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Sample records for cnlig4 dna ligase

  1. DNA ligase I, the replicative DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Timothy R L; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2012-01-01

    Multiple DNA ligation events are required to join the Okazaki fragments generated during lagging strand DNA synthesis. In eukaryotes, this is primarily carried out by members of the DNA ligase I family. The C-terminal catalytic region of these enzymes is composed of three domains: a DNA binding domain, an adenylation domain and an OB-fold domain. In the absence of DNA, these domains adopt an extended structure but transition into a compact ring structure when they engage a DNA nick, with each of the domains contacting the DNA. The non-catalytic N-terminal region of eukaryotic DNA ligase I is responsible for the specific participation of these enzymes in DNA replication. This proline-rich unstructured region contains the nuclear localization signal and a PCNA interaction motif that is critical for localization to replication foci and efficient joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I initially engages the PCNA trimer via this interaction motif which is located at the extreme N-terminus of this flexible region. It is likely that this facilitates an additional interaction between the DNA binding domain and the PCNA ring. The similar size and shape of the rings formed by the PCNA trimer and the DNA ligase I catalytic region when it engages a DNA nick suggest that these proteins interact to form a double-ring structure during the joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I also interacts with replication factor C, the factor that loads the PCNA trimeric ring onto DNA. This interaction, which is regulated by phosphorylation of the non-catalytic N-terminus of DNA ligase I, also appears to be critical for DNA replication.

  2. Disconnecting XRCC1 and DNA ligase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J

    2011-07-15

    DNA strand break repair is essential for the prevention of multiple human diseases, particularly those which feature neuropathology. To further understand the pathogenesis of these syndromes, we recently developed animal models in which the DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) components, XRCC1 and DNA Ligase III (LIG3), were inactivated in the developing nervous system. Although biochemical evidence suggests that inactivation of XRCC1 and LIG3 should share common biological defects, we found profound phenotypic differences between these two models, implying distinct biological roles for XRCC1 and LIG3 during DNA repair. Rather than a key role in nuclear DNA repair, we found LIG3 function was central to mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Instead, our data indicate that DNA Ligase 1 is the main DNA ligase for XRCC1-mediated DNA repair. These studies refine our understanding of DNA SSBR and the etiology of neurological disease.

  3. Disconnecting XRCC1 and DNA ligase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Sachin

    2011-01-01

    DNA strand break repair is essential for the prevention of multiple human diseases, particularly those which feature neuropathology. To further understand the pathogenesis of these syndromes, we recently developed animal models in which the DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) components, XRCC1 and DNA Ligase III (LIG3), were inactivated in the developing nervous system. Although biochemical evidence suggests that inactivation of XRCC1 and LIG3 should share common biological defects, we found profound phenotypic differences between these two models, implying distinct biological roles for XRCC1 and LIG3 during DNA repair. Rather than a key role in nuclear DNA repair, we found LIG3 function was central to mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Instead, our data indicate that DNA Ligase 1 is the main DNA ligase for XRCC1-mediated DNA repair. These studies refine our understanding of DNA SSBR and the etiology of neurological disease. PMID:21636980

  4. DNA ligase IV syndrome; a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Thomas; Gennery, Andrew R

    2016-10-07

    DNA ligase IV deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency, LIG4 syndrome, often associated with other systemic features. DNA ligase IV is part of the non-homologous end joining mechanism, required to repair DNA double stranded breaks. Ubiquitously expressed, it is required to prevent mutagenesis and apoptosis, which can result from DNA double strand breakage caused by intracellular events such as DNA replication and meiosis or extracellular events including damage by reactive oxygen species and ionising radiation.Within developing lymphocytes, DNA ligase IV is required to repair programmed DNA double stranded breaks induced during lymphocyte receptor development.Patients with hypomorphic mutations in LIG4 present with a range of phenotypes, from normal to severe combined immunodeficiency. All, however, manifest sensitivity to ionising radiation. Commonly associated features include primordial growth failure with severe microcephaly and a spectrum of learning difficulties, marrow hypoplasia and a predisposition to lymphoid malignancy. Diagnostic investigations include immunophenotyping, and testing for radiosensitivity. Some patients present with microcephaly as a predominant feature, but seemingly normal immunity. Treatment is mainly supportive, although haematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used in a few cases.

  5. Structure and function of the DNA ligases encoded by the mammalian LIG3 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Tomkinson, Alan E.; Sallmyr, Annahita

    2013-01-01

    Among the mammalian genes encoding DNA ligases (LIG), the LIG3 gene is unique in that it encodes multiple DNA ligase polypeptides with different cellular functions. Notably, this nuclear gene encodes the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and so is essential for this organelle. In the nucleus, there is significant functional redundancy between DNA ligase IIIα and DNA ligase I in excision repair. In addition, DNA ligase IIIα is essential for DNA replication in the absence of the replicative DNA lig...

  6. Efficient DNA ligation in DNA–RNA hybrid helices by Chlorella virus DNA ligase

    OpenAIRE

    Lohman, Gregory J. S.; Zhang, Yinhua; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M.; Cantor, Eric J.; Evans, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA molecules (ssDNA) annealed to an RNA splint are notoriously poor substrates for DNA ligases. Herein we report the unexpectedly efficient ligation of RNA-splinted DNA by Chlorella virus DNA ligase (PBCV-1 DNA ligase). PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated ssDNA splinted by RNA with kcat ≈ 8 x 10−3 s−1 and KM < 1 nM at 25°C under conditions where T4 DNA ligase produced only 5′-adenylylated DNA with a 20-fold lower kcat and a KM ≈ 300 nM. The rate of ligation increased with addition of M...

  7. Efficient DNA ligation in DNA-RNA hybrid helices by Chlorella virus DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Zhang, Yinhua; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M; Cantor, Eric J; Evans, Thomas C

    2014-02-01

    Single-stranded DNA molecules (ssDNA) annealed to an RNA splint are notoriously poor substrates for DNA ligases. Herein we report the unexpectedly efficient ligation of RNA-splinted DNA by Chlorella virus DNA ligase (PBCV-1 DNA ligase). PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated ssDNA splinted by RNA with kcat ≈ 8 x 10(-3) s(-1) and K(M) DNA ligase produced only 5'-adenylylated DNA with a 20-fold lower kcat and a K(M) ≈ 300 nM. The rate of ligation increased with addition of Mn(2+), but was strongly inhibited by concentrations of NaCl >100 mM. Abortive adenylylation was suppressed at low ATP concentrations (8, leading to increased product yields. The ligation reaction was rapid for a broad range of substrate sequences, but was relatively slower for substrates with a 5'-phosphorylated dC or dG residue on the 3' side of the ligation junction. Nevertheless, PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated all sequences tested with 10-fold less enzyme and 15-fold shorter incubation times than required when using T4 DNA ligase. Furthermore, this ligase was used in a ligation-based detection assay system to show increased sensitivity over T4 DNA ligase in the specific detection of a target mRNA.

  8. Expression and biochemical characterization of Plasmodium falciparum DNA ligase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buguliskis, Jeffrey S; Casta, Louis J; Butz, Charles E; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Taraschi, Theodore F

    2007-10-01

    We report that Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) encodes a 912 amino acid ATP-dependent DNA ligase. Protein sequence analysis of Pf DNA ligase I indicates a strong sequence similarity, particularly in the C-terminal region, to DNA ligase I homologues. The activity of recombinant Pf DNA ligase I (PfLigI) was investigated using protein expressed in HEK293 cells. The PfLigI gene product is approximately 94kDa and catalyzes phosphodiester bond formation on a singly nicked DNA substrate. The enzyme is most active at alkaline pH (8.5) and with Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) and ATP as cofactors. Kinetic studies of PfLigI revealed that the enzyme has similar substrate affinity (K(m) 2.6nM) as compared to human DNA ligase I and k(cat) (2.3x10(-3)s(-1)) and k(cat)/K(m) (8.8x10(5)M(-1)s(-1)) which are similar to other ATP-dependent DNA ligases. PfLigI was able to join RNA-DNA substrates only when the RNA sequence was upstream of the nick, confirming that it is DNA ligase I and has no associated DNA ligase III like activity.

  9. DNA Ligase IV regulates XRCC4 nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dailia B; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chavez, Jose; Chu, Jennifer; Malu, Shruti; Hanna, Mary; Cortes, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    DNA Ligase IV, along with its interacting partner XRCC4, are essential for repairing DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Together, they complete the final ligation step resolving the DNA break. Ligase IV is regulated by XRCC4 and XLF. However, the mechanism(s) by which Ligase IV control the NHEJ reaction and other NHEJ factor(s) remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a C-terminal region of Ligase IV (aa 620-800), which encompasses a NLS, the BRCT I, and the XRCC4 interacting region (XIR), is essential for nuclear localization of its co-factor XRCC4. In Ligase IV deficient cells, XRCC4 showed deregulated localization remaining in the cytosol even after induction of DNA double strand breaks. DNA Ligase IV was also required for efficient localization of XLF into the nucleus. Additionally, human fibroblasts that harbor hypomorphic mutations within the Ligase IV gene displayed decreased levels of XRCC4 protein, implicating that DNA Ligase IV is also regulating XRCC4 stability. Our results provide evidence for a role of DNA Ligase IV in controlling the cellular localization and protein levels of XRCC4.

  10. Cellular DNA ligase I is recruited to cytoplasmic vaccinia virus factories and masks the role of the vaccinia ligase in viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paran, Nir; De Silva, Frank S; Senkevich, Tatiana G; Moss, Bernard

    2009-12-17

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes DNA polymerase and additional proteins that enable cytoplasmic replication. We confirmed the ability of VACV DNA ligase mutants to replicate and tested the hypothesis that cellular ligases compensate for loss of viral gene expression. RNA silencing of human DNA ligase I expression and a small molecule inhibitor of human DNA ligase I [corrected] severely reduced replication of viral DNA in cells infected with VACV ligase-deficient mutants, indicating that the cellular enzyme plays a complementary role. Replication of ligase-deficient VACV was greatly reduced and delayed in resting primary cells, correlating with initial low levels of ligase I and subsequent viral induction and localization of ligase I in virus factories. These studies indicate that DNA ligation is essential for poxvirus replication and explain the ability of ligase deletion mutants to replicate in dividing cells but exhibit decreased pathogenicity in mice. Encoding its own ligase might allow VACV to "jump-start" DNA synthesis.

  11. DNA Ligase I Is Not Essential for Mammalian Cell Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Of the three DNA ligases present in all vertebrates, DNA ligase I (Lig1 has been considered essential for ligating Okazaki fragments during DNA replication and thereby essential for cell viability. Here, we report the striking finding that a Lig1-null murine B cell line is viable. Surprisingly, the Lig1-null cells exhibit normal proliferation and normal immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination and are not hypersensitive to a wide variety of DNA damaging agents. These findings demonstrate that Lig1 is not absolutely required for cellular DNA replication and repair and that either Lig3 or Lig4 can substitute for the role of Lig1 in joining Okazaki fragments. The establishment of a Lig1-null cell line will greatly facilitate the characterization of DNA ligase function in mammalian cells, but the finding alone profoundly reprioritizes the role of ligase I in DNA replication, repair, and recombination.

  12. DNA ligase I is not essential for mammalian cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Masani, Shahnaz; Hsieh, Chih-lin; Yu, Kefei

    2014-04-24

    Of the three DNA ligases present in all vertebrates, DNA ligase I (Lig1) has been considered essential for ligating Okazaki fragments during DNA replication and thereby essential for cell viability. Here, we report the striking finding that a Lig1-null murine B cell line is viable. Surprisingly, the Lig1-null cells exhibit normal proliferation and normal immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination and are not hypersensitive to a wide variety of DNA damaging agents. These findings demonstrate that Lig1 is not absolutely required for cellular DNA replication and repair and that either Lig3 or Lig4 can substitute for the role of Lig1 in joining Okazaki fragments. The establishment of a Lig1-null cell line will greatly facilitate the characterization of DNA ligase function in mammalian cells, but the finding alone profoundly reprioritizes the role of ligase I in DNA replication, repair, and recombination.

  13. Differential recruitment of DNA Ligase I and III to DNA repair sites

    OpenAIRE

    Mortusewicz, O; Rothbauer, U.; Cardoso, M C; Leonhardt, H.

    2006-01-01

    DNA ligation is an essential step in DNA replication, repair and recombination. Mammalian cells contain three DNA Ligases that are not interchangeable although they use the same catalytic reaction mechanism. To compare the recruitment of the three eukaryotic DNA Ligases to repair sites in vivo we introduced DNA lesions in human cells by laser microirradiation. Time lapse microscopy of fluorescently tagged proteins showed that DNA Ligase III accumulated at microirradiated sites before DNA Liga...

  14. Alternative Okazaki Fragment Ligation Pathway by DNA Ligase III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Arakawa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher eukaryotes have three types of DNA ligases: DNA ligase 1 (Lig1, DNA ligase 3 (Lig3 and DNA ligase 4 (Lig4. While Lig1 and Lig4 are present in all eukaryotes from yeast to human, Lig3 appears sporadically in evolution and is uniformly present only in vertebrates. In the classical, textbook view, Lig1 catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the DNA replication fork and the ligation steps of long-patch base-excision repair (BER, homologous recombination repair (HRR and nucleotide excision repair (NER. Lig4 is responsible for DNA ligation at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs by the classical, DNA-PKcs-dependent pathway of non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ. Lig3 is implicated in a short-patch base excision repair (BER pathway, in single strand break repair in the nucleus, and in all ligation requirements of the DNA metabolism in mitochondria. In this scenario, Lig1 and Lig4 feature as the major DNA ligases serving the most essential ligation needs of the cell, while Lig3 serves in the cell nucleus only minor repair roles. Notably, recent systematic studies in the chicken B cell line, DT40, involving constitutive and conditional knockouts of all three DNA ligases individually, as well as of combinations thereof, demonstrate that the current view must be revised. Results demonstrate that Lig1 deficient cells proliferate efficiently. Even Lig1/Lig4 double knockout cells show long-term viability and proliferate actively, demonstrating that, at least in DT40, Lig3 can perform all ligation reactions of the cellular DNA metabolism as sole DNA ligase. Indeed, in the absence of Lig1, Lig3 can efficiently support semi-conservative DNA replication via an alternative Okazaki-fragment ligation pathway. In addition, Lig3 can back up NHEJ in the absence of Lig4, and can support NER and HRR in the absence of Lig1. Supporting observations are available in less elaborate genetic models in mouse cells. Collectively, these observations raise Lig3 from a niche-ligase

  15. Alternative Okazaki Fragment Ligation Pathway by DNA Ligase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Iliakis, George

    2015-06-23

    Higher eukaryotes have three types of DNA ligases: DNA ligase 1 (Lig1), DNA ligase 3 (Lig3) and DNA ligase 4 (Lig4). While Lig1 and Lig4 are present in all eukaryotes from yeast to human, Lig3 appears sporadically in evolution and is uniformly present only in vertebrates. In the classical, textbook view, Lig1 catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the DNA replication fork and the ligation steps of long-patch base-excision repair (BER), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Lig4 is responsible for DNA ligation at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by the classical, DNA-PKcs-dependent pathway of non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ). Lig3 is implicated in a short-patch base excision repair (BER) pathway, in single strand break repair in the nucleus, and in all ligation requirements of the DNA metabolism in mitochondria. In this scenario, Lig1 and Lig4 feature as the major DNA ligases serving the most essential ligation needs of the cell, while Lig3 serves in the cell nucleus only minor repair roles. Notably, recent systematic studies in the chicken B cell line, DT40, involving constitutive and conditional knockouts of all three DNA ligases individually, as well as of combinations thereof, demonstrate that the current view must be revised. Results demonstrate that Lig1 deficient cells proliferate efficiently. Even Lig1/Lig4 double knockout cells show long-term viability and proliferate actively, demonstrating that, at least in DT40, Lig3 can perform all ligation reactions of the cellular DNA metabolism as sole DNA ligase. Indeed, in the absence of Lig1, Lig3 can efficiently support semi-conservative DNA replication via an alternative Okazaki-fragment ligation pathway. In addition, Lig3 can back up NHEJ in the absence of Lig4, and can support NER and HRR in the absence of Lig1. Supporting observations are available in less elaborate genetic models in mouse cells. Collectively, these observations raise Lig3 from a niche-ligase to a

  16. Viroid RNA redirects host DNA ligase 1 to act as an RNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohales, María-Ángeles; Flores, Ricardo; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2012-08-21

    Viroids are a unique class of noncoding RNAs: composed of only a circular, single-stranded molecule of 246-401 nt, they manage to replicate, move, circumvent host defenses, and frequently induce disease in higher plants. Viroids replicate through an RNA-to-RNA rolling-circle mechanism consisting of transcription of oligomeric viroid RNA intermediates, cleavage to unit-length strands, and circularization. Though the host RNA polymerase II (redirected to accept RNA templates) mediates RNA synthesis and a type-III RNase presumably cleavage of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and closely related members of the family Pospiviroidae, the host enzyme catalyzing the final circularization step, has remained elusive. In this study we propose that PSTVd subverts host DNA ligase 1, converting it to an RNA ligase, for the final step. To support this hypothesis, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) DNA ligase 1 specifically and efficiently catalyzes circularization of the genuine PSTVd monomeric linear replication intermediate opened at position G95-G96 and containing 5'-phosphomonoester and 3'-hydroxyl terminal groups. Moreover, we also show a decreased PSTVd accumulation and a reduced ratio of monomeric circular to total monomeric PSTVd forms in Nicotiana benthamiana Domin plants in which the endogenous DNA ligase 1 was silenced. Thus, in a remarkable example of parasitic strategy, viroids reprogram for their replication the template and substrate specificity of a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and a DNA ligase to act as RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA ligase, respectively.

  17. Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Xie, Juan-Juan; Han, Zhong; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Xi-Peng

    2013-02-01

    We describe the biochemical characterization of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M. jannaschii) DNA ligase and its potential application in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. The recombinant M. jannaschii DNA ligase is an ATP-dependent ligase. The ligase activity was dependent on metal ions of Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). The optimal concentrations of ATP cofactor and Mg(2+) ion were 0.01-2 and 10 mM, respectively. The optimal pH value for DNA ligation was 8.5. High concentrations of NaCl inhibited DNA ligation. The effects of mismatches on joining short oligonucleotides by M. jannaschii DNA ligase were fully characterized. The mismatches at the first position 5' to the nick inhibited ligation more than those at the first position 3' to the nick. The mismatches at other positions 5' to the nick (3rd to 7th sites) exhibited less inhibition on ligation. However, the introduction of a C/C mismatch at the third position 5' to the nick could completely inhibit the ligation of the terminal-mismatched nick of an oligonucleotide duplex by M. jannaschii DNA ligase. Therefore, introducing an additional mismatch at the third position 5' to the SNP site is a more effective approach in genotyping by M. jannaschii DNA ligase.

  18. Two distinct DNA ligase activities in mitotic extracts of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, W; Tappe, N; Talamantez, J; Friedberg, E C; Tomkinson, A E

    1997-01-01

    Four biochemically distinct DNA ligases have been identified in mammalian cells. One of these enzymes, DNA ligase I, is functionally homologous to the DNA ligase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC9 gene. Cdc9 DNA ligase has been assumed to be the only species of DNA ligase in this organism. In the present study we have identified a second DNA ligase activity in mitotic extracts of S. cerevisiae with chromatographic properties different from Cdc9 DNA ligase, which is the major DNA joi...

  19. Two DNA-binding and Nick Recognition Modules in Human DNA Ligase III*

    OpenAIRE

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Human DNA ligase III contains an N-terminal zinc finger domain that binds to nicks and gaps in DNA. This small domain has been described as a DNA nick sensor, but it is not required for DNA nick joining activity in vitro. In light of new structural information for mammalian ligases, we measured the DNA binding affinity and specificity of each domain of DNA ligase III. These studies identified two separate, independent DNA-binding modules in DNA ligase III that each bin...

  20. Human DNA Ligase III Recognizes DNA Ends by Dynamic Switching between Two DNA-Bound States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Hammel, Michal; Tainer, John A.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Ellenberger, Tom (Scripps); (Maryland-MED); (WU-MED); (LBNL)

    2010-09-13

    Human DNA ligase III has essential functions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and repair and contains a PARP-like zinc finger (ZnF) that increases the extent of DNA nick joining and intermolecular DNA ligation, yet the bases for ligase III specificity and structural variation among human ligases are not understood. Here combined crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering results reveal dynamic switching between two nick-binding components of ligase III: the ZnF-DNA binding domain (DBD) forms a crescent-shaped surface used for DNA end recognition which switches to a ring formed by the nucleotidyl transferase (NTase) and OB-fold (OBD) domains for catalysis. Structural and mutational analyses indicate that high flexibility and distinct DNA binding domain features in ligase III assist both nick sensing and the transition from nick sensing by the ZnF to nick joining by the catalytic core. The collective results support a 'jackknife model' in which the ZnF loads ligase III onto nicked DNA and conformational changes deliver DNA into the active site. This work has implications for the biological specificity of DNA ligases and functions of PARP-like zinc fingers.

  1. T4 DNA ligase is more than an effective trap of cyclized dsDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chongli; Lou, Xiong Wen; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Chen, Huimin; Archer, Lynden A

    2007-01-01

    T4 DNA ligase is used in standard cyclization assays to trap double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in low-probability, cyclic or highly bent conformations. The cyclization probability, deduced from the relative yield of cyclized product, can be used in conjunction with statistical mechanical models to extract the bending stiffness of dsDNA. By inserting the base analog 2-aminopurine (2-AP) at designated positions in 89 bp and 94 bp dsDNA fragments, we find that T4 DNA ligase can have a previously unknown effect. Specifically, we observe that addition of T4 ligase to dsDNA in proportions comparable to what is used in the cyclization assay leads to a significant increase in fluorescence from 2-AP. This effect is believed to originate from stabilization of local base-pair opening by formation of transient DNA-ligase complexes. Non-specific binding of T4 ligase to dsDNA is also confirmed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments, which reveal a systematic reduction of dsDNA diffusivity in the presence of ligase. ATP competes with regular DNA for non-covalent binding to the T4 ligase and is found to significantly reduce DNA-ligase complexation. For short dsDNA fragments, however, the population of DNA-ligase complexes at typical ATP concentrations used in DNA cyclization studies is determined to be large enough to dominate the cyclization reaction.

  2. Biochemical characterization of the DNA ligase I from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Felix, Cesar S; Pastor-Palacios, Guillermo; Cardenas, Helios; Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Brieba, Luis G

    2010-11-01

    DNA ligases play an essential role in DNA replication and repair. Herein, we report the cloning and biochemical characterization of DNA ligase I from the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (EhDNAligI). EhDNAligI is an ATP-dependent DNA ligase of 685 amino acids with 35% identity to human DNA ligase I. This report shows that heterologous expressed EhDNAligI is able to perform the three conserved steps of a DNA ligation reaction: adenylation, binding to a 5'-phosphorylated nicked DNA substrate and sealing of the nick. EhDNAligI is strongly inhibited by NaCl and displays optimal activity at pH 7.5. EhDNAligI uses Mn2+ or Mg2+ as metal cofactors and ATP as nucleotide cofactor. EhDNAligI has a nicked DNA binding constant of 6.6microM and follows Michaelis-Menten steady-state kinetics with a K(m) ATP of 64nM and a k(cat) of 2.4min(-1). Accordingly to its properties as a family I DNA ligase, EhDNAligI is able to ligate a RNA strand upstream of a nucleic acid nick, but not in the downstream or the template position. We propose that EhDNAligI is involved in sealing DNA nicks during lagging strand synthesis and may have a role in base excision repair in E. histolytica.

  3. Rational design of human DNA ligase inhibitors that target cellular DNA replication and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhong, Shijun; Zhu, Xiao; Dziegielewska, Barbara; Ellenberger, Tom; Wilson, Gerald M; MacKerell, Alexander D; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2008-05-01

    Based on the crystal structure of human DNA ligase I complexed with nicked DNA, computer-aided drug design was used to identify compounds in a database of 1.5 million commercially available low molecular weight chemicals that were predicted to bind to a DNA-binding pocket within the DNA-binding domain of DNA ligase I, thereby inhibiting DNA joining. Ten of 192 candidates specifically inhibited purified human DNA ligase I. Notably, a subset of these compounds was also active against the other human DNA ligases. Three compounds that differed in their specificity for the three human DNA ligases were analyzed further. L82 inhibited DNA ligase I, L67 inhibited DNA ligases I and III, and L189 inhibited DNA ligases I, III, and IV in DNA joining assays with purified proteins and in cell extract assays of DNA replication, base excision repair, and nonhomologous end-joining. L67 and L189 are simple competitive inhibitors with respect to nicked DNA, whereas L82 is an uncompetitive inhibitor that stabilized complex formation between DNA ligase I and nicked DNA. In cell culture assays, L82 was cytostatic whereas L67 and L189 were cytotoxic. Concordant with their ability to inhibit DNA repair in vitro, subtoxic concentrations of L67 and L189 significantly increased the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents. Interestingly, the ligase inhibitors specifically sensitized cancer cells to DNA damage. Thus, these novel human DNA ligase inhibitors will not only provide insights into the cellular function of these enzymes but also serve as lead compounds for the development of anticancer agents.

  4. Efficient DNA ligation in DNA–RNA hybrid helices by Chlorella virus DNA ligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Gregory J. S.; Zhang, Yinhua; Zhelkovsky, Alexander M.; Cantor, Eric J.; Evans, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA molecules (ssDNA) annealed to an RNA splint are notoriously poor substrates for DNA ligases. Herein we report the unexpectedly efficient ligation of RNA-splinted DNA by Chlorella virus DNA ligase (PBCV-1 DNA ligase). PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated ssDNA splinted by RNA with kcat ≈ 8 x 10−3 s−1 and KM DNA ligase produced only 5′-adenylylated DNA with a 20-fold lower kcat and a KM ≈ 300 nM. The rate of ligation increased with addition of Mn2+, but was strongly inhibited by concentrations of NaCl >100 mM. Abortive adenylylation was suppressed at low ATP concentrations (8, leading to increased product yields. The ligation reaction was rapid for a broad range of substrate sequences, but was relatively slower for substrates with a 5′-phosphorylated dC or dG residue on the 3′ side of the ligation junction. Nevertheless, PBCV-1 DNA ligase ligated all sequences tested with 10-fold less enzyme and 15-fold shorter incubation times than required when using T4 DNA ligase. Furthermore, this ligase was used in a ligation-based detection assay system to show increased sensitivity over T4 DNA ligase in the specific detection of a target mRNA. PMID:24203707

  5. Mammalian DNA ligase III: Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression in spermatocytes undergoing meiotic recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingwen; Danehower, S.; Besterman, J.M.; Husain, I. [Glaxo Research Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Three biochemically distinct DNA ligase activities have been identified in mammalian cell extracts. We have recently purified DNA ligase II and DNA ligase III to near homogeneity from bovine liver and testis tissue, respectively. Amino acid sequencing studies indicated that these enzymes are encoded by the same gene. In the present study, human and murine cDNA clones encoding DNA ligase III were isolated with probes based on the peptide sequences. The human DNA ligase III cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 862 amino acids, whose sequence is more closely related to those of the DNA ligases encoded by poxviruses than to replicative DNA ligases, such as human DNA ligase I. In vitro transcription and translation of the cDNA produced a catalytically active DNA ligase similar in size and substrate specificity to the purified bovine enzyme. The DNA ligase III gene was localized to human chromosome 17, which eliminated this gene as a candidate for the cancer-prone disease Bloom syndrome that is associated with DNA joining abnormalities. DNA ligase III is ubiquitously expressed at low levels, except in the testes, in which the steady-state levels of DNA ligase III mRNA are at least 10-fold higher than those detected in other tissues and cells. Since DNA ligase I mRNA is also present at high levels in the testes, we examined the expression of the DNA ligase genes during spermatogenesis. DNA ligase I mRNA expression correlated with the contribution of proliferating supermatogonia cells to the testes, in agreement with the previously defined role of this enzyme in DNA replications. In contrast, elevated levels of DNA ligase III mRNA were observed in primary supermatocytes undergoing recombination prior to the first meiotic division. Therefore, we suggest that DNA ligase III seals DNA strand breaks that arise during the process of meiotic recombination in germ cells and as a consequence of DNA damage in somatic cells. 62 refs., 7 figs.

  6. DNA ligases from rat liver. Purification and partial characterization of two molecular forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, R.H.; Rossignol, J.M. (Laboratoire de Biologie Moleculaire de la Replication, UPR 272-CNRS, IRSC, Villejuif (France))

    1990-06-26

    The differential ability of mammalian DNA ligases to use oligo(dT).poly(rA) as a substrate has been used to detect, and thereby extensively purify, two immunologically distinct forms of DNA ligase from rat liver. The activity of DNA ligase I, which is unable to use this template, is uniquely increased during liver regeneration, while that of DNA ligase II remains at a low level. Both enzymes require ATP and Mg2+ for activity and form an adenylylated intermediate which is stable and reactive. After SDS-PAGE, such radiolabeled complexes correspond to polypeptides of 130,000 and 80,000 Da for DNA ligase I and to 100,000 Da for DNA ligase II. That these labeled polypeptides do indeed correspond to active polypeptides of two different forms of DNA ligase is shown by the removal of the radiolabeled AMP, only when the intermediate is incubated with an appropriate substrate. In contrast to other eukaryotic DNA ligases, rat liver DNA ligase II has a lower Km for ATP (1.2 X 10(-5) M) than DNA ligase I (6 X 10(-5) M). Also, DNA ligase II can use ATP alpha S as a cofactor in the ligation reaction much more efficiently than DNA ligase I, further discriminating the ATP binding sites of these enzymes. Finally, antibodies raised against the 130,000-Da polypeptide of DNA ligase I specifically recognize this species in an immunoblot and inhibit only the activity of DNA ligase I.

  7. A wild-type DNA ligase I gene is expressed in Bloom's syndrome cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Petrini, J H; Huwiler, K G; Weaver, D T

    1991-01-01

    Alteration of DNA ligase I activity is a consistent biochemical feature of Bloom's syndrome (BS) cells. DNA ligase I activity in BS cells either is reduced and abnormally thermolabile or is present in an anomalously dimeric form. To assess the role of DNA ligase function in the etiology of BS, we have cloned the DNA ligase I cDNA from normal human cells by a PCR strategy using degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on conserved regions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces...

  8. Human DNA ligase and DNA polymerase as molecular targets for heavy metals and anticancer drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.

    1992-01-01

    DNA ligase and DNA polymerase play important roles in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Frequencies of spontaneous and chemical- and physical-induced mutations are correlated to the fidelity of DNA replication. This dissertation elucidates the mechanisms of the DNA ligation reaction by DNA ligases and demonstrates that human DNA ligase I and DNA polymerase [alpha] are the molecular targets for two metal ions, Zn[sup 2+] and Cd[sup 2+], and an anticancer drug, F-ara-ATP. The formation of the AMP-DNA intermediate and the successive ligation reaction by human DNA ligases were analyzed. Both reactions showed their substrate specificity for ligases I and II, required Mg2+, and were inhibited by ATP. A protein inhibitor from HeLa cells and specific for human DNA ligase I but not ligase II and T4 ligase was discovered. It reversibly inhibited DNA ligation activity but not the AMP-binding activity due to the formation of a reversible ligase I-inhibitor complex. F-ara-ATP inhibited human DNA ligase I activity by competing with ATP for the AMP-binding site of DNA ligase I, forming a ligase I-F-ara-AMP complex, as well as when it was incorporated at 3[prime]-terminus of DNA nick by DNA polymerase [alpha]. All steps of the DNA ligation reaction were inhibited by Zn[sup 2+] and Cd[sup 2+] in a concentration-dependent manner. Both ions did not show the ability to change the fidelity of DNA ligation reaction catalyzed by human DNA ligase I. However, Zn[sup 2+] and Cd[sup 2+] showed their contradictory effects on the fidelity of the reaction by human DNA polymerase [alpha]. Zn[sup 2+] decreased the frequency of misinsertion but less affected that of mispair extension. On the contrary, Cd[sup 2+] increased the frequencies of both misinsertion and mispair extension at very low concentration. The data provided strong evidence in the molecular mechanisms for the mutagenicity of zinc and cadmium, and were comparable with the results previously reported.

  9. One-step assay for the quantification of T4 DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Steffi; Kreisig, Thomas; Buettner, Karin; Zuchner, Thole

    2015-02-01

    As one of the most commonly used enzyme in molecular biology, the T4 DNA ligase presents an important tool for the manipulation of DNA. T4 DNA ligase activity measurements are based on the use of radioactivity or rather labor-intense procedures including gel-based analysis. We therefore established a homogeneous T4 DNA ligase assay utilizing a specifically designed fluorescein- and dark quencher-labeled DNA molecule. Upon ligation of both DNA molecules, a quenching occurs and the fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing ligase concentrations. The assay allows a sensitive and precise quantification (CV, 4.6-5.5 %) of T4 DNA ligase activities and showed a high specificity when tested against other ligases of related and different species. Most importantly, this T4 DNA ligase assay requires only one working and incubation step before measurement can take place at room temperature and may therefore offer an interesting alternative to existing, more laborious ligase assays.

  10. Functional redundancy between DNA ligases I and III in DNA replication in vertebrate cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Bednar, Theresa; Wang, Minli; Paul, Katja; Mladenov, Emil; Bencsik-Theilen, Alena A.; Iliakis, George

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the three families of ATP-dependent DNA ligases are associated with specific functions in DNA metabolism. DNA ligase I (LigI) catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the replication fork and nucleotide excision repair (NER). DNA ligase IV (LigIV) mediates repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) via the canonical non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. The evolutionary younger DNA ligase III (LigIII) is restricted to higher eukaryotes and has been associated with base excision (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR). Here, using conditional knockout strategies for LIG3 and concomitant inactivation of the LIG1 and LIG4 genes, we show that in DT40 cells LigIII efficiently supports semi-conservative DNA replication. Our observations demonstrate a high functional versatility for the evolutionary new LigIII in DNA replication and mitochondrial metabolism, and suggest the presence of an alternative pathway for Okazaki fragment ligation. PMID:22127868

  11. Defects in DNA Ligase I Trigger PCNA Ubiquitination at Lysine 107

    OpenAIRE

    Das-Bradoo, Sapna; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Wood, Jamie L; Ricke, Robin M; Haworth, Justin C.; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin

    2009-01-01

    In all eukaryotes, the ligation of newly synthesized DNA, also known as Okazaki fragments, is catalyzed by DNA ligase I1. An individual with a DNA ligase I deficiency exhibited growth retardation, sunlight sensitivity and severe immunosuppression2, likely due to accumulation of DNA damage. Surprisingly, not much is known about the DNA damage response (DDR) in DNA ligase I-deficient cells. Because DNA replication and DDR pathways are highly conserved in eukaryotes, we utilized Saccharomyces ce...

  12. A novel DNA joining activity catalyzed by T4 DNA ligase

    OpenAIRE

    Western, L M; Rose, S..J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of T4 and E. coli DNA ligases in genetic engineering technology is usually associated with nick-closing activity in double stranded DNA or ligation of 'sticky-ends' to produce recombinant DNA molecules. We describe in this communication the ability of T4 DNA ligase to catalyze intramolecular loop formation between annealed oligodeoxyribonucleotides wherein Watson-Crick base pairing is absent on one side of the ligation site. Enzyme concentration, loop size, substrate specificity, and ...

  13. Mechanism of replication machinery assembly as revealed by the DNA ligase-PCNA-DNA complex architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanagi, Kouta; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Saito, Mihoko; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2009-03-24

    The 3D structure of the ternary complex, consisting of DNA ligase, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp, and DNA, was investigated by single-particle analysis. This report presents the structural view, where the crescent-shaped DNA ligase with 3 distinct domains surrounds the central DNA duplex, encircled by the closed PCNA ring, thus forming a double-layer structure with dual contacts between the 2 proteins. The relative orientations of the DNA ligase domains, which remarkably differ from those of the known crystal structures, suggest that a large domain rearrangement occurs upon ternary complex formation. A second contact was found between the PCNA ring and the middle adenylation domain of the DNA ligase. Notably, the map revealed a substantial DNA tilt from the PCNA ring axis. This structure allows us to propose a switching mechanism for the replication factors operating on the PCNA ring.

  14. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L; Tomkinson, Alan E; Tainer, John A; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-08-18

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation.

  15. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Tainer, John A.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation. PMID:26130724

  16. A novel interaction between DNA ligase III and DNA polymerase gamma plays an essential role in mitochondrial DNA stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Ananya; Campbell, Colin

    2007-02-15

    The data in the present study show that DNA polymerase gamma and DNA ligase III interact in mitochondrial protein extracts from cultured HT1080 cells. An interaction was also observed between the two recombinant proteins in vitro. Expression of catalytically inert versions of DNA ligase III that bind DNA polymerase gamma was associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number and integrity. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type DNA ligase III had no effect on mitochondrial DNA copy number or integrity. Experiments revealed that wild-type DNA ligase III facilitates the interaction of DNA polymerase gamma with a nicked DNA substrate in vitro, and that the zinc finger domain of DNA ligase III is required for this activity. Mitochondrial protein extracts prepared from cells overexpressing a DNA ligase III protein that lacked the zinc finger domain had reduced base excision repair activity compared with extracts from cells overexpressing the wild-type protein. These data support the interpretation that the interaction of DNA ligase III and DNA polymerase gamma is required for proper maintenance of the mammalian mitochondrial genome.

  17. Defining interactions between DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ling; Yannone, Steven M.; Chen, David J.

    2001-04-10

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ligase IV, and XRCC4 are all critical components of the NHEJ repair pathway. DNA-PK is composed of a heterodimeric DNA-binding component, Ku, and a large catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs. Ligase IV and XRCC4 associate to form a multimeric complex that is also essential for NHEJ. DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4 interact at DNA termini which results in stimulated ligase activity. Here we define interactions between the components of these two essential complexes, DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4. We find that ligase IV/XRCC4 associates with DNA-PK in a DNA-independent manner. The specific protein-protein interactions that mediate the interaction between these two complexes are further identified. Direct physical interactions between ligase IV and Ku as well as between XRCC4 and DNA-PKcs are shown. No direct interactions are observed between ligase IV and DNA-PKcs or between XRCC4 and Ku. Our data defines the specific protein pairs involved in the association of DNA-PK and ligase IV/XRCC4, and suggests a molecular mechanism for coordinating the assembly of the DNA repair complex at DNA breaks.

  18. DNA ligase I and Nbs1 proteins associate in a complex and colocalize at replication factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, Riccardo; Leva, Valentina; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Montecucco, Alessandra

    2009-08-15

    DNA ligase I is the main DNA ligase activity involved in eukaryotic DNA replication acting in the joining of Okazaki fragments. This enzyme is also implicated in nucleotide excision repair and in the long-patch base excision repair while its role in the recombinational repair pathways is poorly understood. DNA ligase I is phosphorylated during cell cycle at several serine and threonine residues that regulate its participation in different DNA transactions by modulating the interaction with different protein partners. Here we use an antibody-based array method to identify novel DNA ligase-interacting partners. We show that DNA ligase I participates in several multiprotein complexes with proteins involved in DNA replication and repair, cell cycle control, and protein modification. In particular we demonstrate that DNA ligase I complexes with Nbs1, a core component of the MRN complex critical for detection, processing and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. The analysis of epitope tagged DNA ligase I mutants demonstrates that the association is mediated by the catalytic fragment of the enzyme. DNA ligase I and Nbs1 colocalize at replication factories during unperturbed replication and after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Since MRN complex is involved in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination at stalled replication forks our data support the notion that DNA ligase I participates in homology dependent pathways that deal with replication-associated lesions generated when replication fork encounters DNA damage.

  19. Electron microscopy visualization of DNA-protein complexes formed by Ku and DNA ligase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Patricia; Zhang, Teri T; Hannah, Ryan; Yang, Hui; Hefferin, Melissa L; Tomkinson, Alan E; Nogales, Eva

    2012-01-02

    The repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell viability and genome stability. Aberrant repair of DSBs has been linked with cancer predisposition and aging. During the repair of DSBs by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), DNA ends are brought together, processed and then joined. In eukaryotes, this repair pathway is initiated by the binding of the ring-shaped Ku heterodimer and completed by DNA ligase IV. The DNA ligase IV complex, DNA ligase IV/XRRC4 in humans and Dnl4/Lif1 in yeast, is recruited to DNA ends in vitro and in vivo by an interaction with Ku and, in yeast, Dnl4/Lif1 stabilizes the binding of yKu to in vivo DSBs. Here we have analyzed the interactions of these functionally conserved eukaryotic NHEJ factors with DNA by electron microscopy. As expected, the ring-shaped Ku complex bound stably and specifically to DNA ends at physiological salt concentrations. At a ratio of 1 Ku molecule per DNA end, the majority of DNA ends were occupied by a single Ku complex with no significant formation of linear DNA multimers or circular loops. Both Dnl4/Lif1 and DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 formed complexes with Ku-bound DNA ends, resulting in intra- and intermolecular DNA end bridging, even with non-ligatable DNA ends. Together, these studies, which provide the first visualization of the conserved complex formed by Ku and DNA ligase IV at juxtaposed DNA ends by electron microscopy, suggest that the DNA ligase IV complex mediates end-bridging by engaging two Ku-bound DNA ends.

  20. C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Noritaka [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Chromatin binding of XRCC4 is dependent on the presence of DNA ligase IV. •C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV alone can recruit itself and XRCC4 to chromatin. •Two BRCT domains of DNA ligase IV are essential for the chromatin binding of XRCC4. -- Abstract: DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.

  1. Tricyclic dihydrobenzoxazepine and tetracyclic indole derivatives can specifically target bacterial DNA ligases and can distinguish them from human DNA ligase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Nisha; Khanam, Taran; Shukla, Ankita; Rai, Niyati; Hajela, Kanchan; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2015-05-21

    DNA ligases are critical components for DNA metabolism in all organisms. NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases (LigA) found exclusively in bacteria and certain entomopoxviruses are drawing increasing attention as therapeutic targets as they differ in their cofactor requirement from ATP-dependent eukaryotic homologs. Due to the similarities in the cofactor binding sites of the two classes of DNA ligases, it is necessary to find determinants that can distinguish between them for the exploitation of LigA as an anti-bacterial target. In the present endeavour, we have synthesized and evaluated a series of tricyclic dihydrobenzoxazepine and tetracyclic indole derivatives for their ability to distinguish between bacterial and human DNA ligases. The in vivo inhibition assays that employed LigA deficient E. coli GR501 and S. typhimurium LT2 bacterial strains, rescued by ATP-dependent T4 DNA ligase or Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase (Mtb LigA), respectively, showed that the compounds can specifically inhibit bacterial LigA. The in vitro enzyme inhibition assays using purified MtbLigA, human DNA ligase I & T4 DNA ligase showed specific inhibition of MtbLigA at low micromolar range. Our results demonstrate that tricyclic dihydrobenzoxazepine and tetracyclic indole derivatives can distinguish between bacterial and human DNA ligases by ∼5-folds. In silico docking and enzyme inhibition assays identified that the compounds bind to the cofactor binding site and compete with the cofactor. Ethidium bromide displacement and gel-shift assays showed that the inhibitors do not exhibit any unwanted general interactions with the substrate DNA. These results set the stage for the detailed exploration of this compound class for development as antibacterials.

  2. Structural and functional interaction between the human DNA repair proteins DNA ligase IV and XRCC4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peï-Yu; Frit, Philippe; Meesala, SriLakshmi; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Modesti, Mauro; Andres, Sara N; Huang, Ying; Sekiguchi, JoAnn; Calsou, Patrick; Salles, Bernard; Junop, Murray S

    2009-06-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining represents the major pathway used by human cells to repair DNA double-strand breaks. It relies on the XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to reseal DNA strands. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of human XRCC4 bound to the carboxy-terminal tandem BRCT repeat of DNA ligase IV. The structure differs from the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex and reveals an extensive DNA ligase IV binding interface formed by a helix-loop-helix structure within the inter-BRCT linker region, as well as significant interactions involving the second BRCT domain, which induces a kink in the tail region of XRCC4. We further demonstrate that interaction with the second BRCT domain of DNA ligase IV is necessary for stable binding to XRCC4 in cells, as well as to achieve efficient dominant-negative effects resulting in radiosensitization after ectopic overexpression of DNA ligase IV fragments in human fibroblasts. Together our findings provide unanticipated insight for understanding the physical and functional architecture of the nonhomologous end-joining ligation complex.

  3. Structural and Functional Interaction Between the Human DNA Repair Proteins DNA ligase IV and XRCC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, P.; Meesala, S; Dauvillier, S; Modesti, M; Andres, S; Huang, Y; Sekiguchi, J; Calsou, P; Salles, B; Junop, M

    2009-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining represents the major pathway used by human cells to repair DNA double-strand breaks. It relies on the XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to reseal DNA strands. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structure of human XRCC4 bound to the carboxy-terminal tandem BRCT repeat of DNA ligase IV. The structure differs from the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae complex and reveals an extensive DNA ligase IV binding interface formed by a helix-loop-helix structure within the inter-BRCT linker region, as well as significant interactions involving the second BRCT domain, which induces a kink in the tail region of XRCC4. We further demonstrate that interaction with the second BRCT domain of DNA ligase IV is necessary for stable binding to XRCC4 in cells, as well as to achieve efficient dominant-negative effects resulting in radiosensitization after ectopic overexpression of DNA ligase IV fragments in human fibroblasts. Together our findings provide unanticipated insight for understanding the physical and functional architecture of the nonhomologous end-joining ligation complex.

  4. SCR7 is neither a selective nor a potent inhibitor of human DNA ligase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, George E; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Brooks, Rhys C; Lu, Zhengfei; Lieber, Michael R; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2016-07-01

    DNA ligases are attractive therapeutics because of their involvement in completing the repair of almost all types of DNA damage. A series of DNA ligase inhibitors with differing selectivity for the three human DNA ligases were identified using a structure-based approach with one of these inhibitors being used to inhibit abnormal DNA ligase IIIα-dependent repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB)s in breast cancer, neuroblastoma and leukemia cell lines. Raghavan and colleagues reported the characterization of a derivative of one of the previously identified DNA ligase inhibitors, which they called SCR7 (designated SCR7-R in our experiments using SCR7). SCR7 appeared to show increased selectivity for DNA ligase IV, inhibit the repair of DSBs by the DNA ligase IV-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway, reduce tumor growth, and increase the efficacy of DSB-inducing therapeutic modalities in mouse xenografts. In attempting to synthesize SCR7, we encountered problems with the synthesis procedures and discovered discrepancies in its reported structure. We determined the structure of a sample of SCR7 and a related compound, SCR7-G, that is the major product generated by the published synthesis procedure for SCR7. We also found that SCR7-G has the same structure as the compound (SCR7-X) available from a commercial vendor (XcessBio). The various SCR7 preparations had similar activity in DNA ligation assay assays, exhibiting greater activity against DNA ligases I and III than DNA ligase IV. Furthermore, SCR7-R failed to inhibit DNA ligase IV-dependent V(D)J recombination in a cell-based assay. Based on our results, we conclude that SCR7 and the SCR7 derivatives are neither selective nor potent inhibitors of DNA ligase IV.

  5. From Structure-Function Analyses to Protein Engineering for Practical Applications of DNA Ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Maiko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Nishida, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    DNA ligases are indispensable in all living cells and ubiquitous in all organs. DNA ligases are broadly utilized in molecular biology research fields, such as genetic engineering and DNA sequencing technologies. Here we review the utilization of DNA ligases in a variety of in vitro gene manipulations, developed over the past several decades. During this period, fewer protein engineering attempts for DNA ligases have been made, as compared to those for DNA polymerases. We summarize the recent progress in the elucidation of the DNA ligation mechanisms obtained from the tertiary structures solved thus far, in each step of the ligation reaction scheme. We also present some examples of engineered DNA ligases, developed from the viewpoint of their three-dimensional structures.

  6. From Structure-Function Analyses to Protein Engineering for Practical Applications of DNA Ligase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Tanabe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA ligases are indispensable in all living cells and ubiquitous in all organs. DNA ligases are broadly utilized in molecular biology research fields, such as genetic engineering and DNA sequencing technologies. Here we review the utilization of DNA ligases in a variety of in vitro gene manipulations, developed over the past several decades. During this period, fewer protein engineering attempts for DNA ligases have been made, as compared to those for DNA polymerases. We summarize the recent progress in the elucidation of the DNA ligation mechanisms obtained from the tertiary structures solved thus far, in each step of the ligation reaction scheme. We also present some examples of engineered DNA ligases, developed from the viewpoint of their three-dimensional structures.

  7. DNA ligase I selectively affects DNA synthesis by DNA polymerases delta and epsilon suggesting differential functions in DNA replication and repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Mossi, R; Ferrari, E; Hübscher, U

    1998-01-01

    The joining of single-stranded breaks in double-stranded DNA is an essential step in many important processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and genetic recombination. Several data implicate a role for DNA ligase I in DNA replication, probably coordinated by the action of other enzymes and proteins. Since both DNA polymerases delta and epsilon show multiple functions in different DNA transactions, we investigated the effect of DNA ligase I on various DNA synthesis events catalyzed by th...

  8. Influence of polyethylene glycol on the ligation reaction with calf thymus DNA ligases I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, H; Tsukada, K

    1987-01-01

    High concentrations of the nonspecific macromolecule polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) enabled DNA ligases I and II from calf thymus to catalyze intermolecular blunt-end ligation of duplex DNA. Intermolecular cohesive-end ligation with these enzymes was markedly stimulated in the presence of 10-16% (w/v) PEG 6000. The effect of PEG 6000 (4-16%) on the sealing of single-stranded breaks in duplex DNA with DNA ligases I and II was not appreciably stimulatory but rather inhibitory. PEG 6000 (15%) enhanced more twofold the rate of DNA ligase II-AMP complex formation, but moderately suppressed the rate of formation of DNA ligase 1-AMP complex. Polyamines and KCl inhibited blunt-end and cohesive-end ligations with DNA ligases I and II in the presence of PEG 6000.

  9. Structure of the adenylation domain of NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungil; Chang, Jeanne S; Griffor, Matt

    2009-11-01

    DNA ligase catalyzes phosphodiester-bond formation between immediately adjacent 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl groups in double-stranded DNA and plays a central role in many cellular and biochemical processes, including DNA replication, repair and recombination. Bacterial NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases have been extensively characterized as potential antibacterial targets because of their essentiality and their structural distinction from human ATP-dependent DNA ligases. The high-resolution structure of the adenylation domain of Staphylococcus aureus NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase establishes the conserved domain architecture with other bacterial adenylation domains. Two apo crystal structures revealed that the active site possesses the preformed NAD(+)-binding pocket and the 'C2 tunnel' lined with hydrophobic residues: Leu80, Phe224, Leu287, Phe295 and Trp302. The C2 tunnel is unique to bacterial DNA ligases and the Leu80 side chain at the mouth of the tunnel points inside the tunnel and forms a narrow funnel in the S. aureus DNA ligase structure. Taken together with other DNA ligase structures, the S. aureus DNA ligase structure provides a basis for a more integrated understanding of substrate recognition and catalysis and will be also be of help in the development of small-molecule inhibitors.

  10. Structure of the adenylation domain of NAD[superscript +]-dependent DNA ligase from Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seungil; Chang, Jeanne S.; Griffor, Matt; Pfizer

    2010-09-17

    DNA ligase catalyzes phosphodiester-bond formation between immediately adjacent 5'-phosphate and 3''-hydroxyl groups in double-stranded DNA and plays a central role in many cellular and biochemical processes, including DNA replication, repair and recombination. Bacterial NAD{sup +}-dependent DNA ligases have been extensively characterized as potential antibacterial targets because of their essentiality and their structural distinction from human ATP-dependent DNA ligases. The high-resolution structure of the adenylation domain of Staphylococcus aureus NAD{sup +}-dependent DNA ligase establishes the conserved domain architecture with other bacterial adenylation domains. Two apo crystal structures revealed that the active site possesses the preformed NAD{sup +}-binding pocket and the 'C2 tunnel' lined with hydrophobic residues: Leu80, Phe224, Leu287, Phe295 and Trp302. The C2 tunnel is unique to bacterial DNA ligases and the Leu80 side chain at the mouth of the tunnel points inside the tunnel and forms a narrow funnel in the S. aureus DNA ligase structure. Taken together with other DNA ligase structures, the S. aureus DNA ligase structure provides a basis for a more integrated understanding of substrate recognition and catalysis and will be also be of help in the development of small-molecule inhibitors.

  11. DNA ligase III and DNA ligase IV carry out genetically distinct forms of end joining in human somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sehyun; Harvey, Adam; Zimbric, Jacob; Wang, Yongbao; Nguyen, Thanh; Jackson, Pauline J; Hendrickson, Eric A

    2014-09-01

    Ku-dependent C-NHEJ (classic non-homologous end joining) is the primary DNA EJing (end joining) repair pathway in mammals. Recently, an additional EJing repair pathway (A-NHEJ; alternative-NHEJ) has been described. Currently, the mechanism of A-NHEJ is obscure although a dependency on LIGIII (DNA ligase III) is often implicated. To test the requirement for LIGIII in A-NHEJ we constructed a LIGIII conditionally-null human cell line using gene targeting. Nuclear EJing activity appeared unaffected by a deficiency in LIGIII as, surprisingly, so were random gene targeting integration events. In contrast, LIGIII was required for mitochondrial function and this defined the gene's essential activity. Human Ku:LIGIII and Ku:LIGIV (DNA ligase IV) double knockout cell lines, however, demonstrated that LIGIII is required for the enhanced A-NHEJ activity that is observed in Ku-deficient cells. Most unexpectedly, however, the majority of EJing events remained LIGIV-dependent. In conclusion, although human LIGIII has an essential function in mitochondrial maintenance, it is dispensable for most types of nuclear DSB repair, except for the A-NHEJ events that are normally suppressed by Ku. Moreover, we describe that a robust Ku-independent, LIGIV-dependent repair pathway exists in human somatic cells.

  12. Knockdown of DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 by RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type I DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylaert, Isabella; Elias, Per

    2007-04-13

    Herpes simplex virus has a linear double-stranded DNA genome with directly repeated terminal sequences needed for cleavage and packaging of replicated DNA. In infected cells, linear genomes rapidly become endless. It is currently a matter of discussion whether the endless genomes are circles supporting rolling circle replication or arise by recombination of linear genomes forming concatemers. Here, we have examined the role of mammalian DNA ligases in the herpes simplex virus, type I (HSV-1) life cycle by employing RNA interference (RNAi) in human 1BR.3.N fibroblasts. We find that RNAi-mediated knockdown of DNA ligase IV and its co-factor XRCC4 causes a hundred-fold reduction of virus yield, a small plaque phenotype, and reduced DNA synthesis. The effect is specific because RNAi against DNA ligase I or DNA ligase III fail to reduce HSV-1 replication. Furthermore, RNAi against DNA ligase IV and XRCC4 does not affect replication of adenovirus. In addition, high multiplicity infections of HSV-1 in human DNA ligase IV-deficient cells reveal a pronounced delay of production of infectious virus. Finally, we demonstrate that formation of endless genomes is inhibited by RNAi-mediated depletion of DNA ligase IV and XRCC4. Our results suggests that DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 serves an important role in the replication cycle of herpes viruses and is likely to be required for the formation of the endless genomes early during productive infection.

  13. Ligase I and ligase III mediate the DNA double-strand break ligation in alternative end-joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangqing; Duan, Jinzhi; Shu, Sheng; Wang, Xuxiang; Gao, Linlin; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Yu

    2016-02-02

    In eukaryotes, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one of the most harmful types of DNA damage, are repaired by homologous repair (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Surprisingly, in cells deficient for core classic NHEJ factors such as DNA ligase IV (Lig4), substantial end-joining activities have been observed in various situations, suggesting the existence of alternative end-joining (A-EJ) activities. Several putative A-EJ factors have been proposed, although results are mostly controversial. By using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, we generated mouse CH12F3 cell lines in which, in addition to Lig4, either Lig1 or nuclear Lig3, representing the cells containing a single DNA ligase (Lig3 or Lig1, respectively) in their nucleus, was completely ablated. Surprisingly, we found that both Lig1- and Lig3-containing complexes could efficiently catalyze A-EJ for class switching recombination (CSR) in the IgH locus and chromosomal deletions between DSBs generated by CRISPR/Cas9 in cis-chromosomes. However, only deletion of nuclear Lig3, but not Lig1, could significantly reduce the interchromosomal translocations in Lig4(-/-) cells, suggesting the unique role of Lig3 in catalyzing chromosome translocation. Additional sequence analysis of chromosome translocation junction microhomology revealed the specificity of different ligase-containing complexes. The data suggested the existence of multiple DNA ligase-containing complexes in A-EJ.

  14. Vaccinia DNA ligase complements Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc9, localizes in cytoplasmic factories and affects virulence and virus sensitivity to DNA damaging agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, S M; Johnston, L H; Odell, M; Duncan, S A; Law, K M; Smith, G L

    1991-01-01

    The functional compatibility of vaccinia virus DNA ligase with eukaryotic counterparts was demonstrated by its ability to complement Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc9. The vaccinia DNA ligase is a 63 kDa protein expressed early during infection that is non-essential for virus DNA replication and recombination in cultured cells. This implies complementation by a mammalian DNA ligase, yet no obvious recruitment of host DNA ligase I from the nucleus to the cytoplasm was observed during infection. An...

  15. Defects in DNA ligase I trigger PCNA ubiquitylation at Lys 107.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das-Bradoo, Sapna; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Wood, Jamie L; Ricke, Robin M; Haworth, Justin C; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin

    2010-01-01

    In all eukaryotes, the ligation of newly synthesized DNA, also known as Okazaki fragments, is catalysed by DNA ligase I (ref. 1). An individual with a DNA ligase I deficiency exhibits growth retardation, sunlight sensitivity and severe immunosuppression, probably due to accumulation of DNA damage. Surprisingly, not much is known about the DNA damage response (DDR) in DNA ligase I-deficient cells. As DNA replication and DDR pathways are highly conserved in eukaryotes, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to address this issue. We uncovered a new pathway, which facilitates ubiquitylation at Lys 107 of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Unlike ubiquitylation at Lys 164 of PCNA in response to UV irradiation, which triggers translesion synthesis, modification of Lys 107 is not dependent on the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) Rad6 (ref. 4) nor the ubiquitin ligase (E3) Rad18 (ref. 5), but requires the E2 variant Mms2 (ref. 6) in conjunction with Ubc4 (ref. 7) and the E3 Rad5 (Refs 8, 9). Surprisingly, DNA ligase I-deficient S. cerevisiae cdc9-1 cells that carry a PCNAK107R mutation are inviable, because they cannot activate a robust DDR. Furthermore, we show that ubiquitylation of PCNA in response to DNA ligase I deficiency is conserved in humans, yet the lysine residue that is modified remains to be determined. We propose that PCNA ubiquitylation provides a 'DNA damage code' that allows cells to categorize different types of defects that arise during DNA replication.

  16. DNA Ligase III is critical for mtDNA integrity but not Xrcc1-mediated nuclear DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yankun; Katyal, Sachin; Lee, Youngsoo; Zhao, Jingfeng; Rehg, Jerold E.; Russell, Helen R.; McKinnon, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    DNA replication and repair in mammalian cells involves three distinct DNA ligases; ligase I (Lig1), ligase III (Lig3) and ligase IV (Lig4)1. Lig3 is considered a key ligase during base excision repair because its stability depends upon its nuclear binding partner Xrcc1, a critical factor for this DNA repair pathway2,3. Lig3 is also present in the mitochondria where its role in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance is independent of Xrcc14. However, the biological role of Lig3 is unclear as inactivation of murine Lig3 results in early embryonic lethality5. Here we report that Lig3 is essential for mtDNA integrity but dispensable for nuclear DNA repair. Inactivation of Lig3 in the mouse nervous system resulted in mtDNA loss leading to profound mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of cellular homeostasis and incapacitating ataxia. Similarly, inactivation of Lig3 in cardiac muscle resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and defective heart pump function leading to heart failure. However, Lig3 inactivation did not result in nuclear DNA repair deficiency, indicating essential DNA repair functions of Xrcc1 can occur in the absence of Lig3. Instead, we found that Lig1 was critical for DNA repair, but in a cooperative manner with Lig3. Additionally, Lig3 deficiency did not recapitulate the hallmark features of neural Xrcc1 inactivation such as DNA damage-induced cerebellar interneuron loss6, further underscoring functional separation of these DNA repair factors. Therefore, our data reveal that the critical biological role of Lig3 is to maintain mtDNA integrity and not Xrcc1-dependent DNA repair. PMID:21390131

  17. Structural Basis for Nick Recognition by a Minimal Pluripotent DNA Ligase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair,P.; Nandakumar, J.; Smith, P.; Odell, M.; Lima, C.; Shuman, S.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella virus DNA ligase, the smallest eukaryotic ligase known, has pluripotent biological activity and an intrinsic nick-sensing function, despite having none of the accessory domains found in cellular ligases. A 2.3-{angstrom} crystal structure of the Chlorella virus ligase-AMP intermediate bound to duplex DNA containing a 3'-OH-5'-PO{sub 4} nick reveals a new mode of DNA envelopment, in which a short surface loop emanating from the OB domain forms a {beta}-hairpin 'latch' that inserts into the DNA major groove flanking the nick. A network of interactions with the 3'-OH and 5'-PO{sub 4} termini in the active site illuminates the DNA adenylylation mechanism and the crucial roles of AMP in nick sensing and catalysis. Addition of a divalent cation triggered nick sealing in crystallo, establishing that the nick complex is a bona fide intermediate in the DNA repair pathway.

  18. A high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay for DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam B; Eakin, Ann E; Walkup, Grant K; Rivin, Olga

    2011-06-01

    DNA ligase is the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the backbone phosphodiester bond between the 5'-PO(4) and 3'-OH of adjacent DNA nucleotides at single-stranded nicks. These nicks occur between Okazaki fragments during replication of the lagging strand of the DNA as well as during DNA repair and recombination. As essential enzymes for DNA replication, the NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases of pathogenic bacteria are potential targets for the development of antibacterial drugs. For the purposes of drug discovery, a high-throughput assay for DNA ligase activity is invaluable. This article describes a straightforward, fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based DNA ligase assay that is well suited for high-throughput screening for DNA ligase inhibitors as well as for use in enzyme kinetics studies. Its use is demonstrated for measurement of the steady-state kinetic constants of Haemophilus influenzae NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase and for measurement of the potency of an inhibitor of this enzyme.

  19. A conserved physical and functional interaction between the cell cycle checkpoint clamp loader and DNA ligase I of eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Levin, David S; Varkey, Johnson; Post, Sean; Bermudez, Vladimir P; Hurwitz, Jerard; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2007-08-03

    DNA ligase I joins Okazaki fragments during DNA replication and completes certain excision repair pathways. The participation of DNA ligase I in these transactions is directed by physical and functional interactions with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a DNA sliding clamp, and, replication factor C (RFC), the clamp loader. Here we show that DNA ligase I also interacts with the hRad17 subunit of the hRad17-RFC cell cycle checkpoint clamp loader, and with each of the subunits of its DNA sliding clamp, the heterotrimeric hRad9-hRad1-hHus1 complex. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of RFC, hRad17-RFC stimulates joining by DNA ligase I. Similar results were obtained with the homologous Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins indicating that the interaction between the replicative DNA ligase and checkpoint clamp is conserved in eukaryotes. Notably, we show that hRad17 preferentially interacts with and specifically stimulates dephosphorylated DNA ligase I. Moreover, there is an increased association between DNA ligase I and hRad17 in S phase following DNA damage and replication blockage that occurs concomitantly with DNA damage-induced dephosphorylation of chromatin-associated DNA ligase I. Thus, our results suggest that the in vivo interaction between DNA ligase I and the checkpoint clamp loader is regulated by post-translational modification of DNA ligase I.

  20. Hexamine cobalt chloride promotes intermolecular ligation of blunt end DNA fragments by T4 DNA ligase.

    OpenAIRE

    Rusche, J R; Howard-Flanders, P

    1985-01-01

    Hexamine cobalt chloride (HCC) increases the efficiency of blunt end ligation by T4 DNA ligase about 50 fold. Maximum stimulation occurs when standard buffers for ligation are supplemented with 1 mM HCC. All the ligation events are intermolecular regardless of the initial DNA concentration. In the presence of monovalent cations (eg. 25 mM KCl) HCC still increases the extent of T4 catalyzed ligation but intramolecular ligation products are also formed. Therefore, intermolecular ligation can be...

  1. Ligation of double-stranded and single-stranded [Oligo(dT)] DNA by vaccinia virus DNA ligase

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Vaccinia virus DNA ligase has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and biochemically characterized. The enzyme ligates double-stranded (ds) DNA substrates with either cohesive or blunt-end termini and the latter reaction is stimulated by PEG. Vaccinia virus DNA ligase can also ligate oligo(dT) when annealed to either a poly(dA) or a poly(rA) backbone and, remarkably, free oligo(dT). This ligation of a single-stranded (ss) substrate is unique among eukaryotic DNA ligases. The enzyme r...

  2. Human DNA Ligase I Interacts with and Is Targeted for Degradation by the DCAF7 Specificity Factor of the Cul4-DDB1 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhimin; Liao, Zhongping; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Yang, Austin; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2016-10-14

    The synthesis, processing, and joining of Okazaki fragments during DNA replication is complex, requiring the sequential action of a large number of proteins. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a DNA sliding clamp, interacts with and coordinates the activity of several DNA replication proteins, including the enzymes flap endonuclease 1 (FEN-1) and DNA ligase I that complete the processing and joining of Okazaki fragments, respectively. Although it is evident that maintaining the appropriate relative stoichiometry of FEN-1 and DNA ligase I, which compete for binding to proliferating cell nuclear antigen, is critical to prevent genomic instability, little is known about how the steady state levels of DNA replication proteins are regulated, in particular the proteolytic mechanisms involved in their turnover. Because DNA ligase I has been reported to be ubiquitylated, we used a proteomic approach to map ubiquitylation sites and screen for DNA ligase I-associated E3 ubiquitin ligases. We identified three ubiquitylated lysine residues and showed that DNA ligase I interacts with and is targeted for ubiquitylation by DCAF7, a specificity factor for the Cul4-DDB1 complex. Notably, knockdown of DCAF7 reduced the degradation of DNA ligase I in response to inhibition of proliferation and replacement of ubiquitylated lysine residues reduced the in vitro ubiquitylation of DNA ligase I by Cul4-DDB1 and DCAF7. In contrast, a different E3 ubiquitin ligase regulates FEN-1 turnover. Thus, although the expression of many of the genes encoding DNA replication proteins is coordinately regulated, our studies reveal that different mechanisms are involved in the turnover of these proteins.

  3. DNA ligase 1 deficient plants display severe growth defects and delayed repair of both DNA single and double strand breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bray Clifford M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA ligase enzymes catalyse the joining of adjacent polynucleotides and as such play important roles in DNA replication and repair pathways. Eukaryotes possess multiple DNA ligases with distinct roles in DNA metabolism, with clear differences in the functions of DNA ligase orthologues between animals, yeast and plants. DNA ligase 1, present in all eukaryotes, plays critical roles in both DNA repair and replication and is indispensable for cell viability. Results Knockout mutants of atlig1 are lethal. Therefore, RNAi lines with reduced levels of AtLIG1 were generated to allow the roles and importance of Arabidopsis DNA ligase 1 in DNA metabolism to be elucidated. Viable plants were fertile but displayed a severely stunted and stressed growth phenotype. Cell size was reduced in the silenced lines, whilst flow cytometry analysis revealed an increase of cells in S-phase in atlig1-RNAi lines relative to wild type plants. Comet assay analysis of isolated nuclei showed atlig1-RNAi lines displayed slower repair of single strand breaks (SSBs and also double strand breaks (DSBs, implicating AtLIG1 in repair of both these lesions. Conclusion Reduced levels of Arabidopsis DNA ligase 1 in the silenced lines are sufficient to support plant development but result in retarded growth and reduced cell size, which may reflect roles for AtLIG1 in both replication and repair. The finding that DNA ligase 1 plays an important role in DSB repair in addition to its known function in SSB repair, demonstrates the existence of a previously uncharacterised novel pathway, independent of the conserved NHEJ. These results indicate that DNA ligase 1 functions in both DNA replication and in repair of both ss and dsDNA strand breaks in higher plants.

  4. C-Terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Adachi, Noritaka; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-20

    DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.

  5. Enzyme-adenylate structure of a bacterial ATP-dependent DNA ligase with a minimized DNA-binding surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Adele; Rothweiler, Ulli; Leiros, Hanna Kirsti Schrøder

    2014-11-01

    DNA ligases are a structurally diverse class of enzymes which share a common catalytic core and seal breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of double-stranded DNA via an adenylated intermediate. Here, the structure and activity of a recombinantly produced ATP-dependent DNA ligase from the bacterium Psychromonas sp. strain SP041 is described. This minimal-type ligase, like its close homologues, is able to ligate singly nicked double-stranded DNA with high efficiency and to join cohesive-ended and blunt-ended substrates to a more limited extent. The 1.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the enzyme-adenylate complex reveals no unstructured loops or segments, and suggests that this enzyme binds the DNA without requiring full encirclement of the DNA duplex. This is in contrast to previously characterized minimal DNA ligases from viruses, which use flexible loop regions for DNA interaction. The Psychromonas sp. enzyme is the first structure available for the minimal type of bacterial DNA ligases and is the smallest DNA ligase to be crystallized to date.

  6. Fragment-based discovery of 6-azaindazoles as inhibitors of bacterial DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven; Amin, Nader; Benowitz, Andrew B; Chiarparin, Elisabetta; Cui, Haifeng; Deng, Xiaodong; Heightman, Tom D; Holmes, David J; Hopkins, Anna; Huang, Jianzhong; Jin, Qi; Kreatsoulas, Constantine; Martin, Agnes C L; Massey, Frances; McCloskey, Lynn; Mortenson, Paul N; Pathuri, Puja; Tisi, Dominic; Williams, Pamela A

    2013-12-12

    Herein we describe the application of fragment-based drug design to bacterial DNA ligase. X-ray crystallography was used to guide structure-based optimization of a fragment-screening hit to give novel, nanomolar, AMP-competitive inhibitors. The lead compound 13 showed antibacterial activity across a range of pathogens. Data to demonstrate mode of action was provided using a strain of S. aureus, engineered to overexpress DNA ligase.

  7. Cloning, molecular characterization and expression of a DNA-ligase from a new bacteriophage: Phax1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayesh, Neda; Sabouri-Shahrbabak, Saleheh; Bakherad, Hamid; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham

    2013-12-01

    DNA ligases join 3' hydroxyl and 5' phosphate ends in double stranded DNA and are necessary for maintaining the integrity of genome. The gene encoding a new Escherichia phage (Phax1) DNA ligase was cloned and sequenced. The gene contains an open reading frame with 1,428 base pairs, encoding 475 amino acid residues. Alignment of the entire amino acid sequence showed that Phax1 DNA ligase has a high degree of sequence homology with ligases from Escherichia (vB_EcoM_CBA120), Salmonella (PhiSH19 and SFP10), Shigella (phiSboM-AG3), and Deftia (phiW-14) phages. The Phax1 DNA ligase gene was expressed under the control of the T7lac promoter on the pET-16b (+) in Escherichia coli Rossetta gami. The enzyme was then homogeneously purified by a metal affinity column. Enzymatic activity of the recombinant DNA ligase was assayed by an in-house PCR-based method.

  8. Recombinant expression and purification of an ATP-dependent DNA ligase from Aliivibrio salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Adele; Pedersen, Hege

    2014-05-01

    The genome of the psychrophilic fish-pathogen Aliivibrio salmonicida encodes a putative ATP-dependent DNA ligase in addition to a housekeeping NAD-dependent enzyme. In order to study the structure and activity of the ATP dependent ligase in vitro we have undertaken its recombinant production and purification from an Escherichia coli based expression system. Expression and purification of this protein presented two significant challenges. First, the gene product was moderately toxic to E. coli cells, second it was necessary to remove the large amounts of E. coli DNA present in bacterial lysates without contamination of the protein preparation by nucleases which might interfere with future assaying. The toxicity problem was overcome by fusion of the putative ligase to large solubility tags such as maltose-binding protein (MBP) or Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and DNA was removed by treatment with a nuclease which could be inhibited by reducing agents. As the A. salmonicida ATP-dependent DNA ligase gene encodes a predicted leader peptide, both the full-length and mature forms of the protein were produced. Both possessed ATP-dependent DNA ligase activity, but the truncated form was significantly more active. Here we detail the first reported production, purification and preliminary characterization of active A. salmonicida ATP-dependent DNA ligase.

  9. Molecular and immunological characterization of DNA ligase IV deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinqiu; Tang, Wenjing; An, Yunfei; Tang, Maozhi; Wu, Junfeng; Qin, Tao; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    DNA ligase IV (LIG4) deficiency is an extremely rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency disease caused by the LIG4 mutation. To date, fewer than 30 cases of patients have been reported worldwide. No reversion mutations have been previously identified in LIG4. This study enrolled seven Chinese patients with LIG4 deficiency who presented with combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and growth retardation. One patient (P1) acquired non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Four patients had impaired T cell proliferation function and skewed T cell receptor diversity. Five novel mutations in LIG4 and a potential hotspot mutation (c.833G>T; p.R278L) in the Chinese population were identified. TA cloning analysis of T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, and oral mucosa cells in P6 revealed wild-type clones and clones that contained both maternally and paternally inherited mutations, indicating possible somatic reversion which need further investigation since no functional or protein assays were possible for all the patients died and no cell lines were available.

  10. ATP- and NAD+-dependent DNA ligases share an essential function in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, A.; Gray, F. C; MacNeill, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    DNA ligases join the ends of DNA molecules during replication, repair and recombination. ATP-dependent ligases are found predominantly in the eukarya and archaea whereas NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found only in the eubacteria and in entomopoxviruses. Using the genetically tractable halophile...... Haloferax volcanii as a model system, we describe the first genetic analysis of archaeal DNA ligase function. We show that the Hfx. volcanii ATP-dependent DNA ligase family member, LigA, is non-essential for cell viability, raising the question of how DNA strands are joined in its absence. We show that Hfx....... volcanii also encodes an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase family member, LigN, the first such enzyme to be identified in the archaea, and present phylogenetic analysis indicating that the gene encoding this protein has been acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT) from eubacteria. As with LigA, we show that Lig...

  11. Involvement of DNA ligase III and ribonuclease H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication in cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhanen, Heini; Ushakov, Kathy; Yasukawa, Takehiro

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis operates in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, but the factors involved in lagging strand synthesis are largely uncharacterised. We investigated the effect of knockdown of the candidate proteins in cultured human cells under conditions where mtDNA appears to replicate chiefly via coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis to restore the copy number of mtDNA to normal levels after transient mtDNA depletion. DNA ligase III knockdown attenuated the recovery of mtDNA copy number and appeared to cause single strand nicks in replicating mtDNA molecules, suggesting the involvement of DNA ligase III in Okazaki fragment ligation in human mitochondria. Knockdown of ribonuclease (RNase) H1 completely prevented the mtDNA copy number restoration, and replication intermediates with increased single strand nicks were readily observed. On the other hand, knockdown of neither flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) nor DNA2 affected mtDNA replication. These findings imply that RNase H1 is indispensable for the progression of mtDNA synthesis through removing RNA primers from Okazaki fragments. In the nucleus, Okazaki fragments are ligated by DNA ligase I, and the RNase H2 is involved in Okazaki fragment processing. This study thus proposes that the mitochondrial replication system utilises distinct proteins, DNA ligase III and RNase H1, for Okazaki fragment maturation.

  12. Inhibition of human DNA ligase I activity by zinc and cadmium and the fidelity of ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shu Wei; Becker, F.F. [Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chan, J.Y.H. [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, New Territories (Hong Kong)

    1996-12-31

    Heavy metals, including zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd), are potentially important genotoxic agents in our environment. Here we report that human DNA ligase I, the major form of the enzyme in replicative cells, is a target for Zn and Cd ions. ZnCl{sub 2} at 0.8 mM caused complete inhibition of DNA ligase I activity, whereas only 0.04 mM CdCl{sub 2} was required to achieve a similar effect. Both metals affected all three steps of the reaction, namely, the formation of ligase-AMP intermediate, the transfer of the AMP to DNA and the ligation reaction that succeeds the formation of the AMP-DNA complex. Unlike F-ara-ATP and the natural protein inhibitor of DNA ligase-I, these metals may affect different domains of the enzyme. Moreover, these metal ions did not increase that rate of misligation of F-ara-A-modified DNA or mismatched DNA substrates, but considerable misligation was observed for the T:C mispairing. These data support the notion of high fidelity of the human DNA ligases and that the major action of these metal ions on the enzyme is their inhibitory function. 31 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Inhibition of human DNA ligase I activity by zinc and cadmium and the fidelity of ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S W; Becker, F F; Chan, J Y

    1996-01-01

    Heavy metals, including zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd), are potentially important genotoxic agents in our environment. Here we report that human DNA ligase I, the major form of the enzyme in replicative cells, is a target for Zn and Cd ions. ZnCl2 at 0.8 mM caused complete inhibition of DNA ligase I activity, whereas only 0.04 mM CdCl2 was required to achieve a similar effect. Both metals affected all three steps of the reaction, namely, the formation of ligase-AMP intermediate, the transfer of the AMP to DNA and the ligation reaction that succeeds the formation of the AMP-DNA complex. Unlike F-ara-ATP and the natural protein inhibitor of DNA ligase-I, these metals may affect different domains of the enzyme. Moreover, these metal ions did not increase the rate of misligation of F-ara-A-modified DNA or mismatched DNA substrates, but considerable misligation was observed for the T:C mispairing. These data support the notion of high fidelity of the human DNA ligases and that the major action of these metal ions on the enzyme is their inhibitory function.

  14. Enzyme-regulated activation of DNAzyme: a novel strategy for a label-free colorimetric DNA ligase assay and ligase-based biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiyu; Li, Wang; Nie, Zhou; Huang, Yan; Liu, Zhuoliang; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2012-03-26

    The DNA nick repair catalyzed by DNA ligase is significant for fundamental life processes, such as the replication, repair, and recombination of nucleic acids. Here, we have employed ligase to regulate DNAzyme activity and developed a homogeneous, colorimetric, label-free and DNAzyme-based strategy to detect DNA ligase activity. This novel strategy relies on the ligation-trigged activation or production of horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme that catalyzes the generation of a color change signal; this results in a colorimetric assay of DNA ligase activity. Using T4 DNA ligase as a model, we have proposed two approaches to demonstrate the validity of the DNAzyme strategy. The first approach utilizes an allosteric hairpin-DNAzyme probe specifically responsive to DNA ligation; this approach has a wide detection range from 0.2 to 40 U mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.2 U mL(-1). Furthermore, the approach was adapted to probe nucleic acid phosphorylation and single nucleotide mismatch. The second approach employs a "split DNA machine" to produce numerous DNAzymes after being reassembled by DNA ligase; this greatly enhances the detection sensitivity by a signal amplification cascade to achieve a detection limit of 0.01 U mL(-1).

  15. Evolution of DNA ligases of Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA viruses of eukaryotes: a case of hidden complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV encode most if not all of the enzymes involved in their DNA replication. It has been inferred that genes for these enzymes were already present in the last common ancestor of the NCLDV. However, the details of the evolution of these genes that bear on the complexity of the putative ancestral NCLDV and on the evolutionary relationships between viruses and their hosts are not well understood. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-dependent and NAD-dependent DNA ligases encoded by the NCLDV reveals an unexpectedly complex evolutionary history. The NAD-dependent ligases are encoded only by a minority of NCLDV (including mimiviruses, some iridoviruses and entomopoxviruses but phylogenetic analysis clearly indicated that all viral NAD-dependent ligases are monophyletic. Combined with the topology of the NCLDV tree derived by consensus of trees for universally conserved genes suggests that this enzyme was represented in the ancestral NCLDV. Phylogenetic analysis of ATP-dependent ligases that are encoded by chordopoxviruses, most of the phycodnaviruses and Marseillevirus failed to demonstrate monophyly and instead revealed an unexpectedly complex evolutionary trajectory. The ligases of the majority of phycodnaviruses and Marseillevirus seem to have evolved from bacteriophage or bacterial homologs; the ligase of one phycodnavirus, Emiliana huxlei virus, belongs to the eukaryotic DNA ligase I branch; and ligases of chordopoxviruses unequivocally cluster with eukaryotic DNA ligase III. Conclusions Examination of phyletic patterns and phylogenetic analysis of DNA ligases of the NCLDV suggest that the common ancestor of the extant NCLDV encoded an NAD-dependent ligase that most likely was acquired from a bacteriophage at the early stages of evolution of eukaryotes. By contrast, ATP-dependent ligases from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources displaced the ancestral NAD

  16. Discovery and design of DNA and RNA ligase inhibitors in infectious microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Robert V.; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Members of the nucleotidyltransferase superfamily known as DNA and RNA ligases carry out the enzymatic process of polynucleotide ligation. These guardians of genomic integrity share a three-step ligation mechanism, as well as common core structural elements. Both DNA and RNA ligases have experienced a surge of recent interest as chemotherapeutic targets for the treatment of a range of diseases, including bacterial infection, cancer, and the diseases caused by the protozoan parasites known as trypanosomes. Objective In this review, we will focus on efforts targeting pathogenic microorganisms; specifically, bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligases, which are promising broad-spectrum antibiotic targets, and ATP-dependent RNA editing ligases from Trypanosoma brucei, the species responsible for the devastating neurodegenerative disease, African sleeping sickness. Conclusion High quality crystal structures of both NAD+-dependent DNA ligase and the Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing ligase have facilitated the development of a number of promising leads. For both targets, further progress will require surmounting permeability issues and improving selectivity and affinity. PMID:20354588

  17. Hairpin DNA probe based surface plasmon resonance biosensor used for the activity assay of E. coli DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Qingfen; Xue, Ying; Yao, Xin; Lu, Wu

    2010-02-01

    Using hairpin DNA probe self-structure change during DNA ligation process, a sensitive, label-free and simple method of E. coli DNA ligase assay via a home-built high-resolution surface plasmon resonance (SPR) instrument was developed. The DNA ligation process was monitored in real-time and the effects of single-base mutation on the DNA ligation process were investigated. Then an assay of E. coli DNA ligase was completed with a lower detection limit (0.6 nM), wider concentration range and better reproducibility. Moreover, the influence of Quinacrine on the activity of E. coli DNA ligase was also studied, which demonstrated that our method was useful for drug screening.

  18. Biochemical and structural characterization of DNA ligases from bacteria and archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Giulia; Wagner, Gerd K.; Bowater, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    DNA ligases are enzymes that seal breaks in the backbones of DNA, leading to them being essential for the survival of all organisms. DNA ligases have been studied from many different types of cells and organisms and shown to have diverse sizes and sequences, with well conserved specific sequences that are required for enzymatic activity. A significant number of DNA ligases have been isolated or prepared in recombinant forms and, here, we review their biochemical and structural characterization. All DNA ligases contain an essential lysine that transfers an adenylate group from a co-factor to the 5′-phosphate of the DNA end that will ultimately be joined to the 3′-hydroxyl of the neighbouring DNA strand. The essential DNA ligases in bacteria use β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD+) as their co-factor whereas those that are essential in other cells use adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) as their co-factor. This observation suggests that the essential bacterial enzyme could be targeted by novel antibiotics and the complex molecular structure of β-NAD+ affords multiple opportunities for chemical modification. Several recent studies have synthesized novel derivatives and their biological activity against a range of DNA ligases has been evaluated as inhibitors for drug discovery and/or non-natural substrates for biochemical applications. Here, we review the recent advances that herald new opportunities to alter the biochemical activities of these important enzymes. The recent development of modified derivatives of nucleotides highlights that the continued combination of structural, biochemical and biophysical techniques will be useful in targeting these essential cellular enzymes. PMID:27582505

  19. Plasmid containing a DNA ligase gene from Haemophilus influenzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, D.; Griffin, K.; Setlow, J.K.

    1984-05-01

    A ligase gene from Haemophilus influenzae was cloned into the shuttle vector pDM2. Although the plasmid did not affect X-ray sensitivity, it caused an increase in UV sensitivity of the wild-type but not excision-defective H. influenzae and a decrease in UV sensitivity of the rec-1 mutant. 14 references, 2 figures.

  20. Structural insight into β-Clamp and its interaction with DNA Ligase in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preeti; Tarique, Khaja Faisal; Mazumder, Mohit; Rehman, Syed Arif Abdul; Kumari, Nilima; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2016-08-08

    Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative and microaerophilic bacterium, is the major cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Owing to its central role, DNA replication machinery has emerged as a prime target for the development of antimicrobial drugs. Here, we report 2Å structure of β-clamp from H. pylori (Hpβ-clamp), which is one of the critical components of DNA polymerase III. Despite of similarity in the overall fold of eubacterial β-clamp structures, some distinct features in DNA interacting loops exists that have not been reported previously. The in silico prediction identified the potential binders of β-clamp such as alpha subunit of DNA pol III and DNA ligase with identification of β-clamp binding regions in them and validated by SPR studies. Hpβ-clamp interacts with DNA ligase in micromolar binding affinity. Moreover, we have successfully determined the co-crystal structure of β-clamp with peptide from DNA ligase (not reported earlier in prokaryotes) revealing the region from ligase that interacts with β-clamp.

  1. Broad nucleotide cofactor specificity of DNA ligase from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Hyperthermus butylicus and its evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Lee, Kang-Keun; Sun, Younguk; Seo, Gang-Jin; Cho, Sung Suk; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Kwon, Suk-Tae

    2013-05-01

    The nucleotide cofactor specificity of the DNA ligase from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Hyperthermus butylicus (Hbu) was studied to investigate the evolutionary relationship of DNA ligases. The Hbu DNA ligase gene was expressed under control of the T7lac promoter of pTARG in Escherichia coli BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)-RIL. The expressed enzyme was purified using the IMPACT™-CN system (intein-mediated purification with an affinity chitin-binding tag) and cation-ion (Arg-tag) chromatography. The optimal temperature for Hbu DNA ligase activity was 75 °C, and the optimal pH was 8.0 in Tris-HCl. The activity was highly dependent on MgCl2 or MnCl2 with maximal activity above 5 mM MgCl2 and 2 mM MnCl2. Notably, Hbu DNA ligase can use ADP and GTP in addition to ATP. The broad nucleotide cofactor specificity of Hbu DNA ligase might exemplify an undifferentiated ancestral stage in the evolution of DNA ligases. This study provides new evidence for possible evolutionary relationships among DNA ligases.

  2. Partial complementation of a DNA ligase I deficiency by DNA ligase III and its impact on cell survival and telomere stability in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Chalony, Catherine; Hoffschir, Françoise; Gauthier, Laurent R; Gross, Julia; Biard, Denis S; Boussin, François D; Pennaneach, Vincent

    2012-09-01

    DNA ligase I (LigI) plays a central role in the joining of strand interruptions during replication and repair. In our current study, we provide evidence that DNA ligase III (LigIII) and XRCC1, which form a complex that functions in single-strand break repair, are required for the proliferation of mammalian LigI-depleted cells. We show from our data that in cells with either dysfunctional LigI activity or depleted of this enzyme, both LigIII and XRCC1 are retained on the chromatin and accumulate at replication foci. We also demonstrate that the LigI and LigIII proteins cooperate to inhibit sister chromatid exchanges but that only LigI prevents telomere sister fusions. Taken together, these results suggest that in cells with dysfunctional LigI, LigIII contributes to the ligation of replication intermediates but not to the prevention of telomeric instability.

  3. Interaction of the Ku heterodimer with the DNA ligase IV/Xrcc4 complex and its regulation by DNA-PK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Silvia; Woodbine, Lisa; Andreoli, Lucia; Jeggo, Penny A; Vindigni, Alessandro

    2007-06-01

    DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a major mechanism for repairing DNA double-stranded (ds) breaks in mammalian cells. Here, we characterize the interaction between two key components of the NHEJ machinery, the Ku heterodimer and the DNA ligase IV/Xrcc4 complex. Our results demonstrate that Ku interacts with DNA ligase IV via its tandem BRCT domain and that this interaction is enhanced in the presence of Xrcc4 and dsDNA. Moreover, residues 644-748 of DNA ligase IV encompassing the first BRCT motif are necessary for binding. We show that Ku needs to be in its heterodimeric form to bind DNA ligase IV and that the C-terminal tail of Ku80, which mediates binding to DNA-PKcs, is dispensable for DNA ligase IV recognition. Although the interaction between Ku and DNA ligase IV/Xrcc4 occurs in the absence of DNA-PKcs, the presence of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK kinase enhances complex formation. Previous studies have shown that DNA-PK kinase activity causes disassembly of DNA-PKcs from Ku at the DNA end. Here, we show that DNA-PK kinase activity also results in disassembly of the Ku/DNA ligase IV/Xrcc4 complex. Collectively, our findings provide novel information on the protein-protein interactions that regulate NHEJ in cells.

  4. DNA damage induced by boron neutron capture therapy is partially repaired by DNA ligase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Natsuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Hirota, Yuki; Tanaka, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kinashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ohnishi, Takeo; Ono, Koji

    2016-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a particle radiation therapy that involves the use of a thermal or epithermal neutron beam in combination with a boron ((10)B)-containing compound that specifically accumulates in tumor. (10)B captures neutrons and the resultant fission reaction produces an alpha ((4)He) particle and a recoiled lithium nucleus ((7)Li). These particles have the characteristics of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and therefore have marked biological effects. High-LET radiation is a potent inducer of DNA damage, specifically of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of DNA ligase IV, a key player in the non-homologous end-joining repair pathway, in the repair of BNCT-induced DSBs. We analyzed the cellular sensitivity of the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines Lig4-/- p53-/- and Lig4+/+ p53-/- to irradiation using a thermal neutron beam in the presence or absence of (10)B-para-boronophenylalanine (BPA). The Lig4-/- p53-/- cell line had a higher sensitivity than the Lig4+/+ p53-/-cell line to irradiation with the beam alone or the beam in combination with BPA. In BNCT (with BPA), both cell lines exhibited a reduction of the 50 % survival dose (D 50) by a factor of 1.4 compared with gamma-ray and neutron mixed beam (without BPA). Although it was found that (10)B uptake was higher in the Lig4+/+ p53-/- than in the Lig4-/- p53-/- cell line, the latter showed higher sensitivity than the former, even when compared at an equivalent (10)B concentration. These results indicate that BNCT-induced DNA damage is partially repaired using DNA ligase IV.

  5. Effects of 2'-O-methyl nucleotide on ligation capability of T4 DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Tong, Zhaoxue; Zhao, Guojie; Mu, Runqing; Shang, Hong; Guan, Yifu

    2014-09-01

    To further understand the ligation mechanism, effects of 2'-O-methyl nucleotide (2'-OMeN) on the T4 DNA ligation efficiency were investigated. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay was used to monitor the nick-joining process by T4 DNA ligase. Results showed that substitutions at 5'- and 3'-ends of the nick decreased the ligation efficiency by 48.7% ± 6.7% and 70.6% ± 4.0%, respectively. Substitutions at both 5'- and 3'-ends decreased the ligation efficiency by 76.6% ± 1.3%. Corresponding kinetic parameters, Vmax, Km, and kcat, have been determined in each case by using the Michaelis-Menten equation. The kinetic data showed that the 2'-OMeN substitutions reduced the maximal initial velocity and increased the Michaelis constant of T4 DNA ligase. Mismatches at 5'- and 3'-ends of the nick have also shown different influences on the ligation. Results here showed that the sugar pucker conformation at 3'-end impairs the ligation efficiency more profoundly than that at 5'-end. Different concentrations of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), Na(+), and ATP were also demonstrated to affect the T4 DNA ligase activity. These results enriched our knowledge about the effects of 2'-OMeN substitutions on the T4 DNA ligase.

  6. A high-throughput assay for the comprehensive profiling of DNA ligase fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Gregory J S; Bauer, Robert J; Nichols, Nicole M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Evans, Thomas C

    2016-01-29

    DNA ligases have broad application in molecular biology, from traditional cloning methods to modern synthetic biology and molecular diagnostics protocols. Ligation-based detection of polynucleotide sequences can be achieved by the ligation of probe oligonucleotides when annealed to a complementary target sequence. In order to achieve a high sensitivity and low background, the ligase must efficiently join correctly base-paired substrates, while discriminating against the ligation of substrates containing even one mismatched base pair. In the current study, we report the use of capillary electrophoresis to rapidly generate mismatch fidelity profiles that interrogate all 256 possible base-pair combinations at a ligation junction in a single experiment. Rapid screening of ligase fidelity in a 96-well plate format has allowed the study of ligase fidelity in unprecedented depth. As an example of this new method, herein we report the ligation fidelity of Thermus thermophilus DNA ligase at a range of temperatures, buffer pH and monovalent cation strength. This screen allows the selection of reaction conditions that maximize fidelity without sacrificing activity, while generating a profile of specific mismatches that ligate detectably under each set of conditions.

  7. Use of adenylate kinase as a solubility tag for high level expression of T4 DNA ligase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Huang, Anliang; Luo, Dan; Liu, Haipeng; Han, Huzi; Xu, Yang; Liang, Peng

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of T4 DNA ligase in 1960s was pivotal in the spread of molecular biotechnology. The enzyme has become ubiquitous for recombinant DNA routinely practiced in biomedical research around the globe. Great efforts have been made to express and purify T4 DNA ligase to meet the world demand, yet over-expression of soluble T4 DNA ligase in E. coli has been difficult. Here we explore the use of adenylate kinase to enhance T4 DNA ligase expression and its downstream purification. E.coli adenylate kinase, which can be expressed in active form at high level, was fused to the N-terminus of T4 DNA ligase. The resulting His-tagged AK-T4 DNA ligase fusion protein was greatly over-expressed in E. coli, and readily purified to near homogeneity via two purification steps consisting of Blue Sepharose and Ni-NTA chromatography. The purified AK-T4 DNA ligase not only is fully active for DNA ligation, but also can use ADP in addition to ATP as energy source since adenylate kinase converts ADP to ATP and AMP. Thus adenylate kinase may be used as a solubility tag to facilitate recombinant protein expression as well as their downstream purification.

  8. Effective interaction studies for inhibition of DNA ligase protein from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Periyasamy; Daisy, Pitchai

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has been recognized as an important human pathogen for more than 100 years. It is among the most important causative agent of human infections in the twenty-first century. DNA ligase is the main protein responsible for the replication of S. aureus. In order to control the replication mechanism, DNA ligase is a successive drug target, hence we have chosen this protein for this study. We performed virtual screening using ZINC database for identification of potent inhibitor against DNA ligase. Based on the scoring methods, we have selected best five compounds from the ZINC database. In order to improve the accuracy, selected compounds were subjected into Quantum Polarized Ligand Docking (QPLD) docking, for which the results showed high docking score, compared to glide docking score. QPLD is more accurate as it includes charges in the scoring function, which was not available in the glide docking. Binding energy calculation results also indicated that selected compounds have good binding capacity with the target protein. In addition, these compounds on screening have good absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity property. In this study, we identified few compounds that particularly work against DNA ligase protein, having better interaction phenomenon and it would help further the experimental analysis.

  9. ATPase-Dependent Control of the Mms21 SUMO Ligase during DNA Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bermúdez-López (Marcelino); I. Pociño-Merino (Irene); H. Sanchez (Humberto); A. Bueno (Andrés); C. Guasch (Clàudia); S. Almedawar (Seba); S. Bru-Virgili (Sergi); E. Garí (Eloi); C. Wyman (Claire); D. Reverter (David); N. Colomina (Neus); J. Torres-Rosell (Jordi)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractModification of proteins by SUMO is essential for the maintenance of genome integrity. During DNA replication, the Mms21-branch of the SUMO pathway counteracts recombination intermediates at damaged replication forks, thus facilitating sister chromatid disjunction. The Mms21 SUMO ligase

  10. Identification of a specific inhibitor for DNA ligase I in human cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, S W; Becker, F. F.; Chan, J Y

    1992-01-01

    A protein inhibitor for human DNA ligase I has recently been identified. It was copurified with a fraction of the enzymes from HeLa cells through several steps of chromatography. The inhibitor was first identified by the absence of ligation activity of the associated enzyme, while it retained the ability to form the ligase-[32P]AMP adducts. The inhibitor was eluted as a single peak at approximately 0.25-0.30 M NaCl from a Mono S column. It inhibited the ligation of both double-stranded and si...

  11. Unexpected substrate specificity of T4 DNA ligase revealed by in vitro selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1993-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection techniques to characterize DNA sequences that are ligated efficiently by T4 DNA ligase. We find that the ensemble of selected sequences ligates about 50 times as efficiently as the random mixture of sequences used as the input for selection. Surprisingly many of the selected sequences failed to produce a match at or close to the ligation junction. None of the 20 selected oligomers that we sequenced produced a match two bases upstream from the ligation junction.

  12. Efficient in situ detection of mRNAs using the Chlorella virus DNA ligase for padlock probe ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nils; Meier, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    Padlock probes are single-stranded DNA molecules that are circularized upon hybridization to their target sequence by a DNA ligase. In the following, the circulated padlock probes are amplified and detected with fluorescently labeled probes complementary to the amplification product. The hallmark of padlock probe assays is a high detection specificity gained by the ligation reaction. Concomitantly, the ligation reaction is the largest drawback for a quantitative in situ detection of mRNAs due to the low affinities of common DNA or RNA ligases to RNA-DNA duplex strands. Therefore, current protocols require that mRNAs be reverse transcribed to DNA before detection with padlock probes. Recently, it was found that the DNA ligase from Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) is able to efficiently ligate RNA-splinted DNA. Hence, we designed a padlock probe assay for direct in situ detection of mRNAs using the PBCV-1 DNA ligase. Experimental single-cell data were used to optimize and characterize the efficiency of mRNA detection with padlock probes. Our results demonstrate that the PBCV-1 DNA ligase overcomes the efficiency limitation of current protocols for direct in situ mRNA detection, making the PBCV-1 DNA ligase an attractive tool to simplify in situ ligation sequencing applications.

  13. Solving the SAT problem using a DNA computing algorithm based on ligase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Jingjie; Wang, Shi; Zhan, Aibin

    2008-01-01

    A new DNA computing algorithm based on a ligase chain reaction is demonstrated to solve an SAT problem. The proposed DNA algorithm can solve an n-variable m-clause SAT problem in m steps and the computation time required is O (3m+n). Instead of generating the full-solution DNA library, we start with an empty test tube and then generate solutions that partially satisfy the SAT formula. These partial solutions are then extended step by step by the ligation of new variables using Taq DNA ligase. Correct strands are amplified and false strands are pruned by a ligase chain reaction (LCR) as soon as they fail to satisfy the conditions. If we score and sort the clauses, we can use this algorithm to markedly reduce the number of DNA strands required throughout the computing process. In a computer simulation, the maximum number of DNA strands required was 2(0.48n) when n=50, and the exponent ratio varied inversely with the number of variables n and the clause/variable ratio m/n. This algorithm is highly space-efficient and error-tolerant compared to conventional brute-force searching, and thus can be scaled-up to solve large and hard SAT problems.

  14. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria protects cells against oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial DNA base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott

    2014-01-01

    slower than the preceding mitochondrial BER steps. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria improved the rate of overall BER, increased cell survival after menadione induced oxidative stress and reduced autophagy following the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I...... by rotenone. Our results suggest that the amount of DNA ligase III in mitochondria may be critical for cell survival following prolonged oxidative stress, and demonstrate a functional link between mitochondrial DNA damage and repair, cell survival upon oxidative stress, and removal of dysfunctional......Base excision repair (BER) is the most prominent DNA repair pathway in human mitochondria. BER also results in a temporary generation of AP-sites, single-strand breaks and nucleotide gaps. Thus, incomplete BER can result in the generation of DNA repair intermediates that can disrupt mitochondrial...

  15. A plant DNA ligase is an important determinant of seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Masnavi, Ghzaleh; Bhardwaj, Rajni M; Jiang, Qing; Bray, Clifford M; West, Christopher E

    2010-09-01

    DNA repair is important for maintaining genome integrity. In plants, DNA damage accumulated in the embryo of seeds is repaired early in imbibition, and is important for germination performance and seed longevity. An essential step in most repair pathways is the DNA ligase-mediated rejoining of single- and double-strand breaks. Eukaryotes possess multiple DNA ligase enzymes, each having distinct roles in cellular metabolism. Here, we report the characterization of DNA LIGASE VI, which is only found in plant species. The primary structure of this ligase shows a unique N-terminal region that contains a β-CASP motif, which is found in a number of repair proteins, including the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor Artemis. Phenotypic analysis revealed a delay in the germination of atlig6 mutants compared with wild-type lines, and this delay becomes markedly exacerbated in the presence of the genotoxin menadione. Arabidopsis atlig6 and atlig6 atlig4 mutants display significant hypersensitivity to controlled seed ageing, resulting in delayed germination and reduced seed viability relative to wild-type lines. In addition, atlig6 and atlig6 atlig4 mutants display increased sensitivity to low-temperature stress, resulting in delayed germination and reduced seedling vigour upon transfer to standard growth conditions. Seeds display a rapid transcriptional DNA DSB response, which is activated in the earliest stages of water imbibition, providing evidence for the accumulation of cytotoxic DSBs in the quiescent seed. These results implicate AtLIG6 and AtLIG4 as major determinants of Arabidopsis seed quality and longevity.

  16. Efficient assembly of very short oligonucleotides using T4 DNA Ligase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Robert A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In principle, a pre-constructed library of all possible short oligonucleotides could be used to construct many distinct gene sequences. In order to assess the feasibility of such an approach, we characterized T4 DNA Ligase activity on short oligonucleotide substrates and defined conditions suitable for assembly of a plurality of oligonucleotides. Findings Ligation by T4 DNA Ligase was found to be dependent on the formation of a double stranded DNA duplex of at least five base pairs surrounding the site of ligation. However, ligations could be performed effectively with overhangs smaller than five base pairs and oligonucleotides as small as octamers, in the presence of a second, complementary oligonucleotide. We demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous oligonucleotide phosphorylation and ligation and, as a proof of principle for DNA synthesis through the assembly of short oligonucleotides, we performed a hierarchical ligation procedure whereby octamers were combined to construct a target 128-bp segment of the beta-actin gene. Conclusions Oligonucleotides as short as 8 nucleotides can be efficiently assembled using T4 DNA Ligase. Thus, the construction of synthetic genes, without the need for custom oligonucleotide synthesis, appears feasible.

  17. DNA ligase III promotes alternative nonhomologous end-joining during chromosomal translocation formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Deniz; Brunet, Erika; Wong, Sunnie Yan-Wai; Katyal, Sachin; Gao, Yankun; McKinnon, Peter J; Lou, Jacqueline; Zhang, Lei; Li, James; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C; Jasin, Maria

    2011-06-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the primary DNA repair pathway thought to underlie chromosomal translocations and other genomic rearrangements in somatic cells. The canonical NHEJ pathway, including DNA ligase IV (Lig4), suppresses genomic instability and chromosomal translocations, leading to the notion that a poorly defined, alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ) pathway generates these rearrangements. Here, we investigate the DNA ligase requirement of chromosomal translocation formation in mouse cells. Mammals have two other DNA ligases, Lig1 and Lig3, in addition to Lig4. As deletion of Lig3 results in cellular lethality due to its requirement in mitochondria, we used recently developed cell lines deficient in nuclear Lig3 but rescued for mitochondrial DNA ligase activity. Further, zinc finger endonucleases were used to generate DNA breaks at endogenous loci to induce translocations. Unlike with Lig4 deficiency, which causes an increase in translocation frequency, translocations are reduced in frequency in the absence of Lig3. Residual translocations in Lig3-deficient cells do not show a bias toward use of pre-existing microhomology at the breakpoint junctions, unlike either wild-type or Lig4-deficient cells, consistent with the notion that alt-NHEJ is impaired with Lig3 loss. By contrast, Lig1 depletion in otherwise wild-type cells does not reduce translocations or affect microhomology use. However, translocations are further reduced in Lig3-deficient cells upon Lig1 knockdown, suggesting the existence of two alt-NHEJ pathways, one that is biased toward microhomology use and requires Lig3 and a back-up pathway which does not depend on microhomology and utilizes Lig1.

  18. DNA ligase III promotes alternative nonhomologous end-joining during chromosomal translocation formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Simsek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ is the primary DNA repair pathway thought to underlie chromosomal translocations and other genomic rearrangements in somatic cells. The canonical NHEJ pathway, including DNA ligase IV (Lig4, suppresses genomic instability and chromosomal translocations, leading to the notion that a poorly defined, alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ pathway generates these rearrangements. Here, we investigate the DNA ligase requirement of chromosomal translocation formation in mouse cells. Mammals have two other DNA ligases, Lig1 and Lig3, in addition to Lig4. As deletion of Lig3 results in cellular lethality due to its requirement in mitochondria, we used recently developed cell lines deficient in nuclear Lig3 but rescued for mitochondrial DNA ligase activity. Further, zinc finger endonucleases were used to generate DNA breaks at endogenous loci to induce translocations. Unlike with Lig4 deficiency, which causes an increase in translocation frequency, translocations are reduced in frequency in the absence of Lig3. Residual translocations in Lig3-deficient cells do not show a bias toward use of pre-existing microhomology at the breakpoint junctions, unlike either wild-type or Lig4-deficient cells, consistent with the notion that alt-NHEJ is impaired with Lig3 loss. By contrast, Lig1 depletion in otherwise wild-type cells does not reduce translocations or affect microhomology use. However, translocations are further reduced in Lig3-deficient cells upon Lig1 knockdown, suggesting the existence of two alt-NHEJ pathways, one that is biased toward microhomology use and requires Lig3 and a back-up pathway which does not depend on microhomology and utilizes Lig1.

  19. DNA ligase III promotes alternative nonhomologous end-joining during chromosomal translocation formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Simsek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ is the primary DNA repair pathway thought to underlie chromosomal translocations and other genomic rearrangements in somatic cells. The canonical NHEJ pathway, including DNA ligase IV (Lig4, suppresses genomic instability and chromosomal translocations, leading to the notion that a poorly defined, alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ pathway generates these rearrangements. Here, we investigate the DNA ligase requirement of chromosomal translocation formation in mouse cells. Mammals have two other DNA ligases, Lig1 and Lig3, in addition to Lig4. As deletion of Lig3 results in cellular lethality due to its requirement in mitochondria, we used recently developed cell lines deficient in nuclear Lig3 but rescued for mitochondrial DNA ligase activity. Further, zinc finger endonucleases were used to generate DNA breaks at endogenous loci to induce translocations. Unlike with Lig4 deficiency, which causes an increase in translocation frequency, translocations are reduced in frequency in the absence of Lig3. Residual translocations in Lig3-deficient cells do not show a bias toward use of pre-existing microhomology at the breakpoint junctions, unlike either wild-type or Lig4-deficient cells, consistent with the notion that alt-NHEJ is impaired with Lig3 loss. By contrast, Lig1 depletion in otherwise wild-type cells does not reduce translocations or affect microhomology use. However, translocations are further reduced in Lig3-deficient cells upon Lig1 knockdown, suggesting the existence of two alt-NHEJ pathways, one that is biased toward microhomology use and requires Lig3 and a back-up pathway which does not depend on microhomology and utilizes Lig1.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA ligase IV supports imprecise end joining independently of its catalytic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore K Chiruvella

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA ligase IV (Dnl4 in budding yeast is a specialized ligase used in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Although point and truncation mutations arise in the human ligase IV syndrome, the roles of Dnl4 in DSB repair have mainly been examined using gene deletions. Here, Dnl4 catalytic point mutants were generated that were severely defective in auto-adenylation in vitro and NHEJ activity in vivo, despite being hyper-recruited to DSBs and supporting wild-type levels of Lif1 interaction and assembly of a Ku- and Lif1-containing complex at DSBs. Interestingly, residual levels of especially imprecise NHEJ were markedly higher in a deletion-based assay with Dnl4 catalytic mutants than with a gene deletion strain, suggesting a role of DSB-bound Dnl4 in supporting a mode of NHEJ catalyzed by a different ligase. Similarly, next generation sequencing of repair joints in a distinct single-DSB assay showed that dnl4-K466A mutation conferred a significantly different imprecise joining profile than wild-type Dnl4 and that such repair was rarely observed in the absence of Dnl4. Enrichment of DNA ligase I (Cdc9 in yeast at DSBs was observed in wild-type as well as dnl4 point mutant strains, with both Dnl4 and Cdc9 disappearing from DSBs upon 5' resection that was unimpeded by the presence of catalytically inactive Dnl4. These findings indicate that Dnl4 can promote mutagenic end joining independently of its catalytic activity, likely by a mechanism that involves Cdc9.

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA ligase IV supports imprecise end joining independently of its catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiruvella, Kishore K; Liang, Zhuobin; Birkeland, Shanda R; Basrur, Venkatesha; Wilson, Thomas E

    2013-06-01

    DNA ligase IV (Dnl4 in budding yeast) is a specialized ligase used in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Although point and truncation mutations arise in the human ligase IV syndrome, the roles of Dnl4 in DSB repair have mainly been examined using gene deletions. Here, Dnl4 catalytic point mutants were generated that were severely defective in auto-adenylation in vitro and NHEJ activity in vivo, despite being hyper-recruited to DSBs and supporting wild-type levels of Lif1 interaction and assembly of a Ku- and Lif1-containing complex at DSBs. Interestingly, residual levels of especially imprecise NHEJ were markedly higher in a deletion-based assay with Dnl4 catalytic mutants than with a gene deletion strain, suggesting a role of DSB-bound Dnl4 in supporting a mode of NHEJ catalyzed by a different ligase. Similarly, next generation sequencing of repair joints in a distinct single-DSB assay showed that dnl4-K466A mutation conferred a significantly different imprecise joining profile than wild-type Dnl4 and that such repair was rarely observed in the absence of Dnl4. Enrichment of DNA ligase I (Cdc9 in yeast) at DSBs was observed in wild-type as well as dnl4 point mutant strains, with both Dnl4 and Cdc9 disappearing from DSBs upon 5' resection that was unimpeded by the presence of catalytically inactive Dnl4. These findings indicate that Dnl4 can promote mutagenic end joining independently of its catalytic activity, likely by a mechanism that involves Cdc9.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA ligase is dispensable for the viability of cultured cells but essential for mtDNA maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokolenko, Inna N; Fayzulin, Rafik Z; Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J; Wilson, Glenn L; Alexeyev, Mikhail F

    2013-09-13

    Multiple lines of evidence support the notion that DNA ligase III (LIG3), the only DNA ligase found in mitochondria, is essential for viability in both whole organisms and in cultured cells. Previous attempts to generate cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA ligase failed. Here, we report, for the first time, the derivation of viable LIG3-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These cells lack mtDNA and are auxotrophic for uridine and pyruvate, which may explain the apparent lethality of the Lig3 knock-out observed in cultured cells in previous studies. Cells with severely reduced expression of LIG3 maintain normal mtDNA copy number and respiration but show reduced viability in the face of alkylating and oxidative damage, increased mtDNA degradation in response to oxidative damage, and slow recovery from mtDNA depletion. Our findings clarify the cellular role of LIG3 and establish that the loss of viability in LIG3-deficient cells is conditional and secondary to the ρ(0) phenotype.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA Ligase Is Dispensable for the Viability of Cultured Cells but Essential for mtDNA Maintenance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokolenko, Inna N.; Fayzulin, Rafik Z.; Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J.; Wilson, Glenn L.; Alexeyev, Mikhail F.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support the notion that DNA ligase III (LIG3), the only DNA ligase found in mitochondria, is essential for viability in both whole organisms and in cultured cells. Previous attempts to generate cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA ligase failed. Here, we report, for the first time, the derivation of viable LIG3-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These cells lack mtDNA and are auxotrophic for uridine and pyruvate, which may explain the apparent lethality of the Lig3 knock-out observed in cultured cells in previous studies. Cells with severely reduced expression of LIG3 maintain normal mtDNA copy number and respiration but show reduced viability in the face of alkylating and oxidative damage, increased mtDNA degradation in response to oxidative damage, and slow recovery from mtDNA depletion. Our findings clarify the cellular role of LIG3 and establish that the loss of viability in LIG3-deficient cells is conditional and secondary to the ρ0 phenotype. PMID:23884459

  4. Mapping and Use of a Sequence that Targets DNA Ligase I to Sites of DNA Replication In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, M. Cristina; Joseph, Cuthbert; Rahn, Hans-Peter; Reusch, Regina; Nadal-Ginard, Bernardo; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    1997-01-01

    The mammalian nucleus is highly organized, and nuclear processes such as DNA replication occur in discrete nuclear foci, a phenomenon often termed “functional organization” of the nucleus. We describe the identification and characterization of a bipartite targeting sequence (amino acids 1–28 and 111–179) that is necessary and sufficient to direct DNA ligase I to nuclear replication foci during S phase. This targeting sequence is located within the regulatory, NH2-terminal domain of the protei...

  5. Presequence-Independent Mitochondrial Import of DNA Ligase Facilitates Establishment of Cell Lines with Reduced mtDNA Copy Number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Spadafora

    Full Text Available Due to the essential role played by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in cellular physiology and bioenergetics, methods for establishing cell lines with altered mtDNA content are of considerable interest. Here, we report evidence for the existence in mammalian cells of a novel, low- efficiency, presequence-independent pathway for mitochondrial protein import, which facilitates mitochondrial uptake of such proteins as Chlorella virus ligase (ChVlig and Escherichia coli LigA. Mouse cells engineered to depend on this pathway for mitochondrial import of the LigA protein for mtDNA maintenance had severely (up to >90% reduced mtDNA content. These observations were used to establish a method for the generation of mouse cell lines with reduced mtDNA copy number by, first, transducing them with a retrovirus encoding LigA, and then inactivating in these transductants endogenous Lig3 with CRISPR-Cas9. Interestingly, mtDNA depletion to an average level of one copy per cell proceeds faster in cells engineered to maintain mtDNA at low copy number. This makes a low-mtDNA copy number phenotype resulting from dependence on mitochondrial import of DNA ligase through presequence-independent pathway potentially useful for rapidly shifting mtDNA heteroplasmy through partial mtDNA depletion.

  6. Presequence-Independent Mitochondrial Import of DNA Ligase Facilitates Establishment of Cell Lines with Reduced mtDNA Copy Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafora, Domenico; Kozhukhar, Natalia; Alexeyev, Mikhail F

    2016-01-01

    Due to the essential role played by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in cellular physiology and bioenergetics, methods for establishing cell lines with altered mtDNA content are of considerable interest. Here, we report evidence for the existence in mammalian cells of a novel, low- efficiency, presequence-independent pathway for mitochondrial protein import, which facilitates mitochondrial uptake of such proteins as Chlorella virus ligase (ChVlig) and Escherichia coli LigA. Mouse cells engineered to depend on this pathway for mitochondrial import of the LigA protein for mtDNA maintenance had severely (up to >90%) reduced mtDNA content. These observations were used to establish a method for the generation of mouse cell lines with reduced mtDNA copy number by, first, transducing them with a retrovirus encoding LigA, and then inactivating in these transductants endogenous Lig3 with CRISPR-Cas9. Interestingly, mtDNA depletion to an average level of one copy per cell proceeds faster in cells engineered to maintain mtDNA at low copy number. This makes a low-mtDNA copy number phenotype resulting from dependence on mitochondrial import of DNA ligase through presequence-independent pathway potentially useful for rapidly shifting mtDNA heteroplasmy through partial mtDNA depletion.

  7. Understanding and Engineering Thermostability in DNA Ligase from Thermococcus sp. 1519.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, Hassan Pezeshgi; Dorokhov, Boris D; Popov, Vladimir O; Ravin, Nikolai V; Skryabin, Konstantin G; Dal Peraro, Matteo

    2015-05-19

    The physical chemical principles underlying enzymatic thermostability are keys to understand the way evolution has shaped proteins to adapt to a broad range of temperatures. Understanding the molecular determinants at the basis of protein thermostability is also an important factor for engineering more thermoresistant enzymes to be used in the industrial setting, such as, for instance, DNA ligases, which are important for DNA replication and repair and have been long used in molecular biology and biotechnology. Here, we first address the origin of thermostability in the thermophilic DNA ligase from archaeon Thermococcus sp. 1519 and identify thermosensitive regions using molecular modeling and simulations. In addition, we predict mutations that can enhance thermostability of the enzyme through bioinformatics analyses. We show that thermosensitive regions of this enzyme are stabilized at higher temperatures by optimization of charged groups on the surface, and we predict that thermostability can be further increased by further optimization of the network among these charged groups. Engineering this DNA ligase by introducing selected mutations (i.e., A287K, G304D, S364I, and A387K) eventually produced a significant and additive increase in the half-life of the enzyme when compared to that of the wild type.

  8. Iduna is a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Yun-Il; Shin, Joo-Ho; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Chi, Zhikai; Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Lee, Yunjong; Ko, Han Seok; Lee, Byoung Dae; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin mediated protein degradation is crucial for regulation of cell signaling and protein quality control. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a cell-signaling molecule that mediates changes in protein function through binding at PAR binding sites. Here we characterize the PAR binding protein, Iduna, and show that it is a PAR-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase. Iduna’s E3 ligase activity requires PAR binding because point mutations at Y156A and R157A eliminate Iduna’s PAR binding and Iduna’s E3 ligase activity. Iduna’s E3 ligase activity also requires an intact really interesting new gene (RING) domain because Iduna possessing point mutations at either H54A or C60A is devoid of ubiquitination activity. Tandem affinity purification reveals that Iduna binds to a number of proteins that are either PARsylated or bind PAR including PAR polymerase-1, 2 (PARP1, 2), nucleolin, DNA ligase III, KU70, KU86, XRCC1, and histones. PAR binding to Iduna activates its E3 ligase function, and PAR binding is required for Iduna ubiquitination of PARP1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, and KU70. Iduna’s PAR-dependent ubiquitination of PARP1 targets it for proteasomal degradation. Via PAR binding and ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, Iduna protects against cell death induced by the DNA damaging agent N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and rescues cells from G1 arrest and promotes cell survival after γ-irradiation. Moreover, Iduna facilitates DNA repair by reducing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites after MNNG exposure and facilitates DNA repair following γ-irradiation as assessed by the comet assay. These results define Iduna as a PAR-dependent E3 ligase that regulates cell survival and DNA repair. PMID:21825151

  9. The Inhibitory Effect of Non-Substrate and Substrate DNA on the Ligation and Self-Adenylylation Reactions Catalyzed by T4 DNA Ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Bauer

    Full Text Available DNA ligases are essential both to in vivo replication, repair and recombination processes, and in vitro molecular biology protocols. Prior characterization of DNA ligases through gel shift assays has shown the presence of a nick site to be essential for tight binding between the enzyme and its dsDNA substrate, with no interaction evident on dsDNA lacking a nick. In the current study, we observed a significant substrate inhibition effect, as well as the inhibition of both the self-adenylylation and nick-sealing steps of T4 DNA ligase by non-nicked, non-substrate dsDNA. Inhibition by non-substrate DNA was dependent only on the total DNA concentration rather than the structure; with 1 μg/mL of 40-mers, 75-mers, or circular plasmid DNA all inhibiting ligation equally. A >15-fold reduction in T4 DNA ligase self-adenylylation rate when in the presence of high non-nicked dsDNA concentrations was observed. Finally, EMSAs were utilized to demonstrate that non-substrate dsDNA can compete with nicked dsDNA substrates for enzyme binding. Based upon these data, we hypothesize the inhibition of T4 DNA ligase by non-nicked dsDNA is direct evidence for a two-step nick-binding mechanism, with an initial, nick-independent, transient dsDNA-binding event preceding a transition to a stable binding complex in the presence of a nick site.

  10. The Inhibitory Effect of Non-Substrate and Substrate DNA on the Ligation and Self-Adenylylation Reactions Catalyzed by T4 DNA Ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert J; Evans, Thomas C; Lohman, Gregory J S

    2016-01-01

    DNA ligases are essential both to in vivo replication, repair and recombination processes, and in vitro molecular biology protocols. Prior characterization of DNA ligases through gel shift assays has shown the presence of a nick site to be essential for tight binding between the enzyme and its dsDNA substrate, with no interaction evident on dsDNA lacking a nick. In the current study, we observed a significant substrate inhibition effect, as well as the inhibition of both the self-adenylylation and nick-sealing steps of T4 DNA ligase by non-nicked, non-substrate dsDNA. Inhibition by non-substrate DNA was dependent only on the total DNA concentration rather than the structure; with 1 μg/mL of 40-mers, 75-mers, or circular plasmid DNA all inhibiting ligation equally. A >15-fold reduction in T4 DNA ligase self-adenylylation rate when in the presence of high non-nicked dsDNA concentrations was observed. Finally, EMSAs were utilized to demonstrate that non-substrate dsDNA can compete with nicked dsDNA substrates for enzyme binding. Based upon these data, we hypothesize the inhibition of T4 DNA ligase by non-nicked dsDNA is direct evidence for a two-step nick-binding mechanism, with an initial, nick-independent, transient dsDNA-binding event preceding a transition to a stable binding complex in the presence of a nick site.

  11. Successful bone marrow transplantation in a patient with DNA ligase IV deficiency and bone marrow failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechtold Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA Ligase IV deficiency syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by hypomorphic mutations in the DNA ligase IV gene (LIG4. The clinical phenotype shows overlap with a number of other rare syndromes, including Seckel syndrome, Nijmegen breakage syndrome, and Fanconi anemia. Thus the clinical diagnosis is often delayed and established by exclusion. Methods We describe a patient with pre- and postnatal growth retardation and dysmorphic facial features in whom the diagnoses of Seckel-, Dubowitz-, and Nijmegen breakage syndrome were variably considered. Cellular radiosensitivity in the absence of clinical manifestations of Ataxia telangiectasia lead to the diagnosis of DNA ligase IV (LIG4 deficiency syndrome, confirmed by compound heterozygous mutations in the LIG4 gene. At age 11, after a six year history of progressive bone marrow failure and increasing transfusion dependency the patient was treated with matched sibling donor hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT using a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen without irradiation. Results The post-transplantation course was uneventful with rapid engraftment leading to complete and stable chimerism. Now at age 16, the patient has gained weight and is in good clinical condition. Conclusion HSCT using mild conditioning without irradiation qualifies as treatment of choice in LIG4-deficient patients who have a matched sibling donor.

  12. Inhibiting Mitochondrial DNA Ligase IIIα Activates Caspase 1-Dependent Apoptosis in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmyr, Annahita; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Roginskaya, Vera; Van Houten, Bennett; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2016-09-15

    Elevated levels of DNA ligase IIIα (LigIIIα) have been identified as a biomarker of an alteration in DNA repair in cancer cells that confers hypersensitivity to a LigIIIα inhibitor, L67, in combination with a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor. Because LigIIIα functions in the nucleus and mitochondria, we examined the effect of L67 on these organelles. Here, we show that, although the DNA ligase inhibitor selectively targets mitochondria, cancer and nonmalignant cells respond differently to disruption of mitochondrial DNA metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial LigIIIα in cancer cells resulted in abnormal mitochondrial morphology, reduced levels of mitochondrial DNA, and increased levels of mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species that caused nuclear DNA damage. In contrast, these effects did not occur in nonmalignant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial LigIIIα activated a caspase 1-dependent apoptotic pathway, which is known to be part of inflammatory responses induced by pathogenic microorganisms in cancer, but not nonmalignant cells. These results demonstrate that the disruption of mitochondrial DNA metabolism elicits different responses in nonmalignant and cancer cells and suggests that the abnormal response in cancer cells may be exploited in the development of novel therapeutic strategies that selectively target cancer cells. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5431-41. ©2016 AACR.

  13. The α2 helix in the DNA ligase IV BRCT-1 domain is required for targeted degradation of ligase IV during adenovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Timra; Greer, Amy E; Vindigni, Alessandro; Ketner, Gary; Hanakahi, Leslyn A

    2012-07-05

    In adenovirus E4 mutant infections, viral DNAs form concatemers through a process that requires host Non-homologous End Joining (NHEJ) proteins including DNA Ligase IV (LigIV). Adenovirus proteins E4 34k and E1b 55k form the substrate-selection component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase and prevent concatenation by targeting LigIV for proteasomal degradation. The mechanisms and sites involved in targeting this and other E3 ligase substrates generally are poorly-understood. Through genetic analysis, we identified the α2 helix of one LigIV BRCT domain (BRCT-1) as essential for adenovirus-mediated degradation. Replacement of the BRCT domain of DNA ligase III (LigIII), which is resistant to degradation, with LigIV BRCT-1 does not promote degradation. A humanized mouse LigIV that possesses a BRCT-1 α2 helix identical to the human protein, like its parent, is also resistant to adenovirus-mediated degradation. Thus, both the BRCT-1 α2 helix and an element outside BRCT-1 are required for adenovirus-mediated degradation of LigIV.

  14. [The applications of thermostable ligase chain reaction in facilitating DNA recombination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangda, Zhou; Xiao, Song; Cong, Huai; Haiyan, Sun; Hongyan, Chen; Daru, Lu

    2016-02-01

    The traditional Type Ⅱ restriction enzyme-based method is restricted by the purification steps, and therefore, cannot be applied to specific DNA assembly in chaotic system. To solve this problem, Thermostable Ligase Chain Reaction (TLCR) was introduced in the process of DNA assembly and capture. This technique combines the feature of thermostable DNA ligase and sequence specific oligo ligation template, "Helper", to achieve specific assembly of target fragments and exponential increase of products in multiple thermocyclings. Two plasmid construction experiments were carried out in order to test the feasibility and practical performance of TLCR. One was that, TLCR was used to specifically capture a 1.5 kb fragment into vector from an unpurified chaotic system which contained 7 different sizes of fragments. The results showed that the capturing accuracy was around 80%, which proved the feasibility and accuracy of using TLCR to specific assembly of DNA fragments in a complicated mixed system. In the other experiment, TLCR was used to capture two fragments (total length was 27 kb) from Hind Ⅲ digestion of Lambda genome into vector by order. The results also showed an accuracy of around 80%. As demonstrated in the results, TLCR can simplify the process of DNA recombination experiments and is suitable for the assembly of multiple and large DNA fragments. This technique can provide convenience to biological experiments.

  15. Biochemical characterisation of LigN, an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii that displays maximal in vitro activity at high salt concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poidevin, L.; MacNeill, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background DNA ligases are required for DNA strand joining in all forms of cellular life. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found primarily in eubacteria but also in some eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage and archaea. Among the archaeal NAD+-dependent DNA ligases is the LigN enzyme of the halophilic...... euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, the gene for which was apparently acquired by Hfx.volcanii through lateral gene transfer (LGT) from a halophilic eubacterium. Genetic studies show that the LGT-acquired LigN enzyme shares an essential function with the native Hfx.volcanii ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein Lig...

  16. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria protects cells against oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial DNA base excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mansour; Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Desler, Claus; Hickson, Ian D; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2014-04-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the most prominent DNA repair pathway in human mitochondria. BER also results in a temporary generation of AP-sites, single-strand breaks and nucleotide gaps. Thus, incomplete BER can result in the generation of DNA repair intermediates that can disrupt mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription and generate mutations. We carried out BER analysis in highly purified mitochondrial extracts from human cell lines U2OS and HeLa, and mouse brain using a circular DNA substrate containing a lesion at a specific position. We found that DNA ligation is significantly slower than the preceding mitochondrial BER steps. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria improved the rate of overall BER, increased cell survival after menadione induced oxidative stress and reduced autophagy following the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I by rotenone. Our results suggest that the amount of DNA ligase III in mitochondria may be critical for cell survival following prolonged oxidative stress, and demonstrate a functional link between mitochondrial DNA damage and repair, cell survival upon oxidative stress, and removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy.

  17. Naphthalimides Selectively Inhibit the Activity of Bacterial, Replicative DNA Ligases and Display Bactericidal Effects against Tubercle Bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Korycka-Machala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The DNA ligases, enzymes that seal breaks in the backbones of DNA, are essential for all organisms, however bacterial ligases essential for DNA replication use β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as their co-factor, whereas those that are essential in eukaryotes and viruses use adenosine-5′-triphosphate. This fact leads to the conclusion that NAD+-dependent DNA ligases in bacteria could be targeted by their co-factor specific inhibitors. The development of novel alternative medical strategies, including new drugs, are a top priority focus areas for tuberculosis research due to an increase in the number of multi-drug resistant as well as totally drug resistant tubercle bacilli strains. Here, through the use of a virtual high-throughput screen and manual inspection of the top 200 records, 23 compounds were selected for in vitro studies. The selected compounds were evaluated in respect to their Mycobacterium tuberculosis NAD+ DNA ligase inhibitory effect by a newly developed assay based on Genetic Analyzer 3500 Sequencer. The most effective agents (e.g., pinafide, mitonafide inhibited the activity of M. tuberculosis NAD+-dependent DNA ligase A at concentrations of 50 µM. At the same time, the ATP-dependent (phage DNA LigT4 was unaffected by the agents at concentrations up to 2 mM. The selected compounds appeared to also be active against actively growing tubercle bacilli in concentrations as low as 15 µM.

  18. ATP-dependent DNA ligase from Thermococcus sp. 1519 displays a new arrangement of the OB-fold domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T; Bezsudnova, E Y; Boyko, K M; Mardanov, A V; Polyakov, K M; Volkov, V V; Kozin, M; Ravin, N V; Shabalin, I G; Skryabin, K G; Stekhanova, T N; Kovalchuk, M V; Popov, V O

    2012-12-01

    DNA ligases join single-strand breaks in double-stranded DNA by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond between adjacent 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl termini. Their function is essential for maintaining genome integrity in the replication, recombination and repair of DNA. High flexibility is important for the function of DNA ligase molecules. Two types of overall conformations of archaeal DNA ligase that depend on the relative position of the OB-fold domain have previously been revealed: closed and open extended conformations. The structure of ATP-dependent DNA ligase from Thermococcus sp. 1519 (LigTh1519) in the crystalline state determined at a resolution of 3.02 Å shows a new relative arrangement of the OB-fold domain which is intermediate between the positions of this domain in the closed and the open extended conformations of previously determined archaeal DNA ligases. However, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements indicate that in solution the LigTh1519 molecule adopts either an open extended conformation or both an intermediate and an open extended conformation with the open extended conformation being dominant.

  19. Effects of DNA end configuration on XRCC4-DNA ligase IV and its stimulation of Artemis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerodimos, Christina A; Chang, Howard H Y; Watanabe, Go; Lieber, Michael R

    2017-08-25

    In humans, nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway by which DNA double-strand breaks are repaired. Recognition of each broken DNA end by the DNA repair protein Ku is the first step in NHEJ, followed by the iterative binding of nucleases, DNA polymerases, and the XRCC4-DNA ligase IV (X4-LIV) complex in an order influenced by the configuration of the two DNA ends at the break site. The endonuclease Artemis improves joining efficiency by functioning in a complex with DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) that carries out endonucleolytic cleavage of 5' and 3' overhangs. Previously, we observed that X4-LIV alone can stimulate Artemis activity on 3' overhangs, but this DNA-PKcs-independent endonuclease activity of Artemis awaited confirmation. Here, using in vitro nuclease and ligation assays, we find that stimulation of Artemis nuclease activity by X4-LIV and the efficiency of blunt-end ligation are determined by structural configurations at the DNA end. Specifically, X4-LIV stimulated Artemis to cut near the end of 3' overhangs without the involvement of other NHEJ proteins. Of note, this ligase complex is not able to stimulate Artemis activity at hairpins or at 5' overhangs. We also found that X4-LIV and DNA-PKcs interfere with one another with respect to stimulating Artemis activity at 3' overhangs, favoring the view that these NHEJ proteins are sequentially rather than concurrently recruited to DNA ends. These data suggest specific functional and positional relationships among these components that explain genetic and molecular features of NHEJ and V(D)J recombination within cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. DNA ligase IV as a new molecular target for temozolomide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Natsuko [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa; Mori, Eiichiro; Ohnishi, Ken [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); McKinnon, Peter J. [Department of Genetics and Tumor Cell Biology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Sakaki, Toshisuke; Nakase, Hiroyuki [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Takeo, E-mail: tohnishi@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is a methylating agent used in chemotherapy against glioblastoma. This work was designed to clarify details in repair pathways acting to remove DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by TMZ. Cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts were used which were deficient in DSB repair genes such as homologous recombination repair-related genes X-ray repair cross-complementing group 2 (XRCC2)and radiation sensitive mutant54 (Rad54), non-homologous end joining repair-related gene DNAligase IV (Lig4). Cell sensitivity to drug treatments was assessed using colony forming assays. The most effective molecular target which was correlated with TMZ cell sensitivity was Lig4. In addition, it was found that small interference RNAs (siRNA) for Lig4 efficiently enhanced cell lethality induced by TMZ in human glioblastoma A172 cells. These findings suggest that down regulation of Lig4 might provide a useful tool for cell sensitization during TMZ chemotherapy.

  1. Regulation of inter- and intramolecular ligation with T4 DNA ligase in the presence of polyethylene glycol.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, K.; NAKAZAWA, M.; Ishizaki, Y; Hiraoka, N.; Obayashi, A

    1986-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) stimulates ligation with T4 DNA ligase. In 10% (w/v) PEG 6,000 solutions, only intermolecular ligation is enhanced by monovalent cations, while both inter- and intramolecular ligation occur without their presence. Similar stimulation was also caused by divalent cations or polyamines in the PEG 6,000 solutions. Such properties of the ligase could be applied to control the extent of inter- and intramolecular ligation. Ligation with cations or polyamines in 10% PEG 6,00...

  2. Ligation reaction specificities of an NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase from the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, J; Barany, F; Cao, W

    2000-03-15

    An NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The enzyme is most active in slightly alkaline pH conditions with either Mg(2+)or Mn(2+)as the metal cofactor. Ca(2+)and Ni(2+)mainly support formation of DNA-adenylate intermediates. The catalytic cycle is characterized by a low k (cat)value of 2 min(-1)with concomitant accumulation of the DNA - adenylate intermediate when Mg(2+)is used as the metal cofactor. The ligation rates of matched substrates vary by up to 4-fold, but exhibit a general trend of T/A ligation reaction is reaffirmed by results from 1 nt insertions on either the 3'- or 5'-side of the nick. Furthermore, most of the unligatable 3' mismatched base pairs prohibit formation of the DNA-adenylate intermediate, indicating that the substrate adenylation step is also a control point for ligation fidelity. Unlike previously studied ATP ligases, gapped substrates cannot be ligated and intermediate accumulation is minimal, suggesting that complete elimination of base pair complementarity on one side of the nick affects substrate adenylation on the 5'-side of the nick junction. Relationships among metal cofactors, ligation products and intermediate, and ligation fidelity are discussed.

  3. Distinct kinetics of human DNA ligases I, IIIalpha, IIIbeta, and IV reveal direct DNA sensing ability and differential physiological functions in DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Ballin, Jeff D.; Della-Maria, Julie; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; White, Elizabeth J.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2009-05-11

    The three human LIG genes encode polypeptides that catalyze phosphodiester bond formation during DNA replication, recombination and repair. While numerous studies have identified protein partners of the human DNA ligases (hLigs), there has been little characterization of the catalytic properties of these enzymes. In this study, we developed and optimized a fluorescence-based DNA ligation assay to characterize the activities of purified hLigs. Although hLigI joins DNA nicks, it has no detectable activity on linear duplex DNA substrates with short, cohesive single-strand ends. By contrast, hLigIII{beta} and the hLigIII{alpha}/XRCC1 and hLigIV/XRCC4 complexes are active on both nicked and linear duplex DNA substrates. Surprisingly, hLigIV/XRCC4, which is a key component of the major non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, is significantly less active than hLigIII on a linear duplex DNA substrate. Notably, hLigIV/XRCC4 molecules only catalyze a single ligation event in the absence or presence of ATP. The failure to catalyze subsequent ligation events reflects a defect in the enzyme-adenylation step of the next ligation reaction and suggests that, unless there is an in vivo mechanism to reactivate DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 following phosphodiester bond formation, the cellular NHEJ capacity will be determined by the number of adenylated DNA ligaseIV/XRCC4 molecules.

  4. Template-directed ligation of tethered mononucleotides by t4 DNA ligase for kinase ribozyme selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Nickens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro selection of kinase ribozymes for small molecule metabolites, such as free nucleosides, will require partition systems that discriminate active from inactive RNA species. While nucleic acid catalysis of phosphoryl transfer is well established for phosphorylation of 5' or 2' OH of oligonucleotide substrates, phosphorylation of diffusible small molecules has not been demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study demonstrates the ability of T4 DNA ligase to capture RNA strands in which a tethered monodeoxynucleoside has acquired a 5' phosphate. The ligation reaction therefore mimics the partition step of a selection for nucleoside kinase (deoxyribozymes. Ligation with tethered substrates was considerably slower than with nicked, fully duplex DNA, even though the deoxynucleotides at the ligation junction were Watson-Crick base paired in the tethered substrate. Ligation increased markedly when the bridging template strand contained unpaired spacer nucleotides across from the flexible tether, according to the trends: A(2>A(1>A(3>A(4>A(0>A(6>A(8>A(10 and T(2>T(3>T(4>T(6 approximately T(1>T(8>T(10. Bridging T's generally gave higher yield of ligated product than bridging A's. ATP concentrations above 33 microM accumulated adenylated intermediate and decreased yields of the gap-sealed product, likely due to re-adenylation of dissociated enzyme. Under optimized conditions, T4 DNA ligase efficiently (>90% joined a correctly paired, or TratioG wobble-paired, substrate on the 3' side of the ligation junction while discriminating approximately 100-fold against most mispaired substrates. Tethered dC and dG gave the highest ligation rates and yields, followed by tethered deoxyinosine (dI and dT, with the slowest reactions for tethered dA. The same kinetic trends were observed in ligase-mediated capture in complex reaction mixtures with multiple substrates. The "universal" analog 5-nitroindole (dNI did not support ligation when

  5. DNA ligase C1 mediates the LigD-independent nonhomologous end-joining pathway of Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Hitesh; Gupta, Richa; Glickman, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a recently described bacterial DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that has been best characterized for mycobacteria. NHEJ can religate transformed linear plasmids, repair ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells, and seal I-SceI-induced chromosomal DSBs. The core components of the mycobacterial NHEJ machinery are the DNA end binding protein Ku and the polyfunctional DNA ligase LigD. LigD has three autonomous enzymatic modules: ATP-dependent DNA ligase (LIG), DNA/RNA polymerase (POL), and 3' phosphoesterase (PE). Although genetic ablation of ku or ligD abolishes NHEJ and sensitizes nonreplicating cells to ionizing radiation, selective ablation of the ligase activity of LigD in vivo only mildly impairs NHEJ of linearized plasmids, indicating that an additional DNA ligase can support NHEJ. Additionally, the in vivo role of the POL and PE domains in NHEJ is unclear. Here we define a LigD ligase-independent NHEJ pathway in Mycobacterium smegmatis that requires the ATP-dependent DNA ligase LigC1 and the POL domain of LigD. Mycobacterium tuberculosis LigC can also support this backup NHEJ pathway. We also demonstrate that, although dispensable for efficient plasmid NHEJ, the activities of the POL and PE domains are required for repair of IR-induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells. These findings define the genetic requirements for a LigD-independent NHEJ pathway in mycobacteria and demonstrate that all enzymatic functions of the LigD protein participate in NHEJ in vivo.

  6. E1B 55k-independent dissociation of the DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 complex by E4 34k during adenovirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The ligase IV/XRCC4 complex plays a central role in DNA double-strand break repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). During adenovirus infection, NHEJ is inhibited by viral proteins E4 34k and E1B 55k, which redirect the Cul5/Rbx1/Elongin BC ubiquitin E3 ligase to polyubiquitinate and promote degradation of ligase IV. In cells infected with E1B 55k-deficient adenovirus, ligase IV could not be found in XRCC4-containing complexes and was observed in a novel ligase IV/E4 34k/Cul5/Elongin BC ...

  7. Sealing of chromosomal DNA nicks during nucleotide excision repair requires XRCC1 and DNA ligase III alpha in a cell-cycle-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, Jill; Kool, Hanneke; Giakzidis, Ioannis; Caldecott, Keith; Mullenders, Leon H. F.; Fousteri, Maria I.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired gap filling and sealing of chromosomal DNA in nucleotide excision repair (NER) leads to genome instability. XRCC1-DNA ligase III alpha (XRCC1-Lig3) plays a central role in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks but has never been implicated in NER. Here we show that XRCC1-Lig3 is indispensa

  8. Sealing of chromosomal DNA nicks during nucleotide excision repair requires XRCC1 and DNA ligase III alpha in a cell-cycle-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, Jill; Kool, Hanneke; Giakzidis, Ioannis; Caldecott, Keith; Mullenders, Leon H. F.; Fousteri, Maria I.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired gap filling and sealing of chromosomal DNA in nucleotide excision repair (NER) leads to genome instability. XRCC1-DNA ligase III alpha (XRCC1-Lig3) plays a central role in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks but has never been implicated in NER. Here we show that XRCC1-Lig3 is

  9. An alternative splicing event which occurs in mouse pachytene spermatocytes generates a form of DNA ligase III with distinct biochemical properties that may function in meiotic recombination.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Z B; Ramos, W; Levin, D. S.; Walter, C. A.; McCarrey, J R; Tomkinson, A E

    1997-01-01

    Three mammalian genes encoding DNA ligases have been identified. However, the role of each of these enzymes in mammalian DNA metabolism has not been established. In this study, we show that two forms of mammalian DNA ligase III, alpha and beta, are produced by a conserved tissue-specific alternative splicing mechanism involving exons encoding the C termini of the polypeptides. DNA ligase III-alpha cDNA, which encodes a 103-kDa polypeptide, is expressed in all tissues and cells, whereas DNA li...

  10. Real Estate in the DNA Damage Response: Ubiquitin and SUMO Ligases Home in on DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantuma, Nico P; Pfeiffer, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO are intimately connected with the cellular response to various types of DNA damage. A striking feature is the local accumulation of these proteinaceous post-translational modifications in the direct vicinity to DNA double-strand breaks, which plays a critical role in the formation of ionizing radiation-induced foci. The functional significance of these modifications is the coordinated recruitment and removal of proteins involved in DNA damage signaling and repair in a timely manner. The central orchestrators of these processes are the ubiquitin and SUMO ligases that are responsible for accurately tagging a broad array of chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins thereby changing their behavior or destination. Despite many differences in the mode of action of these enzymes, they share some striking features that are of direct relevance for their function in the DNA damage response. In this review, we outline the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the recruitment of ubiquitin and SUMO ligases and discuss the importance of chromatin proximity in this process.

  11. Biochemical characterisation of LigN, an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii that displays maximal in vitro activity at high salt concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poidevin, L.; MacNeill, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background DNA ligases are required for DNA strand joining in all forms of cellular life. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found primarily in eubacteria but also in some eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage and archaea. Among the archaeal NAD+-dependent DNA ligases is the LigN enzyme of the halophilic...... euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, the gene for which was apparently acquired by Hfx.volcanii through lateral gene transfer (LGT) from a halophilic eubacterium. Genetic studies show that the LGT-acquired LigN enzyme shares an essential function with the native Hfx.volcanii ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein Lig......A. Results To characterise the enzymatic properties of the LigN protein, wild-type and three mutant forms of the LigN protein were separately expressed in recombinant form in E.coli and purified to apparent homogeneity by immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). Non-isotopic DNA ligase activity...

  12. Up-regulation of WRN and DNA ligase IIIalpha in chronic myeloid leukemia: consequences for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmyr, Annahita; Tomkinson, Alan E; Rassool, Feyruz V

    2008-08-15

    Expression of oncogenic BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) results in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) that in turn cause increased DNA damage, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We have previously shown increased error-prone repair of DSBs by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) in CML cells. Recent reports have identified alternative NHEJ pathways that are highly error prone, prompting us to examine the role of the alternative NHEJ pathways in BCR-ABL-positive CML. Importantly, we show that key proteins in the major NHEJ pathway, Artemis and DNA ligase IV, are down-regulated, whereas DNA ligase IIIalpha, and the protein deleted in Werner syndrome, WRN, are up-regulated. DNA ligase IIIalpha and WRN form a complex that is recruited to DSBs in CML cells. Furthermore, "knockdown" of either DNA ligase IIIalpha or WRN leads to increased accumulation of unrepaired DSBs, demonstrating that they contribute to the repair of DSBs. These results indicate that altered DSB repair in CML cells is caused by the increased activity of an alternative NHEJ repair pathway, involving DNA ligase IIIalpha and WRN. We suggest that, although the repair of ROS-induced DSBs by this pathway contributes to the survival of CML cells, the resultant genomic instability drives disease progression.

  13. Structural Basis of DNA Ligase IV-Artemis Interaction in Nonhomologous End-Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo De Ioannes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA ligase IV (LigIV and Artemis are central components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ machinery that is required for V(DJ recombination and the maintenance of genomic integrity in mammalian cells. We report here crystal structures of the LigIV DNA binding domain (DBD in both its apo form and in complex with a peptide derived from the Artemis C-terminal region. We show that LigIV interacts with Artemis through an extended hydrophobic surface. In particular, we find that the helix α2 in LigIV-DBD is longer than in other mammalian ligases and presents residues that specifically interact with the Artemis peptide, which adopts a partially helical conformation on binding. Mutations of key residues on the LigIV-DBD hydrophobic surface abolish the interaction. Together, our results provide structural insights into the specificity of the LigIV-Artemis interaction and how the enzymatic activities of the two proteins may be coordinated during NHEJ.

  14. Structural basis of DNA ligase IV-Artemis interaction in nonhomologous end-joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ioannes, Pablo; Malu, Shruti; Cortes, Patricia; Aggarwal, Aneel K

    2012-12-27

    DNA ligase IV (LigIV) and Artemis are central components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) machinery that is required for V(D)J recombination and the maintenance of genomic integrity in mammalian cells. We report here crystal structures of the LigIV DNA binding domain (DBD) in both its apo form and in complex with a peptide derived from the Artemis C-terminal region. We show that LigIV interacts with Artemis through an extended hydrophobic surface. In particular, we find that the helix α2 in LigIV-DBD is longer than in other mammalian ligases and presents residues that specifically interact with the Artemis peptide, which adopts a partially helical conformation on binding. Mutations of key residues on the LigIV-DBD hydrophobic surface abolish the interaction. Together, our results provide structural insights into the specificity of the LigIV-Artemis interaction and how the enzymatic activities of the two proteins may be coordinated during NHEJ. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Orchestration of the DNA-damage response by the RNF8 ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolas, Nadine K; Chapman, J Ross; Nakada, Shinichiro; Ylanko, Jarkko; Chahwan, Richard; Sweeney, Frédéric D; Panier, Stephanie; Mendez, Megan; Wildenhain, Jan; Thomson, Timothy M; Pelletier, Laurence; Jackson, Stephen P; Durocher, Daniel

    2007-12-07

    Cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks by recruiting factors such as the DNA-damage mediator protein MDC1, the p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), and the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA1 to sites of damaged DNA. Here, we reveal that the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 mediates ubiquitin conjugation and 53BP1 and BRCA1 focal accumulation at sites of DNA lesions. Moreover, we establish that MDC1 recruits RNF8 through phosphodependent interactions between the RNF8 forkhead-associated domain and motifs in MDC1 that are phosphorylated by the DNA-damage activated protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We also show that depletion of the E2 enzyme UBC13 impairs 53BP1 recruitment to sites of damage, which suggests that it cooperates with RNF8. Finally, we reveal that RNF8 promotes the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint and resistance to ionizing radiation. These results demonstrate how the DNA-damage response is orchestrated by ATM-dependent phosphorylation of MDC1 and RNF8-mediated ubiquitination.

  16. DNA ligase IV and artemis act cooperatively to suppress homologous recombination in human cells: implications for DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Aya; Saito, Shinta; So, Sairei; Hashimoto, Mitsumasa; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Watabe, Haruka; Adachi, Noritaka

    2013-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are two major pathways for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); however, their respective roles in human somatic cells remain to be elucidated. Here we show using a series of human gene-knockout cell lines that NHEJ repairs nearly all of the topoisomerase II- and low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage, while it negatively affects survival of cells harbouring replication-associated DSBs. Intriguingly, we find that loss of DNA ligase IV, a critical NHEJ ligase, and Artemis, an NHEJ factor with endonuclease activity, independently contribute to increased resistance to replication-associated DSBs. We also show that loss of Artemis alleviates hypersensitivity of DNA ligase IV-null cells to low-dose radiation- and topoisomerase II-induced DSBs. Finally, we demonstrate that Artemis-null human cells display increased gene-targeting efficiencies, particularly in the absence of DNA ligase IV. Collectively, these data suggest that DNA ligase IV and Artemis act cooperatively to promote NHEJ, thereby suppressing HR. Our results point to the possibility that HR can only operate on accidental DSBs when NHEJ is missing or abortive, and Artemis may be involved in pathway switching from incomplete NHEJ to HR.

  17. DNA ligase IV and artemis act cooperatively to suppress homologous recombination in human cells: implications for DNA double-strand break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Kurosawa

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ and homologous recombination (HR are two major pathways for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; however, their respective roles in human somatic cells remain to be elucidated. Here we show using a series of human gene-knockout cell lines that NHEJ repairs nearly all of the topoisomerase II- and low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage, while it negatively affects survival of cells harbouring replication-associated DSBs. Intriguingly, we find that loss of DNA ligase IV, a critical NHEJ ligase, and Artemis, an NHEJ factor with endonuclease activity, independently contribute to increased resistance to replication-associated DSBs. We also show that loss of Artemis alleviates hypersensitivity of DNA ligase IV-null cells to low-dose radiation- and topoisomerase II-induced DSBs. Finally, we demonstrate that Artemis-null human cells display increased gene-targeting efficiencies, particularly in the absence of DNA ligase IV. Collectively, these data suggest that DNA ligase IV and Artemis act cooperatively to promote NHEJ, thereby suppressing HR. Our results point to the possibility that HR can only operate on accidental DSBs when NHEJ is missing or abortive, and Artemis may be involved in pathway switching from incomplete NHEJ to HR.

  18. Altered regulation of DNA ligase IV activity by aberrant promoter DNA methylation and gene amplification in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhmann, Christine; Li, Carmen; Kloor, Matthias; Salou, Mariam; Weigel, Christoph; Schmidt, Christopher R; Ng, Linda W C; Tsui, Wendy W Y; Leung, Suet Y; Yuen, Siu T; Becker, Natalia; Weichenhan, Dieter; Plass, Christoph; Schmezer, Peter; Chan, Tsun L; Popanda, Odilia

    2014-04-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) presents as a very heterogeneous disease which cannot sufficiently be characterized with the currently known genetic and epigenetic markers. To identify new markers for CRC we scrutinized the methylation status of 231 DNA repair-related genes by methyl-CpG immunoprecipitation followed by global methylation profiling on a CpG island microarray, as altered expression of these genes could drive genomic and chromosomal instability observed in these tumors. We show for the first time hypermethylation of MMP9, DNMT3A and LIG4 in CRC which was confirmed in two CRC patient groups with different ethnicity. DNA ligase IV (LIG4) showed strong differential promoter methylation (up to 60%) which coincided with downregulation of mRNA in 51% of cases. This functional association of LIG4 methylation and gene expression was supported by LIG4 re-expression in 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-treated colon cancer cell lines, and reduced ligase IV amounts and end-joining activity in extracts of tumors with hypermethylation. Methylation of LIG4 was not associated with other genetic and epigenetic markers of CRC in our study. As LIG4 is located on chromosome 13 which is frequently amplified in CRC, two loci were tested for gene amplification in a subset of 47 cases. Comparison of amplification, methylation and expression data revealed that, in 30% of samples, the LIG4 gene was amplified and methylated, but expression was not changed. In conclusion, hypermethylation of the LIG4 promoter is a new mechanism to control ligase IV expression. It may represent a new epigenetic marker for CRC independent of known markers.

  19. Combination of DNA ligase reaction and gold nanoparticle-quenched fluorescent oligonucleotides: a simple and efficient approach for fluorescent assaying of single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Jishan; Wang, Yongxiang; Jin, Jiangyu; Yang, Ronghua; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

    2010-09-15

    A new fluorescent sensing approach for detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is proposed based on the ligase reaction and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs)-quenched fluorescent oligonucleotides. The design exploits the strong fluorescence quenching of AuNPs for organic dyes and the difference in noncovalent interactions of the nanoparticles with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), where ssDNA can be adsorbed onto the surface of AuNPs while dsDNA cannot be. In the assay, two half primer DNA probes, one being labeled with a dye and the other being phosphorylated, were first incubated with a target DNA template. In the presence of DNA ligase, the two captured ssDNAs are linked for the perfectly matched DNA target to form a stable duplex, but the duplex could not be formed by the single-base mismatched DNA template. After addition of AuNPs, the fluorescence of dye-tagged DNA probe will be efficiently quenched unless the perfectly matched DNA target is present. To demonstrate the feasibility of this design, the performance of SNP detection using two different DNA ligases, T4 DNA ligase and Escherichia coli DNA ligase, were investigated. In the case of T4 DNA ligase, the signal enhancement of the dye-tagged DNA for perfectly matched DNA target is 4.6-fold higher than that for the single-base mismatched DNA. While in the presence of E. coli DNA ligase, the value raises to be 30.2, suggesting excellent capability for SNP discrimination.

  20. Escape from Telomere-Driven Crisis Is DNA Ligase III Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon E. Jones

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Short dysfunctional telomeres are capable of fusion, generating dicentric chromosomes and initiating breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Cells that escape the ensuing cellular crisis exhibit large-scale genomic rearrangements that drive clonal evolution and malignant progression. We demonstrate that there is an absolute requirement for fully functional DNA ligase III (LIG3, but not ligase IV (LIG4, to facilitate the escape from a telomere-driven crisis. LIG3- and LIG4-dependent alternative (A and classical (C nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ pathways were capable of mediating the fusion of short dysfunctional telomeres, both displaying characteristic patterns of microhomology and deletion. Cells that failed to escape crisis exhibited increased proportions of C-NHEJ-mediated interchromosomal fusions, whereas those that escaped displayed increased proportions of intrachromosomal fusions. We propose that the balance between inter- and intrachromosomal telomere fusions dictates the ability of human cells to escape crisis and is influenced by the relative activities of A- and C-NHEJ at short dysfunctional telomeres.

  1. Chronic Replication Problems Impact Cell Morphology and Adhesion of DNA Ligase I Defective Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cremaschi

    Full Text Available Moderate DNA damage resulting from metabolic activities or sub-lethal doses of exogenous insults may eventually lead to cancer onset. Human 46BR.1G1 cells bear a mutation in replicative DNA ligase I (LigI which results in low levels of replication-dependent DNA damage. This replication stress elicits a constitutive phosphorylation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM checkpoint kinase that fails to arrest cell cycle progression or to activate apoptosis or cell senescence. Stable transfection of wild type LigI, as in 7A3 cells, prevents DNA damage and ATM activation. Here we show that parental 46BR.1G1 and 7A3 cells differ in important features such as cell morphology, adhesion and migration. Comparison of gene expression profiles in the two cell lines detects Bio-Functional categories consistent with the morphological and migration properties of LigI deficient cells. Interestingly, ATM inhibition makes 46BR.1G1 more similar to 7A3 cells for what concerns morphology, adhesion and expression of cell-cell adhesion receptors. These observations extend the influence of the DNA damage response checkpoint pathways and unveil a role for ATM kinase activity in modulating cell biology parameters relevant to cancer progression.

  2. Chronic Replication Problems Impact Cell Morphology and Adhesion of DNA Ligase I Defective Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschi, Paolo; Oliverio, Matteo; Leva, Valentina; Bione, Silvia; Carriero, Roberta; Mazzucco, Giulia; Palamidessi, Andrea; Scita, Giorgio; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Montecucco, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Moderate DNA damage resulting from metabolic activities or sub-lethal doses of exogenous insults may eventually lead to cancer onset. Human 46BR.1G1 cells bear a mutation in replicative DNA ligase I (LigI) which results in low levels of replication-dependent DNA damage. This replication stress elicits a constitutive phosphorylation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase that fails to arrest cell cycle progression or to activate apoptosis or cell senescence. Stable transfection of wild type LigI, as in 7A3 cells, prevents DNA damage and ATM activation. Here we show that parental 46BR.1G1 and 7A3 cells differ in important features such as cell morphology, adhesion and migration. Comparison of gene expression profiles in the two cell lines detects Bio-Functional categories consistent with the morphological and migration properties of LigI deficient cells. Interestingly, ATM inhibition makes 46BR.1G1 more similar to 7A3 cells for what concerns morphology, adhesion and expression of cell-cell adhesion receptors. These observations extend the influence of the DNA damage response checkpoint pathways and unveil a role for ATM kinase activity in modulating cell biology parameters relevant to cancer progression.

  3. Mutations of Asp540 and the domain-connecting residues synergistically enhance Pyrococcus furiosus DNA ligase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Maiko; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Nishida, Hirokazu

    2014-01-21

    The structure of Pyrococcus furiosus DNA ligase (PfuLig), which architecturally resembles human DNA ligase I (hLigI), revealed that the C-terminal helix stabilizes the closed conformation through several ionic interactions between two domains (adenylylation domain (AdD) and C-terminal OB-fold domain (OBD)). This helix is oriented differently in DNA-bound hLigI, suggesting that the disruption of its interactions with AdD facilitates DNA binding. Previously, we demonstrated that the replacement of Asp540 with arginine improves the ligation activity. Here we report that the combination of the Asp540-replacement and the elimination of ionic residues in the helix, forming interactions with AdD, effectively enhanced the activity.

  4. Mutational Analysis of Bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA Ligase:Role of Motif Ⅳ in Ligation Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong FENG

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial DNA ligase as a multiple domain protein is involved in DNA replication, repair and recombination. Its catalysis of ligation can be divided into three steps. To delineate the roles of amino acid residues in motif Ⅳ in ligation catalysis, site-directed mutants were constructed in a bacterial NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from Thermus sp. TAK16D. It was shown that four conserved residues (D286, G287, V289 and K291) in motif Ⅳ had significant roles on the overall ligation. Under single turnover conditions, the observed apparent rates of D286E, G287A, V289I and K291R mutants were clearly reduced compared with that of WT ligase on both match and mismatch nicked substrates. The effects of D286E mutation on overall ligation may not only be ascribed to the third step. The G287A mutation has a major effect on the second step. The effects of V289I and K291R mutation on overall ligation are not on the third step, perhaps other aspects, such as conformation change of ligase protein in ligation catalysis, are involved. Moreover, the amino acid substitutions of above four residues were more sensitive on mismatch nicked substrate, indicating an enhanced ligation fidelity.

  5. The C-Terminal Domain of Yeast PCNA Is Required for Physical And Functional Interactions With Cdc9 DNA Ligase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Chapados, B.R.; Schmidt, K.H.; Kolodner, R.D.; Tainer, J.A.; Tomkinson, A.E.

    2007-07-13

    There is compelling evidence that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA sliding clamp, co-ordinates the processing and joining of Okazaki fragments during eukaryotic DNA replication. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of functional PCNA:ligase I interactions has been incomplete. Here we present the co-crystal structure of yeast PCNA with a peptide encompassing the conserved PCNA interaction motif of Cdc9, yeast DNA ligase I. The Cdc9 peptide contacts both the inter-domain connector loop (IDCL) and residues near the C-terminus of PCNA. Complementary mutational and biochemical results demonstrate that these two interaction interfaces are required for complex formation both in the absence of DNA and when PCNA is topologically linked to DNA. Similar to the functionally homologous human proteins, yeast RFC interacts with and inhibits Cdc9 DNA ligase whereas the addition of PCNA alleviates inhibition by RFC. Here we show that the ability of PCNA to overcome RFC-mediated inhibition of Cdc9 is dependent upon both the IDCL and the C-terminal interaction interfaces of PCNA. Together these results demonstrate the functional significance of the {beta}-zipper structure formed between the C-terminal domain of PCNA and Cdc9 and reveal differences in the interactions of FEN-1 and Cdc9 with the two PCNA interfaces that may contribute to the coordinated, sequential action of these enzymes.

  6. E1B 55k-independent dissociation of the DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 complex by E4 34k during adenovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Sumithra; Gilson, Timra; Ehrlich, Elana S; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Ketner, Gary; Hanakahi, Les

    2008-12-20

    The ligase IV/XRCC4 complex plays a central role in DNA double-strand break repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). During adenovirus infection, NHEJ is inhibited by viral proteins E4 34k and E1B 55k, which redirect the Cul5/Rbx1/Elongin BC ubiquitin E3 ligase to polyubiquitinate and promote degradation of ligase IV. In cells infected with E1B 55k-deficient adenovirus, ligase IV could not be found in XRCC4-containing complexes and was observed in a novel ligase IV/E4 34k/Cul5/Elongin BC complex. These observations suggest that dissociation of the ligase IV/XRCC4 complex occurs at an early stage in E4 34k-mediated degradation of ligase IV and indicate a role for E4 34k in dissociation of the ligase IV/XRCCC4 complex. Expression of E4 34k alone was not sufficient to dissociate the ligase IV/XRCC4 complex, which indicates a requirement for an additional, as yet unidentified, factor in E1B 55k-independent dissociation of the ligase IV/XRCC4 complex.

  7. Sensitive detection of point mutation by electrochemiluminescence and DNA ligase-based assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huijuan; Wu, Baoyan

    2008-12-01

    The technology of single-base mutation detection plays an increasingly important role in diagnosis and prognosis of genetic-based diseases. Here we reported a new method for the analysis of point mutations in genomic DNA through the integration of allele-specific oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) with magnetic beads-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection scheme. In this assay the tris(bipyridine) ruthenium (TBR) labeled probe and the biotinylated probe are designed to perfectly complementary to the mutant target, thus a ligation can be generated between those two probes by Taq DNA Ligase in the presence of mutant target. If there is an allele mismatch, the ligation does not take place. The ligation products are then captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads, and detected by measuring the ECL signal of the TBR label. Results showed that the new method held a low detection limit down to 10 fmol and was successfully applied in the identification of point mutations from ASTC-α-1, PANC-1 and normal cell lines in codon 273 of TP53 oncogene. In summary, this method provides a sensitive, cost-effective and easy operation approach for point mutation detection.

  8. Structure-Based Virtual Ligand Screening on the XRCC4/DNA Ligase IV Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchon, Grégory; Bombarde, Oriane; Trivedi, Mansi; Négrel, Aurélie; Inard, Cyril; Giudetti, Brigitte; Baltas, Michel; Milon, Alain; Modesti, Mauro; Czaplicki, Georges; Calsou, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The association of DNA Ligase IV (Lig4) with XRCC4 is essential for repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in humans. DSBs cytotoxicity is largely exploited in anticancer therapy. Thus, NHEJ is an attractive target for strategies aimed at increasing the sensitivity of tumors to clastogenic anticancer treatments. However the high affinity of the XRCC4/Lig4 interaction and the extended protein-protein interface make drug screening on this target particularly challenging. Here, we conducted a pioneering study aimed at interfering with XRCC4/Lig4 assembly. By Molecular Dynamics simulation using the crystal structure of the complex, we first delineated the Lig4 clamp domain as a limited suitable target. Then, we performed in silico screening of ~95,000 filtered molecules on this Lig4 subdomain. Hits were evaluated by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry, Saturation Transfer Difference - NMR spectroscopy and interaction assays with purified recombinant proteins. In this way we identified the first molecule able to prevent Lig4 binding to XRCC4 in vitro. This compound has a unique tripartite interaction with the Lig4 clamp domain that suggests a starting chemotype for rational design of analogous molecules with improved affinity.

  9. DNA Ligase IV Guides End-Processing Choice during Nonhomologous End Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Conlin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ must adapt to diverse end structures during repair of chromosome breaks. Here, we investigate the mechanistic basis for this flexibility. DNA ends are aligned in a paired-end complex (PEC by Ku, XLF, XRCC4, and DNA ligase IV (LIG4; we show by single-molecule analysis how terminal mispairs lead to mobilization of ends within PECs and consequent sampling of more end-alignment configurations. This remodeling is essential for direct ligation of damaged and mispaired ends during cellular NHEJ, since remodeling and ligation of such ends both require a LIG4-specific structural motif, insert1. Insert1 is also required for PEC remodeling that enables nucleolytic processing when end structures block direct ligation. Accordingly, cells expressing LIG4 lacking insert1 are sensitive to ionizing radiation. Cellular NHEJ of diverse ends thus identifies the steps necessary for repair through LIG4-mediated sensing of differences in end structure and consequent dynamic remodeling of aligned ends.

  10. Loss of the bloom syndrome helicase increases DNA ligase 4-independent genome rearrangements and tumorigenesis in aging Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria; Salomon, Robert N; Witsell, Alice; Liepkalns, Justine; Calder, R Brent; Lee, Moonsook; Lundell, Martha; Vijg, Jan; McVey, Mitch

    2011-12-19

    The BLM DNA helicase plays a vital role in maintaining genome stability. Mutations in BLM cause Bloom syndrome, a rare disorder associated with cancer predisposition and premature aging. Humans and mice with blm mutations have increased frequencies of spontaneous mutagenesis, but the molecular basis of this increase is not well understood. In addition, the effect of aging on spontaneous mutagenesis in blm mutants has not been characterized. To address this, we used a lacZ reporter system in wild-type and several mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster to analyze mechanisms of mutagenesis throughout their lifespan. Our data show that Drosophila lacking BLM have an elevated frequency of spontaneous genome rearrangements that increases with age. Although in normal flies most genome rearrangements occur through DNA ligase 4-dependent classical end joining, most rearrangements that accumulate during aging in blm mutants do not require DNA ligase 4, suggesting the influence of an alternative end-joining mechanism. Adult blm mutants also display reduced lifespan and ligase 4-independent enhanced tumorigenesis in mitotically active tissues. These results suggest that Drosophila BLM suppresses error-prone alternative end-joining repair of DNA double-strand breaks that can result in genome instability and tumor formation during aging. In addition, since loss of BLM significantly affects lifespan and tumorigenesis, the data provide a link between error-prone end joining, genome rearrangements, and tumor formation in a model metazoan.

  11. Rad51 and RecA juxtapose dsDNA ends ready for DNA ligase-catalyzed end-joining under recombinase-suppressive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konomura, Naoto; Arai, Naoto; Shinohara, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Iwasaki, Wakana; Ikawa, Shukuko; Kusano, Kohji; Shibata, Takehiko

    2017-01-09

    RecA-family recombinase-catalyzed ATP-dependent homologous joint formation is critical for homologous recombination, in which RecA or Rad51 binds first to single-stranded (ss)DNA and then interacts with double-stranded (ds)DNA. However, when RecA or Rad51 interacts with dsDNA before binding to ssDNA, the homologous joint-forming activity of RecA or Rad51 is quickly suppressed. We found that under these and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-generating suppressive conditions for the recombinase activity, RecA or Rad51 at similar optimal concentrations enhances the DNA ligase-catalyzed dsDNA end-joining (DNA ligation) about 30- to 40-fold. The DNA ligation enhancement by RecA or Rad51 transforms most of the substrate DNA into multimers within 2-5 min, and for this enhancement, ADP is the common and best cofactor. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is effective for RecA, but not for Rad51. Rad51/RecA-enhanced DNA ligation depends on dsDNA-binding, as shown by a mutant, and is independent of physical interactions with the DNA ligase. These observations demonstrate the common and unique activities of RecA and Rad51 to juxtapose dsDNA-ends in preparation for covalent joining by a DNA ligase. This new in vitro function of Rad51 provides a simple explanation for our genetic observation that Rad51 plays a role in the fidelity of the end-joining of a reporter plasmid DNA, by yeast canonical non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in vivo.

  12. Phosphorylated Sp1 is the regulator of DNA-PKcs and DNA ligase IV transcription of daunorubicin-resistant leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yayoi; Mizutani, Naoki; Inoue, Minami; Omori, Yukari; Tamiya-Koizumi, Keiko; Takagi, Akira; Kojima, Tetsuhito; Suzuki, Motoshi; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Minami, Yosuke; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Naoe, Tomoki; Murate, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious problem faced in the treatment of malignant tumors. In this study, we characterized the expression of non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) components, a major DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanism in mammals, in K562 cell and its daunorubicin (DNR)-resistant subclone (K562/DNR). K562/DNR overexpressed major enzymes of NHEJ, DNA-PKcs and DNA ligase IV, and K562/DNR repaired DSB more rapidly than K562 after DNA damage by neocarzinostatin (MDR1-independent radiation-mimetic). Overexpressed DNA-PKcs and DNA ligase IV were also observed in DNR-resistant HL60 (HL60/DNR) cells as compared with parental HL60 cells. Expression level of DNA-PKcs mRNA paralleled its protein level, and the promoter activity of DNA-PKcs of K562/DNR was higher than that of K562, and the 5'-region between -49bp and the first exon was important for its activity. Because this region is GC-rich, we tried to suppress Sp1 family transcription factor using mithramycin A (MMA), a specific Sp1 family inhibitor, and siRNAs for Sp1 and Sp3. Both MMA and siRNAs suppressed DNA-PKcs expression. Higher serine-phosphorylated Sp1 but not total Sp1 of both K562/DNR and HL60/DNR was observed compared with their parental K562 and HL60 cells. DNA ligase IV expression of K562/DNR was also suppressed significantly with Sp1 family protein inhibition. EMSA and ChIP assay confirmed higher binding of Sp1 and Sp3 with DNA-PKcs 5'-promoter region of DNA-PKcs of K562/DNR than that of K562. Thus, the Sp1 family transcription factor affects important NHEJ component expressions in anti-cancer drug-resistant malignant cells, leading to the more aggressive MDR phenotype.

  13. Molecular characterization of NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from Wolbachia endosymbiont of lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi.

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    Nidhi Shrivastava

    Full Text Available The lymphatic filarial parasite, Brugia malayi contains Wolbachia endobacteria that are essential for development, viability and fertility of the parasite. Therefore, wolbachial proteins have been currently seen as the potential antifilarial drug targets. NAD(+-dependent DNA ligase is characterized as a promising drug target in several organisms due to its crucial, indispensable role in DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of NAD(+-dependent DNA ligase of Wolbachia endosymbiont of B. malayi (wBm-LigA for its molecular characterization. wBm-LigA has all the domains that are present in nearly all the eubacterial NAD(+-dependent DNA ligases such as N-terminal adenylation domain, OB fold, helix-hairpin-helix (HhH and BRCT domain except zinc-binding tetracysteine domain. The purified recombinant protein (683-amino acid was found to be biochemically active and was present in its native form as revealed by the circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra. The purified recombinant enzyme was able to catalyze intramolecular strand joining on a nicked DNA as well as intermolecular joining of the cohesive ends of BstEII restricted lamda DNA in an in vitro assay. The enzyme was localized in the various life-stages of B. malayi parasites by immunoblotting and high enzyme expression was observed in Wolbachia within B. malayi microfilariae and female adult parasites along the hypodermal chords and in the gravid portion as evident by the confocal microscopy. Ours is the first report on this enzyme of Wolbachia and these findings would assist in validating the antifilarial drug target potential of wBm-LigA in future studies.

  14. Methylation of DNA Ligase 1 by G9a/GLP Recruits UHRF1 to Replicating DNA and Regulates DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Laure; Fournier, Alexandra; Tsusaka, Takeshi; Adelmant, Guillaume; Shimazu, Tadahiro; Matano, Shohei; Kirsh, Olivier; Amouroux, Rachel; Dohmae, Naoshi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Filion, Guillaume J; Deng, Wen; de Dieuleveult, Maud; Fritsch, Lauriane; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Jeltsch, Albert; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Hajkova, Petra; Marto, Jarrod A; Arita, Kyohei; Shinkai, Yoichi; Defossez, Pierre-Antoine

    2017-08-17

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic mark in mammals that has to be re-established after each round of DNA replication. The protein UHRF1 is essential for this process; it has been proposed that the protein targets newly replicated DNA by cooperatively binding hemi-methylated DNA and H3K9me2/3, but this model leaves a number of questions unanswered. Here, we present evidence for a direct recruitment of UHRF1 by the replication machinery via DNA ligase 1 (LIG1). A histone H3K9-like mimic within LIG1 is methylated by G9a and GLP and, compared with H3K9me2/3, more avidly binds UHRF1. Interaction with methylated LIG1 promotes the recruitment of UHRF1 to DNA replication sites and is required for DNA methylation maintenance. These results further elucidate the function of UHRF1, identify a non-histone target of G9a and GLP, and provide an example of a histone mimic that coordinates DNA replication and DNA methylation maintenance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Mre11/human Rad50/Nbs1 and DNA ligase IIIalpha/XRCC1 protein complexes act together in an alternative nonhomologous end joining pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Maria, Julie; Zhou, Yi; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Kuhnlein, Jeff; Carney, James P; Paull, Tanya T; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2011-09-30

    Recent studies have implicated a poorly defined alternative pathway of nonhomologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) in the generation of large deletions and chromosomal translocations that are frequently observed in cancer cells. Here, we describe an interaction between two factors, hMre11/hRad50/Nbs1 (MRN) and DNA ligase IIIα/XRCC1, that have been linked with alt-NHEJ. Expression of DNA ligase IIIα and the association between MRN and DNA ligase IIIα/XRCC1 are altered in cell lines defective in the major NHEJ pathway. Most notably, DNA damage induced the association of these factors in DNA ligase IV-deficient cells. MRN interacts with DNA ligase IIIα/XRCC1, stimulating intermolecular ligation, and together these proteins join incompatible DNA ends in a reaction that mimics alt-NHEJ. Thus, our results provide novel mechanistic insights into the alt-NHEJ pathway that not only contributes to genome instability in cancer cells but may also be a therapeutic target.

  16. A High-Fidelity Codon Set for the T4 DNA Ligase-Catalyzed Polymerization of Modified Oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yi; Kong, Dehui; Hili, Ryan

    2015-12-14

    In vitro selection of nucleic acid polymers can readily deliver highly specific receptors and catalysts for a variety of applications; however, it is suspected that the functional group deficit of nucleic acids has limited their potential with respect to proteinogenic polymers. This has stimulated research toward expanding their chemical diversity to bridge the functional gap between nucleic acids and proteins to develop a superior biopolymer. In this study, we investigate the effect of codon library size and composition on the sequence specificity of T4 DNA ligase in the DNA-templated polymerization of both unmodified and modified oligonucleotides. Using high-throughput DNA sequencing of duplex pairs, we have uncovered a 256-membered codon set that yields sequence-defined modified ssDNA polymers in high yield and with high fidelity.

  17. Biochemical characterisation of LigN, an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase from the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii that displays maximal in vitro activity at high salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacNeill Stuart A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA ligases are required for DNA strand joining in all forms of cellular life. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found primarily in eubacteria but also in some eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage and archaea. Among the archaeal NAD+-dependent DNA ligases is the LigN enzyme of the halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, the gene for which was apparently acquired by Hfx.volcanii through lateral gene transfer (LGT from a halophilic eubacterium. Genetic studies show that the LGT-acquired LigN enzyme shares an essential function with the native Hfx.volcanii ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein LigA. Results To characterise the enzymatic properties of the LigN protein, wild-type and three mutant forms of the LigN protein were separately expressed in recombinant form in E.coli and purified to apparent homogeneity by immobilised metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. Non-isotopic DNA ligase activity assays using λ DNA restriction fragments with 12 bp cos cohesive ends were used to show that LigN activity was dependent on addition of divalent cations and salt. No activity was detected in the absence of KCl, whereas maximum activity could be detected at 3.2 M KCl, close to the intracellular KCl concentration of Hfx.volcanii cells. Conclusion LigN is unique amongst characterised DNA ligase enzymes in displaying maximal DNA strand joining activity at high (> 3 M salt levels. As such the LigN enzyme has potential both as a novel tool for biotechnology and as a model enzyme for studying the adaptation of proteins to high intracellular salt levels.

  18. The α-thio and/or β-γ-hypophosphate analogs of ATP as cofactors of T4 DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Roza; Korczynski, Dariusz; Nawrot, Barbara; Stec, Wojciech J; Chworos, Arkadiusz

    2016-08-01

    T4 DNA ligase is one of the most commonly used enzymes for in vitro molecular research and a useful model for testing the ligation mechanism of ATP-dependent DNA ligation. To better understand the influence of phosphate group modifications in the ligation process, a series of ATP analogs were tested as cofactors. P-diastereomers of newly developed β,γ-hypo-ATPαS (thio) and β,γ-hypo-ATP (oxo) were synthesized and their activity was compared to ATPαS and their natural precursors. The evaluation of presented ATP analogs revealed the importance of the α-phosphate stereogenic center in ATPαS for the T4 DNA ligase activity and sheds new light on the interaction between ATP-dependent DNA ligases and cofactors.

  19. 真核生物DNA连接酶Ⅲ的功能演化%Functional evolution of Eukaryote DNA ligase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳春艳; 盛自章; 黄京飞

    2012-01-01

    DNA连接酶Ⅲ被认为只存在于脊椎动物,并在细胞核DNA的修复和线粒体DNA的复制和修复过程中发挥功能.虽然近来有关于无脊椎动物中存在着DNA连接酶Ⅲ的报道,但其功能演化及在无脊椎动物中的分布仍不清楚.为进一步探讨DNA连接酶Ⅲ的功能演化,进行了数据库搜索、线粒体定位信号(MLS)预测和功能位点保守性分析等.研究结果显示:DNA连接酶Ⅲ在变形虫、动物界和领鞭毛虫中广泛存在,但其在真菌界等发生整个蛋白或部分结构域的丢失;很多物种的DNA连接酶Ⅲ不含线粒体定位信号,因此,它们不太可能在线粒体中发挥作用,而参与细胞核DNA的修复是DNA连接酶Ⅲ较为古老和保守的功能.%Previous studies revealed that DNA ligase III was restricted to vertebrates and functioned in nucleus DNA repair and mitochondria DNA replication and repair. Although recent researches have reported that DNA ligase m is also found in non-vertebrates, little attention has been devoted to the distribution and functional evolution of DNA ligase III. To probe the functional evolution of DNA ligase III , database searches, mitochondrial localization signal prediction (MLS) and functional conservation analysis were performed. The results show that, DNA ligase III can be observed in amoebozoa, metazoa and choanoflagellates, but the whole protein or some domains are lost in some species including fungi. The MLS prediction analysis suggests that, the DNA ligase III in many species can not function in mitochondria, and is consequently less likely to play a role for DNA ligase III in mitochondria. The conservation analyses of functional site demonstrate that nucleus DNA repair is an ancient and conserved function of DNA ligase III.

  20. Dynamic in vivo interaction of DDB2 E3 ubiquitin ligase with UV-damaged DNA is independent of damage-recognition protein XPC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijsterburg, Martijn S.; Goedhart, Joachim; Moser, Jill; Kool, Hanneke; Geverts, Bart; Houtsmuller, Adriaan B.; Mullenders, Leon H. F.; Vermeulen, Wim; van Driel, Roel

    2007-01-01

    Damage DNA binding protein 2 ( DDB2) has a high affinity for UV-damaged DNA and has been implicated in the initial steps of global genome nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammals. DDB2 binds to CUL4A and forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase. In this study, we have analyzed the properties of DDB2 and

  1. Dynamic in vivo interaction of DDB2 E3 ubiquitin ligase with UV-damaged DNA is independent of damage-recognition protein XPC.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijsterburg, M.S.; Goedhart, J.; Moser, J.; Kool, H.; Geverts, B.; Houtsmuller, A.B.; Mullenders, L.H.; Vermeulen, W.; van Driel, R.

    2007-01-01

    Damage DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2) has a high affinity for UV-damaged DNA and has been implicated in the initial steps of global genome nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammals. DDB2 binds to CUL4A and forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase. In this study, we have analyzed the properties of DDB2 and CUL4A

  2. Redundant function of DNA ligase 1 and 3 in alternative end-joining during immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masani, Shahnaz; Han, Li; Meek, Katheryn; Yu, Kefei

    2016-02-02

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the major DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammals and resolves the DSBs generated during both V(D)J recombination in developing lymphocytes and class switch recombination (CSR) in antigen-stimulated B cells. In contrast to the absolute requirement for NHEJ to resolve DSBs associated with V(D)J recombination, DSBs associated with CSR can be resolved in NHEJ-deficient cells (albeit at a reduced level) by a poorly defined alternative end-joining (A-EJ) pathway. Deletion of DNA ligase IV (Lig4), a core component of the NHEJ pathway, reduces CSR efficiency in a mouse B-cell line capable of robust cytokine-stimulated CSR in cell culture. Here, we report that CSR levels are not further reduced by deletion of either of the two remaining DNA ligases (Lig1 and nuclear Lig3) in Lig4(-/-) cells. We conclude that in the absence of Lig4, Lig1, and Lig3 function in a redundant manner in resolving switch region DSBs during CSR.

  3. Ubiquitylation of FACT by the cullin-E3 ligase Rtt101 connects FACT to DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junhong; Li, Qing; McCullough, Laura; Kettelkamp, Charisse; Formosa, Tim; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2010-07-15

    FACT plays important roles in both gene transcription and DNA replication. However, how this protein complex is targeted to these two distinct cellular processes remains largely unknown. Here we show that ubiquitylation of the Spt16 subunit of FACT by Rtt101, the cullin subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, links FACT to DNA replication. We find Rtt101 interacts with and ubiquitylates Spt16 in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of RTT101 leads to reduced association of both FACT and the replicative helicase MCM with replication origins. Loss of Rtt101 also reduces binding of FACT to MCM, but not the association of FACT with Leo1 and Spt5, two proteins involved in transcription. Origin function is compromised in cells lacking Rtt101 or with an Spt16 mutation. These findings identify Spt16 as an Rtt101 substrate, and suggest that Spt16 ubiquitylation is important for FACT to function during DNA replication.

  4. The CCTL (Cpf1-assisted Cutting and Taq DNA ligase-assisted Ligation) method for efficient editing of large DNA constructs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chao; Li, Shi-Yuan; Liu, Jia-Kun; Zheng, Xuan; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Wang, Jin

    2017-01-23

    As Cpf1 cleaves double-stranded DNA in a staggered way, it can be used in DNA assembly. However, the Cpf1 cleavage was found to be inaccurate, which may cause errors in DNA assembly. Here, the Cpf1 cleavage sites were precisely characterized, where the cleavage site on the target strand was around the 22nd base relative to the protospacer adjacent motif site, but the cleavage on the non-target strand was affected by the spacer length. When the spacer length was 20 nt or longer, Cpf1 mainly cleaved around the 14th and the 18th bases on the non-target strand; otherwise, with a shorter spacer (i.e. 17-19 nt), Cpf1 mainly cleaved after the 14th base, generating 8-nt sticky ends. With this finding, Cpf1 with a 17-nt spacer crRNA were employed for in vitro substitution of the actII-orf4 promoter in the actinorhodin biosynthetic cluster with a constitutively expressing promoter. The engineered cluster yielded more actinorhodin and produced actinorhodin from an earlier phase. Moreover, Taq DNA ligase was further employed to increase both the ligation efficiency and the ligation accuracy of the method. We expect this CCTL (Cpf1-assisted Cutting and Taq DNA ligase-mediated Ligation) method can be widely used in in vitro editing of large DNA constructs.

  5. Label-free quantification of microRNAs using ligase-assisted sandwich hybridization on a DNA microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs can be used as biomarkers for cancer and other human diseases; therefore, high-throughput and reliable miRNA-quantification methods are required to exploit these markers for diagnostic testing. In this report, we describe the construction of a platform for miRNA-quantification using ligase-assisted sandwich hybridization (LASH without miRNA-labeling. T4 DNA ligase was used to compensate for the low affinity between miRNAs and two short complementary DNA probes, and it improved the hybridization yield ∼50,000 times. The LASH assay enabled synthesized miR-143 to be quantified at concentrations ranging from 30 fM to 30 pM. The LASH assay could also quantify endogenous miR-143 released from cultured cells as well as some miRNAs in total RNAs derived from blood. Furthermore, multi-color detection enabled us to distinguish between the highly homologous miR-141 and miR-200a. This simple label-free quantification technique is an easy-to-use approach that can be applied to disease diagnosis.

  6. Kinetics of T3-DNA Ligase-Catalyzed Phosphodiester Bond Formation Measured Using the α-Hemolysin Nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cherie S; Riedl, Jan; Fleming, Aaron M; Burrows, Cynthia J; White, Henry S

    2016-12-27

    The latch region of the wild-type α-hemolysin (α-HL) protein channel can be used to distinguish single base modifications in double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) via ion channel measurements upon electrophoretic capture of dsDNA in the vestibule of α-HL. Herein, we investigated the use of the latch region to detect a nick in the phosphodiester DNA backbone. The presence of a nick in the phosphodiester backbone of one strand of the duplex results in a significant increase in both the blockade current and noise level relative to the intact duplex. Differentiation between the nicked and intact duplexes based on blockade current or noise, with near baseline resolution, allows real-time monitoring of the rate of T3-DNA ligase-catalyzed phosphodiester bond formation. Under low ionic strength conditions containing divalent cations and a molecular crowding agent (75 mg mL(-1) PEG), the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reaction in the bulk solution was continuously monitored by electrophoretically capturing reaction substrate or product dsDNA in the α-HL protein channel vestibule. Enzyme kinetic results obtained from the nanopore experiments match those from gel electrophoresis under the same reaction conditions, indicating the α-HL nanopore measurement provides a viable approach for monitoring enzymatic DNA repair activity.

  7. Amplified detection of DNA ligase and polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase on the basis of enrichment of catalytic G-quadruplex DNAzyme by rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-Xin; Kong, De-Ming; Shen, Han-Xi

    2014-05-15

    As two commonly used tool enzymes, DNA ligase and polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) play important roles in DNA metabolism. More and more studies show that regulation of their activity represents promising means for cancer therapy. To detect the activity of DNA ligase with high sensitivity and specificity, a G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based DNA ligase sensor was developed. In this sensor, the use of G-quadruplex DNAzyme eliminated the needs for any labeled oligonucleotide probes, thus making label-free detection possible. The introduction of rolling circle amplification (RCA) reaction could lead to the formation of multimeric G-quadruplexes containing thousands of G-quadruplex units, which can provide highly active hemin-binding sites, thus significantly improving the sensitivity of the sensor. The proposed sensor allowed specific detection of T4 DNA ligase with a detection limit of 0.0019 U/mL. By adding a PNKP-triggered 5'-phosphroylation step of the template DNA, the above sensing strategy could be easily extended to the design of PNKP sensor. The established sensor allowed specific detection of T4 PNKP with a detection limit of 0.0018 U/mL. In addition, these two sensors could also be used for the studies on inhibitors of these two enzymes.

  8. Thermostable DNA ligase-mediated PCR production of circular plasmid (PPCP) and its application in directed evolution via in situ error-prone PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yilin; Chen, Huayou; Zagursky, Robert; Wu, J H David; Shao, Weilan

    2013-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a powerful method to produce linear DNA fragments. Here we describe the Tma thermostable DNA ligase-mediated PCR production of circular plasmid (PPCP) and its application in directed evolution via in situ error-prone PCR. In this thermostable DNA ligase-mediated whole-plasmid amplification method, the resultant DNA nick between the 5' end of the PCR primer and the extended newly synthesized DNA 3' end of each PCR cycle is ligated by Tma DNA ligase, resulting in circular plasmid DNA product that can be directly transformed. The template plasmid DNA is eliminated by 'selection marker swapping' upon transformation. When performed under an error-prone condition with Taq DNA polymerase, PPCP allows one-step construction of mutagenesis libraries based on in situ error-prone PCR so that random mutations are introduced into the target gene without altering the expression vector plasmid. A significant difference between PPCP and previously published methods is that PPCP allows exponential amplification of circular DNA. We used this method to create random mutagenesis libraries of a xylanase gene and two cellulase genes. Screening of these libraries resulted in mutant proteins with desired properties, demonstrating the usefulness of in situ error-prone PPCP for creating random mutagenesis libraries for directed evolution.

  9. Facilitating the indirect detection of genomic DNA in an electrochemical DNA biosensor using magnetic nanoparticles and DNA ligase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Hushiarian

    2015-12-01

    This technique was found to be reliably repeatable. The indirect detection of genomic DNA using this method is significantly improved and showed high efficiency in small amounts of samples with the detection limit of 5.37 × 10−14 M.

  10. The deubiquitylating enzyme USP44 counteracts the DNA double-strand break response mediated by the RNF8 and RNF168 ubiquitin ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anna; Lukas, Claudia; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Protein recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) relies on ubiquitylation of the surrounding chromatin by the RING finger ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168. Flux through this pathway is opposed by several deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs), including OTUB1 and USP3. By analyzing the effect...

  11. M. tuberculosis sliding β-clamp does not interact directly with the NAD+-dependent DNA ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Kukshal

    Full Text Available The sliding β-clamp, an important component of the DNA replication and repair machinery, is drawing increasing attention as a therapeutic target. We report the crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis β-clamp (Mtbβ-clamp to 3.0 Å resolution. The protein crystallized in the space group C222(1 with cell-dimensions a = 72.7, b = 234.9 & c = 125.1 Å respectively. Mtbβ-clamp is a dimer, and exhibits head-to-tail association similar to other bacterial clamps. Each monomer folds into three domains with similar structures respectively and associates with its dimeric partner through 6 salt-bridges and about 21 polar interactions. Affinity experiments involving a blunt DNA duplex, primed-DNA and nicked DNA respectively show that Mtbβ-clamp binds specifically to primed DNA about 1.8 times stronger compared to the other two substrates and with an apparent K(d of 300 nM. In bacteria like E. coli, the β-clamp is known to interact with subunits of the clamp loader, NAD(+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA and other partners. We tested the interactions of the Mtbβ-clamp with MtbLigA and the γ-clamp loader subunit through radioactive gel shift assays, size exclusion chromatography, yeast-two hybrid experiments and also functionally. Intriguingly while Mtbβ-clamp interacts in vitro with the γ-clamp loader, it does not interact with MtbLigA unlike in bacteria like E. coli where it does. Modeling studies involving earlier peptide complexes reveal that the peptide-binding site is largely conserved despite lower sequence identity between bacterial clamps. Overall the results suggest that other as-yet-unidentified factors may mediate interactions between the clamp, LigA and DNA in mycobacteria.

  12. Characterization of Mycobacterium smegmatis PolD2 and PolD1 as RNA/DNA polymerases homologous to the POL domain of bacterial DNA ligase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Bhattarai, Hitesh; Yan, Han-Guang; Shuman, Stewart; Glickman, Michael S

    2012-12-21

    Mycobacteria exploit nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) to repair DNA double-strand breaks. The core NHEJ machinery comprises the homodimeric DNA end-binding protein Ku and DNA ligase D (LigD), a modular enzyme composed of a C-terminal ATP-dependent ligase domain (LIG), a central 3'-phosphoesterase domain (PE), and an N-terminal polymerase domain (POL). LigD POL is proficient at adding templated and nontemplated deoxynucleotides and ribonucleotides to DNA ends in vitro and is the catalyst in vivo of unfaithful NHEJ events involving nontemplated single-nucleotide additions to blunt DSB ends. Here, we identify two mycobacterial proteins, PolD1 and PolD2, as stand-alone homologues of the LigD POL domain. Biochemical characterization of PolD1 and PolD2 shows that they resemble LigD POL in their monomeric quaternary structures, their ability to add templated and nontemplated nucleotides to primer-templates and blunt ends, and their preference for rNTPs versus dNTPs. Deletion of polD1, polD2, or both from a Mycobacterium smegmatis strain carrying an inactivating mutation in LigD POL failed to reveal a role for PolD1 or PolD2 in templated nucleotide additions during NHEJ of 5'-overhang DSBs or in clastogen resistance. Whereas our results document the existence and characteristics of new stand-alone members of the LigD POL family of RNA/DNA polymerases, they imply that other polymerases can perform fill-in synthesis during mycobacterial NHEJ.

  13. An Intrinsically Disordered APLF Links Ku, DNA-PKcs, and XRCC4-DNA Ligase IV in an Extended Flexible Non-homologous End Joining Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, Michal; Yu, Yaping; Radhakrishnan, Sarvan K; Chokshi, Chirayu; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kuzdovich, Monica; Remesh, Soumya G; Fang, Shujuan; Tomkinson, Alan E; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Tainer, John A

    2016-12-30

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in human cells is initiated by Ku heterodimer binding to a DSB, followed by recruitment of core NHEJ factors including DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4-like factor (XLF), and XRCC4 (X4)-DNA ligase IV (L4). Ku also interacts with accessory factors such as aprataxin and polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase-like factor (APLF). Yet, how these factors interact to tether, process, and ligate DSB ends while allowing regulation and chromatin interactions remains enigmatic. Here, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and mutational analyses show APLF is largely an intrinsically disordered protein that binds Ku, Ku/DNA-PKcs (DNA-PK), and X4L4 within an extended flexible NHEJ core complex. X4L4 assembles with Ku heterodimers linked to DNA-PKcs via flexible Ku80 C-terminal regions (Ku80CTR) in a complex stabilized through APLF interactions with Ku, DNA-PK, and X4L4. Collective results unveil the solution architecture of the six-protein complex and suggest cooperative assembly of an extended flexible NHEJ core complex that supports APLF accessibility while possibly providing flexible attachment of the core complex to chromatin. The resulting dynamic tethering furthermore, provides geometric access of L4 catalytic domains to the DNA ends during ligation and of DNA-PKcs for targeted phosphorylation of other NHEJ proteins as well as trans-phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs on the opposing DSB without disrupting the core ligation complex. Overall the results shed light on evolutionary conservation of Ku, X4, and L4 activities, while explaining the observation that Ku80CTR and DNA-PKcs only occur in a subset of higher eukaryotes.

  14. Structure of the catalytic region of DNA ligase IV in complex with an Artemis fragment sheds light on double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Takashi; Gu, Xiaolong; Blundell, Tom L

    2013-04-02

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is central to the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks throughout the cell cycle and plays roles in the development of the immune system. Although three-dimensional structures of most components of NHEJ have been defined, those of the catalytic region of DNA ligase IV (LigIV), a specialized DNA ligase known to work in NHEJ, and of Artemis have remained unresolved. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2.4 Å resolution of the catalytic region of LigIV (residues 1-609) in complex with an Artemis peptide. We describe interactions of the DNA-binding domain of LigIV with the continuous epitope of Artemis, which, together, form a three-helix bundle. A kink in the first helix of LigIV introduced by a conserved VPF motif gives rise to a hydrophobic pocket, which accommodates a conserved tryptophan from Artemis. We provide structural insights into features of LigIV among human DNA ligases.

  15. Novel compound heterozygous DNA ligase IV mutations in an adolescent with a slowly-progressing radiosensitive-severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinobu; Higuchi, Kohei; Tamaki, Masaharu; Inoue, Chizuko; Awazawa, Ryoko; Mitsuki, Noriko; Nakazawa, Yuka; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kenzo; Kondo, Osamu; Imai, Kohsuke; Morio, Tomohiro; Ohara, Osamu; Ogi, Tomoo; Furukawa, Fukumi; Inoue, Masami; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kanazawa, Nobuo

    2015-10-01

    We herein describe a case of a 17-year-old boy with intractable common warts, short stature, microcephaly and slowly-progressing pancytopenia. Simultaneous quantification of T-cell receptor recombination excision circles (TREC) and immunoglobulin κ-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC) suggested very poor generation of both T-cells and B-cells. By whole exome sequencing, novel compound heterozygous mutations were identified in the patient's DNA ligase IV (LIG4) gene. The diagnosis of LIG4 syndrome was confirmed by delayed DNA double-strand break repair kinetics in γ-irradiated fibroblasts from the patient and their restoration by an introduction of wild-type LIG4. Although the patient received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from his haploidentical mother, he unfortunately expired due to an insufficiently reconstructed immune system. An earlier definitive diagnosis using TREC/KREC quantification and whole exome sequencing would thereby allow earlier intervention, which would be essential for improving long-term survival in similar cases with slowly-progressing LIG4 syndrome masked in adolescents.

  16. Structure-guided mutational analysis of the OB, HhH, and BRCT domains of Escherichia coli DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kai; Nair, Pravin A; Shuman, Stewart

    2008-08-22

    NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases (LigAs) are ubiquitous in bacteria and essential for growth. LigA enzymes have a modular structure in which a central catalytic core composed of nucleotidyltransferase and oligonucleotide-binding (OB) domains is linked via a tetracysteine zinc finger to distal helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) and BRCT (BRCA1-like C-terminal) domains. The OB and HhH domains contribute prominently to the protein clamp formed by LigA around nicked duplex DNA. Here we conducted a structure-function analysis of the OB and HhH domains of Escherichia coli LigA by alanine scanning and conservative substitutions, entailing 43 mutations at 22 amino acids. We thereby identified essential functional groups in the OB domain that engage the DNA phosphodiester backbone flanking the nick (Arg(333)); penetrate the minor grove and distort the nick (Val(383) and Ile(384)); or stabilize the OB fold (Arg(379)). The essential constituents of the HhH domain include: four glycines (Gly(455), Gly(489), Gly(521), Gly(553)), which bind the phosphate backbone across the minor groove at the outer margins of the LigA-DNA interface; Arg(487), which penetrates the minor groove at the outer margin on the 3 (R)-OH side of the nick; and Arg(446), which promotes protein clamp formation via contacts to the nucleotidyltransferase domain. We find that the BRCT domain is required in its entirety for effective nick sealing and AMP-dependent supercoil relaxation.

  17. Expansion of CAG triplet repeats by human DNA polymerases λ and β in vitro, is regulated by flap endonuclease 1 and DNA ligase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespan, Emmanuele; Hübscher, Ulrich; Maga, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological genetic disorder caused by the expansion of the CAG trinucleotide repeats (TNR) in the N-terminal region of coding sequence of the Huntingtin's (HTT) gene. This results in the addition of a poly-glutamine tract within the Huntingtin protein, resulting in its pathological form. The mechanism by which TRN expansion takes place is not yet fully understood. We have recently shown that DNA polymerase (Pol) β can promote the microhomology-mediated end joining and triplet expansion of a substrate mimicking a double strand break in the TNR region of the HTT gene. Here we show that TNR expansion is dependent on the structure of the DNA substrate, as well as on the two essential Pol β co-factors: flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) and DNA ligase 1 (Lig1). We found that Fen1 significantly stimulated TNR expansion by Pol β, but not by the related enzyme Pol λ, and subsequent ligation of the DNA products by Lig1. Interestingly, the deletion of N-terminal domains of Pol λ, resulted in an enzyme which displayed properties more similar to Pol β, suggesting a possible evolutionary mechanism. These results may suggest a novel mechanism for somatic TNR expansion in HD.

  18. RNF111/Arkadia is a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase that facilitates the DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sara L; Hansen, Rebecca K; Wagner, Sebastian A

    2013-01-01

    )-induced SUMOylation and ubiquitylation. Moreover, we show that RNF111 facilitated NER by regulating the recruitment of XPC to UV-damaged DNA. Our findings establish RNF111 as a new STUbL that directly links nonproteolytic ubiquitylation and SUMOylation in the DNA damage response....... nonproteolytic, K63-linked ubiquitylation of SUMOylated target proteins. We demonstrate that RNF111 promoted ubiquitylation of SUMOylated XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum C) protein, a central DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair (NER) extensively regulated by ultraviolet (UV...

  19. The Function of DNA Ligase Ⅲ in Maintenance of Mitochondrial DNA Integrity%DNA连接酶Ⅲ在线粒体基因组完整性保持中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓强; 沈永青; 郭振清; 常彦忠; 段相林

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA ligases play vital roles in DNA replication, recombination and repair through catalyzing ligation of nick in double-stranded DNA with an ATP-dependent reaction. DNA ligase IH (Lig3) is a unique ligase which is located in both nucleus and mitochondrion. Lig3 plays important roles in base excision repair and other single-stranded break repairs with its DNA repair protein XRCC1. But Lig3 is more important in maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity without XRCC1-dependent DNA repair. These researches provide new perspective for Lig3 function and DNA repair.%真核DNA连接酶(DNA ligase)通过催化ATP依赖的双链DNA切口连接而在DNA复制、重组和修复过程中发挥了重要作用.DNA连接酶Ⅲ(Lig3)是一种独特性的连接酶,既可定位于细胞核,又可定位于线粒体.Lig3通过与DNA修复蛋白XRCC1作用而参与了碱基切除修复和其他单链断裂修复.但Lig3以XRCC1不依赖方式在线粒体DNA完整性保持方面发挥了更为重要的作用.这些研究为Lig3功能和DNA修复研究提供了新的视野.

  20. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of DNA ligase 1 and non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility and radiosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H; He, X; Yin, L; Guo, W J; Xia, Y Y; Jiang, Z X

    2015-06-26

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between genetic polymorphisms in DNA ligase 1 (LIG1) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) susceptibility and radiosensitivity in a Chinese population. This was a case-control study that included 352 NSCLC patients and 448 healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was conducted to detect HaeIII polymorphisms in exon 6 of the LIG1 gene in this popula-tion. This information was used to observe the effects of radiation in pa-tients with different genotypes in order to determine the genotypes as-sociated with radiosensitivity. The CC genotype and C allele frequency were significantly higher in the NSCLC group than in the control group (P = 0.012 and P = 0.023, respectively). The relative risk of experienc-ing NSCLC was 2.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.98] for CC homozygous patients and 0.87 (95%CI, 0.46-1.88) for AA homozygous patients. Analysis of LIG1 genetic polymorphisms and radiosensitiv-ity of NSCLC patients showed that AA homozygous patients were sig-nificantly more radiosensitive than the control group (AA vs AC, P = 0.014; AA vs CC, P < 0.001; AC vs CC, P = 0.023). Therefore, the LIG1 CC genotype was associated with susceptibility to NSCLC, and the AA genotype demonstrated increased radiosensitivity compared to the AC and CC genotypes.

  1. A Defect in DNA Ligase4 Enhances the Frequency of TALEN-Mediated Targeted Mutagenesis in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Cermak, Tomas; Hoshino, Tomoki; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Saika, Hiroaki; Mori, Akiko; Osakabe, Keishi; Hamada, Masao; Katayose, Yuichi; Starker, Colby; Voytas, Daniel F; Toki, Seiichi

    2016-02-01

    We have established methods for site-directed mutagenesis via transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in the endogenous rice (Oryza sativa) waxy gene and demonstrated stable inheritance of TALEN-induced somatic mutations to the progeny. To analyze the role of classical nonhomologous end joining (cNHEJ) and alternative nonhomologous end joining (altNHEJ) pathways in TALEN-induced mutagenesis in plant cells, we investigated whether a lack of DNA Ligase4 (Lig4) affects the kinetics of TALEN-induced double-strand break repair in rice cells. Deep-sequencing analysis revealed that the frequency of all types of mutations, namely deletion, insertion, combination of insertion with deletion, and substitution, in lig4 null mutant calli was higher than that in a lig4 heterozygous mutant or the wild type. In addition, the ratio of large deletions (greater than 10 bp) and deletions repaired by microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) to total deletion mutations in lig4 null mutant calli was higher than that in the lig4 heterozygous mutant or wild type. Furthermore, almost all insertions (2 bp or greater) were shown to be processed via copy and paste of one or more regions around the TALENs cleavage site and rejoined via MMEJ regardless of genetic background. Taken together, our findings indicate that the dysfunction of cNHEJ leads to a shift in the repair pathway from cNHEJ to altNHEJ or synthesis-dependent strand annealing.

  2. Cadmium delays non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair via inhibition of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation and downregulation of XRCC4 and Ligase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weiwei; Gu, Xueyan; Zhang, Xiaoning; Kong, Jinxin [Gansu Key Laboratory of Biomonitoring and Bioremediation for Environmental Pollution, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ding, Nan [Gansu Key laboratory of Space Radiobiology, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Qi, Yongmei; Zhang, Yingmei [Gansu Key Laboratory of Biomonitoring and Bioremediation for Environmental Pollution, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Jufang [Gansu Key laboratory of Space Radiobiology, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Huang, Dejun, E-mail: huangdj@lzu.edu.cn [Gansu Key Laboratory of Biomonitoring and Bioremediation for Environmental Pollution, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Cadmium (Cd) exposure delayed the repair of DNA damage induced by X-ray. • Cd exposure altered the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs on Thr-2609 and Ser-2056 sites. • Cd impaired the formation of XRCC4 and Ligase IV foci, and down-regulated their protein expression. • Zinc mitigated the effects of Cd on DDR by regulating pDNA-PKcs (Thr-2609), XRCC4 and Ligase IV. - Abstract: Although studies have shown that cadmium (Cd) interfered with DNA damage repair (DDR), whether Cd could affect non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair remains elusive. To further understand the effect of Cd on DDR, we used X-ray irradiation of Hela cells as an in vitro model system, along with γH2AX and 53BP1 as markers for DNA damage. Results showed that X-ray significantly increased γH2AX and 53BP1 foci in Hela cells (p < 0.01), all of which are characteristic of accrued DNA damage. The number of foci declined rapidly over time (1–8 h postirradiation), indicating an initiation of NHEJ process. However, the disappearance of γH2AX and 53BP1 foci was remarkably slowed by Cd pretreatment (p < 0.01), suggesting that Cd reduced the efficiency of NHEJ. To further elucidate the mechanisms of Cd toxicity, several markers of NHEJ pathway including Ku70, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4 and Ligase IV were examined. Our data showed that Cd altered the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs, and reduced the expression of both XRCC4 and Ligase IV in irradiated cells. These observations are indicative of the impairment of NHEJ-dependent DNA repair pathways. In addition, zinc (Zn) mitigated the effects of Cd on NHEJ, suggesting that the Cd-induced NHEJ alteration may partly result from the displacement of Zn or from an interference with the normal function of Zn-containing proteins by Cd. Our findings provide a new insight into the toxicity of Cd on NHEJ repair and its underlying mechanisms in human cells.

  3. Yeast DNA ligase IV mutations reveal a nonhomologous end joining function of BRCT1 distinct from XRCC4/Lif1 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiruvella, Kishore K; Renard, Brian M; Birkeland, Shanda R; Sunder, Sham; Liang, Zhuobin; Wilson, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    LIG4/Dnl4 is the DNA ligase that (re)joins DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), an activity supported by binding of its tandem BRCT domains to the ligase accessory protein XRCC4/Lif1. We screened a panel of 88 distinct ligase mutants to explore the structure–function relationships of the yeast Dnl4 BRCT domains and inter-BRCT linker in NHEJ. Screen results suggested two distinct classes of BRCT mutations with differential effects on Lif1 interaction as compared to NHEJ completion. Validated constructs confirmed that D800K and GG(868:869)AA mutations, which target the Lif1 binding interface, showed a severely defective Dnl4–Lif1 interaction but a less consistent and often small decrease in NHEJ activity in some assays, as well as nearly normal levels of Dnl4 accumulation at DSBs. In contrast, mutants K742A and KTT(742:744)ATA, which target the β3-α2 region of the first BRCT domain, substantially decreased NHEJ function commensurate with a large defect in Dnl4 recruitment to DSBs, despite a comparatively greater preservation of the Lif1 interaction. Together, these separation-of-function mutants indicate that Dnl4 BRCT1 supports DSB recruitment and NHEJ in a manner distinct from Lif1 binding and reveal a complexity of Dnl4 BRCT domain functions in support of stable DSB association.

  4. Nonperiodic activity of the human anaphase-promoting complex-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase results in continuous DNA synthesis uncoupled from mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, C; Kramer, E R; Peters, J M

    2000-01-01

    Ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated destruction of rate-limiting proteins is required for timely progression through the main cell cycle transitions. The anaphase-promoting complex (APC), periodically activated by the Cdh1 subunit, represents one of the major cellular ubiquitin ligases which, in Saccha......Ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated destruction of rate-limiting proteins is required for timely progression through the main cell cycle transitions. The anaphase-promoting complex (APC), periodically activated by the Cdh1 subunit, represents one of the major cellular ubiquitin ligases which......, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila spp., triggers exit from mitosis and during G(1) prevents unscheduled DNA replication. In this study we investigated the importance of periodic oscillation of the APC-Cdh1 activity for the cell cycle progression in human cells. We show that conditional interference...... ligase activity represents an essential step in coordinating DNA replication with cell division and that failure of mechanisms regulating association of APC with the Cdh1 activating subunit can undermine genomic stability in mammalian cells....

  5. DNA ligases I and III cooperate in alternative non-homologous end-joining in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Paul

    Full Text Available Biochemical and genetic studies suggest that vertebrates remove double-strand breaks (DSBs from their genomes predominantly by two non-homologous end joining (NHEJ pathways. While canonical NHEJ depends on the well characterized activities of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK and LIG4/XRCC4/XLF complexes, the activities and the mechanisms of the alternative, backup NHEJ are less well characterized. Notably, the contribution of LIG1 to alternative NHEJ remains conjectural and although biochemical, cytogenetic and genetic experiments implicate LIG3, this contribution has not been formally demonstrated. Here, we take advantage of the powerful genetics of the DT40 chicken B-cell system to delineate the roles of LIG1 and LIG3 in alternative NHEJ. Our results expand the functions of LIG1 to alternative NHEJ and demonstrate a remarkable ability for LIG3 to backup DSB repair by NHEJ in addition to its essential function in the mitochondria. Together with results on DNA replication, these observations uncover a remarkable and previously unappreciated functional flexibility and interchangeability between LIG1 and LIG3.

  6. Two Divergent Members of 4-Coumarate: Coenzyme A Ligase from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge: cDNA Cloning and Functional Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Juan Zhao; Zhi-Bi Hu; Di Liu; Frederick C. C. Leung

    2006-01-01

    4-Coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is one of the key enzymes in phenylpropanoid metabolism leading to series of phenolics, including water-soluble phenolic acids, which are important compounds determining the medicinal quality of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. To investigate the function of 4CL in the biosynthesis of water-soluble phenolic acid in Danshen, we have cloned two cDNAs (Sm4CL1 and Sm4CL2) encoding divergent 4CL members by applying nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with degenerate primers followed by 5'/3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) (Note, these sequence data have been submitted to the GenBank database under accession numbers AY237163 and AY237164). Either of the coding regions was inserted into a pRSET vector and a kinetic assay was performed with purified recombinant proteins. The substrate utilization profile of Sm4CL1 was distinct from that of Sm4CL2. The Km values of Sm4CL1 and Sm4CL2 to 4-coumaric acid were (72.20±4.10) and (6.50±1.45) μmol/L, respectively. These results, in conjunction with Northern blotting and other information, imply that Sm4CL2 may play an important role in the biosynthesis of water-soluble phenolic compounds, whereas Sm4CL1 may play a minor role in the pathway. Southern blotting analysis suggested that both Sm4CL1 and Sm4CL2 genes are present as a single copy and are located at different sites in the genome.

  7. Homology modeling of NAD+-dependent DNA ligase of the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi and its drug target potential using dispiro-cycloalkanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Nidhi; Nag, Jeetendra K; Pandey, Jyoti; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Shah, Priyanka; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2015-07-01

    Lymphatic filarial nematodes maintain a mutualistic relationship with the endosymbiont Wolbachia. Depletion of Wolbachia produces profound defects in nematode development, fertility, and viability and thus has great promise as a novel approach for treating filarial diseases. NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase is an essential enzyme of DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Therefore, in the present study, the antifilarial drug target potential of the NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase of the Wolbachia symbiont of Brugia malayi (wBm-LigA) was investigated using dispiro-cycloalkanone compounds. Dispiro-cycloalkanone specifically inhibited the nick-closing and cohesive-end ligation activities of the enzyme without inhibiting human or T4 DNA ligase. The mode of inhibition was competitive with the NAD(+) cofactor. Docking studies also revealed the interaction of these compounds with the active site of the target enzyme. The adverse effects of these inhibitors were observed on adult and microfilarial stages of B. malayi in vitro, and the most active compounds were further monitored in vivo in jirds and mastomys rodent models. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 had severe adverse effects in vitro on the motility of both adult worms and microfilariae at low concentrations. Compound 2 was the best inhibitor, with the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) (1.02 μM), followed by compound 5 (IC50, 2.3 μM) and compound 1 (IC50, 2.9 μM). These compounds also exhibited the same adverse effect on adult worms and microfilariae in vivo (P < 0.05). These compounds also tremendously reduced the wolbachial load, as evident by quantitative real-time PCR (P < 0.05). wBm-LigA thus shows great promise as an antifilarial drug target, and dispiro-cycloalkanone compounds show great promise as antifilarial lead candidates.

  8. Inhibiting NAD+-dependent DNA ligase activity with 2-(cyclopentyloxy)-5'-deoxyadenosine (CPOdA) offers a new tool for DNA replication and repair studies in the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Xavier; MacNeill, Stuart A

    2015-11-01

    DNA ligases play an essential role in many aspects of DNA metabolism in all three domains of life. The haloarchaeal organism Haloferax volcanii encodes both ATP- and NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase enzymes designated LigA and LigN, respectively. Neither LigA nor LigN alone is required for cell viability but they share an essential function, most likely the ligation of Okazaki fragments during chromosome replication. Here we show that 2-(cyclopentyloxy)-5'-deoxyadenosine (referred to as CPOdA), originally developed as a inhibitor of bacterial NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases, is a potent inhibitor of the growth of Hfx. volcanii cells expressing LigN alone, causing chromosome fragmentation and cell death, while cells expressing LigA are unaffected. Growth inhibition occurs at significantly lower CPOdA concentrations (MIC ≤ 50 ng ml(-1)) than those required for inhibition of bacterial growth (≥2 μg ml(-1)). CPOdA has the potential to become a vital tool in DNA replication and repair studies in this important model organism.

  9. The DNA Ligase IV Syndrome R278H Mutation Impairs B Lymphopoiesis via Error-Prone Nonhomologous End-Joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Welner, Robert S; Chan, Mei-Yee; Troppito, Logan; Staber, Philipp B; Tenen, Daniel G; Yan, Catherine T

    2016-01-01

    Hypomorphic mutations in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair protein DNA ligase IV (LIG4) lead to immunodeficiency with varying severity. In this study, using a murine knock-in model, we investigated the mechanisms underlying abnormalities in class switch recombination (CSR) associated with the human homozygous Lig4 R278H mutation. Previously, we found that despite the near absence of Lig4 end-ligation activity and severely reduced mature B cell numbers, Lig4(R278H/R278H) (Lig4(R/R)) mice exhibit only a partial CSR block, producing near normal IgG1 and IgE but substantially reduced IgG3, IgG2b, and IgA serum levels. In this study, to address the cause of these abnormalities, we assayed CSR in Lig4(R/R) B cells generated via preassembled IgH and IgK V region exons (HL). This revealed that Lig4(R278H) protein levels while intact exhibited a higher turnover rate during activation of switching to IgG3 and IgG2b, as well as delays in CSR kinetics associated with defective proliferation during activation of switching to IgG1 and IgE. Activated Lig4(R/R)HL B cells consistently accumulated high frequencies of activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent IgH locus chromosomal breaks and translocations and were more prone to apoptosis, effects that appeared to be p53-independent, as p53 deficiency did not markedly influence these events. Importantly, NHEJ instead of alternative end-joining (A-EJ) was revealed as the predominant mechanism catalyzing robust CSR. Defective CSR was linked to failed NHEJ and residual A-EJ access to unrepaired double-strand breaks. These data firmly demonstrate that Lig4(R278H) activity renders NHEJ to be more error-prone, and they predict increased error-prone NHEJ activity and A-EJ suppression as the cause of the defective B lymphopoiesis in Lig4 patients.

  10. A new 10-min ligation method using a modified buffer system with a very low amount of T4 DNA ligase: the "Coffee Break Ligation" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Yuki; Ishida, Masaharu; Horii, Akira

    2007-10-01

    The ligation reaction is widely used in molecular biology. There are several kits available that complete the ligation reaction very rapidly but they are rather expensive. In this study, we successfully modified the ligation buffer with much lower cost than existing kits. The ligation reaction can be completed in 10 min using very low activities such as 0.01 U T4 DNA ligase, and costs only $1 for 100 reactions of 20 microl scale. We name this ligation system the "Coffee Break Ligation" system; one can complete ligation reaction while drinking a cup of coffee, and perform 100 reactions by spending money equivalent to a cup of coffee.

  11. Gene targeting by RNAi-mediated knockdown of potent DNA ligase IV homologue in the cellulase-producing fungus Talaromyces cellulolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Koutarou; Asada, Seiya; Fujii, Tatsuya; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-11-01

    The genome of the cellulase-producing fungus Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly Acremonium cellulolyticus) was screened for a potent DNA ligase IV gene (ligD homologue). Homologous recombination efficiency in T. cellulolyticus is very low. Therefore, suppression of a non-homologous end-joining system was attempted to enable specific gene knockouts for molecular breeding. The transcript levels of ligD homologue were 0.037 of those of the parental YP-4 strain in the Li20 transformant carrying the RNAi construct targeting the ligD homologue. Transformation of the hairpin-type RNAi vector into T. cellulolyticus could be useful in fungal gene knockdown experiments. Cellulase production and protein secretion were similar in the parental YP-4 strain and the Li20 transformant. Knockout transformation of ligD homologue using the Li20 transformant led to 23.1 % double crossover gene targeting. Our results suggest that the potent DNA ligase IV gene of T. cellulolyticus is related to non-homologous end joining and that the knockdown of the ligD homologue is useful in gene targeting.

  12. Screen for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes in mouse embryonic stem cells identifies a model for succinyl-CoA ligase deficiency and mtDNA depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka R. Donti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in subunits of succinyl-CoA synthetase/ligase (SCS, a component of the citric acid cycle, are associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA depletion. A FACS-based retroviral-mediated gene trap mutagenesis screen in mouse embryonic stem (ES cells for abnormal mitochondrial phenotypes identified a gene trap allele of Sucla2 (Sucla2SAβgeo, which was used to generate transgenic mice. Sucla2 encodes the ADP-specific β-subunit isoform of SCS. Sucla2SAβgeo homozygotes exhibited recessive lethality, with most mutants dying late in gestation (e18.5. Mutant placenta and embryonic (e17.5 brain, heart and muscle showed varying degrees of mtDNA depletion (20–60%. However, there was no mtDNA depletion in mutant liver, where the gene is not normally expressed. Elevated levels of MMA were observed in embryonic brain. SCS-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs demonstrated a 50% reduction in mtDNA content compared with wild-type MEFs. The mtDNA depletion resulted in reduced steady state levels of mtDNA encoded proteins and multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. mtDNA content could be restored by reintroduction of Sucla2. This mouse model of SCS deficiency and mtDNA depletion promises to provide insights into the pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases with mtDNA depletion and into the biology of mtDNA maintenance. In addition, this report demonstrates the power of a genetic screen that combines gene trap mutagenesis and FACS analysis in mouse ES cells to identify mitochondrial phenotypes and to develop animal models of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  13. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-09-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria.

  14. Expression of DNA ligase IV is linked to poor prognosis and characterizes a subset of prostate cancers harboring TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and PTEN deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupp, Katharina; Roettger, Laura; Kluth, Martina; Hube-Magg, Claudia; Simon, Ronald; Lebok, Patrick; Minner, Sarah; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Koop, Christina; Graefen, Markus; Adam, Meike; Haese, Alexander; Wittmer, Corinna; Sauter, Guido; Wilczak, Waldemar; Huland, Hartwig; Schlomm, Thorsten; Steurer, Stefan; Krech, Till

    2015-09-01

    DNA ligases are essential for the maintenance of genome integrity as they are indispensable for DNA replication, recombination and repair. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the prevalence and clinical significance of ligase IV (LIG4) expression in prostate cancer. A total of 11,152 prostate cancer specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for LIG4 expression. Results were compared to follow-up data, ERG status and deletions at PTEN, 3p13, 5q21 and 6q15. LIG4 expression was predominantly localized in the nucleus of the cells with increased intensities in malignant as compared to benign prostate epithelium. In prostate cancer, LIG4 expression was found in 91% of interpretable tumors, including 12% cancers with weak, 23% with moderate and 56% with strong LIG4 positivity. Strong LIG4 expression was tightly linked to advanced Gleason score (P<0.0001) and positive nodal involvement (P=0.03). There was a remarkable accumulation of strong LIG4 expression in tumors harboring TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and PTEN deletions (P<0.0001 each). High LIG4 expression was also tightly related to early biochemical recurrence when all tumors (P<0.0001) or the subsets of ERG-negative (P=0.0004) or ERG-positive prostate cancers (P=0.006) were analyzed. Multivariate analysis including parameters that are available before surgery demonstrated independent association with biochemical recurrence for advanced Gleason grade on biopsy, high preoperative PSA level, high clinical stage (P<0.0001 each) and for LIG4 immunostaining (P=0.03). Our study identifies LIG4 as a predictor of an increased risk for early PSA recurrence in prostate cancer. Moreover, the strong association with TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and PTEN deletions suggest important interactions between these pathways in prostate cancers.

  15. The retrohoming of linear group II intron RNAs in Drosophila melanogaster occurs by both DNA ligase 4-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis B White

    Full Text Available Mobile group II introns are bacterial retrotransposons that are thought to have invaded early eukaryotes and evolved into introns and retroelements in higher organisms. In bacteria, group II introns typically retrohome via full reverse splicing of an excised intron lariat RNA into a DNA site, where it is reverse transcribed by the intron-encoded protein. Recently, we showed that linear group II intron RNAs, which can result from hydrolytic splicing or debranching of lariat RNAs, can retrohome in eukaryotes by performing only the first step of reverse splicing, ligating their 3' end to the downstream DNA exon. Reverse transcription then yields an intron cDNA, whose free end is linked to the upstream DNA exon by an error-prone process that yields junctions similar to those formed by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ. Here, by using Drosophila melanogaster NHEJ mutants, we show that linear intron RNA retrohoming occurs by major Lig4-dependent and minor Lig4-independent mechanisms, which appear to be related to classical and alternate NHEJ, respectively. The DNA repair polymerase θ plays a crucial role in both pathways. Surprisingly, however, mutations in Ku70, which functions in capping chromosome ends during NHEJ, have only moderate, possibly indirect effects, suggesting that both Lig4 and the alternate end-joining ligase act in some retrohoming events independently of Ku. Another potential Lig4-independent mechanism, reverse transcriptase template switching from the intron RNA to the upstream exon DNA, occurs in vitro, but gives junctions differing from the majority in vivo. Our results show that group II introns can utilize cellular NHEJ enzymes for retromobility in higher organisms, possibly exploiting mechanisms that contribute to retrotransposition and mitigate DNA damage by resident retrotransposons. Additionally, our results reveal novel activities of group II intron reverse transcriptases, with implications for retrohoming mechanisms and

  16. Knockout of the DNA ligase IV homolog gene in the sphingoid base producing yeast Pichia ciferrii significantly increases gene targeting efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorsch, Christoph; Köhler, Tim; Boles, Eckhard

    2009-08-01

    The yeast Pichia ciferrii produces large quantities of the sphingoid base tetraacetyl phytosphingosine (TAPS) and is an interesting platform organism for the biotechnological production of sphingolipids and ceramides. Ceramides have attracted great attention as a specialty ingredient for moisture retention and protection of the skin in the cosmetics industry. First attempts have been started to metabolically engineer P. ciferrii for improved production of TAPS and other sphingoid bases. However, rational metabolic engineering of P. ciferrii is difficult due to a low gene targeting efficiency. In eukaryotes, two major pathways coexist, which are responsible for genomic DNA integration, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Integration via HR is targeted, while NHEJ involves ectopic (non-targeted) integration depending on a ligation step mediated by DNA ligase IV (Lig4). Here, we demonstrate a dramatical increase in gene targeting efficiency in a P. ciferrii lig4 knockout strain, deficient in NHEJ. Furthermore, a quick and easy to use freeze-thaw method was developed to transform P. ciferrii with high efficiency. Owing to the ability of targeting genomic DNA integration our results pave the way for further genetic and metabolic engineering approaches with P. ciferrii by means of knocking out or overexpressing predestinated genes.

  17. Fast capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence analysis of ligase chain reaction products: human mitochondrial DNA point mutations causing Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, J; Williams, P M; Williams, S J; Brown, M D; Wallace, D C; Karger, B L

    1996-12-01

    High speed capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) has been used to separate and detect point mutations using the ligase chain reaction (LCR). The method utilizes short capillary columns (7.5 cm effective length) and fields of 400 V/cm to analyze DNA-ethidium bromide complexes using an He/Ne laser. The method was first demonstrated with a commercially available kit for LCR based on a lacI gene fragment inserted in a Bluescript II phagemid. LCR-CE-LIF was then applied to detect point mutations in human mitochondrial DNA, resulting in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Three severe mutations were analyzed in which the original base is substituted by a thymidine base at positions 3460, 11778 and 14459. Appropriate primers were designed with polyT tails for length discrimination of pooled samples. Successful detection of mutated samples was achieved, with appropriate correction for small amounts of nonspecific ligated product. The method is rapid, easy to implement, and automatable.

  18. Requirement for Parp-1 and DNA ligases 1 or 3 but not of Xrcc1 in chromosomal translocation formation by backup end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Aashish; Siemann, Maria; Grabos, Martha; Murmann, Tamara; Pantelias, Gabriel E; Iliakis, George

    2014-06-01

    In mammalian cells, ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired in all phases of the cell cycle predominantly by classical, DNA-PK-dependent nonhomologous end joining (D-NHEJ). Homologous recombination repair (HRR) is functional during the S- and G2-phases, when a sister chromatid becomes available. An error-prone, alternative form of end joining, operating as backup (B-NHEJ) functions robustly throughout the cell cycle and particularly in the G2-phase and is thought to backup predominantly D-NHEJ. Parp-1, DNA-ligases 1 (Lig1) and 3 (Lig3), and Xrcc1 are implicated in B-NHEJ. Chromosome and chromatid translocations are manifestations of erroneous DSB repair and are crucial culprits in malignant transformation and IR-induced cell lethality. We analyzed shifts in translocation formation deriving from defects in D-NHEJ or HRR in cells irradiated in the G2-phase and identify B-NHEJ as the main DSB repair pathway backing up both of these defects at the cost of a large increase in translocation formation. Our results identify Parp-1 and Lig1 and 3 as factors involved in translocation formation and show that Xrcc1 reinforces the function of Lig3 in the process without being required for it. Finally, we demonstrate intriguing connections between B-NHEJ and DNA end resection in translocation formation and show that, as for D-NHEJ and HRR, the function of B-NHEJ facilitates the recovery from the G2-checkpoint. These observations advance our understanding of chromosome aberration formation and have implications for the mechanism of action of Parp inhibitors. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia R. Chambers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments. We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area.

  20. Lysine 271 but not lysine 210 of XRCC4 is required for the nuclear localization of XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Mikoto; Wanotayan, Rujira; Liu, Sicheng; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2015-06-12

    XRCC4 and DNA Ligase IV (LIG4) cooperate to join two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, it is not fully understood how these proteins are localized to the nucleus. Here we created XRCC4(K271R) mutant, as Lys271 lies within the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS), and XRCC4(K210R) mutant, as Lys210 was reported to undergo SUMOylation, implicated in the nuclear localization of XRCC4. Wild-type and mutated XRCC4 with EGFP tag were introduced into HeLa cell, in which endogenous XRCC4 had been knocked down using siRNA directed to 3'-untranslated region, and tested for the nuclear localization function by fluorescence microscopy. XRCC4(K271R) was defective in the nuclear localization of itself and LIG4, whereas XRCC4(K210R) was competent for the nuclear localization with LIG4. To examine DSB repair function, wild-type and mutated XRCC4 were introduced into XRCC4-deficient M10. M10-XRCC4(K271R), but not M10-XRCC4(K210R), showed significantly reduced surviving fraction after 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation as compared to M10-XRCC4(WT). The number of γ-H2AX foci remaining 2 h after 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation was significantly greater in M10-XRCC4(K271R) than in M10-XRCC4(WT), whereas it was only marginally increased in M10-XRCC4(K210R) as compared to M10-XRCC4(WT). The present results collectively indicated that Lys271, but not Lys210, of XRCC4 is required for the nuclear localization of XRCC4 and LIG4 and that the nuclear localizing ability is essential for DSB repair function of XRCC4.

  1. A new monoclonal antibody against DNA ligase I is a suitable marker of cell proliferation in cultured cell and tissue section samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vitolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensive characterization of the replicative human DNA ligase I (LigI undertaken in the last decade demonstrated that the level of this protein strongly correlates with the rate of cell proliferation. This may allow to expand the repertoire of clinical biomarkers for the analysis of cell proliferation.We have produced a new monoclonal antibody (5H5 against LigI and exploited it as cell proliferation marker in Western blotting and immunofluorescence as well as in immunohistochemistry on paraffin tissue sections. The Western blot analysis showed that the LigI level detected by 5H5 antibody is high in all proliferating cells. On the contrary the protein is down regulated in resting human fibroblast and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Immunofluorescence analysis on cultured HeLa cells showed that 5H5 antibody labels all proliferating cells and displays the same staining pattern of BrdU in S-phase nuclei. Finally the analysis of serial sections of inflamed tonsils and NHL lymph nodes (either frozen or paraffin embedded demonstrated that 5H5 marks the same population of cells as the Ki-67 antibody. Our results demonstrate that 5H5 antibody is a valuable tool for labeling proliferating cells that can be conveniently used in Western blotting, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry.

  2. Separation of cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris fermentation supernatant using preparative HPLC and evaluation of its antibacterial activity as an NAD+-dependent DNA ligase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Cai, Guoqiang; He, Yi; Tong, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin exhibits various bio-activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral and immune regulation activities, and is a significant focus of research. However, the preparation of high-purity cordycepin remains challenging. Also, the molecular target with which cordycepin interacts to cause an antibacterial effect remains unknown. In the present study, cordycepin was prepared by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and the purity obtained was 99.6%, indicating that this technique may be useful for the large-scale isolation of cordycepin in the future. The results of computational molecular docking analysis indicated that the interaction energy between cordycepin and NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) was lower than that between cordycepin and other common antibacterial targets. The highly pure cordycepin obtained by prep-HPLC demonstrated inhibitory activity against LigA from various bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, cordycepin may be useful as a broad-spectrum antibiotic targeting LigA in various bacteria. PMID:27588098

  3. Radiation Effect of T_4DNA Ligase Induced by 80 MeV/u ~(12)C~(6+) Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cancer therapy with heavy ion bearns has now been progressed by America,Japan,Germany and some other countries.It becomes the most advanced and efficacious new cancer radiotherapy owing its high LET and RBE,low OER,especialy forming Bragg peak at the end of the tracks of the charged particles.DNA is

  4. Lysine 271 but not lysine 210 of XRCC4 is required for the nuclear localization of XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, Mikoto; Wanotayan, Rujira; Liu, Sicheng; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2015-06-12

    XRCC4 and DNA Ligase IV (LIG4) cooperate to join two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). However, it is not fully understood how these proteins are localized to the nucleus. Here we created XRCC4{sup K271R} mutant, as Lys271 lies within the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS), and XRCC4{sup K210R} mutant, as Lys210 was reported to undergo SUMOylation, implicated in the nuclear localization of XRCC4. Wild-type and mutated XRCC4 with EGFP tag were introduced into HeLa cell, in which endogenous XRCC4 had been knocked down using siRNA directed to 3′-untranslated region, and tested for the nuclear localization function by fluorescence microscopy. XRCC4{sup K271R} was defective in the nuclear localization of itself and LIG4, whereas XRCC4{sup K210R} was competent for the nuclear localization with LIG4. To examine DSB repair function, wild-type and mutated XRCC4 were introduced into XRCC4-deficient M10. M10-XRCC4{sup K271R}, but not M10-XRCC4{sup K210R}, showed significantly reduced surviving fraction after 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation as compared to M10-XRCC4{sup WT}. The number of γ-H2AX foci remaining 2 h after 2 Gy γ-ray irradiation was significantly greater in M10-XRCC4{sup K271R} than in M10-XRCC4{sup WT}, whereas it was only marginally increased in M10-XRCC4{sup K210R} as compared to M10-XRCC4{sup WT}. The present results collectively indicated that Lys271, but not Lys210, of XRCC4 is required for the nuclear localization of XRCC4 and LIG4 and that the nuclear localizing ability is essential for DSB repair function of XRCC4. - Highlights: • XRCC4{sup K271R} is defective in the nuclear localization of itself and LIG4. • XRCC4{sup K210R} is competent for the nuclear localization of itself and LIG4. • XRCC4{sup K271R} is deficient in DSB repair function. • XRCC4{sup K210R} is mostly normal in DSB repair function.

  5. Flexibility in the order of action and in the enzymology of the nuclease, polymerases, and ligase of vertebrate nonhomologous DNA end joining: relevance to cancer, aging,and the immune system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael R Lieber; Haihui Lu; Jiafeng Gu; Klaus Schwarz

    2008-01-01

    Nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) is the primary pathway for repair of double-strand DNA breaks in hu-man cells and in multicellular eukaryotes. The causes of double-strand breaks often fragment the DNA at the site of damage, resulting in the loss of information there. NHEJ does not restore the lost information and may resect ad-ditional nucleotides during the repair process. The ability to repair a wide range of overhang and damage configura-tions reflects the flexibility of the nuclease, polymerases, and ligase of NHEJ. The flexibility of the individual com-ponents also explains the large number of ways in which NHEJ can repair any given pair of DNA ends. The loss of information locally at sites of NHEJ repair may contribute to cancer and aging, but the action by NHEJ ensures that entire segments of chromosomes are not lost.

  6. Types of Ubiquitin Ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Francesca Ester; Walden, Helen

    2016-03-24

    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Ubiquitination requires the sequential action of three enzymes: E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzymes), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes), and E3 (ubiquitin ligases). This SnapShot highlights the main types of E3 ubiquitin ligases, which can be classified in three families depending on the presence of characteristic domains and on the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer to the substrate protein.

  7. Isolation of ubiquitinated substrates by tandem affinity purification of E3 ligase-polyubiquitin-binding domain fusions (ligase traps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kevin G; Loveless, Theresa B; Toczyski, David P

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitination is an essential protein modification that influences eukaryotic processes ranging from substrate degradation to nonproteolytic pathway alterations, including DNA repair and endocytosis. Previous attempts to analyze substrates via physical association with their respective ubiquitin ligases have had some success. However, because of the transient nature of enzyme-substrate interactions and rapid protein degradation, detection of substrates remains a challenge. Ligase trapping is an affinity purification approach in which ubiquitin ligases are fused to a polyubiquitin-binding domain, which allows the isolation of ubiquitinated substrates. Immunoprecipitation is first used to enrich for proteins that are bound to the ligase trap. Subsequently, affinity purification is used under denaturing conditions to capture proteins conjugated with hexahistidine-tagged ubiquitin. By using this protocol, ubiquitinated substrates that are specific for a given ligase can be isolated for mass spectrometry or western blot analysis. After cells have been collected, the described protocol can be completed in 2-3 d.

  8. RING E3 ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Seok Keun; Ryu, Moon Young; Kim, Jong Hum

    2017-01-01

    response pathways of plants through various molecular and genetic studies. In particular, it was recently discovered that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), a regulatory mechanism for protein turn over, is greatly involved in the stress responsive pathways. In the UPS, many E3 ligases play key roles...... in recognizing and tethering poly-ubiquitins on target proteins for subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. Here we discuss the roles of RING ligases that have been defined in related to abiotic stress responses in plants....

  9. SUPPRESSION OF LIGASE4 OR XRCC6 ACTIVITIES ENHANCES THE DNA HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION EFFICIENCY IN ZEBRAFISH PRIMORDIAL GERM CELLS%抑制Ligase4或Xrcc6活性增强斑马鱼原始生殖细胞中DNA同源重组的效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏志强; 熊凤; 何牡丹; 王厚鹏; 朱作言; 孙永华

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) give rise to gametes which transmit the genetic information to next generation, therefore PGCs provide us an ideal cell type for genetic manipulation. Homologous recombina-tion (HR) is the most efficient technique to create designed genetic modifications, however, its efficiency is rather low in vertebrates. In this study, by using zebrafish as an in vivo model, we aimed to enhance the effi-ciency of HR in zebrafish PGCs. First, we injected UAS:mRFP-nos1 construct into Tg (kop:KalTA4) embryos to label the transgenic PGCs, and we showed that screening of PGCs-specific mRFP expression led to rela-tively high-efficient germline transmission of transgene. Then we established an in vivo assay to evaluate the HR frequency in PGCs. We further revealed that suppression of the activities of DNA ligase IV (Lig4) and Xrcc6 (previously known as Ku70) could significantly increase the HR efficiency, not only at whole embryo level but also in PGCs. We proposed that the Tg(kop:KalTA4) line could be used as an effective platform for HR-mediated gene targeting.%利用斑马鱼作为体内模型,研究旨在提高斑马鱼原始生殖细胞(Primordial germ cells, PGCs)中同源重组(Homologous recombination, HR)的效率。首先,将 UAS:mRFP-nos1载体显微注射到 Tg (kop:KalTA4)转基因胚胎中标记转基因PGCs,结果表明筛选PGCs特异表达mRFP的胚胎能够相对提高转基因的生殖系传递效率。随后建立了 PGCs 中 HR 效率的评估体系,并且证明抑制 DNA ligase IV(Lig4)和Xrcc6(曾用名Ku70)的活性不但在全胚胎水平,而且在PGCs水平都能够显著提高HR的效率。研究表明Tg (kop:KalTA4)转基因品系是开展HR介导的基因打靶的一个有效平台。

  10. Stealing the spotlight: CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase docks WD40-repeat proteins to destroy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hui

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent investigation of Cullin 4 (CUL4 has ushered this class of multiprotein ubiquitin E3 ligases to center stage as critical regulators of diverse processes including cell cycle regulation, developmental patterning, DNA replication, DNA damage and repair, and epigenetic control of gene expression. CUL4 associates with DNA Damage Binding protein 1 (DDB1 to assemble an ubiquitin E3 ligase that targets protein substrates for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. CUL4 ligase activity is also regulated by the covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 to CUL4, or neddylation, and the COP9 signalosome complex (CSN that removes this important modification. Recently, multiple WD40-repeat proteins (WDR were found to interact with DDB1 and serve as the substrate-recognition subunits of the CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase. As more than 150–300 WDR proteins exist in the human genome, these findings impact a wide array of biological processes through CUL4 ligase-mediated proteolysis. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the mechanism of CUL4 ubiquitin E3 ligase and discuss the architecture of CUL4-assembled E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes by comparison to CUL1-based E3s (SCF. Then, we will review several examples to highlight the critical roles of CUL4 ubiquitin ligase in genome stability, cell cycle regulation, and histone lysine methylation. Together, these studies provide insights into the mechanism of this novel ubiquitin ligase in the regulation of important biological processes.

  11. Successful conversion of the Bacillus subtilis BirA Group II biotin protein ligase into a Group I ligase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henke, Sarah K; Cronan, John E

    2014-01-01

    ...: bioWAFDBI, yuiG and yhfUTS. Moreover, unlike the paradigm Group II BPL, E. coli BirA, the N-terminal DNA binding domain can be deleted from Bacillus subtilis BirA without adverse effects on its ligase function...

  12. DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in Hereditary and Sporadic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    DNA polymerase beta, and DNA ligase 3. Alternatively, in long patch BER, few bases are excised and removed by FEN-1, including bases adjacent to...the damaged base, and incorporation of new nucleotides are mediated by PCNA, Polymerase delta or epsilon and DNA ligase I. 7 The nucleotide...requires the DNA-end-binding protein Ku, which binds free DNA ends and recruits DNA-PKcs. Xrcc4 is then recruited along with DNA ligase IV. The Rad50

  13. Overview of the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) E3 ligase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Johannes; Bakke, Oddmund; Morth, J Preben

    2016-12-14

    E3 ligases are critical checkpoints for protein ubiquitination, a signal that often results in protein sorting and degradation but has also been linked to regulation of transcription and DNA repair. In line with their key role in cellular trafficking and cell-cycle control, malfunction of E3 ligases is often linked to human disease. Thus, they have emerged as prime drug targets. However, the molecular basis of action of membrane-bound E3 ligases is still unknown. Here, we review the current knowledge on the membrane-embedded MARCH E3 ligases (MARCH-1-6,7,8,11) with a focus on how the transmembrane regions can contribute via GxxxG-motifs to the selection and recognition of other membrane proteins as substrates for ubiquitination. Further understanding of the molecular parameters that govern target protein recognition of MARCH E3 ligases will contribute to development of strategies for therapeutic regulation of MARCH-induced ubiquitination.

  14. The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The ligase chain reaction Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay uses ligase chain reaction technology to detect tuberculous DNA sequences in clinical specimens. A study was undertaken to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2420 clinical specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, urine) submitted for primary screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a regional medical microbiology laboratory. Specimens were tested in parallel with smear, ligase chain reaction, and culture. RESULTS: Thirty nine patients had specimens testing positive by the ligase chain reaction assay. Thirty two patients had newly diagnosed tuberculosis, one had a tuberculosis relapse, three had tuberculosis (on antituberculous therapy when tested), and three had healed tuberculosis. In the newly diagnosed group specimens were smear positive in 21 cases (66%), ligase chain reaction positive in 30 cases (94%), and culture positive in 32 cases (100%). Using a positive culture to diagnose active tuberculosis, the ligase chain reaction assay had a sensitivity of 93.9%, a specificity of 99.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.8%, and a negative predictive value of 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest clinical trial to date to report the efficacy of the ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors conclude that ligase chain reaction is a useful primary screening test for tuberculosis, offering speed and discrimination in the early stages of diagnosis and complementing traditional smear and culture techniques.

  15. Structure-function analysis of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum RNA ligase – engineering a thermostable ATP independent enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelkovsky Alexander M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA ligases are essential reagents for many methods in molecular biology including NextGen RNA sequencing. To prevent ligation of RNA to itself, ATP independent mutant ligases, defective in self-adenylation, are often used in combination with activated pre-adenylated linkers. It is important that these ligases not have de-adenylation activity, which can result in activation of RNA and formation of background ligation products. An additional useful feature is for the ligase to be active at elevated temperatures. This has the advantage or reducing preferences caused by structures of single-stranded substrates and linkers. Results To create an RNA ligase with these desirable properties we performed mutational analysis of the archaeal thermophilic RNA ligase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. We identified amino acids essential for ATP binding and reactivity but dispensable for phosphodiester bond formation with 5’ pre-adenylated donor substrate. The motif V lysine mutant (K246A showed reduced activity in the first two steps of ligation reaction. The mutant has full ligation activity with pre-adenylated substrates but retained the undesirable activity of deadenylation, which is the reverse of step 2 adenylation. A second mutant, an alanine substitution for the catalytic lysine in motif I (K97A abolished activity in the first two steps of the ligation reaction, but preserved wild type ligation activity in step 3. The activity of the K97A mutant is similar with either pre-adenylated RNA or single-stranded DNA (ssDNA as donor substrates but we observed two-fold preference for RNA as an acceptor substrate compared to ssDNA with an identical sequence. In contrast, truncated T4 RNA ligase 2, the commercial enzyme used in these applications, is significantly more active using pre-adenylated RNA as a donor compared to pre-adenylated ssDNA. However, the T4 RNA ligases are ineffective in ligating ssDNA acceptors. Conclusions

  16. Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency due to mutations in SUCLA2 and SUCLG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzo, Rosalba; Verrigni, Daniela; Rasmussen, Magnhild

    2016-01-01

    deficiency of complexes I and IV, but normal histological and biochemical findings in muscle did not preclude a diagnosis of succinate-CoA ligase deficiency. In five patients, the urinary excretion of methylmalonic acid was only marginally elevated, whereas elevated plasma methylmalonic acid was consistently......BACKGROUND: The encephalomyopathic mtDNA depletion syndrome with methylmalonic aciduria is associated with deficiency of succinate-CoA ligase, caused by mutations in SUCLA2 or SUCLG1. We report here 25 new patients with succinate-CoA ligase deficiency, and review the clinical and molecular findings...

  17. Biochemical and Enzymatic Characterization of a Thermostable DNA Ligase Encoded by Thermophilic Acidophilic Archaebacterium Strain JP2%一种嗜热耐酸古细菌JP2菌株编码的热稳定DNA连接酶的生物化学及酶学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰海燕; 刘纯; HENDRY PHIL

    2006-01-01

    A thermostable DNA ligase gene was identified, and the biochemical and enzymatic properties of the ligase were characterized from JP2 strain which was enriched from geothermally active sites in Papua New Guinea. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed much high identities compared with that of archeabacterium species Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus shibatae,especially in the six conserved motif sequences, which are known to be closely related to the key function of ligase. Recombinant JP2 ligase showed high activity in nick-joining reaction. It was the most active when Mn2+ present as divalent metal cofactor rather than Mg2+ and Ca2+ etc.. Assay of thermostability over a range of temperatures showed that at 50~80℃ the enzyme displayed relative high activity. Further thermostability experiment indicated that the activity of JP2 ligase could last for a long time at 80℃ and 85℃,however, at 90℃ and 95℃, it became unstable quickly. An investigation on the acquired thermotolerance of recombinant JP2 ligase was done by applying a chaperonin known as TF55 in thermophile on JP2 ligase reaction. Result showed that TF55 could not help in improving thermostability of ligase at 85℃. The possible reason might be that at 85℃ in vitro, the chaperonin itself was denatured.%对分离自巴布亚新几内亚地热活跃区的一种嗜热耐酸古细菌--JP2菌株中的DNA连接酶基因进行了克隆、表达、纯化,并对其生物化学及酶学特性进行了研究.对其核酸及氨基酸序列的分析表明:JP2菌株的DNA连接酶与古细菌种Sulfolobus solfataricus和Sulfolobus shibatae的DNA连接酶具有很高的同源性,尤其在与功能紧密相关的6个保守结构基序的一致性更高.JP2连接酶表现出高的DNA缺口连接活性,在二价金属辅因子的选择方面,JP2连接酶更倾向于Mn2+离子而不是Mg2+、Ca2+及其他离子.不同温度时的热稳定性测试显示:JP2连接酶在50~80℃时为较适

  18. RNA-templated DNA ligation for transcript analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Mats; Antson, Dan-Oscar; Barbany, Gisela; Landegren, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    Ligase-mediated gene detection has proven valuable for detection and precise distinction of DNA sequence variants. We have recently shown that T4 DNA ligase can also be used to distinguish single nucleotide variants of RNA sequences. Here we describe parameters that influence RNA-templated DNA ligation by T4 DNA ligase. The reaction proceeds much more slowly, requiring more enzyme, compared to ligation of the same oligonucleotides hybridized to the corresponding DNA se...

  19. Molecular DNA switches and DNA chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Berkey, Cristin; Lavi, Uri; Cantor, Charles R.; Smith, Cassandra L.

    1999-06-01

    We present an assay to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms on a chip using molecular DNA switches and isothermal rolling- circle amplification. The basic principle behind the switch is an allele-specific oligonucleotide circularization, mediated by DNA ligase. A DNA switch is closed when perfect hybridization between the probe oligonucleotide and target DNA allows ligase to covalently circularize the probe. Mismatches around the ligation site prevent probe circularization, resulting in an open switch. DNA polymerase is then used to preferentially amplify the closed switches, via rolling-circle amplification. The stringency of the molecular switches yields 102 - 103 fold discrimination between matched and mismatched sequences.

  20. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    digested nuclei were diluted in 7 ml of 1.16T4 DNA ligase buffer in the presence of 1% Triton X-100 and incubated for 1 h at 37uC. Ligation was performed...by adding 800 U of T4 DNA Ligase (2,000,000 U/ml; New England Biolabs) to the diluted mixture of digested nuclei and incubating in a 16uC H2O bath for...by phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipita- tion. Ligations were performed in 14 ml of 16 T4 DNA ligase buffer with 2000 U of T4 DNA

  1. Mutational analysis of Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing ligase reveals regions critical for interaction with KREPA2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Mehta

    Full Text Available The Trypanosoma brucei parasite causes the vector-borne disease African sleeping sickness. Mitochondrial mRNAs of T. brucei undergo posttranscriptional RNA editing to make mature, functional mRNAs. The final step of this process is catalyzed by the essential ligase, T. brucei RNA Editing Ligase 1 (TbREL1 and the closely related T. brucei RNA Editing Ligase 2 (TbREL2. While other ligases such as T7 DNA ligase have both a catalytic and an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB-fold domain, T. brucei RNA editing ligases contain only the catalytic domain. The OB-fold domain, which is required for interaction with the substrate RNA, is provided in trans by KREPA2 (for TbREL1 and KREPA1 (for TbREL2. KREPA2 enhancement of TbREL1 ligase activity is presumed to occur via an OB-fold-mediated increase in substrate specificity and catalysis. We characterized the interaction between TbREL1 and KREPA2 in vitro using full-length, truncated, and point-mutated ligases. As previously shown, our data indicate strong, specific stimulation of TbREL1 catalytic activity by KREPA2. We narrowed the region of contact to the final 59 C-terminal residues of TbREL1. Specifically, the TbREL1 C-terminal KWKE (441-444 sequence appear to coordinate the KREPA2-mediated enhancement of TbREL1 activities. N-terminal residues F206, T264 and Y275 are crucial for the overall activity of TbREL1, particularly for F206, a mutation of this residue also disrupts KREPA2 interaction. Thus, we have identified the critical TbREL1 regions and amino acids that mediate the KREPA2 interaction.

  2. TRAIP is a PCNA-binding ubiquitin ligase that protects genome stability after replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Saskia; Smedegaard, Stine; Nakamura, Kyosuke

    2016-01-01

    , allowing cells to mitigate the threats to genome stability posed by replication stress. We identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAIP as a new factor at active and stressed replication forks that directly interacts with PCNA via a conserved PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) box motif. We show that TRAIP promotes...... ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling in human cells by facilitating the generation of RPA-bound single-stranded DNA regions upon replication stress in a manner that critically requires its E3 ligase activity and is potentiated by the PIP box. Consequently, loss of TRAIP function leads to enhanced...... chromosomal instability and decreased cell survival after replication stress. These findings establish TRAIP as a PCNA-binding ubiquitin ligase with an important role in protecting genome integrity after obstacles to DNA replication....

  3. DNA Methylation Alterations in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    EDTA buffer (1-1TE), mary tumor prostate tissues, five matched pairs of normal 5 ViL of 10 x T4 DNA ligase buffer, 1.25 giL each of and primary tumor... DNA ligase were added, and the DNA was incubated breast tissues, was used in the study. The breast and overnight at 16’C. The ligated DNA was...nanograms of Notl primer tion endonuclease Notl and T4 DNA ligase were pur- and 30 ng of Msel primer were used for PCR with chased from Boehringer Mannheim

  4. TRAIP is a PCNA-binding ubiquitin ligase that protects genome stability after replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Saskia; Smedegaard, Stine; Nakamura, Kyosuke;

    2016-01-01

    , allowing cells to mitigate the threats to genome stability posed by replication stress. We identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAIP as a new factor at active and stressed replication forks that directly interacts with PCNA via a conserved PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) box motif. We show that TRAIP promotes......Cellular genomes are highly vulnerable to perturbations to chromosomal DNA replication. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the processivity factor for DNA replication, plays a central role as a platform for recruitment of genome surveillance and DNA repair factors to replication forks...... ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling in human cells by facilitating the generation of RPA-bound single-stranded DNA regions upon replication stress in a manner that critically requires its E3 ligase activity and is potentiated by the PIP box. Consequently, loss of TRAIP function leads to enhanced...

  5. Transactivation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdt2+ stimulates a Pcu4-Ddb1-CSN ubiquitin ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, C.; Poitelea, M.; Watson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Cullin-4 forms a scaffold for multiple ubiquitin ligases. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Cullin-4 homologue (Pcu4) physically associates with Ddb1 and the COP9 signalosome (CSN). One target of this complex is Spd1. Spd1 regulates ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) activity. Spd1 degradation during S...... phase, or following DNA damage of G2 cells, results in the nuclear export of the small RNR subunit. We demonstrate that Cdt2, an unstable WD40 protein, is a regulatory subunit of Pcu4-Ddb1-CSN ubiquitin ligase. cdt2 deletion stabilises Spd1 and prevents relocalisation of the small RNR subunit from...... degradation. We propose that Cdt2 incorporation into the Pcu4-Ddb1-CSN complex prompts Spd1 targeting and subsequent degradation and that Cdt2 is a WD40 repeat adaptor protein for Cullin-4-based ubiquitin ligase....

  6. Directed evolution of the substrate specificity of biotin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei-Cheng; Levy, Matthew; Kincaid, Rodney; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-06-01

    We have developed selection scheme for directing the evolution of Escherichia coli biotin protein ligase (BPL) via in vitro compartmentalization, and have used this scheme to alter the substrate specificity of the ligase towards the utilization of the biotin analogue desthiobiotin. In this scheme, a peptide substrate (BAP) was conjugated to a DNA library encoding BirA, emulsified such that there was a single template per compartment, and protein variants were transcribed and translated in vitro. Those variants that could efficiently desthiobiotinylate their corresponding peptide:DNA conjugate were subsequently captured and amplified. Following just six rounds of selection and amplification several variants that demonstrated higher activity with desthiobiotin were identified. The best variants from Round 6, BirA6-40 and BirA6-47 , showed 17-fold and 10-fold higher activity, respectively, their abilities to use desthiobiotin as a substrate. While selected enzymes contained a number of substitutions, a single mutation, M157T, proved sufficient to provide much greater activity with desthiobiotin. Further characterization of BirA6-40 and the single substitution variant BirAM157T revealed that they had twoto threefold higher kcat values for desthiobiotin. These variants had also lost much of their ability to utilize biotin, resulting in orthogonal enzymes that in conjunction with streptavidin variants that can utilize desthiobiotin may prove to be of great use in developing additional, robust conjugation handles for a variety of biological and biotechnological applications.

  7. Break-induced ATR and Ddb1-Cul4(Cdt)² ubiquitin ligase-dependent nucleotide synthesis promotes homologous recombination repair in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Jennifer; Tinline-Purvis, Helen; Walker, Carol A

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide synthesis is a universal response to DNA damage, but how this response facilitates DNA repair and cell survival is unclear. Here we establish a role for DNA damage-induced nucleotide synthesis in homologous recombination (HR) repair in fission yeast. Using a genetic screen, we found...... the Ddb1-Cul4(Cdt)² ubiquitin ligase complex and ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to be required for HR repair of a DNA double-strand break (DSB). The Ddb1-Cul4(Cdt)² ubiquitin ligase complex is required for degradation of Spd1, an inhibitor of RNR in fission yeast. Accordingly, deleting spd1(+) suppressed...... through increasing Cdt2 nuclear levels in response to DNA damage. Our findings support a model in which break-induced Rad3 and Ddb1-Cul4(Cdt)² ubiquitin ligase-dependent Spd1 degradation and RNR activation promotes postsynaptic ssDNA gap filling during HR repair....

  8. RNA Ligase Structures Reveal the Basis for RNA Specificity and Conformational Changes that Drive Ligation Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandakumar,J.; Shuman, S.; Lima, C.

    2006-01-01

    T4 RNA ligase 2 (Rnl2) and kinetoplastid RNA editing ligases exemplify a family of RNA repair enzymes that seal 3'OH/5'PO{sub 4} nicks in duplex RNAs via ligase adenylylation (step 1), AMP transfer to the nick 5'PO{sub 4} (step 2), and attack by the nick 3'OH on the 5'-adenylylated strand to form a phosphodiester (step 3). Crystal structures are reported for Rnl2 at discrete steps along this pathway: the covalent Rnl2-AMP intermediate; Rnl2 bound to an adenylylated nicked duplex, captured immediately following step 2; and Rnl2 at an adenylylated nick in a state poised for step 3. These structures illuminate the stereochemistry of nucleotidyl transfer and reveal how remodeling of active-site contacts and conformational changes propel the ligation reaction forward. Mutational analysis and comparison of nick-bound structures of Rnl2 and human DNA ligase I highlight common and divergent themes of substrate recognition that can explain their specialization for RNA versus DNA repair.

  9. Nuclear targeting of an endosomal E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocock, Jeffrey P; Carmicle, Stephanie; Madamba, Egbert; Erickson, Ann H

    2010-06-01

    Ring finger protein 13 (RNF13) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase embedded in endosome membranes. The protein undergoes constitutive post-translational proteolysis, making its detection difficult unless cells are incubated with a proteasome inhibitor to allow biosynthetic forms to accumulate. When cells were treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), RNF13 avoided proteolysis. A similar stabilization was seen on ionomycin treatment of cells. Drug treatment stabilized both the full-length protein and a membrane-embedded C-terminal fragment generated following ectodomain shedding. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that PMA treatment caused the protein to accumulate in recycling endosomes, where it colocalized with transferrin receptor, and on the inner nuclear membrane, where it colocalized with lamin B. Expression of dominant-negative Rab11 inhibited nuclear localization, suggesting RNF13 was targeted to the inner nuclear membrane through recycling endosomes. New protein synthesis was necessary for this targeting. Nuclear localization was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy and by purification of the inner nuclear membrane. Stress-induced transport of an endosomal protein to the inner nuclear membrane is a novel mechanism for introduction of regulatory proteins to the DNA environment. RNF13, with its ubiquitin ligase-active RING domain, has the potential to turn over key nuclear proteins in response to signals received at the plasma membrane.

  10. Structure and function of Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase reveals aspects of RING and HECT ligases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riley, B E; Lougheed, J C; Callaway, K; Velasquez, M; Brecht, E; Nguyen, L; Shaler, T; Walker, D; Yang, Y; Regnstrom, K; Diep, L; Zhang, Z; Chiou, S; Bova, M; Artis, D R; Yao, N; Baker, J; Yednock, T; Johnston, J A

    2013-01-01

    Parkin is a RING-between-RING E3 ligase that functions in the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to specific substrates, and mutations in Parkin are linked to Parkinson's disease, cancer and mycobacterial infection...

  11. Mutagen Sensitivity and DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in Hereditary and Sporadic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    along with DNA ligase IV. The Rad50-Mrel I-NbsI complex, a. which contains helicase and exonuclease activities, may also function in NHEJ, particularly if...cells, the ends are ligated by DNA ligase I and the interwound DNA strands (Holliday junctions) are resolved resulting In either crossover or *8

  12. Point Mutation Identification Using On-Chip Ligase Detection Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 曾令文; 程京

    2004-01-01

    An efficient method was developed to detect point mutations using oligonucleotide microarrays and the ligase detection reaction (LDR).Allele-specific LDR primers were immobilized on polylysine-coated glass slides to perform LDR on a chip.The spotting concentration and detection limit were analyzed using a synthesized oligonucleotide as a template.The optimal primer spotting concentration was 20 (mol/L and the lowest detectable template concentration was 0.33 nmol/L.The method was successfully employed to identify malignant mutations of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.Asymmetric polymerase chain reaction was employed to prepare single stranded DNA as LDR templates from cloned plasmids.The discrimination ratios for AC,TC,GT,TT,GA,and AA mismatches are 32.82,44.24,17.75,18.34,11.66,and 8.91,respectively.This method may allow construction of multiple mutation detection systems.

  13. Novel E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate histone protein levels in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Core histone proteins are essential for packaging the genomic DNA into chromatin in all eukaryotes. Since multiple genes encode these histone proteins, there is potential for generating more histones than what is required for chromatin assembly. The positively charged histones have a very high affinity for negatively charged molecules such as DNA, and any excess of histone proteins results in deleterious effects on genomic stability and cell viability. Hence, histone levels are known to be tightly regulated via transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. We have previously elucidated the posttranslational regulation of histone protein levels by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involving the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc4/5 and the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-Terminus domain containing E3 ligase Tom1 in the budding yeast. Here we report the identification of four additional E3 ligases containing the RING (Really Interesting New Gene finger domains that are involved in the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of excess histones in yeast. These E3 ligases are Pep5, Snt2 as well as two previously uncharacterized Open Reading Frames (ORFs YKR017C and YDR266C that we have named Hel1 and Hel2 (for Histone E3 Ligases respectively. Mutants lacking these E3 ligases are sensitive to histone overexpression as they fail to degrade excess histones and accumulate high levels of endogenous histones on histone chaperones. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that these E3 ligases interact with the major E2 enzyme Ubc4 that is involved in the degradation related ubiquitylation of histones. Using mutagenesis we further demonstrate that the RING domains of Hel1, Hel2 and Snt2 are required for histone regulation. Lastly, mutants corresponding to Hel1, Hel2 and Pep5 are sensitive to replication inhibitors. Overall, our results highlight the importance of posttranslational histone regulatory mechanisms that employ multiple E3

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yong-Zhi; Sheng, Yu [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Li, Lan-Fen [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tang, De-Wei [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liu, Xiang-Yu [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, Xiaojun, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn [Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liang, Yu-He, E-mail: zhaoxj@scu.edu.cn; Su, Xiao-Dong [National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China)

    2007-09-01

    A potential target for antibiotic drug design, d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from S. mutans, was expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. d-Alanine-d-alanine ligase is encoded by the gene ddl (SMU-599) in Streptococcus mutans. This ligase plays a very important role in cell-wall biosynthesis and may be a potential target for drug design. To study the structure and function of this ligase, the gene ddl was amplified from S. mutans genomic DNA and cloned into the expression vector pET28a. The protein was expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). Homogeneous protein was obtained using a two-step procedure consisting of Ni{sup 2+}-chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified protein was crystallized and the cube-shaped crystal diffracted to 2.4 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.50, c = 108.97 Å. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  15. Regulation of 4CL, encoding 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase, expression in kenaf under diverse stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    We cloned the full length 4CL ortholog encoding 4-coumarate: coenzymeA ligase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabiuns) using degenerate primers and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) systems. The 4CL is a key regulatory enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that regulates the activation of cinnamic ac...

  16. The substrate binding domains of human SIAH E3 ubiquitin ligases are now crystal clear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhongduo; Hou, Feng; Harding, Rachel; Huang, Xinyi; Dong, Aiping; Walker, John R.; Tong, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    Seven in absentia homologs (SIAHs) comprise a family of highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligases that play an important role in regulating signalling pathways in tumorigenesis, including the DNA damage repair and hypoxia response pathways. SIAH1 and SIAH2 have been found to function as a tumour repressor and a proto-oncogene, respectively, despite the high sequence identity of their substrate binding domains (SBDs). Ubiquitin-specific protease USP19 is a deubiquitinase that forms a complex with SIAHs and counteracts the ligase function. Much effort has been made to find selective inhibitors of the SIAHs E3 ligases. Menadione was reported to inhibit SIAH2 specifically. We used X-ray crystallography, peptide array, bioinformatic analysis, and biophysical techniques to characterize the structure and interaction of SIAHs with deubiquitinases and literature reported compounds. We solved the crystal structures of SIAH1 in complex with a USP19 peptide and of the apo form SIAH2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the SIAH/USP19 complex is conserved in evolution. We demonstrated that menadione destabilizes both SIAH1 and SIAH2 non-specifically through covalent modification. The SBDs of SIAH E3 ligases are structurally similar with a subtle stability difference. USP19 is the only deubiquitinase that directly binds to SIAHs through the substrate binding pocket. Menadione is not a specific inhibitor for SIAH2. The crystallographic models provide structural insights into the substrate binding of the SIAH family E3 ubiquitin ligases that are critically involved in regulating cancer-related pathways. Our results suggest caution should be taken when using menadione as a specific SIAH2 inhibitor.

  17. Biochemical Properties of DNA Ligase From The Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae%极端嗜热古菌--芝田硫化叶菌DNA连接酶的生化性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖小勤; 黄力

    2005-01-01

    极端嗜热古菌--芝田硫化叶菌DNA连接酶(Ssh连接酶)的最适辅因子为ATP,在dATP存在时,该酶也能表现出较弱的连接活性.ATP或dATP都能够使该酶发生腺苷化,腺苷化的Ssh连接酶能够将腺苷基团转移至含切刻的DNA上.电泳迁移率改变实验表明,Ssh连接酶能够结合双链DNA,且与含切刻及不含切刻的DNA结合的亲和力相同,但不结合单链DNA.酵母双杂交实验显示,硫磺矿硫化叶菌(与芝田硫化叶菌亲缘关系很近)的DNA连接酶,与该菌所含的3个增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)同源蛋白中的一个(PCNA-1)有相互作用,而与另外2个同源蛋白(PCNA-like和PCNA-2)则无相互作用.在古菌中高度保守的Sac10b蛋白家族成员Ssh10b能够激活Ssh连接酶的活性,而硫化叶菌中的主要染色体蛋白--7kuDNA结合蛋白(Ssh7)则对该酶活性没有影响.

  18. Mutational analysis of bacteriophage T4 RNA ligase 1. Different functional groups are required for the nucleotidyl transfer and phosphodiester bond formation steps of the ligation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kai; Ho, C Kiong; Pei, Yi; Shuman, Stewart

    2003-08-08

    T4 RNA ligase 1 (Rnl1) exemplifies an ATP-dependent RNA ligase family that includes fungal tRNA ligase (Trl1) and a putative baculovirus RNA ligase. Rnl1 acts via a covalent enzyme-AMP intermediate generated by attack of Lys-99 N zeta on the alpha phosphorus of ATP. Mutation of Lys-99 abolishes ligase activity. Here we tested the effects of alanine mutations at 19 conserved positions in Rnl1 and thereby identified 9 new residues essential for ligase activity: Arg-54, Lys-75, Phe-77, Gly-102, Lys-119, Glu-227, Gly-228, Lys-240, and Lys-242. Seven of the essential residues are located within counterparts of conserved nucleotidyltransferase motifs I (99KEDG102), Ia (118SK119), IV (227EGYVA231), and V (238HFKIK242) that comprise the active sites of DNA ligases, RNA capping enzymes, and T4 RNA ligase 2. Three other essential residues, Arg-54, Lys-75 and Phe-77, are located upstream of the AMP attachment site within a conserved domain unique to the Rnl1-like ligase family. We infer a shared evolutionary history and active site architecture in Rnl1 (a tRNA repair enzyme) and Trl1 (a tRNA splicing enzyme). We determined structure-activity relationships via conservative substitutions and examined mutational effects on the isolated steps of Rnl1 adenylylation (step 1) and phosphodiester bond formation (step 3). Lys-75, Lys-240, and Lys-242 were found to be essential for step 1 and overall ligation of 5'-phosphorylated RNA but not for phosphodiester bond formation. These results suggest that the composition of the Rnl1 active site is different during steps 1 and 3. Mutations at Arg-54 and Lys-119 abolished the overall RNA ligation reaction without affecting steps 1 and 3. Arg-54 and Lys-119 are thereby implicated as specific catalysts of the RNA adenylation reaction (step 2) of the ligation pathway.

  19. A new non-catalytic role for ubiquitin ligase RNF8 in unfolding higher-order chromatin structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luijsterburg, Martijn S; Acs, Klara; Ackermann, Leena

    2012-01-01

    . Our data show that CHD4, the catalytic subunit of the NuRD complex, interacts with RNF8 and is essential for RNF8-mediated chromatin unfolding. The chromatin remodelling activity of CHD4 promotes efficient ubiquitin conjugation and assembly of RNF168 and BRCA1 at DNA double-strand breaks......, which involves the cooperation between CHD4 and RNF8 to create a local chromatin environment that is permissive to the assembly of checkpoint and repair machineries at DNA lesions.......The ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 orchestrate DNA damage signalling through the ubiquitylation of histone H2A and the recruitment of downstream repair factors. Here, we demonstrate that RNF8, but not RNF168 or the canonical H2A ubiquitin ligase RNF2, mediates extensive chromatin decondensation...

  20. Origin and diversification of TRIM ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Marín

    Full Text Available Most proteins of the TRIM family (also known as RBCC family are ubiquitin ligases that share a peculiar protein structure, characterized by including an N-terminal RING finger domain closely followed by one or two B-boxes. Additional protein domains found at their C termini have been used to classify TRIM proteins into classes. TRIMs are involved in multiple cellular processes and many of them are essential components of the innate immunity system of animal species. In humans, it has been shown that mutations in several TRIM-encoding genes lead to diverse genetic diseases and contribute to several types of cancer. They had been hitherto detected only in animals. In this work, by comprehensively analyzing the available diversity of TRIM and TRIM-like protein sequences and evaluating their evolutionary patterns, an improved classification of the TRIM family is obtained. Members of one of the TRIM subfamilies defined, called Subfamily A, turn to be present not only in animals, but also in many other eukaryotes, such as fungi, apusozoans, alveolates, excavates and plants. The rest of subfamilies are animal-specific and several of them originated only recently. Subfamily A proteins are characterized by containing a MATH domain, suggesting a potential evolutionary connection between TRIM proteins and a different type of ubiquitin ligases, known as TRAFs, which contain quite similar MATH domains. These results indicate that the TRIM family emerged much earlier than so far thought and contribute to our understanding of its origin and diversification. The structural and evolutionary links with the TRAF family of ubiquitin ligases can be experimentally explored to determine whether functional connections also exist.

  1. CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 Ligase Regulates the Molecular Clock Activity by Promoting Ubiquitination-Dependent Degradation of the Mammalian CRY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Guha, Anirvan; Arthurs, Blake; Cazares, Victor; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The CUL4-DDB1 E3 ligase complex serves as a critical regulator in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle progression. However, whether this E3 ligase complex regulates clock protein turnover and the molecular clock activity in mammalian cells is unknown. Here we show that CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase ubiquitinates CRY1 and promotes its degradation both in vitro and in vivo. Depletion of the major components of this E3 ligase complex, including Ddb1, Cdt2, and Cdt2-cofactor Pcna, leads to CRY1 stabilization in cultured cells or in the mouse liver. CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase targets lysine 585 within the C-terminal region of CRY1 protein, shown by the CRY1 585KA mutant's resistance to ubiquitination and degradation mediated by the CUL4A-DDB1 complex. Surprisingly, both depletion of Ddb1 and over-expression of Cry1-585KA mutant enhance the oscillatory amplitude of the Bmal1 promoter activity without altering its period length, suggesting that CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 targets CRY1 for degradation and reduces the circadian amplitude. All together, we uncovered a novel biological role for CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase that regulates molecular circadian behaviors via promoting ubiquitination-dependent degradation of CRY1.

  2. The Role of Inducible DNA Repair in W-Reactivation and Related Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-14

    sealing the backbone by a DNA ligase (Kushner et al. 1971) This "short-patch" excision repair eliminates photodimers by bacterial Uvr+ functions before DNA...Hart and Ellison 1970). W-reactivation of UV-irradiated phage X also occurs on E. coli with DNA ligase deficiency (Morse and Pauling 1975) or with the...arrest of DNA synthesis is essential for X induction. E. coli lig mutants produce defective DNA ligase , which is an enzyme that closes single-strand

  3. HSV-1 ICP0: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Counteracts Host Intrinsic and Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Perusina Lanfranca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0, is required for efficient lytic viral replication and regulates the switch between the lytic and latent states of HSV-1. As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0 directs the proteasomal degradation of several cellular targets, allowing the virus to counteract different cellular intrinsic and innate immune responses. In this review, we will focus on how ICP0’s E3 ubiquitin ligase activity inactivates the host intrinsic defenses, such as nuclear domain 10 (ND10, SUMO, and the DNA damage response to HSV-1 infection. In addition, we will examine ICP0’s capacity to impair the activation of interferon (innate regulatory mediators that include IFI16 (IFN γ-inducible protein 16, MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88, and Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like protein. We will also consider how ICP0 allows HSV-1 to evade activation of the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B inflammatory signaling pathway. Finally, ICP0’s paradoxical relationship with USP7 (ubiquitin specific protease 7 and its roles in intrinsic and innate immune responses to HSV-1 infection will be discussed.

  4. KF-1 ubiquitin ligase: an anxiety suppressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamotsu Hashimoto-Gotoh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is an instinct that may have developed to promote adaptive survival by evading unnecessary danger. However, excessive anxiety is disruptive and can be a basic disorder of other psychiatric diseases such as depression. The KF-1, a ubiquitin ligase located to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, may prevent excessive anxiety; kf-1−/− mice exhibit selectively elevated anxiety-like behavior against light or heights. Thus, KF-1 may degrade some target proteins, responsible for promoting anxiety, through the ER-associated degradation pathway, similar to Parkin in Parkinson's disease (PD. Parkin, another ER-ubiquitin ligase, prevents the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons by degrading the target proteins responsible for PD. Molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the prototype of kf-1 appeared in the very early phase of animal evolution but was lost, unlike parkin, in the lineage leading up to Drosophila. Therefore, kf-1−/− mice, be a powerful tool for elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in emotional regulation, and for screening novel anxiolytic/antidepressant compounds.

  5. Cloning of the full-length rat Nor1 cDNA using T4 DNA-ligase-mediated 5'RACE%T4DNA连接酶介导的5'RACE法克隆大鼠Nor1全长cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    银巍; 黄奕俊; 苏兴文; 赵灵芝; 邱鹏新; 颜光美

    2004-01-01

    目的:克隆75A EST全长cDNA序列.方法:抽提在25 mmol/L KCl条件下培养7d的大鼠小脑颗粒神经元的总RNA后,用DNA连接酶介导的5'RACE法克隆75A表达序列标签(EST)cDNA5'端未知序列,其产物亚克隆到pGEM-T easy后进行序列测定以及同源性分性.结果:首轮5'RACE扩增出2.5 kb序列后,75A EST鉴定为神经来源孤儿受体1(Nor1)基因的部分序列;再经过二次轮5'RACE,我们首次克隆Nor-1的全长cDNA序列.结论:T4dNA连接酶介导的5'RACE是一种效率较高的克隆mRNA5'端未知序列的好方法,为进一步研究Nor1在小脑颗粒神经元存活或分化过程中的作用奠定基础.

  6. Chromatin Remodeling Function of BRCA1 and its Implication in Regulation of DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    different structural module. For example, the BRCT domains present in DNA ligase III and XRCC 1, two mammalian DNA repair proteins, interact with each...in mediating protein-protein interactions with another BRCT domain or a different structural module. For example, the BRCT domains present in DNA ... ligase IEd and XRCCI, two mammalian DNA repair proteins, interact with each other strongly (19). In addition, the BRCT domain of BRCA1 binds CtIP, a

  7. The MLLE domain of the ubiquitin ligase UBR5 binds to its catalytic domain to regulate substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2015-09-11

    E3 ubiquitin ligases catalyze the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2-conjugating enzyme to a substrate. UBR5, homologous to the E6AP C terminus (HECT)-type E3 ligase, mediates the ubiquitination of proteins involved in translation regulation, DNA damage response, and gluconeogenesis. In addition, UBR5 functions in a ligase-independent manner by prompting protein/protein interactions without ubiquitination of the binding partner. Despite recent functional studies, the mechanisms involved in substrate recognition and selective ubiquitination of its binding partners remain elusive. The C terminus of UBR5 harbors the HECT catalytic domain and an adjacent MLLE domain. MLLE domains mediate protein/protein interactions through the binding of a conserved peptide motif, termed PAM2. Here, we characterize the binding properties of the UBR5 MLLE domain to PAM2 peptides from Paip1 and GW182. The crystal structure with a Paip1 PAM2 peptide reveals the network of hydrophobic and ionic interactions that drive binding. In addition, we identify a novel interaction of the MLLE domain with the adjacent HECT domain mediated by a PAM2-like sequence. Our results confirm the role of the MLLE domain of UBR5 in substrate recruitment and suggest a potential role in regulating UBR5 ligase activity.

  8. Degradation of phosphorylated p53 by viral protein-ECS E3 ligase complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Sato

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available p53-signaling is modulated by viruses to establish a host cellular environment advantageous for their propagation. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV lytic program induces phosphorylation of p53, which prevents interaction with MDM2. Here, we show that induction of EBV lytic program leads to degradation of p53 via an ubiquitin-proteasome pathway independent of MDM2. The BZLF1 protein directly functions as an adaptor component of the ECS (Elongin B/C-Cul2/5-SOCS-box protein ubiquitin ligase complex targeting p53 for degradation. Intringuingly, C-terminal phosphorylation of p53 resulting from activated DNA damage response by viral lytic replication enhances its binding to BZLF1 protein. Purified BZLF1 protein-associated ECS could be shown to catalyze ubiquitination of phospho-mimetic p53 more efficiently than the wild-type in vitro. The compensation of p53 at middle and late stages of the lytic infection inhibits viral DNA replication and production during lytic infection, suggesting that the degradation of p53 is required for efficient viral propagation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a role for the BZLF1 protein-associated ECS ligase complex in regulation of p53 phosphorylated by activated DNA damage signaling during viral lytic infection.

  9. Genetic and Functional Studies of Genes That Regulate DNA-Damage-Induced Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    library analysis indicated that the BRCT domains from BRCA1, MDC1, BARD1, and DNA Ligase IV preferred distinct phosphoserine-containing peptides. In...Heterodimerization between single BRCT domains (e.g. XRCC1 and DNA Ligase III) has been reported (9, 10). In addition, BRCT domains of 53BP1 can...pS-[DE]-[DE]-E. DNA Ligase IV functions to join single-strand breaks in double- stranded DNA (28, 29). It plays a major role in V(D)J recombina- tion

  10. DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  11. Stable X chromosome inactivation involves the PRC1 Polycomb complex and requires histone MACROH2A1 and the CULLIN3/SPOP ubiquitin E3 ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada; Lund, Anders H; van der Stoop, Petra

    2005-01-01

    . This recruitment results in an inactive state that is initially labile but is further locked in by epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone hypoacetylation, and MACROH2A deposition. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase consisting of SPOP and CULLIN3 is able to ubiquitinate the Polycomb group...... inactivation in somatic cells. We further demonstrate that MACROH2A1 deposition is regulated by the CULLIN3/SPOP ligase complex and is actively involved in stable X inactivation, likely through the formation of an additional layer of epigenetic silencing....

  12. Cinnamate:CoA ligase initiates the biosynthesis of a benzoate-derived xanthone phytoalexin in Hypericum calycinum cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam M; Sircar, Debabrata; Müller, Andreas; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Ernst, Ludger; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-11-01

    Although a number of plant natural products are derived from benzoic acid, the biosynthesis of this structurally simple precursor is poorly understood. Hypericum calycinum cell cultures accumulate a benzoic acid-derived xanthone phytoalexin, hyperxanthone E, in response to elicitor treatment. Using a subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) library and sequence information about conserved coenzyme A (CoA) ligase motifs, a cDNA encoding cinnamate:CoA ligase (CNL) was isolated. This enzyme channels metabolic flux from the general phenylpropanoid pathway into benzenoid metabolism. HcCNL preferred cinnamic acid as a substrate but failed to activate benzoic acid. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the presence of Mg²⁺ and K⁺ at optimum concentrations of 2.5 and 100 mM, respectively. Coordinated increases in the Phe ammonia-lyase and HcCNL transcript levels preceded the accumulation of hyperxanthone E in cell cultures of H. calycinum after the addition of the elicitor. HcCNL contained a carboxyl-terminal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal made up by the tripeptide Ser-Arg-Leu, which directed an amino-terminal reporter fusion to the peroxisomes. Masking the targeting signal by carboxyl-terminal reporter fusion led to cytoplasmic localization. A phylogenetic tree consisted of two evolutionarily distinct clusters. One cluster was formed by CoA ligases related to benzenoid metabolism, including HcCNL. The other cluster comprised 4-coumarate:CoA ligases from spermatophytes, ferns, and mosses, indicating divergence of the two clades prior to the divergence of the higher plant lineages.

  13. E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Neurobiological Mechanisms: Development to Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Upadhyay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cells regularly synthesize new proteins to replace old or damaged proteins. Deposition of various aberrant proteins in specific brain regions leads to neurodegeneration and aging. The cellular protein quality control system develop various defense mechanisms against the accumulation of misfolded and aggregated proteins. The mechanisms underlying the selective recognition of specific crucial protein or misfolded proteins are majorly governed by quality control E3 ubiquitin ligases mediated through ubiquitin-proteasome system. Few known E3 ubiquitin ligases have shown prominent neurodevelopmental functions, but their interactions with different developmental proteins play critical roles in neurodevelopmental disorders. Several questions are yet to be understood properly. How E3 ubiquitin ligases determine the specificity and regulate degradation of a particular substrate involved in neuronal proliferation and differentiation is certainly the one, which needs detailed investigations. Another important question is how neurodevelopmental E3 ubiquitin ligases specifically differentiate between their versatile range of substrates and timing of their functional modulations during different phases of development. The premise of this article is to understand how few E3 ubiquitin ligases sense major molecular events, which are crucial for human brain development from its early embryonic stages to throughout adolescence period. A better understanding of these few E3 ubiquitin ligases and their interactions with other potential proteins will provide invaluable insight into disease mechanisms to approach toward therapeutic interventions.

  14. A Self-Replicating Ligase Ribozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Natasha; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    A self-replicating molecule directs the covalent assembly of component molecules to form a product that is of identical composition to the parent. When the newly formed product also is able to direct the assembly of product molecules, the self-replicating system can be termed autocatalytic. A self-replicating system was developed based on a ribozyme that catalyzes the assembly of additional copies of Itself through an RNA-catalyzed RNA ligation reaction. The R3C ligase ribozyme was redesigned so that it would ligate two substrates to generate an exact copy of itself, which then would behave in a similar manner. This self-replicating system depends on the catalytic nature of the RNA for the generation of copies. A linear dependence was observed between the initial rate of formation of new copies and the starting concentration of ribozyme, consistent with exponential growth. The autocatalytic rate constant was 0.011 per min, whereas the initial rate of reaction in the absence of pre-existing ribozyme was only 3.3 x 10(exp -11) M per min. Exponential growth was limited, however, because newly formed ribozyme molecules had greater difficulty forming a productive complex with the two substrates. Further optimization of the system may lead to the sustained exponential growth of ribozymes that undergo self-replication.

  15. Cyclin F: A component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with roles in neurodegeneration and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, Jasmin; Rayner, Stephanie L; Hogan, Alison L; Fifita, Jennifer A; Lee, Albert; Chung, Roger S; Blair, Ian P; Yang, Shu

    2017-08-01

    Cyclin F, encoded by CCNF, is the substrate recognition component of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, SCF(cyclin F). E3 ubiquitin ligases play a key role in ubiquitin-proteasome mediated protein degradation, an essential component of protein homeostatic mechanisms within the cell. By recognising and regulating the availability of several protein substrates, SCF(cyclin F) plays a role in regulating various cellular processes including replication and repair of DNA and cell cycle checkpoint control. Cyclin F dysfunction has been implicated in various forms of cancer and CCNF mutations were recently linked to familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, offering a new lead to understanding the pathogenic mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. In this review, we evaluate the current literature on the function of cyclin F with an emphasis on its roles in cancer and neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility of a DNA-Based Combinatorial Array Recognition Surface (CARS) in a Polyacrylamide Gel Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-12

    the phosphate backbone. wherever p.·J.Ttial hybrids naturally occur, via Taq DNA ligase (16). Ligation may not have been entirely necessary for the...CARS libraries, noncontiguous pieces can be ligaled togclher willi Taq DNA ligase . The lOp half o(lhe figure iIIu51Tates Ihe appearance o( a I-D CARS...cluding dideoxynucleotides. were from a "Si lver Sequence" kit purchased from Promega Corporation (Madison. WI). ThermliS aquaticus (Taq) DNA ligase was

  17. Antagonistic roles of ubiquitin ligase HEI10 and SUMO ligase RNF212 regulate meiotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Huanyu; Prasada Rao, H B D; Yang, Ye; Fong, Jared H; Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Deacon, Dekker C; Nagel, Kathryn E; Swartz, Rebecca K; Strong, Edward; Holloway, J Kim; Cohen, Paula E; Schimenti, John; Ward, Jeremy; Hunter, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Crossover recombination facilitates the accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. In mammals, poorly characterized regulatory processes ensure that every pair of chromosomes obtains at least one crossover, even though most recombination sites yield non-crossovers. Designation of crossovers involves selective localization of the SUMO ligase RNF212 to a minority of recombination sites, where it stabilizes pertinent factors such as MutSγ (ref. 4). Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase HEI10 (also called CCNB1IP1) is essential for this crossover/non-crossover differentiation process. In HEI10-deficient mice, RNF212 localizes to most recombination sites, and dissociation of both RNF212 and MutSγ from chromosomes is blocked. Consequently, recombination is impeded, and crossing over fails. In wild-type mice, HEI10 accumulates at designated crossover sites, suggesting that it also has a late role in implementing crossing over. As with RNF212, dosage sensitivity for HEI10 indicates that it is a limiting factor for crossing over. We suggest that SUMO and ubiquitin have antagonistic roles during meiotic recombination that are balanced to effect differential stabilization of recombination factors at crossover and non-crossover sites.

  18. Evaluation of DNA Repair Function as a Predictor of Response in a Clinical Trial of PARP Inhibitor Monotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    DNA ligase IV, XRCC4 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC...nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway (53BP1, Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4, DNA ligase IV) as well as PARP1. This group of proteins was chosen based on our...recombination, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), immunohistochemistry, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, Ku70, Ku80, PARP1, 53BP1, DNA-PK, Artemis, DNA ligase IV

  19. The HERC2 ubiquitin ligase is essential for embryonic development and regulates motor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; Schneider, Taiane; Hadjebi, Ouadah; Pedrazza, Leonardo; de Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues; Langa, Francina; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Duran, Joan; de Anta, Josep Maria; Alcántara, Soledad; Ruiz, Rocio; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Aguilar, Francisco J.; Carrión, Ángel M.; Armengol, Jose Angel; Baple, Emma; Crosby, Andrew H.; Bartrons, Ramon; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    A mutation in the HERC2 gene has been linked to a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with similarities to the Angelman syndrome. This gene codifies a protein with ubiquitin ligase activity that regulates the activity of tumor protein p53 and is involved in important cellular processes such as DNA repair, cell cycle, cancer, and iron metabolism. Despite the critical role of HERC2 in these physiological and pathological processes, little is known about its relevance in vivo. Here, we described a mouse with targeted inactivation of the Herc2 gene. Homozygous mice were not viable. Distinct from other ubiquitin ligases that interact with p53, such as MDM2 or MDM4, p53 depletion did not rescue the lethality of homozygous mice. The HERC2 protein levels were reduced by approximately one-half in heterozygous mice. Consequently, HERC2 activities, including ubiquitin ligase and stimulation of p53 activity, were lower in heterozygous mice. A decrease in HERC2 activities was also observed in human skin fibroblasts from individuals with an Angelman-like syndrome that express an unstable mutant protein of HERC2. Behavioural analysis of heterozygous mice identified an impaired motor synchronization with normal neuromuscular function. This effect was not observed in p53 knockout mice, indicating that a mechanism independent of p53 activity is involved. Morphological analysis showed the presence of HERC2 in Purkinje cells and a specific loss of these neurons in the cerebella of heterozygous mice. In these animals, an increase of autophagosomes and lysosomes was observed. Our findings establish a crucial role of HERC2 in embryonic development and motor coordination. PMID:27528230

  20. Overview of post Cohen-Boyer methods for single segment cloning and for multisegment DNA assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Bryan; Brent, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In 1973, Cohen and coworkers published a foundational paper describing the cloning of DNA fragments into plasmid vectors. In it, they used DNA segments made by digestion with restriction enzymes and joined these in vitro with DNA ligase. These methods established working recombinant DNA technology and enabled the immediate start of the biotechnology industry. Since then, "classical" recombinant DNA technology using restriction enzymes and DNA ligase has matured. At the same time, researchers have developed numerous ways to generate large, complex, multisegment DNA constructions that offer advantages over classical techniques. Here, we provide an overview of "post-Cohen-Boyer" techniques used for cloning single segments into vectors (T/A, Topo cloning, Gateway and Recombineering) and for multisegment DNA assembly (Biobricks, Golden Gate, Gibson, Yeast homologous recombination in vivo, and Ligase Cycling Reaction). We compare and contrast these methods and also discuss issues that researchers should consider before choosing a particular multisegment DNA assembly method.

  1. Genetically engineered mouse models for functional studies of SKP1-CUL1-F-box-protein (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Zhou; Wenyi Wei; Yi Sun

    2013-01-01

    The SCF (SKP1 (S-phase-kinase-associated protein 1),Cullin-1,F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligases,the founding member of Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs),are the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases in mammals.Each individual SCF E3 ligase consists of one adaptor protein SKP1,one scaffold protein cullin-1 (the first family member of the eight cullins),one F-box protein out of 69 family members,and one out of two RING (Really Interesting New Gene) family proteins RBX1/ROC1 or RBX2/ROC2/SAG/RNF7.Various combinations of these four components construct a large number of SCF E3s that promote the degradation of many key regulatory proteins in cell-context,temporally,and spatially dependent manners,thus controlling precisely numerous important cellular processes,including cell cycle progression,apoptosis,gene transcription,signal transduction,DNA replication,maintenance of genome integrity,and tumorigenesis.To understand how the SCF E3 ligases regulate these cellular processes and embryonic development under in vivo physiological conditions,a number of mouse models with transgenic (Tg) expression or targeted deletion of components of SCF have been established and characterized.In this review,we will provide a brief introduction to the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases,followed by a comprehensive overview on the existing Tg and knockout (KO) mouse models of the SCF E3s,and discuss the role of each component in mouse embryogenesis,cell proliferation,apoptosis,carcinogenesis,as well as other pathogenic processes associated with human diseases.We will end with a brief discussion on the future directions of this research area and the potential applications of the knowledge gained to more effective therapeutic interventions of human diseases.

  2. Enzymes involved in DNA ligation and end-healing in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevelev Igor V

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymes involved in DNA metabolic events of the highly radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans are currently examined to understand the mechanisms that protect and repair the Deinococcus radiodurans genome after extremely high doses of γ-irradiation. Although several Deinococcus radiodurans DNA repair enzymes have been characterised, no biochemical data is available for DNA ligation and DNA endhealing enzymes of Deinococcus radiodurans so far. DNA ligases are necessary to seal broken DNA backbones during replication, repair and recombination. In addition, ionizing radiation frequently leaves DNA strand-breaks that are not feasible for ligation and thus require end-healing by a 5'-polynucleotide kinase or a 3'-phosphatase. We expect that DNA ligases and end-processing enzymes play an important role in Deinococcus radiodurans DNA strand-break repair. Results In this report, we describe the cloning and expression of a Deinococcus radiodurans DNA ligase in Escherichia coli. This enzyme efficiently catalyses DNA ligation in the presence of Mn(II and NAD+ as cofactors and lysine 128 was found to be essential for its activity. We have also analysed a predicted second DNA ligase from Deinococcus radiodurans that is part of a putative DNA repair operon and shows sequence similarity to known ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We show that this enzyme possesses an adenylyltransferase activity using ATP, but is not functional as a DNA ligase by itself. Furthermore, we identified a 5'-polynucleotide kinase similar to human polynucleotide kinase that probably prepares DNA termini for subsequent ligation. Conclusion Deinococcus radiodurans contains a standard bacterial DNA ligase that uses NAD+ as a cofactor. Its enzymatic properties are similar to E. coli DNA ligase except for its preference for Mn(II as a metal cofactor. The function of a putative second DNA ligase remains unclear, but its adenylyltransferase activity classifies it as a

  3. Allosteric Interactions by p53 mRNA Govern HDM2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Specificity under Different Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Medina, Ixaura; García-Beltrán, Paola; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Millot, Guy; Fahraeus, Robin; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Sampedro, José G; Olivares-Illana, Vanesa

    2016-08-15

    HDM2 and HDMX are key negative regulatory factors of the p53 tumor suppressor under normal conditions by promoting its degradation or preventing its trans activity, respectively. It has more recently been shown that both proteins can also act as positive regulators of p53 after DNA damage. This involves phosphorylation by ATM on serine residues HDM2(S395) and HDMX(S403), promoting their respective interaction with the p53 mRNA. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how these phosphorylation events switch HDM2 and HDMX from negative to positive regulators of p53 is not known. Our results show that these phosphorylation events reside within intrinsically disordered domains and change the conformation of the proteins. The modifications promote the exposition of N-terminal interfaces that support the formation of a new HDMX-HDM2 heterodimer independent of the C-terminal RING-RING interaction. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of this complex toward p53 is prevented by the p53 mRNA ligand but, interestingly, does not affect the capacity to ubiquitinate HDMX and HDM2. These results show how ATM-mediated modifications of HDMX and HDM2 switch HDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity away from p53 but toward HDMX and itself and illustrate how the substrate specificity of HDM2 E3 ligase activity is regulated.

  4. Mdm2 ligase dead mutants did not act in a dominant negative manner to re-activate p53, but promoted tumor cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Manju; Sun, Yi

    2003-01-01

    Mdm2 (murine double minute 2) is an oncogene, first identified in BALB/c 3T3 cells. Over-expression and gene amplification of Mdm2 were found in a variety of human cancers. Recently, Mdm2 was found to be an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes degradation of p53, which contributes significantly to its oncogenic activity. In this study, we test a hypothesis that Mdm2 ligase dead mutants, which retained p53 binding activity but lost degradation activity, would act in a dominant negative manner to re-activate p53, especially upon stressed conditions. Five Mdm2 constructs expressing wild-type and E3 ligase-dead Mdm2 proteins were generated in a Tet-Off system and transfected into MCF-7 breast cancer cells (p53+/+ with Mdm2 overexpression) as well as MCF10A immortalized breast cells (p53+/+ without Mdm2 overexpression) as a normal control. We found that expression of Mdm2 mutants were tightly regulated by doxycycline. Withdrawal of doxycycline in culture medium triggered overexpression of Mdm2 mutants. However, expression of ligase dead mutants in MCF7 and MCF10A cells did not reactivate p53 as shown by a luciferase-reporter transcription assay and Western blot of p53 and its downstream target p21 under either unstressed condition or after exposure to DNA damaging agents. Biologically, over-expression of Mdm2 mutants had no effect on p53-induced apoptosis following DNA damage. Interestingly, over-expression of Mdm2 mutants promoted growth of MCF7 tumor cells probably via a p53-independent mechanism. Over-expression of Mdm2 mutants, however, had no effect on the growth of normal MCF10A cells and did not cause their transformation. Thus, ligase dead mutants of Mdm2 did not act in a dominant negative manner to reactivate p53 and they are not oncogenes in MCF10A cells.

  5. The Role of Ubiquitin Ligases in Cardiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Monte S.; Bevilacqua, Ariana; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Kienesberger, Petra; Tannu, Manasi; Patterson, Cam

    2014-01-01

    Rigorous surveillance of protein quality control is essential for the maintenance of normal cardiac function, while the dysregulation of protein turnover is present in a diverse array of common cardiac diseases. Central to the protein quality control found in all cells is the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). The UPS plays a critical role in protein trafficking, cellular signaling, and most prominently, protein degradation. As ubiquitin ligases (E3s) control the specificity of the UPS, their description in the cardiomyocyte has highlighted how ubiquitin ligases are critical to the turnover and function of the sarcomere complex, responsible for the heart’s required continuous contraction. In this review, we provide an overview of the UPS, highlighting a comprehensive overview of the cardiac ubiquitin ligases identified to date. We then focus on recent studies of new cardiac ubiquitin ligases outlining their novel roles in protein turnover, cellular signaling, and the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and receptor turnover in the pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac atrophy, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. PMID:24262338

  6. Ancient origin of animal U-box ubiquitin ligases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Ignacio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of emergence and diversification of the families of ubiquitin ligases provide insights about the evolution of the eukaryotic ubiquitination system. U-box ubiquitin ligases (UULs are proteins characterized by containing a peculiar protein domain known as U box. In this study, the origin of the animal UUL genes is described. Results Phylogenetic and structural data indicate that six of the seven main UUL-encoding genes found in humans (UBE4A, UBE4B, UIP5, PRP19, CHIP and CYC4 were already present in the ancestor of all current metazoans and the seventh (WDSUB1 is found in placozoans, cnidarians and bilaterians. The fact that only 4 - 5 genes orthologous to the human ones are present in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis suggests that several animal-specific cooptions of the U box to generate new genes occurred. Significantly, Monosiga contains five additional UUL genes that are not present in animals. One of them is also present in distantly-related protozoans. Along animal evolution, losses of UUL-encoding genes are rare, except in nematodes, which lack three of them. These general patterns are highly congruent with those found for other two families (RBR, HECT of ubiquitin ligases. Conclusions Finding that the patterns of emergence, diversification and loss of three unrelated families of ubiquitin ligases (RBR, HECT and U-box are parallel indicates that there are underlying, linage-specific evolutionary forces shaping the complexity of the animal ubiquitin system.

  7. Ret Finger Protein: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Juxtaposed to the XY Body in Meiosis

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    Isabelle Gillot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During prophase I of male meiosis, the sex chromosomes form a compact structure called XY body that associates with the nuclear membrane of pachytene spermatocytes. Ret Finger Protein is a transcriptional repressor, able to interact with both nuclear matrix-associated proteins and double-stranded DNA. We report the precise and unique localization of Ret Finger Protein in pachytene spermatocytes, in which Ret Finger Protein takes place of lamin B1, between the XY body and the inner nuclear membrane. This localization of Ret Finger Protein does not seem to be associated with O-glycosylation or sumoylation. In addition, we demonstrate that Ret Finger Protein contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. These observations lead to an attractive hypothesis in which Ret Finger Protein would be involved in the positioning and the attachment of XY body to the nuclear lamina of pachytene spermatocytes.

  8. The Cullin 4A/B-DDB1-Cereblon E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Mediates the Degradation of CLC-1 Chloride Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-An; Peng, Yi-Jheng; Hu, Meng-Chun; Huang, Jing-Jia; Chien, Yun-Chia; Wu, June-Tai; Chen, Tsung-Yu; Tang, Chih-Yung

    2015-05-29

    Voltage-gated CLC-1 chloride channels play a critical role in controlling the membrane excitability of skeletal muscles. Mutations in human CLC-1 channels have been linked to the hereditary muscle disorder myotonia congenita. We have previously demonstrated that disease-associated CLC-1 A531V mutant protein may fail to pass the endoplasmic reticulum quality control system and display enhanced protein degradation as well as defective membrane trafficking. Currently the molecular basis of protein degradation for CLC-1 channels is virtually unknown. Here we aim to identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase of CLC-1 channels. The protein abundance of CLC-1 was notably enhanced in the presence of MLN4924, a specific inhibitor of cullin-RING E3 ligases. Subsequent investigation with dominant-negative constructs against specific subtypes of cullin-RING E3 ligases suggested that CLC-1 seemed to serve as the substrate for cullin 4A (CUL4A) and 4B (CUL4B). Biochemical examinations further indicated that CUL4A/B, damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1), and cereblon (CRBN) appeared to co-exist in the same protein complex with CLC-1. Moreover, suppression of CUL4A/B E3 ligase activity significantly enhanced the functional expression of the A531V mutant. Our data are consistent with the idea that the CUL4A/B-DDB1-CRBN complex catalyses the polyubiquitination and thus controls the degradation of CLC-1 channels.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus β-Toxin Mutants Are Defective in Biofilm Ligase and Sphingomyelinase Activity, and Causation of Infective Endocarditis and Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Alfa; Vu, Bao G; Stach, Christopher S; Merriman, Joseph A; Horswill, Alexander R; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2016-05-01

    β-Toxin is an important virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus, contributing to colonization and development of disease [Salgado-Pabon, W., et al. (2014) J. Infect. Dis. 210, 784-792; Huseby, M. J., et al. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 14407-14412; Katayama, Y., et al. (2013) J. Bacteriol. 195, 1194-1203]. This cytotoxin has two distinct mechanisms of action: sphingomyelinase activity and DNA biofilm ligase activity. However, the distinct mechanism that is most important for its role in infective endocarditis is unknown. We characterized the active site of β-toxin DNA biofilm ligase activity by examining deficiencies in site-directed mutants through in vitro DNA precipitation and biofilm formation assays. Possible conformational changes in mutant structure compared to that of wild-type toxin were assessed preliminarily by trypsin digestion analysis, retention of sphingomyelinase activity, and predicted structures based on the native toxin structure. We addressed the contribution of each mechanism of action to producing infective endocarditis and sepsis in vivo in a rabbit model. The H289N β-toxin mutant, lacking sphingomyelinase activity, exhibited lower sepsis lethality and infective endocarditis vegetation formation compared to those of the wild-type toxin. β-Toxin mutants with disrupted biofilm ligase activity did not exhibit decreased sepsis lethality but were deficient in infective endocarditis vegetation formation compared to the wild-type protein. Our study begins to characterize the DNA biofilm ligase active site of β-toxin and suggests β-toxin functions importantly in infective endocarditis through both of its mechanisms of action.

  10. Highly precise and developmentally programmed genome assembly in Paramecium requires ligase IV-dependent end joining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Kapusta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the sexual cycle of the ciliate Paramecium, assembly of the somatic genome includes the precise excision of tens of thousands of short, non-coding germline sequences (Internal Eliminated Sequences or IESs, each one flanked by two TA dinucleotides. It has been reported previously that these genome rearrangements are initiated by the introduction of developmentally programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, which depend on the domesticated transposase PiggyMac. These DSBs all exhibit a characteristic geometry, with 4-base 5' overhangs centered on the conserved TA, and may readily align and undergo ligation with minimal processing. However, the molecular steps and actors involved in the final and precise assembly of somatic genes have remained unknown. We demonstrate here that Ligase IV and Xrcc4p, core components of the non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ, are required both for the repair of IES excision sites and for the circularization of excised IESs. The transcription of LIG4 and XRCC4 is induced early during the sexual cycle and a Lig4p-GFP fusion protein accumulates in the developing somatic nucleus by the time IES excision takes place. RNAi-mediated silencing of either gene results in the persistence of free broken DNA ends, apparently protected against extensive resection. At the nucleotide level, controlled removal of the 5'-terminal nucleotide occurs normally in LIG4-silenced cells, while nucleotide addition to the 3' ends of the breaks is blocked, together with the final joining step, indicative of a coupling between NHEJ polymerase and ligase activities. Taken together, our data indicate that IES excision is a "cut-and-close" mechanism, which involves the introduction of initiating double-strand cleavages at both ends of each IES, followed by DSB repair via highly precise end joining. This work broadens our current view on how the cellular NHEJ pathway has cooperated with domesticated transposases for the emergence of new

  11. Study the effect of kidney stones on serum xanthine oxidase, ecto-5ʹ-nucleotidase activity and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 (NSMCE2 in Malaysian individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridah Yusof

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study suggests that the increase in serum of xanthine oxidase,ecto-5ʹ-nucleotidase activities E3 small ubiquitin-like modifier-protein ligase NSE2 concentration can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of kidney damage in patients with kidney stone, also in developments of change DNA damage and inflammation disorders in these patients.

  12. Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA–DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbale, Percy [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Williams, Jessica S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Schellenberg, Matthew J. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology; Kunkel, Thomas A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology and Lab. of Molecular Genetics; Williams, R. Scott [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Lab. of Structural Biology and Lab. Molecular Genetics

    2013-12-22

    Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions used by ATP-dependent DNA ligases. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5'-adenylated (5'-AMP) DNA lesions. Aprataxin (APTX) reverses DNA adenylation but the context for deadenylation repair is unclear. Here we examine the importance of APTX to RNase-H2-dependent excision repair (RER) of a lesion that is very frequently introduced into DNA, a ribonucleotide. We show that ligases generate adenylated 5' ends containing a ribose characteristic of RNase H2 incision. APTX efficiently repairs adenylated RNA–DNA, and acting in an RNA–DNA damage response (RDDR), promotes cellular survival and prevents S-phase checkpoint activation in budding yeast undergoing RER. Structure–function studies of human APTX–RNA–DNA–AMP–Zn complexes define a mechanism for detecting and reversing adenylation at RNA–DNA junctions. This involves A-form RNA binding, proper protein folding and conformational changes, all of which are affected by heritable APTX mutations in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1. Together, these results indicate that accumulation of adenylated RNA–DNA may contribute to neurological disease.

  13. Cinnamate:CoA Ligase Initiates the Biosynthesis of a Benzoate-Derived Xanthone Phytoalexin in Hypericum calycinum Cell Cultures1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam M.; Sircar, Debabrata; Müller, Andreas; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Ernst, Ludger; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Although a number of plant natural products are derived from benzoic acid, the biosynthesis of this structurally simple precursor is poorly understood. Hypericum calycinum cell cultures accumulate a benzoic acid-derived xanthone phytoalexin, hyperxanthone E, in response to elicitor treatment. Using a subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) library and sequence information about conserved coenzyme A (CoA) ligase motifs, a cDNA encoding cinnamate:CoA ligase (CNL) was isolated. This enzyme channels metabolic flux from the general phenylpropanoid pathway into benzenoid metabolism. HcCNL preferred cinnamic acid as a substrate but failed to activate benzoic acid. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the presence of Mg2+ and K+ at optimum concentrations of 2.5 and 100 mm, respectively. Coordinated increases in the Phe ammonia-lyase and HcCNL transcript levels preceded the accumulation of hyperxanthone E in cell cultures of H. calycinum after the addition of the elicitor. HcCNL contained a carboxyl-terminal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal made up by the tripeptide Ser-Arg-Leu, which directed an amino-terminal reporter fusion to the peroxisomes. Masking the targeting signal by carboxyl-terminal reporter fusion led to cytoplasmic localization. A phylogenetic tree consisted of two evolutionarily distinct clusters. One cluster was formed by CoA ligases related to benzenoid metabolism, including HcCNL. The other cluster comprised 4-coumarate:CoA ligases from spermatophytes, ferns, and mosses, indicating divergence of the two clades prior to the divergence of the higher plant lineages. PMID:22992510

  14. Histone H1 couples initiation and amplification of ubiquitin signalling after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Tina; Ripplinger, Anita; Hoffmann, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions that trigger non-proteolytic ubiquitylation of adjacent chromatin areas to generate binding sites for DNA repair factors. This depends on the sequential actions of the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 (refs 1-6), and UBC13 (also...

  15. CHK2 stability is regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SIAH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Limones, C; Lara-Chica, M; Jiménez-Jiménez, C; Pérez, M; Moreno, P; Muñoz, E; Calzado, M A

    2016-08-18

    The serine threonine checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) is a critical protein involved in the DNA damage-response pathway, which is activated by phosphorylation inducing cellular response such as DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation or apoptosis. Although CHK2 activation mechanisms have been amply described, very little is known about degradation control processes. In the present study, we identify the ubiquitin E3 ligase SIAH2 as an interaction partner of CHK2, which mediates its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. CHK2 degradation is independent of both its activation and its kinase activity, but also of the phosphorylation in S456. We show that SIAH2-deficient cells present CHK2 accumulation together with lower ubiquitination levels. Accordingly, SIAH2 depletion by siRNA increases CHK2 levels. In response to DNA damage induced by etoposide, interaction between both proteins is disrupted, thus avoiding CHK2 degradation and promoting its stabilization. We also found that CHK2 phosphorylates SIAH2 at three residues (Thr26, Ser28 and Thr119), modifying its ability to regulate certain substrates. Cellular arrest in the G2/M phase induced by DNA damage is reverted by SIAH2 expression through the control of CHK2 levels. We observed that hypoxia decreases CHK2 levels in parallel to SIAH2 induction. Similarly, we provide evidence suggesting that resistance to apoptosis induced by genotoxic agents in cells subjected to hypoxia could be partly explained by the mutual regulation between both proteins. These results indicate that SIAH2 regulates CHK2 basal turnover, with important consequences on cell-cycle control and on the ability of hypoxia to alter the DNA damage-response pathway in cancer cells.

  16. Characterization of a long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase 1 gene and association between its SNPs and growth traits in the clam Meretrix meretrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping; Huan, Pin; Wang, Hongxia; Lu, Xia; Liu, Baozhong

    2015-07-25

    Long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligases (ACSLs) play crucial roles in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. They convert free long-chain FA into acyl-CoAs, which are key intermediates in both anabolic and catabolic pathways. A long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase gene was cloned in the clam Meretrix meretrix (MmeACSL1), with a full-length cDNA of 1865 bp encoding 475 amino acids. Its expression was only detected in hepatopancreas by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Expression level of MmeACSL1 exhibited a significant increase in a starvation experiment (Pgrowth traits (Pgrowth-related (Pgrowth traits of M. meretrix.

  17. In Vitro Selection of Optimal DNA Substrates for Ligation by a Water-Soluble Carbodiimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection to investigate the sequence requirements for efficient template-directed ligation of oligonucleotides at 0 deg C using a water-soluble carbodiimide as condensing agent. We find that only 2 bp at each side of the ligation junction are needed. We also studied chemical ligation of substrate ensembles that we have previously selected as optimal by RNA ligase or by DNA ligase. As anticipated, we find that substrates selected with DNA ligase ligate efficiently with a chemical ligating agent, and vice versa. Substrates selected using RNA ligase are not ligated by the chemical condensing agent and vice versa. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry are discussed.

  18. The tomato DWD motif-containing protein DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase and plays a pivotal role in abiotic stress responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Min [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Zhu, Yunye [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Qiao, Maiju [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tang, Xiaofeng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhao, Wei [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Xiao, Fangming [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Liu, Yongsheng, E-mail: liuyongsheng1122@hfut.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-resource and Eco-environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We identify DDI1 as a DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-interacting protein. • DDI1 interacts with the CUL4–DDB1-based ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus. • DDI1 plays a positive role in regulating abiotic stress response in tomato. - Abstract: CULLIN4(CUL4)–DAMAGED DNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (DDB1)-based ubiquitin ligase plays significant roles in multiple physiological processes via ubiquitination-mediated degradation of relevant target proteins. The DDB1–CUL4-associated factor (DCAF) acts as substrate receptor in the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex and determines substrate specificity. In this study, we identified a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) DDB1-interacting (DDI1) protein as a DCAF protein involved in response to abiotic stresses, including UV radiation, high salinity and osmotic stress. Co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay indicated that DDI1 associates with CUL4–DDB1 in the nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated the DDI1 gene is induced by salt, mannitol and UV-C treatment. Moreover, transgenic tomato plants with overexpression or knockdown of the DDI1 gene exhibited enhanced or attenuated tolerance to salt/mannitol/UV-C, respectively. Thus, our data suggest that DDI1 functions as a substrate receptor of the CUL4–DDB1 ubiquitin ligase, positively regulating abiotic stress response in tomato.

  19. Detection of ligation products of DNA linkers with 5'-OH ends by denaturing PAGE silver stain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    Full Text Available To explore if DNA linkers with 5'-hydroxyl (OH ends could be joined by commercial T4 and E. coli DNA ligase, these linkers were synthesized by using the solid-phase phosphoramidite method and joined by using commercial T4 and E. coli DNA ligases. The ligation products were detected by using denaturing PAGE silver stain and PCR method. About 0.5-1% of linkers A-B and E-F, and 0.13-0.5% of linkers C-D could be joined by T4 DNA ligases. About 0.25-0.77% of linkers A-B and E-F, and 0.06-0.39% of linkers C-D could be joined by E. coli DNA ligases. A 1-base deletion (-G and a 5-base deletion (-GGAGC could be found at the ligation junctions of the linkers. But about 80% of the ligation products purified with a PCR product purification kit did not contain these base deletions, meaning that some linkers had been correctly joined by T4 and E. coli DNA ligases. In addition, about 0.025-0.1% of oligo 11 could be phosphorylated by commercial T4 DNA ligase. The phosphorylation products could be increased when the phosphorylation reaction was extended from 1 hr to 2 hrs. We speculated that perhaps the linkers with 5'-OH ends could be joined by T4 or E. coli DNA ligase in 2 different manners: (i about 0.025-0.1% of linkers could be phosphorylated by commercial T4 DNA ligase, and then these phosphorylated linkers could be joined to the 3'-OH ends of other linkers; and (ii the linkers could delete one or more nucleotide(s at their 5'-ends and thereby generated some 5'-phosphate ends, and then these 5'-phosphate ends could be joined to the 3'-OH ends of other linkers at a low efficiency. Our findings may probably indicate that some DNA nicks with 5'-OH ends can be joined by commercial T4 or E. coli DNA ligase even in the absence of PNK.

  20. Identification of the DNA repair defects in a case of Dubowitz syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyin Yue

    Full Text Available Dubowitz Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with a unique set of clinical features including microcephaly and susceptibility to tumor formation. Although more than 140 cases of Dubowitz syndrome have been reported since 1965, the genetic defects of this disease has not been identified. In this study, we systematically analyzed the DNA damage response and repair capability of fibroblasts established from a Dubowitz Syndrome patient. Dubowitz syndrome fibroblasts are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation, bleomycin, and doxorubicin. However, they have relatively normal sensitivities to mitomycin-C, cisplatin, and camptothecin. Dubowitz syndrome fibroblasts also have normal DNA damage signaling and cell cycle checkpoint activations after DNA damage. These data implicate a defect in repair of DNA double strand break (DSB likely due to defective non-homologous end joining (NHEJ. We further sequenced several genes involved in NHEJ, and identified a pair of novel compound mutations in the DNA Ligase IV gene. Furthermore, expression of wild type DNA ligase IV completely complement the DNA repair defects in Dubowitz syndrome fibroblasts, suggesting that the DNA ligase IV mutation is solely responsible for the DNA repair defects. These data suggests that at least subset of Dubowitz syndrome can be attributed to DNA ligase IV mutations.

  1. Aminoacyl-coenzyme A synthesis catalyzed by a CoA ligase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Martijn J.; Jekel, Peter A.; Wijma, Hein J.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2011-01-01

    Coenzyme A ligases play an important role in metabolism by catalyzing the activation of carboxylic acids. In this study we describe the synthesis of aminoacyl-coenzyme As (CoAs) catalyzed by a CoA ligase from Penicillium chrysogenum. The enzyme accepted medium-chain length fatty acids as the best

  2. Dual roles of F123 in protein homodimerization and inhibitor binding to biotin protein ligase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Yap, Min Y; Perugini, Matthew A; Wallace, John C; Abell, Andrew D; Wilce, Matthew C J; Polyak, Steven W; Booker, Grant W

    2014-01-01

    Protein biotinylation is catalysed by biotin protein ligase (BPL). The most characterized BPL is from Escherichia coli where it functions as both a biotin ligase and a homodimeric transcriptional repressor. Here we investigated another bifunctional BPL from the clinically important Staphylococcus aureus (SaBPL). Unliganded SaBPL (apo) exists in a dimer-monomer equilibrium at low micromolar concentrations - a stark contrast to E. coli BPL (EcBPL) that is monomeric under the same conditions. EMSA and SAXS analysis demonstrated that dimeric apo SaBPL adopted a conformation that was competent to bind DNA and necessary for it to function as a transcription factor. The SaBPL dimer-monomer dissociation constant was 5.8-fold tighter when binding the inhibitor biotin acetylene, but unchanged with biotin. F123, located in the dimer interface, was critical for homodimerization. Inhibition studies together with surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed a strong correlation between inhibitor potency and slow dissociation kinetics. A 24-fold difference in Ki values for these two enzymes was explained by differences in enzyme:inhibitor dissociation rates. Substitution of F123 in SaBPL and its equivalent in EcBPL altered both inhibitor potency and dissociation. Hence, F123 in SaBPL has novel roles in both protein dimerization and ligand-binding that have not been reported in EcBPL.

  3. The U-Box/ARM E3 ligase PUB13 regulates cell death, defense, and flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ahn, Il-Pyung; Ning, Yuese; Park, Chan-Ho; Zeng, Lirong; Whitehill, Justin G A; Lu, Haibin; Zhao, Qingzhen; Ding, Bo; Xie, Qi; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dai, Liangying; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2012-05-01

    The components in plant signal transduction pathways are intertwined and affect each other to coordinate plant growth, development, and defenses to stresses. The role of ubiquitination in connecting these pathways, particularly plant innate immunity and flowering, is largely unknown. Here, we report the dual roles for the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Plant U-box protein13 (PUB13) in defense and flowering time control. In vitro ubiquitination assays indicated that PUB13 is an active E3 ubiquitin ligase and that the intact U-box domain is required for the E3 ligase activity. Disruption of the PUB13 gene by T-DNA insertion results in spontaneous cell death, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid (SA), and elevated resistance to biotrophic pathogens but increased susceptibility to necrotrophic pathogens. The cell death, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens in pub13 are enhanced when plants are pretreated with high humidity. Importantly, pub13 also shows early flowering under middle- and long-day conditions, in which the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 and FLOWERING LOCUS T is induced while FLOWERING LOCUS C expression is suppressed. Finally, we found that two components involved in the SA-mediated signaling pathway, SID2 and PAD4, are required for the defense and flowering-time phenotypes caused by the loss of function of PUB13. Taken together, our data demonstrate that PUB13 acts as an important node connecting SA-dependent defense signaling and flowering time regulation in Arabidopsis.

  4. The CUL4A ubiquitin ligase is a potential therapeutic target in skin cancer and other malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrey Hannah; Peng-Bo Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Cullin 4A (CUL4A) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that directly affects DNA repair and cel cycle progression by targeting substrates including damage-specific DNA-binding protein 2 (DDB2), xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC), chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 (Cdt1), and p21. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that Cul4a-deficient mice have greatly reduced rates of ultraviolet-induced skin carcinomas. On a cel ular level, Cul4a-deficient cel s have great capacity for DNA repair and demonstrate a slow rate of proliferation due primarily to increased expression of DDB2 and p21, respectively. This suggests that CUL4A promotes tumorigenesis (as well as accumulation of skin damage and subsequent premature aging) by limiting DNA repair activity and expediting S phase entry. In addition, CUL4A has been found to be up-regulated via gene amplification or overexpression in breast cancers, hepatocellular carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, childhood medulloblastomas, and malignant pleural mesotheliomas. Because of its oncogenic activity in skin cancer and up-regulation in other malignancies, CUL4A has arisen as a potential candidate for targeted therapeutic approaches. In this review, we outline the established functions of CUL4A and discuss the E3 ligase’s emergence as a potential driver of tumorigenesis.

  5. Efficient gene targeting in ligase IV-deficient Monascus ruber M7 by perturbing the non-homologous end joining pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2014-01-01

    Inactivating the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway is a well established method to increase gene replacement frequency (GRF) in filamentous fungi because NHEJ is predominant for the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), while gene targeting is based on homologous recombination (HR). DNA ligase IV, a component of the NHEJ system, is strictly required for the NHEJ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. To enhance the GRF in Monascus ruber M7, we deleted the Mrlig4 gene encoding a homolog of N. crassa DNA ligase IV. The obtained mutant (MrΔlig4) showed no apparent defects in vegetative growth, colony phenotype, microscopic morphology, spore yield, and production of Monascus pigments and citrinin compared with the wild-type strain (M. ruber M7). Gene targeting of ku70 and triA genes revealed that GRF in the MrΔlig4 strain increased four-fold compared with that in the wild-type strain, reached 68 % and 85 %, respectively. Thus, the MrΔlig4 strain is a promising host for efficient genetic manipulation. In addition, the MrΔlig4 strain is more sensitive than M. ruber M7 to a DNA-damaging agent, methyl methanesulfonate.

  6. A design principle underlying the paradoxical roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daewon; Kim, Minjin; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-07-01

    E3 ubiquitin ligases are important cellular components that determine the specificity of proteolysis in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, an increasing number of studies have indicated that E3 ubiquitin ligases also participate in transcription. Intrigued by the apparently paradoxical functions of E3 ubiquitin ligases in both proteolysis and transcriptional activation, we investigated the underlying design principles using mathematical modeling. We found that the antagonistic functions integrated in E3 ubiquitin ligases can prevent any undesirable sustained activation of downstream genes when E3 ubiquitin ligases are destabilized by unexpected perturbations. Interestingly, this design principle of the system is similar to the operational principle of a safety interlock device in engineering systems, which prevents a system from abnormal operation unless stability is guaranteed.

  7. E3 ubiquitin ligases as drug targets and prognostic biomarkers in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Bielskienė

    2015-01-01

    E3 ligases are of interest as drug targets for their ability to regulate proteins stability and functions. Compared to the general proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, which blocks the entire protein degradation, drugs that target a particular E3 ligase are expected to have better selectivity with less associated toxicity. Components of different E3 ligases complexes (FBW7, MDM2, RBX1/ROC1, RBX2/ROC2, cullins and many others are known as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in melanomagenesis. These proteins participate in regulation of different cellular pathways and such important proteins in cancer development as p53 and Notch. In this review we summarized published data on the role of known E3 ligases in the development of melanoma and discuss the inhibitors of E3 ligases as a novel approach for the treatment of malignant melanomas.

  8. Prokaryotic BirA ligase biotinylates K4, K9, K18 and K23 in eukaryotic histone H3

    Science.gov (United States)

    BirA ligase, a prokaryotic ortholog of human holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS), is known to biotinylate proteins. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BirA ligase may also catalyze biotinylation of eukaryotic histones. If so, this would render recombinant BirA ligase a useful surrogate for HCS in stud...

  9. Mechanism of ubiquitylation by dimeric RING ligase RNF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plechanovová, Anna; Jaffray, Ellis G.; McMahon, Stephen A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Navrátilová, Iva; Naismith, James H.; Hay, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian RNF4 is a dimeric RING ubiquitin E3 ligase that ubiquitylates poly-SUMOylated proteins. We found that RNF4 bound ubiquitin-charged UbcH5a tightly but free UbcH5a weakly. To provide insight into the mechanism of RING-mediated ubiquitylation we docked the UbcH5~ubiquitin thioester onto the RNF4 RING structure. This revealed that with E2 bound to one monomer of RNF4, the thioester-linked ubiquitin could reach across the dimer to engage the other monomer. In this model the “Ile44 hydrophobic patch” of ubiquitin is predicted to engage a conserved tyrosine located at the dimer interface of the RING and mutation of these residues blocked ubiquitylation activity. Thus, dimeric RING ligases are not simply inert scaffolds that bring substrate and E2-loaded ubiquitin into close proximity. Instead, they facilitate ubiquitin transfer by preferentially binding the E2~ubiquitin thioester across the dimer and activating the thioester bond for catalysis. PMID:21857666

  10. Molecular insights into RBR E3 ligase ubiquitin transfer mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Katja K; Stieglitz, Benjamin; Duncan, Emily D; Rittinger, Katrin; Klevit, Rachel E

    2016-08-01

    RING-in-between-RING (RBR) ubiquitin (Ub) ligases are a distinct class of E3s, defined by a RING1 domain that binds E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme and a RING2 domain that contains an active site cysteine similar to HECT-type E3s. Proposed to function as RING/HECT hybrids, details regarding the Ub transfer mechanism used by RBRs have yet to be defined. When paired with RING-type E3s, E2s perform the final step of Ub ligation to a substrate. In contrast, when paired with RBR E3s, E2s must transfer Ub onto the E3 to generate a E3~Ub intermediate. We show that RBRs utilize two strategies to ensure transfer of Ub from the E2 onto the E3 active site. First, RING1 domains of HHARI and RNF144 promote open E2~Ubs. Second, we identify a Ub-binding site on HHARI RING2 important for its recruitment to RING1-bound E2~Ub. Mutations that ablate Ub binding to HHARI RING2 also decrease RBR ligase activity, consistent with RING2 recruitment being a critical step for the RBR Ub transfer mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanism defined here is utilized by a variety of RBRs.

  11. Reconciling Ligase Ribozyme Activity with Fatty Acid Vesicle Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Anella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The “RNA world” and the “Lipid world” theories for the origin of cellular life are often considered incompatible due to the differences in the environmental conditions at which they can emerge. One obstacle resides in the conflicting requirements for divalent metal ions, in particular Mg2+, with respect to optimal ribozyme activity, fatty acid vesicle stability and protection against RNA strand cleavage. Here, we report on the activity of a short L1 ligase ribozyme in the presence of myristoleic acid (MA vesicles at varying concentrations of Mg2+. The ligation rate is significantly lower at low-Mg2+ conditions. However, the loss of activity is overcompensated by the increased stability of RNA leading to a larger amount of intact ligated substrate after long reaction periods. Combining RNA ligation assays with fatty acid vesicles we found that MA vesicles made of 5 mM amphiphile are stable and do not impair ligase ribozyme activity in the presence of approximately 2 mM Mg2+. These results provide a scenario in which catalytic RNA and primordial membrane assembly can coexist in the same environment.

  12. Monitoring the Bending Stiffness of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chongli; Lou, Xiongwen; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Chen, Huimin; Archer, Lynden

    2007-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the accessibility of genomic sequences provides an inherent regulation mechanism for gene expression through variations in bending stiffness encoded by the nucleic acid sequence. Cyclization of dsDNA is the prevailing method for determining DNA bending stiffness. Recent cyclization data for short dsDNA raises several fundamental questions about the soundness of the cyclization method, particularly in cases where the probability of highly bent DNA conformations is low. We herein evaluate the role of T4 DNA ligase in the cyclization reaction by inserting an environmental sensitive base analogue, 2-amino purine, to the DNA molecule. By monitoring the 2-AP fluorescence under standard cyclization conditions, it is found that in addition to trapping highly-bent cyclic DNA conformations, T4 DNA ligase enhances the apparent base pair flip out rate, thus exaggerating the measured flexibility. This result is further confirmed using fluorescence anisotropy experiments. We show that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on suitably labeled dsDNA provides an alternative approach for quantifying the bending stiffness of short fragments. DNA bending stiffness results obtained using FRET are compared with literature values.

  13. Ubiquitin E3 ligase FIEL1 regulates fibrotic lung injury through SUMO-E3 ligase PIAS4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Travis; McKelvey, Alison C; Rajbhandari, Shristi; Dunn, Sarah R; Coon, Tiffany A; Connelly, William; Zhao, Joe Y; Kass, Daniel J; Zhang, Yingze; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Bill B

    2016-05-30

    The E3 small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) is a pivotal protein in regulating the TGFβ pathway. In this study, we discovered a new protein isoform encoded by KIAA0317, termed fibrosis-inducing E3 ligase 1 (FIEL1), which potently stimulates the TGFβ signaling pathway through the site-specific ubiquitination of PIAS4. FIEL1 targets PIAS4 using a double locking mechanism that is facilitated by the kinases PKCζ and GSK3β. Specifically, PKCζ phosphorylation of PIAS4 and GSK3β phosphorylation of FIEL1 are both essential for the degradation of PIAS4. FIEL1 protein is highly expressed in lung tissues from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), whereas PIAS4 protein levels are significantly reduced. FIEL1 overexpression significantly increases fibrosis in a bleomycin murine model, whereas FIEL1 knockdown attenuates fibrotic conditions. Further, we developed a first-in-class small molecule inhibitor toward FIEL1 that is highly effective in ameliorating fibrosis in mice. This study provides a basis for IPF therapeutic intervention by modulating PIAS4 protein abundance.

  14. High taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota by Ligase Detection Reaction - Universal Array approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Beatrice

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affecting the core functional microbiome, peculiar high level taxonomic unbalances of the human intestinal microbiota have been recently associated with specific diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal inflammation. Results In order to specifically monitor microbiota unbalances that impact human physiology, here we develop and validate an original DNA-microarray (HTF-Microbi.Array for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota. Based on the Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA approach, the HTF-Microbi.Array enables specific detection and approximate relative quantification of 16S rRNAs from 30 phylogenetically related groups of the human intestinal microbiota. The HTF-Microbi.Array was used in a pilot study of the faecal microbiota of eight young adults. Cluster analysis revealed the good reproducibility of the high level taxonomic microbiota fingerprint obtained for each of the subject. Conclusion The HTF-Microbi.Array is a fast and sensitive tool for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota in terms of presence/absence of the principal groups. Moreover, analysis of the relative fluorescence intensity for each probe pair of our LDR-UA platform can provide estimation of the relative abundance of the microbial target groups within each samples. Focusing the phylogenetic resolution at division, order and cluster levels, the HTF-Microbi.Array is blind with respect to the inter-individual variability at the species level.

  15. Myc protein is stabilized by suppression of a novel E3 ligase complex in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung H.; Wright, Jason B.; Gerber, Scott A.; Cole, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid Myc protein turnover is critical for maintaining basal levels of Myc activity in normal cells and a prompt response to changing growth signals. We characterize a new Myc-interacting factor, TRPC4AP (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 4-associated protein)/TRUSS (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ubiquitous scaffolding and signaling protein), which is the receptor for a DDB1 (damage-specific DNA-binding protein 1)–CUL4 (Cullin 4) E3 ligase complex for selective Myc degradation through the proteasome. TRPC4AP/TRUSS binds specifically to the Myc C terminus and promotes its ubiquitination and destruction through the recognition of evolutionarily conserved domains in the Myc N terminus. TRPC4AP/TRUSS suppresses Myc-mediated transactivation and transformation in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, we found that TRPC4AP/TRUSS expression is strongly down-regulated in most cancer cell lines, leading to Myc protein stabilization. These studies identify a novel pathway targeting Myc degradation that is suppressed in cancer cells. PMID:20551172

  16. Cloning and functional characterization of a 4-coumarate CoA ligase from liverwort Plagiochasma appendiculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuai; Yu, Hai-Na; Xu, Rui-Xue; Cheng, Ai-Xia; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Plant phenylpropanoids represent a large group of secondary metabolites which have played an important role in terrestrial plant life, beginning with the evolution of land plants from primitive green algae. 4-Coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is a provider of activated thioester substrates within the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Although 4CLs have been extensively characterized in angiosperm, gymnosperm and moss species, little is known of their functions in liverworts. Here, a 4CL homolog (designated as Pa4CL1) was isolated from the liverwort species Plagiochasma appendiculatum. The full-length cDNA sequence of Pa4CL1 contains 1644bp and is predicted to encode a protein with 547amino acids. The gene products were 40-50% identical with 4CL sequences reported in public databases. The recombinant protein was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and exhibited a high level of 4CL activity, catalyzing formation of hydroxycinnamate-CoA thioesters by a two-step reaction mechanism from corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids. Kinetic analysis indicated that the most favorable substrate for Pa4CL1 is p-coumaric acid. The transcription of Pa4CL1 was induced when P. appendiculatum thallus was treated with either salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate.

  17. Chromatin remodelers in the DNA double strand break response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, Godelieve

    2012-01-01

    During my PhD project, I studied the role of several chromatin remodelers in the DNA double strand break (DSB) response. We discovered that both CHD4 and SMARCA5 are required for ubiquitin signaling through the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, which is a central signaling event in the response

  18. Chromatin remodelers in the DNA double strand break response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, Godelieve

    2012-01-01

    During my PhD project, I studied the role of several chromatin remodelers in the DNA double strand break (DSB) response. We discovered that both CHD4 and SMARCA5 are required for ubiquitin signaling through the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, which is a central signaling event in the response

  19. COP9 signalosome: a provider of DNA building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Olaf

    2003-01-01

    In fission yeast, the COP9 signalosome is required to activate ribonucleotide reductase for DNA synthesis. This is mediated via the ubiquitin ligase Pcu4, activation of which leads to degradation of the scaffold protein Spd1, which anchors the small ribonucleotide reductase subunit in the nucleus...

  20. COP9 signalosome: a provider of DNA building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Olaf

    2003-01-01

    In fission yeast, the COP9 signalosome is required to activate ribonucleotide reductase for DNA synthesis. This is mediated via the ubiquitin ligase Pcu4, activation of which leads to degradation of the scaffold protein Spd1, which anchors the small ribonucleotide reductase subunit in the nucleus...

  1. Akt is negatively regulated by the MULAN E3 ligase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seunghee Bae; Jongdoo Kim; Hong-Duck Um; In-Chul Park; Su-Jae Lee; Seon Young Nam; Young-Woo Jin; Jae Ho Lee; Sungkwan An; Sun-Yong Kim; Jin Hyuk Jung; Yeongmin Yoon; Hwa Jun Cha; Hyunjin Lee; Karam Kim; Jongran Kim; In-Sook An

    2012-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Akt functions in multiple cellular processes,including cell survival and tumor development.Studies of the mechanisms that negatively regulate Akt have focused on dephosphorylation-mediated inactivation.In this study,we identified a negative regulator of Akt,MULAN,which possesses both a RING finger domain and E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.Akt was found to directly interact with MULAN and to be ubiquitinated by MULAN in vitro and in vivo.Other molecular assays demonstrated that phosphorylated Akt is a substantive target for both interaction with MULAN and ubiquitination by MULAN.The results of the functional studies suggest that the degradation of Akt by MULAN suppresses cell proliferation and viability.These data provide insight into the Akt ubiquitination signaling network.

  2. Detection of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae from Urine with Ligase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹经江; 郑和义; 胡维

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of ligase chain reaction(LCR) in the diagnosis of diplococcus gonorrhoeae in urine.Methods: LCR detection of the urine for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and bacteria culture of discharge was per-formed simultaneously to 276 patients with urethritis or cervicitis seeking treatment in sex transmitted dis-eases (STDs) outpatient clinic. For specimens with discordant results, polymerase chain reaction was conducted. The purpose was to detect the respective sensitivity and specificity of bacteria culture and LCR. Results: 24 of 276(8.7%) patients had positive LCR results and 21 of 276(7.6%) were positive for culture.5 specimens had discordant results from LCR and bacteria culture. The sensitivity and specificity of LCR in the diagnosis of gonorrhoeae were 92.3% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that LCR had a higher sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gonorrhoeae from urine.

  3. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4 activates its ubiquitin ligase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Avinash; Alberts, Philipp; Mari, Sara; Tong, Jiefei; Murchie, Ryan; Maspero, Elena; Safi, Frozan; Moran, Michael F; Polo, Simona; Rotin, Daniela

    2014-10-07

    Ligand binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1 (FGFR1) causes dimerization and activation by transphosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the kinase domain. FGFR1 is ubiquitylated by the E3 ligase NEDD4 (also known as NEDD4-1), which promotes FGFR1 internalization and degradation. Although phosphorylation of FGFR1 is required for NEDD4-dependent endocytosis, NEDD4 directly binds to a nonphosphorylated region of FGFR1. We found that activation of FGFR1 led to activation of c-Src kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD4, enhancing the ubiquitin ligase activity of NEDD4. Using mass spectrometry, we identified several FGF-dependent phosphorylated tyrosines in NEDD4, including Tyr(43) in the C2 domain and Tyr(585) in the HECT domain. Mutating these tyrosines to phenylalanine to prevent phosphorylation inhibited FGF-dependent NEDD4 activity and FGFR1 endocytosis and enhanced cell proliferation. Mutating the tyrosines to glutamic acid to mimic phosphorylation enhanced NEDD4 activity. Moreover, the NEDD4 C2 domain bound the HECT domain, and the presence of phosphomimetic mutations inhibited this interaction, suggesting that phosphorylation of NEDD4 relieves an inhibitory intra- or intermolecular interaction. Accordingly, activation of FGFR1 was not required for activation of NEDD4 that lacked its C2 domain. Activation of c-Src by epidermal growth factor (EGF) also promoted tyrosine phosphorylation and enhanced the activity of NEDD4. Thus, we identified a feedback mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases promote catalytic activation of NEDD4 and that may represent a mechanism of receptor crosstalk.

  4. Gene Inactivation in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and the Green Sulfur Bacterium Chlorobium tepidum Using In Vitro-Made DNA Constructs and Natural Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Sakuragi, Yumiko; Bryant, Donald A

    2004-01-01

    Chlorobium tepidum by natural transformation with synthetic DNA constructs. Two alternative methods to generate the DNA constructs, both performed entirely in vitro and based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are also presented. These methods are ligation of DNA fragments with T4 DNA ligase...

  5. Studies on DNA Cleaved by Seryl-histidine Dipeptide%丝组二肽对DNA的切割作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万荣; 王宁; 赵玉芬

    2001-01-01

    Linear and supercoiled DNA were cleaved by HPLC purified seryl-histidine dipeptide(SH). It was found that the DNA fragments produced by the reaction of SH and DNA could be ligated together by T4 DNA ligase. This result implied that the SH was the first example of the ion-free artificial DNA cleavage agent that could split DNA by hydrolysis mechanism.

  6. Chemically-enzymatic synthesis of photosensitive DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Kinga; Zdrowowicz, Magdalena; Zylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Rak, Janusz

    2017-02-01

    The sensitizing propensity of radio-/photosensitizing nucleoside depends on DNA sequence surrounding a sensitizer. Therefore, in order to compare sensitizers with regard to their ability to induce a DNA damage one has to study the sequence dependence of damage yield. However, chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides labeled with sensitizing nucleosides is hindered due to the fact that a limited number of such nucleoside phosphoramidites are accessible. Here, we report on a chemically-enzymatic method, employing a DNA polymerase and ligase, that enables a modified nucleoside, in the form of its 5'-triphosphate, to be incorporated into DNA fragment in a pre-determined site. Using such a protocol two double-stranded DNA fragments - a long one, 75 base pairs (bp), and a short one, 30bp in length - were pin-point labeled with 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Four DNA polymerases together with DHPLC for the inspection of reaction progress were used to optimize the process under consideration. As an ultimate test showing that the product possessing an assumed nucleotide sequence was actually obtained, we irradiated the synthesized oligonucleotide with UVB photons and analyzed its photoreactivity with the LC-MS method. Our results prove that a general approach enabling precise labeling of DNA with any nucleoside modification processed by DNA polymerase and ligase has been worked out.

  7. Crystal structure of lipoate-bound lipoate ligase 1, LipL1, from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alfredo J; Afanador, Gustavo A; Prigge, Sean T

    2017-09-01

    Plasmodium falciparum lipoate protein ligase 1 (PfLipL1) is an ATP-dependent ligase that belongs to the biotin/lipoate A/B protein ligase family (PFAM PF03099). PfLipL1 is the only known canonical lipoate ligase in Pf and functions as a redox switch between two lipoylation routes in the parasite mitochondrion. Here, we report the crystal structure of a deletion construct of PfLipL1 (PfLipL1Δ243-279 ) bound to lipoate, and validate the lipoylation activity of this construct in both an in vitro lipoylation assay and a cell-based lipoylation assay. This characterization represents the first step in understanding the redox dependence of the lipoylation mechanism in malaria parasites. Proteins 2017; 85:1777-1783. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry and ubiquitylates Aurora-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Saili; Jiang, Fei; Miura, Yoshie; Cerny, Ronald L; Tsai, Ming-Ying; Furukawa, Manabu

    2012-02-15

    The cullin-RING family of ubiquitin ligases regulates diverse cellular functions, such as cell cycle control, via ubiquitylation of specific substrates. CUL3 targets its substrates through BTB proteins. Here we show that depletion of CUL3 and the BTB protein KLHL18 causes a delay in mitotic entry. Centrosomal activation of Aurora-A, a kinase whose activity is required for entry into mitosis, is also delayed in depleted cells. Moreover, we identify Aurora-A as a KLHL18-interacting partner. Overexpression of KLHL18 and CUL3 promotes Aurora-A ubiquitylation in vivo, and the CUL3-KLHL18-ROC1 ligase ubiquitylates Aurora-A in vitro. Our study reveals that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase is required for timely entry into mitosis, as well as for the activation of Aurora-A at centrosomes. We propose that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry through an Aurora-A-dependent pathway.

  9. The CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry and ubiquitylates Aurora-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saili Moghe

    2012-02-01

    The cullin-RING family of ubiquitin ligases regulates diverse cellular functions, such as cell cycle control, via ubiquitylation of specific substrates. CUL3 targets its substrates through BTB proteins. Here we show that depletion of CUL3 and the BTB protein KLHL18 causes a delay in mitotic entry. Centrosomal activation of Aurora-A, a kinase whose activity is required for entry into mitosis, is also delayed in depleted cells. Moreover, we identify Aurora-A as a KLHL18-interacting partner. Overexpression of KLHL18 and CUL3 promotes Aurora-A ubiquitylation in vivo, and the CUL3-KLHL18-ROC1 ligase ubiquitylates Aurora-A in vitro. Our study reveals that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase is required for timely entry into mitosis, as well as for the activation of Aurora-A at centrosomes. We propose that the CUL3-KLHL18 ligase regulates mitotic entry through an Aurora-A-dependent pathway.

  10. Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Nielsen, Sofie Vincents; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Since the accumulation of such proteins is potentially harmful for the cell, their prompt removal is important. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases mediate substrate ubiquitination by bringing together the substrate with an E2...... ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which transfers ubiquitin to the substrate. For misfolded proteins, substrate recognition is generally delegated to molecular chaperones that subsequently interact with specific E3 ligases. An important exception is San1, a yeast E3 ligase. San1 harbors extensive regions...... of intrinsic disorder, which provide both conformational flexibility and sites for direct recognition of misfolded targets of vastly different conformations. So far, no mammalian ortholog of San1 is known, nor is it clear whether other E3 ligases utilize disordered regions for substrate recognition. Here, we...

  11. Prokaryotic BirA ligase biotinylates K4, K9, K18 and K23 in histone H3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Keyna; Sarath, Gautam; Zempleni, Janos

    2008-04-30

    BirA ligase is a prokaryotic ortholog of holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) that can biotinylate proteins. This study tested the hypothesis that BirA ligase catalyzes the biotinylation of eukaryotic histones. If so, this would mean that recombinant BirA ligase is a useful surrogate for HCS in studies of histone biotinylation. The biological activity of recombinant BirA ligase was confirmed by enzymatic biotinylation of p67. In particular, it was found that BirA ligase biotinylated both calf thymus histone H1 and human bulk histone extracts. Incubation of recombinant BirA ligase with H3-based synthetic peptides showed that lysines 4, 9, 18, and 23 in histone H3 are the targets for the biotinylation by BirA ligase. Modification of the peptides (e.g., serine phosphorylation) affected the subsequent biotinylation by BirA ligase, suggesting crosstalk between modifications. In conclusion, this study suggests that prokaryotic BirA ligase is a promiscuous enzyme and biotinylates eukaryotic histones. Moreover the biotinylation of histones by BirA ligase is consistent with the proposed role of human HCS in chromatin.

  12. Structure of the HHARI catalytic domain shows glimpses of a HECT E3 ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E Spratt

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-signaling pathway utilizes E1 activating, E2 conjugating, and E3 ligase enzymes to sequentially transfer the small modifier protein ubiquitin to a substrate protein. During the last step of this cascade different types of E3 ligases either act as scaffolds to recruit an E2 enzyme and substrate (RING, or form an ubiquitin-thioester intermediate prior to transferring ubiquitin to a substrate (HECT. The RING-inBetweenRING-RING (RBR proteins constitute a unique group of E3 ubiquitin ligases that includes the Human Homologue of Drosophila Ariadne (HHARI. These E3 ligases are proposed to use a hybrid RING/HECT mechanism whereby the enzyme uses facets of both the RING and HECT enzymes to transfer ubiquitin to a substrate. We now present the solution structure of the HHARI RING2 domain, the key portion of this E3 ligase required for the RING/HECT hybrid mechanism. The structure shows the domain possesses two Zn²⁺-binding sites and a single exposed cysteine used for ubiquitin catalysis. A structural comparison of the RING2 domain with the HECT E3 ligase NEDD4 reveals a near mirror image of the cysteine and histidine residues in the catalytic site. Further, a tandem pair of aromatic residues exists near the C-terminus of the HHARI RING2 domain that is conserved in other RBR E3 ligases. One of these aromatic residues is remotely located from the catalytic site that is reminiscent of the location found in HECT E3 enzymes where it is used for ubiquitin catalysis. These observations provide an initial structural rationale for the RING/HECT hybrid mechanism for ubiquitination used by the RBR E3 ligases.

  13. Pseudosubstrate regulation of the SCF(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase by hnRNP-U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Matti; Hatzubai, Ada; Andersen, Jens S

    2002-01-01

    beta-TrCP/E3RS (E3RS) is the F-box protein that functions as the receptor subunit of the SCF(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase (E3). Surprisingly, although its two recognized substrates, IkappaB(alpha) and beta-catenin, are present in the cytoplasm, we have found that E3RS is located predominantly......, and efficacy of a specific protein-ubiquitin ligase....

  14. Determination of human DNA polymerase utilization for the repair of a model ionizing radiation-induced DNA strand break lesion in a defined vector substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, T. A.; Russell, P. S.; Kohli, M.; Dar, M. E.; Neumann, R. D.; Jorgensen, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    Human DNA polymerase and DNA ligase utilization for the repair of a major class of ionizing radiation-induced DNA lesion [DNA single-strand breaks containing 3'-phosphoglycolate (3'-PG)] was examined using a novel, chemically defined vector substrate containing a single, site-specific 3'-PG single-strand break lesion. In addition, the major human AP endonuclease, HAP1 (also known as APE1, APEX, Ref-1), was tested to determine if it was involved in initiating repair of 3'-PG-containing single-strand break lesions. DNA polymerase beta was found to be the primary polymerase responsible for nucleotide incorporation at the lesion site following excision of the 3'-PG blocking group. However, DNA polymerase delta/straightepsilon was also capable of nucleotide incorporation at the lesion site following 3'-PG excision. In addition, repair reactions catalyzed by DNA polymerase beta were found to be most effective in the presence of DNA ligase III, while those catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta/straightepsilon appeared to be more effective in the presence of DNA ligase I. Also, it was demonstrated that the repair initiating 3'-PG excision reaction was not dependent upon HAP1 activity, as judged by inhibition of HAP1 with neutralizing HAP1-specific polyclonal antibody.

  15. HIV-1 Vpr-mediated G2 arrest involves the DDB1-CUL4AVPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Belzile

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr has been shown to cause G2 cell cycle arrest in human cells by inducing ATR-mediated inactivation of p34cdc2, but factors directly engaged in this process remain unknown. We used tandem affinity purification to isolate native Vpr complexes. We found that damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1, viral protein R binding protein (VPRBP, and cullin 4A (CUL4A--components of a CUL4A E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, DDB1-CUL4A(VPRBP--were able to associate with Vpr. Depletion of VPRBP by small interfering RNA impaired Vpr-mediated induction of G2 arrest. Importantly, VPRBP knockdown alone did not affect normal cell cycle progression or activation of ATR checkpoints, suggesting that the involvement of VPRBP in G2 arrest was specific to Vpr. Moreover, leucine/isoleucine-rich domain Vpr mutants impaired in their ability to interact with VPRBP and DDB1 also produced strongly attenuated G2 arrest. In contrast, G2 arrest-defective C-terminal Vpr mutants were found to maintain their ability to associate with these proteins, suggesting that the interaction of Vpr with the DDB1-VPRBP complex is necessary but not sufficient to block cell cycle progression. Overall, these results point toward a model in which Vpr could act as a connector between the DDB1-CUL4A(VPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and an unknown cellular factor whose proteolysis or modulation of activity through ubiquitination would activate ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling and induce G2 arrest.

  16. Distinct and overlapping functions of the cullin E3 ligase scaffolding proteins CUL4A and CUL4B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The cullin 4 subfamily of genes includes CUL4A and CUL4B, which share a mostly identical amino acid sequence aside from the elongated N-terminal region in CUL4B. Both act as scaffolding proteins for modular cullin RING ligase 4 (CRL4) complexes which promote the ubiquitination of a variety of substrates. CRL4 function is vital to cells as loss of both genes or their shared substrate adaptor protein DDB1 halts proliferation and eventually leads to cell death. Due to their high structural similarity, CUL4A and CUL4B share a substantial overlap in function. However, in some cases, differences in subcellular localization, spatiotemporal expression patterns and stress-inducibility preclude functional compensation. In this review, we highlight the most essential functions of the CUL4 genes in: DNA repair and replication, chromatin-remodeling, cell cycle regulation, embryogenesis, hematopoiesis and spermatogenesis. CUL4 genes are also clinically relevant as dysregulation can contribute to the onset of cancer and CRL4 complexes are often hijacked by certain viruses to promote viral replication and survival. Also, mutations in CUL4B have been implicated in a subset of patients suffering from syndromic X-linked intellectual disability (AKA mental retardation). Interestingly, the antitumor effects of immunomodulatory drugs are caused by their binding to the CRL4CRBN complex and re-directing the E3 ligase towards the Ikaros transcription factors IKZF1 and IKZF3. Because of their influence over key cellular functions and relevance to human disease, CRL4s are considered promising targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26344709

  17. JMJD1C demethylates MDC1 to regulate the RNF8 and BRCA1-mediated chromatin response to DNA breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Sugiko; Watanabe, Kenji; Akimov, Vyacheslav;

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin ubiquitylation flanking DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), mediated by RNF8 and RNF168 ubiquitin ligases, orchestrates a two-branch pathway, recruiting repair factors 53BP1 or the RAP80-BRCA1 complex. We report that human demethylase JMJD1C regulates the RAP80-BRCA1 branch of this DNA...

  18. Biotin Protein Ligase Is a Target for New Antibacterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiage Feng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a desperate need for novel antibiotic classes to combat the rise of drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Inhibitors of the essential metabolic enzyme biotin protein ligase (BPL represent a promising drug target for new antibacterials. Structural and biochemical studies on the BPL from S. aureus have paved the way for the design and development of new antibacterial chemotherapeutics. BPL employs an ordered ligand binding mechanism for the synthesis of the reaction intermediate biotinyl-5′-AMP from substrates biotin and ATP. Here we review the structure and catalytic mechanism of the target enzyme, along with an overview of chemical analogues of biotin and biotinyl-5′-AMP as BPL inhibitors reported to date. Of particular promise are studies to replace the labile phosphoroanhydride linker present in biotinyl-5′-AMP with alternative bioisosteres. A novel in situ click approach using a mutant of S. aureus BPL as a template for the synthesis of triazole-based inhibitors is also presented. These approaches can be widely applied to BPLs from other bacteria, as well as other closely related metabolic enzymes and antibacterial drug targets.

  19. Overexpression of a Soybean Ariadne-Like Ubiquitin Ligase Gene GmARI1 Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolian Zhang; Ning Wang; Pei Chen; Mengmeng Gao; Juge Liu; Yufeng Wang; Tuanjie Zhao; Yan Li; Junyi Gai

    2014-01-01

    Ariadne (ARI) subfamily of RBR (Ring Between Ring fingers) proteins have been found as a group of putative E3 ubiquitin ligases containing RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domains in fruitfly, mouse, human and Arabidopsis. Recent studies showed several RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases play important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses, but the function of ARI in plants is largely unknown. In this study, an ariadne-like E3 ubiquitin ligase gene was isolated from soybean, Glycine...

  20. Non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and 2 enhance ligation reaction of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaki, S; Yamamoto, M; Yumoto, Y; Shirakawa, H; Yoshida, M; Teraoka, H

    1998-05-08

    DNA ligase IV in a complex with XRCC4 is responsible for DNA end-joining in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and V(D)J recombination. We found that non-histone chromosomal high mobility group (HMG) proteins 1 and 2 enhanced the ligation of linearized pUC119 DNA with DNA ligase IV from rat liver nuclear extract. Intra-molecular and inter-molecular ligations of cohesive-ended and blunt-ended DNA were markedly stimulated by HMG1 and 2. Recombinant HMG2-domain A, B, and (A + B) polypeptides were similarly, but non-identically, effective for the stimulation of DSB ligation reaction. Ligation of single-strand breaks (nicks) was only slightly activated by the HMG proteins. The DNA end-binding Ku protein singly or in combination with the catalytic component of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) as the DNA-PK holoenzyme was ineffective for the ligation of linearized pUC119 DNA. Although the stimulatory effect of HMG1 and 2 on ligation of DSB in vitro was not specific to DNA ligase IV, these results suggest that HMG1 and 2 are involved in the final ligation step in DNA end-joining processes of DSB repair and V(D)J recombination.

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum Exit of Golgi-resident Defective for SREBP Cleavage (Dsc) E3 Ligase Complex Requires Its Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Sumana; Espenshade, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Layers of quality control ensure proper protein folding and complex formation prior to exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. The fission yeast Dsc E3 ligase is a Golgi-localized complex required for sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor activation that shows architectural similarity to endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation E3 ligases. The Dsc E3 ligase consists of five integral membrane proteins (Dsc1-Dsc5) and functionally interacts with the conserved AAA-ATPase Cdc48. Utilizing an in vitro ubiquitination assay, we demonstrated that Dsc1 has ubiquitin E3 ligase activity that requires the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc4. Mutations that specifically block Dsc1-Ubc4 interaction prevent SREBP cleavage, indicating that SREBP activation requires Dsc E3 ligase activity. Surprisingly, Golgi localization of the Dsc E3 ligase complex also requires Dsc1 E3 ligase activity. Analysis of Dsc E3 ligase complex formation, glycosylation, and localization indicated that Dsc1 E3 ligase activity is specifically required for endoplasmic reticulum exit of the complex. These results define enzyme activity-dependent sorting as an autoregulatory mechanism for protein trafficking.

  2. RBR E3 ubiquitin ligases: new structures, new insights, new questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Donald E; Walden, Helen; Shaw, Gary S

    2014-03-15

    The RBR (RING-BetweenRING-RING) or TRIAD [two RING fingers and a DRIL (double RING finger linked)] E3 ubiquitin ligases comprise a group of 12 complex multidomain enzymes. This unique family of E3 ligases includes parkin, whose dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of early-onset Parkinson's disease, and HOIP (HOIL-1-interacting protein) and HOIL-1 (haem-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1), members of the LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex). The RBR E3 ligases share common features with both the larger RING and HECT (homologous with E6-associated protein C-terminus) E3 ligase families, directly catalysing ubiquitin transfer from an intrinsic catalytic cysteine housed in the C-terminal domain, as well as recruiting thioester-bound E2 enzymes via a RING domain. Recent three-dimensional structures and biochemical findings of the RBRs have revealed novel protein domain folds not previously envisioned and some surprising modes of regulation that have raised many questions. This has required renaming two of the domains in the RBR E3 ligases to more accurately reflect their structures and functions: the C-terminal Rcat (required-for-catalysis) domain, essential for catalytic activity, and a central BRcat (benign-catalytic) domain that adopts the same fold as the Rcat, but lacks a catalytic cysteine residue and ubiquitination activity. The present review discusses how three-dimensional structures of RBR (RING1-BRcat-Rcat) E3 ligases have provided new insights into our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of these important enzymes in ubiquitin biology.

  3. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase Bmi1/Ring1A controls the proteasomal degradation of Top2alpha cleavage complex - a potentially new drug target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Alchanati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The topoisomerases Top1, Top2alpha and Top2beta are important molecular targets for antitumor drugs, which specifically poison Top1 or Top2 isomers. While it was previously demonstrated that poisoned Top1 and Top2beta are subject to proteasomal degradation, this phenomena was not demonstrated for Top2alpha. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show here that Top2alpha is subject to drug induced proteasomal degradation as well, although at a lower rate than Top2beta. Using an siRNA screen we identified Bmi1 and Ring1A as subunits of an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in this process. We show that silencing of Bmi1 inhibits drug-induced Top2alpha degradation, increases the persistence of Top2alpha-DNA cleavage complex, and increases Top2 drug efficacy. The Bmi1/Ring1A ligase ubiquitinates Top2alpha in-vitro and cellular overexpression of Bmi1 increases drug induced Top2alpha ubiquitination. A small-molecular weight compound, identified in a screen for inhibitors of Bmi1/Ring1A ubiquitination activity, also prevents Top2alpha ubiquitination and drug-induced Top2alpha degradation. This ubiquitination inhibitor increases the efficacy of topoisomerase 2 poisons in a synergistic manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The discovery that poisoned Top2alpha is undergoing proteasomal degradation combined with the involvement of Bmi1/Ring1A, allowed us to identify a small molecule that inhibits the degradation process. The Bmi1/Ring1A inhibitor sensitizes cells to Top2 drugs, suggesting that this type of drug combination will have a beneficial therapeutic outcome. As Bmi1 is also a known oncogene, elevated in numerous types of cancer, the identified Bmi1/Ring1A ubiquitin ligase inhibitors can also be potentially used to directly target the oncogenic properties of Bmi1.

  4. A palmitoylated RING finger ubiquitin ligase and its homologue in the brain membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kazuaki; Kawamura, Meiko; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Matsuda, Noriyuki; Kanbe, Daiji; Ishii, Kyoko; Ichikawa, Tomio; Kumanishi, Toshiro; Chiba, Tomoki; Tanaka, Keiji; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-08-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) ligation is implicated in active protein metabolism and subcellular trafficking and its impairment is involved in various neurologic diseases. In rat brain, we identified two novel Ub ligases, Momo and Sakura, carrying double zinc finger motif and RING finger domain. Momo expression is enriched in the brain gray matter and testis, and Sakura expression is more widely detected in the brain white matter as well as in many peripheral organs. Both proteins associate with the cell membranes of neuronal and/or glial cells. We examined their Ub ligase activity in vivo and in vitro using viral expression vectors carrying myc-tagged Momo and Sakura. Overexpression of either Momo or Sakura in mixed cortical cultures increased total polyubiquitination levels. In vitro ubiquitination assay revealed that the combination of Momo and UbcH4 and H5c, or of Sakura and UbcH4, H5c and H6 is required for the reaction. Deletion mutagenesis suggested that the E3 Ub ligase activity of Momo and Sakura depended on their C-terminal domains containing RING finger structure, while their N-terminal domains influenced their membrane association. In agreement, Sakura associating with the membrane was specifically palmitoylated. Although the molecular targets of their Ub ligation remain to be identified, these findings imply a novel function of the palmitoylated E3 Ub ligase(s).

  5. ATLs and BTLs, plant-specific and general eukaryotic structurally-related E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Plinio

    2014-02-01

    Major components of the ubiquitin proteasome system are the enzymes that operate on the transfer of ubiquitin to selected target substrate, known as ubiquitin ligases. The RING finger is a domain that is present in key classes of ubiquitin ligases. This domain coordinates the interaction with a suitable E2 conjugase and the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to protein targets. Additional domains coupled to the same polypeptide are important for modulating the function of these ubiquitin ligases. Plants contain several types of E3 ubiquitin ligases that in many cases have expanded as multigene families. Some families are specific to the plant lineage, whereas others may have a common ancestor among plants and other eukaryotic lineages. Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATLs) and BCA2 zinc finger ATLs (BTLs) are two families of ubiquitin ligases that share some common structural features. These are intronless genes that encode a highly related RING finger domain, and yet during evolutionary history, their mode of gene expansion and function is rather different. In each of these two families, the co-occurrence of transmembrane helices or C2/C2 (BZF finger) domains with a selected variation on the RING finger has been subjected to strong selection pressure in order to preserve their unique domain architectures during evolution.

  6. Evaluation of small ligand-protein interaction by ligation reaction with DNA-modified ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Rie; Mie, Masayasu; Funabashi, Hisakage; Kobatake, Eiry

    2010-01-01

    A method for the evaluation of interactions between protein and ligand using DNA-modified ligands, including signal enhancement of the DNA ligation reactions, is described. For proof of principle, a DNA probe modified by biotin was used. Two DNA probes were prepared with complementary sticky-ends. While one DNA probe was modified at the 5'-end of the sticky-end, the other was not modified. The probes could be ligated together by T4 DNA ligase along the strand without biotin modification. However, in the presence of streptavidin or anti-biotin Fab, the ligation reaction joining the two probes could not occur on either strand.

  7. Coincident In Vitro Analysis of DNA-PK-Dependent and -Independent Nonhomologous End Joining

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson, Cynthia L.; Shubhadeep Purkayastha; Elzbieta Pastwa; Neumann, Ronald D.; Winters, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    In mammalian cells, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are primarily repaired by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). The current model suggests that the Ku 70/80 heterodimer binds to DSB ends and recruits DNA-PKcs to form the active DNA-dependent protein kinase, DNA-PK. Subsequently, XRCC4, DNA ligase IV, XLF and most likely, other unidentified components participate in the final DSB ligation step. Therefore, DNA-PK plays a key role in NHEJ due to its structural and regulatory functions that media...

  8. Structure and Function of DNA Ligases%DNA连接酶的结构与功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 孟紫强

    2001-01-01

    @@ 在DNA合成中,合成方向为5'→3',即一条链上是连续复制的,而另一条链的复制是不连续的,必须先合成岗崎片段(真核细胞的岗崎片段为100 bp,原核细胞的为1 000 bp)。DNA连接酶的作用就是催化岗崎片段的连接以完成DNA的合成。另外,DNA连接酶在DNA修复过程中也起重要作用,如在切除修复中,切除损伤的DNA片段,以未受损伤的链作为模板合成一条新的DNA链后,DNA连接酶将新合成的DNA链与原来的DNA链之间的缺口封闭完成DNA的修复。DNA链未封闭的缺口对细胞具有潜在的危险性,所以,DNA连接酶不仅在细胞分裂时的DNA合成中起重要作用,而且在保持基因组的完整性方面也是必不可少的。

  9. A Bacterial Inhibitor of Host Programmed Cell Death Defenses is an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjusevic,R.; Abramovitch, R.; Martin, G.; Stebbins, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Pseudomonas syringae protein AvrPtoB is translocated into plant cells, where it inhibits immunity-associated programmed cell death (PCD). The structure of a C-terminal domain of AvrPtoB that is essential for anti-PCD activity reveals an unexpected homology to the U-box and RING-finger components of eukaryotic E3 ubiquitin ligases, and we show that AvrPtoB has ubiquitin ligase activity. Mutation of conserved residues involved in the binding of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes abolishes this activity in vitro, as well as anti-PCD activity in tomato leaves, which dramatically decreases virulence. These results show that Pseudomonas syringae uses a mimic of host E3 ubiquitin ligases to inactivate plant defenses.

  10. Structure of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase from Bacillus anthracis (BA4489)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Christoph [Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Division of Structural Biology, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Carter, Lester G. [Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Winter, Graeme [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Owens, Ray J. [Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Stuart, David I.; Esnouf, Robert M., E-mail: robert@strubi.ox.ac.uk [Oxford Protein Production Facility, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Division of Structural Biology, The Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Oxford University, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-01

    The structure of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase from B. anthracis determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution of 1.6 Å is described. Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming bacterium and the causative agent of the disease anthrax. The Oxford Protein Production Facility has been targeting proteins from B. anthracis in order to develop high-throughput technologies within the Structural Proteomics in Europe project. As part of this work, the structure of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase (BA4489) has been determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.6 Å resolution. The structure, solved in complex with magnesium-ion-bound ADP and phosphate, gives a detailed picture of the proposed catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. Chemical differences from other cyclo-ligase structures close to the active site that could be exploited to design specific inhibitors are also highlighted.

  11. The centrosomal E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO31-SCF regulates neuronal morphogenesis and migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Vadhvani

    Full Text Available Neuronal development requires proper migration, polarization and establishment of axons and dendrites. Growing evidence identifies the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS with its numerous components as an important regulator of various aspects of neuronal development. F-box proteins are interchangeable subunits of the Cullin-1 based E3 ubiquitin ligase, but only a few family members have been studied. Here, we report that the centrosomal E3 ligase FBXO31-SCF (Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein regulates neuronal morphogenesis and axonal identity. In addition, we identified the polarity protein Par6c as a novel interaction partner and substrate targeted for proteasomal degradation in the control of axon but not dendrite growth. Finally, we ascribe a role for FBXO31 in dendrite growth and neuronal migration in the developing cerebellar cortex. Taken together, we uncovered the centrosomal E3 ligase FBXO31-SCF as a novel regulator of neuronal development.

  12. Studies on bleomycin-induced repair DNA synthesis in permeable mouse ascites sarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori,Shigeru

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the mechanism of DNA excision repair, a DNA repair system employing permeable mouse sarcoma (SR-C3H/He cells was established and characterized. SR-C3H/He cells were permeabilized with a 0.0175% Triton X-100 solution. The permeable cells were treated with 1 mM ATP and 0.11 mM bleomycin, and then washed thoroughly to remove ATP and bleomycin. Repair DNA synthesis occurred in the bleomycin-damaged, permeable SR-C3H/He cells when incubated with ATP and four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The repair nature of the DNA synthesis was confirmed by the BrdUMP density shift technique, and by the reduced sensitivity of the newly synthesized DNA to Escherichia coli exonuclease III. The DNA synthesis was optimally enhanced by addition of 0.08 M NaCl. Studies using selective inhibitors of DNA synthesis showed that aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerase (DNA polymerase alpha and/or delta and DNA polymerase beta were involved in the repair process. The present DNA repair system is thought to be useful to study nuclear DNA damage by bleomycin, removal of the damaged ends by an exonuclease, repair DNA synthesis by DNA polymerases and repair patch ligation by DNA ligase(s.

  13. TRIAD1 and HHARI bind to and are activated by distinct neddylated Cullin-RING ligase complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, Ian R; Duda, David M; Olszewski, Jennifer L; Hofmann, Kay; Knebel, Axel; Langevin, Frédéric; Wood, Nicola; Wightman, Melanie; Schulman, Brenda A; Alpi, Arno F

    2013-10-30

    RING (Really Interesting New Gene)-in-between-RING (RBR) enzymes are a distinct class of E3 ubiquitin ligases possessing a cluster of three zinc-binding domains that cooperate to catalyse ubiquitin transfer. The regulation and biological function for most members of the RBR ligases is not known, and all RBR E3s characterized to date are auto-inhibited for in vitro ubiquitylation. Here, we show that TRIAD1 and HHARI, two members of the Ariadne subfamily ligases, associate with distinct neddylated Cullin-RING ligase (CRL) complexes. In comparison to the modest E3 ligase activity displayed by isolated TRIAD1 or HHARI, binding of the cognate neddylated CRL to TRIAD1 or HHARI greatly stimulates RBR ligase activity in vitro, as determined by auto-ubiquitylation, their ability to stimulate dissociation of a thioester-linked UBCH7∼ubiquitin intermediate, and reactivity with ubiquitin-vinyl methyl ester. Moreover, genetic evidence shows that RBR ligase activity impacts both the levels and activities of neddylated CRLs in vivo. Cumulatively, our work proposes a conserved mechanism of CRL-induced Ariadne RBR ligase activation and further suggests a reciprocal role of this special class of RBRs as regulators of distinct CRLs.

  14. Highly multiplex and sensitive SNP genotyping method using a three-color fluorescence-labeled ligase detection reaction coupled with conformation-sensitive CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woong; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2017-02-01

    For the development of clinically useful genotyping methods for SNPs, accuracy, simplicity, sensitivity, and cost-effectiveness are the most important criteria. Among the methods currently being developed for SNP genotyping technology, the ligation-dependent method is considered the simplest for clinical diagnosis. However, sensitivity is not guaranteed by the ligation reaction alone, and analysis of multiple targets is limited by the detection method. Although CE is an attractive alternative to error-prone hybridization-based detection, the multiplex assay process is complicated because of the size-based DNA separation principle. In this study, we employed the ligase detection reaction coupled with high-resolution CE-SSCP to develop an accurate, sensitive, and simple multiplex genotyping method. Ligase detection reaction could amplify ligated products through recurrence of denaturation and ligation reaction, and SSCP could separate these products according to each different structure conformation without size variation. Thus, simple and sensitive SNP analysis can be performed using this method involving the use of similar-sized probes, without complex probe design steps. We found that this method could not only accurately discriminate base mismatches but also quantitatively detect 37 SNPs of the tp53 gene, which are used as targets in multiplex analysis, using three-color fluorescence-labeled probes.

  15. Targeted ubiquitination and degradation of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 by the DDB1-CUL4 ubiquitin ligase complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyan Wu

    Full Text Available The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs phosphorylate agonist occupied G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and desensitize GPCR-mediated signaling. Recent studies indicate they also function non-catalytically via interaction with other proteins. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to screen interacting proteins of GRK5 in MDA-MB-231 cells and HUVEC cells. Mass spectrometry analysis reveals several proteins in the GRK5 immunocomplex including damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1, an adaptor subunit of the CUL4-ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the association of GRK5 with DDB1-CUL4 complex, and reveal that DDB1 acts as an adapter to link GRK5 to CUL4 to form the complex. Overexpression of DDB1 promoted, whereas knockdown of DDB1 inhibited the ubiquitination of GRK5, and the degradation of GRK5 was reduced in cells deficient of DDB1. Furthermore, the depletion of DDB1 decreased Hsp90 inhibitor-induced GRK5 destabilization and UV irradiation-induced GRK5 degradation. Thus, our study identified potential GRK5 interacting proteins, and reveals the association of GRK5 with DDB1 in cell and the regulation of GRK5 level by DDB1-CUL4 ubiquitin ligase complex-dependent proteolysis pathway.

  16. A cost-effective method for Illumina small RNA-Seq library preparation using T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yun-Ru

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep sequencing is a powerful tool for novel small RNA discovery. Illumina small RNA sequencing library preparation requires a pre-adenylated 3’ end adapter containing a 5’,5’-adenyl pyrophosphoryl moiety. In the absence of ATP, this adapter can be ligated to the 3’ hydroxyl group of small RNA, while RNA self-ligation and concatenation are repressed. Pre-adenylated adapters are one of the most essential and costly components required for library preparation, and few are commercially available. Results We demonstrate that DNA oligo with 5’ phosphate and 3’ amine groups can be enzymatically adenylated by T4 RNA ligase 1 to generate customized pre-adenylated adapters. We have constructed and sequenced a small RNA library for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum using the T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapter. Conclusion We provide an efficient and low-cost method for small RNA sequencing library preparation, which takes two days to complete and costs around $20 per library. This protocol has been tested in several plant species for small RNA sequencing including sweet potato, pepper, watermelon, and cowpea, and could be readily applied to any RNA samples.

  17. Arabidopsis DNA polymerase lambda mutant is mildly sensitive to DNA double strand breaks but defective in integration ofa transgene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki eFurukawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is a critical type of damage, and can be induced by both endogenous sources (e.g. errors of oxidative metabolism, transposable elements, programmed meiotic breaks, or perturbation of the DNA replication fork and exogenous sources (e.g. ionizing radiation or radiomimetic chemicals. Although higher plants, like mammals, are thought to preferentially repair DSBs via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ, much remains unclear about plant DSB repair pathways. Our reverse genetic approach suggests that DNA polymerase λ is involved in DSB repair in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant (atpolλ-1 displayed sensitivity to both gamma-irradiation and treatment with radiomimetic reagents, but not to other DNA damaging treatments. The atpolλ-1 mutant showed a moderate sensitivity to DSBs, while Arabidopsis Ku70 and DNA ligase 4 mutants (atku70-3 and atlig4-2, both of which play critical roles in NHEJ, exhibited a hypersensitivity to these treatments. The atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant exhibited a higher sensitivity to DSBs than each single mutant, but the atku70/atpolλ-1 showed similar sensitivity to the atku70-3 mutant. We showed that transcription of the DNA ligase 1, DNA ligase 6, and Wee1 genes was quickly induced by BLM in several NHEJ deficient mutants in contrast to wild-type. Finally, the T-DNA transformation efficiency dropped in NHEJ deficient mutants and the lowest transformation efficiency was scored in the atpolλ-1/atlig4-2 double mutant. These results imply that AtPolλ is involved in both DSB repair and DNA damage response pathway.

  18. The SOCS2 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Regulates Growth Hormone Receptor Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Mattias; Zadjali, Fahad; Persson, Torbjörn

    2011-01-01

    that SOCS2 is part of a multimeric complex with intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity. Mutational analysis shows that the interaction with Elongin B/C controls SOCS2 protein turnover and affects its molecular activity. Increased GHR levels were observed in livers from SOCS2(-/-) mice and in the absence...... to be responsible for the interaction with SOCS2, but only Y487 to account for the effects of SOCS2. The demonstration that SOCS2 is an ubiquitin ligase for the GHR unveils the molecular basis for its physiological actions....

  19. DNA templated magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Joseph M.

    Recent discoveries in nanoscience are predicted to potentially revolutionize future technologies in an extensive number of fields. These developments are contingent upon discovering new and often unconventional methods to synthesize and control nanoscale components. Nature provides several examples of working nanotechnology such as the use of programmed self assembly to build and deconstruct complex molecular systems. We have adopted a method to control the one dimensional assembly of magnetic nanoparticles using DNA as a scaffold molecule. With this method we have demonstrated the ability to organize 5 nm particles into chains that stretch up to ˜20 mum in length. One advantage of using DNA compared is the ability of the molecule to interact with other biomolecules. After assembling particles onto DNA we have been able to cleave the molecule into smaller fragments using restriction enzymes. Using ligase enzymes we have re-connected these fragments, coated with either gold or iron oxide, to form long one-dimensional arrangements of the two different types of nanoparticles on a single molecular guide. We have also created a sensitive magnetic field sensor by incorporating magnetic nanoparticle coated DNA strands with microfabricated electrodes. The IV characteristics of the aligned nanoparticles are dependant on the magnitude of an externally applied magnetic field. This transport phenomenon known as tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) shows room temperature resistance of our devices over 80% for cobalt ferrite coated DNA when a field of 20 kOe is applied. In comparison, studies using two dimensional nanoparticle films of irox oxides xii only exhibit a 35% MR effect. Confinement into one dimension using the DNA guide produces a TMR mechanism which produces significant increases in magnetoresistance. This property can be utilized for applications in magnetic field sensing, data storage, and logic elements.

  20. CtIP is regulated by the APC/C-Cdh1 to mediate cell cycle-dependent control of DNA repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harmen R.; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; Neugebauer, Christine; Fehrmann, Rudolf; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Sartori, Alessandro A.; van Vugt, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Human cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms for responding to DNA damage to maintain genome stability and prevent carcinogenesis. For instance, the cell cycle can be arrested at different stages to allow time for DNA repair. The APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase regulates mitotic exit but is also implic

  1. CtIP is regulated by the APC/C-Cdh1 to mediate cell cycle-dependent control of DNA repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harmen R.; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; Neugebauer, Christine; Fehrmann, Rudolf; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Sartori, Alessandro A.; van Vugt, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Human cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms for responding to DNA damage to maintain genome stability and prevent carcinogenesis. For instance, the cell cycle can be arrested at different stages to allow time for DNA repair. The APC/C-Cdh1 ubiquitin ligase regulates mitotic exit but is also implic

  2. Ligase detection reaction for the analysis of point mutations using free-solution conjugate electrophoresis in a polymer microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinville, Rondedrick; Coyne, Jennifer; Meagher, Robert J; Cheng, Yu-Wei; Barany, Francis; Barron, Annelise; Soper, Steven A

    2008-12-01

    We have developed a new method for the analysis of low abundant point mutations in genomic DNA using a combination of an allele-specific ligase detection reaction (LDR) with free-solution conjugate electrophoresis (FSCE) to generate and analyze the genetic products. FSCE eliminates the need for a polymer sieving matrix by conjugating chemically synthesized polyamide "drag-tags" onto the LDR primers. The additional drag of the charge-neutral drag-tag breaks the linear scaling of the charge-to-friction ratio of DNA and enables size-based separations of DNA in free solution using electrophoresis with no sieving matrix. We successfully demonstrate the conjugation of polyamide drag-tags onto a set of four LDR primers designed to probe the K-ras oncogene for mutations highly associated with colorectal cancer, the simultaneous generation of fluorescently labeled LDR/drag-tag conjugate (LDR-dt) products in a multiplexed, single-tube format with mutant:WT ratios as low as 1:100, respectively, and the single-base, high-resolution separation of all four LDR-dt products. Separations were conducted in free solution with no polymer network using both a commercial capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) system and a PMMA microchip replicated via hot-embossing with only a Tris-based running buffer containing additives to suppress the EOF. Typical analysis times for LDR-dt were 11 min using the CAE system and as low as 85 s for the PMMA microchips. With resolution comparable to traditional gel-based CAE, FSCE along with microchip electrophoresis decreased the separation time by more than a factor of 40.

  3. Ubiquitin-SUMO Circuitry Controls Activated Fanconi Anemia ID Complex Dosage in Response to DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Rajendra, Eeson

    2015-01-01

    We show that central components of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, the tumor suppressor proteins FANCI and FANCD2 (the ID complex), are SUMOylated in response to replication fork stalling. The ID complex is SUMOylated in a manner that depends on the ATR kinase, the FA ubiquitin ligase...

  4. Detection of reverse transcriptase termination sites using cDNA ligation and massive parallel sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielpinski, Lukasz J; Boyd, Mette; Sandelin, Albin

    2013-01-01

    of these methods can be increased by applying massive parallel sequencing technologies.Here, we describe a versatile method for detection of reverse transcriptase termination sites based on ligation of an adapter to the 3' end of cDNA with bacteriophage TS2126 RNA ligase (CircLigase™). In the following PCR...

  5. PIAS1 is a GATA4 SUMO ligase that regulates GATA4-dependent intestinal promoters independent of SUMO ligase activity and GATA4 sumoylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhaswamy S Belaguli

    Full Text Available GATA4 confers cell type-specific gene expression on genes expressed in cardiovascular, gastro-intestinal, endocrine and neuronal tissues by interacting with various ubiquitous and cell-type-restricted transcriptional regulators. By using yeast two-hybrid screening approach, we have identified PIAS1 as an intestine-expressed GATA4 interacting protein. The physical interaction between GATA4 and PIAS1 was confirmed in mammalian cells by coimmunoprecipitation and two-hybrid analysis. The interacting domains were mapped to the second zinc finger and the adjacent C-terminal basic region of GATA4 and the RING finger and the adjoining C-terminal 60 amino acids of PIAS1. PIAS1 and GATA4 synergistically activated IFABP and SI promoters but not LPH promoters suggesting that PIAS1 differentially activates GATA4 targeted promoters. In primary murine enterocytes PIAS1 was recruited to the GATA4-regulated IFABP promoter. PIAS1 promoted SUMO-1 modification of GATA4 on lysine 366. However, sumoylation was not required for the nuclear localization and stability of GATA4. Further, neither GATA4 sumoylation nor the SUMO ligase activity of PIAS1 was required for coactivation of IFABP promoter by GATA4 and PIAS1. Together, our results demonstrate that PIAS1 is a SUMO ligase for GATA4 that differentially regulates GATA4 transcriptional activity independent of SUMO ligase activity and GATA4 sumoylation.

  6. Exercise induced upregulation of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene expression in Thoroughbred horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Woong Park

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to reveal the molecular structure and expression patterns of horse glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM genes whose products form glutamate cysteine ligase, which were identified as differentially expressed genes in the previous study. Methods We performed bioinformatics analyses, and gene expression assay with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR for horse GCLC and GCLM genes in muscle and blood leukocytes of Thoroughbred horses Results Expression of GCLC showed the same pattern in both blood and muscle tissues after exercise. Expression of GCLC increased in the muscle and blood of Thoroughbreds, suggesting a tissue-specific regulatory mechanism for the expression of GCLC. In addition, expression of the GCLM gene increased after exercise in both the blood and muscle of Thoroughbreds. Conclusion We established the expression patterns of GCLC and GCLM in the skeletal muscle and blood of Thoroughbred horses in response to exercise. Further study is now warranted to uncover the functional importance of these genes in exercise and recovery in racehorses.

  7. Roles of histone ubiquitylation in DNA damage signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui-Sui DONG; Michael S. Y. HUEN

    2011-01-01

    Histone ubiquitylation has emerged as an important chromatin modification associated with DNA damage signaling and repair pathways.These histone marks,laid down by E3 ubiquitin ligases that include RNF8 and RNF168,decorate chromatin domains surrounding DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs).Recent work implicated ubiquitylated histones in orchestrating cell cycle checkpoints,DNA repair and gene transcription.Here we summarize recent advances that contribute to our current knowledge of the highly dynamic nature of DSB-associated histone ubiquitylation,and discuss major challenges ahead in understanding the versatility of ubiquitin conjugation in maintaining genome stability.

  8. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  9. Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Nielsen, Sofie Vincents; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten;

    2016-01-01

    conduct a bioinformatics analysis to examine >600 human and S. cerevisiae E3 ligases to identify enzymes that are similar to San1 in terms of function and/or mechanism of substrate recognition. An initial sequence-based database search was found to detect candidates primarily based on the homology...

  10. Yeast SREBP cleavage activation requires the Golgi Dsc E3 ligase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Emerson V; Nwosu, Christine C; Tong, Zongtian; Roguev, Assen; Cummins, Timothy D; Kim, Dong-Uk; Hayles, Jacqueline; Park, Han-Oh; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Powell, David W; Krogan, Nevan J; Espenshade, Peter J

    2011-04-22

    Mammalian lipid homeostasis requires proteolytic activation of membrane-bound sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors through sequential action of the Golgi Site-1 and Site-2 proteases. Here we report that while SREBP function is conserved in fungi, fission yeast employs a different mechanism for SREBP cleavage. Using genetics and biochemistry, we identified four genes defective for SREBP cleavage, dsc1-4, encoding components of a transmembrane Golgi E3 ligase complex with structural homology to the Hrd1 E3 ligase complex involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. The Dsc complex binds SREBP and cleavage requires components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway: the E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc4, the Dsc1 RING E3 ligase, and the proteasome. dsc mutants display conserved aggravating genetic interactions with components of the multivesicular body pathway in fission yeast and budding yeast, which lacks SREBP. Together, these data suggest that the Golgi Dsc E3 ligase complex functions in a post-ER pathway for protein degradation.

  11. Schizophrenia and oxidative stress: glutamate cysteine ligase modifier as a susceptibility gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosic, Mirjana; Ott, Jurg; Barral, Sandra;

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a major psychiatric disorder. Glutathione (GSH), a redox regulator, is decreased in patients' cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex. The gene of the key GSH-synthesizing enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM...

  12. The prolific ATL family of RING-H2 ubiquitin ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Plinio

    2012-08-01

    An abundant class of E3 ubiquitin ligases encodes the RING-finger domain. The RING finger binds to the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and brings together both the E2 and substrate. It is predicted that 477 RING finger E3 ligases exist in Arabidopsis thaliana. A particular family among them, named Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL), consists of 91 members that contain the RING-H2 variation and a hydrophobic domain located at the N-terminal end. Transmembrane E3 ligases are important in several biological processes. For instance, some transmembrane RING finger E3 ligases are main participants in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway that targets misfolded proteins. Functional analysis of a number of ATLs has shown that some of them regulate distinct pathways in plants. Several ATLs have been shown to participate in defense responses, while others play a role in the regulation of the carbon/nitrogen response during post-germinative seedling growth transition, in the regulation of cell death during root development, in endosperm development, or in the transition to flowering under short day conditions. The ATL family has also been instrumental in evolution studies for showing how gene families are expanded in plant genomes.

  13. Identification of dynamical hinge points of the L1 ligase molecular switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambasu, George M; Lee, Tai-Sung; Sosa, Carlos P; Robertson, Michael P; Scott, William G; York, Darrin M

    2010-04-01

    The L1 ligase is an in vitro selected ribozyme that uses a noncanonically base-paired ligation site to catalyze regioselectively and regiospecifically the 5' to 3' phosphodiester bond ligation, a reaction relevant to origin of life hypotheses that invoke an RNA world scenario. The L1 ligase crystal structure revealed two different conformational states that were proposed to represent the active and inactive forms. It remains an open question as to what degree these two conformers persist as stable conformational intermediates in solution, and along what pathway are they able to interconvert. To explore these questions, we have performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent of the inactive-active conformational switch in L1 ligase. Four simulations were performed departing from both conformers in both the reactant and product states, in addition to a simulation where local unfolding in the active state was induced. From these simulations, along with crystallographic data, a set of four virtual torsion angles that span two evolutionarily conserved and restricted regions were identified as dynamical hinge points in the conformational switch transition. The ligation site visits three distinct states characterized by hydrogen bond patterns that are correlated with the formation of specific contacts that may promote catalysis. The insights gained from these simulations contribute to a more detailed understanding of the coupled catalytic/conformational switch mechanism of L1 ligase that may facilitate the design and engineering of new catalytic riboswitches.

  14. Schizophrenia and oxidative stress: glutamate cysteine ligase modifier as a susceptibility gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosic, Mirjana; Ott, Jurg; Barral, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a major psychiatric disorder. Glutathione (GSH), a redox regulator, is decreased in patients' cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex. The gene of the key GSH-synthesizing enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM...

  15. Identification of a ubiquitin-protein ligase subunit within the CCR4-NOT transcription repressor complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, TK; Hanzawa, H; Legtenberg, YIA; de Ruwe, MJ; van den Heuvel, FAJ; Collart, MA; Boelens, R; Timmers, HTM

    2002-01-01

    The RING finger protein CNOT4 is a component of the CCR4-NOT complex. This complex is implicated in repression of RNA polymerase II transcription. Here we demonstrate that CNOT4 functions as a ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3). We show that the unique C4C4 RING domain of CNOT4 interacts with a subset of

  16. Sterol homeostasis requires regulated degradation of squalene monooxygenase by the ubiquitin ligase Doa10/Teb4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foresti, Ombretta; Ruggiano, Annamaria; Hannibal-Bach, Hans K

    2013-01-01

    ligase implicated in a branch of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. Since the other branch of ERAD is required for HMGR regulation, our results reveal a fundamental role for ERAD in sterol homeostasis, with the two branches of this pathway acting together...

  17. Application of an Acyl-CoA Ligase from Streptomyces aizunensis for Lactam Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barajas, Jesus F.; Burdu, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    lactams under ambient conditions. In this study, we demonstrated production of these chemicals using ORF26, an acyl-CoA ligase involved in the biosynthesis of ECO-02301 in Streptomyces aizunensis. This enzyme has a broad substrate spectrum and can cyclize 4-aminobutyric acid into γ-butyrolactam, 5...

  18. Extreme growth failure is a common presentation of ligase IV deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, J.E.; Bicknell, L.S.; Yigit, G.; Duker, A.L.; Kogelenberg, M. van; Haghayegh, S.; Wieczorek, D.; Kayserili, H.; Albert, M.H.; Wise, C.A.; Brandon, J.; Kleefstra, T.; Warris, A.; Flier, M. van der; Bamforth, J.S.; Doonanco, K.; Ades, L.; Ma, A.; Field, M.; Johnson, D.; Shackley, F.; Firth, H.; Woods, C.G.; Nurnberg, P.; Gatti, R.A.; Hurles, M.; Bober, M.B.; Wollnik, B.; Jackson, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Ligase IV syndrome is a rare differential diagnosis for Nijmegen breakage syndrome owing to a shared predisposition to lympho-reticular malignancies, significant microcephaly, and radiation hypersensitivity. Only 16 cases with mutations in LIG4 have been described to date with phenotypes varying fro

  19. Mutation screening of the glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM) gene in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butticaz, Christophe; Werge, Thomas; Beckmann, Jacques S

    2009-01-01

    in noncoding regions of glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM) gene, which specifies for the modifier subunit of GCL and schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to investigate the presence of GCLM true functional mutations, likely in linkage disequilibrium with the previously identified single nucleotide...

  20. CRL2(LRR-1 E3-ligase regulates proliferation and progression through meiosis in the Caenorhabditis elegans germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Burger

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-proteolytic system controls the stability of proteins in space and time. In this study, using a temperature-sensitive mutant allele of the cul-2 gene, we show that CRL2(LRR-1 (CUL-2 RING E3 ubiquitin-ligase and the Leucine Rich Repeat 1 substrate recognition subunit acts at multiple levels to control germline development. CRL2(LRR-1 promotes germ cell proliferation by counteracting the DNA replication ATL-1 checkpoint pathway. CRL2(LRR-1 also participates in the mitotic proliferation/meiotic entry decision, presumably controlling the stability of meiotic promoting factors in the mitotic zone of the germline. Finally, CRL2(LRR-1 inhibits the first steps of meiotic prophase by targeting in mitotic germ cells degradation of the HORMA domain-containing protein HTP-3, required for loading synaptonemal complex components onto meiotic chromosomes. Given its widespread evolutionary conservation, CUL-2 may similarly regulate germline development in other organisms as well.

  1. High taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota by ligase detection reaction--universal array approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Marco; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Biagi, Elena; Castiglioni, Bianca; Vitali, Beatrice; De Bellis, Gianluca; Brigidi, Patrizia

    2010-04-19

    Affecting the core functional microbiome, peculiar high level taxonomic unbalances of the human intestinal microbiota have been recently associated with specific diseases, such as obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and intestinal inflammation. In order to specifically monitor microbiota unbalances that impact human physiology, here we develop and validate an original DNA-microarray (HTF-Microbi.Array) for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota. Based on the Ligase Detection Reaction-Universal Array (LDR-UA) approach, the HTF-Microbi.Array enables specific detection and approximate relative quantification of 16S rRNAs from 30 phylogenetically related groups of the human intestinal microbiota. The HTF-Microbi.Array was used in a pilot study of the faecal microbiota of eight young adults. Cluster analysis revealed the good reproducibility of the high level taxonomic microbiota fingerprint obtained for each of the subject. The HTF-Microbi.Array is a fast and sensitive tool for the high taxonomic level fingerprint of the human intestinal microbiota in terms of presence/absence of the principal groups. Moreover, analysis of the relative fluorescence intensity for each probe pair of our LDR-UA platform can provide estimation of the relative abundance of the microbial target groups within each samples. Focusing the phylogenetic resolution at division, order and cluster levels, the HTF-Microbi.Array is blind with respect to the inter-individual variability at the species level.

  2. The stress phenotype makes cancer cells addicted to CDT2, a substrate receptor of the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Martina; Dettori, Daniela; Arena, Sabrina; Zecchin, Davide; Lantelme, Erica; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2014-08-15

    CDT2/L2DTL/RAMP is one of the substrate receptors of the Cullin Ring Ubiquitin Ligase 4 that targets for ubiquitin mediated degradation a number of substrates, such as CDT1, p21 and CHK1, involved in the regulation of cell cycle and survival. Here we show that CDT2 depletion was alone able to induce the apoptotic death in 12/12 human cancer cell lines from different tissues, regardless of the mutation profile and CDT2 expression level. Cell death was associated to rereplication and to loss of CDT1 degradation. Conversely, CDT2 depletion did not affect non-transformed human cells, such as immortalized kidney, lung and breast cell lines, and primary cultures of endothelial cells and osteoblasts. The ectopic over-expression of an activated oncogene, such as the mutation-activated RAS or the amplified MET in non-transformed immortalized breast cell lines and primary human osteoblasts, respectively, made cells transformed in vitro, tumorigenic in vivo, and susceptible to CDT2 loss. The widespread effect of CDT2 depletion in different cancer cells suggests that CDT2 is not in a synthetic lethal interaction to a single specific pathway. CDT2 likely is a non-oncogene to which transformed cells become addicted because of their enhanced cellular stress, such as replicative stress and DNA damage.

  3. BRCA1/BARD1 E3 ubiquitin ligase can modify histones H2A and H2B in the nucleosome particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakar, Amit; Parvin, Jeffrey D; Zlatanova, Jordanka

    2010-02-01

    BRCA1, the protein product of the Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene (BRCA1) has been implicated in multiple pathways that preserve genome stability, including cell cycle control, DNA repair, transcription, and chromatin remodeling. BRCA1, in complex with another RING-domain protein BARD1, possesses ubiquitin-ligase activity. Only a few targets for this activity have been identified in vivo. Nucleosomal histones may also be targets in vivo since they can be modified by the BRCA1/BARD1 complex in vitro. Here we demonstrate that the BRCA1/BARD1 complex can ubiquitylate both free H2A and H2B histones and histones in the context of nucleosomal particles. These results raise the possibility that BRCA1/BARD1 can directly affect nucleosomal structure, dynamics, and function through its ability to modify nucleosomal histones.

  4. Unique Pattern of Component Gene Disruption in the NRF2 Inhibitor KEAP1/CUL3/RBX1 E3-Ubiquitin Ligase Complex in Serous Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The NFE2-related factor 2 (NRF2 pathway is critical to initiate responses to oxidative stress; however, constitutive activation occurs in different cancer types, including serous ovarian carcinomas (OVCA. The KEAP1/CUL3/RBX1 E3-ubiquitin ligase complex is a regulator of NRF2 levels. Hence, we investigated the DNA-level mechanisms affecting these genes in OVCA. DNA copy-number loss (CNL, promoter hypermethylation, mRNA expression, and sequence mutation for KEAP1, CUL3, and RBX1 were assessed in a cohort of 568 OVCA from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Almost 90% of cases exhibited loss-of-function alterations in any components of the NRF2 inhibitory complex. CNL is the most prominent mechanism of component disruption, with RBX1 being the most frequently disrupted component. These alterations were associated with reduced mRNA expression of complex components, and NRF2 target gene expression was positively enriched in 90% of samples harboring altered complex components. Disruption occurs through a unique DNA-level alteration pattern in OVCA. We conclude that a remarkably high frequency of DNA and mRNA alterations affects components of the KEAP1/CUL3/RBX1 complex, through a unique pattern of genetic mechanisms. Together, these results suggest a key role for the KEAP1/CUL3/RBX1 complex and NRF2 pathway deregulation in OVCA.

  5. CDK1-dependent inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4CDT2 ensures robust transition from S Phase to Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardi, Lindsay F; Coleman, Kate E; Varma, Dileep; Matson, Jacob P; Oh, Seeun; Cook, Jeanette Gowen

    2015-01-02

    Replication-coupled destruction of a cohort of cell cycle proteins ensures efficient and precise genome duplication. Three proteins destroyed during replication via the CRL4(CDT2) ubiquitin E3 ligase, CDT1, p21, and SET8 (PR-SET7), are also essential or important during mitosis, making their reaccumulation after S phase a critical cell cycle event. During early and mid-S phase and during DNA repair, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) loading onto DNA (PCNA(DNA)) triggers the interaction between CRL4(CDT2) and its substrates, resulting in their degradation. We have discovered that, beginning in late S phase, PCNA(DNA) is no longer sufficient to trigger CRL4(CDT2)-mediated degradation. A CDK1-dependent mechanism that blocks CRL4(CDT2) activity by interfering with CDT2 recruitment to chromatin actively protects CRL4(CDT2) substrates. We postulate that deliberate override of replication-coupled destruction allows anticipatory accumulation in late S phase. We further show that (as for CDT1) de novo SET8 reaccumulation is important for normal mitotic progression. In this manner, CDK1-dependent CRL4(CDT2) inactivation contributes to efficient transition from S phase to mitosis.

  6. Role of SKP1-CUL1-F-Box-Protein (SCF) E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in Skin Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Ming Xie; Wenyi Wei; Yi Sun

    2013-01-01

    Many biological processes such as cell proliferation,differentiation,and cell death depend precisely on the timely synthesis and degradation of key regulatory proteins.While protein synthesis can be regulated at multiple levels,protein degradation is mainly controlled by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS),which consists of two distinct steps:(1) ubiquitylation of targeted protein by E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme,E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and E3 ubiquitin ligase,and (2) subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome.Among all E3 ubiquitin ligases,the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ligases are the largest family and are responsible for the turnover of many key regulatory proteins.Aberrant regulation of SCF E3 ligases is associated with various human diseases,such as cancers,including skin cancer.In this review,we provide a comprehensive overview of all currently published data to define a promoting role of SCF E3 ligases in the development of skin cancer.The future directions in this area of research are also discussed with an ultimate goal to develop small molecule inhibitors of SCF E3 ligases as a novel approach for the treatment of human skin cancer.Furthermore,altered components or substrates of SCF E3 ligases may also be developed as the biomarkers for early diagnosis or predicting prognosis.

  7. T4 RNA Ligase 2 truncated active site mutants: improved tools for RNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Fanglei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T4 RNA ligases 1 and 2 are useful tools for RNA analysis. Their use upstream of RNA analyses such as high-throughput RNA sequencing and microarrays has recently increased their importance. The truncated form of T4 RNA ligase 2, comprising amino acids 1-249 (T4 Rnl2tr, is an attractive tool for attachment of adapters or labels to RNA 3'-ends. Compared to T4 RNA ligase 1, T4 Rnl2tr has a decreased ability to ligate 5'-PO4 ends in single-stranded RNA ligations, and compared to the full-length T4 Rnl2, the T4 Rnl2tr has an increased activity for joining 5'-adenylated adapters to RNA 3'-ends. The combination of these properties allows adapter attachment to RNA 3'-ends with reduced circularization and concatemerization of substrate RNA. Results With the aim of further reducing unwanted side ligation products, we substituted active site residues, known to be important for adenylyltransferase steps of the ligation reaction, in the context of T4 Rnl2tr. We characterized the variant ligases for the formation of unwanted ligation side products and for activity in the strand-joining reaction. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that lysine 227 is a key residue facilitating adenylyl transfer from adenylated ligation donor substrates to the ligase. This reversal of the second step of the ligation reaction correlates with the formation of unwanted ligation products. Thus, T4 Rn2tr mutants containing the K227Q mutation are useful for reducing undesired ligation products. We furthermore report optimal conditions for the use of these improved T4 Rnl2tr variants.

  8. Previously unknown role for the ubiquitin ligase Ubr1 in endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Alexandra; Besser, Stefanie; Hottmann, Heike; Wolf, Dieter H

    2013-09-17

    Quality control and degradation of misfolded proteins are essential processes of all cells. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the entry site of proteins into the secretory pathway in which protein folding occurs and terminally misfolded proteins are recognized and retrotranslocated across the ER membrane into the cytosol. Here, proteins undergo polyubiquitination by one of the membrane-embedded ubiquitin ligases, in yeast Hrd1/Der3 (HMG-CoA reductase degradation/degradation of the ER) and Doa10 (degradation of alpha), and are degraded by the proteasome. In this study, we identify cytosolic Ubr1 (E3 ubiquitin ligase, N-recognin) as an additional ubiquitin ligase that can participate in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) in yeast. We show that two polytopic ERAD substrates, mutated transporter of the mating type a pheromone, Ste6* (sterile), and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, undergo Ubr1-dependent degradation in the presence and absence of the canonical ER ubiquitin ligases. Whereas in the case of Ste6* Ubr1 is specifically required under stress conditions such as heat or ethanol or in the absence of the canonical ER ligases, efficient degradation of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator requires function of Ubr1 already in wild-type cells under standard growth conditions. Together with the Hsp70 (heat shock protein) chaperone Ssa1 (stress-seventy subfamily A) and the AAA-type ATPase Cdc48 (cell division cycle), Ubr1 directs the substrate to proteasomal degradation. These data unravel another layer of complexity in ERAD.

  9. Human transcriptional coactivator PC4 stimulates DNA end joining and activates DSB repair activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Kiran; Yokokawa, Masatoshi; Takeyasu, Kunio; Kundu, Tapas K

    2009-01-23

    Human transcriptional coactivator PC4 is a highly abundant nuclear protein that is involved in diverse cellular processes ranging from transcription to chromatin organization. Earlier, we have shown that PC4, a positive activator of p53, overexpresses upon genotoxic insult in a p53-dependent manner. In the present study, we show that PC4 stimulates ligase-mediated DNA end joining irrespective of the source of DNA ligase. Pull-down assays reveal that PC4 helps in the association of DNA ends through its C-terminal domain. In vitro nonhomologous end-joining assays with cell-free extracts show that PC4 enhances the joining of noncomplementary DNA ends. Interestingly, we found that PC4 activates double-strand break (DSB) repair activity through stimulation of DSB rejoining in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate PC4 as an activator of nonhomologous end joining and DSB repair activity.

  10. The RIDDLE syndrome protein mediates a ubiquitin-dependent signaling cascade at sites of DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Grant S.; Panier, Stephanie; Townsend, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    for such disorders is Ataxia-Telangiectasia caused by biallelic mutation in ATM, a central component of the DNA damage response. Here, we report that the ubiquitin ligase RNF168 is mutated in the RIDDLE syndrome, a recently discovered immunodeficiency and radiosensitivity disorder. We show that RNF168 is recruited...... the accumulation of 53BP1 and BRCA1 to DNA lesions, and their loss is the likely cause of the cellular and developmental phenotypes associated with RIDDLE syndrome....

  11. A human iPSC model of Ligase IV deficiency reveals an important role for NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair in the survival and genomic stability of induced pluripotent stem cells and emerging haematopoietic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, K; Neganova, I; Moreno-Gimeno, I; Al-Aama, J Y; Burks, D; Yung, S; Singhapol, C; Saretzki, G; Evans, J; Gorbunova, V; Gennery, A; Przyborski, S; Stojkovic, M; Armstrong, L; Jeggo, P; Lako, M

    2013-08-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are the most common form of DNA damage and are repaired by non-homologous-end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Several protein components function in NHEJ, and of these, DNA Ligase IV is essential for performing the final 'end-joining' step. Mutations in DNA Ligase IV result in LIG4 syndrome, which is characterised by growth defects, microcephaly, reduced number of blood cells, increased predisposition to leukaemia and variable degrees of immunodeficiency. In this manuscript, we report the creation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of LIG4 deficiency, which accurately replicates the DSB repair phenotype of LIG4 patients. Our findings demonstrate that impairment of NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair in human iPSC results in accumulation of DSBs and enhanced apoptosis, thus providing new insights into likely mechanisms used by pluripotent stem cells to maintain their genomic integrity. Defects in NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair also led to a significant decrease in reprogramming efficiency of human cells and accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities, suggesting a key role for NHEJ in somatic cell reprogramming and providing insights for future cell based therapies for applications of LIG4-iPSCs. Although haematopoietic specification of LIG4-iPSC is not affected per se, the emerging haematopoietic progenitors show a high accumulation of DSBs and enhanced apoptosis, resulting in reduced numbers of mature haematopoietic cells. Together our findings provide new insights into the role of NHEJ-mediated-DSB repair in the survival and differentiation of progenitor cells, which likely underlies the developmental abnormalities observed in many DNA damage disorders. In addition, our findings are important for understanding how genomic instability arises in pluripotent stem cells and for defining appropriate culture conditions that restrict DNA damage and result in ex vivo expansion of stem cells with intact genomes.

  12. A novel missense mutation in SUCLG1 associated with mitochondrial DNA depletion, encephalomyopathic form, with methylmalonic aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Elsebet; Schwartz, Marianne; Batbayli, Mustafa;

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion, encephalomyopathic form, with methylmalonic aciduria is associated with mutations in SUCLA2, the gene encoding a beta subunit of succinate-CoA ligase, where 17 patients have been reported. Mutations in SUCLG1, encoding the alpha subunit of the enzyme, have been reported...

  13. SCFCyclin F-dependent degradation of CDC6 suppresses DNA re-replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, David; Hoffmann, Saskia; Komseli, Eirini-Stavroula

    2016-01-01

    origin licensing, however, it is poorly understood how CDC6 activity is constrained in higher eukaryotes. Here we report that the SCF(Cyclin F) ubiquitin ligase complex prevents DNA re-replication by targeting CDC6 for proteasomal degradation late in the cell cycle. We show that CDC6 and Cyclin F...

  14. The Arabidopsis MIEL1 E3 ligase negatively regulates ABA signalling by promoting protein turnover of MYB96

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hong Gil; Seo, Pil Joon

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant responses to various environmental challenges. Controlled protein turnover is an important component of ABA signalling. Here we show that the RING-type E3 ligase MYB30-INTERACTING E3 LIGASE 1 (MIEL1) regulates ABA sensitivity by promoting MYB96 turnover in Arabidopsis. Germination of MIEL1-deficient mutant seeds is hypersensitive to ABA, whereas MIEL1-overexpressing transgenic seeds are less sensitive. MIEL1 can interact with MYB96, a regul...

  15. Structure of a RING E3 ligase and ubiquitin-loaded E2 primed for catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plechanovová, Anna; Jaffray, Ellis; Tatham, Michael H.; Naismith, James H.; Hay, Ronald T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Ubiquitin modification is mediated by a large family of specificity determining ubiquitin E3 ligases. To facilitate ubiquitin transfer, RING E3 ligases bind both substrate and a ubiquitin E2 conjugating enzyme linked to ubiquitin via a thioester bond, but the mechanism of transfer has remained elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of the dimeric RING of RNF4 in complex with E2 (UbcH5a) linked by an isopeptide bond to ubiquitin. While the E2 contacts a single protomer of the RING, ubiquitin is folded back onto the E2 by contacts from both RING protomers. The C-terminal tail of ubiquitin is locked into an active site groove on the E2 by an intricate network of interactions, resulting in changes at the E2 active site. This arrangement is primed for catalysis as it can deprotonate the incoming substrate lysine residue and stabilise the consequent tetrahedral transition state intermediate. PMID:22842904

  16. Purification of histidine-tagged T4 RNA ligase from E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing S; Unrau, Peter J

    2002-12-01

    Here we report the construction of a histidine-tagged T4 RNA ligase expression plasmid (pRHT4). The construct, when overexpressed in BL21 (DE3) cells, allows the preparation of large quantities of T4 RNA ligase in high purity using only a single purification column. The histidine affinity tag does not inhibit enzyme function, and we were able to purify 1-3 mg pure protein/g cell pellet. A simple purification procedure ensures that the enzyme is de-adenylated to levels comparable to those found for many commercial preparations. The purified protein has very low levels of RNase contamination and functioned normally in a variety of activity assays.

  17. RING finger palmitoylation of the endoplasmic reticulum Gp78 E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbank, Maria; Huang, Kun; El-Husseini, Alaa; Nabi, Ivan R

    2012-07-30

    Gp78 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase within the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. We show that Flag-tagged gp78 undergoes sulfhydryl cysteine palmitoylation (S-palmitoylation) within the RING finger motif, responsible for its ubiquitin ligase activity. Screening of 19 palmitoyl acyl transferases (PATs) identified five that increased gp78 RING finger palmitoylation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Myc-DHHC6 overexpression promoted the peripheral ER distribution of Flag-gp78 while RING finger mutation and the palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate restricted gp78 to the central ER. Palmitoylation of RING finger cysteines therefore regulates gp78 distribution to the peripheral ER. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CTRIP controls CLOCK levels and PERIOD oscillations in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaze, Angélique; Lamouroux, Annie; Vias, Carine; Hung, Hsiu-Cheng; Weber, Frank; Rouyer, François

    2011-06-01

    In the Drosophila circadian clock, the CLOCK/CYCLE complex activates the period and timeless genes that negatively feedback on CLOCK/CYCLE activity. The 24-h pace of this cycle depends on the stability of the clock proteins. RING-domain E3 ubiquitin ligases have been shown to destabilize PERIOD or TIMELESS. Here we identify a clock function for the circadian trip (ctrip) gene, which encodes a HECT-domain E3 ubiquitin ligase. ctrip expression in the brain is mostly restricted to clock neurons and its downregulation leads to long-period activity rhythms in constant darkness. This altered behaviour is associated with high CLOCK levels and persistence of phosphorylated PERIOD during the subjective day. The control of CLOCK protein levels does not require PERIOD. Thus, CTRIP seems to regulate the pace of the oscillator by controlling the stability of both the activator and the repressor of the feedback loop.

  19. The catalytic subunit DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) facilitates recovery from radiation-induced inhibition of DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, J; DiBiase, S; Iliakis, G

    2000-03-01

    Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation inhibits DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner. The dose response is biphasic and the initial steep component reflects inhibition of replicon initiation thought to be mediated by activation of the S-phase checkpoint. In mammalian cells, inhibition of replicon initiation requires the ataxia telagiectasia mutated ( ATM ) gene, a member of the phosphatidyl inositol kinase-like (PIKL) family of protein kinases. We studied the effect on replicon initiation of another member of the PI-3 family of protein kinases, the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) by measuring either total DNA synthesis, or size distribution of nascent DNA using alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. Exposure of human cells proficient in DNA-PKcs (HeLa or M059-K) to 10 Gy inhibited replicon initiation in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition was at a maximum 1 h after irradiation and recovered at later times. Similar treatment of human cells deficient in DNA-PKcs (M059-J) inhibited replicon initiation to a similar level and with similar kinetics; however, no evidence for recovery, or only limited recovery, was observed for up to 8 h after irradiation. In addition a defect was observed in the maturation of nascent DNA. Similarly, a Chinese hamster cell line deficient in DNA-PKcs (irs-20) showed little evidence for recovery of DNA replication inhibition up to 6 h after irradiation, whereas the parental CHO cells showed significant recovery and an irs-20 derivative expressing the human DNA-PKcs complete recovery within 4 h. Normal kinetics of recovery were observed in xrs-5 cells, deficient in Ku80; in 180BR cells, deficient in DNA ligase IV; as well as XR-1 cells, deficient in XRCC4, an accessory factor of DNA ligase IV. Since all these cell lines share the DNA double strand break rejoining defect of M059-J and irs20 cells, the lack of recovery of DNA replication in the latter cells may not be attributed entirely to the prolonged

  20. Schizophrenia and oxidative stress: glutamate cysteine ligase modifier as a susceptibility gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosic, Mirjana; Ott, Jurg; Barral, Sandra;

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a major psychiatric disorder. Glutathione (GSH), a redox regulator, is decreased in patients' cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex. The gene of the key GSH-synthesizing enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM......) subunit, is strongly associated with schizophrenia in two case-control studies and in one family study. GCLM gene expression is decreased in patients' fibroblasts. Thus, GSH metabolism dysfunction is proposed as one of the vulnerability factors for schizophrenia....

  1. Tubulin tyrosine ligase and stathmin compete for tubulin binding in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Szyk, Agnieszka; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2013-01-01

    Tubulin partition between soluble and polymeric forms is tightly regulated in cells. Stathmin and tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL)a each form stable complexes with tubulin and inhibit tubulin polymerization. Here we explore the mutual relationship between these proteins in vitro and demonstrate that full-length stathmin and TTL compete for binding to tubulin and fail to make a stable tubulin:stathmin:TTL triple complex in solution. Moreover, stathmin depresses TTL tubulin tyrosination activity i...

  2. BAG-2 Acts as an Inhibitor of the Chaperone-associated Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Verena; Daniel, Christina; Nastainczyk, Wolfgang; Alberti, Simon; Höhfeld, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Cellular protein quality control involves a close interplay between molecular chaperones and the ubiquitin/proteasome system. We recently identified a degradation pathway, on which the chaperone Hsc70 delivers chaperone clients, such as misfolded forms of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), to the proteasome. The cochaperone CHIP is of central importance on this pathway, because it acts as a chaperone-associated ubiquitin ligase. CHIP mediates the attachment of a u...

  3. A novel effect of thalidomide and its analogs: suppression of cereblon ubiquitination enhances ubiquitin ligase function

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yaobin; Huang, Xiangao; He, Xian; Zhou, Yanqing; Jiang, Xiaogang; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Jaffrey, Samie R.; Xu, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    The immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) thalidomide and its structural analogs lenalidomide and pomalidomide are highly effective in treating clinical indications. Thalidomide binds to cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the cullin-4 really interesting new gene (RING) E3 ligase complex. Here, we examine the effect of thalidomide and its analogs on CRBN ubiquitination and its functions in human cell lines. We find that the ubiquitin modification of CRBN includes K48-linked polyubiquitin chains a...

  4. Replication of proto-RNAs sustained by ligase-helicase cycle in oligomer world

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Daisuke; Narikiyo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A mechanism of the replication of proto-RNAs in oligomer world is proposed. The replication is carried out by a minimum cycle which is sustained by a ligase and a helicase. We expect that such a cycle actually worked in the primordial soup and can be constructed in vitro. By computer simulation the products of the replication acquires diversity and complexity. Such diversity and complexity are the bases of the evolution.

  5. 4-Coumarate:CoA ligase family members from elicitor-treated Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam M; Scharnhop, Helge; Ramadan, Hussein; Beuerle, Till; Beerhues, Ludger

    2011-06-15

    Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures accumulate biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in response to elicitor treatment. These polyketide derivatives arise from the starter substrate benzoyl-CoA, the biosynthesis of which is largely unresolved. Two CoA ligases involved are cinnamate:CoA ligase and benzoate:CoA ligase, which were assumed to be related in S. aucuparia to the ubiquitous 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL). cDNAs encoding three distinct 4CLs from elicitor-treated S. aucuparia cell cultures were isolated using RT-PCR and RACE techniques and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli as His(6)-tagged proteins (Sa4CL2 and Sa4CL3) or GST-fusion protein (Sa4CL1). All three isoenzymes preferred 4-coumaric acid over cinnamic acid in spectrophotometric assays and failed to utilize benzoic acid in radioisotopic assays. After elicitor treatment of S. aucuparia cell cultures, the transcript levels of all three Sa4CLs increased but were significantly lower than the maximum expression rates of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and biphenyl synthase 1 (BIS1) genes. The substrate specificities and the expression profiles indicate that the three 4CL isoenzymes are not involved in benzoyl-CoA biosynthesis in S. aucuparia cell cultures. Sa4CL3 and PAL transcripts also accumulated in response to light treatment. Phylogenetically, Sa4CL1 and Sa4CL2 belong to the class I cluster and Sa4CL3 groups in the class II cluster. Sa4CL3 contains a 49-amino acid N-terminal extension, which includes a chloroplast sorting signal.

  6. Gln40 deamidation blocks structural reconfiguration and activation of SCF ubiquitin ligase complex by Nedd8

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Clinton; Mao, Haibin; Novitsky, Eric J.; Tang, Xiaobo; Rychnovsky, Scott D.; Zheng, Ning; Huang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    The full enzymatic activity of the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) requires a ubiquitin-like protein (that is, Nedd8) modification. By deamidating Gln40 of Nedd8 to glutamate (Q40E), the bacterial cycle-inhibiting factor (Cif) family is able to inhibit CRL E3 activities, thereby interfering with cellular functions. Despite extensive structural studies on CRLs, the molecular mechanism by which Nedd8 Gln40 deamidation affects CRL functions remains unclear. We apply a new quantitative cross...

  7. Datasets from an interaction proteomics screen for substrates of the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliozzi, Roberto; Peng, Mao; Mohammed, Shabaz; Guardavaccaro, Daniele; Heck, Albert J R; Low, Teck Yew

    2015-01-01

    An affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) method was employed to identify novel substrates of the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase. A FLAG-HA tagged version of the F-box protein βTrCP2, the substrate recognition subunit of SCFβTrCP, was used as bait. βTrCP2 wild type and the two mutants

  8. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Cbl-b Regulates Pten via Nedd4 in T Cells Independently of Its Ubiquitin Ligase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Guo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b plays a crucial role in T cell activation and tolerance induction. However, the molecular mechanism by which Cbl-b inhibits T cell activation remains unclear. Here, we report that Cbl-b does not inhibit PI3K but rather suppresses TCR/CD28-induced inactivation of Pten. The elevated Akt activity in Cbl-b−/− T cells is therefore due to heightened Pten inactivation. Suppression of Pten inactivation in T cells by Cbl-b is achieved by impeding the association of Pten with Nedd4, which targets Pten K13 for K63-linked polyubiquitination. Consistent with this finding, introducing Nedd4 deficiency into Cbl-b−/− mice abrogates hyper-T cell responses caused by the loss of Cbl-b. Hence, our data demonstrate that Cbl-b inhibits T cell activation by suppressing Pten inactivation independently of its ubiquitin ligase activity.

  9. Rapid isolation of plasmid DNA by LiCl-ethidium bromide treatment and gel filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T; Mukai, M; Kondo, Y

    1991-10-01

    We established a simple and rapid plasmid DNA purification method. Crude plasmid DNA preparations are treated with 4 M LiCl in the presence of 0.6 mg/ml ethidium bromide to precipitate RNA and proteins contained in the DNA preparations. After removal of RNA and protein precipitates, the supernatant is filtered through a Sepharose CL6B column to remove low-molecular-weight contaminants. This procedure takes only 30 min and provides pure plasmid DNA preparations that consist mainly of covalently closed circular plasmid DNA but have no detectable RNA and protein. The purified DNA preparations are susceptible to various six- and four-base-recognition restriction endonucleases, T4 DNA ligase, the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I, and T7 and Taq DNA polymerase. Since no special equipment is needed for this purification method, 20 or more samples of microgram to milligram levels can be treated in parallel.

  10. RNF13: a novel RING-type ubiquitin ligase over-expressed in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zhang; Yunxiao Meng; Lei Zhang; Jie Chen; Dahai Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligases plays an important role in cancer development. In this study, we provide experimental evidence that a RING-finger-containing protein RNF13 is an ER/Golgi membrane-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase and its RING finger domain is required for the ubiquitin iigase activity, lmmunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and paracancerous normal tissues from 72 patients documented RNF13 over-expression in 30 tumor samples (41.7%, 30/72), and its expression was significantly associated with histological grading (P= 0.024). In addition, RNFI3 was detected in precancerous lesions: tubular complexes in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanlN) (79.3%, 23/29 and 62.8%, 22/35, respectively). Moreover, RNF13 staining was significantly correlated with Tenascin-C expression (P = 0.004) in PDAC samples, further supporting the role of RNF13 in cancer progression. Over-expression of wild type but not RING domain-mutant RNF13 in pancreatic MiaPaca-2 cancer cells increased invasive potential and gelatinolytic activity by matrix metalloproteinase-9. Taken together, these findings reveal that RNF13 is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis; ubiqui-tin-mediated modification of proteins by RNF13 may participate in pancreatic cancer development.

  11. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is essential for mouse embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kajiro

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification that regulates many biological conditions. Trip12 is a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates ARF and APP-BP1. However, the significance of Trip12 in vivo is largely unknown. Here we show that the ubiquitin ligase activity of Trip12 is indispensable for mouse embryogenesis. A homozygous mutation in Trip12 (Trip12(mt/mt that disrupts the ubiquitin ligase activity resulted in embryonic lethality in the middle stage of development. Trip12(mt/mt embryos exhibited growth arrest and increased expression of the negative cell cycle regulator p16. In contrast, Trip12(mt/mt ES cells were viable. They had decreased proliferation, but maintained both the undifferentiated state and the ability to differentiate. Trip12(mt/mt ES cells had increased levels of the BAF57 protein (a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and altered gene expression patterns. These data suggest that Trip12 is involved in global gene expression and plays an important role in mouse development.

  12. Identification of Arabidopsis MYB56 as a novel substrate for CRL3(BPM) E3 ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Bernhardt, Anne; Lee, JooHyun; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2015-02-01

    Controlled stability of proteins is a highly efficient mechanism to direct diverse processes in living cells. A key regulatory system for protein stability is given by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which uses E3 ligases to mark specific proteins for degradation. In this work, MYB56 is identified as a novel target of a CULLIN3 (CUL3)-based E3 ligase. Its stability depends on the presence of MATH-BTB/POZ (BPM) proteins, which function as substrate adaptors to the E3 ligase. Genetic studies have indicated that MYB56 is a negative regulator of flowering, while BPMs positively affect this developmental program. The interaction between BPMs and MYB56 occurs at the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a key regulator in initiating flowering in Arabidopsis, and results in instability of MYB56. Overall the work establishes MYB transcription factors as substrates of BPM proteins, and provides novel information on components that participate in controlling flowering time in plants. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure of the DDB1-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase in complex with thalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eric S; Böhm, Kerstin; Lydeard, John R; Yang, Haidi; Stadler, Michael B; Cavadini, Simone; Nagel, Jane; Serluca, Fabrizio; Acker, Vincent; Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M; Tichkule, Ritesh B; Schebesta, Michael; Forrester, William C; Schirle, Markus; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Ottl, Johannes; Hild, Marc; Beckwith, Rohan E J; Harper, J Wade; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Thomä, Nicolas H

    2014-08-07

    In the 1950s, the drug thalidomide, administered as a sedative to pregnant women, led to the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite the teratogenicity of thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide, these immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-deletion-associated dysplasia. IMiDs target the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (known as CRL4(CRBN)) and promote the ubiquitination of the IKAROS family transcription factors IKZF1 and IKZF3 by CRL4(CRBN). Here we present crystal structures of the DDB1-CRBN complex bound to thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. The structure establishes that CRBN is a substrate receptor within CRL4(CRBN) and enantioselectively binds IMiDs. Using an unbiased screen, we identified the homeobox transcription factor MEIS2 as an endogenous substrate of CRL4(CRBN). Our studies suggest that IMiDs block endogenous substrates (MEIS2) from binding to CRL4(CRBN) while the ligase complex is recruiting IKZF1 or IKZF3 for degradation. This dual activity implies that small molecules can modulate an E3 ubiquitin ligase and thereby upregulate or downregulate the ubiquitination of proteins.

  14. The APC/C Ubiquitin Ligase: from Cell Biology to Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara ePenas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS is required for normal cell proliferation, vertebrate development, and cancer cell transformation. The UPS consists of multiple proteins that work in concert to target a protein for degradation via the 26S proteasome. Chains of an 8.5 kDa protein called ubiquitin are attached to substrates, thus allowing recognition by the 26S proteasome. Enzymes called ubiquitin ligases or E3s mediate specific attachment to substrates. Although there are over 600 different ubiquitin ligases, the Skp1-Cullin-F-box proteins (SCF ubiquitin ligases and the Anaphase Promoting Complex/cyclosome (APC/C are the most studied. SCF involvement in cancer has been known for some time while APC/C’s cancer role has recently emerged. In this review we will discuss the importance of APC/C to normal cell proliferation and development, thus underscoring its possible contribution to transformation. We will also put forth the hypothesis that modulating a specific interaction of the APC/C may be therapeutically attractive in specific cancer subtypes. Finally, given that the APC/C pathway is relatively new as a cancer target, therapeutic interventions affecting APC/C activity may be beneficial in cancers that are resistant to classical chemotherapy.

  15. MDM2 is a novel E3 ligase for HIV-1 Vif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonaga Mitsunori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Vif plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle by antagonizing a host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G. Vif interacts with A3G and induces its polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation via the formation of active ubiquitin ligase (E3 complex with Cullin5-ElonginB/C. Although Vif itself is also ubiquitinated and degraded rapidly in infected cells, precise roles and mechanisms of Vif ubiquitination are largely unknown. Here we report that MDM2, known as an E3 ligase for p53, is a novel E3 ligase for Vif and induces polyubiquitination and degradation of Vif. We also show the mechanisms by which MDM2 only targets Vif, but not A3G that binds to Vif. MDM2 reduces cellular Vif levels and reversely increases A3G levels, because the interaction between MDM2 and Vif precludes A3G from binding to Vif. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MDM2 negatively regulates HIV-1 replication in non-permissive target cells through Vif degradation. These data suggest that MDM2 is a regulator of HIV-1 replication and might be a novel therapeutic target for anti-HIV-1 drug.

  16. Auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 Enhances Its Substrate Ubiquitin Ligase Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaweera, Ruchira S.; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    The RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 is the master regulator of the tumor suppressor p53. It targets p53 for proteasomal degradation, restraining the potent activity of p53 and enabling cell survival and proliferation. Like most E3 ligases, Mdm2 can also ubiquitinate itself. How Mdm2 auto-ubiquitination may influence its substrate ubiquitin ligase activity is undefined. Here we show that auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 is an activating event. Mdm2 that has been conjugated to polyubiquitin chains, but not to single ubiquitins, exhibits substantially enhanced activity to polyubiquitinate p53. Mechanistically, auto-ubiquitination of Mdm2 facilitates the recruitment of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. This occurs through noncovalent interactions between the ubiquitin chains on Mdm2 and the ubiquitin binding domain on E2s. Mutations that diminish the noncovalent interactions render auto-ubiquitination unable to stimulate Mdm2 substrate E3 activity. These results suggest a model in which polyubiquitin chains on an E3 increase the local concentration of E2 enzymes and permit the processivity of substrate ubiquitination. They also support the notion that autocatalysis may be a prevalent mode for turning on the activity of latent enzymes. PMID:23671280

  17. Functional analysis of the mammalian RNA ligase for IRE1 in the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poothong, Juthakorn; Tirasophon, Witoon; Kaufman, Randal J

    2017-04-30

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved signalling pathway activated on the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), termed ER stress. Upon ER stress, HAC1/XBP1 undergoes exon/intron-specific excision by inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) to remove an intron and liberate the 5' and 3' exons. In yeast, the 5' and 3' HAC1 exons are subsequently ligated by tRNA ligase (Rlg1p), whereas XBP1 ligation in mammalian cells is catalysed by a recently identified ligase, RtcB. In the present study, RNA ligase activity of the human RtcB (hRtcB) involved in the unconventional splicing of XBP1/HAC1 mRNA was explored in an rlg1-100 mutant yeast strain. Distinct from Escherichia coli RtcB and Rlg1p, expression of hRtcB alone inefficiently complemented HAC1/XBP1 splicing and the hRtcB cofactor (archease) was required to promote enzymatic activity of hRtcB to catalyse RNA ligation.

  18. Self-clearance mechanism of mitochondrial E3 ligase MARCH5 contributes to mitochondria quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song-Hee; Park, Yong-Yea; Yoo, Young-Suk; Cho, Hyeseong

    2016-01-01

    MARCH5, a mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase, controls mitochondrial dynamics proteins and misfolded proteins, and has been proposed to play a role in mitochondria quality control. However, it remains unclear how mutant MARCH5 found in cancer tissues is removed from cells. Here, we show that mutation in the MARCH5 ligase domain increased its half-life fourfold, resulting in a drastic increase in its protein level. Abnormal accumulation of the E3 ligase-defective MARCH5 mutants MARCH5(H43W) and MARCH5(C65/68S) was diminished by overexpression of active MARCH5(WT) ; the mutant proteins were degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that MARCH5 forms homodimers, and that substitution of Gly to Leu at the first putative GxxxG dimerization motif, but not the second, resulted in a loss of dimeric interaction. Moreover, overexpression of the dimerization-defective mutant MARCH5(4GL) could not decrease the level of accumulated MARCH5(H43W) , suggesting that dimerization of MARCH5 is necessary for self-clearance. Abnormal accumulation of MARCH5(H43W) and mitochondrial hyperfusion led to NF-ĸB activation, which was suppressed by overexpression of MARCH5(WT) . Together, the data reveal a self-protective mechanism involving MARCH5, which can target its own dysfunctional mutant for degradation in order to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis.

  19. RNF38 encodes a nuclear ubiquitin protein ligase that modifies p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheren, Jamie E. [Department of Pathology, The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Kassenbrock, C. Kenneth, E-mail: ken.kassenbrock@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1878 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •RNF38 is shown to be a nuclear protein with a bipartite nuclear localization signal. •RNF38 protein is purified and shown to have ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) activity. •We show that RNF38 binds p53 and can ubiquitinate p53 in vitro. •Overexpression of RNF38 increases p53 ubiquitination in HEK293T cells. •Overexpression of RNF38 in HEK293T cells alters p53 localization. -- Abstract: The RNF38 gene encodes a RING finger protein of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that RNF38 is a functional ubiquitin protein ligase (E3). We show that RNF38 isoform 1 is localized to the nucleus by a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS). We confirm that RNF38 is a binding partner of p53 and demonstrate that RNF38 can ubiquitinate p53 in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we show that overexpression of RNF38 in HEK293T cells results in relocalization of p53 to discrete foci associated with PML nuclear bodies. These results suggest RNF38 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that may play a role in regulating p53.

  20. Arabidopsis HIGH PLOIDY2 sumoylates and stabilizes flowering locus C through its E3 ligase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Soo eKwak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowering Locus C (FLC, a floral repressor, plays an important role in flowering. The mechanisms regulating FLC gene expression and protein function have been studied extensively; however, post-translational regulation of FLC remains unclear. Here, we identified Arabidopsis HIGH PLOIDY2 (HPY2 as an E3 SUMO ligase for FLC. In vitro and vivo pull-down assays showed that FLC physically interacts with HPY2. In vitro assays showed that the stimulation of FLC sumoylation by HPY2 was dependent on SUMO-activating enzyme E1 and -conjugating enzyme E2, indicating that HPY2 was an E3 SUMO ligase for FLC. In transgenic plants, inducible HPY2 overexpression increased the concentration of FLC, indicating that HPY2 stabilized FLC through direct sumoylation. Flowering time in hpy2-2 mutants was shorter than in wild-type plants under long- and short-day conditions, with a greater effect under short-day conditions, and FLC was downregulated in hpy2-2 mutants. These data indicate that HPY2 regulates FLC function and stability at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels through its E3 SUMO ligase activity.

  1. E3 ubiquitin ligases Pellinos as regulators of pattern recognition receptor signaling and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Andrei E; Murphy, Michael; Zhou, Hao; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-07-01

    Pellinos are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases discovered for their role in catalyzing K63-linked polyubiquitination of Pelle, an interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase homolog in the Drosophila Toll pathway. Subsequent studies have revealed the central and non-redundant roles of mammalian Pellino-1, Pellino-2, and Pelino-3 in signaling pathways emanating from IL-1 receptors, Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, T- and B-cell receptors. While Pellinos ability to interact with many signaling intermediates suggested their scaffolding roles, recent findings in mice expressing ligase-inactive Pellinos demonstrated the importance of Pellino ubiquitin ligase activity. Cell-specific functions of Pellinos have emerged, e.g. Pellino-1 being a negative regulator in T lymphocytes and a positive regulator in myeloid cells, and details of molecular regulation of receptor signaling by various members of the Pellino family have been revealed. In this review, we summarize current information about Pellino-mediated regulation of signaling by pattern recognition receptors, T-cell and B-cell receptors and tumor necrosis factor receptors, and discuss Pellinos roles in sepsis and infectious diseases, as well as in autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic disorders. We also provide our perspective on the potential of targeting Pellinos with peptide- or small molecule-based drug compounds as a new therapeutic approach for septic shock and autoimmune pathologies.

  2. Different DNA End Configurations Dictate Which NHEJ Components Are Most Important for Joining Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Howard H Y; Watanabe, Go; Gerodimos, Christina A; Ochi, Takashi; Blundell, Tom L; Jackson, Stephen P; Lieber, Michael R

    2016-11-18

    The nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) pathway is a key mechanism for repairing dsDNA breaks that occur often in eukaryotic cells. In the simplest model, these breaks are first recognized by Ku, which then interacts with other NHEJ proteins to improve their affinity at DNA ends. These include DNA-PKcs and Artemis for trimming the DNA ends; DNA polymerase μ and λ to add nucleotides; and the DNA ligase IV complex to ligate the ends with the additional factors, XRCC4 (X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4), XLF (XRCC4-like factor/Cernunos), and PAXX (paralog of XRCC4 and XLF). In vivo studies have demonstrated the degrees of importance of these NHEJ proteins in the mechanism of repair of dsDNA breaks, but interpretations can be confounded by other cellular processes. In vitro studies with NHEJ proteins have been performed to evaluate the nucleolytic resection, polymerization, and ligation steps, but a complete system has been elusive. Here we have developed a NHEJ reconstitution system that includes the nuclease, polymerase, and ligase components to evaluate relative NHEJ efficiency and analyze ligated junctional sequences for various types of DNA ends, including blunt, 5' overhangs, and 3' overhangs. We find that different dsDNA end structures have differential dependence on these enzymatic components. The dependence of some end joining on only Ku and XRCC4·DNA ligase IV allows us to formulate a physical model that incorporates nuclease and polymerase components as needed. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The Arabidopsis paralogs, PUB46 and PUB48, encoding U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases, are essential for plant response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Guy; Konrad, Zvia; Zamir, Lyad; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Raveh, Dina; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2017-01-11

    Plants respond to abiotic stress on physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. This includes a global change in their cellular proteome achieved by changes in the pattern of their protein synthesis and degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a key player in protein degradation in eukaryotes. Proteins are marked for degradation by the proteasome by coupling short chains of ubiquitin polypeptides in a three-step pathway. The last and regulatory stage is catalyzed by a member of a large family of substrate-specific ubiquitin ligases. We have identified AtPUB46 and AtPUB48-two paralogous genes that encode ubiquitin ligases (E3s)-to have a role in the plant environmental response. The AtPUB46, -47, and -48 appear as tandem gene copies on chromosome 5, and we present a phylogenetic analysis that traces their evolution from an ancestral PUB-ARM gene. Single homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants of AtPUB46 and AtPUB48 displayed hypersensitivity to water stress; this was not observed for similar mutants of AtPUB47. Although the three genes show a similar spatial expression pattern, the steady state levels of their transcripts are differentially affected by abiotic stresses and plant hormones. AtPUB46 and AtPUB48 encode plant U-Box E3s and are involved in the response to water stress. Our data suggest that despite encoding highly homologous proteins, AtPUB46 and AtPUB48 biological activity does not fully overlap.

  4. A Tale of Two PMLs: Elements Regulating a Differential Substrate Recognition by the ICP0 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase of Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Gu, Haidong

    2016-12-01

    Infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an α gene product required for viral replication at low multiplicities of infection. Upon entry, nuclear domain 10 (ND10) converges at the incoming DNA and represses viral gene expression. ICP0 contains a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that degrades the ND10 organizer PML and disperses ND10 to alleviate the repression. In the present study, we focused on understanding the regulation of ICP0 E3 ligase activity in the degradation of different ICP0 substrates. We report the following. (i) A SUMO interaction motif located at ICP0 residues 362 to 364 is required for the degradation of PML isoforms II, IV, and VI but not isoform I. This differentiation mechanism exists in both HEp-2 and U2OS cells, regardless of the cell's permissiveness to the ICP0-null virus. (ii) Physical interaction between SIM362-364 and PML II is necessary but not sufficient for PML II degradation. Both proximal sequences surrounding SIM362-364 and distal sequences located at the ICP0 C terminus enhance the degradation of PML II. (iii) The ICP0 C terminus is dispensable for PML I degradation. Instead, bipartite PML I binding domains located in the N-terminal half of ICP0 coordinate to promote the degradation of PML I. (iv) The stability of ICP0, but not its ND10 fusion ability, affects the rate of PML I degradation. Taken together, our results show that ICP0 uses at least two regulatory mechanisms to differentiate its substrates. The disparate recognition of the ICP0 E3 substrates may be related to the different roles these substrates may play in HSV-1 infection.

  5. Progressive Purkinje cell degeneration in tambaleante mutant mice is a consequence of a missense mutation in HERC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoji Mashimo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The HERC gene family encodes proteins with two characteristic domains: HECT and RCC1-like. Proteins with HECT domains have been described to function as ubiquitin ligases, and those that contain RCC1-like domains have been reported to function as GTPases regulators. These two activities are essential in a number of important cellular processes such as cell cycle, cell signaling, and membrane trafficking. Mutations affecting these domains have been found associated with retinitis pigmentosa, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and cancer. In humans, six HERC genes have been reported which encode two subgroups of HERC proteins: large (HERC1-2 and small (HERC3-6. The giant HERC1 protein was the first to be identified. It has been involved in membrane trafficking and cell proliferation/growth through its interactions with clathrin, M2-pyruvate kinase, and TSC2 proteins. Mutations affecting other members of the HERC family have been found to be associated with sterility and growth retardation. Here, we report the characterization of a recessive mutation named tambaleante, which causes progressive Purkinje cell degeneration leading to severe ataxia with reduced growth and lifespan in homozygous mice aged over two months. We mapped this mutation in mouse chromosome 9 and then performed positional cloning. We found a GA transition at position 1448, causing a Gly to Glu substitution (Gly483Glu in the highly conserved N-terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein. Successful transgenic rescue, with either a mouse BAC containing the normal copy of Herc1 or with the human HERC1 cDNA, validated our findings. Histological and biochemical studies revealed extensive autophagy associated with an increase of the mutant protein level and a decrease of mTOR activity. Our observations concerning this first mutation in the Herc1 gene contribute to the functional annotation of the encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase and underline the crucial and unexpected role of this protein

  6. A novel method to perform genomic walks using a combination of single strand DNA circularization and rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, Vijay J; Filion, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Characterization of regions flanking a known sequence within a genome, known as genome walking, is a cornerstone technique in modern genetic analysis. In the present work we have developed a new PCR-dependent, directional genome walking protocol based on the unique circularization property of a novel DNA ligase, CircLigase. In the first step, PCR based primer extension is performed using a phosphorylated primer, designed to extend from the boundary of the known sequence, into the flanking region. This linear amplification results in the generation of single-stranded (ss) DNA, which is then circularized using CircLigase. Using the hyperbranching activity of Phi29 DNA polymerase, the circular ssDNA is then linearized by rolling circle amplification, resulting in copious amounts of double stranded concatameric DNA. Nested primers are used to amplify the flanking sequence using inverse PCR. The products are resolved on an agarose gel and the bands whose mobility change due to the nested location of the primer combination used are identified, extracted, and cloned into a plasmid vector for sequencing. Empirical proof for this concept was generated on two antimicrobial biosynthetic genes in Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300. Using the hcnB and phlD genes as starting points, ca 1 kb of flanking sequences were successfully isolated. The use of locus specific primers ensured both directionality and specificity of the walks, alleviating the generation of spurious amplicons, typically observed in randomly primed walking protocols. The presented genome walking protocol could be applied to any microbial genome and requires only 100-150 bp of prior sequence information. The proposed methodology does not entail laborious testing of restriction enzymes or adaptor ligation. This is the first report of a successful application of the novel ligase enzyme, CircLigase for genomic walking purposes.

  7. Extensive ssDNA end formation at DNA double-strand breaks in non-homologous end-joining deficient cells during the S phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenerlöw Bo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient and correct repair of DNA damage, especially DNA double-strand breaks, is critical for cellular survival. Defects in the DNA repair may lead to cell death or genomic instability and development of cancer. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ is the major repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells. The ability of other repair pathways, such as homologous recombination, to compensate for loss of NHEJ and the ways in which contributions of different pathways are regulated are far from fully understood. Results In this report we demonstrate that long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA ends are formed at radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in NHEJ deficient cells. At repair times ≥ 1 h, processing of unrejoined DNA double-strand breaks generated extensive ssDNA at the DNA ends in cells lacking the NHEJ protein complexes DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK or DNA Ligase IV/XRCC4. The ssDNA formation was cell cycle dependent, since no ssDNA ends were observed in G1-synchronized NHEJ deficient cells. Furthermore, in wild type cells irradiated in the presence of DNA-PKcs (catalytic subunit of DNA-PK inhibitors, or in DNA-PKcs deficient cells complemented with DNA-PKcs mutated in six autophosphorylation sites (ABCDE, no ssDNA was formed. The ssDNA generation also greatly influences DNA double-strand break quantification by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, resulting in overestimation of the DNA double-strand break repair capability in NHEJ deficient cells when standard protocols for preparing naked DNA (i. e., lysis at 50°C are used. Conclusion We provide evidence that DNA Ligase IV/XRCC4 recruitment by DNA-PK to DNA double-strand breaks prevents the formation of long ssDNA ends at double-strand breaks during the S phase, indicating that NHEJ components may downregulate an alternative repair process where ssDNA ends are required.

  8. Overexpression of ligase defective E6-associated protein, E6-AP, results in mammary tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Sivapriya; Tufail, Rozina; Hokayem, Jimmy El; Jorda, Mercy; Zhao, Wei; Reis, Zizi; Nawaz, Zafar

    2012-02-01

    E6-associated protein (E6-AP) is a dual function protein. It acts as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase enzyme and coactivator of steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen (ERα) and progesterone (PR) receptors. It promotes the degradation of ERα and PR through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, it has been shown that the levels of E6-AP are inversely associated with that of ERα in human breast tumors. But the role of wild-type human E6-AP and its ubiquitin-protein ligase activity in mammary tumorigenesis is still unknown. To investigate this role, the authors utilized transgenic mice lines that specifically overexpress either the wild-type human E6-AP (E6-AP(WT)) or the ubiquitin-protein ligase defective E6-AP that contains C833S mutation (E6-AP(C833S)) in the mammary gland. To further substantiate the role of E6-AP in the development of breast tumorigenesis, it was also examined the expression of E6-AP in a large cohort of human breast cancer samples. The transgenic mice that overexpress wild-type E6-AP (E6-AP(WT)) fail to develop mammary tumors. Unlike the E6-AP(WT) mice, the E6-AP(C833S) mice that overexpress ubiquitin-protein ligase defective E6-AP protein develop mammary hyperplasia with a median latency of 18 months. These observations suggest that the inactivation of the ubiquitin-protein ligase function of E6-AP is sufficient to initiate the process of mammary tumor development. Furthermore, the data also suggests that E6-AP exerts its effects on target cells by modulating the protein levels and functions of ERα and PR. In addition, it was found in human breast cancer patients that the level of E6-AP is decreased in invasive breast tumors compared to normal breast tissue. Moreover, the authors also show that the survival patterns for E6-AP negative patients were worse compared to E6-AP positive patients. Taken together, these data suggests that E6-AP may act as a tumor suppressor in breast.

  9. Surface-assisted DNA self-assembly: An enzyme-free strategy towards formation of branched DNA lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanjadeo, Madhabi M; Nayak, Ashok K; Subudhi, Umakanta

    2017-04-01

    DNA based self-assembled nanostructures and DNA origami has proven useful for organizing nanomaterials with firm precision. However, for advanced applications like nanoelectronics and photonics, large-scale organization of self-assembled branched DNA (bDNA) into periodic lattices is desired. In this communication for the first time we report a facile method of self-assembly of Y-shaped bDNA nanostructures on the cationic surface of Aluminum (Al) foil to prepare periodic two dimensional (2D) bDNA lattice. Particularly those Y-shaped bDNA structures having smaller overhangs and unable to self-assemble in solution, they are easily assembled on the surface of Al foil in the absence of ligase. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis shows homogenous distribution of two-dimensional bDNA lattices across the Al foil. When the assembled bDNA structures were recovered from the Al foil and electrophoresed in nPAGE only higher order polymeric bDNA structures were observed without a trace of monomeric structures which confirms the stability and high yield of the bDNA lattices. Therefore, this enzyme-free economic and efficient strategy for developing bDNA lattices can be utilized in assembling various nanomaterials for functional molecular components towards development of DNA based self-assembled nanodevices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel missense mutation of the ubiquitin protein ligase E3A gene in a patient with Angelman syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jin-li; QU Yu-jin; ZOU Li-ping; YANG Xin-ying; LIU Li-jun; SONG Fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by an expression defect of the maternally inherited copy of ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene from chromosome 15. Although the most common genetic defects include maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-13, paternal uniparental disomy and imprinting defect,mutations in the UBE3A gene have been identified in approximately 10% of AS patients.Methods A Chinese girl of 28 months presented clinical manifestation of AS. Genetic diagnosis and molecular genetic defects were studied by methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) and linkage analysis by short tandem repeat (STR). We further performed sequence analysis of all the coding exons and flanking sequences of the UBE3A gene. The novel mutation screening was also performed in 100 unrelated healthy individuals to exclude the possibility of identifying a polymorphism variation.Results The MS-PCR analysis of the patient showed biparental inheritance of chromosome 15 with a normal methylation pattern in the 15q11-q13 region. And STR analysis revealed that the patient also inherited biparental alleles for six microsatellites. A novel mutation, cDNA1199 C>A (p. P400H), in exon 9 of the maternal UBE3A gene, was identified in the patient. Meanwhile, the mutation was observed in the patient's mother who had a normal phenotype.Conclusions It is necessary to perform the UBE3A gene mutation analysis in non-deletion/non-UPD/non-ID patients with AS. The clinical picture of the patient is concordant with that observed in previously reported AS patients with UBE3A mutation.

  11. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  12. Electronic structure and optical properties of noncentrosymmetric LiGaSe2: Experimental measurements and DFT band structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, A. A.; Gabrelian, B. V.; Vu, V. T.; Ananchenko, L. N.; Isaenko, L. I.; Yelisseyev, A. P.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2017-04-01

    We report on measurements of X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra for pristine and Ar+ ion-irradiated surfaces of LiGaSe2 single crystal grown by Bridgman-Stockbarger method. Electronic structure of the LiGaSe2 compound is studied from a theoretical and experimental viewpoint. In particular, total and partial densities of states of LiGaSe2 are investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations employing the augmented plane wave + local orbitals (APW + lo) method and they are verified by data of X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The DFT calculations indicate that the main contributors to the valence band of LiGaSe2 are the Se 4p states, which contribute mainly at the top and in the upper portion of the valence band, with also essential contributions of these states in the lower portion of the band. Other substantial contributions to the valence band of LiGaSe2 emerge from the Ga 4s and Ga 4p states contributing mainly at the lower ant upper portions of the valence band, respectively. With respect to the conduction band, the calculations indicate that its bottom is composed mainly from contributions of the unoccupied Ga s and Se p states. The present calculations are confirmed experimentally when comparing the XP valence-band spectrum of the LiGaS2 single crystal on a common energy scale with the X-ray emission bands representing the energy distribution of the Ga 4p and Se 4p states. Measurements of the fundamental absorption edges at room temperature reveal that bandgap value, Eg, of LiGaSe2 is equal to 3.47 eV and the Eg value increases up to 3.66 eV when decreasing temperature to 80 K. The main optical characteristics of the LiGaSe2 compound are clarified by the DFT calculations.

  13. Intrinsic mitochondrial DNA repair defects in Ataxia Telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nilesh K; Lebedeva, Maria; Thomas, Terace; Kovalenko, Olga A; Stumpf, Jeffrey D; Shadel, Gerald S; Santos, Janine H

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T) is a progressive childhood disorder characterized most notably by cerebellar degeneration and predisposition to cancer. A-T is caused by mutations in the kinase ATM, a master regulator of the DNA double-strand break response. In addition to DNA-damage signaling defects, A-T cells display mitochondrial dysfunction that is thought to contribute to A-T pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in A-T remains unclear. Here, we show that lack of ATM leads to reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and mitochondrial dysfunction, which are associated to defective mtDNA repair. While protein levels of mtDNA repair proteins are essentially normal, in the absence of ATM levels specifically of DNA ligase III (Lig3), the only DNA ligase working in mitochondria is reduced. The reduction of Lig3 is observed in different A-T patient cells, in brain and pre-B cells derived from ATM knockout mice as well as upon transient or stable knockdown of ATM. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of Lig3 in wild type cells phenocopies the mtDNA repair defects observed in A-T patient cells. As targeted deletion of LIG3 in the central nervous system causes debilitating ataxia in mice, reduced Lig3 protein levels and the consequent mtDNA repair defect may contribute to A-T neurodegeneration. A-T is thus the first disease characterized by diminished Lig3. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Conformation of nanoconfined DNA as a function of ATP, AMP, CTP, Mg2+, and dye binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Maedeh; Riehn, Robert

    2014-03-01

    DNA molecules stretch in nanochannels with a channel cross-section of 100x100 nm2, thereby allowing analysis by observation of a fluorescent dye. The length and configuration of DNA can be directly observed, and the effect of different DNA-binding proteins on DNA configuration can be studied. Recently, we reported on the ability of T4 ligase to transiently manipulate DNA as a function of ATP and magnesium exposure. In this process we have extensively probed the interactions of dyes and enzyme co-factors with DNA under nanoconfinement. We find negligible effects if DNA is visualized using groove-binding dyes such as DAPI. However, if an intercalating dye (YOYO-1) is used, we find a significant shortening of the DNA in the presence of ATP that we attribute to an interaction of dye and ATP (as well as AMP and CTP). We did not record a noticeable effect due to Mg2+.

  15. Overexpression of the human ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4A alleviates hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Can [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, 172 Tong Zipo Road, Changsha 410013 (China); Zhang, Li-Yang [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion of Ministry of Education, Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, 110 Xiang Ya Road, Changsha 410078 (China); Chen, Hong [Department of Developmental Biology, School of Biological Science and Technology, Central South University, 172 Tong Zipo Road, Changsha 410013 (China); Xiao, Ling [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, 172 Tong Zipo Road, Changsha 410013 (China); Liu, Xian-Peng, E-mail: xliu@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States); Zhang, Jian-Xiang, E-mail: jianxiangzhang@yahoo.cn [Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, 172 Tong Zipo Road, Changsha 410013 (China); Department of Developmental Biology, School of Biological Science and Technology, Central South University, 172 Tong Zipo Road, Changsha 410013 (China)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of human CUL4A (hCUL4A) in PC12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of hCUL4A on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hCUL4A suppresses apoptosis and DNA damage and thus promotes cell survival. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hCUL4A regulates apoptosis-related proteins and cell cycle regulators. -- Abstract: The ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4A plays important roles in diverse cellular processes including carcinogenesis and proliferation. It has been reported that the expression of CUL4A can be induced by hypoxic-ischemic injury. However, the effect of elevated expression of CUL4A on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury is currently unclear. In this study, human CUL4A (hCUL4A) was expressed in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells using adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer, and the effects of hCUL4A expression on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury were investigated. In PC12 cells subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, we found that hCUL4A suppresses apoptosis and DNA damage by regulating apoptosis-related proteins and cell cycle regulators (Bcl-2, caspase-3, p53 and p27); consequently, hCUL4A promotes cell survival. Taken together, our results reveal the beneficial effects of hCUL4A in PC12 cells upon hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.

  16. Simultaneous detection of 19 K-ras mutations by free-solution conjugate electrophoresis of ligase detection reaction products on glass microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Jennifer Coyne; Kotani, Akira; Lin, Jennifer S; Soper, Steven A; Barron, Annelise E

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate here the power and flexibility of free-solution conjugate electrophoresis (FSCE) as a method of separating DNA fragments by electrophoresis with no sieving polymer network. Previous work introduced the coupling of FSCE with ligase detection reaction (LDR) to detect point mutations, even at low abundance compared to the wild-type DNA. Here, four large drag-tags are used to achieve free-solution electrophoretic separation of 19 LDR products ranging in size from 42 to 66 nt that correspond to mutations in the K-ras oncogene. LDR-FSCE enabled electrophoretic resolution of these 19 LDR-FSCE products by CE in 13.5 min (E = 310 V/cm) and by microchip electrophoresis in 140 s (E = 350 V/cm). The power of FSCE is demonstrated in the unique characteristic of free-solution separations where the separation resolution is constant no matter the electric field strength. By microchip electrophoresis, the electric field was increased to the maximum of the power supply (E = 700 V/cm), and the 19 LDR-FSCE products were separated in less than 70 s with almost identical resolution to the separation at E = 350 V/cm. These results will aid the goal of screening K-ras mutations on integrated "sample-in/answer-out" devices with amplification, LDR, and detection all on one platform.

  17. PARP-1 and Ku compete for repair of DNA double strand breaks by distinct NHEJ pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Wu, Weizhong; Wu, Wenqi; Rosidi, Bustanur; Zhang, Lihua; Wang, Huichen; Iliakis, George

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 (PARP-1) recognizes DNA strand interruptions in vivo and triggers its own modification as well as that of other proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose to form polymers. This modification causes a release of PARP-1 from DNA ends and initiates a variety of responses including DNA repair. While PARP-1 has been firmly implicated in base excision and single strand break repair, its role in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) remains unclear. Here, we show that PARP-1, probably together with DNA ligase III, operates in an alternative pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) that functions as backup to the classical pathway of NHEJ that utilizes DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, XLF/Cernunnos and Artemis. PARP-1 binds to DNA ends in direct competition with Ku. However, in irradiated cells the higher affinity of Ku for DSBs and an excessive number of other forms of competing DNA lesions limit its contribution to DSB repair. When essential components of the classical pathway of NHEJ are absent, PARP-1 is recruited for DSB repair, particularly in the absence of Ku and non-DSB lesions. This form of DSB repair is sensitive to PARP-1 inhibitors. The results define the function of PARP-1 in DSB repair and characterize a candidate pathway responsible for joining errors causing genomic instability and cancer. PMID:17088286

  18. Defective DNA Ligation during Short-Patch Single-Strand Break Repair in Ataxia Oculomotor Apraxia 1 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John J.; El-Khamisy, Sherif F.; Katyal, Sachin; Clements, Paula; McKinnon, Peter J.; Caldecott, Keith W.

    2009-01-01

    Ataxia oculomotor apraxia 1 (AOA1) results from mutations in aprataxin, a component of DNA strand break repair that removes AMP from 5′ termini. Despite this, global rates of chromosomal strand break repair are normal in a variety of AOA1 and other aprataxin-defective cells. Here we show that short-patch single-strand break repair (SSBR) in AOA1 cell extracts bypasses the point of aprataxin action at oxidative breaks and stalls at the final step of DNA ligation, resulting in the accumulation of adenylated DNA nicks. Strikingly, this defect results from insufficient levels of nonadenylated DNA ligase, and short-patch SSBR can be restored in AOA1 extracts, independently of aprataxin, by the addition of recombinant DNA ligase. Since adenylated nicks are substrates for long-patch SSBR, we reasoned that this pathway might in part explain the apparent absence of a chromosomal SSBR defect in aprataxin-defective cells. Indeed, whereas chemical inhibition of long-patch repair did not affect SSBR rates in wild-type mouse neural astrocytes, it uncovered a significant defect in Aptx−/− neural astrocytes. These data demonstrate that aprataxin participates in chromosomal SSBR in vivo and suggest that short-patch SSBR arrests in AOA1 because of insufficient nonadenylated DNA ligase. PMID:19103743

  19. A Family of Salmonella Virulence Factors Functions as a Distinct Class of Autoregulated E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quezada, C.; Hicks, S; Galan, J; Stebbins, C

    2009-01-01

    Processes as diverse as receptor binding and signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and programmed cell death are manipulated by mimics of host proteins encoded by pathogenic bacteria. We show here that the Salmonella virulence factor SspH2 belongs to a growing class of bacterial effector proteins that harness and subvert the eukaryotic ubiquitination pathway. This virulence protein possesses ubiquitination activity that depends on a conserved cysteine residue. A crystal structure of SspH2 reveals a canonical leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain that interacts with a unique E{sub 3} ligase [which we have termed NEL for Novel E{sub 3} Ligase] C-terminal fold unrelated to previously observed HECT or RING-finger E{sub 3} ligases. Moreover, the LRR domain sequesters the catalytic cysteine residue contained in the NEL domain, and we suggest a mechanism for activation of the ligase requiring a substantial conformational change to release the catalytic domain for function. We also show that the N-terminal domain targets SspH2 to the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells and propose a model whereby binding of the LRR to proteins at the target site releases the ligase domain for site-specific function.

  20. A family of Salmonella virulence factors functions as a distinct class of autoregulated E3 ubiquitin ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Cindy M.; Hicks, Stuart W.; Galán, Jorge E.; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2009-01-01

    Processes as diverse as receptor binding and signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and programmed cell death are manipulated by mimics of host proteins encoded by pathogenic bacteria. We show here that the Salmonella virulence factor SspH2 belongs to a growing class of bacterial effector proteins that harness and subvert the eukaryotic ubiquitination pathway. This virulence protein possesses ubiquitination activity that depends on a conserved cysteine residue. A crystal structure of SspH2 reveals a canonical leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain that interacts with a unique E3 ligase [which we have termed NEL for Novel E3 Ligase] C-terminal fold unrelated to previously observed HECT or RING-finger E3 ligases. Moreover, the LRR domain sequesters the catalytic cysteine residue contained in the NEL domain, and we suggest a mechanism for activation of the ligase requiring a substantial conformational change to release the catalytic domain for function. We also show that the N-terminal domain targets SspH2 to the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells and propose a model whereby binding of the LRR to proteins at the target site releases the ligase domain for site-specific function. PMID:19273841

  1. Overexpression of a soybean ariadne-like ubiquitin ligase gene GmARI1 enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolian Zhang

    Full Text Available Ariadne (ARI subfamily of RBR (Ring Between Ring fingers proteins have been found as a group of putative E3 ubiquitin ligases containing RING (Really Interesting New Gene finger domains in fruitfly, mouse, human and Arabidopsis. Recent studies showed several RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases play important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses, but the function of ARI in plants is largely unknown. In this study, an ariadne-like E3 ubiquitin ligase gene was isolated from soybean, Glycine max (L. Merr., and designated as GmARI1. It encodes a predicted protein of 586 amino acids with a RBR supra-domain. Subcellular localization studies using Arabidopsis protoplast cells indicated GmARI protein was located in nucleus. The expression of GmARI1 in soybean roots was induced as early as 2-4 h after simulated stress treatments such as aluminum, which coincided with the fact of aluminum toxicity firstly and mainly acting on plant roots. In vitro ubiquitination assay showed GmARI1 protein has E3 ligase activity. Overexpression of GmARI1 significantly enhanced the aluminum tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that GmARI1 encodes a RBR type E3 ligase, which may play important roles in plant tolerance to aluminum stress.

  2. Overexpression of a soybean ariadne-like ubiquitin ligase gene GmARI1 enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolian; Wang, Ning; Chen, Pei; Gao, Mengmeng; Liu, Juge; Wang, Yufeng; Zhao, Tuanjie; Li, Yan; Gai, Junyi

    2014-01-01

    Ariadne (ARI) subfamily of RBR (Ring Between Ring fingers) proteins have been found as a group of putative E3 ubiquitin ligases containing RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domains in fruitfly, mouse, human and Arabidopsis. Recent studies showed several RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases play important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses, but the function of ARI in plants is largely unknown. In this study, an ariadne-like E3 ubiquitin ligase gene was isolated from soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., and designated as GmARI1. It encodes a predicted protein of 586 amino acids with a RBR supra-domain. Subcellular localization studies using Arabidopsis protoplast cells indicated GmARI protein was located in nucleus. The expression of GmARI1 in soybean roots was induced as early as 2-4 h after simulated stress treatments such as aluminum, which coincided with the fact of aluminum toxicity firstly and mainly acting on plant roots. In vitro ubiquitination assay showed GmARI1 protein has E3 ligase activity. Overexpression of GmARI1 significantly enhanced the aluminum tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis. These findings suggest that GmARI1 encodes a RBR type E3 ligase, which may play important roles in plant tolerance to aluminum stress.

  3. Aβ-Induced Synaptic Alterations Require the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Elizabeth M; Scudder, Samantha L; Goo, Marisa S; Patrick, Gentry N

    2016-02-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which patients experience progressive cognitive decline. A wealth of evidence suggests that this cognitive impairment results from synaptic dysfunction in affected brain regions caused by cleavage of amyloid precursor protein into the pathogenic peptide amyloid-β (Aβ). Specifically, it has been shown that Aβ decreases surface AMPARs, dendritic spine density, and synaptic strength, and also alters synaptic plasticity. The precise molecular mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for ubiquitination in Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction in cultured rat neurons. We find that Aβ promotes the ubiquitination of AMPARs, as well as the redistribution and recruitment of Nedd4-1, a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase we previously demonstrated to target AMPARs for ubiquitination and degradation. Strikingly, we show that Nedd4-1 is required for Aβ-induced reductions in surface AMPARs, synaptic strength, and dendritic spine density. Our findings, therefore, indicate an important role for Nedd4-1 and ubiquitin in the synaptic alterations induced by Aβ. Synaptic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include surface AMPAR loss, which can weaken synapses. In a cell culture model of AD, we found that AMPAR loss correlates with increased AMPAR ubiquitination. In addition, the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1, known to ubiquitinate AMPARs, is recruited to synapses in response to Aβ. Strikingly, reducing Nedd4-1 levels in this model prevented surface AMPAR loss and synaptic weakening. These findings suggest that, in AD, Nedd4-1 may ubiquitinate AMPARs to promote their internalization and weaken synaptic strength, similar to what occurs in Nedd4-1's established role in homeostatic synaptic scaling. This is the first demonstration of Aβ-mediated control of a ubiquitin ligase to regulate surface AMPAR expression. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361590-06$15.00/0.

  4. Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase is required for protein trafficking in Saccharomyces cerevisiae COPI mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jarmoszewicz

    Full Text Available Retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER depends on the formation of vesicles coated with the multiprotein complex COPI. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae ubiquitinated derivatives of several COPI subunits have been identified. The importance of this modification of COPI proteins is unknown. With the exception of the Sec27 protein (β'COP neither the ubiquitin ligase responsible for ubiquitination of COPI subunits nor the importance of this modification are known. Here we find that the ubiquitin ligase mutation, rsp5-1, has a negative effect that is additive with ret1-1 and sec28Δ mutations, in genes encoding α- and ε-COP, respectively. The double ret1-1 rsp5-1 mutant is also more severely defective in the Golgi-to-ER trafficking compared to the single ret1-1, secreting more of the ER chaperone Kar2p, localizing Rer1p mostly to the vacuole, and increasing sensitivity to neomycin. Overexpression of ubiquitin in ret1-1 rsp5-1 mutant suppresses vacuolar accumulation of Rer1p. We found that the effect of rsp5 mutation on the Golgi-to-ER trafficking is similar to that of sla1Δ mutation in a gene encoding actin cytoskeleton proteins, an Rsp5p substrate. Additionally, Rsp5 and Sla1 proteins were found by co-immunoprecipitation in a complex containing COPI subunits. Together, our results show that Rsp5 ligase plays a role in regulating retrograde Golgi-to-ER trafficking.

  5. Ligase chain reaction amplification for sensitive electrochemiluminescent detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Mengli; Xiang, Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn; Yuan, Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Chai, Yaqin

    2013-09-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Ligase chain reaction amplification (LCR) is employed to sensitively detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. •During LCR, the mutant target gene is recycled and duplicated exponentially to achieve dramatic signal amplification. •The method shows a selectivity factor of 10{sup 3} toward the mutant target gene against the interfering wild target gene. -- Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are the most common type of genetic variations among human beings and can serve as biomarkers for various types of diseases. In this work, based on ligase chain reaction amplification for the production of massive hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes to quench the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) emission of quantum dots (QDs), a universal and sensitive single nucleotide polymorphism detection method is described. During the ligase chain reaction process, the mutant K-ras target gene is recycled and exponentially duplicated, leading to the attachment of numerous G-rich sequences on the QD-embedded sensing surface. Upon the addition of the assistant sequences and hemin, numerous hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes are formed, which consume the dissolved oxygen in the detection buffer and result in significant quenching of QD ECL emission for sensitive single nucleotide polymorphism determination. The developed method shows a linear range of 50 fM to 50 pM and an estimated detection limit of 45 fM for the mutant K-ras gene. The proposed strategy also exhibits high selectivity towards the mutant K-ras gene against the co-existence of 10{sup 3}-fold excess of the wild-type K-ras gene, which makes our method a useful addition to the alternatives for single nucleotide polymorphism monitoring.

  6. Tubulin tyrosine ligase and stathmin compete for tubulin binding in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyk, Agnieszka; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2013-07-24

    Tubulin partition between soluble and polymeric forms is tightly regulated in cells. Stathmin and tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL) each form stable complexes with tubulin and inhibit tubulin polymerization. Here we explore the mutual relationship between these proteins in vitro and demonstrate that full-length stathmin and TTL compete for binding to tubulin and fail to make a stable tubulin:stathmin:TTL triple complex in solution. Moreover, stathmin depresses TTL tubulin tyrosination activity in vitro. These results suggest either that TTL and stathmin have a partially overlapping footprint on the tubulin dimer or that stathmin induces a tubulin conformation incompatible with stable TTL binding.

  7. Structure of the DDB1-CRBN E3 ubiquitin ligase in complex with thalidomide

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Eric S.; Böhm, Kerstin; Lydeard, John R.; Yang, Haidi; Stadler, Michael B.; Cavadini, Simone; Nagel, Jane; Serluca, Fabrizio; Acker, Vincent; Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M.; Tichkule, Ritesh B.; Schebesta, Michael; Forrester, William C.; Schirle, Markus; Hassiepen, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In the 1950s the drug thalidomide administered as a sedative to pregnant women led to the birth of thousands of children with multiple defects. Despite its teratogenicity, thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide (together known as Immunomodulatory Drugs: IMiDs) recently emerged as effective treatments for multiple myeloma and 5q-dysplasia. IMiDs target the CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (CRL4CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase and promote the ubiquitination of Ikaros/Aiolos transcription fac...

  8. Allosteric inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus d-alanine:d-alanine ligase revealed by crystallographic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shenping; Chang, Jeanne S.; Herberg, John T.; Horng, Miao-Miao; Tomich, Paul K.; Lin, Alice H.; Marotti, Keith R

    2006-01-01

    d-alanine:d-alanine ligase (DDl) is an essential enzyme in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and an important target for developing new antibiotics. It catalyzes the formation of d-alanine:d-alanine dipeptide, sequentially by using one d-alanine and one ATP as substrates for the first-half reaction, and a second d-alanine substrate to complete the reaction. Some gain of function DDl mutants can use an alternate second substrate, causing resistance to vancomycin, one of the last lines of defens...

  9. Pathogenic role of the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase in human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbo eZhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cullin 4-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL4 family employs multiple DCAF (DDB1-CUL4 associated factors substrate receptors to direct the degradation of proteins involved in a wide spectrum of cellular functions. Aberrant expression of the cullin 4A (CUL4A gene is found in many tumor types, while mutations of the cullin 4B (CUL4B gene are causally associated with human X-linked mental retardation. This focused review will summarize our current knowledge of the two CUL4 family members in the pathogenesis of human malignancy and neuronal disease, and discuss their potential as new targets for cancer prevention and therapeutic intervention.

  10. The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates Ubiquitination and Degradation of Mixed-Lineage Kinase 3

    OpenAIRE

    Blessing, Natalya A.; Brockman, April L.; Chadee, Deborah N.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and has important functions in migration, invasion, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. We investigated the role of the E3 ligase carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) in the regulation of MLK3 protein levels. We show that CHIP interacts with MLK3 and, together with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5 (UbcH5a, -b, -c, or -d), ubiquitinates MLK3 in vitro. CHIP or Hs...

  11. Deficiency in ubiquitin ligase TRIM2 causes accumulation of neurofilament light chain and neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Balastik, M.; Ferraguti, F.; A. Pires da Silva; Lee, T; Alvarez-Bolado, G.; Lu, K.; Gruss, P

    2008-01-01

    TRIM RING finger proteins have been shown to play an important role in cancerogenesis, in the pathogenesis of some human hereditary disorders, and in the defense against viral infection, but the function of the majority of TRIM proteins remains unknown. Here, we show that TRIM RING finger protein TRIM2, highly expressed in the nervous system, is an UbcH5a-dependent ubiquitin ligase. We further demonstrate that TRIM2 binds to neurofilament light subunit (NF-L) and regulates NF-L ubiquitination...

  12. Cullin-RING Ubiquitin Ligase Family in Plant Abiotic Stress Pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liquan Guo; Cynthia D.Nezames; Lianxi Sheng; Xingwang Deng; Ning Wei

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a key mechanism that plants use to generate adaptive responses in coping with various environmental stresses.Cullin-RING (CRL) complexes represent a predominant group of ubiquitin E3 ligases in this system.In this review,we focus on the CRL E3s that have been implicated in abiotic stress signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.By comparing and analyzing these cases,we hope to gain a better understanding on how CRL complexes work under various settings in an attempt to decipher the clues about the regulatory mechanism of CRL E3s.

  13. A Novel Method for High Efficiency Amplification of Short DNA Fragments%一种高效扩增小片段DNA方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 李珊珊; 张玉祥

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立一种高效扩增小片段DNA的方法.方法 本方法利用单链DNA连接酶(single strand DNA ligase,ssDNA ligase)可以连接单链DNA的性质将小片段DNA自连成环,随后利用phi29 DNA聚合酶进行恒温的滚环复制,将扩增产物进行酶切,得到了扩增后的小片段DNA.结果 单链DNA连接酶可以有效的将30 bp的小片段DNA自连成环,phi29 DNA聚合酶可以扩增出大于10 kb的DNA片段,扩增产物经酶切后又可进行第二轮扩增,并且证明了其成环方式为自成环.结论 通过单链成环后滚环复制的这种方法可以有效的将小片段 DNA进行扩增,解决了PCR无法扩增小片段DNA的问题,并有着广阔的应用前景.%Objective To establish a method for highly efficient amplification of small fragment DNA. Methods Single-strand DNA intramolecular ligation was made by using single-stranded DNA ligase( ssDNA ligase), which can link small DNA fragments into a ring, and then isothermal rolling circle replication was carried out by using phi29 DNA polymerase. The amplified products were cut by incision enzyme. In this way, the small fragment DNA can be amplified at high efficiency. Results SsDNA ligase can make 30 bp oligonucleotide DNA cyclization, and phi29 DNA polymerase can make amplification products more than 10 kb in length. Amplification products can be amplified second times after being cut by incision enzyme. It was also proved that the way of single strand DNA cyclization was intramolecular. Conclusion This method can effectively amplify the small DNA fragments, and has broad prospects of application.

  14. Structural basis for c-KIT inhibition by the suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) ubiquitin ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Pike, Ashley C W; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) is a member of the SOCS family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that can interact with c-KIT and suppress c-KIT-dependent pathways. Here, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms that determine SOCS6 substrate recognition. Our results show that the SH2 domain of SOCS6 is essential for its...... to substrate residue position pY+6 and envelopes the c-KIT phosphopeptide with a large BG loop insertion that contributes significantly to substrate interaction. We demonstrate that SOCS6 has ubiquitin ligase activity toward c-KIT and regulates c-KIT protein turnover in cells. Our data support a role of SOCS6...... as a feedback inhibitor of SCF-dependent signaling and provides molecular data to account for target specificity within the SOCS family of ubiquitin ligases....

  15. TRIM30α Is a Negative-Feedback Regulator of the Intracellular DNA and DNA Virus-Triggered Response by Targeting STING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled immune responses to intracellular DNA have been shown to induce autoimmune diseases. Homeostasis regulation of immune responses to cytosolic DNA is critical for limiting the risk of autoimmunity and survival of the host. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 30α (TRIM30α was induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs. Knockdown or genetic ablation of TRIM30α augmented the type I IFNs and interleukin-6 response to intracellular DNA and DNA viruses. Trim30α-deficient mice were more resistant to infection by DNA viruses. Biochemical analyses showed that TRIM30α interacted with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING, which is a critical regulator of the DNA-sensing response. Overexpression of TRIM30α promoted the degradation of STING via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys275 through a proteasome-dependent pathway. These findings indicate that E3 ligase TRIM30α is an important negative-feedback regulator of innate immune responses to DNA viruses by targeting STING.

  16. TRIM30α Is a Negative-Feedback Regulator of the Intracellular DNA and DNA Virus-Triggered Response by Targeting STING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled immune responses to intracellular DNA have been shown to induce autoimmune diseases. Homeostasis regulation of immune responses to cytosolic DNA is critical for limiting the risk of autoimmunity and survival of the host. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 30α (TRIM30α was induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs. Knockdown or genetic ablation of TRIM30α augmented the type I IFNs and interleukin-6 response to intracellular DNA and DNA viruses. Trim30α-deficient mice were more resistant to infection by DNA viruses. Biochemical analyses showed that TRIM30α interacted with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING, which is a critical regulator of the DNA-sensing response. Overexpression of TRIM30α promoted the degradation of STING via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys275 through a proteasome-dependent pathway. These findings indicate that E3 ligase TRIM30α is an important negative-feedback regulator of innate immune responses to DNA viruses by targeting STING.

  17. Surface ligation-based resonance light scattering analysis of methylated genomic DNA on a microarray platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Lei, Zhen; Liu, Xia; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-05-10

    DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic modification and is closely related to tumorigenesis. Herein, a surface ligation-based high throughput method combined with bisulfite treatment is developed for analysis of methylated genomic DNA. In this method, a DNA microarray is employed as a reaction platform, and resonance light scattering (RLS) of nanoparticles is used as the detection principle. The specificity stems from allele-specific ligation of Taq DNA ligase, which is further enhanced by improving the fidelity of Taq DNA ligase in a heterogeneous reaction. Two amplification techniques, rolling circle amplification (RCA) and silver enhancement, are employed after the ligation reaction and a gold nanoparticle (GNP) labeling procedure is used to amplify the signal. As little as 0.01% methylated DNA (i.e. 2 pmol L(-1)) can be distinguished from the cocktail of methylated and unmethylated DNA by the proposed method. More importantly, this method shows good accuracy and sensitivity in profiling the methylation level of genomic DNA of three selected colonic cancer cell lines. This strategy provides a high throughput alternative with reasonable sensitivity and resolution for cancer study and diagnosis.

  18. A DNA-dependent stress response involving DNA-PK occurs in hypoxic cells and contributes to cellular adaptation to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Fanny; Ousset, Marielle; Biard, Denis; Fallone, Frédérique; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Frit, Philippe; Salles, Bernard; Muller, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) signalling and repair. We report that DNA-PK is activated by mild hypoxia conditions (0.1-1% O₂) as shown by (1) its autophosphorylation on Ser2056, and (2) its mobilisation from a soluble nucleoplasmic compartment to a less extractable nuclear fraction. The recruitment of DNA-PK was not followed by activation and recruitment of the XRCC4-DNA-ligase-IV complex, suggesting that DSBs are not responsible for activation of DNA-PK. To unravel the mechanism of DNA-PK activation, we show that exposure of cells to trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, leads to DNA-PK autophosphorylation and relocalisation to DNA. Histone acetylation (mainly H3K14) is increased in hypoxic cells and treatment with anacardic acid, an inhibitor of histone acetyl transferase, prevented both histone modifications and DNA-PK activation in hypoxic conditions. Importantly, in using either silenced DNA-PK cells or cells exposed to a specific DNA-PK inhibitor (NU7026), we demonstrated that hypoxic DNA-PK activation positively regulates the key transcription factor HIF-1 and one subsequent target gene, GLUT1. Our results show that hypoxia initiates chromatin modification and consequently DNA-PK activation, which positively regulate cellular oxygen-sensing and oxygen-signalling pathways.

  19. The ubiquitin ligase Cullin5(SOCS2) regulates NDR1/STK38 stability and NF-κB transactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Indranil; Batth, Tanveer S; Iglesias-Gato, Diego

    2017-01-01

    SOCS2 is a pleiotropic E3 ligase. Its deficiency is associated with gigantism and organismal lethality upon inflammatory challenge. However, mechanistic understanding of SOCS2 function is dismal due to our unawareness of its protein substrates. We performed a mass spectrometry based proteomic...... show that SOCS2-deficiency is pro-inflammatory and negatively correlates with NDR1 and nuclear p65 levels. Lastly, we provide evidence to suggest that NDR1 acts as an oncogene in prostate cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an identified E3 ligase for NDR1. These results...

  20. Inhibition of SCF ubiquitin ligases by engineered ubiquitin variants that target the Cul1 binding site on the Skp1–F-box interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelik, Maryna; Orlicky, Stephen; Sartori, Maria A.; Tang, Xiaojing; Marcon, Edyta; Kurinov, Igor; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Tyers, Mike; Moffat, Jason; Sicheri, Frank; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2016-03-14

    The ubiquitin proteasome components are often misregulated in numerous diseases, encouraging the search for drug targets and inhibitors. E3 ligases that specify ubiquitination targets are of particular interest. Multimeric Skp1–Cul1–F-box (SCF) E3 ligases constitute one of the largest E3 families connected to every cellular process and multiple diseases; however, their characterization as therapeutic targets is impeded by functional diversity and poor characterization of its members. Herein we describe a strategy to inhibit SCF E3 ligases using engineered ubiquitin-based binders. We identify a previously uncharacterized inhibitory site and design ubiquitin-based libraries targeting this site. Our strategy to target SCF E3 ligases with small-molecule–like agents will have broad applications for basic research and drug development relating to SCF E3 ligase function.

  1. Electroacupuncture at the Renzhong (DU 26) and Neiguan (PC 6) acupoints repairs the DNA of nervous tissue supplied by the middle cerebral artery in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaorong Chang; Mi Liu; Jie Yan; Ling Fan; Wenjin Li; Chao Wang; Jianqiao Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the changes of DNA repair in brain tissue dominated by the middle cerebral artery after electroacupuncture at the acupoints of Renzhong (DU 26), Neiguan (PC 6), Quchi (LI 11) and Zusanli (ST 36) in rats. In the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease DNA basic group reparative excision experiments, the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity of brain tissue increased slightly after electroacupuncture in rats. In the DNA polymerase β (Pol β)experiments, the Pol β activity of brain tissue increased after electroacupuncture, especially at DU 26 and PC 6. In the DNA ligase experiments, the expression of DNA ligase 1 in brain tissue increased significantly after electroacupuncture. These findings demonstrate increased activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, Pol β and DNA ligase 1 after electroacupuncture at DU 26 and PC 6. Also, DNA repair in brain tissue supplied by the middle cerebral artery is promoted after electroacupuncture at DU 26 and PC 6, which are more effective than the LI 11 and ST 36 acupoints

  2. Blocking an N-terminal acetylation–dependent protein interaction inhibits an E3 ligase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Daniel C.; Hammill, Jared T.; Min, Jaeki; Rhee, David Y.; Connelly, Michele; Sviderskiy, Vladislav O.; Bhasin, Deepak; Chen, Yizhe; Ong, Su-Sien; Chai, Sergio C.; Goktug, Asli N.; Huang, Guochang; Monda, Julie K.; Low, Jonathan; Kim, Ho Shin; Paulo, Joao A.; Cannon, Joe R.; Shelat, Anang A.; Chen, Taosheng; Kelsall, Ian R.; Alpi, Arno F.; Pagala, Vishwajeeth; Wang, Xusheng; Peng, Junmin; Singh , Bhuvanesh; Harper, J. Wade; Schulman, Brenda A.; Guy, R. Kip (MSKCC); (Dundee); (SJCH); (Harvard-Med); (MXPL)

    2017-06-05

    N-terminal acetylation is an abundant modification influencing protein functions. Because ~80% of mammalian cytosolic proteins are N-terminally acetylated, this modification is potentially an untapped target for chemical control of their functions. Structural studies have revealed that, like lysine acetylation, N-terminal acetylation converts a positively charged amine into a hydrophobic handle that mediates protein interactions; hence, this modification may be a druggable target. We report the development of chemical probes targeting the N-terminal acetylation–dependent interaction between an E2 conjugating enzyme (UBE2M or UBC12) and DCN1 (DCUN1D1), a subunit of a multiprotein E3 ligase for the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8. The inhibitors are highly selective with respect to other protein acetyl-amide–binding sites, inhibit NEDD8 ligation in vitro and in cells, and suppress anchorage-independent growth of a cell line with DCN1 amplification. Overall, our data demonstrate that N-terminal acetyl-dependent protein interactions are druggable targets and provide insights into targeting multiprotein E2–E3 ligases.

  3. Deficiency for the ubiquitin ligase UBE3B in a blepharophimosis-ptosis-intellectual-disability syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Segref, Alexandra; Thiele, Holger; Edwards, Andrew; Arends, Mark J; Miró, Xavier; White, Jacqueline K; Désir, Julie; Abramowicz, Marc; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Lepri, Francesca; Hofmann, Kay; Har-Zahav, Adi; Ryder, Edward; Karp, Natasha A; Estabel, Jeanne; Gerdin, Anna-Karin B; Podrini, Christine; Ingham, Neil J; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Frommolt, Peter; Abdelhak, Sonia; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Konen, Osnat; Kelley, Richard I; Shohat, Mordechai; Nürnberg, Peter; Flint, Jonathan; Steel, Karen P; Hoppe, Thorsten; Kubisch, Christian; Adams, David J; Borck, Guntram

    2012-12-07

    Ubiquitination plays a crucial role in neurodevelopment as exemplified by Angelman syndrome, which is caused by genetic alterations of the ubiquitin ligase-encoding UBE3A gene. Although the function of UBE3A has been widely studied, little is known about its paralog UBE3B. By using exome and capillary sequencing, we here identify biallelic UBE3B mutations in four patients from three unrelated families presenting an autosomal-recessive blepharophimosis-ptosis-intellectual-disability syndrome characterized by developmental delay, growth retardation with a small head circumference, facial dysmorphisms, and low cholesterol levels. UBE3B encodes an uncharacterized E3 ubiquitin ligase. The identified UBE3B variants include one frameshift and two splice-site mutations as well as a missense substitution affecting the highly conserved HECT domain. Disruption of mouse Ube3b leads to reduced viability and recapitulates key aspects of the human disorder, such as reduced weight and brain size and a downregulation of cholesterol synthesis. We establish that the probable Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of UBE3B, oxi-1, functions in the ubiquitin/proteasome system in vivo and is especially required under oxidative stress conditions. Our data reveal the pleiotropic effects of UBE3B deficiency and reinforce the physiological importance of ubiquitination in neuronal development and function in mammals.

  4. Zn-binding AZUL domain of human ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemak, Alexander; Yee, Adelinda [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada); Bezsonova, Irina, E-mail: bezsonova@uchc.edu [University of Connecticut Health Center, Department of Molecular Microbial and Structural Biology (United States); Dhe-Paganon, Sirano, E-mail: sirano.dhepaganon@utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Structural Genomics Consortium (Canada); Arrowsmith, Cheryl H., E-mail: carrow@uhnresearch.ca [University of Toronto, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Ontario Cancer Institute, Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Ube3A (also referred to as E6AP for E6 Associated Protein) is a E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase implicated in the development of Angelman syndrome by controlling degradation of synaptic protein Arc and oncogenic papilloma virus infection by controlling degradation of p53. This article describe the solution NMR structure of the conserved N-terminal domain of human Ube3A (residues 24-87) that contains two residues (Cys44 and Arg62) found to be mutated in patients with Angelman syndrome. The structure of this domain adopts a novel Zn-binding fold we called AZUL (Amino-terminal Zn-finger of Ube3a Ligase). The AZUL domain has a helix-loop-helix architecture with a Zn ion coordinated by four Cys residues arranged in Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 4}-Cys-X{sub 28}-Cys motif. Three of the Zn-bound residues are located in a 23-residue long and well structured loop that connects two {alpha}-helicies.

  5. The E3 Ligase CHIP Mediates p21 Degradation to Maintain Radioresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sukumar; Du, Kangping; Brautigan, David L; Abbas, Tarek; Larner, James M

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer resists radiotherapy, making it one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Here, we show that human lung cancer cell lines can be rendered sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) by RNAi knockdown of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP/STUB1), a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets a number of stress-induced proteins. Mechanistically, ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, p21 protein, is reduced by CHIP knockdown, leading to enhanced senescence of cells in response to exposure to IR. Cellular senescence and sensitivity to IR is prevented by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the p21 gene (CDKN1A) in CHIP knockdown cells. Conversely, overexpression of CHIP potentiates p21 degradation and promotes greater radioresistance of lung cancer cells. In vitro and cell-based assays demonstrate that p21 is a novel and direct ubiquitylation substrate of CHIP that also requires the CHIP-associated chaperone HSP70. These data reveal that the inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP promotes radiosensitivity, thus suggesting a novel strategy for the treatment of lung cancer.Implications: The CHIP-HSP70-p21 ubiquitylation/degradation axis identified here could be exploited to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 15(6); 651-9. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Ubiquitin ligase gp78 targets unglycosylated prion protein PrP for ubiquitylation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jia; Choe, Vitnary; Cheng, Haili; Tsai, Yien Che; Weissman, Allan M; Luo, Shiwen; Rao, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Prion protein PrP is a central player in several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including mad cow disease and Creutzfeltd-Jacob disease. Conformational alteration of PrP into an aggregation-prone infectious form PrPSc can trigger pathogenic events. How levels of PrP are regulated is poorly understood. Human PrP is known to be degraded by the proteasome, but the specific proteolytic pathway responsible for PrP destruction remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase gp78, known for its role in protein quality control, is critical for unglycosylated PrP ubiquitylation and degradation. Furthermore, C-terminal sequences of PrP protein are crucial for its ubiquitylation and degradation. Our study reveals the first ubiquitin ligase specifically involved in prion protein PrP degradation and PrP sequences crucial for its turnover. Our data may lead to a new avenue to control PrP level and pathogenesis.

  7. A novel effect of thalidomide and its analogs: suppression of cereblon ubiquitination enhances ubiquitin ligase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaobin; Huang, Xiangao; He, Xian; Zhou, Yanqing; Jiang, Xiaogang; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Jaffrey, Samie R; Xu, Guoqiang

    2015-12-01

    The immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) thalidomide and its structural analogs lenalidomide and pomalidomide are highly effective in treating clinical indications. Thalidomide binds to cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the cullin-4 really interesting new gene (RING) E3 ligase complex. Here, we examine the effect of thalidomide and its analogs on CRBN ubiquitination and its functions in human cell lines. We find that the ubiquitin modification of CRBN includes K48-linked polyubiquitin chains and that thalidomide blocks the formation of CRBN-ubiquitin conjugates. Furthermore, we show that ubiquitinated CRBN is targeted for proteasomal degradation. Treatment of human myeloma cell lines such as MM1.S, OPM2, and U266 with thalidomide (100 μM) and its structural analog lenalidomide (10 μM) results in stabilization of CRBN and elevation of CRBN protein levels. This in turn leads to the reduced level of CRBN target proteins and enhances the sensitivity of human multiple myeloma cells to IMiDs. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which thalidomide and its analogs modulate the CRBN function in cells. Through inhibition of CRBN ubiquitination, thalidomide and its analogs allow CRBN to accumulate, leading to the increased cullin-4 RING E3 ligase-mediated degradation of target proteins.

  8. The ubiquitin ligase Siah2 regulates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Gail; Carter, Lauren E; Newman, Susan; Burk, David H; Manuel, Justin; Möller, Andreas; Bowtell, David D; Mynatt, Randall L; Ghosh, Sujoy; Floyd, Z Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Chronic, low-grade adipose tissue inflammation associated with adipocyte hypertrophy is an important link in the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance. Although ubiquitin ligases regulate inflammatory processes, the role of these enzymes in metabolically driven adipose tissue inflammation is relatively unexplored. Herein, the effect of the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 on obesity-related adipose tissue inflammation was examined. Wild-type and Siah2KO mice were fed a low- or high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Indirect calorimetry, body composition, and glucose and insulin tolerance were assayed along with glucose and insulin levels. Gene and protein expression, immunohistochemistry, adipocyte size distribution, and lipolysis were also analyzed. Enlarged adipocytes in obese Siah2KO mice were not associated with obesity-induced insulin resistance. Proinflammatory gene expression, stress kinase signaling, fibrosis, and crown-like structures were reduced in the Siah2KO adipose tissue, and Siah2KO adipocytes were more responsive to insulin-dependent inhibition of lipolysis. Loss of Siah2 increased expression of PPARγ target genes involved in lipid metabolism and decreased expression of proinflammatory adipokines regulated by PPARγ. Siah2 links adipocyte hypertrophy with adipocyte dysfunction and recruitment of proinflammatory immune cells to adipose tissue. Selective regulation of PPARγ activity is a Siah2-mediated mechanism contributing to obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. An Arabidopsis SUMO E3 Ligase, SIZ1, Negatively Regulates Photomorphogenesis by Promoting COP1 Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Xiao-Li

    2016-04-29

    COP1 (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1), a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is a central negative regulator of photomorphogenesis. However, how COP1 activity is regulated by post-translational modifications remains largely unknown. Here we show that SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification enhances COP1 activity. Loss-of-function siz1 mutant seedlings exhibit a weak constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype. SIZ1 physically interacts with COP1 and mediates the sumoylation of COP1. A K193R substitution in COP1 blocks its SUMO modification and reduces COP1 activity in vitro and in planta. Consistently, COP1 activity is reduced in siz1 and the level of HY5, a COP1 target protein, is increased in siz1. Sumoylated COP1 may exhibits higher transubiquitination activity than does non-sumoylated COP1, but SIZ1-mediated SUMO modification does not affect COP1 dimerization, COP1-HY5 interaction, and nuclear accumulation of COP1. Interestingly, prolonged light exposure reduces the sumoylation level of COP1, and COP1 mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of SIZ1. These regulatory mechanisms may maintain the homeostasis of COP1 activity, ensuing proper photomorphogenic development in changing light environment. Our genetic and biochemical studies identify a function for SIZ1 in photomorphogenesis and reveal a novel SUMO-regulated ubiquitin ligase, COP1, in plants.

  10. The Ubiquitin Ligase CBLC Maintains the Network Organization of the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan Yin; Goh, Germaine; Chia, Joanne; Boey, Adrian; Gunko, Natalia V; Bard, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays a pivotal role in the sorting and post-translational modifications of secreted and membrane proteins. In mammalian cells, the Golgi is organized in stacks of cisternae linked together to form a network with a ribbon shape. Regulation of Golgi ribbon formation is poorly understood. Here we find in an image-based RNAi screen that depletion of the ubiquitin-ligase CBLC induces Golgi fragmentation. Depletions of the close homologues CBL and CBLB do not induce any visible defects. In CBLC-depleted cells, Golgi stacks appear relatively unperturbed at both the light and electron microscopy levels, suggesting that CBLC controls mostly network organization. CBLC partially localizes on Golgi membranes and this localization is enhanced after activation of the SRC kinase. Inhibition of SRC reverts CBLC depletion effects, suggesting interplay between the two. CBLC's regulation of Golgi network requires its ubiquitin ligase activity. However, SRC levels are not significantly affected by CBLC, and CBLC knockdown does not phenocopy SRC activation, suggesting that CBLC's action at the Golgi is not direct downregulation of SRC. Altogether, our results demonstrate a role of CBLC in regulating Golgi ribbon by antagonizing the SRC tyrosine kinase.

  11. The Ubiquitin Ligase CBLC Maintains the Network Organization of the Golgi Apparatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yin Lee

    Full Text Available The Golgi apparatus plays a pivotal role in the sorting and post-translational modifications of secreted and membrane proteins. In mammalian cells, the Golgi is organized in stacks of cisternae linked together to form a network with a ribbon shape. Regulation of Golgi ribbon formation is poorly understood. Here we find in an image-based RNAi screen that depletion of the ubiquitin-ligase CBLC induces Golgi fragmentation. Depletions of the close homologues CBL and CBLB do not induce any visible defects. In CBLC-depleted cells, Golgi stacks appear relatively unperturbed at both the light and electron microscopy levels, suggesting that CBLC controls mostly network organization. CBLC partially localizes on Golgi membranes and this localization is enhanced after activation of the SRC kinase. Inhibition of SRC reverts CBLC depletion effects, suggesting interplay between the two. CBLC's regulation of Golgi network requires its ubiquitin ligase activity. However, SRC levels are not significantly affected by CBLC, and CBLC knockdown does not phenocopy SRC activation, suggesting that CBLC's action at the Golgi is not direct downregulation of SRC. Altogether, our results demonstrate a role of CBLC in regulating Golgi ribbon by antagonizing the SRC tyrosine kinase.

  12. The bacterial effector Cif interferes with SCF ubiquitin ligase function by inhibiting deneddylation of Cullin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Hanako; Kim, Minsoo; Mimuro, Hitomi; Punginelli, Claire; Koyama, Tomohiro; Nagai, Shinya; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2010-10-15

    Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is one of the effectors delivered into epithelial cells by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) via the type III secretion system (TTSS). Cif family proteins, which inhibit host cell-cycle progression via mechanisms not yet precisely understood, are highly conserved among EPEC, EHEC, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Photorhabdus luminescens and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Levels of several proteins relevant to cell-cycle progression are modulated by Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), which in turn are activated by conjugation and deconjugation of NEDD8 to Cullins. Here we show that Cif interacts with NEDD8 and interferes with SCF (Skp1-Cullin1-F-box protein) complex ubiquitin ligase function. We found that neddylated Cullin family proteins accumulated and ubiquitination of p27 decreased in cells infected with EPEC. Consequently, Cif stabilized SCF substrates such as CyclinD1, Cdt1, and p27, and caused G1 cell-cycle arrest. Using time-lapse-imaging of fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (Fucci)-expressing cells, we were able to monitor cell-cycle progression during EPEC infection and confirmed the arrest of infected cells at G1. Our in vitro and in vivo data show that Cif-NEDD8 interaction inhibits deneddylation of Cullins, suppresses CRL activity and induces G1 arrest. We thus conclude that the bacterial effector Cif interferes with neddylation-mediated cell-cycle control.

  13. Specific interaction of IP6 with human Ku70/80, the DNA-binding subunit of DNA-PK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakahi, Les A; West, Stephen C

    2002-04-15

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA double-strand breaks can be repaired by non-homologous end-joining, a process dependent upon Ku70/80, XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV. In mammals, this process also requires DNA-PK(cs), the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase DNA-PK. Previously, inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) was shown to be bound by DNA-PK and to stimulate DNA-PK-dependent end-joining in vitro. Here, we localize IP6 binding to the Ku70/80 subunits of DNA- PK, and show that DNA-PK(cs) alone exhibits no detectable affinity for IP6. Moreover, proteolysis mapping of Ku70/80 in the presence and absence of IP6 indicates that binding alters the conformation of the Ku70/80 heterodimer. The yeast homologue of Ku70/80, yKu70/80, fails to bind IP6, indicating that the function of IP6 in non-homologous end-joining, like that of DNA-PK(cs), is unique to the mammalian end-joining process.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the biotin–protein ligase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagautdinov, Bagautdin; Kuroishi, Chizu; Sugahara, Mitsuaki; Kunishima, Naoki, E-mail: kunisima@spring8.or.jp

    2005-02-01

    The biotin–protein ligase from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified, crystallized and cocrystallized with biotin, ADP and biotinyl-5′-AMP. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1} and diffract to beyond 1.6 Å resolution.

  15. [Clinical and laboratory studies on four Chinese patients with succinate-CoA ligase deficiency noticed by mild methylmalonic aciduria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y P; Li, X Y; Ding, Y; Wang, Q; Song, J Q; Zhang, Y; Li, D X; Qin, Y P; Yang, Y L

    2016-05-01

    To study the clinical and genetic features of the patients with secondary methylmalonic aciduria due to succinate-CoA ligase deficiency. From February 2011 to April 2014, 4 Chinese patients with succinate-CoA ligase deficiency and mild methylmalonic aciduria were enrolled in this study. The clinical course, biochemical features, brain MRI findings, and mutations were analyzed. Four patients presented with severe psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, seizures, feeding problems and failure to thrive from the age of one day to 6 months. Three of them had intractable epilepsies. One had hearing defect. Mild methylmalonic aciduria was detected by elevated urine methylmalonic acid and blood propionylcarnitine at the age of 6 months to 2 years and 8 months. Five mutations, c. 550G>A, c. 751C>T, c. 809A>C, c. 961C>G and c. 826-2A>G in SUCLG1 of three patients were identified. On SUCLA2, one novel mutation, c. 970C>T, was found in one patient. After treatment, the disease in all four patients was improved. Four Chinese patients with succinyl-CoA ligase deficiency caused by SUCLG1 and SUCLA2 mutations were noticed by mild methylmalonic aciduria and diagnosed using high-throughput genomic sequencing. Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency is a rare cause of methylmalonic aciduria. Biochemical and gene studies are necessary for the differential diagnoses.

  16. Tumour suppressor RNF43 is a stem-cell E3 ligase that induces endocytosis of Wnt receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koo, B.K.; Spit, M.; Jordens, I.; Low, T.Y.; Stange, D.E.; van de Wetering, M.; van Es, J.H.; Mohammed, S.; Heck, A.J.R.; Maurice, M.M.; Clevers, H.

    2012-01-01

    LGR5+ stem cells reside at crypt bottoms, intermingled with Paneth cells that provide Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor signals. Here we find that the related RNF43 and ZNRF3 transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligases are uniquely expressed in LGR5+ stem cells. Simultaneous deletion of the two genes en

  17. Biochemical function of typical and variant Arabidopsis thaliana U-box E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Jakob; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The variance of the U-box domain in 64 Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) E3s (ubiquitin-protein ligases) was used to examine the interactions between E3s and E2s (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes). E2s and E3s are components of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway. Seven U-box proteins were...

  18. The ubiquitin ligase HectH9 regulates transcriptional activation by Myc and is essential for tumor cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikary, Sovana; Marinoni, Federica; Hock, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The Myc oncoprotein forms a binary activating complex with its partner protein, Max, and a ternary repressive complex that, in addition to Max, contains the zinc finger protein Miz1. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase HectH9 ubiquitinates Myc in vivo and in vitro, forming a lysine 63-linked...

  19. K48-linked KLF4 ubiquitination by E3 ligase Mule controls T-cell proliferation and cell cycle progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Zhenyue; Sheng, Yi; Duncan, Gordon S.

    2017-01-01

    T-cell proliferation is regulated by ubiquitination but the underlying molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here we report that Lys-48-linked ubiquitination of the transcription factor KLF4 mediated by the E3 ligase Mule promotes T-cell entry into S phase. Mule is elevated in T cells upon TCR...

  20. Increased expression of pyruvate carboxylase and biotin protein ligase increases lysine production in a biotin prototrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhihao; Moslehi-Jenabian, Soloomeh; Solem, Christian

    2015-01-01

    pimeloyl-Acyl Carrier Protein [ACP]) formation. Pyruvate carboxylase (pycA), a biotin-dependent enzyme needed for lysine biosynthesis and biotin ligase (birA), which is responsible for attaching biotin to pyruvate carboxylase, were overexpressed by replacing the native promoters with the strong superoxide...

  1. PJA1, encoding a RING-H2 finger ubiquitin ligase, is a novel human X chromosome gene abundantly expressed in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Chen, Yiwang; Tagle, Danilo A; Cai, Tao

    2002-06-01

    RING-finger proteins contain cysteine-rich, zinc-binding domains and are involved in the formation of macromolecular scaffolds important for transcriptional repression and ubiquitination. In this study, we have identified a RING-H2 finger gene, PJA1 (for praja-1), from a human brain cDNA library and mapped it to human chromosome Xq12 between markers DXS983 and DXS1216, a region implicated in X-linked mental retardation (MRX). Northern blot analysis indicated a 2.7-kb transcript that was abundantly expressed in the brain, including regions of the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, medulla, occipital pole, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and putamen. Amino acid sequence analysis of the 71-kDa protein PJA1 showed 52.3% identity to human PJA2 (for praja-2, also known as NEURODAP1/KIAA0438) and also a significant identity to its homologs in rat, mouse, and zebrafish. In vitro binding and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that both PJA1 and PJA2 are able to bind the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5B. Moreover, the ubiquitination assay indicated that PJA1 and PJA2 have an E2-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Thus our findings demonstrate that PJA1 can be involved in protein ubiquitination in the brain and is a suitable candidate gene for MRX.

  2. Deficiency of UBE2T, the E2 Ubiquitin Ligase Necessary for FANCD2 and FANCI Ubiquitination, Causes FA-T Subtype of Fanconi Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Rickman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a rare bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition syndrome resulting from pathogenic mutations in genes encoding proteins participating in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs. Mutations in 17 genes (FANCA-FANCS have been identified in FA patients, defining 17 complementation groups. Here, we describe an individual presenting with typical FA features who is deficient for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2, UBE2T. UBE2T is known to interact with FANCL, the E3 ubiquitin-ligase component of the multiprotein FA core complex, and is necessary for the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Proband fibroblasts do not display FANCD2 and FANCI monoubiquitination, do not form FANCD2 foci following treatment with mitomycin C, and are hypersensitive to crosslinking agents. These cellular defects are complemented by expression of wild-type UBE2T, demonstrating that deficiency of the protein UBE2T can lead to Fanconi anemia. UBE2T gene gains an alias of FANCT.

  3. Genome-wide and functional annotation of human E3 ubiquitin ligases identifies MULAN, a mitochondrial E3 that regulates the organelle's dynamics and signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Specificity of protein ubiquitylation is conferred by E3 ubiquitin (Ub ligases. We have annotated approximately 617 putative E3s and substrate-recognition subunits of E3 complexes encoded in the human genome. The limited knowledge of the function of members of the large E3 superfamily prompted us to generate genome-wide E3 cDNA and RNAi expression libraries designed for functional screening. An imaging-based screen using these libraries to identify E3s that regulate mitochondrial dynamics uncovered MULAN/FLJ12875, a RING finger protein whose ectopic expression and knockdown both interfered with mitochondrial trafficking and morphology. We found that MULAN is a mitochondrial protein - two transmembrane domains mediate its localization to the organelle's outer membrane. MULAN is oriented such that its E3-active, C-terminal RING finger is exposed to the cytosol, where it has access to other components of the Ub system. Both an intact RING finger and the correct subcellular localization were required for regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, suggesting that MULAN's downstream effectors are proteins that are either integral to, or associated with, mitochondria and that become modified with Ub. Interestingly, MULAN had previously been identified as an activator of NF-kappaB, thus providing a link between mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling. These findings suggest the existence of a new, Ub-mediated mechanism responsible for integration of mitochondria into the cellular environment.

  4. The pineal gland: A model for adrenergic modulation of ubiquitin ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Reiter, Russel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A recent study of the pineal gland of the rat found that the expression of more than 3000 genes showed significant day/night variations (The Hartley dataset). The investigators of this report made available a supplemental table in which they tabulated the expression of many genes that they did not discuss, including those coding for components of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Herein we identify the genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system whose expression were significantly influenced by environmental lighting in the Hartley dataset, those that were stimulated by DBcAMP in pineal glands in culture, and those that were stimulated by norepinephrine. Purpose Using the Ubiquitin and Ubiquitin-like Conjugation Database (UUCA) we identified ubiquitin ligases and conjugases, and deubiquitinases in the Hartley dataset for the purpose of determining whether expression of genes of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway were significantly influenced by day/night variations and if these variations were regulated by autonomic innervation of the pineal gland from the superior cervical ganglia. Methods In the Hartley experiments pineal glands groups of rats sacrificed during the day and groups sacrificed during the night were examined for gene expression. Additional groups of rats had their superior cervical ganglia removed surgically or surgically decentralized and the pineal glands likewise examined for gene expression. Results The genes with at least a 2-fold day/night significant difference in expression included genes for 5 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, genes for 58 ubiquitin E3 ligases and genes for 6 deubiquitinases. A 35-fold day/night difference was noted in the expression of the gene Sik1, which codes for a protein containing both an ubiquitin binding domain (UBD) and an ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain. Most of the significant differences in these genes were prevented by surgical removal, or disconnection, of the superior cervical ganglia, and most were

  5. Cut-and-Paste of DNA Using an Artificial Restriction DNA Cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Komiyama

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA manipulations using a completely chemistry-based DNA cutter (ARCUT have been reviewed. This cutter, recently developed by the authors, is composed of Ce(IV/EDTA complex and two strands of pseudo-complementary peptide nucleic acid. The site-selective scission proceeds via hydrolysis of targeted phosphodiester linkages, so that the resultant scission fragments can be easily ligated with other fragments by using DNA ligase. Importantly, scission-site and site-specificity of the cutter are freely tuned in terms of the Watson–Crick rule. Thus, when one should like to manipulate DNA according to the need, he or she does not have to think about (1 whether appropriate “restriction enzyme sites” exist near the manipulation site and (2 whether the site-specificity of the restriction enzymes, if any, are sufficient to cut only the aimed position without chopping the DNA at non-targeted sites. Even the human genome can be manipulated, since ARCUT can cut the genome at only one predetermined site. Furthermore, the cutter is useful to promote homologous recombination in human cells, converting a site to desired sequence. The ARCUT-based DNA manipulation should be promising for versatile applications.

  6. The vertebrate makorin ubiquitin ligase gene family has been shaped by large-scale duplication and retroposition from an ancestral gonad-specific, maternal-effect gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volff Jean-Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the makorin (mkrn gene family encode RING/C3H zinc finger proteins with U3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Although these proteins have been described in a variety of eukaryotes such as plants, fungi, invertebrates and vertebrates including human, almost nothing is known about their structural and functional evolution. Results Via partial sequencing of a testis cDNA library from the poeciliid fish Xiphophorus maculatus, we have identified a new member of the makorin gene family, that we called mkrn4. In addition to the already described mkrn1 and mkrn2, mkrn4 is the third example of a makorin gene present in both tetrapods and ray-finned fish. However, this gene was not detected in mouse and rat, suggesting its loss in the lineage leading to rodent murids. Mkrn2 and mkrn4 are located in large ancient duplicated regions in tetrapod and fish genomes, suggesting the possible involvement of ancestral vertebrate-specific genome duplication in the formation of these genes. Intriguingly, many mkrn1 and mkrn2 intronless retrocopies have been detected in mammals but not in other vertebrates, most of them corresponding to pseudogenes. The nature and number of zinc fingers were found to be conserved in Mkrn1 and Mkrn2 but much more variable in Mkrn4, with lineage-specific differences. RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated a highly gonad-biased expression pattern for makorin genes in medaka and zebrafish (ray-finned fishes and amphibians, but a strong relaxation of this specificity in birds and mammals. All three mkrn genes were maternally expressed before zygotic genome activation in both medaka and zebrafish early embryos. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrates that the makorin gene family has evolved through large-scale duplication and subsequent lineage-specific retroposition-mediated duplications in vertebrates. From the three major vertebrate mkrn genes, mkrn4 shows the highest evolutionary dynamics, with lineage-specific loss of zinc

  7. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Part 5. Isomerases and Ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert N.; Tewari, Yadu B.

    1995-11-01

    Equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for reactions catalyzed by the isomerase and ligase classes of enzymes have been compiled. For each reaction the following information is given: the reference for the data; the reaction studied; the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number; the method of measurement; the conditions of measurement (temperature, pH, ionic strength, and the buffer(s) and cofactor(s) used); the data and an evaluation of it; and, sometimes, commentary on the data and on any corrections which have been applied to it or any calculations for which the data have been used. The data from 176 references have been examined and evaluated. Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers are given for the substances involved in these various reactions. There is a cross reference between the substances and the Enzyme Commission numbers of the enzymes used to catalyze the reactions in which the substances participate.

  8. Identification of the ubiquitin ligase Triad1 as a regulator of endosomal transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerco Hassink

    2012-05-01

    The ubiquitin system plays an important role in trafficking of signaling receptors from the plasma membrane to lysosomes. Triad1 is a ubiquitin ligase that catalyzes the formation of poly-ubiquitin chains linked via lysine-48 as well as lysine-63 residues. We show that depletion of Triad1 affects the sorting of both growth hormone and epidermal growth factor. Triad1-depleted cells accumulate both ligands in endosomes. While fluid phase transport to the lysosomes is reduced in the absence of Triad1, growth hormone receptor can recycle back to the plasma membrane together with transferrin. Using immune electron microscopy we show that Triad1 depletion results in enlarged endosomes with enlarged and irregular shaped intraluminal vesicles. The endosomes display prominent clathrin coats and show increased levels of growth hormone label. We conclude that Triad1 is required for the proper function of multivesicular bodies.

  9. Novel roles of Skp2 E3 ligase in cellular senescence, cancer progression, and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guocan Wang; Chia-Hsin Chan; Yuan Gao; Hui-Kuan Lin

    2012-01-01

    S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) belongs to the F-box protein family.It is a component of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex.Skp2 has been shown to regulate cellular proliferation by targeting several cell cycle-regulated proteins for ubiquitination and degradation,including cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27.Skp2 has also been demonstrated to display an oncogenic function since its overexpression has been observed in many human cancers.This review discusses the recent discoveries on the novel roles of Skp2 in regulating cellular senescence,cancer progression,and metastasis,as well as the therapeutic potential of targeting Skp2 for human cancer treatment.

  10. Biotin analogues with antibacterial activity are potent inhibitors of biotin protein ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares da Costa, Tatiana P; Tieu, William; Yap, Min Y; Zvarec, Ondrej; Bell, Jan M; Turnidge, John D; Wallace, John C; Booker, Grant W; Wilce, Matthew C J; Abell, Andrew D; Polyak, Steven W

    2012-06-14

    There is a desperate need to develop new antibiotic agents to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria, such as clinically important Staphylococcus aureus. The essential multifunctional enzyme, biotin protein ligase (BPL), is one potential drug target for new antibiotics. We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of biotin analogues with activity against BPLs from S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Homo sapiens. Two potent inhibitors with K i 20-fold selectivity between the isozymes were identified and characterized. The antibacterial mode of action was shown to be via inhibition of BPL. The bimolecular interactions between the BPL and the inhibitors were defined by surface plasmon resonance studies and X-ray crystallography. These findings pave the way for second-generation inhibitors and antibiotics with greater potency and selectivity.

  11. The ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 regulates hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and lymphoid commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bryan; Boccalatte, Francesco; Moran-Crusio, Kelly; Wolf, Elmar; Wang, Jingjing; Kayembe, Clarisse; Lazaris, Charalampos; Yu, Xiaofeng; Aranda-Orgilles, Beatriz; Lasorella, Anna; Aifantis, Iannis

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are dormant in the bone marrow and can be activated in response to diverse stresses to replenish all blood cell types. Here we identify the ubiquitin ligase Huwe1 as a crucial regulator of HSC functions via its post-translational control of N-myc. We found Huwe1 to be essential for HSC self-renewal, quiescence and lymphoid fate specification. Using a novel fluorescent fusion allele (MycnM), we observed that N-myc expression was restricted to the most immature, multipotent stem and progenitor populations. N-myc was upregulated in response to stress or upon loss of Huwe1, leading to increased proliferation and stem cell exhaustion. Mycn depletion reversed most of these phenotypes in vivo, suggesting that the attenuation of N-myc by Huwe1 is essential to reestablish homeostasis following stress. PMID:27668798

  12. TRIM E3 ligases interfere with early and late stages of the retroviral life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep D Uchil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the TRIpartite interaction Motif (TRIM family of E3 ligases have been shown to exhibit antiviral activities. Here we report a near comprehensive screen for antiretroviral activities of 55 TRIM proteins (36 human, 19 mouse. We identified approximately 20 TRIM proteins that, when transiently expressed in HEK293 cells, affect the entry or release of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV, murine leukemia virus (MLV, or avian leukosis virus (ALV. While TRIM11 and 31 inhibited HIV entry, TRIM11 enhanced N-MLV entry by interfering with Ref1 restriction. Strikingly, many TRIM proteins affected late stages of the viral life cycle. Gene silencing of endogenously expressed TRIM 25, 31, and 62 inhibited viral release indicating that they play an important role at late stages of the viral life cycle. In contrast, downregulation of TRIM11 and 15 enhanced virus release suggesting that these proteins contribute to the endogenous restriction of retroviruses in cells.

  13. [Suppression of E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in interleukin-1 signaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiang-Tian; Bu, Xin; Zhao, Hu; Su, Jin

    2015-08-25

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of Cbl-b, a member of E3 ubiquitin ligase family, on interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway in synoviocytes. The protein expression levels of Cbl-b and IL-1-induced matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) in synoviocytes were analyzed by Western blot. Collagen substrates were incubated with the conditioned medium collected from synoviocytes cultures and then subjected to SDS-PAGE for analysis of collagen degradation. The results showed that compared with wild-type cells, Cbl-b-deficient cells expressed more MMP-13 protein and had enhanced ability to degrade collagens under IL-1 stimulation. These data suggest that Cbl-b may negatively regulate IL-1-triggered degradation of collagen matrix in synoviocytes.

  14. Generation and Development of RNA Ligase Ribozymes with Modular Architecture Through “Design and Selection”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujita

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro selection with long random RNA libraries has been used as a powerful method to generate novel functional RNAs, although it often requires laborious structural analysis of isolated RNA molecules. Rational RNA design is an attractive alternative to avoid this laborious step, but rational design of catalytic modules is still a challenging task. A hybrid strategy of in vitro selection and rational design has been proposed. With this strategy termed “design and selection,” new ribozymes can be generated through installation of catalytic modules onto RNA scaffolds with defined 3D structures. This approach, the concept of which was inspired by the modular architecture of naturally occurring ribozymes, allows prediction of the overall architectures of the resulting ribozymes, and the structural modularity of the resulting ribozymes allows modification of their structures and functions. In this review, we summarize the design, generation, properties, and engineering of four classes of ligase ribozyme generated by design and selection.

  15. An immobilized biotin ligase: surface display of Escherichia coli BirA on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ranganath; Bajaj, Jitin; Boder, Eric T

    2005-01-01

    The Escherichia coli biotin ligase enzyme BirA has been extensively used in recent years to generate site-specifically biotinylated proteins via a biotin acceptor peptide tag. In the present study, BirA was displayed for the first time on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the Aga1p-Aga2p platform and assayed using a peptide-tagged protein as the substrate. The enzyme is fully functional and resembles the soluble form in many of its properties, but the yeast-displayed enzyme demonstrates stability and reusability on the time scale of weeks. Thus, the yeast-displayed BirA system represents a facile and highly economical alternative for producing site-specifically biotinylated proteins.

  16. Cullin4B/E3-ubiquitin ligase negatively regulates -catenin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachana Tripathi; Satya Keerthi Kota; Usha K Srinivas

    2007-09-01

    -catenin is the key transducer of Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member (Wnt) signalling, upregulation of which is the cause of cancer of the colon and other tissues. In the absence of Wnt signals, -catenin is targeted to ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation. Here we present the functional characterization of E3-ubiquitin ligase encoded by cul4B. RNAi-mediated knock-down of Cul4B in a mouse cell line C3H T10 (1/2) results in an increase in -catenin levels. Loss-of-function mutation in Drosophila cul4 also shows increased -catenin/Armadillo levels in developing embryos and displays a characteristic naked-cuticle phenotype. Immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Cul4B and -catenin are part of a signal complex in Drosophila, mouse and human. These preliminary results suggest a conserved role for Cul4B in the regulation of -catenin levels.

  17. Revolutions in rapid amplification of cDNA ends: new strategies for polymerase chain reaction cloning of full-length cDNA ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, B C

    1995-05-20

    Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) is a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique which was developed to facilitate the cloning of full-length cDNA 5'- and 3'-ends after a partial cDNA sequence has been obtained by other methods. While RACE can yield complete sequences of cDNA ends in only a few days, the RACE procedure frequently results in the exclusive amplification of truncated cDNA ends, undermining efforts to generate full-length clones. Many investigators have suggested modifications to the RACE protocol to improve the effectiveness of the technique. Based on first-hand experience with RACE, a critical review of numerous published variations of the key steps in the RACE method is presented. Also included is a detailed, effective protocol based on RNA ligase-mediated RACE/reverse ligation-mediated PCR, as well as a demonstration of its utility.

  18. The Transcriptional Response to DNA-Double-Strand Breaks in Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Whitaker, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens is unique among plants in supporting the generation of mutant alleles by facile homologous recombination-mediated gene targeting (GT). Reasoning that targeted transgene integration occurs through the capture of transforming DNA by the homology-dependent pathway for DNA double-strand break (DNA-DSB) repair, we analysed the genome-wide transcriptomic response to bleomycin-induced DNA damage and generated mutants in candidate DNA repair genes. Massively parallel (Illumina) cDNA sequencing identified potential participants in gene targeting. Transcripts encoding DNA repair proteins active in multiple repair pathways were significantly up-regulated. These included Rad51, CtIP, DNA ligase 1, Replication protein A and ATR in homology-dependent repair, Xrcc4, DNA ligase 4, Ku70 and Ku80 in non-homologous end-joining and Rad1, Tebichi/polymerase theta, PARP in microhomology-mediated end-joining. Differentially regulated cell-cycle components included up-regulated Rad9 and Hus1 DNA-damage-related checkpoint proteins and down-regulated D-type cyclins and B-type CDKs, commensurate with the imposition of a checkpoint at G2 of the cell cycle characteristic of homology-dependent DNA-DSB repair. Candidate genes, including ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling helicases associated with repair and recombination, were knocked out and analysed for growth defects, hypersensitivity to DNA damage and reduced GT efficiency. Targeted knockout of PpCtIP, a cell-cycle activated mediator of homology-dependent DSB resection, resulted in bleomycin-hypersensitivity and greatly reduced GT efficiency. PMID:27537368

  19. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC ubiquitin ligase affects chemosensory behavior in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of fundamental aspects of neurobiological function has been linked to the ubiquitin signaling system (USS, which regulates the degradation and activity of proteins and is catalyzed by E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. The Anaphase-Promoting Complex (APC is a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls diverse developmental and signaling processes in post-mitotic neurons; however, potential roles for the APC in sensory function have yet to be explored. In this study, we examined the effect of the APC ubiquitin ligase on chemosensation in Caenorhabditis elegans by testing chemotaxis to the volatile odorants, diacetyl, pyrazine, and isoamyl alcohol, to which wild-type worms are attracted. Animals with loss of function mutations in either of two alleles (g48 and ye143 of the gene encoding the APC subunit EMB-27 APC6 showed increased chemotaxis towards diacetyl and pyrazine, odorants sensed by AWA neurons, but exhibited normal chemotaxis to isoamyl alcohol, which is sensed by AWC neurons. The statistically significant increase in chemotaxis in the emb-27 APC6 mutants suggests that the APC inhibits AWA-mediated chemosensation in C. elegans. Increased chemotaxis to pyrazine was also seen with mutants lacking another essential APC subunit, MAT-2 APC1; however, mat-2 APC1 mutants exhibited wild type responses to diacetyl. The difference in responsiveness of these two APC subunit mutants may be due to differential strength of these hypomorphic alleles or may indicate the presence of functional sub-complexes of the APC at work in this process. These findings are the first evidence for APC-mediated regulation of chemosensation and lay the groundwork for further studies aimed at identifying the expression levels, function, and targets of the APC in specific sensory neurons. Because of the similarity between human and C. elegans nervous systems, the role of the APC in sensory neurons may also advance our understanding of human sensory function and

  20. Chaperone-dependent E3 ligase CHIP ubiquitinates and mediates proteasomal degradation of soluble guanylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Zeng, Jingmin; Antonova, Galina N; Snead, Connie; Venema, Richard C; Fulton, David; Qian, Shuibing; Patterson, Cam; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Catravas, John D

    2007-11-01

    The nitric oxide receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) exists in multimeric protein complexes, including heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Inhibition of HSP90 by geldanamycin causes proteasomal degradation of sGC protein. In this study, we have investigated whether COOH terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein (CHIP), a co-chaperone molecule that is involved in protein folding but is also a chaperone-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase, could play a role in the process of degradation of sGC. Transient overexpression of CHIP in COS-7 cells degraded heterologous sGC in a concentration-related manner; this downregulation of sGC was abrogated by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Transfection of tetratricopeptide repeats and U-box domain CHIP mutants attenuated sGC degradation, suggesting that both domains are indispensable for CHIP function. Results from immunoprecipitation and indirect immunofluorescent microscopy experiments demonstrated that CHIP is associated with sGC, HSP90, and HSP70 in COS-7 cells. Furthermore, CHIP increased the association of HSP70 with sGC. In in vitro ubiquitination assays using purified proteins and ubiquitin enzymes, E3 ligase CHIP directly ubiquitinated sGC; this ubiquitination was potentiated by geldanamycin in COS-7 cells, followed by proteasomal degradation. In rat aortic smooth muscle cells, endogenous sGC was also degraded by adenovirus-infected wild-type CHIP but not by the chaperone interaction-deficient K30A CHIP, whereas CHIP, but not K30A, attenuated sGC expression in, and nitric oxide donor-induced relaxation of, rat aortic rings, suggesting that CHIP plays a regulatory role under physiological conditions. This study reveals a new mechanism for the regulation of sGC, an important mediator of cellular and vascular function.

  1. The SOCS2 ubiquitin ligase complex regulates growth hormone receptor levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Vesterlund

    Full Text Available Growth Hormone is essential for the regulation of growth and the homeostatic control of intermediary metabolism. GH actions are mediated by the Growth Hormone Receptor; a member of the cytokine receptor super family that signals chiefly through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway. Target tissue responsiveness to GH is under regulatory control to avoid excessive and off-target effects upon GHR activation. The suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (SOCS is a key regulator of GHR sensitivity. This is clearly shown in mice where the SOCS2 gene has been inactivated, which show 30-40% increase in body length, a phenotype that is dependent on endogenous GH secretion. SOCS2 is a GH-stimulated, STAT5b-regulated gene that acts in a negative feedback loop to downregulate GHR signalling. Since the biochemical basis for these actions is poorly understood, we studied the molecular function of SOCS2. We demonstrated that SOCS2 is part of a multimeric complex with intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity. Mutational analysis shows that the interaction with Elongin B/C controls SOCS2 protein turnover and affects its molecular activity. Increased GHR levels were observed in livers from SOCS2⁻/⁻ mice and in the absence of SOCS2 in in vitro experiments. We showed that SOCS2 regulates cellular GHR levels through direct ubiquitination and in a proteasomally dependent manner. We also confirmed the importance of the SOCS-box for the proper function of SOCS2. Finally, we identified two phosphotyrosine residues in the GHR to be responsible for the interaction with SOCS2, but only Y487 to account for the effects of SOCS2. The demonstration that SOCS2 is an ubiquitin ligase for the GHR unveils the molecular basis for its physiological actions.

  2. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z Zhang; R Zhou; J Sauder; P Tonge; S Burley; S Swaminathan

    2011-12-31

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  3. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhou, R.; Sauder, J. M.; Tonge, P. J.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-02-18

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  4. Lenalidomide Stabilizes the Erythropoietin Receptor by Inhibiting the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase RNF41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiorka, Ashley A; McGraw, Kathy L; De Ceuninck, Leentje; Griner, Lori N; Zhang, Ling; Clark, Justine A; Caceres, Gisela; Sokol, Lubomir; Komrokji, Rami S; Reuther, Gary W; Wei, Sheng; Tavernier, Jan; List, Alan F

    2016-06-15

    In a subset of patients with non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), lenalidomide promotes erythroid lineage competence and effective erythropoiesis. To determine the mechanism by which lenalidomide promotes erythropoiesis, we investigated its action on erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) cellular dynamics. Lenalidomide upregulated expression and stability of JAK2-associated EpoR in UT7 erythroid cells and primary CD71+ erythroid progenitors. The effects of lenalidomide on receptor turnover were Type I cytokine receptor specific, as evidenced by coregulation of the IL3-Rα receptor but not c-Kit. To elucidate this mechanism, we investigated the effects of lenalidomide on the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF41. Lenalidomide promoted EpoR/RNF41 association and inhibited RNF41 auto-ubiquitination, accompanied by a reduction in EpoR ubiquitination. To confirm that RNF41 is the principal target responsible for EpoR stabilization, HEK293T cells were transfected with EpoR and/or RNF41 gene expression vectors. Steady-state EpoR expression was reduced in EpoR/RNF41 cells, whereas EpoR upregulation by lenalidomide was abrogated, indicating that cellular RNF41 is a critical determinant of drug-induced receptor modulation. Notably, shRNA suppression of CRBN gene expression failed to alter EpoR upregulation, indicating that drug-induced receptor modulation is independent of cereblon. Immunohistochemical staining showed that RNF41 expression decreased in primary erythroid cells of lenalidomide-responding patients, suggesting that cellular RNF41 expression merits investigation as a biomarker for lenalidomide response. Our findings indicate that lenalidomide has E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitory effects that extend to RNF41 and that inhibition of RNF41 auto-ubiquitination promotes membrane accumulation of signaling competent JAK2/EpoR complexes that augment Epo responsiveness. Cancer Res; 76(12); 3531-40. ©2016 AACR.

  5. In vitro assembly of multiple DNA fragments using successive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinglin; Yang, Jianming; Zhang, Haibo; Zou, Huibin; Wang, Cong; Xian, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Construction of recombinant DNA from multiple fragments is widely required in molecular biology, especially for synthetic biology purposes. Here we describe a new method, successive hybridization assembling (SHA) which can rapidly do this in a single reaction in vitro. In SHA, DNA fragments are prepared to overlap one after another, so after simple denaturation-renaturation treatment they hybridize in a successive manner and thereby assemble into a recombinant molecule. In contrast to traditional methods, SHA eliminates the need for restriction enzymes, DNA ligases and recombinases, and is sequence-independent. We first demonstrated its feasibility by constructing plasmids from 4, 6 and 8 fragments with high efficiencies, and then applied it to constructing a customized vector and two artificial pathways. As SHA is robust, easy to use and can tolerate repeat sequences, we expect it to be a powerful tool in synthetic biology.

  6. Recent Advances in DNA Ligase Isozymes%DNA连接酶同工酶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 孟紫强

    2001-01-01

    DNA连接酶是生物体内重要的酶,其所催化的反应在DNA的复制和修复过程中起重要作用.DNA连接酶分为两大类:一类是利用ATP的能量催化两个核苷酸链之间形成磷酸二酯键的依赖ATP的DNA连接酶,另一类是利用NAD+的能量催化两个核苷酸链之间形成磷酸二酯键的依赖NAD+的DNA连接酶.研究发现,细菌的DNA连接酶都是依赖NAD+的,且有非常相似的序列和相近的分子质量,其酶分子分为两个功能区:N端区与NAD+结合形成酶-腺苷酸中间物;C端区催化两条DNA链的连接.所有真核生物的DNA连接酶都是利用ATP提供能量,且一种真核生物含有多种DNA连接酶,不同的DNA连接酶催化不同的DNA修复和复制过程:DNA连接酶Ⅰ的作用是将岗畸片段连接起来形成完整的DNA链以及进行碱基切除修复(BER);DNA连接酶Ⅲ主要是在DNA修复中起作用,即催化单核苷酸碱基切除修复.DNA连接酶Ⅱ可能是DNA连接酶Ⅲ的一个片段.

  7. Characterization of a SUMO Ligase that is Essential for DNA Damage-Induced NF-Kappa B Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    experiments further dem- onstrated that NEMO–PIASy and NEMO–IKK interactions are mutu- ally exclusive (Fig. 4e and see Supplementary Information, Fig. S3d...keratinocyte apop- tosis through NFkappaB. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 25850 – 25866. 90 Zhang, J., Xu, L. G., Han, K. J., Wei, X. and Shu, H. B. (2004) PIASy

  8. TGF-β1 accelerates the DNA damage response in epithelial cells via Smad signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeeyong; Kim, Mi-Ra; Kim, Hyun-Ji; An, You Sun; Yi, Jae Youn, E-mail: yjy_71@kcch.re.kr

    2016-08-05

    The evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) regulates the DNA-damage response (DDR) upon irradiation, and we previously reported that TGF-β1 induced DNA ligase IV (Lig4) expression and enhanced the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway in irradiated cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on the irradiation-induced DDRs of A431 and HaCaT cells. Cells were pretreated with or without TGF-β1 and irradiated. At 30 min post-irradiation, DDRs were detected by immunoblotting of phospho-ATM, phospho-Chk2, and the presence of histone foci (γH2AX). The levels of all three factors were similar right after irradiation regardless of TGF-β1 pretreatment. However, they soon thereafter exhibited downregulation in TGF-β1-pretreated cells, indicating the acceleration of the DDR. Treatment with a TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor (SB431542) or transfections with siRNAs against Smad2/3 or DNA ligase IV (Lig4) reversed this acceleration of the DDR. Furthermore, the frequency of irradiation-induced apoptosis was decreased by TGF-β1 pretreatment in vivo, but this effect was abrogated by SB431542. These results collectively suggest that TGF-β1 could enhance cell survival by accelerating the DDR via Smad signaling and Lig4 expression. -- Highlights: •TGF-β1 pretreatment accelerates γ-radiation-induced DNA damage response. •TGF-β1-accelerated DNA damage response is dependent on Smad signaling and DNA Ligase IV. •TGF-β1 pretreatment protects epithelial cells from γ-radiation in vivo.

  9. DNA damage-inducible SUMOylation of HERC2 promotes RNF8 binding via a novel SUMO-binding Zinc finger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Jannie Michaela Rendtlew; Povlsen, Lou Klitgaard; Villumsen, Bine Hare

    2012-01-01

    Nonproteolytic ubiquitylation of chromatin surrounding deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the RNF8/RNF168/HERC2 ubiquitin ligases facilitates restoration of genome integrity by licensing chromatin to concentrate genome caretaker proteins near the lesions. In parallel......, SUMOylation of so-far elusive upstream DSB regulators is also required for execution of this ubiquitin-dependent chromatin response. We show that HERC2 and RNF168 are novel DNA damage-dependent SUMOylation targets in human cells. In response to DSBs, both HERC2 and RNF168 were specifically modified with SUMO1...... at DSB sites in a manner dependent on the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS4. SUMOylation of HERC2 was required for its DSB-induced association with RNF8 and for stabilizing the RNF8-Ubc13 complex. We also demonstrate that the ZZ Zinc finger in HERC2 defined a novel SUMO-specific binding module, which together...

  10. DNA Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2002-11-01

    DNA is one candidate of promising molecules for molecular electronic devices, since it has the double helix structure with pi-electron bases for electron transport, the address at 0.4 nm intervals, and the self-assembly. Electrical conductivity and nanostructure of DNA and modified DNA molecules are investigated in order to research the application of DNA in nanoelectronic devices. It has been revealed that DNA is a wide-gap semiconductor in the absence of doping. The conductivity of DNA has been controlled by chemical doping, electric field doping, and photo-doping. It has found that Poly(dG)[middle dot]Poly(dC) has the best conductivity and can function as a conducting nanowire. The pattern of DNA network is controlled by changing the concentration of the DNA solution.

  11. DNA-dependent protein kinase regulates DNA end resection in concert with Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Paull, Tanya T

    2013-12-27

    The resection of DNA double strand breaks initiates homologous recombination (HR) and is critical for genomic stability. Using direct measurement of resection in human cells and reconstituted assays of resection with purified proteins in vitro, we show that DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a classic nonhomologous end joining factor, antagonizes double strand break resection by blocking the recruitment of resection enzymes such as exonuclease 1 (Exo1). Autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs promotes DNA-PKcs dissociation and consequently Exo1 binding. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase activity can compensate for DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation and promote resection under conditions where DNA-PKcs catalytic activity is inhibited. The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex further stimulates resection in the presence of Ku and DNA-PKcs by recruiting Exo1 and enhancing DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation, and it also inhibits DNA ligase IV/XRCC4-mediated end rejoining. This work suggests that, in addition to its key role in nonhomologous end joining, DNA-PKcs also acts in concert with MRN and ata