of the leg are rare but important complications of knee arthroplasties. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance in preventing the devastating complications of these conditions. To our knowledge, these complications have not

  19. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  20. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: (a) Each Class C or Class D compartment, as defined in § 25.857 of this Chapter in effect on June 16, 1986 (see Appendix L to this part), that is greater than 200 cubic feet in volume must have ceiling and sidewall liner panels which are constructed of: (1) Glass fiber reinforced resin; (2) Materials which meet...

  1. Ward Round - Late Presentation of Acute Compartment Syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following the course of ibuprofen mentioned. Twelve days after admission he started to complain of increasing pain and tightness in his left thigh. Sensation and motor function. Ward Round - Late Presentation of Acute. Compartment Syndrome in the Thigh. University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Department of Surgery,.

  2. Basal ganglia disorders associated with imbalances in the striatal striosome and matrix compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Crittenden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is composed principally of GABAergic, medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs that can be categorized based on their gene expression, electrophysiological profiles and input-output circuits. Major subdivisions of MSN populations include 1 those in ventromedial and dorsolateral striatal regions, 2 those giving rise to the direct and indirect pathways, and 3 those that lie in the striosome and matrix compartments. The first two classificatory schemes have enabled advances in understanding of how basal ganglia circuits contribute to disease. However, despite the large number of molecules that are differentially expressed in the striosomes or the extra-striosomal matrix, and the evidence that these compartments have different input-output connections, our understanding of how this compartmentalization contributes to striatal function is still not clear. A broad view is that the matrix contains the direct and indirect pathway MSNs that form parts of sensorimotor and associative circuits, whereas striosomes contain MSNs that receive input from parts of limbic cortex and project directly or indirectly to the dopamine-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, pars compacta. Striosomes are widely distributed within the striatum and are thought to exert global, as well as local, influences on striatal processing by exchanging information with the surrounding matrix, including through interneurons that send processes into both compartments. It has been suggested that striosomes exert and maintain limbic control over behaviors driven by surrounding sensorimotor and associative parts of the striatal matrix. Consistent with this possibility, imbalances between striosome and matrix functions have been reported in relation to neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease, L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, dystonia and drug addiction. Here, we consider how signaling imbalances between the striosomes and matrix might relate to symptomatology in

  3. Derivation of an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for methylene chloride based on acute CNS effects and relative potency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J E; Rozman, K K

    1998-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) or 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is based on an acute human lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 200 ppm for subtle central nervous system (CNS) depression. Steep, parallel exposure-response curves for anesthetic and subanesthetic CNS effects associated with compounds mechanistically and structurally related to methylene chloride are shown to support a safety factor of two to account for inter-individual variability in response. LOAEL/no-observed-adverse-effect ratios for subtle CNS effects associated with structurally related solvents are shown to support a safety factor range of two to four to account for uncertainty in identifying a subthreshold exposure level. Anesthetic relative potencies and anesthetic/subanesthetic effect level ratios are shown to be constant for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating that subanesthetic relative potencies are also constant. Relative potencies among similarly derived occupational exposure limits (OELs) for solvents structurally related to methylene chloride are therefore used to validate the derived methylene chloride OEL range of 25-50 ppm. Because this safety assessment is based on human (rather than rodent) data and empirical (rather than theoretical) exposure-response relationships and is supported by relative potency analysis, it is a defensible alternative to to the OSHA risk assessment and should positively contribute to the debate regarding the appropriate basis and value for a methylene chloride PEL.

  4. The mastermind approach to CNS drug therapy: translational prediction of human brain distribution, target site kinetics, and therapeutic effects

    OpenAIRE

    de Lange, Elizabeth CM

    2013-01-01

    Despite enormous advances in CNS research, CNS disorders remain the world?s leading cause of disability. This accounts for more hospitalizations and prolonged care than almost all other diseases combined, and indicates a high unmet need for good CNS drugs and drug therapies. Following dosing, not only the chemical properties of the drug and blood?brain barrier (BBB) transport, but also many other processes will ultimately determine brain target site kinetics and consequently the CNS effects. ...

  5. When the Tail Can't Wag the Dog: The Implications of CNS-Intrinsic Initiation of Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre S Davis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The CNS (central nervous system is unquestionably the central organ that regulates directly or indirectly all physiological systems in the mammalian body. Yet, when considering the defence of the CNS from pathogens, the CNS has often been considered passive and subservient to the pro-inflammatory responses of the immune system. In this view, neuroinflammatory disorders are examples of when the tail (the immune system wags the dog (the CNS to the detriment of an individual's function and survival.

  6. The retina as a window to the brain-from eye research to CNS disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Anat; Benhar, Inbal; Schwartz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Philosophers defined the eye as a window to the soul long before scientists addressed this cliché to determine its scientific basis and clinical relevance. Anatomically and developmentally, the retina is known as an extension of the CNS; it consists of retinal ganglion cells, the axons of which form the optic nerve, whose fibres are, in effect, CNS axons. The eye has unique physical structures and a local array of surface molecules and cytokines, and is host to specialized immune responses similar to those in the brain and spinal cord. Several well-defined neurodegenerative conditions that affect the brain and spinal cord have manifestations in the eye, and ocular symptoms often precede conventional diagnosis of such CNS disorders. Furthermore, various eye-specific pathologies share characteristics of other CNS pathologies. In this Review, we summarize data that support examination of the eye as a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis of select CNS diseases, and the use of the eye as a valuable model to study the CNS. Translation of eye research to CNS disease, and deciphering the role of immune cells in these two systems, could improve our understanding and, potentially, the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William; Low, Nelson; Pratt, George

    2018-01-08

    While still a rare entity, acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome has an increasing incidence. Similar to other compartment syndromes, acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome is defined by raised pressure within a closed fibro-osseous space, limiting tissue perfusion within that space. The resultant tissue ischaemia presents as acute pain, and if left untreated, it may result in permanent tissue damage. A literature search of 'paraspinal compartment syndrome' revealed 21 articles. The details from a case encountered by the authors are also included. A common data set was extracted, focusing on demographics, aetiology, clinical features, management and outcomes. There are 23 reported cases of acute compartment syndrome. These are typically caused by weight-lifting exercises, but may also result from other exercises, direct trauma or non-spinal surgery. Pain, tenderness and paraspinal paraesthesia are key clinical findings. Serum creatine kinase, magnetic resonance imaging and intracompartment pressure measurement confirm the diagnosis. Half of the reported cases have been managed with surgical fasciotomy, and these patients have all had good outcomes relative to those managed with conservative measures with or without hyperbaric oxygen therapy. These good outcomes were despite significant delays to operative intervention. The diagnostic uncertainty and subsequent delay to fasciotomy result from the rarity of this disease entity, and a high level of suspicion is recommended in the appropriate setting. This is particularly true in light of the current popularity of extreme weight lifting in non-professional athletes. Operative intervention is strongly recommended in all cases based on the available evidence. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. Lift-and-fill face lift: integrating the fat compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan; Constantine, Fadi C; Unger, Jacob; Mojallal, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Recent discovery of the numerous fat compartments of the face has improved our ability to more precisely restore facial volume while rejuvenating it through differential superficial musculoaponeurotic system treatment. Incorporation of selective fat compartment volume restoration along with superficial musculoaponeurotic system manipulation allows for improved control in recontouring while addressing one of the key problems in facial aging, namely, volume deflation. This theory was evaluated by assessing the contour changes from simultaneous face "lifting" and "filling" through fat compartment-guided facial fat transfer. A review of 100 face-lift patients was performed. All patients had an individualized component face lift with fat grafting to the nasolabial fold, deep malar, and high/lateral malar fat compartment locations. Photographic analysis using a computer program was conducted on oblique facial views preoperatively and postoperatively, to obtain the most projected malar contour point. Two independent observers visually evaluated the malar prominence and nasolabial fold improvements based on standardized photographs. Nasolabial fold improved by at least one grade in 81 percent and by over one grade in 11 percent. Malar prominence average projection increase was 13.47 percent and the average amount of lift was 12.24 percent. The malar prominence score improved by at least one grade in 62 percent of the patients postoperatively, and 9 percent had a greater than one grade improvement. Twenty-eight percent of the patients had a convex malar prominence postoperatively compared with 6 percent preoperatively. Malar prominence improved by at least one grade in 63 percent and by over one grade in 10 percent. The lift-and-fill face lift merges two key concepts in facial rejuvenation: (1) effective tissue manipulation by means of lifting and tightening in differential vectors according to original facial asymmetry and shape; and (2) selective fat compartment filling

  9. Does evaluation of the ligamentous compartment enhance diagnostic utility of sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P; Chan, Stanley M

    2015-01-01

    in the ligamentous compartment and their potential diagnostic utility in axial SpA. We therefore aimed to evaluate the ligamentous compartment on sacroiliac joint MRI for lesion distribution and potential incremental value towards diagnosis of SpA over and above the traditional assessment of the cartilaginous...... and ligamentous compartment. The incremental value of evaluating the ligamentous additionally to the cartilaginous compartment alone for diagnosis of SpA was graded qualitatively. We determined the lesion distribution between the two compartments, and the impact of the ligamentous compartment evaluation...... on diagnostic utility. RESULTS: MRI bone marrow lesions solely in the ligamentous compartment in the absence of lesions in the cartilaginous compartment were reported in just 0-2.0/0-4.0 % (BME/fat metaplasia) of all subjects. Additional assessment of the ligamentous compartment was regarded as essential...

  10. Distinctive response of CNS glial cells in oro-facial pain associated with injury, infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oro-facial pain following injury and infection is frequently observed in dental clinics. While neuropathic pain evoked by injury associated with nerve lesion has an involvement of glia/immune cells, inflammatory hyperalgesia has an exaggerated sensitization mediated by local and circulating immune mediators. To better understand the contribution of central nervous system (CNS glial cells in these different pathological conditions, in this study we sought to characterize functional phenotypes of glial cells in response to trigeminal nerve injury (loose ligation of the mental branch, infection (subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide-LPS and to sterile inflammation (subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant-CFA on the lower lip. Each of the three insults triggered a specific pattern of mechanical allodynia. In parallel with changes in sensory response, CNS glial cells reacted distinctively to the challenges. Following ligation of the mental nerve, both microglia and astrocytes in the trigeminal nuclear complex were highly activated, more prominent in the principal sensory nucleus (Pr5 and subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C area. Microglial response was initiated early (days 3-14, followed by delayed astrocytes activation (days 7-28. Although the temporal profile of microglial and astrocyte reaction corresponded respectively to the initiation and chronic stage of neuropathic pain, these activated glial cells exhibited a low profile of cytokine expression. Local injection of LPS in the lower lip skin also triggered a microglial reaction in the brain, which started in the circumventricular organs (CVOs at 5 hours post-injection and diffused progressively into the brain parenchyma at 48 hours. This LPS-induced microglial reaction was accompanied by a robust induction of IκB-α mRNA and pro-inflammatory cytokines within the CVOs. However, LPS induced microglial activation did not specifically occur along the pain signaling pathway. In

  11. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  12. Combinatorial action of Grainyhead, Extradenticle and Notch in regulating Hox mediated apoptosis in Drosophila larval CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Risha; Sipani, Rashmi; Govinda Rajan, Sriivatsan; Kumar, Raviranjan; Joshi, Rohit

    2017-10-01

    Hox mediated neuroblast apoptosis is a prevalent way to pattern larval central nervous system (CNS) by different Hox genes, but the mechanism of this apoptosis is not understood. Our studies with Abdominal-A (Abd-A) mediated larval neuroblast (pNB) apoptosis suggests that AbdA, its cofactor Extradenticle (Exd), a helix-loop-helix transcription factor Grainyhead (Grh), and Notch signaling transcriptionally contribute to expression of RHG family of apoptotic genes. We find that Grh, AbdA, and Exd function together at multiple motifs on the apoptotic enhancer. In vivo mutagenesis of these motifs suggest that they are important for the maintenance of the activity of the enhancer rather than its initiation. We also find that Exd function is independent of its known partner homothorax in this apoptosis. We extend some of our findings to Deformed expressing region of sub-esophageal ganglia where pNBs undergo a similar Hox dependent apoptosis. We propose a mechanism where common players like Exd-Grh-Notch work with different Hox genes through region specific enhancers to pattern respective segments of larval central nervous system.

  13. CLIPPERS among patients diagnosed with non-specific CNS neuroinflammatory diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, B M; Lindelof, M; Illes, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory CNS disorder characterized by 1) subacute onset of cerebellar and brainstem symptoms, 2) peripontine contrast-enhancing perivascular lesions with a "salt-and-pepper" appeara...

  14. New Brain Tumor Entities Emerge from Molecular Classification of CNS-PNETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Dominik; Orr, Brent A.; Toprak, Umut H.; Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T. W.; Capper, David; Sill, Martin; Buchhalter, Ivo; Northcott, Paul A.; Leis, Irina; Ryzhova, Marina; Koelsche, Christian; Pfaff, Elke; Allen, Sariah J.; Balasubramanian, Gnanaprakash; Worst, Barbara C.; Pajtler, Kristian W.; Brabetz, Sebastian; Johann, Pascal D.; Sahm, Felix; Reimand, Jüri; Mackay, Alan; Carvalho, Diana M.; Remke, Marc; Phillips, Joanna J.; Perry, Arie; Cowdrey, Cynthia; Drissi, Rachid; Fouladi, Maryam; Giangaspero, Felice; Łastowska, Maria; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Pietsch, Torsten; Hagel, Christian; Gojo, Johannes; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Slavc, Irene; Haberler, Christine; Jouvet, Anne; Holm, Stefan; Hofer, Silvia; Prinz, Marco; Keohane, Catherine; Fried, Iris; Mawrin, Christian; Scheie, David; Mobley, Bret C.; Schniederjan, Matthew J.; Santi, Mariarita; Buccoliero, Anna M.; Dahiya, Sonika; Kramm, Christof M.; von Bueren, André O.; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Herold-Mende, Christel; Frühwald, Michael C.; Milde, Till; Hasselblatt, Martin; Wesseling, Pieter; Rößler, Jochen; Schüller, Ulrich; Ebinger, Martin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Frank, Stephan; Grobholz, Rainer; Vajtai, Istvan; Hans, Volkmar; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Zitterbart, Karel; Collins, V. Peter; Aronica, Eleonora; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stephanie; Dufour, Christelle; Grill, Jacques; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Wolter, Marietta; Schuhmann, Martin U.; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; van Meter, Timothy; Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Snuderl, Matija; Forrester, Lynn Ann; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; van Sluis, Peter; Wolf, Stephan; Mikkelsen, Tom; Gajjar, Amar; Aldape, Kenneth; Moore, Andrew S.; Taylor, Michael D.; Jones, Chris; Jabado, Nada; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Lichter, Peter; von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M.; Ellison, David W.; Korshunov, Andrey; Kool, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring predominantly in young children but also affecting adolescents and adults. Herein, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of institutionally

  15. New Brain Tumor Entities Emerge from Molecular Classification of CNS-PNETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Dominik; Orr, Brent A.; Toprak, Umut H.; Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T W; Capper, David; Sill, Martin; Buchhalter, Ivo; Northcott, Paul A.; Leis, Irina; Ryzhova, Marina; Koelsche, Christian; Pfaff, Elke; Allen, Sariah J.; Balasubramanian, Gnanaprakash; Worst, Barbara C.; Pajtler, Kristian W.; Brabetz, Sebastian; Johann, Pascal D.; Sahm, Felix; Reimand, Jüri; Mackay, Alan; Carvalho, Diana M.; Remke, Marc; Phillips, Joanna J.; Perry, Arie; Cowdrey, Cynthia; Drissi, Rachid; Fouladi, Maryam; Giangaspero, Felice; Łastowska, Maria; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Pietsch, Torsten; Hagel, Christian; Gojo, Johannes; Lötsch, Daniela; Berger, Walter; Slavc, Irene; Haberler, Christine; Jouvet, Anne; Holm, Stefan; Hofer, Silvia; Prinz, Marco; Keohane, Catherine; Fried, Iris; Mawrin, Christian; Scheie, David; Mobley, Bret C.; Schniederjan, Matthew J.; Santi, Mariarita; Buccoliero, Anna M.; Dahiya, Sonika; Kramm, Christof M.; Von Bueren, André O.; Von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Herold-Mende, Christel; Frühwald, Michael C.; Milde, Till; Hasselblatt, Martin; Wesseling, Pieter; Rößler, Jochen; Schüller, Ulrich; Ebinger, Martin; Schittenhelm, Jens; Frank, Stephan; Grobholz, Rainer; Vajtai, Istvan; Hans, Volkmar; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Zitterbart, Karel; Collins, V. Peter; Aronica, Eleonora; Varlet, Pascale; Puget, Stephanie; Dufour, Christelle; Grill, Jacques; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Wolter, Marietta; Schuhmann, Martin U.; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Van Meter, Timothy; Monoranu, Camelia Maria; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Snuderl, Matija; Forrester, Lynn Ann; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Van Sluis, Peter; Wolf, Stephan; Mikkelsen, Tom; Gajjar, Amar; Aldape, Kenneth; Moore, Andrew S.; Taylor, Michael D.; Jones, Chris; Jabado, Nada; Karajannis, Matthias A.; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Lichter, Peter; Von Deimling, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M.; Ellison, David W.; Korshunov, Andrey; Kool, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring predominantly in young children but also affecting adolescents and adults. Herein, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of

  16. Netrin-1 Confines Rhombic Lip-Derived Neurons to the CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Yung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During brainstem development, newborn neurons originating from the rhombic lip embark on exceptionally long migrations to generate nuclei important for audition, movement, and respiration. Along the way, this highly motile population passes several cranial nerves yet remains confined to the CNS. We found that Ntn1 accumulates beneath the pial surface separating the CNS from the PNS, with gaps at nerve entry sites. In mice null for Ntn1 or its receptor DCC, hindbrain neurons enter cranial nerves and migrate into the periphery. CNS neurons also escape when Ntn1 is selectively lost from the sub-pial region (SPR, and conversely, expression of Ntn1 throughout the mutant hindbrain can prevent their departure. These findings identify a permissive role for Ntn1 in maintaining the CNS-PNS boundary. We propose that Ntn1 confines rhombic lip-derived neurons by providing a preferred substrate for tangentially migrating neurons in the SPR, preventing their entry into nerve roots.

  17. Micropituitarism and cortical dysplasia: an unknown association of two uncommon CNS disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinder, G.; Corat-Simon, J.; Hershkovitz, E.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of two known pathologies of the CNS in an unusual association: the concomitant presentation of the micropituitarism and cortical dysplasia. To our knowledge, this association is unreported to date. (orig.)

  18. Micropituitarism and cortical dysplasia: an unknown association of two uncommon CNS disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinder, G. [MAR Bikur Cholim Hospital Jerusalem (MOR-MAR), Jerusalem (Israel); Corat-Simon, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zrifin, Beer Jakov (Israel); Hershkovitz, E. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheba (Israel)

    2001-06-01

    We describe a case of two known pathologies of the CNS in an unusual association: the concomitant presentation of the micropituitarism and cortical dysplasia. To our knowledge, this association is unreported to date. (orig.)

  19. Air quality inside the passenger compartment of a bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E Z; Silva, M C; Viegas, D X

    1997-01-01

    The indoor air quality in the passenger compartment of an intercity bus is studied. A system used for the remotion of the contaminants from the compartment, based on an extraction duct, was projected using a simple, unidimensional flow model with capability to predict the air exchange rate as a function of the vehicle velocity. Some tests using tracer gan methods were performed in a real vehicle with the contaminant remotion system mounted, in order to validate the calculation model and evaluate the performances of the system. A good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results was verified and the obtained air exchange rate was quite reasonable when compared with the former situation, without extraction duct.

  20. Bladder distension as a cause of abdominal compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasir, M.; Hoda, M.Q.

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is increasingly identified in critically ill patient and its harmful effects are well documented. The disparity among the pressure, volume in abdominal cavity and its contents, results in ACS. The actual incidence of ACS is not known. However, it has been observed predominantly in patients with severe blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms, retro- and intra-peritoneal hemorrhage, pneumoperitoneum, neoplasm, pancreatitis, ascites and multiple bone fracture. We present a case of 40-year female who underwent emergency cesarean section and developed abdominal compartment syndrome due to urinary bladder distension secondary to blockade of urinary catheter with blood clots. This is a very unusual cause of ACS. (author)

  1. CoMIC, the hidden dynamics of mitochondrial inner compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bongki; Sun, Woong

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondria have evolutionarily, functionally and structurally distinct outer- (OMM) and inner-membranes (IMM). Thus, mitochondrial morphology is controlled by independent but coordinated activity of fission and fusion of the OMM and IMM. Constriction and division of the OMM are mediated by endocytosis-like machineries, which include dynamin-related protein 1 with additional cytosolic vesicle scissoring machineries such as actin filament and Dynamin 2. However, structural alteration of the IMM during mitochondrial division has been poorly understood. Recently, we found that the IMM and the inner compartments undergo transient and reversible constriction prior to the OMM division, which we termed CoMIC, Constriction of Mitochondrial Inner Compartment. In this short review, we further discuss the evolutionary perspective and the regulatory mechanism of CoMIC during mitochondrial division. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(12): 597-598].

  2. Drought Stress Results in a Compartment-Specific Restructuring of the Rice Root-Associated Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Santos-Medellín

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots support complex microbial communities that can influence plant growth, nutrition, and health. While extensive characterizations of the composition and spatial compartmentalization of these communities have been performed in different plant species, there is relatively little known about the impact of abiotic stresses on the root microbiota. Here, we have used rice as a model to explore the responses of root microbiomes to drought stress. Using four distinct genotypes, grown in soils from three different fields, we tracked the drought-induced changes in microbial composition in the rhizosphere (the soil immediately surrounding the root, the endosphere (the root interior, and unplanted soils. Drought significantly altered the overall bacterial and fungal compositions of all three communities, with the endosphere and rhizosphere compartments showing the greatest divergence from well-watered controls. The overall response of the bacterial microbiota to drought stress was taxonomically consistent across soils and cultivars and was primarily driven by an enrichment of multiple Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi, as well as a depletion of several Acidobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria. While there was some overlap in the changes observed in the rhizosphere and endosphere communities, several drought-responsive taxa were compartment specific, a pattern likely arising from preexisting compositional differences, as well as plant-mediated processes affecting individual compartments. These results reveal that drought stress, in addition to its well-characterized effects on plant physiology, also results in restructuring of root microbial communities and suggest the possibility that constituents of the altered plant microbiota might contribute to plant survival under extreme environmental conditions.

  3. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalai Malinouski; You Zhou; Vsevolod V Belousov; Dolph L Hatfield; Vadim N Gladyshev

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular ...

  5. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alexandra da Costa Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury.

  6. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denae Wagner

    Full Text Available For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9% when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%. When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%. The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%. This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.

  7. SACHET, Dynamic Fission Products Inventory in PWR Multiple Compartment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Hideki

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SACHET evaluates the dynamic fission product inventories in the multiple compartment system of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. 2 - Method of solution: SACHET utilizes a matrix of fission product core inventory which is previously calculated by the ORIGEN code. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Liquid wastes such as chemical waste and detergent waste are not included

  8. The pseudo-compartment method for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based models of diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christian A; Flegg, Mark B

    2015-05-06

    Spatial reaction-diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction-diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. The specific stochastic models with which we shall be concerned in this manuscript are referred to as 'compartment-based' or 'on-lattice'. These models are characterized by a discretization of the computational domain into a grid/lattice of 'compartments'. Within each compartment, particles are assumed to be well mixed and are permitted to react with other particles within their compartment or to transfer between neighbouring compartments. Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. Rather than attempting to balance average fluxes, our algorithms answer a more fundamental question: 'how are individual particles transported between the vastly different model descriptions?' First, we present an algorithm derived by carefully redefining the continuous PDE concentration as a probability distribution. While this first algorithm shows very strong convergence to analytical solutions of test problems, it can be cumbersome to simulate. Our second algorithm is a simplified and more efficient implementation of

  9. Perforated peptic ulcer associated with abdominal compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jiun-Jen; Weng, Yi-Ming; Weng, Chia-Sui

    2008-11-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increased intra-abdominal pressure with adverse physiologic consequences. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by perforated peptic ulcer is rare owing to early diagnosis and management. Delayed recognition of perforated peptic ulcer with pneumoperitoneum, bowel distension, and decreased abdominal wall compliance can make up a vicious circle and lead to ACS. We report a case of perforated peptic ulcer associated with ACS. A 74-year-old man with old stroke and dementia history was found to have distended abdomen, edema of bilateral legs, and cyanosis. Laboratory tests revealed deterioration of liver and kidney function. Abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected, and image study was arranged to find the cause. The study showed pneumoperitoneum, contrast stasis in heart with decreased caliber of vessels below the abdominal aortic level, and diffuse lymphedema at the abdominal walls. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Perforated peptic ulcer was noted and the gastrorrhaphy was done. The symptoms, and liver and kidney function improved right after emergent operation.

  10. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  11. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

  12. PrP expression, PrPSc accumulation and innervation of splenic compartments in sheep experimentally infected with scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Sørby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In prion disease, the peripheral expression of PrP(C is necessary for the transfer of infectivity to the central nervous system. The spleen is involved in neuroinvasion and neural dissemination in prion diseases but the nature of this involvement is not known. The present study undertook the investigation of the spatial relationship between sites of PrP(Sc accumulation, localisation of nerve fibres and PrP(C expression in the tissue compartments of the spleen of scrapie-inoculated and control sheep. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laser microdissection and quantitative PCR were used to determine PrP mRNA levels and results were compared with immunohistochemical protocols to distinguish PrP(C and PrP(Sc in tissue compartments of the spleen. In sheep experimentally infected with scrapie, the major sites of accumulation of PrP(Sc in the spleen, namely the lymphoid nodules and the marginal zone, expressed low levels of PrP mRNA. Double immunohistochemical labelling for PrP(Sc and the pan-nerve fibre marker, PGP, was used to evaluate the density of innervation of splenic tissue compartments and the intimacy of association between PrP(Sc and nerves. Some nerve fibres were observed to accompany blood vessels into the PrP(Sc-laden germinal centres. However, the close association between nerves and PrP(Sc was most apparent in the marginal zone. Other sites of close association were adjacent to the wall of the central artery of PALS and the outer rim of germinal centres. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that the degree of PrP(Sc accumulation does not depend on the expression level of PrP(C. Though several splenic compartments may contribute to neuroinvasion, the marginal zone may play a central role in being the compartment with most apparent association between nerves and PrP(Sc.

  13. 75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... envision that a lavatory would be installed inside a Class E cargo compartment. Lavatories, including the... envision that a lavatory would be installed in a Class E cargo compartment. Therefore, special conditions...

  14. Endocytosis of desmosomal plaques depends on intact actin filaments and leads to a nondegradative compartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Pernille K.; Hansen, Steen H.; Sandvig, Kirsten

    1993-01-01

    Cellebiologi, human epithelial cell line, growth inhibition, desmosomes, clathrin-independent endocytosis, cytoskeleton, nondegradative compartment......Cellebiologi, human epithelial cell line, growth inhibition, desmosomes, clathrin-independent endocytosis, cytoskeleton, nondegradative compartment...

  15. The transition from day-to-night activity is a risk factor for the development of CNS oxygen toxicity in the diurnal fat sand rat (Psammomys obesus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynan, Mirit; Biram, Adi; Mullokandov, Michael; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Paz-Cohen, Rotem; Menajem, Dvir; Arieli, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    administration. On the basis of these results, we suggest that a switch from diurnal to nocturnal activity may represent an additional risk factor for the development of CNS-OT. Utilizing a diurnal animal model may contribute to our understanding of the heightened risk of developing CNS-OT when diving with closed-circuit oxygen apparatus at night.

  16. A dynamic compartment model for assessing the transfer of radionuclide deposited onto flooded rice-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Han-Soo; Choi, Heui-Ju; Kang, Hee-Seok; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Young-Ho; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic compartment model has been studied to estimate the transfer of radionuclides deposited onto flooded rice-fields after an accidental release. In the model, a surface water compartment and a direct shoot-base absorption from the surface water to the rice-plant, which are major features discriminating the present model from the existing model, has been introduced to account for the flooded condition of rice-fields. The model has been applied to the deposition experiments of 137 Cs on rice-fields that were performed at three different times to simulate the deposition before transplanting (May 2) and during the growth of the rice (June 1 and August 12), respectively. In the case of the deposition of May 2, the root-uptake is the most predominant process for transferring 137 Cs to the rice-body and grain. When the radionuclide is applied just after transplanting (June 1), the activity of the body is controlled by the shoot-base absorption and the activity of the grain by the root-uptake. The deposition just before ear-emergence (August 12) shows that the shoot-base absorption contributes entirely to the increase of both the activities of the body and grain. The model prediction agrees within one or two factors with the experimental results obtained for a respective deposition experiment

  17. Numerical Study on Hydrogen Flow Behavior in Two Compartments with Different Connecting Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HanChen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen accumulation in the containment compartments under severe accidents would result in high concentration, which could lead to hydrogen deflagration or detonation. Therefore, getting detailed hydrogen flow and distribution is a key issue to arrange hydrogen removal equipment in the containment compartments. In this study, hydrogen flow behavior in local compartments has been investigated in two horizontal compartments. The analysis model is built by 3-dimensional CFD code in Cartesian coordinates based on the connection structure of the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR compartments. It consists of two cylindrical vessels, representing the Steam Generator compartment (SG and Core Makeup Tank compartment (CMT. With standard k-ε turbulence model, the effects of the connecting pipe size and location on hydrogen concentration distribution are investigated. Results show that increasing the diameter of connection pipe (IP which is located at 800 mm from 150 mm to 300 mm facilitates hydrogen flow between compartments. Decreasing the length of IP which is located at 800 mm from 1000 mm to 500 mm can also facilitate hydrogen flow between compartments. Lower IP is in favor of hydrogen mixing with air in non-source compartment. Higher IP is helpful for hydrogen flow to the non-source term compartment from source term compartment.

  18. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of two...

  19. Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture in a non-athlete.

    OpenAIRE

    Thennavan, A S; Funk, L; Volans, A P

    1999-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture, although rare, is a limb threatening condition, which warrants emergency treatment. The case of acute compartment syndrome secondary to a gastrocnemius muscle tear of the right lower leg, in a non-athlete is reported. To our knowledge, this is the only description of acute compartment syndrome due to muscle rupture in a non-athlete.

  20. Ethnobotany as a pharmacological research tool and recent developments in CNS-active natural products from ethnobotanical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Will C; Mahady, Gail B; Bennett, Bradley C; Shiels, Laura; Savo, Valentina

    2009-08-01

    The science of ethnobotany is reviewed in light of its multi-disciplinary contributions to natural product research for the development of pharmaceuticals and pharmacological tools. Some of the issues reviewed involve ethical and cultural perspectives of healthcare and medicinal plants. While these are not usually part of the discussion of pharmacology, cultural concerns potentially provide both challenges and insight for field and laboratory researchers. Plant evolutionary issues are also considered as they relate to development of plant chemistry and accessing this through ethnobotanical methods. The discussion includes presentation of a range of CNS-active medicinal plants that have been recently examined in the field, laboratory and/or clinic. Each of these plants is used to illustrate one or more aspects about the valuable roles of ethnobotany in pharmacological research. We conclude with consideration of mutually beneficial future collaborations between field ethnobotanists and pharmacologists.

  1. TRPM2 Channel Aggravates CNS Inflammation and Cognitive Impairment via Activation of Microglia in Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanohara, Jun; Kakae, Masashi; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mori, Yasuo; Arai, Ken; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Kaneko, Shuji

    2018-04-04

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a characteristic seen in widespread CNS diseases, including neurodegenerative and mental disorders, and is commonly accompanied by cognitive impairment. Recently, several studies demonstrated that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion can induce the excessive inflammatory responses that precede neuronal dysfunction; however, the precise mechanism of cognitive impairment due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion remains unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca 2+ -permeable channel that is abundantly expressed in immune cells and is involved in aggravation of inflammatory responses. Therefore, we investigated the pathophysiological role of TRPM2 in a mouse chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model with bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). When male mice were subjected to BCAS, cognitive dysfunction and white matter injury at day 28 were significantly improved in TRPM2 knock-out (TRPM2-KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, whereas hippocampal damage was not observed. There were no differences in blood-brain barrier breakdown and H 2 O 2 production between the two genotypes at 14 and 28 d after BCAS. Cytokine production was significantly suppressed in BCAS-operated TRPM2-KO mice compared with WT mice at day 28. In addition, the number of Iba1-positive cells gradually decreased from day 14. Moreover, daily treatment with minocycline significantly improved cognitive perturbation. Surgical techniques using bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that activated Iba1-positive cells in white matter could be brain-resident microglia, not peripheral macrophages. Together, these findings suggest that microglia contribute to the aggravation of cognitive impairment by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and that TRPM2 may be a potential target for chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-related disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is manifested in a wide variety of CNS diseases, including neurodegenerative

  2. Targeting α4β2 nAChRs in CNS disorders: Perspectives on positive allosteric modulation as a therapeutic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grupe, Morten; Grunnet, Morten; Bastlund, Jesper F.

    2015-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels broadly involved in regulating neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) by conducting cation currents through the membrane of neurons. Many different nAChR subtypes exist with each their functional character......The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels broadly involved in regulating neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) by conducting cation currents through the membrane of neurons. Many different nAChR subtypes exist with each their functional...... characteristics, expression pattern and pharmacological profile. The focus of the present MiniReview is on the heteromeric α4β2 nAChR, as activity at this subtype contributes to cognitive functioning through interactions with multiple neurotransmitter systems and is implicated in various CNS disorders...... and temporal aspects of neurotransmission as well as higher subtype selectivity, hypothetically resulting in high clinical efficacy with minimal adverse effects. In this MiniReview, we describe the currently identified compounds, which potentiate the effects of agonists at the α4β2 nAChR. The potential...

  3. CD11c(hi) Dendritic Cells Regulate Ly-6C(hi) Monocyte Differentiation to Preserve Immune-privileged CNS in Lethal Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Han, Young Woo; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-12-02

    Although the roles of dendritic cells (DCs) in adaptive defense have been defined well, the contribution of DCs to T cell-independent innate defense and subsequent neuroimmunopathology in immune-privileged CNS upon infection with neurotropic viruses has not been completely defined. Notably, DC roles in regulating innate CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocyte functions during neuroinflammation have not yet been addressed. Using selective ablation of CD11c(hi)PDCA-1(int/lo) DCs without alteration in CD11c(int)PDCA-1(hi) plasmacytoid DC number, we found that CD11c(hi) DCs are essential to control neuroinflammation caused by infection with neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus, through early and increased infiltration of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes and higher expression of CC chemokines. More interestingly, selective CD11c(hi) DC ablation provided altered differentiation and function of infiltrated CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in the CNS through Flt3-L and GM-CSF, which was closely associated with severely enhanced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes generated in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated environment had a deleterious rather than protective role during neuroinflammation, and were more quickly recruited into inflamed CNS, depending on CCR2, thereby exacerbating neuroinflammation via enhanced supply of virus from the periphery. Therefore, our data demonstrate that CD11c(hi) DCs provide a critical and unexpected role to preserve the immune-privileged CNS in lethal neuroinflammation via regulating the differentiation, function, and trafficking of CD11b(+)Ly-6C(hi) monocytes.

  4. Heat-accumulator increases the comfort in the passenger-compartment and the driving-safety. Latentwaermespeicher erhoeht den Fahrkomfort und die Fahrsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blueher, P.

    1991-10-01

    The integration of a heat-accumulator into the coolant system can significantly increase the comfort in the passenger-compartment and contribute to an improvement of the driving-safety. The newly developed heat-accumulator provides the required amount of energy to allow for a rapid heating-up of the passenger-compartment after an engine-coldstart and to prevent misting of the windows, especially the windscreen. In developing the heat accumulator focus was especially pointed on the environmental protection by systematically using harmless and recycable materials. (orig.).

  5. Active induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by MOG35-55 peptide immunization is associated with differential responses in separate compartments of the choroid plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Nivetha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing awareness that, aside from producing cerebrospinal fluid, the choroid plexus (CP might be a key regulator of immune activity in the central nervous system (CNS during neuroinflammation. Specifically, the CP has recently been posited to control entry of sentinel T cells into the uninflamed CNS during the early stages of neuroinflammatory diseases, like multiple sclerosis (MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. As the CP is compartmentalized into a stromal core containing fenestrated capillaries devoid of typical blood–brain barrier properties, surrounded by a tight junction-expressing choroidal epithelium, each of these compartments might mount unique responses that instigate the neuroinflammatory process. Methods To discern responses of the respective CP stromal capillary and choroidal epithelial tissues during evolving neuroinflammation, we investigated morphology and in situ expression of 93 immune-related genes during early stages of EAE induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55. Specifically, 3-D immunofluorescent imaging was employed to gauge morphological changes, and laser capture microdissection was coupled to an Immune Panel TaqMan Low Density Array to detail alterations in gene expression patterns at these separate CP sites on days 9 and 15 post-immunization (p.i.. To resolve CP effects due to autoimmunity against MOG peptide, from those due to complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA and pertussis toxin (PTX included in the immunization, analysis was performed on MOG-CFA/PTX-treated, CFA/PTX-treated, and naïve cohorts. Results The CP became swollen and displayed significant molecular changes in response to MOG-CFA/PTX immunization. Both stromal capillary and choroidal epithelial tissues mounted vigorous, yet different, changes in expression of numerous genes over the time course analyzed - including those encoding adhesion

  6. Recent advances in the management of abdominal compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, T.B.; Ahmed, I.

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome is a systemic syndrome involving derangement in cardiovascular hemodynamics, respiratory and renal function as a result of sustained increase in intra-abdominal pressure. This results in multi-organ failure requiring prompt action and treatment. Presentation can be acute, chronic and acute on chronic. Initial diagnosis is clinical, confirmed by measurement of urinary bladder pressure. Treatment is abdominal decompression by laparostomy and delayed abdominal closure. Awareness among the surgeons has increased because laparoscopy has resulted in determination of intra-abdominal pressure as a readily measurable quantity. They have been able to appreciate the benefit of abdominal decompression by performing repeated planned laparotomies for trauma. (author)

  7. Pericardial effusion and pericardial compartments after open heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvernoy, O.; Larsson, S.G.; Persson, K.; Thuren, J.; Wikstroem, G.; Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala; Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with pericardial effusion after open heart surgery were investigated with computed tomography (CT). Twelve of the 33 patients also underwent echocardiography prior to pericardiocentesis. The effusions were typed according to the results of the CT investigation. Because of postoperative adhesions, typical patterns of localized pericardial effusions were found in 16 patients. The localized compartments were seen on the right and left side of the heart and around the aorta and the pulmonary artery. CT was therefore shown to be of value for selecting the approach for drainage with catheter pericardiocentesis. (orig.)

  8. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation pack ages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on the United States Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama. (authors)

  9. Containment shells of reactor compartments at foreign NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, A.P.; Savchenko, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The modern designes of containment shells (CS) of NPP reactor compartments is described. Much attention is paid to the PCS-3 project envisaging CS inclusion in the complex of NPP passive safety system. The PCS-3 system is developed in the USA for NPP with the improved PWR type reactor. The above system permits to cool the core quickly, to reduce steam pressure in CS down to a safe level and to prevent the discharge of radioactive products in the atmosphere in the case of accidents, even very serious, caused by loss of coolant and core dryout

  10. A two-compartment exposure device for foliar uptake study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Q.; Lin, H.; Zhang, X.L.; Li, Q.L.; Liu, S.Z.; Tao, S.

    2006-01-01

    An airtight two-chamber exposure devise was designed for investigating foliar uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by plants. The upper and the bottom chambers of the device were air-tightly separated by an aluminum foil and the plant aerial tissues and roots were exposed in the two chambers, respectively. The device was tested using maize exposed to several PAH species. Positive correlations between air and aerial tissue concentrations of the exposed PAH species were revealed. PAHs spiking in the culture solution had no influence on the leaf concentrations. -- A two-compartment gastight exposure device was developed for investigation of foliar uptake of PAHs by plants

  11. Arthroscopic meniscectomy in medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Joji; Shimoyama, Gishichiro; Shinozaki, Toshiro; Nagata, Kensei

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the results of arthroscopic meniscectomy in medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. The operation was performed on 25 knee joints (8 male, 17 female) with the mean age of 67 years. The mean period of follow-up was 19 months. Clinical results were more or less excellent, but radiological assessment suggested slight osteoarthritic changes. In addition, two cases progressed to subchondral bone collapse. Of 12 cases which had no bone marrow edema on MRI before surgery, six (50%) cases showed it at follow-up. These findings suggest a possible relationship between arthroscopic meniscectomy and later appearance of osteonecrosis in some cases. (author)

  12. CNS infiltration of peripheral immune cells: D-Day for neurodegenerative disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Gate, David; Town, Terrence

    2009-12-01

    While the central nervous system (CNS) was once thought to be excluded from surveillance by immune cells, a concept known as "immune privilege," it is now clear that immune responses do occur in the CNS-giving rise to the field of neuroimmunology. These CNS immune responses can be driven by endogenous (glial) and/or exogenous (peripheral leukocyte) sources and can serve either productive or pathological roles. Recent evidence from mouse models supports the notion that infiltration of peripheral monocytes/macrophages limits progression of Alzheimer's disease pathology and militates against West Nile virus encephalitis. In addition, infiltrating T lymphocytes may help spare neuronal loss in models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. On the other hand, CNS leukocyte penetration drives experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (a mouse model for the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis) and may also be pathological in both Parkinson's disease and human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. A critical understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for trafficking of immune cells from the periphery into the diseased CNS will be key to target these cells for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative diseases, thereby allowing neuroregenerative processes to ensue.

  13. Current approaches to enhance CNS delivery of drugs across the brain barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu CT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cui-Tao Lu,1 Ying-Zheng Zhao,2,3 Ho Lun Wong,4 Jun Cai,5 Lei Peng,2 Xin-Qiao Tian1 1The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Hainan Medical College, Haikou City, Hainan Province, People’s Republic of China; 3College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Pharmacy, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Departments of Pediatrics and Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: Although many agents have therapeutic potentials for central nervous system (CNS diseases, few of these agents have been clinically used because of the brain barriers. As the protective barrier of the CNS, the blood–brain barrier and the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier maintain the brain microenvironment, neuronal activity, and proper functioning of the CNS. Different strategies for efficient CNS delivery have been studied. This article reviews the current approaches to open or facilitate penetration across these barriers for enhanced drug delivery to the CNS. These approaches are summarized into three broad categories: noninvasive, invasive, and miscellaneous techniques. The progresses made using these approaches are reviewed, and the associated mechanisms and problems are discussed. Keywords: drug delivery system, blood–brain barrier (BBB, central nervous system, brain-targeted therapy, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF

  14. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells control persistence of viral CNS infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Reuter

    Full Text Available We earlier established a model of a persistent viral CNS infection using two week old immunologically normal (genetically unmodified mice and recombinant measles virus (MV. Using this model infection we investigated the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs as regulators of the immune response in the brain, and assessed whether the persistent CNS infection can be modulated by manipulation of Tregs in the periphery. CD4(+ CD25(+ Foxp3(+ Tregs were expanded or depleted during the persistent phase of the CNS infection, and the consequences for the virus-specific immune response and the extent of persistent infection were analyzed. Virus-specific CD8(+ T cells predominantly recognising the H-2D(b-presented viral hemagglutinin epitope MV-H(22-30 (RIVINREHL were quantified in the brain by pentamer staining. Expansion of Tregs after intraperitoneal (i.p. application of the superagonistic anti-CD28 antibody D665 inducing transient immunosuppression caused increased virus replication and spread in the CNS. In contrast, depletion of Tregs using diphtheria toxin (DT in DEREG (depletion of regulatory T cells-mice induced an increase of virus-specific CD8(+ effector T cells in the brain and caused a reduction of the persistent infection. These data indicate that manipulation of Tregs in the periphery can be utilized to regulate virus persistence in the CNS.

  15. Detail Design of the hydrogen system and the gas blanketing system for the HANARO-CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Hark Rho; Kim, Young Ki; Wu, Sang Ik; Kim, Bong Su; Lee, Yong Seop

    2007-04-01

    The cold neutron source (CNS), which will be installed in the vertical CN hole of the reflector tank at HANARO, makes thermal neutrons to moderate into the cold neutrons with the ranges of 0.1 ∼ 10 meV passing through a moderator at about 22K. A moderator to produce cold neutrons is liquid hydrogen, which liquefies by the heat transfer with cryogenic helium flowing from the helium refrigeration system (HRS). Because of its installed location, the hydrogen system is designed to be surrounded by the gas blanketing system to notify the leakage on the system and to prevent hydrogen leakage out of the CNS. The hydrogen system, consisted of hydrogen charging unit, hydrogen storage unit, hydrogen buffer tank, and hydrogen piping, is designed to smoothly and safely supply hydrogen to and to draw back hydrogen from the IPA of the CNS under the HRS operation mode. Described is that calculation for total required hydrogen amount in the CNS as well as operation schemes of the hydrogen system. The gas blanketing system (GBS) is designed for the supply of the compressed nitrogen gas into the air pressurized valves for the CNS, to isolate the hydrogen system from the air and the water, and to prevent air or water intrusion into the vacuum system as well as the hydrogen system. All detail descriptions are shown inhere as well as the operation scheme for the GBS

  16. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 Republic of Korea; Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8103, USA; These authors contributed equally to the work. Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, ...

  17. Extending roGFP Emission via Förster-Type Resonance Energy Transfer Relay Enables Simultaneous Dual Compartment Ratiometric Redox Imaging in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Stevie; Trull, Keelan J; Snaider, Jordan; Doan, Sara; Tat, Kiet; Huang, Libai; Tantama, Mathew

    2017-11-22

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate both intercellular and intraorganellar signaling, and ROS propagate oxidative stress between cellular compartments such as mitochondria and the cytosol. Each cellular compartment contains its own sources of ROS as well as antioxidant mechanisms, which contribute to dynamic fluctuations in ROS levels that occur during signaling, metabolism, and stress. However, the coupling of redox dynamics between cellular compartments has not been well studied because of the lack of available sensors to simultaneously measure more than one subcellular compartment in the same cell. Currently, the redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein, roGFP, has been used extensively to study compartment-specific redox dynamics because it provides a quantitative ratiometric readout and it is amenable to subcellular targeting as a genetically encoded sensor. Here, we report a new family of genetically encoded fluorescent protein sensors that extend the fluorescence emission of roGFP via Förster-type resonance energy transfer to an acceptor red fluorescent protein for dual-color live-cell microscopy. We characterize the redox and optical properties of the sensor proteins, and we demonstrate that they can be used to simultaneously measure cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS in living cells. Furthermore, we use these sensors to reveal cell-to-cell heterogeneity in redox coupling between the cytosol and mitochondria when neuroblastoma cells are exposed to reductive and metabolic stresses.

  18. Delayed Presentation of Gluteal Compartment Syndrome: The Argument for Fasciotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient in his fifties presented to his local hospital with numbness and weakness of the right leg which left him unable to mobilise. He reported injecting heroin the previous morning. Following an initial diagnosis of acute limb ischaemia the patient was transferred to a tertiary centre where Computed Tomography Angiography was reported as normal. Detailed neurological examination revealed weakness in hip flexion and extension (1/5 on the Medical Research Council scale with complete paralysis of muscle groups distal to this. Sensation to pinprick and light touch was globally reduced. Blood tests revealed acute kidney injury with raised creatinine kinase and the patient was treated for rhabdomyolysis. Orthopaedic referral was made the following day and a diagnosis of gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS was made. Emergency fasciotomy was performed 56 hours after the onset of symptoms. There was immediate neurological improvement following decompression and the patient was rehabilitated with complete nerve recovery and function at eight-week follow-up. This is the first documented case of full functional recovery following a delayed presentation of GCS with sciatic nerve palsy. We discuss the arguments for and against fasciotomy in cases of compartment syndrome with significant delay in presentation or diagnosis.

  19. Shock absorber system for nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, J.F.; Rudd, G.E.; Pradhan, A.V.; George, J.A.; Lippincott, H.W.; Sutherland, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A shock absorber system was designed to absorb the energy imparted to doors in a nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment as they swing rapidly to an open position. Each shock absorber which is installed on a wall adjacent to each door is large and must absorb up to about 40,000 foot pounds of energy. The basic shock absorber component comprises foam enclosed in a synthetic fabric bag having a volume about twice the foam volume. A stainless steel knitted mesh bag of the same volume as the fabric bag, contains the fabric bag and its enclosed foam. To protect the foam and bags during construction activities at the reactor site and from the shearing action of the doors, a protective sheet metal cover is installed over the shock absorber ends and the surface to be contacted by the moving door. With the above shock absorber mounted on a wall behind each door, as the door is forcibly opened by steam pressure and air resulting from a pipe break in the reactor compartment, it swings at a high velocity into contact with the shock absorber, crushes the foam and forces it into the fabric bag excess material thus containing the foam fragmented particles, and minimizes build-up of pressure in the bag as a result of the applied compressive force

  20. Involvement of the mitochondrial compartment in human NCL fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezzini, Francesco; Gismondi, Floriana; Tessa, Alessandra; Tonin, Paola; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Mole, Sara E.; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Simonati, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mitochondrial reticulum fragmentation occurs in human CLN1 and CLN6 fibroblasts. ► Likewise mitochondrial shift-to periphery and decreased mitochondrial density are seen. ► Enhanced caspase-mediated apoptosis occurs following STS treatment in CLN1 fibroblasts. -- Abstract: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood, characterized by the endo-lysosomal storage of autofluorescent material. Impaired mitochondrial function is often associated with neurodegeneration, possibly related to the apoptotic cascade. In this study we investigated the possible effects of lysosomal accumulation on the mitochondrial compartment in the fibroblasts of two NCL forms, CLN1 and CLN6. Fragmented mitochondrial reticulum was observed in all cells by using the intravital fluorescent marker Mitotracker, mainly in the perinuclear region. This was also associated with intense signal from the lysosomal markers Lysotracker and LAMP2. Likewise, mitochondria appeared to be reduced in number and shifted to the cell periphery by electron microscopy; moreover the mitochondrial markers VDCA and COX IV were reduced following quantitative Western blot analysis. Whilst there was no evidence of increased cell death under basal condition, we observed a significant increase in apoptotic nuclei following Staurosporine treatment in CLN1 cells only. In conclusion, the mitochondrial compartment is affected in NCL fibroblasts invitro, and CLN1 cells seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of stressed mitochondrial membrane than CLN6 cells.

  1. Identifiability Results for Several Classes of Linear Compartment Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Sullivant, Seth; Eisenberg, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    Identifiability concerns finding which unknown parameters of a model can be estimated, uniquely or otherwise, from given input-output data. If some subset of the parameters of a model cannot be determined given input-output data, then we say the model is unidentifiable. In this work, we study linear compartment models, which are a class of biological models commonly used in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and ecology. In past work, we used commutative algebra and graph theory to identify a class of linear compartment models that we call identifiable cycle models, which are unidentifiable but have the simplest possible identifiable functions (so-called monomial cycles). Here we show how to modify identifiable cycle models by adding inputs, adding outputs, or removing leaks, in such a way that we obtain an identifiable model. We also prove a constructive result on how to combine identifiable models, each corresponding to strongly connected graphs, into a larger identifiable model. We apply these theoretical results to several real-world biological models from physiology, cell biology, and ecology.

  2. A multiple-compartment model for biokinetics studies in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Fermin; Pietrobron, Flavio; Fonseca, Agnes M.F.; Mol, Anderson W.; Rodriguez, Oscar; Guzman, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    In the present work is used the system of linear equations based in the general Assimakopoulos's GMCM model , for the development of a new method that will determine the flow's parameters and transfer coefficients in plants. The need of mathematical models to quantify the penetration of a trace substance in animals and plants, has often been stressed in the literature. Usually, in radiological environment studies, it is used the mean value of contaminant concentrations on whole or edible part plant body, without taking in account vegetable physiology regularities. In this work concepts and mathematical formulation of a Vegetable Multi-compartment Model (VMCM), taking into account the plant's physiology regularities is presented. The model based in general ideas of the GMCM , and statistical Square Minimum Method STATFLUX is proposed to use in inverse sense: the experimental time dependence of concentration in each compartment, should be input, and the parameters should be determined from this data in a statistical approach. The case of Uranium metabolism is discussed. (author)

  3. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb of 220 g/L, hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion and respiratory (ventilator support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients.

  4. Improved hydrogen combustion model for multi-compartment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Masao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    NUPEC has been improving a hydrogen combustion model in MELCOR code for severe accident analysis. In the proposed combustion model, the flame velocity in a node was predicted using six different flame front shapes of fireball, prism, bubble, spherical jet, plane jet, and parallelepiped. A verification study of the proposed model was carried out using the NUPEC large-scale combustion test results following the previous work in which the GRS/Battelle multi-compartment combustion test results had been used. The selected test cases for the study were the premixed test and the scenario-oriented test which simulated the severe accident sequences of an actual plant. The improved MELCOR code replaced by the proposed model could predict sufficiently both results of the premixed test and the scenario-oriented test of NUPEC large-scale test. The improved MELCOR code was confirmed to simulate the combustion behavior in the multi-compartment containment vessel during a severe accident with acceptable degree of accuracy. Application of the new model to the LWR severe accident analysis will be continued. (author)

  5. Atraumatic medial collateral ligament oedema in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergin, D.; Keogh, C.; O'Connell, M.; Zoga, A.; Rowe, D.; Shah, B.; Eustace, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and determine the prevalence of atraumatic medial collateral oedema identified in patients with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Design and patients: Sixty patients, 30 patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 to 4) and 30 age-matched patients with atraumatic knee pain without osteoarthritis, referred for MR imaging over a 2 year period were included in the study. In each case, severity of osteoarthritis was recorded on radiographs and correlated with the presence or absence of medial collateral ligament oedema at MR imaging. Results: Medial collateral oedema was identified in 27 of the 30 patients with osteoarthritis, of whom 14 had grade 1 oedema and 13 had grade 2 oedema compared with the presence of medial collateral ligament oedema (grade 1) in only two of the 30 control patients without osteoarthritis (P<<0.0001). Conclusion: Medial collateral oedema is common in patients with osteoarthritis in the absence of trauma. When identified, medial collateral ligament oedema should be considered to be a feature of osteoarthritis and should not be incorrectly attributed to an acute traumatic injury. (orig.)

  6. [11C]NS8880, a promising PET radiotracer targeting the norepinephrine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Karina Højrup; Peters, Dan; Nielsen, Elsebeth Ø

    2014-01-01

    -azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (NS8880), targeting NET. NS8880 has an in vitro binding profile comparable to desipramine and is structurally not related to reboxetine. METHODS: Labeling of NS8880 with [11C] was achieved by a non-conventional technique: substitution of pyridinyl fluorine with [11C]methanolate...... yields with high purity. The PET in vivo evaluation in pig and rat revealed a rapid brain uptake of [11C]NS8880 and fast obtaining of equilibrium. Highest binding was observed in thalamic and hypothalamic regions. Pretreatment with desipramine efficiently reduced binding of [11C]NS8880. CONCLUSION: Based...... on the pre-clinical results obtained so far [11C]NS8880 displays promising properties for PET imaging of NET....

  7. Serial brain MRI findings in CNS involvement of familial erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kyung Soo; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Suh, Jeong Soo; Ryu, Kyung Ha; Hong, Ki Sook; Kim, Hak Jin

    2002-01-01

    Familial erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a fatal early childhood disorder characterized by multiorgan lymphohistiocytic infiltration and active hemophagocytosis. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is not uncommon and is characterized by rapidly progressive tissue damage affecting both the gray and white matter. We encountered a case of familial erythrophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with CNS involvement. Initial T2-weighted MRI of the brain demonstrated high signal intensity in the right thalamus, though after chemotherapy, which led to the relief of neurologic symptoms, this disappeared. After four months. however, the patient's neurologic symptoms recurred, and follow-up T2-weighted MR images showed high signal intensity in the thalami, basal ganglia, and cerebral and cerebellar white matter. Brain MRI is a useful imaging modality for the evaluation of CNS involvement and monitoring the response to treatment

  8. Analysis of neurocognitive function and CNS endpoints in the PROTEA trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Amanda; Johanssen, Veronika; Gerstoft, Jan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: During treatment with protease inhibitor monotherapy, the number of antiretrovirals with therapeutic concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is lower, compared to standard triple therapy. However, the clinical consequences are unclear. METHODS: A total of 273 patients with HIV...... and the Grooved Pegboard Test at screening, baseline and at Week 48. A global neurocognitive score (NPZ-5) was derived by averaging the standardized results of the five domains. In a central nervous system (CNS) sub-study (n=70), HIV RNA levels in the CNS were evaluated at baseline and Week 48. Clinical adverse...... events related to the CNS were collected at each visit. RESULTS: Patients were 83% male and 88% White, with median age 43 years. There were more patients with nadir CD4 count below 200 cells/µL in the DRV/r monotherapy arm (41/137, 30%) than the triple therapy arm (30/136, 22%). At Week 48...

  9. Intellectual abilities among survivors of childhood leukaemia as a function of CNS irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiser, C.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-eight children in remission at least 2 years after completing chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were assessed on standardised psychological tests. It was found that 7 who never had central nervous system (CNS) irradiation and 9 having prophylactic CNS irradiation at least 6 months after diagnosis tended to perform at average or above levels, while those 10 each having prophylactic CNS irradiation (within 2 months of diagnosis) were generally at lower ability. Within the latter group 3 children showed serious intellectual impairments, while the group as a whole functioned especially poorly on quantitative tasks and those involving speeded performance with abstract material. General language ability was not affected. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. (author)

  10. Neonatal CNS infection and inflammation caused by Ureaplasma species: rare or relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Kirsten; Speer, Christian P

    2015-02-01

    Colonization with Ureaplasma species has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, and perinatal transmission has been implicated in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm neonates. Little is known about Ureaplasma-mediated infection and inflammation of the CNS in neonates. Controversy remains concerning its incidence and implication in the pathogenesis of neonatal brain injury. In vivo and in vitro data are limited. Despite improving care options for extremely immature preterm infants, relevant complications remain. Systematic knowledge of ureaplasmal infection may be of great benefit. This review aims to summarize pathogenic mechanisms, clinical data and diagnostic pitfalls. Studies in preterm and term neonates are critically discussed with regard to their limitations. Clinical questions concerning therapy or prophylaxis are posed. We conclude that ureaplasmas may be true pathogens, especially in preterm neonates, and may cause CNS inflammation in a complex interplay of host susceptibility, serovar pathogenicity and gestational age-dependent CNS vulnerability.

  11. Exercise, Obesity and CNS Control of Metabolic Homeostasis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    John K. Smith

    2018-01-01

    This review details the manner in which the central nervous system regulates metabolic homeostasis in normal weight and obese rodents and humans. It includes a review of the homeostatic contributions of neurons located in the hypothalamus, the midbrain and limbic structures, the pons and the medullary area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarius, and vagus nucleus, and details how these brain regions respond to circulating levels of orexigenic hormones, such as ghrelin, and anorexigenic hormones...

  12. CD11c-expressing cells affect Treg behavior in the meninges during CNS infection1

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Carleigh A.; Overall, Christopher; Konradt, Christoph; O’Hara Hall, Aisling C.; Hayes, Nikolas W.; Wagage, Sagie; John, Beena; Christian, David A.; Hunter, Christopher A.; Harris, Tajie H.

    2017-01-01

    Treg cells play an important role in the CNS during multiple infections as well as autoimmune inflammation, but the behavior of this cell type in the CNS has not been explored. In mice, infection with Toxoplasma gondii leads to a Th1-polarized parasite-specific effector T cell response in the brain. Similarly, the Treg cells in the CNS during T. gondii infection are Th1-polarized, exemplified by T-bet, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression. Unlike effector CD4+ T cells, an MHC Class II tetramer reagent specific for T. gondii did not recognize Treg cells isolated from the CNS. Likewise, TCR sequencing revealed minimal overlap in TCR sequence between effector and regulatory T cells in the CNS. Whereas effector T cells are found in the brain parenchyma where parasites are present, Treg cells were restricted to the meninges and perivascular spaces. The use of intravital imaging revealed that activated CD4+ T cells within the meninges were highly migratory, while Treg cells moved more slowly and were found in close association with CD11c+ cells. To test whether the behavior of Tregs in the meninges is influenced by interactions with CD11c+ cells, mice were treated with anti-LFA-1 antibodies to reduce the number of CD11c+ cells in this space. The anti-LFA-1 treatment led to fewer contacts between Tregs and the remaining CD11c+ cells and increased the speed of Treg cell migration. These data suggest that Treg cells are anatomically restricted within the CNS and the interaction with CD11c+ populations regulates their local behavior during T. gondii infection. PMID:28389591

  13. Kinetic modelling of [123I]CNS 1261--a potential SPET tracer for the NMDA receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, Kjell; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Mulligan, Rachel S.; Gunn, Roger N; Cunningham, Vincent J.; Owens, Jonathan; Wyper, David; Ell, Peter J.; Pilowsky, Lyn S.

    2003-01-01

    N-(1-napthyl)-N'-(3-[ 123 I]-iodophenyl)-N-methylguanidine ([ 123 I]CNS 1261) is a novel SPET ligand developed for imaging the NMDA receptor intra-channel MK 801/PCP/ketamine site. Data was acquired in 7 healthy volunteers after bolus injection of [ 123 I]CNS 1261. Kinetic modeling showed reversible tracer binding. Arterial and venous time-activity curves overlapped after 90 min. The rank order of binding was: Thalamus > striatum > cortical regions > white matter. This distribution concurs with [ 11 C]-ketamine and [ 18 F]-memantine PET studies . These data provide a methodological basis for further direct in vivo challenge studies

  14. Effects of x rays on the morphology and physiology of the CNS blood vessels of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysz, J [Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1974-01-01

    Irradiation of the CNS of mice with 4000 to 7600 R produces transitional disorder of the permeability of vascular walls, followed by a permanent (irreversible) degenerative lesion of blood capillaries and the surrounding astrogial cells. Intensity of this alterations may however not be the same in different terminal blood vessels. It is very likely that the above described lesion appearing in the acute phase can be the main cause of further alterations in the CNS which are observed in late phase of postradiation disease.

  15. Lentiviral-mediated administration of IL-25 in the CNS induces alternative activation of microglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiorino, C; Khorooshi, R; Ruffini, F

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-25 (IL-25) is the only anti-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-17 family, and it has been shown to be efficacious in inhibiting neuroinflammation. Known for its effects on cells of the adaptive immune system, it has been more recently described to be effective also on cells of the innate...... was partly inhibited and the CNS protected from immune-mediated damage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of M2 shift (alternative activation) induced in vivo on CNS-resident myeloid cells by gene therapy, and may constitute a promising strategy to investigate the potential role of protective...

  16. Metallothionein-1+2 protect the CNS after a focal brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giralt, Mercedes; Penkowa, Milena; Lago, Natalia

    2002-01-01

    We have evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-1+2 (MT-1+2) in the CNS following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex. In comparison to normal mice, transgenic mice overexpressing the MT-1 isoform (TgMTI* mice) showed a significant decrease of the number...... dramatically reduced the cryolesion-induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. Remarkably, these effects were also obtained by the intraperitoneal administration of MT-2 to both normal and MT-1+2 knock-out mice. These results fully support the notion that MT-1+2 are essential in the CNS for coping...

  17. Imaging aspects of neurologic emergencies in children treated for non-CNS malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, S.C.; Langston, J.; Rodriguez-Galindo, C.; Furman, W.L.; Thompson, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    There is a paucity of radiologic literature addressing neurologic emergencies in children receiving therapy for non-CNS primary malignancies. In the acute setting, many of these children present to local community hospitals. This pictorial is from a single institutional experience describing the spectrum of neurologic emergencies seen in children with non-CNS cancers. We hope to familiarize pediatric radiologists with these entities in order to expedite diagnosis, facilitate treatment, and minimize morbity and mortality that may be associated with these complications. (orig.)

  18. Neuroprotective effects of estrogen in CNS injuries: insights from animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghava N

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Narayan Raghava,1 Bhaskar C Das,2 Swapan K Ray1 1Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Among the estrogens that are biosynthesized in the human body, 17β-estradiol (estradiol or E2 is the most common and the best estrogen for neuroprotection in animal models of the central nervous system (CNS injuries such as spinal cord injury (SCI, traumatic brain injury (TBI, and ischemic brain injury (IBI. These CNS injuries are not only serious health problems, but also enormous economic burden on the patients, their families, and the society at large. Studies from animal models of these CNS injuries provide insights into the multiple neuroprotective mechanisms of E2 and also suggest the possibility of translating the therapeutic efficacy of E2 in the treatment SCI, TBI, and IBI in humans in the near future. The pathophysiology of these injuries includes loss of motor function in the limbs, arms and their extremities, cognitive deficit, and many other serious consequences including life-threatening paralysis, infection, and even death. The potential application of E2 therapy to treat the CNS injuries may become a trend as the results are showing significant therapeutic benefits of E2 for neuroprotection when administered into the animal models of SCI, TBI, and IBI. This article describes the plausible mechanisms how E2 works with or without the involvement of estrogen receptors and provides an overview of the known neuroprotective effects of E2 in these three CNS injuries in different animal models. Because activation of estrogen receptors has profound implications in maintaining and also affecting normal physiology, there are notable impediments in translating E2 therapy to the clinics for neuroprotection in CNS injuries in humans. While E2 may not yet be the sole molecule for

  19. Dysregulated RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) Assembly within CNS Corresponds with Abnormal miRNA Expression during Autoimmune Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Przemysław; Cwiklińska, Hanna; Mycko, Marcin P; Cichalewska, Maria; Domowicz, Małgorzata; Lewkowicz, Natalia; Jurewicz, Anna; Selmaj, Krzysztof W

    2015-05-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) associate with Argonaute (Ago), GW182, and FXR1 proteins to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). RISCs represent a critical checkpoint in the regulation and bioavailability of miRNAs. Recent studies have revealed dysregulation of miRNAs in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, the function of RISCs in EAE and MS is largely unknown. Here, we examined the expression of Ago, GW182, and FXR1 in CNS tissue, oligodendrocytes (OLs), brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, and CD3(+)splenocytes (SCs) of EAE mic, and found that global RISC protein levels were significantly dysregulated. Specifically, Ago2 and FXR1 levels were decreased in OLs and brain-infiltrating T cells in EAE mice. Accordingly, assembly of Ago2/GW182/FXR1 complexes in EAE brain tissues was disrupted, as confirmed by immunoprecipitation experiments. In parallel with alterations in RISC complex content in OLs, we found downregulation of miRNAs essential for differentiation and survival of OLs and myelin synthesis. In brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, aberrant RISC formation contributed to miRNA-dependent proinflammatory helper T-cell polarization. In CD3(+) SCs, we found increased expression of both Ago2 and FXR1 in EAE compared with nonimmunized mice. Therefore, our results demonstrate a gradient in expression of miRNA between primary activated T cells in the periphery and polarized CNS-infiltrating T cells. These results suggest that, in polarized autoreactive effector T cells, miRNA synthesis is inhibited in response to dysregulated RISC assembly, allowing these cells to maintain a highly specific proinflammatory program. Therefore, our findings may provide a mechanism that leads to miRNA dysregulation in EAE/MS. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357521-17$15.00/0.

  20. Estimation of Water Footprint Compartments in National Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ababaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water use and pollution have raised to a critical level in many compartments of the world. If humankind is to meet the challenges over the coming fifty years, the agricultural share of water use has to be substantially reduced. In this study, a modern yet simple approach has been proposed through the introduction concept ‘Water Footprint’ (WF. This concept can be used to study the connection between each product and the water allocation to produce that product. This research estimates the green, blue and gray WF of wheat in Iran. Also a new WF compartment (white is used that is related about irrigation water loss. Materials and Methods: The national green (Effective precipitation, blue (Net irrigation requirement, gray (For diluting chemical fertilizers and white (Irrigation water losses water footprints (WF of wheat production were estimated for fifteen major wheat producing provinces of Iran. Evapotranspiration, irrigation requirement, gross irrigation requirement and effective rainfall were got using the AGWAT model. Yields of irrigated and rain-fed lands of each province were got from Iran Agricultural-Jihad Ministry. Another compartment of the wheat production WF is related about the volume of water required to assimilate the fertilizers leached in runoff (gray WF. Moreover, a new concept of white water footprint was proposed here and represents irrigation water losses, which was neglected in the original calculation framework. Finally, the national WF compartments of wheat production were estimated by taking the average of each compartment over all the provinces weighted by the share of each province in total wheat production of the selected provinces. Results and Discussion: In 2006-2012, more than 67% of the national wheat production was irrigated and 32.3% were rain-fed, on average, while 37.9% of the total wheat-cultivated lands were irrigated and 62.1% was rain-fed from more than 6,568 -ha. The total national WF of

  1. Mixing of radiolytic hydrogen generated within a containment compartment following a LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.; Gido, R.G.

    1978-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine hydrogen concentration variations with position and time in a closed containment compartment with radiolytic hydrogen generation in the water on the compartment floor following a Loss-of-Coolant-Accident (LOCA). One application is to determine the potential difference between the compartment maximum hydrogen concentration and a hydrogen detector reading, due to the detector location. Three possible mechanisms for hydrogen transport in the compartment were investigated: (1) molecular diffusion, (2) possible bubble formation and motion, and (3) natural convection flows. A base case cubic compartment with 6.55-m (21.5-ft) height was analyzed. Parameter studies were used to determine the sensitivity of results to compartment size, hydrogen generation rates, diffusion coefficients, and the temperature difference between the floor and the ceiling and walls of the compartment. Diffusion modeling indicates that if no other mixing mechanism is present for the base case, the maximum hydrogen volume percent (vol percent) concentration difference between the compartment floor and ceiling will be 4.8 percent. It will be 24.5 days before the maximum concentration difference is less than 0.5 percent. Bubbles do not appear to be a potential source of hydrogen pocketing in a containment compartment. Compartment natural convection circulation rates for a 2.8 K (5 0 F) temperature difference between the floor and the ceiling and walls are estimated to be at least the equivalent of 1 compartment volume per hour and probably in the range of 4 to 9 compartment volumes per hour. Related natural convection studies indicate there will be turbulent mixing in the compartment for a 2.8 K (5 0 F) temperature difference between the floor and the ceiling and walls

  2. Rapid development of anterotibial compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis in a patient with primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Paul; Choe, Michelle S; Croxson, Michael S

    2012-06-01

    Anterior compartment syndrome (ACS) and rhabdomyolysis are rare complications of hypothyroid myopathy. We report the case of a young man with rapid onset of ACS who presented with simultaneous primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency associated with acute renal failure, hyponatremia, and hyperkalemia. A 22-year-old man presenting with a one-month history of tiredness, hyperpigmentation, and cramps in his calves was found to have severe bilateral foot drop. Investigations revealed severe primary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency, renal failure, and evidence of rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria. Abnormal biochemical findings included serum sodium of 110 mM, serum potassium of 6.9 mM, and serum creatine kinase (CK) of >25,000 IU/L. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his legs showed changes of myonecrosis confined to anterior tibial muscles typical of ACS. After treatment with intravenous fluids, potassium-lowering therapies, thyroxine, and hydrocortisone, his renal and metabolic function returned to normal, but irreversible bilateral foot drop persisted. A young man with primary hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hyponatremia, and hyperkalemia presented with severe myopathy, such that muscle necrosis, apparently confined to the anterior tibial compartment on MRI, led to rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, and irreversible bilateral peroneal nerve damage. It is possible that other patients with primary hypothyroidism and marked elevations of CK without widespread myopathy or rhabdomyolysis may demonstrate evidence of differential muscle effects in the anterior compartment when assessed by MRI, but that this patient also had adrenal insufficiency raises the possibility that this was a contributing factor. Severe thyroid myopathy and rhabdomyolysis may be associated with anatomic susceptibility to ACS, particularly in the presence of concomitant adrenal insufficiency. MRI examination reveals a distinctive appearance of myonecrosis confined to

  3. Significance and function of different spinal collateral compartments following thoracic aortic surgery: immediate versus long-term flow compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Philipp; Bischoff, Moritz S; Brenner, Robert; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-05-01

    Iatrogenic paraplegia has been accompanying cardiovascular surgery since its beginning. As a result, surgeons have been developing many theories about the exact mechanisms of this devastating complication. Thus, the impact of single arteries that contribute to the spinal perfusion is one of the most discussed subjects in modern surgery. The subsequent decision of reattachment or the permanent disconnection of these intercostal arteries divides the surgical community. On the one hand, the anatomical or vascular approach pleads for the immediate reimplantation to reconstruct the anatomical situation. On the other hand, the decision of the permanent disconnection aims at avoiding stealing phenomenon away from the spinal vascular network. This spinal collateral network can be described as consisting of three components-the intraspinal and two paraspinal compartments-that feed the nutrient arteries of the spinal cord. The exact functional impact of the different compartments of the collateral network remains poorly understood. In this review, the function of the intraspinal compartment in the context of collateral network principle as an immediate emergency backup system is described. The exact structure and architectural principles of the intraspinal compartment are described. The critical parameters with regard to the risk of postoperative spinal cord ischaemia are the number of anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) and the distance between them in relation to the longitudinal extent of aortic disease. The paraspinal network as a sleeping reserve is proposed as the long-term backup system. This sleeping reserve has to be activated by arteriogenic stimuli. These are presented briefly, and prior findings regarding arteriogenesis are discussed in the light of the collateral network concept. Finally, the role of preoperative visualization of the ARMAs in order to evaluate the risk of postoperative paraplegia is emphasized.

  4. Pediatric Nonfracture Acute Compartment Syndrome: A Review of 39 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kristin; Glotzbecker, Michael; Miller, Patricia E; Hresko, Michael T; Hedequist, Daniel; Shore, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome in the absence of fracture is rare and poorly described within the pediatric literature. The purpose of this study was to report the varying etiologies, risk factors, and treatment outcomes associated with pediatric nonfracture acute compartment syndrome (NFACS). We conducted a retrospective chart review on 37 children who suffered a NFACS and were treated at a single pediatric trauma center between 1997 and 2013. Demographic, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome characteristics were reviewed. Five causal groups were generated: trauma, exercise related (acute presentation after exercise without trauma), infectious, vascular, and postoperative (in the absence of osteotomy). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors of NFACS. P-values 39 cases of NFRCS in 37 children [6 females, 31 males, mean age of 11.7 y (SD+7.2 y)]. The leg was the most commonly involved limb (29 cases, 74%). Diagnosis of NFRCS was made either by compartment pressure monitoring [59%, 23/39 cases, mean pressure 66 mm Hg (SD+28)] or by clinical examination. According to etiology, vascular was most common (11/39, 28%), followed by trauma (10/39, 26%) and postoperative (8/39, 21%), with exertion and infection representing a small proportion (6/39, 15% and 4/39, 10%, respectively). Pain was present in 33 cases (85%), swelling in 28 cases (72%), paresthesias in 13 cases (33%), motor deficit in 12 cases (31%), and poor perfusion in 11 cases (28%). Average time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 48 hours (IQR, 9 to 96 h). At surgery, 21 patients (54%) had evidence of myonecrosis. Children required an average of 3 surgeries for wound closure. The median time to follow-up was 232 days (IQR, 73 to 608 d). A total of 54% made a full recovery, whereas 31% suffered a persistent neurological or functional deficit. NFACS in children is associated with a delay in diagnosis and a high rate of myonecrosis. Timely assessment with high clinical suspicion is

  5. Microbial diversity in different compartments of an aquaponics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmautz, Zala; Graber, Andreas; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Goesmann, Alexander; Junge, Ranka; Smits, Theo H M

    2017-05-01

    Aquaponics is a solution for sustainable production of fish and plants in a single semi-closed system, where nutrient-rich water from the aquaculture provides nutrients for plant growth. We examined the microbial communities within an experimental aquaponics system. Whereas the fish feces contained a separate community dominated by bacteria of the genus Cetobacterium, the samples from plant roots, biofilter, and periphyton were more similar to each other, while the communities were more diverse. Detailed examination of the data gave the first indications to functional groups of organisms in the different compartments of the aquaponic system. As other nitrifiers other than members of the genus Nitrospira were only present at low numbers, it was anticipated that Nitrospirae may perform the nitrification process in the biofilm.

  6. Cellular endocytic compartment localization of expressed canine CD1 molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjærff, Mette; Keller, Stefan M.; Affolter, Verena K.

    2016-01-01

    CD1 molecules are glycoproteins present primarily on dendritic cells (DCs), which recognize and presenta variety of foreign- and self-lipid antigens to T-cells. Humans have five different CD1 isoforms that sur-vey distinct cellular compartments allowing for recognition of a large repertoire...... onlya diminished GFP expression. In conclusion, canine CD1 transfectants show distinct localization patternsthat are similar to human CD1 proteins with the exception of the canine CD1d isoform, which most likelyis non-functional. These findings imply that canine CD1 localization overall resembles human...... CD1 traf-ficking patterns. This knowledge is important for the understanding of lipid antigen-receptor immunityin the dog....

  7. Abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Izadpanah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominoplasty is among the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. Despite high complication rate, abdominal contouring procedures are expected to rise in popularity with the advent of bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of gastric bypass surgery have an elevated incidence of small bowel obstruction from internal herniation, which is associated with non-specific upper abdominal pain, nausea, and a decrease in appetite. Internal hernias, when subjected to elevated intra-abdominal pressures, have a high-risk of developing ischemic bowel. We present a case report of patient with previous laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass who developed acute ischemic bowel leading to abdominal compartment syndrome following abdominoplasty. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature. We herein emphasise on the subtle symptoms and signs that warrant further investigations in prospective patients for an abdominal contouring procedure with a prior history of gastric bypass surgery.

  8. Geochemical isotope compartment model of the nitrogen cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, G.; Wetzel, K.; Stiehl, G.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the global cycle of nitrogen and its isotopes is described. It takes into account geochemical reservoirs (nitrogen in magmatic metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and in the atmosphere) and the nitrogen exchange between magmatic rocks and the outer mantle, the transition of nitrogen exchange between sedimentary rocks and the atmosphere. With the aid of the mathematical formalisms of the compartment theory and on the basis of all available delta 11 N values assumptions regarding the isotope effects in forming these nitrogen fluxes data have been obtained on the degree of the nitrogen exchange between the earth crust and the outer mantle and on other nitrogen fluxes characterizing the global nitrogen cycle. (author)

  9. COMPBRN III: a computer code for modeling compartment fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, V.; Siu, N.; Apostolakis, G.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    The computer code COMPBRN III deterministically models the behavior of compartment fires. This code is an improvement of the original COMPBRN codes. It employs a different air entrainment model and numerical scheme to estimate properties of the ceiling hot gas layer model. Moreover, COMPBRN III incorporates a number of improvements in shape factor calculations and error checking, which distinguish it from the COMPBRN II code. This report presents the ceiling hot gas layer model employed by COMPBRN III as well as several other modifications. Information necessary to run COMPBRN III, including descriptions of required input and resulting output, are also presented. Simulation of experiments and a sample problem are included to demonstrate the usage of the code. 37 figs., 46 refs

  10. Is risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse related to adjuvant taxane treatment in node-positive breast cancer? Results of the CNS substudy in the intergroup Phase III BIG 02-98 Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pestalozzi, B.C.; Francis, P.; Quinaux, E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer central nervous system (CNS) metastases are an increasingly important problem because of high CNS relapse rates in patients treated with trastuzumab and/or taxanes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated data from 2887 node-positive breast cancer patients randomised in the BIG...

  11. The intrinsic renal compartment syndrome: new perspectives in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrler, Tanja; Tischer, Anne; Meyer, Andreas; Feiler, Sergej; Guba, Markus; Nowak, Sebastian; Rentsch, Markus; Bartenstein, Peter; Hacker, Marcus; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2010-01-15

    Inflammatory edema after ischemia-reperfusion may impair renal allograft function after kidney transplantation. This study examines the effect of edema-related pressure elevation on renal function and describes a simple method to relieve pressure within the renal compartment. Subcapsular pressure at 6, 12, 24, 48 hr, and 18 days after a 45 min warm ischemia was determined in a murine model of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Renal function was measured by Tc-MAG3 scintigraphy and laser Doppler perfusion. Structural damage was assessed by histologic analysis. As a therapeutic approach, parenchymal pressure was relieved by a standardized circular 0.3 mm incision at the lower pole of the kidney capsule. Compared with baseline (0.9+/-0.3 mm Hg), prolonged ischemia was associated with a sevenfold increase in subcapsular pressure 6 hr after ischemia (7.0+/-1.0 mm Hg; P<0.001). Pressure levels remained significantly elevated for 24 hr. Without therapy, a significant decrease in functional parameters was found with considerably reduced tubular excretion rate (33+/-3.5%, P<0.001) and renal perfusion (64.5+/-6.8%, P<0.005). Histologically, severe tissue damage was found. Surgical pressure relief was able to significantly prevent loss of tubular excretion rate (62.5+/-6.8%, P<0.05) and renal blood flow (96.2+/-4.8%; P<0.05) and preserved the integrity of renal structures. Our data support the hypothesis of the existence of a renal compartment syndrome as a consequence of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Surgical pressure relief effectively prevented functional and structural renal impairment, and we speculate that this approach might be of value for improving graft function after renal transplantation.

  12. Characterisation of open-door electrical cabinet fires in compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutin, M., E-mail: mickael.coutin@irsn.fr; Plumecocq, W.; Zavaleta, P.; Audouin, L.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Heat release rate of electrical cabinet fire source in a vitiated atmosphere. • Experimental database for proper validation the combustible modelling, taking into account the oxygen depletion in an enclosure. • New model for complex fire source. - Abstract: The study of electrical fires is a major concern for fire safety in the industry and more particularly for fire safety in nuclear facilities. To investigate this topic, IRSN conducted a large number of real-scale experiments involving open-door electrical cabinets burning firstly under a calorimetric hood and then inside a mechanically-ventilated compartment. The main challenges are to determine accurately the heat release rate of such a complex fire source in a vitiated atmosphere and to provide an experimental database for validating properly the combustible modelling, taking into account the oxygen depletion in an enclosure. After providing a detailed description of the fire scenarios and of the experimental apparatus, this paper focuses on the characteristic stages of the cabinet fire development, essentially based on the heat release rate time evolution of the fire. The effects of the confinement, of the outlet branch location, of the ventilation management and of the fire barrier on the fire source were then investigated. The reproducibility of electrical cabinet fires is also studied. A new model for complex fire source (applied in this study for open-door electrical cabinet fires) was then developed. This model was introduced in the zone code SYLVIA and the major features of the compartment fire experiments, such as characteristic heat release rate with effect of oxygen depletion and over-pressure peak were then calculated with a rather good agreement for this complex fire source (i.e. electrical cabinet)

  13. Exercise, Obesity and CNS Control of Metabolic Homeostasis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John K.

    2018-01-01

    This review details the manner in which the central nervous system regulates metabolic homeostasis in normal weight and obese rodents and humans. It includes a review of the homeostatic contributions of neurons located in the hypothalamus, the midbrain and limbic structures, the pons and the medullary area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarius, and vagus nucleus, and details how these brain regions respond to circulating levels of orexigenic hormones, such as ghrelin, and anorexigenic hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin. It provides an insight as to how high intensity exercise may improve homeostatic control in overweight and obese subjects. Finally, it provides suggestions as to how further progress can be made in controlling the current pandemic of obesity and diabetes.

  14. Diffusion MRI processing for multi-compartment characterization of brain pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedouin, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a specific type of MRI acquisition based on the direction of diffusion of the brain water molecules. It allows, through several acquisitions, to model the brain microstructure, as white matter, which is significantly smaller than the voxel-resolution. To acquire a large number of images in a clinical setting, very-fast acquisition techniques are required as single-shot imaging. However these acquisitions suffer locally large distortions. We propose a block-matching registration method based on the acquisition of images with opposite phase-encoding directions (PED). This technique specially designed for Echo-Planar Images (EPI) robustly correct images and provides a deformation field. This field is applicable to an entire DWI series from only one reversed EPI allowing distortion correction with a minimal acquisition time cost. This registration algorithm has been validated both on phantom and on in vivo data and is available in our source medical image processing toolbox Anima. From these diffusion images, we are able to construct multi-compartments models (MCM) which can represent complex brain microstructure. Doing registration, averaging and atlas creation on these MCM images is required to perform studies and statistic analyses. We propose a general method to interpolate MCM as a simplification problem based on spectral clustering. This technique, which is adaptable for any MCM, has been validated on both synthetic and real data. Then, from a registered dataset, we performed a patient to population analysis at a voxel-level computing statistics on MCM parameters. Specifically designed tractography can also be used to make analysis, following tracks, based on individual anisotropic compartments. All these tools are designed and used on real data and contribute to the search of bio-markers for brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis. (author)

  15. Membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC): specialized functional microdomain of the yeast plasma membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Doudová, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC): specialized functional microdomain of the yeast plasma membrane Yeast plasma membrane is divided into several different compartments. Membrane compartment of Can1 is specific for its protein and lipid composition, furthermore it creates furrow-like invaginations on the plasma membrane. These invaginations are made by multiprotein complexes called eisosomes, which are located in the cytosolic side of MCCs. It was established that this domain plays an importa...

  16. An efficient heuristic for the multi-compartment vehicle routing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Vitor Silvestrin

    2016-01-01

    We study a variant of the vehicle routing problem that allows vehicles with multiple compartments. The need for multiple compartments frequently arises in practical applications when there are several products of different quality or type, that must be kept or handled separately. The resulting problem is called the multi-compartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP). We propose a tabu search heuristic and embed it into an iterated local search to solve the MCVRP. In several experiments we analy...

  17. Intraoperative squash smear cytology in CNS lesions: A study of 150 pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Jindal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumors of the central nervous system in the pediatric age group occur relatively frequently during the early years of life. Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancies of childhood and only second to acute childhood leukemia. Squash cytology is an indispensable diagnostic aid to central nervous system (CNS lesions. The definitive diagnosis of brain lesions is confirmed by histological examination. Aim: To study the cytology of CNS lesions in pediatric population and correlate it with histopathology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty cases of CNS lesions in pediatric patients were studied over a period of 2 years. Intraoperative squash smears were prepared, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined. Remaining sample was subjected to histopathological examination. Results: Medulloblastoma (24.0% was the most frequently encountered tumor followed by pilocyctic astrocytoma (21.33% and ependymoma (13.33%. Diagnostic accuracy of squash smear technique was 94.67% when compared with histological diagnosis. Conclusion: Smear cytology is a fairly accurate tool for intraoperative CNS consultations.

  18. Mining the topography and dynamics of the 4D Nucleome to identify novel CNS drug pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Gerald A; Allyn-Feuer, Ari; Georgoff, Patrick; Nikolian, Vahagn; Alam, Hasan B; Athey, Brian D

    2017-07-01

    The pharmacoepigenome can be defined as the active, noncoding province of the genome including canonical spatial and temporal regulatory mechanisms of gene regulation that respond to xenobiotic stimuli. Many psychotropic drugs that have been in clinical use for decades have ill-defined mechanisms of action that are beginning to be resolved as we understand the transcriptional hierarchy and dynamics of the nucleus. In this review, we describe spatial, temporal and biomechanical mechanisms mediated by psychotropic medications. Focus is placed on a bioinformatics pipeline that can be used both for detection of pharmacoepigenomic variants that discretize drug response and adverse events to improve pharmacogenomic testing, and for the discovery of novel CNS therapeutics. This approach integrates the functional topology and dynamics of the transcriptional hierarchy of the pharmacoepigenome, gene variant-driven identification of pharmacogenomic regulatory domains, and mesoscale mapping for the discovery of novel CNS pharmacodynamic pathways in human brain. Examples of the application of this pipeline are provided, including the discovery of valproic acid (VPA) mediated transcriptional reprogramming of neuronal cell fate following injury, and mapping of a CNS pathway glutamatergic pathway for the mood stabilizer lithium. These examples in regulatory pharmacoepigenomics illustrate how ongoing research using the 4D nucleome provides a foundation to further insight into previously unrecognized psychotropic drug pharmacodynamic pathways in the human CNS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Inflammatory cytokines in the brain: does the CNS shape immune responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Renno, T; Taupin, V

    1994-01-01

    Immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS) have traditionally been regarded as representing the intrusion of an unruly, ill-behaved mob of leukocytes into the well-ordered and organized domain of thought and reason. However, results accumulated over the past few years suggest that, far ...

  20. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  1. Durable treatment response of relapsing CNS plasmacytoma using intrathecal chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and Daratumumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassadi, Ezzat; Murphy, Maurice; Hacking, Dayle; Farrell, Michael

    2018-04-01

    CNS myelomatous involvement is a rare complication of multiple myeloma with dismal outcome. This disease's optimal treatment is unclear. Combined approach of systemic therapy, radiotherapy, and intrathecal injections chemotherapy should be considered and autologous stem cell transplant consolidation is offered to eligible patients. The role of Daratumumab in this disease deserves further evaluation.

  2. Chemokines in the balance: maintenance of homeostasis and protection at CNS barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Williams

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the adult central nervous system (CNS, chemokines and their receptors are involved in developmental, physiological and pathological processes. Although most lines of investigation focus on their ability to induce the migration of cells, recent studies indicate that chemokines also promote cellular interactions and activate signaling pathways that maintain CNS homeostatic functions. Many homeostatic chemokines are expressed on the vasculature of the blood brain barrier including CXCL12, CCL19, CCL20, and CCL21. While endothelial cell expression of these chemokines is known to regulate the entry of leukocytes into the CNS during immunosurveillance, new data indicate that CXCL12 is also involved in diverse cellular activities including adult neurogenesis and neuronal survival, having an opposing role to the homeostatic chemokine, CXCL14, which appears to regulate synaptic inputs to neural precursors. Neuronal expression of CX3CL1, yet another homeostatic chemokine that promotes neuronal survival and communication with microglia, is partly regulated by CXCL12. Regulation of CXCL12 is unique in that it may regulate its own expression levels via binding to its scavenger receptor CXCR7/ACKR3. In this review, we explore the diverse roles of these and other homeostatic chemokines expressed within the CNS, including the possible implications of their dysfunction as a cause of neurologic disease.

  3. Nootropic, anxiolytic and CNS-depressant studies on different plant sources of shankhpushpi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Karan, Maninder; Vasisht, Karan

    2011-12-01

    Shankhpushpi, a well-known drug in Ayurveda, is extensively used for different central nervous system (CNS) effects especially memory enhancement. Different plants are used under the name shankhpushpi in different regions of India, leading to an uncertainty regarding its true source. Plants commonly used under the name shankhpushpi are: Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., both from Convolvulaceae, and Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Leguminosae). To find out the true source of shankhpushpi by evaluating and comparing memory-enhancing activity of the three above mentioned plants. Anxiolytic, antidepressant and CNS-depressant activities of these three plants were also compared and evaluated. The nootropic activity of the aqueous methanol extract of each plant was tested using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and step-down models. Anxiolytic, antidepressant and CNS-depressant studies were evaluated using EPM, Porsolt?s swim despair and actophotometer models, respectively. C. pluricaulis extract (CPE) at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o. showed maximum nootropic and anxiolytic activity (p nootropic, anxiolytic and CNS-depressant activity. The results of memory-enhancing activity suggest C. pluricaulis to be used as true source of shankhpushpi.

  4. Mast Cells and Innate Lymphoid Cells: Underappreciated Players in CNS Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa A; Weinberg, Rebecca B

    2018-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, are autoimmune CNS inflammatory diseases. As a result of a breakdown in the relatively impermeable blood-brain barrier (BBB) in affected individuals, myelin-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells gain entry into the immune privileged CNS and initiate myelin, oligodendrocyte, and nerve axon destruction. However, despite the absolute requirement for T cells, there is increasing evidence that innate immune cells also play critical amplifying roles in disease pathogenesis. By modulating the character and magnitude of the myelin-reactive T cell response and regulating BBB integrity, innate cells affect both disease initiation and progression. Two classes of innate cells, mast cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), have been best studied in models of allergic and gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases. Yet, there is emerging evidence that these cell types also exert a profound influence in CNS inflammatory disease. Both cell types are residents within the meninges and can be activated early in disease to express a wide variety of disease-modifying cytokines and chemokines. In this review, we discuss how mast cells and ILCs can have either disease-promoting or -protecting effects on MS and other CNS inflammatory diseases and how sex hormones may influence this outcome. These observations suggest that targeting these cells and their unique mediators can be exploited therapeutically.

  5. Immune cell entry to the CNS--a focus for immunoregulation of EAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Tran, E; Hassan-Zahraee, M

    1999-01-01

    -requirement then to prove such a role. The point that emerges is that cytokine production in the CNS parenchyma is itself dependent on the prior infiltration of immune cells, and that without immune cell entry, EAE does not occur. This identifies events at the BBB, and in particular in the perivascular space, as critical...

  6. Migration, fate and in vivo imaging of stem cells in the CNS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Syková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, Suppl.3 (2009), s. 4-4 ISSN 1351-5101. [Congress of the European-Federation-of-Neurological-Societies /13./. 12.09.2009-15.09.2009, Florencie] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : CNS * ESC Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. Comparative analysis of acid sphingomyelinase distribution in the CNS of rats and mice following intracerebroventricular delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Treleaven

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick A (NPA disease is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD caused by a deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM activity. Previously, we reported that biochemical and functional abnormalities observed in ASM knockout (ASMKO mice could be partially alleviated by intracerebroventricular (ICV infusion of hASM. We now show that this route of delivery also results in widespread enzyme distribution throughout the rat brain and spinal cord. However, enzyme diffusion into CNS parenchyma did not occur in a linear dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, although the levels of hASM detected in the rat CNS were determined to be within the range shown to be therapeutic in ASMKO mice, the absolute amounts represented less than 1% of the total dose administered. Finally, our results also showed that similar levels of enzyme distribution are achieved across rodent species when the dose is normalized to CNS weight as opposed to whole body weight. Collectively, these data suggest that the efficacy observed following ICV delivery of hASM in ASMKO mice could be scaled to CNS of the rat.

  8. CNS Damage Classification in Newborn Infants by Neural Network Based Cry Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Ekkel, T.

    2002-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) of the human body is the whole system of brain, spinal marrow and nerve cells throughout the body that correlates and regulates the internal reactions of the body and controls its adjustment to the environment. It controls muscles and processes sensory information

  9. CSF Hypocretin-1 Levels and Clinical Profiles in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic CNS Hypersomnia in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, Mona Skard; Evsiukova, Tatiana; Vilming, Steinar; Gjerstad, Michaela D.; Schrader, Harald; Gautvik, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between CSF hypocretin-1 levels and clinical profiles in narcolepsy and CNS hypersomnia in Norwegian patients. Method: CSF hypocretin-1 was measured by a sensitive radioimmunoassay in 47 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy, 7 with narcolepsy without cataplexy, 10 with idiopathic CNS hypersomnia, and a control group. Results: Low hypocretin-1 values were found in 72% of the HLA DQB1*0602 positive patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Patients with low CSF hypocretin-1 levels reported more extensive muscular involvement during cataplectic attacks than patients with normal levels. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis occurred more frequently in patients with cataplexy than in the other patient groups, but with no correlation to hypocretin-1 levels. Conclusion: About three quarters of the HLA DQB1*0602 positive patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy had low CSF hypocretin-1 values, and appear to form a distinct clinical entity. Narcolepsy without cataplexy could not be distinguished from idiopathic CNS hypersomnia by clinical symptoms or biochemical findings. Citation: Heier MS; Evsiukova T; Vilming S; Gjerstad MD; Schrader H; Gautvik K. CSF hypocretin-1 levels and clinical profiles in narcolepsy and idiopathic CNS hypersomnia in norway. SLEEP 2007;30(8):969-973. PMID:17702265

  10. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio; Batista Camargo Junior, Joao

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  11. Chemokine expression by glial cells directs leukocytes to sites of axonal injury in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Kuziel, William A; Rivest, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Innate responses in the CNS are critical to first line defense against infection and injury. Leukocytes migrate to inflammatory sites in response to chemokines. We studied leukocyte migration and glial chemokine expression within the denervated hippocampus in response to axonal injury caused by e...

  12. Enhancing Psychosocial Outcomes for Young Adult Childhood CNS Cancer Survivors: Importance of Addressing Vocational Identity and Community Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational identity, community integration, positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life in a group of young adult central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors. Participants in this study included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors who ranged in age from 18 to 30 years…

  13. Distribution of CNS Species on Teat Skin and in Milk Samples from Dairy Cows in Automatic Milking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl

    identified in milk samples. Staphylococcus chromogenes was detected in both milk (n= 2) and teat skin (n= 1) samples. Data collection will be finished in April 2017. The final results will give new insights into herd specific CNS species patterns and the microbial ecology and epidemiology of common CNS...

  14. Recombinant human tripeptidyl peptidase-1 infusion to the monkey CNS: Safety, pharmacokinetics, and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuillemenot, Brian R., E-mail: bvuillemenot@bmrn.com [BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., Novato, CA (United States); Kennedy, Derek [BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., Novato, CA (United States); Reed, Randall P.; Boyd, Robert B. [Northern Biomedical Research, Inc., Muskegon, MI (United States); Butt, Mark T. [Tox Path Specialists, LLC, Hagerstown, MD (United States); Musson, Donald G.; Keve, Steve; Cahayag, Rhea; Tsuruda, Laurie S.; O' Neill, Charles A. [BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., Novato, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    CLN2 disease is caused by deficiency in tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1), leading to neurodegeneration and death. The safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and CNS distribution of recombinant human TPP1 (rhTPP1) were characterized following a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intrathecal-lumbar (IT-L) infusion to cynomolgus monkeys. Animals received 0, 5, 14, or 20 mg rhTPP1, ICV, or 14 mg IT-L, in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) vehicle. Plasma and CSF were collected for PK analysis. Necropsies occurred at 3, 7, and 14 days post-infusion. CNS tissues were sampled for rhTPP1 distribution. TPP1 infusion was well tolerated and without effect on clinical observations or ECG. A mild increase in CSF white blood cells (WBCs) was detected transiently after ICV infusion. Isolated histological changes related to catheter placement and infusion were observed in ICV treated animals, including vehicle controls. The CSF and plasma exposure profiles were equivalent between animals that received an ICV or IT-L infusion. TPP1 levels peaked at the end of infusion, at which point the enzyme was present in plasma at 0.3% to 0.5% of CSF levels. TPP1 was detected in brain tissues with half-lives of 3–14 days. CNS distribution between ICV and IT-L administration was similar, although ICV resulted in distribution to deep brain structures including the thalamus, midbrain, and striatum. Direct CNS infusion of rhTPP1 was well tolerated with no drug related safety findings. The favorable nonclinical profile of ICV rhTPP1 supports the treatment of CLN2 by direct administration to the CNS. - Highlights: • TPP1 enzyme replacement therapy to the CNS is in development for CLN2 disease. • Toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and CNS distribution were assessed in monkeys. • TPP1 infusion directly to the brain did not result in any safety concerns. • A positive pharmacokinetic and distribution profile resulted from TPP1 infusion. • This study demonstrates the feasibility of ICV administered

  15. Recombinant human tripeptidyl peptidase-1 infusion to the monkey CNS: Safety, pharmacokinetics, and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillemenot, Brian R.; Kennedy, Derek; Reed, Randall P.; Boyd, Robert B.; Butt, Mark T.; Musson, Donald G.; Keve, Steve; Cahayag, Rhea; Tsuruda, Laurie S.; O'Neill, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    CLN2 disease is caused by deficiency in tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1), leading to neurodegeneration and death. The safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and CNS distribution of recombinant human TPP1 (rhTPP1) were characterized following a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intrathecal-lumbar (IT-L) infusion to cynomolgus monkeys. Animals received 0, 5, 14, or 20 mg rhTPP1, ICV, or 14 mg IT-L, in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) vehicle. Plasma and CSF were collected for PK analysis. Necropsies occurred at 3, 7, and 14 days post-infusion. CNS tissues were sampled for rhTPP1 distribution. TPP1 infusion was well tolerated and without effect on clinical observations or ECG. A mild increase in CSF white blood cells (WBCs) was detected transiently after ICV infusion. Isolated histological changes related to catheter placement and infusion were observed in ICV treated animals, including vehicle controls. The CSF and plasma exposure profiles were equivalent between animals that received an ICV or IT-L infusion. TPP1 levels peaked at the end of infusion, at which point the enzyme was present in plasma at 0.3% to 0.5% of CSF levels. TPP1 was detected in brain tissues with half-lives of 3–14 days. CNS distribution between ICV and IT-L administration was similar, although ICV resulted in distribution to deep brain structures including the thalamus, midbrain, and striatum. Direct CNS infusion of rhTPP1 was well tolerated with no drug related safety findings. The favorable nonclinical profile of ICV rhTPP1 supports the treatment of CLN2 by direct administration to the CNS. - Highlights: • TPP1 enzyme replacement therapy to the CNS is in development for CLN2 disease. • Toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and CNS distribution were assessed in monkeys. • TPP1 infusion directly to the brain did not result in any safety concerns. • A positive pharmacokinetic and distribution profile resulted from TPP1 infusion. • This study demonstrates the feasibility of ICV administered

  16. A New Approach to Uncertainty Reduction in Launch Vehicle Compartment Venting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch vehicle compartments are vented to the external environment during ascent to minimize undesirable structural loading. Prediction of venting performance is an...

  17. Discrimination of different brain metastases and primary CNS lymphomas using morphologic criteria and diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bette, S.; Wiestler, B.; Huber, T.; Boeckh-Behrens, T.; Zimmer, C.; Kirschke, J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Delbridge, C. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Meyer, B.; Gempt, J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2016-12-15

    Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and occur in about 15-40% of patients with malignancies. The aim of this retrospective study was to differentiate between metastases from different primary tumors/CNS lymphyomas using morphologic criteria, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Morphologic criteria such as hemorrhage, cysts, pattern of contrast enhancement and location were reported in 200 consecutive patients with brain metastases/primary CNS lymphomas. FA and ADC values were measured in regions of interest (ROIs) placed in the contrast-enhancing tumor part, the necrosis and the non-enhancing peritumoral region (NEPTR). Differences between histopathological subtypes of metastases were analyzed using non-parametric tests, decision trees and hierarchical clustering analysis. Significant differences were found in morphologic criteria such as hemorrhage or pattern of contrast enhancement. In diffusion measurements, significant differences between the different tumor entities were only found in ADC analyzed in the contrast-enhancing tumor part. Among single tumor entities, primary CNS lymphomas showed significantly lower median ADC values in the contrast-enhancing tumor part (ADC{sub lymphoma} 0.92 [0.83-1.07] vs. ADC{sub no} {sub lymphoma} 1.35 [1.10-1.64] P=0.001). Further differentiation between types of metastases was not possible using FA and ADC. There were morphologic differences among the main subtypes of brain metastases/CNS lymphomas. However, due to a high variability of common types of metastases and low specificity, prospective differentiation remained challenging. DTI including FA and ADC was not a reliable tool for differentiation between different histopathological subtypes of brain metastases except for CNS lymphomas showing lower ADC values. Biopsy, surgery and staging remain essential for diagnosis.

  18. SPARC and GluA1-Containing AMPA Receptors Promote Neuronal Health Following CNS Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V. Jones

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The proper formation and maintenance of functional synapses in the central nervous system (CNS requires communication between neurons and astrocytes and the ability of astrocytes to release neuromodulatory molecules. Previously, we described a novel role for the astrocyte-secreted matricellular protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine in regulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs and plasticity at developing synapses. SPARC is highly expressed by astrocytes and microglia during CNS development but its level is reduced in adulthood. Interestingly, SPARC has been shown to be upregulated in CNS injury and disease. However, the role of SPARC upregulation in these contexts is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic SPARC administration on glutamate receptors on mature hippocampal neuron cultures and following CNS injury. We found that SPARC treatment increased the number of GluA1-containing AMPARs at synapses and enhanced synaptic function. Furthermore, we determined that the increase in synaptic strength induced by SPARC could be inhibited by Philanthotoxin-433, a blocker of homomeric GluA1-containing AMPARs. We then investigated the effect of SPARC treatment on neuronal health in an injury context where SPARC expression is upregulated. We found that SPARC levels are increased in astrocytes and microglia following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD in vitro. Remarkably, chronic pre-treatment with SPARC prevented OGD-induced loss of synaptic GluA1. Furthermore, SPARC treatment reduced neuronal death through Philanthotoxin-433 sensitive GluA1 receptors. Taken together, this study suggests a novel role for SPARC and GluA1 in promoting neuronal health and recovery following CNS damage.

  19. Alcohol intake alters immune responses and promotes CNS viral persistence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Jennifer M; Taylor, Jonathan; Raué, Hans-Peter; Slifka, Mark K; Huang, Elaine

    2016-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to progressive liver disease and is associated with a variety of extrahepatic effects, including central nervous system (CNS) damage and neuropsychiatric impairments. Alcohol abuse can exacerbate these adverse effects on brain and behavior, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study investigated the role of alcohol in regulating viral persistence and CNS immunopathology in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a model for HCV infections in humans. Female and male BALB/c mice (n=94) were exposed to alcohol (ethanol; EtOH) and water (or water only) using a two-bottle choice paradigm, followed one week later by infection with either LCMV clone 13 (causes chronic infection similar to chronic HCV), LCMV Armstrong (causes acute infection), or vehicle. Mice were monitored for 60days post-infection and continued to receive 24-h access to EtOH and water. Animals infected with LCMV clone 13 drank more EtOH, as compared to those with an acute or no viral infection. Six weeks after infection with LCMV clone 13, mice with EtOH exposure evidenced higher serum viral titers, as compared to mice without EtOH exposure. EtOH intake was also associated with reductions in virus-specific CD8(+) T cell frequencies (particularly CD11a(hi) subsets) and evidence of persistent CNS viremia in chronically infected mice. These findings support the hypothesis that EtOH use and chronic viral infection can result in combined toxic effects accelerating CNS damage and neuropsychiatric dysfunction and suggest that examining the role of EtOH in regulating viral persistence and CNS immunopathology in mice infected with LCMV can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of comorbid alcohol use disorder and chronic viral infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Ketamine displaces the novel NMDA receptor SPET probe [123I]CNS-1261 in humans in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, James M.; Erlandsson, Kjell; Arstad, Erik; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Squassante, Lisa; Teneggi, Vincenza; Ell, Peter J.; Pilowsky, Lyn S.

    2006-01-01

    [ 123 I]CNS-1261 [N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-(3-iodophenyl)-N-methylguanidine] is a high-affinity SPET ligand with selectivity for the intrachannel PCP/ketamine/MK-801 site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. This study evaluated the effects of ketamine (a specific competitor for the intrachannel PCP/ketamine/MK-801 site) on [ 123 I]CNS-1261 binding to NMDA receptors in vivo. Ten healthy volunteers underwent 2 bolus-plus-infusion [ 123 I]CNS-1261 scans, one during placebo and the other during a ketamine challenge. Ketamine administration led to a significant decrease in [ 123 I]CNS-1261 V T in most of the brain regions examined (P 123 I]CNS-1261 appears to be a specific ligand in vivo for the intrachannel PCP/ketamine/MK-801 NMDA binding site

  1. Ketamine displaces the novel NMDA receptor SPET probe [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 in humans in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, James M. [Institute of Psychiatry, King' s College London, De Crespigny Park London, SE5 8AF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.stone@iop.kcl.ac.uk; Erlandsson, Kjell [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London, W1N 8AA (United Kingdom); Arstad, Erik [Institute of Psychiatry, King' s College London, De Crespigny Park London, SE5 8AF (United Kingdom); Bressan, Rodrigo A. [Institute of Psychiatry, King' s College London, De Crespigny Park London, SE5 8AF (United Kingdom); Squassante, Lisa [GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Verona 37135 (Italy); Teneggi, Vincenza [GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Verona 37135 (Italy); Ell, Peter J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London, W1N 8AA (United Kingdom); Pilowsky, Lyn S. [Institute of Psychiatry, King' s College London, De Crespigny Park London, SE5 8AF (United Kingdom); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London, W1N 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 [N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-(3-iodophenyl)-N-methylguanidine] is a high-affinity SPET ligand with selectivity for the intrachannel PCP/ketamine/MK-801 site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. This study evaluated the effects of ketamine (a specific competitor for the intrachannel PCP/ketamine/MK-801 site) on [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 binding to NMDA receptors in vivo. Ten healthy volunteers underwent 2 bolus-plus-infusion [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 scans, one during placebo and the other during a ketamine challenge. Ketamine administration led to a significant decrease in [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 V {sub T} in most of the brain regions examined (P<.05). [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 appears to be a specific ligand in vivo for the intrachannel PCP/ketamine/MK-801 NMDA binding site.

  2. Identification of genetic determinants of the sexual dimorphism in CNS autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bearoff

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a debilitating chronic inflammatory disease of the nervous system that affects approximately 2.3 million individuals worldwide, with higher prevalence in females, and a strong genetic component. While over 200 MS susceptibility loci have been identified in GWAS, the underlying mechanisms whereby they contribute to disease susceptibility remains ill-defined. Forward genetics approaches using conventional laboratory mouse strains are useful in identifying and functionally dissecting genes controlling disease-relevant phenotypes, but are hindered by the limited genetic diversity represented in such strains. To address this, we have combined the powerful chromosome substitution (consomic strain approach with the genetic diversity of a wild-derived inbred mouse strain. Using experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of MS, we evaluated genetic control of disease course among a panel of 26 consomic strains of mice inheriting chromosomes from the wild-derived PWD strain on the C57BL/6J background, which models the genetic diversity seen in human populations. Nineteen linkages on 18 chromosomes were found to harbor loci controlling EAE. Of these 19 linkages, six were male-specific, four were female-specific, and nine were non-sex-specific, consistent with a differential genetic control of disease course between males and females. An MS-GWAS candidate-driven bioinformatic analysis using orthologous genes linked to EAE course identified sex-specific and non-sex-specific gene networks underlying disease pathogenesis. An analysis of sex hormone regulation of genes within these networks identified several key molecules, prominently including the MAP kinase family, known hormone-dependent regulators of sex differences in EAE course. Importantly, our results provide the framework by which consomic mouse strains with overall genome-wide genetic diversity, approximating that seen in humans, can be used as a rapid and

  3. Influence of the fire location and the size of a compartment on the heat and smoke flow out of the compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyński, Wojciech; Konecki, Marek

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents results of CFD and scale modelling of the flow of heat and smoke inside and outside of a compartment, in case of fire. Estimation of mass flow out of a compartment is critical, as it is the boundary condition in further considerations related to the exhaust of the smoke from a building - also in analysis related to the performance of natural ventilation in wind conditions. Both locations of the fire and the size of compartment were addressed as possible variables, which influence the mass and the temperature of smoke that leaves the room engulfed in fire. Results of the study show small to none influence of both size of the compartment and the location of the fire, on the mass flow of smoke exiting the room. On the same time, both of these parameters influence the temperature of the smoke - in larger compartments lower average temperatures of the smoke layer, but higher maximum values were observed. Results of this study may be useful also in the determination of the worst case scenarios for structural analysis, or in the investiga tion of the spread of fire through the compartment. Based on the results presented in this study, researchers can attribute an expert judgement choice of fire location, as a single scenario that is representative of a larger amount of probable scenarios.

  4. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs

  5. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  6. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  7. Connexin Communication Compartments and Wound Repair in Epithelial Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Marc; Watanabe, Masakatsu; O'Shaughnessy, Erin M; Zoso, Alice; Martin, Patricia E

    2018-05-03

    Epithelial tissues line the lumen of tracts and ducts connecting to the external environment. They are critical in forming an interface between the internal and external environment and, following assault from environmental factors and pathogens, they must rapidly repair to maintain cellular homeostasis. These tissue networks, that range from a single cell layer, such as in airway epithelium, to highly stratified and differentiated epithelial surfaces, such as the epidermis, are held together by a junctional nexus of proteins including adherens, tight and gap junctions, often forming unique and localised communication compartments activated for localised tissue repair. This review focuses on the dynamic changes that occur in connexins, the constituent proteins of the intercellular gap junction channel, during wound-healing processes and in localised inflammation, with an emphasis on the lung and skin. Current developments in targeting connexins as corrective therapies to improve wound closure and resolve localised inflammation are also discussed. Finally, we consider the emergence of the zebrafish as a concerted whole-animal model to study, visualise and track the events of wound repair and regeneration in real-time living model systems.

  8. Connexin Communication Compartments and Wound Repair in Epithelial Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Chanson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial tissues line the lumen of tracts and ducts connecting to the external environment. They are critical in forming an interface between the internal and external environment and, following assault from environmental factors and pathogens, they must rapidly repair to maintain cellular homeostasis. These tissue networks, that range from a single cell layer, such as in airway epithelium, to highly stratified and differentiated epithelial surfaces, such as the epidermis, are held together by a junctional nexus of proteins including adherens, tight and gap junctions, often forming unique and localised communication compartments activated for localised tissue repair. This review focuses on the dynamic changes that occur in connexins, the constituent proteins of the intercellular gap junction channel, during wound-healing processes and in localised inflammation, with an emphasis on the lung and skin. Current developments in targeting connexins as corrective therapies to improve wound closure and resolve localised inflammation are also discussed. Finally, we consider the emergence of the zebrafish as a concerted whole-animal model to study, visualise and track the events of wound repair and regeneration in real-time living model systems.

  9. Prelysosomal Compartments in the Unconventional Secretion of Amyloidogenic Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Borland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic link between neuron-to-neuron transmission of secreted amyloid and propagation of protein malconformation cytopathology and disease has recently been uncovered in animal models. An enormous interest in the unconventional secretion of amyloids from neurons has followed. Amphisomes and late endosomes are the penultimate maturation products of the autophagosomal and endosomal pathways, respectively, and normally fuse with lysosomes for degradation. However, under conditions of perturbed membrane trafficking and/or lysosomal deficiency, prelysosomal compartments may instead fuse with the plasma membrane to release any contained amyloid. After a brief introduction to the endosomal and autophagosomal pathways, we discuss the evidence for autophagosomal secretion (exophagy of amyloids, with a comparative emphasis on Aβ1–42 and α-synuclein, as luminal and cytosolic amyloids, respectively. The ESCRT-mediated import of cytosolic amyloid into late endosomal exosomes, a known vehicle of transmission of macromolecules between cells, is also reviewed. Finally, mechanisms of lysosomal dysfunction, deficiency, and exocytosis are exemplified in the context of genetically identified risk factors, mainly for Parkinson’s disease. Exocytosis of prelysosomal or lysosomal organelles is a last resort for clearance of cytotoxic material and alleviates cytopathy. However, they also represent a vehicle for the concentration, posttranslational modification, and secretion of amyloid seeds.

  10. Clonal dominance and transplantation dynamics in hematopoietic stem cell compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ashcroft

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells in mammals are known to reside mostly in the bone marrow, but also transitively passage in small numbers in the blood. Experimental findings have suggested that they exist in a dynamic equilibrium, continuously migrating between these two compartments. Here we construct an individual-based mathematical model of this process, which is parametrised using existing empirical findings from mice. This approach allows us to quantify the amount of migration between the bone marrow niches and the peripheral blood. We use this model to investigate clonal hematopoiesis, which is a significant risk factor for hematologic cancers. We also analyse the engraftment of donor stem cells into non-conditioned and conditioned hosts, quantifying the impact of different treatment scenarios. The simplicity of the model permits a thorough mathematical analysis, providing deeper insights into the dynamics of both the model and of the real-world system. We predict the time taken for mutant clones to expand within a host, as well as chimerism levels that can be expected following transplantation therapy, and the probability that a preconditioned host is reconstituted by donor cells.

  11. Are certain fractures at increased risk for compartment syndrome after civilian ballistic injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskey, Thomas; Hardcastle, John; O'Toole, Robert V

    2011-11-01

    Compartment syndrome after ballistic fracture is uncommon but potentially devastating. Few data are available to help guide clinicians regarding risk factors for developing compartment syndrome after ballistic fractures. Our primary hypothesis was that ballistic fractures of certain bones would be at higher risk for development of compartment syndrome. A retrospective review at a Level I trauma center from 2001 through 2007 yielded 650 patients with 938 fractures resulting from gunshots. We reviewed all operative notes, clinic notes, discharge summaries, and data from our prospective trauma database. Cases in which the attending orthopedic surgeon diagnosed compartment syndrome and performed fasciotomy were considered cases with compartment syndrome. We excluded all prophylactic fasciotomies. Univariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with development of compartment syndrome. Twenty-six (2.8%) of the 938 fractures were associated with compartment syndrome. Only fibular (11.6%) and tibial (11.4%) fractures had incidence significantly higher than baseline for all ballistic fractures (p Ballistic fractures of the fibula and tibia are at increased risk for development of compartment syndrome over other ballistic fractures. We recommend increased vigilance when treating these injuries, particularly if the fracture is in the proximal aspect of the bone or is associated with vascular injury.

  12. Compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and risk of acute renal failure as complications of the lithotomy position.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Feitz, W.F.J.; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and the risk of acute renal failure are potential complications of the lithotomy position. A six-year-old girl is described who developed a compartment syndrome with rhabdomyolysis after prolonged surgery in the lithotomy position. This complication occurred

  13. The formation of endosymbiotic membrane compartments: membrane identity markers and the regulation of vesicle trafficking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, S.

    2012-01-01

    In symbiosis of plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as well as in rhizobium-legume symbiosis the microbes are hosted intracellularly, inside specialized membrane compartments of the host. These membrane compartments are morphologically different but similar in function, since they control

  14. 75 FR 81 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Flightcrew Rest Compartment Occupiable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... and protective breathing equipment (PBE). This analysis should consider the possibility of fire in any..., mechanical or structural failure, or persons standing below or against the crew rest compartment outlets. One..., volume of the compartment, and the ventilation rate. The system must have sufficient extinguishing agent...

  15. AERODYNAMIC IMPROVEMENT OF KhADI 33 RACING CAR RADIATOR COMPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Avershyn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic characteristics of radiator compartment of KhADI 33 racing car on the basis of the decision of the interfaced problem of internal and external aerodynamics are numerically investigated. The rational variant of radiator compartment which is characterized by high throughput and low level of non-uniformity of speed field at the input is offered.

  16. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-7 Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust system...

  17. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... detection systems. 25.858 Section 25.858 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If... must be met for each cargo or baggage compartment with those provisions: (a) The detection system must...

  18. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.13 Car, compartment.... Customs] [Can. Transit] for use on railroad cars, and “United States-Canada Customs” for use on samples...

  19. Validation of a multiple compartment model for the transport of cesium through animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    A general multiple compartment model, which describes the transport of trace elements through animals is presented. This model considers a system of K interconnected compartments of volume V i , i = 1,2,....,K, each containing, at a given time t, N i molecules of a trace substance. (5 figs.)

  20. 30 CFR 57.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation. 57.19107 Section 57.19107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19107 - Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precautions for work in compartment affected by hoisting operation. 56.19107 Section 56.19107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19107 Precautions for work in compartment affected by...

  2. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... accommodates side-by-side placement of LD-3 containers in the cargo compartment. The basic A350-900 series... total overhead crew rest compartment length, the exit separation should not be less than 50 percent of... by curtains. Flight tests must be conducted to show compliance with this requirement. Each system or...

  3. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliances. 58.16-20 Section 58.16-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a) Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with...

  4. Modeling the Interaction between β-Amyloid Aggregates and Choline Acetyltransferase Activity and Its Relation with Cholinergic Dysfunction through Two-Enzyme/Two-Compartment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedia Fgaier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of β-amyloid aggregates on activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT which is responsible for synthesizing acetylcholine (ACh in human brain is investigated through the two-enzyme/two-compartment (2E2C model where the presynaptic neuron is considered as compartment 1 while both the synaptic cleft and the postsynaptic neuron are considered as compartment 2 through suggesting three different kinetic mechanisms for the inhibition effect. It is found that the incorporation of ChAT inhibition by β-amyloid aggregates into the 2E2C model is able to yield dynamic solutions for concentrations of generated β-amyloid, ACh, choline, acetate, and pH in addition to the rates of ACh synthesis and ACh hydrolysis in compartments 1 and 2. It is observed that ChAT activity needs a high concentration of β-amyloid aggregates production rate. It is found that ChAT activity is reduced significantly when neurons are exposed to high levels of β-amyloid aggregates leading to reduction in levels of ACh which is one of the most significant physiological symptoms of AD. Furthermore, the system of ACh neurocycle is dominated by the oscillatory behavior when ChAT enzyme is completely inhibited by β-amyloid. It is observed that the direct inactivation of ChAT by β-amyloid aggregates may be a probable mechanism contributing to the development of AD.

  5. Natural host genetic resistance to lentiviral CNS disease: a neuroprotective MHC class I allele in SIV-infected macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Mankowski

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection frequently causes neurologic disease even with anti-retroviral treatment. Although associations between MHC class I alleles and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS have been reported, the role MHC class I alleles play in restricting development of HIV-induced organ-specific diseases, including neurologic disease, has not been characterized. This study examined the relationship between expression of the MHC class I allele Mane-A*10 and development of lentiviral-induced central nervous system (CNS disease using a well-characterized simian immunodeficiency (SIV/pigtailed macaque model. The risk of developing CNS disease (SIV encephalitis was 2.5 times higher for animals that did not express the MHC class I allele Mane-A*10 (P = 0.002; RR = 2.5. Animals expressing the Mane-A*10 allele had significantly lower amounts of activated macrophages, SIV RNA, and neuronal dysfunction in the CNS than Mane-A*10 negative animals (P<0.001. Mane-A*10 positive animals with the highest CNS viral burdens contained SIV gag escape mutants at the Mane-A*10-restricted KP9 epitope in the CNS whereas wild type KP9 sequences dominated in the brain of Mane-A*10 negative animals with comparable CNS viral burdens. These concordant findings demonstrate that particular MHC class I alleles play major neuroprotective roles in lentiviral-induced CNS disease.

  6. Dynamic of CSF and serum biomarkers in HIV-1 subtype C encephalitis with CNS genetic compartmentalization-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sergio M; Rotta, Indianara; Ribeiro, Clea E; Oliveira, Michelli F; Chaillon, Antoine; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Cunha, Ana Paula; Zonta, Marise; Bents, Joao França; Raboni, Sonia M; Smith, Davey; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald J

    2017-06-01

    Despite the effective suppression of viremia with antiretroviral therapy, HIV can still replicate in the central nervous system (CNS). This was a longitudinal study of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum dynamics of several biomarkers related to inflammation, the blood-brain barrier, neuronal injury, and IgG intrathecal synthesis in serial samples of CSF and serum from a patient infected with HIV-1 subtype C with CNS compartmentalization.The phylogenetic analyses of plasma and CSF samples in an acute phase using next-generation sequencing and F-statistics analysis of C2-V3 haplotypes revealed distinct compartmentalized CSF viruses in paired CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. The CSF biomarker analysis in this patient showed that symptomatic CSF escape is accompanied by CNS inflammation, high levels of cell and humoral immune biomarkers, CNS barrier dysfunction, and an increase in neuronal injury biomarkers with demyelization. Independent and isolated HIV replication can occur in the CNS, even in HIV-1 subtype C, leading to compartmentalization and development of quasispecies distinct from the peripheral plasma. These immunological aspects of the HIV CNS escape have not been described previously. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CNS HIV escape and compartmentalization in HIV-1 subtype C.

  7. CNS recruitment of CD8+ T lymphocytes specific for a peripheral virus infection triggers neuropathogenesis during polymicrobial challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Matullo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although viruses have been implicated in central nervous system (CNS diseases of unknown etiology, including multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the reproducible identification of viral triggers in such diseases has been largely unsuccessful. Here, we explore the hypothesis that viruses need not replicate in the tissue in which they cause disease; specifically, that a peripheral infection might trigger CNS pathology. To test this idea, we utilized a transgenic mouse model in which we found that immune cells responding to a peripheral infection are recruited to the CNS, where they trigger neurological damage. In this model, mice are infected with both CNS-restricted measles virus (MV and peripherally restricted lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. While infection with either virus alone resulted in no illness, infection with both viruses caused disease in all mice, with ∼50% dying following seizures. Co-infection resulted in a 12-fold increase in the number of CD8+ T cells in the brain as compared to MV infection alone. Tetramer analysis revealed that a substantial proportion (>35% of these infiltrating CD8+ lymphocytes were LCMV-specific, despite no detectable LCMV in CNS tissues. Mechanistically, CNS disease was due to edema, induced in a CD8-dependent but perforin-independent manner, and brain herniation, similar to that observed in mice challenged intracerebrally with LCMV. These results indicate that T cell trafficking can be influenced by other ongoing immune challenges, and that CD8+ T cell recruitment to the brain can trigger CNS disease in the apparent absence of cognate antigen. By extrapolation, human CNS diseases of unknown etiology need not be associated with infection with any particular agent; rather, a condition that compromises and activates the blood-brain barrier and adjacent brain parenchyma can render the CNS susceptible to pathogen-independent immune attack.

  8. CFD analysis of flow in engine compartment of large urban bus; Ogata bus no engine room nai nagare kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, H; Otake, M; Iioka, K [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Sato, K [Subaru Research Center Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A CFD simulation was performed to analyze the air flow in the engine compartment of a large urban bus. The conventional simulation technique takes a long time to perform the parameter study of a complex engine compartment shape. In this study, the use of orthogonal grids made modeling the engine compartment easy, so parameter study on modification of the engine compartment structure could be conducted in a short time. Thus this simulation enables engineers to more clearly understand the air flow patterns in the engine compartment, and to get guidlines for modifying the compartment structure to improve the cooling performance. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  9. Organotypic Cultures as a Model to Study Adult Neurogenesis in CNS Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cavaliere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural regeneration resides in certain specific regions of adult CNS. Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life, especially from the subgranular zone of hippocampus and the subventricular zone, and can be modulated in physiological and pathological conditions. Numerous techniques and animal models have been developed to demonstrate and observe neural regeneration but, in order to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms and to characterize multiple types of cell populations involved in the activation of neurogenesis and gliogenesis, investigators have to turn to in vitro models. Organotypic cultures best recapitulate the 3D organization of the CNS and can be explored taking advantage of many techniques. Here, we review the use of organotypic cultures as a reliable and well defined method to study the mechanisms of neurogenesis under normal and pathological conditions. As an example, we will focus on the possibilities these cultures offer to study the pathophysiology of diseases like Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, and cerebral ischemia.

  10. Inflammatory cytokines in the brain: does the CNS shape immune responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, T; Renno, T; Taupin, V; Krakowski, M

    1994-12-01

    Immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS) have traditionally been regarded as representing the intrusion of an unruly, ill-behaved mob of leukocytes into the well-ordered and organized domain of thought and reason. However, results accumulated over the past few years suggest that, far from being an immunologically privileged organ, T lymphocytes may be regular and frequent visitors to the CNS, for purposes of immune surveillance. Here, Trevor Owens and colleagues propose that the brain itself can regulate or shape immune responses therein. Furthermore, given that the immune cells may be subverted to autoimmunity, they suggest that the study of inflammatory autoimmune disease in the brain may shed light on the ability of the local environment to regulate immune responses.

  11. The imaging appearances of intracranial CNS infections in adult HIV and AIDS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offiah, C.E. [Department of Neuroradiology, Hope Hospital, Stott Lane, Salford, Manchester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chockycj@yahoo.co.uk; Turnbull, I.W. [Department of Neuroradiology, Hope Hospital, Stott Lane, Salford, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The spectrum of pathology affecting the central nervous system (CNS) in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is broad and comprises predominantly opportunistic infections and neoplasms. It is estimated that approximately one-third of all patients with AIDS develop neurological complications. The organisms responsible for AIDS are human retroviruses: primarily the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). In this review we shall focus on the neurological complications of HIV and AIDS which are applicable to the more frequently occurring intracranial infective organisms. Attention will be paid specifically to those CNS manifestations occurring in the adult HIV and AIDS population as infection in the paediatric HIV and AIDS group, although bearing some similarities, demonstrates some important differences.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs as Potential Inducers of Antineoplastic Effects in CNS Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tatenhorst

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-inducible transcription factors which belong to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. In recent years it turned out that natural as well as synthetic PPAR agonists exhibit profound antineoplastic as well as redifferentiation effects in tumors of the central nervous system (CNS. The molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still emerging, with partially controverse findings reported by a number of studies dealing with the influence of PPARs on treatment of tumor cells in vitro. Remarkably, studies examining the effects of these drugs in vivo are just beginning to emerge. However, the agonists of PPARs, in particular the thiazolidinediones, seem to be promising candidates for new approaches in human CNS tumor therapy.

  13. The glymphatic system in CNS health and disease: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudo-lymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and then drives the perivenous drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and its solute. Here we review the role of the glymphatic pathway in CNS physiology, factors known to regulate glymphatic flow, and pathologic processes where a breakdown of glymphatic CSF-ISF exchange has been implicated in disease initiation and progression. Important areas of future research, including manipulation of glymphatic activity aiming to improve waste clearance and therapeutic agent delivery, will also be discussed. PMID:29195051

  14. The imaging appearances of intracranial CNS infections in adult HIV and AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offiah, C.E.; Turnbull, I.W.

    2006-01-01

    The spectrum of pathology affecting the central nervous system (CNS) in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is broad and comprises predominantly opportunistic infections and neoplasms. It is estimated that approximately one-third of all patients with AIDS develop neurological complications. The organisms responsible for AIDS are human retroviruses: primarily the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). In this review we shall focus on the neurological complications of HIV and AIDS which are applicable to the more frequently occurring intracranial infective organisms. Attention will be paid specifically to those CNS manifestations occurring in the adult HIV and AIDS population as infection in the paediatric HIV and AIDS group, although bearing some similarities, demonstrates some important differences

  15. Commercial viability of CNS drugs: balancing the risk/reward profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ginger S

    2014-01-01

    CNS has historically been a formidable therapeutic area in which to innovate owing to biological (e.g., complex neurobiology, difficulty reaching the target), as well as clinical (e.g., subjective clinical endpoints, high placebo response, lack of biomarkers) challenges. In the current market where many of the larger diseases are dominated by a generic standard of care, commercial challenges now make the triple threat of scientific-clinical-commercial risk too much for many players to tackle. However, opportunities do exist for smaller biotech companies to concentrate on narrowly focused patient populations associated with high unmet need for which risk can be tightly defined. In CNS, there are two major areas to balance the risk/reward profile and create commercially viable opportunities: To realize value, all companies (start-ups and big players) must define, measure and quantify clear and meaningful value to all stakeholders: physicians, patients, caregivers and payers. © 2013.

  16. Evaluation of CNS activities of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar

    2008-01-01

    The dried extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. (Graminae) were evaluated for CNS activities in mice. The ethanol extract of aerial parts of C. dactylon (EECD) was found to cause significant depression in general behavioral profiles in mice. EECD significantly potentiated the sleeping time in mice induced by standard hypnotics viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependant manner. EECD showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. EECD inhibited the onset and the incidence of convulsion in a dose dependent manner against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion. The present study indicates that EECD has significant CNS depressant activities.

  17. CNS manifestation in progressive facial hemiatrophy (Romberg's disease). MRI findings and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terstegge, K.; Henkes, H.; Kern, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this article the authors describe the clinical and MR imaging findings of the CNS in three female patients with PFH and present a comprehensive review of the literature. One of three PFH patients had partial epilepsy. MRI showed ventricular enlargement, white matter lesions, flattening of the cortical surface and meningeal adhesions homolateral to the facial hemiatrophy. Two other patients had completely normal intracranial findings. These findings confirm that cerebral hemiatrophy can occur in a subgroup of PFH patients. The MRI pattern, however, does not seem to be consistent with a simple atrophic or malnutrition process. The authors consider chronic localized meningoencephalitis with vascular involvement as a possible underlying mechanism for the occasional CNS involvement in PFH. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Nogo-A is a reliable oligodendroglial marker in adult human and mouse CNS and in demyelinated lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Remington, Leah; Maruschak, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    to be strongly expressed in mature oligodendrocytes in vivo. In the present investigation we analyzed the expression patterns of Nogo-A in adult mouse and human CNS as well as in demyelinating animal models and multiple sclerosis lesions. Nogo-A expression was compared with that of other frequently used...... oligodendroglial markers such as CC1, CNP, and in situ hybridization for proteolipid protein mRNA. Nogo-A strongly and reliably labeled oligodendrocytes in the adult CNS as well as in demyelinating lesions and thus represents a valuable tool for the identification of oligodendrocytes in human and mouse CNS tissue...

  19. In vivo human apolipoprotein E isoform fractional turnover rates in the CNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R Wildsmith

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (ApoE is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and has been implicated in the risk for other neurological disorders. The three common ApoE isoforms (ApoE2, E3, and E4 each differ by a single amino acid, with ApoE4 increasing and ApoE2 decreasing the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Both the isoform and amount of ApoE in the brain modulate AD pathology by altering the extent of amyloid beta (Aβ peptide deposition. Therefore, quantifying ApoE isoform production and clearance rates may advance our understanding of the role of ApoE in health and disease. To measure the kinetics of ApoE in the central nervous system (CNS, we applied in vivo stable isotope labeling to quantify the fractional turnover rates of ApoE isoforms in 18 cognitively-normal adults and in ApoE3 and ApoE4 targeted-replacement mice. No isoform-specific differences in CNS ApoE3 and ApoE4 turnover rates were observed when measured in human CSF or mouse brain. However, CNS and peripheral ApoE isoform turnover rates differed substantially, which is consistent with previous reports and suggests that the pathways responsible for ApoE metabolism are different in the CNS and the periphery. We also demonstrate a slower turnover rate for CSF ApoE than that for amyloid beta, another molecule critically important in AD pathogenesis.

  20. Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the skull: CNS involvement excluded by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taets ven Amerongen, A.H.M.; Kaiser, M.C.; Waal, F.C. de

    1987-01-01

    A case of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the skull is presented, demonstrating the superiority of magnetic resonance imaging over other imaging modalities to exclude CNS involvement. Precise delineation of different tumor components in extradural location contained in an intact dural rim together with compressed cortex showing no signs of tumorous involvement constituted an MRI appearance allowing us to exclude tumor outgrowth into the brain. (orig.)

  1. Rotorcraft Low Altitude CNS (Communications, Navigation and Surveillance) Benefit/Cost Analysis, Rotorcraft Operations Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    inventory of rotorcraft activity by mission and location. 17. Key Words 18. Distribution Statement Helicopter Helicopter Missions This document is available...helicopter is used to transport skiers /hikers to remote, normally inaccessible places. This mission is performed in rural or wilderness areas at altitudes...their applicability to the CNS benefit/cost analysis. Because of the uncertainty in the knowledge of the characteristics of both current and future

  2. Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the skull: CNS involvement excluded by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taets ven Amerongen, A.H.M.; Kaiser, M.C.; Waal, F.C. de

    1987-03-01

    A case of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the skull is presented, demonstrating the superiority of magnetic resonance imaging over other imaging modalities to exclude CNS involvement. Precise delineation of different tumor components in extradural location contained in an intact dural rim together with compressed cortex showing no signs of tumorous involvement constituted an MRI appearance allowing us to exclude tumor outgrowth into the brain.

  3. BOBATH THERAPY IN CORRECTION OF PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ORGANIC INJURIES CNS

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhovets, B. O.; Romanchuk, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    The article represents therapy of Bobath such as one of the most effective author method which use in correction psychomotor development of children with disorders of musculoskeletal system. Bobath method is not new in the correction of movement disorders since last century and still supplementing and improving. In this work highlight topic of the effective use Bobath therapy in correction of psychomotor development in children age 3 – 6 years with organic involvement CNS. the experiment w...

  4. The glymphatic system in CNS health and disease: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudo-lymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and th...

  5. Nanomaterials for delivery of nucleic acid to the central nervous system (CNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Danyang; Wu, Lin-Ping

    2017-01-01

    -related disease, such as neurodegeneration and disorders, suitable, safe and effective drug delivery nanocarriers have to been developed to overcome the blood brain barrier (BBB), which is the most inflexible barrier in human body. Here, we highlight the structure and function of barriers in the central nervous...... system (CNS) and summary several types of nanomaterials which can be potentially used in the brain delivery nucleic acid....

  6. Pre test parametric studies on single compartment vented enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Gera, B.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a proper design fire scenario is a challenging task and essential component for conducting fire safety design of buildings. A design fire scenario is a qualitative description of a fire with time identifying key events that characterize the fire (ignition, growth, flashover, fully-developed, and decay stages of fire). Proper fire safety design requires the appropriate selection of design fires against which the performance of the building is evaluated. The selection of the design fires directly impacts all aspects of fire safety performance, including the structural fire resistance, compartmentation against fire spread, egress systems, manual or automatic detection systems, suppression systems, and smoke control. The parameters affecting design fires include, the type, amount and arrangement of combustible materials, the ventilation conditions (air supply conditions, door/window open), and size of the compartment of fire origin. A design fire is a quantitative description of the characteristics of a fire, such as heat release rate (HRR), size of fire and its rate of spread, yield of products of combustion, and hot gas temperatures. Design fires are based on fire scenarios that replicate real fires. Six Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical simulations were conducted in order to investigate the effect of fire load on fire dynamics in a) iso corner fire configuration b) IIT Delhi single compartment of a size of 5.0 m long, 5.0 m wide and 5.0 m high with doorway opening of 1m x 3m with centre fire of size 0.5 m x 0.5m. These types of simulation are carried out for deciding about the instrumentation scheme, safety aspect, and optimization of proposed experiments for National Fire Test Facility as pretest calculations. The simulations results are summarized in various identified applied parameter which are useful in terms of understanding the complex fire dynamics, validating the numerical tolls against experiments and using them (in form of values

  7. Prospective evaluation of delayed central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Fruehauf, Stefan; Wildermuth, Susanne; Kampen, Michael van; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of chronic radiation effects on the healthy adult brain using neuropsychological testing of intelligence, attention, and memory. Methods and Materials: 58 patients (43 ± 10 yr) undergoing hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (TBI, 14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy in 4 days) before bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were prospectively included. Twenty-one recurrence-free long-term survivors were re-examined 6-36 months (median 27 months) after completion of TBI. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence, attention, and memory using normative, standardized psychometric tests. Mood status was controlled, as well. Test results are given as IQ scores (population mean 100) or percentiles for attention and memory (population mean 50). Results: The 21 patients showed normal baseline test results of IQ (101 ± 13) and attention (53 ± 28), with memory test scores below average (35 ± 21). Test results of IQ (98 ± 17), attention (58 ± 27), and memory (43 ± 28) showed no signs of clinically measurable radiation damage to higher CNS (central nervous system) functions during the follow-up. The mood status was improved. Conclusion: The investigation of CNS toxicity after hyperfractionated TBI showed no deterioration of test results in adult recurrence-free patients with tumor-free CNS. The median follow-up of 27 months will be extended.

  8. Decreased Cognitive/CNS Function in Young Adults at Risk for Hypertension: Effects of Sleep Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McCubbin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension has been linked to impaired cognitive/CNS function, and some of these changes may precede development of frank essential hypertension. The stress and fatigue of sleep deprivation may exacerbate these cognitive changes in young adults at risk. We hypothesize that individuals at risk for hypertension will show significant declines in cognitive function during a night of sleep deprivation. Fifty-one young adults were recruited for 28-hour total sleep deprivation studies. Hypertension risk was assessed by mildly elevated resting blood pressure and by family history of hypertension. A series of cognitive memory tasks was given at four test sessions across the sleep deprivation period. Although initially comparable in cognitive performance, persons at risk showed larger declines across the night for several indices of working memory, including code substitution, category, and order recall. These results suggest that cognitive/CNS changes may parallel or precede blood pressure dysregulation in the early stages of hypertension development. The role of CNS changes in the etiology of essential hypertension is discussed.

  9. Kif13b Regulates PNS and CNS Myelination through the Dlg1 Scaffold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Noseda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microtubule-based kinesin motors have many cellular functions, including the transport of a variety of cargos. However, unconventional roles have recently emerged, and kinesins have also been reported to act as scaffolding proteins and signaling molecules. In this work, we further extend the notion of unconventional functions for kinesin motor proteins, and we propose that Kif13b kinesin acts as a signaling molecule regulating peripheral nervous system (PNS and central nervous system (CNS myelination. In this process, positive and negative signals must be tightly coordinated in time and space to orchestrate myelin biogenesis. Here, we report that in Schwann cells Kif13b positively regulates myelination by promoting p38γ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK-mediated phosphorylation and ubiquitination of Discs large 1 (Dlg1, a known brake on myelination, which downregulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT pathway. Interestingly, Kif13b also negatively regulates Dlg1 stability in oligodendrocytes, in which Dlg1, in contrast to Schwann cells, enhances AKT activation and promotes myelination. Thus, our data indicate that Kif13b is a negative regulator of CNS myelination. In summary, we propose a novel function for the Kif13b kinesin in glial cells as a key component of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which controls myelination in both PNS and CNS.

  10. Optimization of dipeptidic inhibitors of cathepsin L for improved Toxoplasma gondii selectivity and CNS permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jeffery D; Diaz, Nicolas A; Guerra, Alfredo J; Kirchhoff, Paul D; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin; Carruthers, Vern B; Larsen, Scott D

    2018-06-01

    The neurotropic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is the second leading cause of death due to foodborne illness in the US, and has been designated as one of five neglected parasitic infections by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently, no treatment options exist for the chronic dormant-phase Toxoplasma infection in the central nervous system (CNS). T. gondii cathepsin L (TgCPL) has recently been implicated as a novel viable target for the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis. In this study, we report the first body of SAR work aimed at developing potent inhibitors of TgCPL with selectivity vs the human cathepsin L. Starting from a known inhibitor of human cathepsin L, and guided by structure-based design, we were able to modulate the selectivity for Toxoplasma vs human CPL by nearly 50-fold while modifying physiochemical properties to be more favorable for metabolic stability and CNS penetrance. The overall potency of our inhibitors towards TgCPL was improved from 2 μM to as low as 110 nM and we successfully demonstrated that an optimized analog 18b is capable of crossing the BBB (0.5 brain/plasma). This work is an important first step toward development of a CNS-penetrant probe to validate TgCPL as a feasible target for the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AS AN INDEX OF CNS DEMYELINATION IN GUILLAIN -BARRÉ SYNDROME (GBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS is an acute, frequently severe and fulminant polyradicular neuropathy that is autoimmune in nature. GBS manifest as rapidly evolving areflexic motor paralysis with or without sensory disturbances. It mainly involves peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system. There are rare evidences about the involvement of central nervous system (CNS in GBS. Aims: The main objective of the study was to assess the CNS involvement in GBS using the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP. Methods & Material: The study was conducted in the clinical neurophysiology lab in the department of physiology, CSMMU Lucknow. Study group involved 26 subjects (n=26 having GBS and control group involved 30 normal subjects (n=30. BAEPS were recorded by Neuroperfect- EMG 2000 EMG/NCV/EPsytem. The data so obtained were subjected to analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 13.0. Results & Conclusions: There was significant increase in PIII & PV peak latencies and PI-PIII & PI-PV interpeak latencies in both left and right ear in the study group, which showed the CNS involvement in GBS which can be assessed using BAEP.

  12. Regulation of Adult CNS Axonal Regeneration by the Post-transcriptional Regulator Cpeb1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Pak-Kin Lou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS neurons are unable to regenerate following axonal injury, leading to permanent functional impairments. Yet, the reasons underlying this regeneration failure are not fully understood. Here, we studied the transcriptome and translatome shortly after spinal cord injury. Profiling of the total and ribosome-bound RNA in injured and naïve spinal cords identified a substantial post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In particular, transcripts associated with nervous system development were down-regulated in the total RNA fraction while remaining stably loaded onto ribosomes. Interestingly, motif association analysis of post-transcriptionally regulated transcripts identified the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE as enriched in a subset of these transcripts that was more resistant to injury-induced reduction at the transcriptome level. Modulation of these transcripts by overexpression of the CPE binding protein, Cpeb1, in mouse and Drosophila CNS neurons promoted axonal regeneration following injury. Our study uncovered a global evolutionarily conserved post-transcriptional mechanism enhancing regeneration of injured CNS axons.

  13. The N-terminal domain of APJ, a CNS-based coreceptor for HIV-1, is essential for its receptor function and coreceptor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Naiming; Zhang Xiaoling; Fan Xuejun; Argyris, Elias; Fang Jianhua; Acheampong, Edward; DuBois, Garrett C.; Pomerantz, Roger J.

    2003-01-01

    The human APJ, a G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor, has been found to be dramatically expressed in the human central nervous system (CNS) and also to serve as a coreceptor for the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Studies with animal models suggested that APJ and its natural ligand, apelin, play an important role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis, and in regulation of blood pressure and cardiac contractility. In this study, we characterize the structural and functional determinants of the N-terminal domain of APJ in interactions with its natural ligand and HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. We demonstrate that the second 10 residues of the N-terminal domain of APJ are critical for association with apelin, while the first 20 amino acids play an important role in supporting cell-cell fusion mediated by HIV-1 gp120. With site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified that the negatively charged amino acid residues Glu20 and Asp23 are involved in receptor and coreceptor functions, but residues Tyr10 and Tyr11 substantially contribute to coreceptor function for both T-tropic (CXCR4) and dual-tropic (CXCR4 and CCR5) HIV-1 isolates. Thus, this study provides potentially important information for further characterizing APJ-apelin functions in vitro and in vivo and designing small molecules for treatment of HIV-1 infection in the CNS

  14. Modeling study on nuclide transport in ocean - an ocean compartment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Kyoung Won

    1991-01-01

    An ocean compartment model simulating transport of nuclides by advection due to ocean circulation and interaction with suspended sediments is developed, by which concentration breakthrough curves of nuclides can be calculated as a function of time. Dividing ocean into arbitrary number of characteristic compartments and performing a balance of mass of nuclides in each ocean compartment, the governing equation for the concentration in the ocean is obtained and a solution by the numerical integration is obtained. The integration method is specially useful for general stiff systems. For transfer coefficients describing advective transport between adjacent compartments by ocean circulation, the ocean turnover time is calculated by a two-dimensional numerical ocean method. To exemplify the compartment model, a reference case calculation for breakthrough curves of three nuclides in low-level radioactive wastes, Tc-99, Cs-137, and Pu-238 released from hypothetical repository under the seabed is carried out with five ocean compartments. Sensitivity analysis studies for some parameters to the concentration breakthrough curves are also made, which indicates that parameters such as ocean turnover time and ocean water volume of compartments have an important effect on the breakthrough curves. (Author)

  15. [Orbital compartment syndrome. The most frequent cause of blindness following facial trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Gusztáv; Katona, József; Kenderfi, Gábor; Lestyán, János; Gombos, Katalin; Hirschberg, Andor

    2017-09-01

    Although orbital compartment syndrome is a rare condition, it is still the most common cause of blindness following simple or complicated facial fractures. Its pathomechanism is similar to the compartment syndrome in the limb. Little extra fluid (blood, oedema, brain, foreign body) in a non-space yielding space results with increasingly higher pressures within a short period of time. Unless urgent surgical intervention is performed the blocked circulation of the central retinal artery will result irreversible ophthalmic nerve damage and blindness. Aim, material and method: A retrospective analysis of ten years, 2007-2017, in our hospital among those patients referred to us with facial-head trauma combined with blindness. 571 patients had fractures involving the orbit. 23 patients become blind from different reasons. The most common cause was orbital compartment syndrome in 17 patients; all had retrobulbar haematomas as well. 6 patients with retrobulbar haematoma did not develop compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome was found among patient with extensive and minimal fractures such as with large and minimal haematomas. Early lateral canthotomy and decompression saved 7 patients from blindness. We can not predict and do not know why some patients develop orbital compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome seems independent from fracture mechanism, comminution, dislocation, amount of orbital bleeding. All patients are in potential risk with midface fractures. We have a high suspicion that orbital compartment syndrome has been somehow missed out in the recommended textbooks of our medical universities and in the postgraduate trainings. Thus compartment syndrome is not recognized. Teaching, training and early surgical decompression is the only solution to save the blind eye. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(36): 1410-1420.

  16. Bilateral post-traumatic gluteal compartment syndrome: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashis Barick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluteal compartment is a rare site for compartment syndrome. Gluteal compartment syndrome has most commonly been described in the literature as occurring after prolonged immobility associated with substance abuse, improper operative positioning, sickle cell-induced infarct, post-traumatic and spontaneous superior gluteal artery rupture, exercise, and post-arterial embolization of the internal iliac artery prior to abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Trauma is rarely associated with this syndrome. Gluteal compartment syndrome occurs in approximately 0.9% of trauma patients. Posttraumatic gluteal compartment syndrome develops because of edema with traumatic contusions, crush injuries and hematoma formation due to blunt superior or inferior gluteal artery injuries in all compartments of the gluteal region Only 6 previous cases have been reported in the literature. Two previous cases involved positioning for urological procedures, while the other cited causes of bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome include exercise-induced, trauma, and prolonged immobilization from substance abuse. One of the most immediately devastating results of a missed compartment syndrome is the risk of the development of rhabdomyolysis with the resulting squeal of myoglobinuria, hyperkalemia, and acidosis resulting in renal failure, shock, multiple organ failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and possibly death. Here we report a case of posttraumatic bilateral compartment syndrome which developed secondary to pressure due to patient being trapped under a vehicle following a vehicular accident. He was operated upon and a bilateral fasciotomy was done. Although he did not develop any renal complications, the sciatic nerve palsy on the left side did not recover. The patient is still under follow up.

  17. Elevated interferon-gamma in CNS inflammatory disease: a potential complication for bone marrow reconstitution in MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan-Zahraee, M; Tran, E H; Bourbonnière, L

    2000-01-01

    but levels were higher in IFNgamma transgenics. BM transplantation into IFNgamma-deficient recipients also had a high failure rate. Transplants of BM from mice lacking expression of IFNgamma-receptor failed, whereas IFNgamma-deficient grafts survived, suggesting that IFNgamma response status of the graft can......Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is increasingly used to treat Multiple Sclerosis (MS) a CNS inflammatory disease with elevated CNS and systemic IFNgamma levels. We wished to determine the effect of IFNgamma on BM graft survival in a transgenic mouse model for chronic MS. BM transplantation...... into transgenic mice which express elevated levels of IFNgamma in the CNS was unsuccessful. By contrast, there was 100% survival of even fully allogeneic, T-depleted transplants to transgenics that over express TNFalpha in the CNS, using the same MBP promoter. IFNgamma was detectable in spleen of irradiated mice...

  18. Early wound site seeding in a patient with CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR alteration: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Pickles, Jessica C; Fairchild, Amy R; Avery, Aimee; Pietsch, Torsten; Jacques, Thomas S; Aquilina, Kristian

    2018-05-30

    Advances in molecular profiling have facilitated the emergence of newly defined entities of central nervous system tumor, including CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR alteration (CNS HGNET-BCOR). Relatively little is known about the clinical behaviour of these newly-characterized tumors. We describe a pediatric male patient with CNS HGNET-BCOR who developed seeding of the tumor into the site of the surgical wound within months of surgery for resection of a residual posterior fossa tumor. This case emphasises three important points. First, CNS HGNET-BCOR can be aggressive tumors that necessitate close clinical and radiological surveillance. Second, surveillance imaging in such cases should incorporate the surgical incision site into the field of view, and this should be closely scrutinised to ensure the timely detection of wound site seeding. Third, wound site seeding may still occur despite the use of meticulous surgical techniques. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Spectral Doppler findings in a rare case of acute compartment syndrome following leg burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer A. Mahmoud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome (ACS is an orthopedic emergency condition, which is rarely attributed to burns. It occurs when pressure in an enclosed space rises to a point where it reduces blood flow and impairs tissue perfusion. Its consequences often lead to ischemia and possible necrosis within that space. Until now, the use of Doppler assessment to explore different types of compartment syndrome has yielded contradictory findings. Here, we present a significant increase of blood flow velocity in the arteries proximal to the burned area. Thus, the combination of Duplex ultrasound results with clinical findings will help vascular surgeons to make immediate decision to perform fasciotomy. Keywords: Compartment syndrome, Spectral Doppler

  20. Compartment Syndrome following Open Femoral Fracture with an Isolated Femoral Vein Injury Treated with Acute Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Walmsley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency and its diagnosis is more difficult in obtunded or insensate patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who sustained a Gustilo-Anderson grade III open midshaft femur fracture with an isolated femoral vein injury treated with direct repair. She developed lower leg compartment syndrome at 48 hours postoperatively, necessitating fasciotomies. She was subsequently found to have a DVT in her femoral vein at the level of the repair and was started on therapeutic anticoagulation. This case highlights the importance of recognition of isolated venous injuries in a trauma setting as a risk factor for developing compartment syndrome.

  1. Compartment and Crush Syndromes After Sleep Deprivation and a Therapeutic Dose of Zolpidem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Huecker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive review in the literature, compartment syndrome and crush syndrome remain difficult to diagnose. Trauma, toxins and reperfusion have been associated with these syndromes. Cases involving alcohol and drug abuse have described patients “found down” compressing an extremity. We present a case of a registered nurse who developed compartment syndrome in multiple limbs due to prolonged sleep after sleep deprivation and zolpidem use. To our knowledge, this is the first case of compartment syndrome or crush syndrome to have occurred in the setting of zolpidem use. Sleep disruption in healthcare workers represents a public health issue with dangerous sequelae, both acute and chronic.

  2. Systemic high-dose methotrexate plus ifosfamide is highly effective for central nervous system (CNS) involvement of lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Patients with malignant central nervous system (CNS) involvement of lymphoma have a poor prognosis with intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation. In this paper, we report the results we obtained in such patients by intravenous chemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate and ifosfamide (HDMTX/IFO). The study involved a review of all patients who received HDMTX/IFO for CNS involvement of malignant lymphoma at our hospital. Therapy consisted of 4 g/m2 of MTX (4 h infu...

  3. Compartment elasticity measured by pressure-related ultrasound to determine patients "at risk" for compartment syndrome: an experimental in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, Richard Martin; Hingmann, Simon Johannes; Kobbe, Philipp; Weber, Christian; Grice, John Edward; Zimmerman, Frauke; Jeromin, Sabine; Hildebrand, Frank; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. In an in vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intra-compartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mmHg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mmHg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (∆d). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mmHg) occurred. The Pearson coefficient showed a high correlation (r(2) = -0.960). The intra-observer reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete compartmental elasticity by ultrasound

  4. Tracer kinetics: Modelling by partial differential equations of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, E.

    1991-01-01

    The general theory of inhomogeneous compartments with age-dependent elimination rates is illustrated by examples. Mathematically, it turns out that models consisting of partial differential equations include ordinary, delayed and integro-differential equations, a general fact which is treated here in the context of linear tracer kinetics. The examples include standard compartments as a degenerate case, systems of standard compartments (compartment blocks), models resulting in special residence time distributions, models with pipes, and systems with heterogeneous particles. (orig./BBR) [de

  5. Tailored central nervous system-directed treatment strategy for isolated CNS recurrence of adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changcheng; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Weibo; Cai, Xiaoyan; Wu, Jingsheng; Sun, Zimin

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this report was to investigate the tailored treatment strategies for isolated central nervous system (CNS) recurrence in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Isolated CNS recurrence was documented in 34 patients: there were 18, 6, and 10 patients with meningeal involvement type (type A), cranial nerve palsy type (type B), and myeloid sarcoma type (type C), respectively. For patients with type A, intrathecal chemotherapy was the predominant strategy. For type B, systemic HD-Ara-C with four cycles was the main treatment. For type C, cranial irradiation or craniospinal irradiation was adopted and two cycles of HD-Ara-C were given after the irradiation. The 5-year cumulative incidence of CNS recurrence was 12.8%. There was a significantly higher WBC count (32.6∼60.8 × 10(9)/l) in patients at first diagnosis who developed CNS recurrence (all of the three types) compared with patients with no CNS recurrence (10.1 × 10(9)/l) (P = 0.005). We found that a significantly more patients with AML-M5 and 11q23 abnormalities developed CNS recurrence in type A (P adult AML, but further studies are needed to improve the long-term survival.

  6. A Novel Robust H∞ Filter Based on Krein Space Theory in the SINS/CNS Attitude Reference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their numerous merits, such as compact, autonomous and independence, the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and celestial navigation system (CNS can be used in marine applications. What is more, due to the complementary navigation information obtained from two different kinds of sensors, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system can be enhanced availably. Thus, the SINS/CNS system is widely used in the marine navigation field. However, the CNS is easily interfered with by the surroundings, which will lead to the output being discontinuous. Thus, the uncertainty problem caused by the lost measurement will reduce the system accuracy. In this paper, a robust H∞ filter based on the Krein space theory is proposed. The Krein space theory is introduced firstly, and then, the linear state and observation models of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system are established reasonably. By taking the uncertainty problem into account, in this paper, a new robust H∞ filter is proposed to improve the robustness of the integrated system. At last, this new robust filter based on the Krein space theory is estimated by numerical simulations and actual experiments. Additionally, the simulation and experiment results and analysis show that the attitude errors can be reduced by utilizing the proposed robust filter effectively when the measurements are missing discontinuous. Compared to the traditional Kalman filter (KF method, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated system is improved, verifying the robustness and the availability of the proposed robust H∞ filter.

  7. Evaluation of calcium, magnesium, zinc, aluminum and manganese deposition in bones and CNS of rats fed calcium-deficient diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro; Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Iwata, Shiro.

    1994-01-01

    The long term intake of unbalanced mineral diets has been reported to be one of the pathogenetic factors of central nervous system (CNS) degeneration, and the unbalanced mineral distribution in the bones clinically is expressed as a metabolic bone disorder or deposition of neurotoxic minerals/metals. The unbalanced mineral or metal diets in animals provoke the unbalanced mineral distribution in bones and soft tissues. In this study, the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) contents in the CNS and the bones of rats maintained on unbalanced mineral diets were analyzed to investigate the roles of bone on CNS degeneration. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. Al and Mn contents were determined in the frontal cortex, spinal cord, lumbar spine and femur using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) for Ca, Mg and Zn, and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for Al and Mn. Intake of low Ca and Mg with added Al in rats led to the abnormal distribution of metals or minerals in the bones and in the CNS. These results illustrate that unbalanced mineral diets and metal-metal interactions may lead to the irregular deposition of Al and Mn in the bones and ultimately in the CNS, thus inducing CNS degeneration. (author)

  8. Delayed presentation of compartment syndrome of the thigh secondary to quadriceps trauma and vascular injury in a soccer athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Ing How

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for compartment syndrome is needed in all severe quadriceps contusion. Vascular injury can cause thigh compartment syndrome in sports trauma. MRI findings of deep thigh muscle swelling and “blow-out” tear of the vastus lateralis are strongly suggestive of severe quadriceps injury, and may be a harbinger of delayed thigh compartment syndrome.

  9. Contributions: SAGE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Contributions: SAGE. Space Alternating Generalized Expectation (SAGE) Maximization algorithm provides an iterative approach to parameter estimation when direct maximization of the likelihood function may be infeasible. Complexity is less in those applications ...

  10. Various Contributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Various Contributions. Developed an Off –Diagonal MIMO Canceller to mitigate Upstream Crosstalk in VDSL. Developed a low complexity, Expectation Maximization based iterative Crosstalk cancellation. Developed an optimal way of computational complexity ...

  11. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  12. Shock Transmission Analyses of a Simplified Frigate Compartment Using LS-DYNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trouwborst, W

    1999-01-01

    This report gives results as obtained with finite element analyses using the explicit finite element program LS-DYNA for a longitudinal slice of a frigate's compartment loaded with a shock pulse based...

  13. A case of abdominal compartment syndrome derived from simple elongated sigmoid colon in an elderly man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Shida

    2016-01-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Considering the increase in the aging population, we must bear in mind that abdominal compartment syndrome may occur in simple elongated sigmoid colon without other risk factors.

  14. Synchronous compartment temperature control and apparatus for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Stephen J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    A refrigerator appliance configuration, and associated methods of operation, for an appliance with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The controller, by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system, depending on the appliance configuration, controls the cooling rate in one or both compartments to synchronize, alternating cycles of cooling the compartments to their set point temperatures.

  15. A delayed presentation of bilateral leg compartment syndrome following non-stop dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, James Gordon; Carter, Tom; White, Tim Oliver

    2015-03-18

    We present the case of a young man with a 48 h delayed presentation of bilateral lower limb acute compartment syndrome (ACS) affecting the anterior compartments following an extended period of dancing at a music festival. On making the diagnosis of ACS, the patient was immediately taken to theatre for fasciotomies and compartmental decompression. Repeat look fasciotomies revealed further necrosis to the muscles of the anterior compartments bilaterally and, effectively, all the muscle bellies within the anterior compartments were excised. The patient has been left with a significant functional deficit and disability. This case highlights the importance of timely diagnosis of ACS as delay in presentation can impact significantly on subsequent functional outcome and quality of life. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Assessment of Fire Growth and Mitigation in Submarine Plastic Waste Stowage Compartments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ndubizu, Chuka

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests to assess the fire growth characteristics and the ease of fire control in the proposed Virginia-class and the Ohio-class submarine plastic waste stowage compartments...

  17. Optimization of Dissolution Compartments in a Biorelevant Dissolution Apparatus Golem v2, Supported by Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stupák

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biorelevant dissolution instruments represent an important tool for pharmaceutical research and development. These instruments are designed to simulate the dissolution of drug formulations in conditions most closely mimicking the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, we focused on the optimization of dissolution compartments/vessels for an updated version of the biorelevant dissolution apparatus—Golem v2. We designed eight compartments of uniform size but different inner geometry. The dissolution performance of the compartments was tested using immediate release caffeine tablets and evaluated by standard statistical methods and principal component analysis. Based on two phases of dissolution testing (using 250 and 100 mL of dissolution medium, we selected two compartment types yielding the highest measurement reproducibility. We also confirmed a statistically ssignificant effect of agitation rate and dissolution volume on the extent of drug dissolved and measurement reproducibility.

  18. Propriety check for quenching meshes for control of hydrogen combustion between two compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S. Y.; Jeong, S. H.; Kim, H. Z.; Kim, H. D.; Hong, S. W.

    2001-01-01

    In our previous study, the quenching meshes have been proposed for the control of hydrogen combustion under nuclear severe accident. It has been investigated whether the method of installation of quenching mesh to prevent flame from propagating to the other compartment is proper or not. Schlieren photograph is used to visualize the propagation of flame between two compartments. Without the quenching mesh equipped between the compartments, it has been observed that the flame always propagates from a compartment to the other. The data on quencing distance of hydrogen premixed flames gotten in our previous study is alayzed to setup of optimum quenching mesh, too. Such experimental results establish that the quenching meshes proposed for the control of hydrogen combustion are resonably available

  19. Orientationally invariant metrics of apparent compartment eccentricity from double pulsed field gradient diffusion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Lundell, Henrik; Sønderby, Casper Kaae

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed field gradient diffusion sequences (PFG) with multiple diffusion encoding blocks have been indicated to offer new microstructural tissue information, such as the ability to detect nonspherical compartment shapes in macroscopically isotropic samples, i.e. samples with negligible directional...

  20. Acute gluteal compartment syndrome: superior gluteal artery rupture following a low energy injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aubrey; Chitre, Vivek; Deo, Hersh

    2012-12-17

    Acute compartment syndrome affecting the gluteal region is rare when compared to the same condition in the forearm or calf. When it does occur, it is usually due to prolonged immobilisation in those with altered consciousness. Gluteal compartment syndrome resulting from injury to the superior gluteal artery is extremely rare and to our knowledge has been described only twice--both after high-energy road traffic accidents (RTA). Other cases have described profound hypotension with superior gluteal artery injury after an RTA and falling off a horse, without acute gluteal compartment syndrome. We present a case of gluteal compartment syndrome due to rupture of the superior gluteal artery following a relatively minor fall. The patient required an emergency fasciotomy, which was performed within 4 h of the injury. This case highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition.

  1. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-07-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm(2)), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm(2)). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18-0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the 'design' of their

  2. Architectural properties of the neuromuscular compartments in selected forearm skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-Tang; Liu, Ben-Li; Lu, Li-Xuan; Chen, Gang; Yu, Da-Zhi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Rong; Dang, Rui-Shan; Jiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purposes f this study were to (i) explore the possibility of splitting the selected forearm muscles into separate compartments in human subjects; (ii) quantify the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment; and (iii) discuss the implication of these properties in split tendon transfer procedures. Twenty upper limbs from 10 fresh human cadavers were used in this study. Ten limbs of five cadavers were used for intramuscular nerve study by modified Sihler's staining technique, which confirmed the neuromuscular compartments. The other 10 limbs were included for architectural analysis of neuromuscular compartments. The architectural features of the compartments including muscle weight, muscle length, fiber length, pennation angle, and sarcomere length were determined. Physiological cross-sectional area and fiber length/muscle length ratio were calculated. Five of the selected forearm muscles were ideal candidates for splitting, including flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radials, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and pronator teres. The humeral head of pronator teres contained the longest fiber length (6.23 ± 0.31 cm), and the radial compartment of extensor carpi ulnaris contained the shortest (2.90 ± 0.28 cm). The ulnar compartment of flexor carpi ulnaris had the largest physiological cross-sectional area (5.17 ± 0.59 cm2), and the ulnar head of pronator teres had the smallest (0.67 ± 0.06 cm2). Fiber length/muscle length ratios of the neuromuscular compartments were relatively low (average 0.27 ± 0.09, range 0.18–0.39) except for the ulnar head of pronator teres, which had the highest one (0.72 ± 0.05). Using modified Sihler's technique, this research demonstrated that each compartment of these selected forearm muscles has its own neurovascular supply after being split along its central tendon. Data of the architectural properties of each neuromuscular compartment provide insight into the ‘design’ of their

  3. Compartment analysis of 125I-labelled albumin washout from coronary vessels of isolated perfused hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Eap Ng; Seh-Hoon Song

    1978-01-01

    Albumin labelled with 125 I was used as a tracer to investigate the washout kinetics of plasma from the coronary circulation of isolated perfused feline hearts. Compartmentalization with experimental results showed at least two compartments. The model was compared with a three-compartment model found previously for red blood cells. The results indicate that there is a separation of plasma and RBC in the coronary microcirculation. (author)

  4. Development of a compartment model based on CFD simulations for description of mixing in bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crine, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and modeling the complex interactions between biological reaction and hydrodynamics are a key problem when dealing with bioprocesses. It is fundamental to be able to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. CFD can provide detailed modeling about hydrodynamics and mixing. However, it is computationally intensive, especially when reactions are taken into account. Another way to predict hydrodynamics is the use of "Compartment" or "Multi-zone" models which are much less demanding in computation time than CFD. However, compartments and fluxes between them are often defined by considering global quantities not representative of the flow. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a solution is to combine compartment modeling and CFD simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a methodology in order to propose a compartment model based on CFD simulations of a bioreactor. The flow rate between two compartments can be easily computed from the velocity fields obtained by CFD. The difficulty lies in the definition of the zones in such a way they can be considered as perfectly mixed. The creation of the model compartments from CFD cells can be achieved manually or automatically. The manual zoning consists in aggregating CFD cells according to the user's wish. The automatic zoning defines compartments as regions within which the value of one or several properties are uniform with respect to a given tolerance. Both manual and automatic zoning methods have been developed and compared by simulating the mixing of an inert scalar. For the automatic zoning, several algorithms and different flow properties have been tested as criteria for the compartment creation.

  5. A surgical approach to the lateral compartment of the equine guttural pouch in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Juan A.; Stephen, Jennifer; Baptiste, Keith Edward

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)......The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and complications following lavage and drainage of the laterial compartment (LC) of the equine guttural pounch (GP) using a modified Garm´s technique (MGT)...

  6. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome in an elderly male: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Leg pain is a common presentation to the outpatient department. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome is a rare cause of bilateral calf pain. Although this condition has been well documented in young athletes, it has rarely been reported in the elderly. We present the case of a 68-year-old male bodybuilder with bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome, describe the presentation and evaluation of the condition, and provide a review of the literature herewith.

  8. CHRONIC COMPARTMENT SYNDROME OF LOWER LEG. AN UNUSUAL CASE IN NON ATHLETIC PATIENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schiavone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exertional anterior compartment syndrome is debilitating disease of lower limb. The clinical picture is characterised by limited symptomology at rest, pain during sporting activities, tumefaction and contractures of limb as well impotency by pain of the entire forefoot and hypoesthesia. Usually the most affected patients are athletes. We analyse a case of chronic post traumatic compartment syndrome of the anterior tibial muscle in an unsportsmanlike patient.

  9. Investigation of Local Hydrogen Risk in the RDT Compartment of OPR1000 under SBO Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Kyung; Jeon, Joon Goo; Choi, Won Jun; Song, Kyu Sang; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong

    2016-01-01

    As TMI-2 and Fukushima accidents revealed, a high concentration of hydrogen in a nuclear power plant (NPP) could cause hydrogen combustion. In order to take follow-up measures, an average and local hydrogen concentration in the NPP containment are regulated below 0.1 using hydrogen mitigation system such as igniter and/or passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR). During a severe accident, some compartments of the NPP containment temporarily may show peaks of the local hydrogen concentration over 0.1 depending on the geometry of the containment structure and hydrogen transportation path. For example, the compartment of a reactor drain tank (RDT) is connected to the pressurizer nozzle and if the relieved pressure drives the significant amount of steam and hydrogen, then substantial peaks of the hydrogen concentration can occur. Before the RPV failure under SBO scenario, the RDT compartment was the main region for hydrogen release due to the RDT break. Therefore, confirming the local hydrogen risk in the RDT compartment is very important to verify the integrity of the NPP containment. In this study, the local hydrogen risk in the RDT compartment of OPR1000 under SBO scenario was evaluated using MELCOR 1.8.6 code in terms of the hydrogen volume fraction and the Shapiro diagram. (1) The RDT compartment showed the peaks of the hydrogen volume fraction over 0.1. As a future work, the local hydrogen risk of the compartment of a steam generator (SG) needs to be analyzed under SBLOCA scenario. Because the SG compartment is also a main region of hydrogen release under SBLOCA scenario. In the long run, the analysis for the detailed hydrogen distribution, based on detailed modeling of the whole OPR1000 containment, needs to be performed.

  10. Focuss algorithm application in kinetic compartment modeling for PET tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xinrui; Bao Shanglian

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is in the process of becoming. Its application mostly depends on the molecular discovery process of imaging probes and drugs, from the mouse to the patient, from research to clinical practice. Positron emission tomography (PET) can non-invasively monitor . pharmacokinetic and functional processes of drugs in intact organisms at tracer concentrations by kinetic modeling. It has been known that for all biological systems, linear or nonlinear, if the system is injected by a tracer in a steady state, the distribution of the tracer follows the kinetics of a linear compartmental system, which has sums of exponential solutions. Based on the general compartmental description of the tracer's fate in vivo, we presented a novel kinetic modeling approach for the quantification of in vivo tracer studies with dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), which can determine a parsimonious model consisting with the measured data. This kinetic modeling technique allows for estimation of parametric images from a voxel based analysis and requires no a priori decision about the tracer's fate in vivo, instead determining the most appropriate model from the information contained within the kinetic data. Choosing a set of exponential functions, convolved with the plasma input function, as basis functions, the time activity curve of a region or a pixel can be written as a linear combination of the basis functions with corresponding coefficients. The number of non-zero coefficients returned corresponds to the model order which is related to the number of tissue compartments. The system macro parameters are simply determined using the focal underdetermined system solver (FOCUSS) algorithm. The FOCUSS algorithm is a nonparametric algorithm for finding localized energy solutions from limited data and is a recursive linear estimation procedure. FOCUSS algorithm usually converges very fast, so demands a few iterations. The effectiveness is verified by simulation and clinical

  11. Search for and characterization of microorganisms in deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the scientific community has shown a growing interest for deep geological compartments. However, these ecosystems remain largely unknown due to their inaccessibility. The aim of the present thesis was double; the first aim was to characterize, from a microbiological perspective, four terrestrial Triassic sedimentary formations located between 1700 and 2000 m depth in the Parisian Basin and collected by the ANDRA during a deep drilling campaign in 2008, and the second aim was to study the combined effects of temperature, pressure and salinity on the metabolic activity of anaerobic prokaryotes in order to predict their reaction to geological burial. Incubations in a large variety of media were carried out in order to stimulate the growth of the main trophic types found in such environments such as methanogens, fermenters and bacteria reducing sulphur compounds, however, no viable and cultivable microorganisms could be isolated. In parallel, a molecular approach was used to i) compare the efficacy of several DNA extractions methods and ii) analyse the bacterial diversity, using DGGE (Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning, present in rock inner cores conserved either at atmospheric pressure or under pressure, in their initial states and following incubations in various media. The genetic exploration of these samples revealed a very low biomass and a poor diversity composed mainly of aerobic and mesophilic members of the Bacteria domain, a priori unadapted to such a deep, hot, saline and anoxic environment. This unexpected microbial community also found in many subsurface ecosystems as well as in extreme ecosystems could have partially originated from a paleo-recharge of the Trias aquifer with cold waters coming from the melting of ice formed during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The second objective was to study the combined effects of temperature (40, 55 and 70 C), pressure (1, 90 and 180 bars) and salinity (13, 50, 110, 180

  12. Leukoencephalopathy following CNS prophylaxis therapy in pediatric leukemia : MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sub; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duck Sik; Kwon, Soon Hak; Lee, Keon Soo

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings and the usefulness of MR imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up leukoencephalopathy following CNS prophylaxis therapy in pediatric leukemia. We retrospectively evaluated the MR imaging findings of eight children with white matter abnormalities on MR out of seventeen acute leukemic patients with various neuropsychiatric symptoms who received intrathecal methotrexate administration, with or without cranial irradiation. In all cases, initial MR was performed within a week of the onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Follow-up MR was performed one to sixteen months after initial study, and the MR imaging findings were compared with the initial findings. The initial MR imaging findings were classified into three categories : focal or multifocal white matter abnormalities (3/8), and diffuse white matter abnormalities without enhancement (3/8), and diffuse white matter abnormalities with enhancement (2/8). At follow-up MR, diffuse or focal atrophic changes were noted in all children. White matter abnormalities improved in two out of three patients with focal or multifocal white matter abnormalities. In five with diffuse white matter abnormalities, the extent of these showed no significant change, but contrast enhancement was markedly reduced in two children in whom diffuse white matter abnormalities with enhancement had been demonstrated. In pediatric leukemia, the MR imaging findings of leukoencephalopathy following CNS prophylaxis therapy are variable, but are specific with the clinical history of neuropsychiatric symptoms after intrathecal methotrexate administration, with or without cranial irradiation. The MR imaging is valuable in the diagnosis and follow-up of leukoencephalopathy following CNS prophylaxis therapy in pediatric leukemia

  13. Effects of prolonged treatment with memantine in the MRL model of CNS lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Katarina; Parsons, Tiffany; Lerch, Jason P; Sled, John G; Sakic, Boris

    2012-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric manifestations and brain atrophy of unknown etiology are common and severe complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An autoantibody that binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2 has been proposed as a key factor in the etiology of central nervous system (CNS) SLE. This hypothesis was supported by evidence suggesting memantine (MEM), an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral dysfunction and brain pathology in healthy mice immunized with a peptide similar to an epitope on the NR2 receptor. Given that SLE is a chronic condition, we presently examine the effects of MEM in MRL/lpr mice, which develop behavioral deficits alongside SLE-like disease. A broad behavioral battery and 7-Tesla MRI were used to examine whether prolonged treatment with MEM (~25 mg/kg b.w. in drinking water) prevents CNS involvement in this spontaneous model of SLE. Although MEM increased novel object exploration in MRL/lpr mice, it did not show other beneficial, substrain-specific effects. Conversely, MEM was detrimental to spontaneous activity in control MRL +/+ mice and had a negative effect on body mass gain. Similarly, MRI revealed comparable increases in the volume of periventricular structures in MEM-treated groups. Sustained exposure to MEM affects body growth, brain morphology, and behavior primarily by pharmacological, and not autoimmunity-dependant mechanisms. Substrain-specific improvement in exploratory behavior of MEM-treated MRL/lpr mice may indicate that the NMDA system is merely a constituent of a complex pathogenenic cascade. However, it was evident that chronic administration of MEM is unable to completely prevent the development of a CNS SLE-like syndrome.

  14. Potential Role of Oxidative Stress in mediating the Effect of Hypergravity on the Developing CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Lipinski, B.

    The present studies will explore the mechanisms through which altered gravity affects the developing CNS We have previously shown that exposure to hypergravity during the perinatal period adversely impacts cerebellar structure and function Pregnant rat dams were exposed to 1 65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge at NASA-ARC from gestational day G 5 through giving birth Both dams and their offspring remained at 1 65 G until pups reached postnatal day P 21 Control rats were raised under identical conditions in stationary cages On P21 motor behavior as determined by performance on a rotorod was more negatively impacted in hypergravity-exposed HG male 39 5 than in HG female pups 29 1 The total number of Purkinje cells determined stereologically in cerebella isolated from a subset of P21 rats was decreased in both HG males and HG female pups but the correlation between Purkinje cell number and rotorod performance was more consistent in male pups The level of 3-nitrosotyrosine 3-NT an index of oxidative damage to proteins was determined by ELISA in cerebellar tissue derived from a separate subset of P21 rats The level of 3-NT was increased by 127 in HG males but only 42 in HG females These results suggest that the effect of altered gravity on the developing brain may be mediated by oxidative stress These results also suggest that the developing male CNS may be more sensitive to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress than the developing female CNS Supported by NIEHS grant ES11946-01

  15. The Effect of the Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus on the Regeneration Following CNS Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jin-Goo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Following central nervous system(CNS injury, inhibitory influences at the site of axonal damage occur. Glial cells become reactive and form a glial scar, gliosis. Also myelin debris such as MAG inhibits axonal regeneration. Astrocyte-rich gliosis relates with up-regulation of GFAP and CD81, and eventually becomes physical and mechanical barrier to axonal regeneration. MAG is one of several endogenous axon regeneration inhibitors that limit recovery from CNS injury and disease. It was reported that molecules that block such inhibitors enhanced axon regeneration and functional recovery. Recently it was reported that treatment with anti-CD81 antibodies enhanced functional recovery in the rat with spinal cord injury. So in this current study, the author investigated the effect of the water extract of Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus on the regulation of CD81, GFAP and MAG that increase when gliosis occurs. Methods : MTT assay was performed to examine cell viability, and cell-based ELISA, western blot and PCR were used to detect the expression of CD81, GFAP and MAG. Then also immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm in vivo. Results : Water extract of Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus showed relatively high cell viability at the concentration of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5%. The expression of CD81, GFAP and MAG in astrocytes was decreased after the administration of Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus water extract. These results was confirmed in the brain sections following cortical stab injury by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion : The authors observed that Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus significantly down-regulates the expression of CD81, GFAP and MAG. These results suggest that Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus can be a candidate to regenerate CNS injury.

  16. Blood-CNS Barrier Impairment in ALS Patients versus an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana eGarbuzova-Davis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a severe neurodegenerative disease with a compli-cated and poorly understood pathogenesis. Recently, alterations in the blood-Central Nervous System barrier (B-CNS-B have been recognized as a key factor possibly aggravating motor neuron damage. The majority of findings on ALS microvascular pathology have been deter-mined in mutant SOD1 rodent models, identifying barrier damage during disease develop-ment which might similarly occur in familial ALS patients carrying the SOD1 mutation. However, our knowledge of B-CNS-B competence in sporadic ALS (SALS has been limited. We recently showed structural and functional impairment in postmortem gray and white mat-ter microvessels of medulla and spinal cord tissue from SALS patients, suggesting pervasive barrier damage. Although numerous signs of barrier impairment (endothelial cell degenera-tion, capillary leakage, perivascular edema, downregulation of tight junction proteins, and microhemorrhages are indicated in both mutant SOD1 animal models of ALS and SALS pa-tients, other pathogenic barrier alterations have as yet only been identified in SALS patients. Pericyte degeneration, perivascular collagen IV expansion, and white matter capillary abnor-malities in SALS patients are significant barrier related pathologies yet to be noted in ALS SOD1 animal models. In the current review, these important differences in blood-CNS barrier damage between ALS patients and animal models, which may signify altered barrier transport mechanisms, are discussed. Understanding discrepancies in barrier condition between ALS patients and animal models may be crucial for developing effective therapies.

  17. Installation and Commissioning of the Helium Refrigeration System for the HANARO-CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Young Ki; Wu, Sang Ik; Son, Woo Jung

    2009-11-01

    The cold neutron source (CNS), which will be installed in the vertical CN hole of the reflector tank at HANARO, makes thermal neutrons to moderate into the cold neutrons with the ranges of 0.1 ∼ 10 meV passing through a moderator at about 22K. A moderator to produce cold neutrons is liquid hydrogen, which liquefies by the heat transfer with cryogenic helium flowing from the helium refrigeration system. For the maintenance of liquid hydrogen in the IPA, the CNS system is mainly consisted of the hydrogen system to supply the hydrogen to the IPA, the vacuum system to keep the cryogenic liquid hydrogen in the IPA, and the helium refrigeration system to liquefy the hydrogen gas. The helium refrigeration system can be divided into two sections: one is the helium compression part from the low pressure gas to the high pressure gas and the other is the helium expansion part from the high temperature gas and pressure to low temperature and pressure gas by the expansion turbine. The helium refrigeration system except the warm helium pipe and the helium buffer tank has been manufactured by Linde Kryotechnik, AG in Switzerland and installed in the research reactor hall, HANARO. Other components have been manufactured in the domestic company. This technical report deals with the issues, its solutions, and other particular points while the helium refrigeration system was installed at site, verified its performance, and conducted its commissioning along the reactor operation. Furthermore, the operation procedure of the helium refrigeration system is included in here for the normal operation of the CNS

  18. TNF signaling inhibition in the CNS: implications for normal brain function and neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansey Malú G

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF as an immune mediator has long been appreciated but its function in the brain is still unclear. TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1 is expressed in most cell types, and can be activated by binding of either soluble TNF (solTNF or transmembrane TNF (tmTNF, with a preference for solTNF; whereas TNFR2 is expressed primarily by microglia and endothelial cells and is preferentially activated by tmTNF. Elevation of solTNF is a hallmark of acute and chronic neuroinflammation as well as a number of neurodegenerative conditions including ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's (AD, Parkinson's (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS. The presence of this potent inflammatory factor at sites of injury implicates it as a mediator of neuronal damage and disease pathogenesis, making TNF an attractive target for therapeutic development to treat acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. However, new and old observations from animal models and clinical trials reviewed here suggest solTNF and tmTNF exert different functions under normal and pathological conditions in the CNS. A potential role for TNF in synaptic scaling and hippocampal neurogenesis demonstrated by recent studies suggest additional in-depth mechanistic studies are warranted to delineate the distinct functions of the two TNF ligands in different parts of the brain prior to large-scale development of anti-TNF therapies in the CNS. If inactivation of TNF-dependent inflammation in the brain is warranted by additional pre-clinical studies, selective targeting of TNFR1-mediated signaling while sparing TNFR2 activation may lessen adverse effects of anti-TNF therapies in the CNS.

  19. AVN-101: A Multi-Target Drug Candidate for the Treatment of CNS Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V; Lavrovsky, Yan; Okun, Ilya

    2016-05-25

    Lack of efficacy of many new highly selective and specific drug candidates in treating diseases with poorly understood or complex etiology, as are many of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, encouraged an idea of developing multi-modal (multi-targeted) drugs. In this manuscript, we describe molecular pharmacology, in vitro ADME, pharmacokinetics in animals and humans (part of the Phase I clinical studies), bio-distribution, bioavailability, in vivo efficacy, and safety profile of the multimodal drug candidate, AVN-101. We have carried out development of a next generation drug candidate with a multi-targeted mechanism of action, to treat CNS disorders. AVN-101 is a very potent 5-HT7 receptor antagonist (Ki = 153 pM), with slightly lesser potency toward 5-HT6, 5-HT2A, and 5HT-2C receptors (Ki = 1.2-2.0 nM). AVN-101 also exhibits a rather high affinity toward histamine H1 (Ki = 0.58 nM) and adrenergic α2A, α2B, and α2C (Ki = 0.41-3.6 nM) receptors. AVN-101 shows a good oral bioavailability and facilitated brain-blood barrier permeability, low toxicity, and reasonable efficacy in animal models of CNS diseases. The Phase I clinical study indicates the AVN-101 to be well tolerated when taken orally at doses of up to 20 mg daily. It does not dramatically influence plasma and urine biochemistry, nor does it prolong QT ECG interval, thus indicating low safety concerns. The primary therapeutic area for AVN-101 to be tested in clinical trials would be Alzheimer's disease. However, due to its anxiolytic and anti-depressive activities, there is a strong rational for it to also be studied in such diseases as general anxiety disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis.

  20. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christopher J; Lynch, Joan; Harris, Ian A; Richardson, Martin D; Brand, Caroline; Lowe, Adrian J; Sugrue, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is a serious and not uncommon complication of limb trauma. The condition is a surgical emergency, and is associated with significant morbidity if not managed appropriately. There is variation in management of acute limb compartment syndrome in Australia. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma were developed in accordance with Australian National Health and Medical Research Council recommendations. The guidelines were based on critically appraised literature evidence and the consensus opinion of a multidisciplinary team involved in trauma management who met in a nominal panel process. Recommendations were developed for key decision nodes in the patient care pathway, including methods of diagnosis in alert and unconscious patients, appropriate assessment of compartment pressure, timing and technique of fasciotomy, fasciotomy wound management, and prevention of compartment syndrome in patients with limb injuries. The recommendations were largely consensus based in the absence of well-designed clinical trial evidence. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute limb compartment syndrome following trauma have been developed that will support consistency in management and optimize patient health outcomes.

  1. Fire simulation in large compartments with a fire model 'CFAST'. Part 1. Survey of applicability for analyzing air-temperature profile in compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi; Shirai, Koji; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Sano, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    The basic performance of numerical analysis of air-temperature profiles in large-scale compartments by using a zone model, CFAST (Consolidated model of Fire growth And Smoke Transport), which has been widely applied for fire protection design of buildings is examined. Special attentions are paid to the dependence of the setting boundary conditions and the choosing model parameters. The simulations carried out under the denkyoken-test conditions, in which the air-temperature profiles in compartments and the heat-release rate of a fire have been precisely measured, indicate that the CFAST has a capability to appropriately represent the time-histories of air-temperature in the high air-temperature layer generated in the vicinity of ceiling of the compartment which includes the source of a fire, by applying the proper boundary conditions, i.e., time-histories of air-temperature in the upper (high temperature) layer given by the CFAST agree well with those of observations. The sensitivity analysis in the simulations also reveals that the appropriately setting of the boundary-conditions, especially for the heat-release ratio from a fire and the heat-transfer rate from walls of compartments to ambient air is vital. Contrary to this, the impacts of choosing numerical parameters on the air-temperature analysis are quite small. (author)

  2. Body fat measurement among Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians: a comparative study using a four-compartment model and different two-compartment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Deurenberg, P.

    2001-01-01

    This cross-sectional study compared body fat percentage (BF€obtained from a four-compartment (4C) model with BF␏rom hydrometry (using 2H2O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and densitometry among the three main ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in Singapore, and determined the

  3. Efficient T-cell surveillance of the CNS requires expression of the CXC chemokine receptor 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; Nansen, Anneline; Moos, Torben

    2004-01-01

    T-cells play an important role in controlling viral infections inside the CNS. To study the role of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 in the migration and positioning of virus-specific effector T-cells within the brain, CXCR3-deficient mice were infected intracerebrally with lymphocytic choriomeningitis......-cell-mediated immunopathology. Quantitative analysis of the cellular infiltrate in CSF of infected mice revealed modest, if any, decrease in the number of mononuclear cells recruited to the meninges in the absence of CXCR3. However, immunohistological analysis disclosed a striking impairment of CD8+ T-cells from CXCR3...

  4. CNS changes in Usher's syndrome with mental disorder: CT, MRI and PET findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, J; Ofuku, K; Sakuma, K; Shiraishi, H; Iio, M; Nawano, S

    1988-01-01

    CNS changes in a case of Usher's syndrome associated with schizophrenia-like mental disorder were observed by CT, MRI and PET. The neuro-radiological findings of the case demonstrate the degenerative and metabolic alterations in various regions of cortex, white matter and subcortical areas in the brain. Mental disorder of the case is almost indistinguishable from that of schizophrenia, but the psychotic feature is regarded as an atypical or mixed organic brain syndrome according to the classification in the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). Images PMID:3264568

  5. [Regularities of fixation of brain serum antibodies from patients with lateral amyotrophic sclerosis in rabbit CNS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaeva, L S; Gannyshkina, I V; Zavalishin, I A; Markova, E D; Ivanova-Smolenskaia, I A

    2002-01-01

    Kuhns' indirect immunofluorescent test was used to study fixation of serum brain antibodies (Ab) of patients with bulbar, cervicothoracic, lumbosacral lateral amyotropic sclerosis (LAS) on brain sections of rabbits. The disease is characterized by formation of brain Ab complementary to various structures of nervous and glial cells, myelin of fibers from different conducting systems, vessels which exhibit both common and individual antigenic properties. It was found that fixation of antineuronal, antimyelin brain Ab of patients with bulbar, cervicothoracic and lumbosacral LAS in different CNS structures varies.

  6. News from the editors of Fluids and Barriers of the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Lester R; Jones, Hazel C; Keep, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    This editorial announces a new affiliation between Fluids and Barriers of the CNS (FBCNS) and the International Brain Barriers Society (IBBS) with mutual benefits to the journal and to society members. This is a natural progression from the appointment of two new Co-Editors in Chief: Professor Lester Drewes and Professor Richard Keep in 2013. FBCNS provides a unique and specialist platform for the publication of research in the expanding fields of brain barriers and brain fluid systems in both health and disease.

  7. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Owens, T; Frøkiaer, J

    2010-01-01

    Asgari N, Owens T, Frøkiaer J, Stenager E, Lillevang ST, Kyvik KO. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS).
Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01416.x.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. In the past 10 years, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has...... or by intrathecal administration to naive mice. NMO may be characterized as a channelopathy of the central nervous system with autoimmune characteristics....

  8. An in vitro clonogenic assay to assess radiation damage in rat CNS glial progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1990-01-01

    Normal glial progenitor cells can be isolated from the rat central nervous system (CNS) and cultured in vitro on a monolayer of type-1 astrocytes. These monolayers are able to support and stimulate explanted glial progenitor cells to proliferate. Employing these in vitro interactions of specific glial cell types, an in vivo-in vitro clonogenic assay has been developed. This method offers the possibility to study the intrinsic radiosensitivity, repair and regeneration of glial progenitor cells after in vitro or in vivo irradiation. (author)

  9. Creatine-creatine phosphate shuttle modeled as two-compartment system at different levels of creatine kinase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey

    1994-01-01

    In order to characterize ADP-ATP and creatine-creatine phosphate (Cr-CrP) shuttles a minimal mathematical model with two compartments and cyclic turnover of matter was designed. The 'mitochondrial' compartment contained 'ATP-synthase' and 'mitochondrial ereatine kinase' (mitCK). The 'cytoplasmic......' compartment consisted of 'ATPase', 'cytoplasmic creatine kinase' (cytCK) and an 'ADP-binding structure'. The exchange of metabolites between these compartments was limited. Different levels of cytCK and mitCK expression as welt as different exchange rate constants between the compartments were assigned...

  10. On the application of the compartment theory to the modelling of the isotopic composition of nitrogen in its natural cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, E.; Wetzel, K.

    1979-01-01

    The compartment theory is presented as a means for mathematical modelling of isotope geochemical processes, taking into consideration isotopic effects. It is used to formulate a global model of the isotopic composition of nitrogen in its natural cycle, which consists of three pools connected by fluxes: nitrogen in magmatites, in the atmosphere, and in sedimentary rocks. A part from the simulation of the development of pool sizes, of delta 15 N values and of fluxes as functions of time through the history of the earth, contributions could be made to the solution of geochemical problems. The results of modelling indicate that the original atmosphere contained much less nitrogen than the present one (up to 10% of the present value), and that a nitrogen flux exists from the upper crust to the magmatites (about 6 . 10 5 tons/yr). (author)

  11. Regulation of the Postsynaptic Compartment of Excitatory Synapses by the Actin Cytoskeleton in Health and Its Disruption in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Stefen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of synaptic function at excitatory synapses is one of the earliest pathological changes seen in wide range of neurological diseases. The proper control of the segregation of neurotransmitter receptors at these synapses is directly correlated with the intact regulation of the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. In this review, we are discussing key factors that regulate the structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the major cytoskeletal building block that supports the postsynaptic compartment. Special attention is given to the complex interplay of actin-associated proteins that are found in the synaptic specialization. We then discuss our current understanding of how disruption of these cytoskeletal elements may contribute to the pathological events observed in the nervous system under disease conditions with a particular focus on Alzheimer’s disease pathology.

  12. To the predicted calculations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 migration in soil in the frame of the compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knat'ko, B.A.; Skomorokhov, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    The method of calculation of migration of radionuclides in soil according to compartment model and based on analitical solution of the system of differential equations of the model is proposed. Calculations of the content of radionuclides in the soil layer for Cs-137 and Sr-90 for four types of soil for the periods of 0, 21, 34,46 and 73 months are carried out. Calculations were done for three upper soil layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5.0-15.0 cm, which give the main contribution into transport of radionuclides into plants on meadows and pastures. Such method increases precision of calculations of cesium-137 and strontium-90 migration in comparison with the prosedure, which uses the system of finite difference equations. 6 refs., 1 fig

  13. Acetylated tau destabilizes the cytoskeleton in the axon initial segment and is mislocalized to the somatodendritic compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Peter Dongmin; Tracy, Tara E; Son, Hye-In; Zhou, Yungui; Leite, Renata E P; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Grinberg, Lea T; Gan, Li

    2016-06-29

    Neurons are highly polarized cells in which asymmetric axonal-dendritic distribution of proteins is crucial for neuronal function. Loss of polarized distribution of the axonal protein tau is an early sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The cytoskeletal network in the axon initial segment (AIS) forms a barrier between the axon and the somatodentritic compartment, contributing to axonal retention of tau. Although perturbation of the AIS cytoskeleton has been implicated in neurological disorders, the molecular triggers and functional consequence of AIS perturbation are incompletely understood. Here we report that tau acetylation and consequent destabilization of the AIS cytoskeleton promote the somatodendritic mislocalization of tau. AIS cytoskeletal proteins, including ankyrin G and βIV-spectrin, were downregulated in AD brains and negatively correlated with an increase in tau acetylated at K274 and K281. AIS proteins were also diminished in transgenic mice expressing tauK274/281Q, a tau mutant that mimics K274 and K281 acetylation. In primary neuronal cultures, the tauK274/281Q mutant caused hyperdynamic microtubules (MTs) in the AIS, shown by live-imaging of MT mobility and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Using photoconvertible tau constructs, we found that axonal tauK274/281Q was missorted into the somatodendritic compartment. Stabilizing MTs with epothilone D to restore the cytoskeletal barrier in the AIS prevented tau mislocalization in primary neuronal cultures. Together, these findings demonstrate that tau acetylation contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease by compromising the cytoskeletal sorting machinery in the AIS.

  14. Fluid Induced Vibration Analysis of a Cooling Water Pipeline for the HANARO CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Lee, Young Sub; Kim, Ik Soo; Kim, Young Ki

    2007-01-01

    CNS is the initial of Cold Neutron Source and the CNS facility system consists of hydrogen, a vacuum, a gas blanketing, a helium refrigeration and a cooling water supply system. Out of these subsystems, the helium refrigeration system has the function of removal of heat from a thermal neutron under reactor operation. Therefore, HRS (helium refrigeration system) must be under normal operation for the production of cold neutron. HRS is mainly made up of a helium compressor and a coldbox. This equipment is in need of cooling water to get rid of heat generation under stable operation and a cooling water system is essential to maintain the normal operation of a helium compressor and a coldbox. The main problem for the cooling water system is the vibration issue in the middle of operation due to a water flow in a pipeline. In order to suppress the vibration problem for a pipeline, the characteristics of a pipeline and fluid flow must be analyzed in detail. In this paper, fluid induced vibration of a cooling water pipe is analyzed numerically and the stability of the cooling water pipeline is investigated by using pipe dynamic theory

  15. Extending Injury- and Disease-Resistant CNS Phenotypes by Repetitive Epigenetic Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Gidday

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Significant reductions in the extent of acute injury in the CNS can be achieved by exposure to different preconditioning stimuli, but the duration of the induced protective phenotype is typically short-lasting, and thus is deemed as limiting its clinical applicability. Extending the period over which such adaptive epigenetic changes persist – in effect, expanding conditioning’s therapeutic window – would significantly broaden the potential applications of such a treatment approach in patients. The frequency of the conditioning stimulus may hold the key. While transient (1-3 days protection against CNS ischemic injury is well established preclinically following a single preconditioning stimulus, repetitively presenting preconditioning stimuli extends the duration of ischemic tolerance by many weeks. Moreover, repetitive intermittent postconditioning enhances postischemic recovery metrics and improves long-term survival. Intermittent conditioning is also efficacious for preventing or delaying injury in preclinical models of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and for promoting long-lasting functional improvements in a number of other pathologies as well. Although the detailed mechanisms underlying these protracted kinds of neuroplasticity remain largely unstudied, accumulating empirical evidence supports the contention that all of these adaptive phenotypes are epigenetically mediated. Going forward, additional preclinical demonstrations of the ability to induce sustained beneficial phenotypes that reduce the burden of acute and chronic neurodegeneration, and experimental interrogations of the regulatory constructs responsible for these epigenetic responses, will accelerate the identification of not only efficacious, but practical, adaptive epigenetics-based treatments for individuals with neurological disease.

  16. Blue moon neurovirology: the merits of studying rare CNS diseases of viral origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lauren A; Rall, Glenn F

    2010-09-01

    While measles virus (MV) continues to have a significant impact on human health, causing 150,000-200,000 deaths worldwide each year, the number of fatalities that can be attributed to MV-triggered central nervous system (CNS) diseases are on the order of a few hundred individuals annually (World Health Organization 2009). Despite this modest impact, substantial effort has been expended to understand the basis of measles-triggered neuropathogenesis. What can be gained by studying such a rare condition? Simply stated, the wealth of studies in this field have revealed core principles that are relevant to multiple neurotropic pathogens, and that inform the broader field of viral pathogenesis. In recent years, the emergence of powerful in vitro systems, novel animal models, and reverse genetics has enabled insights into the basis of MV persistence, the complexity of MV interactions with neurons and the immune system, and the role of immune and CNS development in virus-triggered disease. In this review, we highlight some key advances, link relevant measles-based studies to the broader disciplines of neurovirology and viral pathogenesis, and propose future areas of study for the field of measles-mediated neurological disease.

  17. Herpes simplex and varicella zoster CNS infections: clinical presentations, treatments and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpoowat, Quanhathai; Salazar, Lucrecia; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Wootton, Susan H; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    To describe the clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics, imaging studies and prognostic factors of adverse clinical outcomes (ACO) among adults with herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV) CNS infections. Retrospective review of adult patients with positive HSV or VZV polymerase chain reaction on CSF from an observational study of meningitis or encephalitis in Houston, TX (2004-2014), and New Orleans, LA (1999-2008). Ninety-eight adults patients were identified; 25 had encephalitis [20 (20.4 %) HSV, 5 (5.1 %) VZV], and 73 had meningitis [60 (61.1 %) HSV and 13 (13.3 %) VZV]. HSV and VZV had similar presentations except for nausea (P 1 and an encephalitis presentation were independently associated with an ACO. The treatment for HSV meningitis was variable, and all patients had a good clinical outcome. Alpha herpes CNS infections due to HSV and VZV infections have similar clinical and laboratory manifestations. ACO was observed more frequently in those patients with comorbidities and an encephalitis presentation.

  18. Permanent I-125 interstitial implant in the management of high grade CNS malignancies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishampayan, N.; Zamorano, L.; Aronin, P.; Gaspar, L.; Canady, A.; Lattin, P.; Ezzell, G.; Yakar, D.; Chungbin, S.; Fontanesi, J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and complications associated with the use of permanent I-125 interstitial implants in children with high grade CNS malignancies. Materials and Methods: Between May of 1990 and September of 1994, fourteen children received permanent I-125 interstitial implant brachytherapy as initial therapy (n=8) or at time of recurrence (n=6). Histologies included Glioblastoma Multiforme (n=2), Anaplastic Astrocytoma (n=9) and others (n=3). Pre-implant surgical procedures included: Gross Total Resection (n=2), Subtotal Resection (n=8) or Biopsy alone (n=4). Six patients received pre-implant external beam irradiation (dose range 3,500-6500 cGy) and three patients received post-implant external beam irradiation (dose range 5,040-5,060 cGy). Implant dose range was 8,294-10,368 cGy over the lifetime of the implant (median 10,368 cGy). Results: At last follow-up (median 17.5 months; range 4-56 months), eight children were alive. Six out of the eight had no evidence of disease progression while the remaining had radiologic evidence of progression. Implant complications (n=2) included skin necrosis and bone flap infection. Conclusions: Based on this initial review, we continue to investigate the use of permanent I-125 interstitial brachytherapy in the treatment of high grade CNS malignancies in children and will discuss and compare these results with those of other 'Boost' series

  19. Drug Elucidation: Invertebrate Genetics Sheds New Light on the Molecular Targets of CNS Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donard S. Dwyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many important drugs approved to treat common human diseases were discovered by serendipity, without a firm understanding of their modes of action. As a result, the side effects and interactions of these medications are often unpredictable, and there is limited guidance for improving the design of next-generation drugs. Here, we review the innovative use of simple model organisms, especially Caenorhabditis elegans, to gain fresh insights into the complex biological effects of approved CNS medications. Whereas drug discovery involves the identification of new drug targets and lead compounds/biologics, and drug development spans preclinical testing to FDA approval, drug elucidation refers to the process of understanding the mechanisms of action of marketed drugs by studying their novel effects in model organisms. Drug elucidation studies have revealed new pathways affected by antipsychotic drugs, e.g., the insulin signaling pathway, a trace amine receptor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Similarly, novel targets of antidepressant drugs and lithium have been identified in C. elegans, including lipid-binding/transport proteins and the SGK-1 signaling pathway, respectively. Elucidation of the mode of action of anesthetic agents has shown that anesthesia can involve mitochondrial targets, leak currents and gap junctions. The general approach reviewed in this article has advanced our knowledge about important drugs for CNS disorders and can guide future drug discovery efforts.

  20. CNS Orientations, Safety Objectives and Implementation of the Defence in Depth Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C., E-mail: Andre-Claude.LACOSTE@asn.fr [Autorité de Sureté Nucléaire, Montrouge (France)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: The 6th Review Meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) is convened in Vienna next year for two weeks from Monday March 24{sup th} to Friday April 4{sup th} 2014. The consequences and the lessons learnt from the accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant will be a major issue. The 2nd Extraordinary Meeting of the CNS in August 2012 was totally devoted to the Fukushima Daiichi accident. One of its main conclusions was Conclusion 17 included in the summary report which says: ''Nuclear power plants should be designed, constructed and operated with the objectives of preventing accidents and, should an accident occur, mitigating its effects and avoiding off-site contamination. The Contracting Parties also noted that regulatory authorities should ensure that these objectives are applied in order to identify and implement appropriate safety improvements at existing plants''. The wording of the sentences of Conclusion 17 dedicated, the first one to new built reactors, the second one to existing plants, can be improved and clarified. But obviously the issue of the off-site consequences of an accident is fundamental. So the in-depth question comes: what can and should be done to achieve these safety objectives? And in particular how to improve the definition and then the implementation of the Defence in Depth Concept? From my point of view, this is clearly the main issue of this Conference. (author)