WorldWideScience

Sample records for cng ty lin

  1. Työpaikkaselvitysmalli työn arjen tarkastelemiseksi

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerlund, Päivi

    2009-01-01

    Työlähtöinen työpaikkaselvitys keskittyy muutosten vaikutukseen työssä ja työhyvinvointiin. Työ ja ‎työelämä ovat muuttuneet voimakkaasti viimeisen 10-15 vuoden aikana: työkalut, menetelmät ja ‎organisaatiot ovat jatkuvassa muutoksessa, ja sekä työntekijöiltä että esimiehiltä odotetaan siihen ‎nopeaa sopeutumista. Näitä muutoksia on kuvattu tässä työssä perusteluksi myös yöpaikkaselvitysmenetelmän muutoksen tarpeellisuudesta. Perinteisellä ‎työpaikkaselvitysmenetelmällä työterveyshuolto voi a...

  2. Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; John, M.

    1999-05-03

    This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles and the cost of operating the CNG vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles. The study results reveal that the CNG vehicles operated by this fleet offer both economic and environmental advantages. The total operating costs of the CNG vehicles were about 25% lower than those of the gasoline vehicles. The CNG vehicles performed as well as the gasoline vehicles, and were just as reliable. Barwood representatives and drivers have come to consider the CNG vehicles an asset to their business and to the air quality of the local community.

  3. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply tank...

  4. Impact of CNG Crisis on Student's Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Kiran; Nadeem, Wajiha; Zia, Afsa; Shehzad, Shiza; Anwar, Zara

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the impact of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) crisis on Student's Academic Life of Karachi Pakistan. This research helps in observing the behavior of students and their educational progress includes depression and anxiety, rate of absenteeism and undesirable results in exams threatens due to CNG crisis and…

  5. COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

    2003-08-24

    Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

  6. Työhyvinvointi ja työssä jaksaminen hoitotyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Marjomaa, Tiina; Niemonen, Soile

    2013-01-01

    Työhyvinvointiin ja työssä jaksamiseen liittyvät tekijät ovat erittäin paljon esillä sairaanhoitajan työssä. Työhyvinvointi on menestymisen pohja jokaiselle työntekijälle ja työyhteisölle. Tässä työssä vastataan tutkimustehtäviin, miten fyysinen, psyykkinen ja sosiaalinen hyvinvointi näkyvät työssä, mikä on johtamisen merkitys hyvinvoinnille ja minkälainen merkitys on sukupolvisuudella työssäviihtymiselle. Haemme opinnäytetyössämme vastauksia siihen, mitkä tekijät edistävät tai estävät sa...

  7. Gyroskoopit ja magnetometrit työkoneessa

    OpenAIRE

    Juvén, Ville

    2011-01-01

    Työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää kahden anturin toiminta ja luoda perusta näiden hyödyntämiselle työkoneissa. Työssä tutkittiin mahdollisuuksia hyödyntää gyroskooppia ja magnetometria työkoneympäristössä. Tutkittiin myös näiden näiden yhteistoiminnan suomia mahdollisuuksia. Gyroskoopilla voidaan mitata koneen suunnan muutosta, ja magnetometrista voidaan tehdä kompassi. Pelkät anturit eivät ole kovin käytännöllisiä, sillä työkoneympäristö ei ole läheskään häiriötön: työkone tärisee jo...

  8. CNG INJECTOR RESEARCH FOR DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majczak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the tests results of the prototype design of hydraulically assisted injector, that is designed for gas supply into diesel engines. The construction of the injector allows for it positioning in the glow plug socket, so that the gas is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The cycle analysis of the four-cylinder Andoria ADCR engine with a capacity of 2.6 dm3 for different crankshaft rotational speeds allowed to determine the necessary time for fuel injection. Because of that, it was possible to determine the required mass flow rate of the injector, for replacing as much of the original fuel by gaseous fuel. To ensure a high value of flow inside the injector, supply pressure equal to 1 MPa was applied. High gas supply pressure requires high value of valve opening forces. For this purpose a injector with hydraulic control system, using a liquid under pressure for the opening process was designed. On the basis of air pressure measurements in the flow line after the injector, the analysis of opening and closing of the valve was made. Measurements of outflow mass of the injector were also carried out. The results showed that the designed injector meets the requirements necessary to supply ADCR engine by the CNG fuel.

  9. Heterogeneous terminal structure of Ty1 and Ty3 reverse transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, M; Heyman, T; Friant, S; Wilhelm, F X

    1997-06-01

    A specific terminal structure of preintegrative DNA is required for transposition of retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons. We have used an anchored PCR technique to map the 3'ends of DNA intermediates synthesized inside yeast Ty1 and Ty3 retrotransposon virus-like particles. We find that, unlike retroviruses, Ty1 replicated DNA does not have two extra base pairs at its 3'ends. In contrast some Ty3 preintegrative DNA molecules have two extra nucleotides at the 3'end of upstream and downstream long terminal repeats. Moreover we find that some molecules of replicated Ty3 DNA have more than two extra nucleotides at the 3'end of the upstream LTR. This observation could be accounted for by imprecise RNAse H cutting of the PPT sequence. The site of Ty1 and Ty3 plus-strand strong-stop DNA termination was also examined. Our results confirm that the prominent Ty1 and Ty3 plus-strand strong-stop molecules harbor 12 tRNA templated bases but also show that some Ty1 and Ty3 plus-strand strong-stop DNA molecules harbor less tRNA templated bases. We propose that these less than full length plus-strand molecules could be active intermediates in Ty retrotransposon replication.

  10. Sairaanhoitajien työhyvinvointi - muutoksen murroksessa : Kirjallisuuskatsaus

    OpenAIRE

    Kemppainen, Saga

    2017-01-01

    Tämän kirjallisuuskatsauksen tarkoituksena oli luoda aikaisempien tutkimusten perusteella kokonaiskuva sairaanhoitajien työhyvinvoinnista, työtyytyväisyydestä ja työhyvinvoinnin kehityksestä. Kirjallisuuskatsauksen tutkimustehtävät olivat: 1. Sairaanhoitajien työnkuvan muutokset kuvailevaan kirjallisuuskatsaukseen valitun tutkimuksen mukaan. 2. Sairaanhoitajien työn vetovoimaisuus kuvailevaan kirjallisuuskatsaukseen valittujen tutkimusten mukaan. 3. Sairaanhoitajien työhyvi...

  11. CNG and HCN channels: two peas, one pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Kimberley B; Zagotta, William N

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-activated ion channels play a fundamental role in a variety of physiological processes. By opening in response to intracellular cyclic nucleotides, they translate changes in concentrations of signaling molecules to changes in membrane potential. These channels belong to two families: the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels and the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channels. The two families exhibit high sequence similarity and belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated potassium channels. Whereas HCN channels are activated by voltage and CNG channels are virtually voltage independent, both channels are activated by cyclic nucleotide binding. Furthermore, the channels are thought to have similar channel structures, leading to similar mechanisms of activation by cyclic nucleotides. However, although these channels are structurally and behaviorally similar, they have evolved to perform distinct physiological functions. This review describes the physiological roles and biophysical behavior of CNG and HCN channels. We focus on how similarities in structure and activation mechanisms result in common biophysical models, allowing CNG and HCN channels to be viewed as a single genre.

  12. Aineettoman palkitsemisen merkitys työhyvinvoinnissa ja sen yhteys koettuun työn imuun

    OpenAIRE

    Lerssi, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Tavoitteet. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tarkastella aineettoman palkitsemisen ja työn imun kokemusten eroavaisuuksia suhteessa yksilöllisiin ja työsuhdetekijöihin, sekä aineettoman palkitsemisen yhteyksiä työn imun kokemiseen. Aineettomalla palkitsemisella viitataan organisaation toimintatapoihin, arvoihin sekä käytäntöihin liittyviin tekijöihin, jotka yksilö kokee palkitsevina. Työn imu on kaikkialle levittyvä, myönteinen, tunne- ja motivaatiotäyttymyksen tila, jota luonnehtivat tarmok...

  13. Työyhteisön tukipilarit kauneudenhoitoalan pienyrityksessä : hoitoruiskeet työyhteisön ryppyihin

    OpenAIRE

    Isotalo, Maria; Bly, Sari

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön lähtökohtana on kehittää esimiestyötaitoja perustuen työyhteisön tukipilareihin. Työn tarkoitus on koota esimiehen opas huonetaulun muotoon työvälineeksi rakentamaan toimivaa työyhteisöä. Tarkastelemme asiaa kauneudenhoitoalan pienyrityksen esimiehen kannalta. Toimiva työyhteisö perustuu kuuteen toimivaan tukipilariin, joiden pohjana on selkeä organi-saation perustehtävä. Tukipilareita ovat työntekoa tukeva organisaatio, työntekoa palveleva johtaminen, selkeät töiden järjestelyt...

  14. Työterveyshoitajien näkemyksiä heidän valmiuksistaan auttaa työuupunutta tai masentunutta työntekijää

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, Päivi; Väärä, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Työelämä on muuttunut vuosien kuluessa vastuullisemmaksi ja haasteellisemmaksi kuin aiemmin. Työn kuormittumisen myötä lisääntyy myös kiire. Pätevyyden sekä osaamisen tarve korostuvat. Työikäiset kokevat työssään paljon itseään kuormittavia tekijöitä, kuten kiire, oma vaatimus, työn vaativuus ja mahdollisesti näiden vaatimusten välinen ristiriita. Edellä mainitut seikat vaikuttavat työntekijän työhyvinvointiin ja voivat saada aikaan joko negatiivisen tai positiivisen stressin. Ajoittain työel...

  15. Voimaa työhön kristallisoituneesti : Vinkkejä sairaanhoitajan työhyvinvointiin

    OpenAIRE

    Passoja, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on sairaanhoitajien työhyvinvointi ja sen edistäminen. Työn toimeksiantajat ovat Turun Yliopistollisen keskussairaalan keuhkosairauksien klinikka sekä Folkhälsanin Meltolan kuntoutusyksikkö. Opinnäytetyön keskeisimpänä näkökulmana on sairaanhoitajan hyvinvointi ja se, mitä hän voi tehdä sen eteen. Metodina on teoreettis-käsitteellinen tutkimus. Työn teoreettisessa taustassa sivutaan työuupumusta sekä hyvän johtajuuden ja turvallisen työympäristön merkitystä, koska n...

  16. Työeläkevakuutusmaksupetos ja esitutkinta

    OpenAIRE

    Lehti, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on, että talousrikostutkijat työssään tunnistavat työeläkevakuutusmaksupetoksen muun tutkinnan yhteydessä ja ymmärtävät talousrikosprosessin sekä talousrikostutkinnassa laadittavan tutkintasuunnitelman merkityksen. Yksityisen työnantajan on vakuutettava työntekijät työeläkevakuutusyhtiössä, eläkekassassa tai eläkesäätiössä työeläkelain mukaisten edellytysten täyttyessä. Työeläkelain edellytyksiä vakuuttamisvelvollisuudelle on työsuhteen olemassaolo. Työsuhd...

  17. Työntekijälähettilyys sosiaalisessa mediassa

    OpenAIRE

    Puolakkainen, Juuso

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee työntekijälähettilyyttä sosiaalisessa mediassa. Toimeksiantajana työssä on MTV. Työntekijälähettilyys on työntekijöiden kannustamista osallistumaan viestintään ja jakamaan mielenkiintoisia sisältöjä työntekijöiden sosiaalisen median verkostoille. Elämme aikaa, jolloin sosiaalinen media on ihmisten arjessa vahvasti läsnä. Sosiaalinen media tarjoaakin työntekijälähettilyydelle aivan uudenlaiset mahdollisuudet tuoda yrityksen sanomaa esille ja tällä tavoin saadaan yri...

  18. Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emissions of a Stratified Charge CNG Direct Injection Engine with Turbocharger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Hilmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from 1.6 litre, 4 cylinders stratified charge compressed natural gas (CNG direct injection engine with boosting device. A turbocharger with compressor trim of 40 was used to increase engine output. The engine was tested at wide open throttle (WOT and speed ranging from 1000 to 5000 rpm. Engine performance and emissions data were recorded under steady state condition. Results show turbocharged CNG engine produced an average of 26% increment in brake power and 24% additional maximum brake torque as compared with natural aspirated (NA CNG engine. Turbocharged CNG engine improved brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and yielded higher fuel conversion efficiency (FCE. Relatively turbocharged CNG engine showed lower emission of hydrocarbon (HC and carbon monoxide (CO throughout tested engine speed. Conversely, the carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrogen oxide (NOx emission produced were slightly higher compared with NA CNG engine.

  19. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  20. Highly heterogeneous Ty3/Gypsy -like retrotransposon sequences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    like), sequences to be highly heterogeneous. Some Megyps clustered with other plants' Ty3/Gypsy-like retrotransposons, while some clustered with Gypsy of Drosophila melanogaster and Ty3-2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the comparative ...

  1. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn,

  2. Työpanoksen ennustettavuusmenetelmän toimivuus vaikeasti työllistettävien ohjaamisessa työelämään

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, Janne

    2012-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Rantala, Janne. Työpanoksen ennustettavuusmenetelmän toimivuus vaikeasti työllistettävien ohjaamisessa työelämään. Pori, kevät 2012, 54 sivua, 18 liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, DIAK Länsi, Pori. Terveyden edistä-misen koulutusohjelma. Sosionomi, ylempi AMK. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on selvittää työpanoksen ennustetta-vuusmenetelmän toimivuutta vaikeasti työllistettävien ohjaamisessa työelämään. Opinnäytetyön tekijä on itse kehittänyt menetelmän toi-miessaan...

  3. Arvokonfliktitypologian muuttaminen kuvalliseksi työvälineeksi

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerlund, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on Martti Puohiniemen arvokonfliktitypologian muuttaminen kuviksi. Suomalaisista tehdyn yhdeksänluokkaisen typologian kullekin arvotyypille muo-dostetaan ryhmän tyyliä havainnollistavat mielikuvakartat. Työn taustalla on ajatus suunnittelijan työn parantamisesta työkalulla, joka selventää kuvallisella osuudellaan eri arvotyypeille ominaisen tyylin pääpiirteet ja näin nopeuttaa projektia, sekä jättää enemmän aikaa yksityiskohtien työstämiseen. Työn tavoitteena on muodosta...

  4. LVIS-asennuksien suojaaminen asuntorakentamisen työmailla

    OpenAIRE

    Pajuniemi, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä kerätään ja kehitetään työmailla yleisesti käytössä olevia LVIS-asennuksien suojausmenetelmiä asuntorakentamisen työmailla. Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus on luoda kerätystä tiedosta yhtenäinen ohjeistava materiaali työmailla toimivan työnjohdon käyttöön. Materiaali julkaistaan sähköisessä muodossa, jotta työnjohtajat saavat sen käyttöönsä tietokoneella ja mobiililaitteella. Työssä tutkitaan NCC:n asuntorakentamisen työmailla käytössä olevia LVIS-asennuksien suojausmenete...

  5. Puvustajan työnkuva tv-sarjassa ja elokuvassa

    OpenAIRE

    Rakkolainen, Essi

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on puvustajan työnkuva tv-sarjassa ja elokuvassa. Puvustajan työnkuva riippuu esimerkiksi siitä minkälaista tuotantoa (mainos, tv-sarja, elokuva) ollaan tekemässä ja millaisella budjetilla. Tällä työllä haluan kertoa alalla työskenteleville ja kaikille muillekin tästä kiinnostuneille siitä mitä puvustajan työnkuva voi pitää sisällään. Käyn läpi puvustajan työtä ennen kuvauksia, kuvauksissa ja käsittelen myös puvustajan suhdetta muuhun työryhmään. Subject of my thesis...

  6. CFD MODEL OF THE CNG DIRECT INJECTION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Czyż

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents CFD analysis of fuel flow in the CNG injector. The issues such a pressure drop along an injector channel, mass flow through the key sections of the injector geometry, flow rates, the impact of the needle shape on the deflection of the sprayed gas cone and the impact of the wall head are analyzed in the article. The simulation was made in the transient states conditions for full injection process, including the opening and closing of the injector. An injection time of 6 ms, velocity of 0.33 mm/ms and a lift of 0.5 mm were selected for opening and closing of injector based on experimental test. The simulation shows that the volume inside the injector is a kind of fuel accumulator, and the opening process of the needle influence the flow parameters in an inlet cross-section after a certain time, depending on a channel cross section. The calculations allowed to select the ratio of an injector duct cross sectional area to the aperture area of the injection capable of the reducing pressure loss. The unusual location of the injector in the socket of a glow plug in the Andoria ADCR engine makes a stream be impaired by a part of the head. This research result would be useful in developing an injector construction which will be used for an investigation of CNG addition into diesel engine.

  7. Työssäoppimisen ohjaamisen kehittäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Nenonen, Petri; Svala, Päivi

    2008-01-01

    Työssäoppiminen kuuluu ammatillisiin perusopintoihin. Työssäoppiminen on ohjattua ja arvioitua opiskelua työssäoppimispaikoilla ja siitä vastaa työssäoppimispaikoilla työpaikkaohjaaja. Työssäoppiminen on parhaimmillaan yhteistyötä ohjaavan opettajan ( koulu ), opiskelijan ja työpaikkaohjaajan ( yritys ) kanssa. Työssäoppimisen tavoitteena on edistää opiskelijan ammatillista kasvua ja oppimista sekä opiskelijan mahdollista työllistymistä opintojen jälkeen. Työssäoppimispaikalla on loistava mah...

  8. Degradation of phytate by Pichia kudriavzevii TY13 and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii TY14 in Tanzanian togwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Andreas M; Almgren, Annette; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Svanberg, Ulf; Andlid, Thomas A

    2012-02-01

    The fermented cereal-based gruel togwa is used as weaning food for children in Tanzania. Togwa is rich in minerals but these are often not available for uptake in the human intestine due to natural inhibitors, such as phytate (IP(6)). The yeasts Pichia kudriavzevii TY13, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii TY14 and TY20, isolated from Tanzanian togwa, and selected for high phytase activity in complex yeast medium YPD, were now studied regarding their ability to degrade IP(6) in maize-based model togwa. A modified constitutively high-phytase producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY80 and commercial Aspergillus ficuum phytase were included for comparison. In addition, a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum was included in the model-togwa set-up. All yeasts in the study grew and reached final cell density 1.5-2 log units higher than the start value. S. cerevisiae BY80 degraded 85% of the IP(6) in 48 h; the same degradation level as with A. ficuum phytase (89%). Of the togwa-isolated yeasts, P. kudriavzevii TY13 and H. guilliermondii TY14 showed strong phytate degradation in the model-togwa; 95% or more of the initial IP(6) was degraded after 48 h. This corresponds to a remaining level of 0.4 and 0.3μmol IP(6)/g dw. Co-inoculation with L. plantarum did not increase IP(6) degradation. Moreover, fermentation with P. kudriavzevii TY13 yielded a successive increase in inorganic phosphate (P(i)), from 0.7 to 5.4 mM, suggesting a phytase production in TY13 which is fairly insensitive to P(i) repression. The study shows that phytate in a model togwa is available for yeast phytase enzymes, and addresses the importance of strain selection for effectively degrading the phytate. Certain yeasts originating from togwa seem to have developed a natural high phytase production, and P. kudriavzevii TY13 and H. guilliermondii TY14 seem particularly well adapted to phytate degradation in togwa, and is our choice for further studies and strain improvement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  10. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  11. lin-4 and the NRDE pathway are required to activate a transgenic lin-4 reporter but not the endogenous lin-4 locus in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan L Jiao

    Full Text Available As the founding member of the microRNA (miRNA gene family, insights into lin-4 regulation and function have laid a conceptual foundation for countless miRNA-related studies that followed. We previously showed that a transcriptional lin-4 reporter in C. elegans was positively regulated by a lin-4-complementary element (LCE, and by lin-4 itself. In this study, we sought to (1 identify additional factors required for lin-4 reporter expression, and (2 validate the endogenous relevance of a potential positive autoregulatory mechanism of lin-4 expression. We report that all four core nuclear RNAi factors (nrde-1, nrde-2, nrde-3 and nrde-4, positively regulate lin-4 reporter expression. In contrast, endogenous lin-4 levels were largely unaffected in nrde-2;nrde-3 mutants. Further, an endogenous LCE deletion generated by CRISPR-Cas9 revealed that the LCE was also not necessary for the activity of the endogenous lin-4 promoter. Finally, mutations in mature lin-4 did not reduce primary lin-4 transcript levels. Taken together, these data indicate that under growth conditions that reveal effects at the transgenic locus, a direct, positive autoregulatory mechanism of lin-4 expression does not occur in the context of the endogenous lin-4 locus.

  12. Työpaikkakouluttajan motivaatio ja motivaatioon vaikuttamisen keinot

    OpenAIRE

    Ihme, Iina-Eveliina

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin toimeksiantona Lahden Koulutuskeskus Salpaukselle. Työn päätavoitteena oli tutkia teorian ja empirian keinoin työpaikkakouluttajien motivaatiota, siihen vaikuttavia tekijöitä ja motivaatioon vaikuttamisen keinoja. Työn toisena tavoitteena oli tutkia työpaikkakouluttajien ja Koulutuskeskus Salpauksen välistä yhteydenpitoa sekä tuottaa kehitysideoita toimeksiantajan käyttöön. Opinnäytetyön tietolähteenä käytettiin aihealuetta käsittelevää lähdekirjallisuutta, kvant...

  13. Sosiaaliset ja vuorovaikutustaidot kulttuurituottajan työssä

    OpenAIRE

    Vauhkonen, Annukka

    2015-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää sosiaalisten ja vuorovaikutustaitojen merkitystä kulttuu-rituottajan työssä. Tutkimustavoitteena on kartoittaa, miten sosiaaliset ja vuorovaikutustaidot koetaan kulttuurituottajien keskuudessa työelämän erilaisissa tilanteissa. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan, mitkä ovat tärkeimmät sosiaaliset ja vuorovaikutustaidot tuottajan työssä ja mitä taitoja erityisesti tulisi kehittää. Kehittämistavoitteena on päivittää kulttuurituottajien työelämätaitoja ja li...

  14. The Contact Binary System Ty-Booti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, P. P.; Hilditch, R. W.; Bell, S. A.

    1990-09-01

    Radial velocities of the contact binary system TY Boo are presented for the first time. Orbital solutions for both components are combined with an analysis of the B lightcurve data published by Samec & Bookmyer to yield masses and absolute dimensions for the components. It is shown that the system is a normal W-type shallow-contact binary, with the primary as a main-sequence star and the secondary ≃ 1.4 times larger than expected for its ZAMS mass. A survey of published times of minima confirms that the system has undergone significant changes in orbital period during this century, but that currently it is in a stable state.

  15. Genome-wide detection of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    Zhang1*. 1College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Tongwei Road, Nanjing 210095, People's Republic of China. ... xyacetic acid; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; RT, reverse ..... and 200 ng, and PCR product of the Ty3-gypsy RT domain, corresponding to 250, 400, 500 and 800 pg, were fixed to the filter.

  16. Analytical test results for archived core composite samples from tanks 241-TY-101 and 241-TY-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1993-07-16

    This report describes the analytical tests performed on archived core composite samples form a 1.085 sampling of the 241-TY-101 (101-TY) and 241-TY-103 (103-TY) single shell waste tanks. Both tanks are suspected of containing quantities of ferrocyanide compounds, as a result of process activities in the late 1950`s. Although limited quantities of the composite samples remained, attempts were made to obtain as much analytical information as possible, especially regarding the chemical and thermal properties of the material.

  17. Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses of Ty1-copia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ty1-copia group retrotransposons have been characterized in cultivated Egyptian cotton, G.barbadense L., using degenerate PCR primers for their reverse transcriptase (RT) domains. Comparative nucleotide and amino acid sequences analyses showed that G. barbadense Ty1-copia RT sequences are heterogeneous ...

  18. In vitro expansion of Lin+ and Lin- mononuclear cells from human peripheral blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhaiza, H. Siti; Rohaya, M. A. W.; Zarina, Z. A. Intan; Hisham, Z. A. Shahrul

    2013-11-01

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are used in the therapy of blood disorders due to the ability of these cells to reconstitute haematopoietic lineage cells when transplanted into myeloablative recipients. However, substantial number of cells is required in order for the reconstitution to take place. Since HSCs present in low frequency, larger number of donor is required to accommodate the demand of transplantable HSCs. Therefore, in vitro expansion of HSCs will have profound impact on clinical purposes. The aim of this study was to expand lineage negative (Lin-) stem cells from human peripheral blood. Total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were fractionated from human blood by density gradient centrifugation. Subsequently, PBMNCs were subjected to magnetic assisted cell sorter (MACS) which depletes lineage positive (Lin+) mononuclear cells expressing lineage positive markers such as CD2, CD3, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD19, CD56, CD123, and CD235a to obtained Lin- cell population. The ability of Lin+ and Lin- to survive in vitro was explored by culturing both cell populations in complete medium consisting of Alpha-Minimal Essential Medium (AMEM) +10% (v/v) Newborn Calf Serum (NBCS)+ 2% (v/v) pen/strep. In another experiment, Lin+ and Lin- were cultured with complete medium supplemented with 10ng/mL of the following growth factors: stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), 2IU/mL of Erythropoietin (Epo) and 20ng/mL of IL-6. Three samples were monitored in static culture for 22 days. The expansion potential was assessed by the number of total viable cells, counted by trypan blue exclusion assay. It was found that Lin+ mononuclear cells were not able to survive either in normal proliferation medium or proliferation medium supplemented with cytokines. Similarly, Lin- stem cells were not able to survive in proliferation medium however, addition of cytokines into the proliferation medium support Lin

  19. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-BY and 241-TY Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.

    2013-11-19

    This document identifies 241-BY Tank Farm (BY Farm) and 241-TY Tank Farm (TY Farm) leak causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-BY-103, 241-TY-103, 241-TY-104, 241-TY-105, and 241-TY-106) identified in RPP-RPT-43704, Hanford BY Farm Leak Assessments Report, and in RPP-RPT-42296, Hanford TY Farm Leak Assessments Report. This document satisfies the BY and TY Farm portion of the target (T04) in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  20. Hanford Single-Shell Tank Leak Causes and Locations - 241-BY and 241-TY Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Harlow, Donald G.

    2014-09-04

    This document identifies 241-BY Tank Farm (BY Farm) and 241-TY Tank Farm (TY Farm) lead causes and locations for the 100 series leaking tanks (241-BY-103, 241-TY-103, 241-TY-104, 241-TY-105 and 241-TY-106) identified in RPP-RPT-43704, Hanford BY Farm Leak Assessments Report, and in RPP-RPT-42296, Hanford TY Farm Leak Assessments Report. This document satisfies the BY and TY Farm portion of the target (T04) in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-045-91F.

  1. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A CNG DIRECT INJECTION SPARK IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rashid A. Aziz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out on a dedicated compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI engine with a compression ratio (CR of 14 and a central injection system. Several injection timing parameters from early injection timing (300 BTDC to partial direct injection (180 BTDC to full direct injection (120 BTDC were investigated. The 300 BTDC injection timing experiment was carried out to simulate the performance of a port injection engine and the result is used as a benchmark for engine performance. The full DI resulted in a 20% higher performance than the early injection timing for low engine speeds up to 2750 rpm. 180 BTDC injection timing shows the highest performance over an extensive range of engine speed because it has a similar volumetric efficiency to full DI. However, the earlier injection timing allowed for a better air–fuel mixing and gives superior performance for engine speeds above 4500 rpm. The engine performance could be explained by analysis of the heat release rate that shows that at low and intermediate engine speeds of 2000 and 3000, the full DI and partial DI resulted in the fastest heat release rate whereas at a high engine speed of 5000 rpm, the simulated port injection operation resulted in the fastest heat release rate.

  2. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinor, J. E.

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  3. Työtyytyväisyystutkimus Oy Scancool Ab:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Vuolle, Toni; Köyhäjoki, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa Suomen johtavan kylmätekniikan asiantuntijan, Oy Scancool Ab:n, työntekijöiden työtyytyväisyyttä. Työtyytyväisyystutkimuk-sessa tarkasteltiin työtyytyväisyyttä seuraavilla osa-alueilla: työtyytyväisyys, työilmapiiri, yritys ja työympäristö, johtaminen, tiedonkulku, motivaatio, työstressi sekä työssä ja työyhteisössä oppiminen. Teoriaosa koostuu samoista aihealueista, mutta niitä on käsitelty vielä syvällisemmin. Työn tavoitteena...

  4. K-kauppiaiden työnkuvan vertailu eri ketjukonsepteissa

    OpenAIRE

    Penttinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aihe valikoitui kauppiaiden työnkuvan vertailuun oman kiinnostuksen kautta yrit-tämiseen. Yrittämisen kiinnostus on tullut seuraamalla omia vanhempia, jotka molemmat toimivat kokeneina ruokakauppiaina K-marketissa. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimiikin juuri K-market Sodankylän kauppias Ari Penttinen. Työn tavoitteena on tutkia kolmen eri Keskon ketjukonseptin kauppiaiden työnkuvaa ja vertailla niitä kattavasti keskenään. Ketjukonsepteja ovat K-market, K-supermarket ja K-...

  5. Etätyön vuorovaikutteinen johtaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Wakkola, Rosita

    2016-01-01

    Tutkielman tavoitteena oli tarkastella sitä, miten vuorovaikutteinen johtaminen toteutuu etätyön johtamisessa ja minkälaisia erityispiirteitä etätyö tuo esimiestyöhön. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä käytettiin kahdenvälisen esimies-alaissuhteen teoriaa (leader-member exchange, LMX). Tähän liittyvät tiiviisti luottamuksen ja vastavuoroisuuden käsitteet. Työelämän teknologinen ja taloudellinen muutos tekee tutkielmasta ajankohtaisen. Muutoksen myötä yhä useammat esimiehet tarjoavat alaisilleen ma...

  6. Sosiaalisen median markkinointisuunnitelma uudelle hoitoalan konseptoidulle työvaatemallistolle

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälä, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä pohdittiin keinoja saada uuden konseptoidun työvaatemalliston näkyvyyttä esille sosiaalisen median keinoin. Toimeksiantaja-yrityksenä toimi suomalainen Virtually Oy ja kohteena oli sen uusi hoitajille suunnattu työvaatemallisto. Malliston ympärille halutaan luoda kestävä brändi ja sosiaalisen median markkinointi on tukemassa brändin tunnettavuutta ja myyntiä. Sosiaalinen media ei yritysten välisessä liiketoiminnassa toimi ainoana markkinoinnin työkaluna, vaan se on tukemas...

  7. Modeling of diesel/CNG mixing in a pre-injection chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahhab, H. A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Nasif, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines performance can be improved by adding combustible gases to the liquid diesel. In this paper, the propagation of a two phase flow liquid-gas fuel mixture into a pre-mixer is investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics simulation. CNG was injected into the diesel within a cylindrical conduit operates as pre-mixer. Four injection models of Diesel-CNG were simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT commercial software. Two CNG jet diameters were used of 1 and 2 mm and the diesel pipe diameter was 9 mm. Two configurations were considered for the gas injection. In the first the gas was injected from one side while for the second two side entries were used. The CNG to Diesel pressure ratio was varied between 1.5 and 3. The CNG to Diesel mass flow ratios were varied between 0.7 and 0.9. The results demonstrate that using double-sided injection increased the homogeneity of the mixture due to the swirl and acceleration of the mixture. Mass fraction, in both cases, was found to increase as the mixture flows towards the exit. As a result, this enhanced mixing is likely to lead to improvement in the combustion performance.

  8. Diesel/CNG Mixture Autoignition Control Using Fuel Composition and Injection Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmansyah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Combustion phasing is the main obstacle to the development of controlled auto-ignition based (CAI engines to achieve low emissions and low fuel consumption operation. Fuel combinations with substantial differences in reactivity, such as diesel/compressed natural gas (CNG, show desirable combustion outputs and demonstrate great possibility in controlling the combustion. This paper discusses a control method for diesel/CNG mixture combustion with a variation of fuel composition and fuel stratification levels. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume combustion chamber with both fuels directly injected into the chamber. The mixture composition was varied from 0 to 100% CNG/diesel at lambda 1 while the fuel stratification level was controlled by the injection phasing between the two fuels, with gaps between injections ranging from 0 to 20 ms. The results demonstrated the suppressing effect of CNG on the diesel combustion, especially at the early combustion stages. However, CNG significantly enhanced the combustion performance of the diesel in the later stages. Injection gaps, on the other hand, showed particular behavior depending on mixture composition. Injection gaps show less effect on combustion phasing but a significant effect on the combustion output for higher diesel percentage (≥70%, while it is contradictive for lower diesel percentage (<70%.

  9. A comparative study of emission motorcycle with gasoline and CNG fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, M. N.; Wijayanti, W.; Rahardja, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    A comparison of the exhaust emissions of the engine running gasoline and Compressed Natural Gas have been performed in this study. A gasoline engine 4 stroke single-cylinder with volume of 124.8 cc and compression ratio of 9.3:1 was converted to a CNG gaseous engine. The fuel injector was replaced with a solenoid valve system for injecting CNG gas to engine. The concentrations of CO, CO2, O2 and HC in the exhaust gas of engine were measured over the range of fuel flow rate from 25.32 mg/s to 70.22 mg/s and wide range of Air Fuel Ratio. The comparative analysis of this study showed that CNG engine has a lower HC, CO2 and CO emission at the stoichiometry mixture of fuel and air combustion. The emissions increased when the Air-Fuel ratio was switched from the stoichiometry condition. Moreover, CNG engine produced a lower HC and CO emission compared to the gasoline for difference air flow rate. The average of HC and CO emissions of the CNG was 92 % and 78 % lower than that of the gasoline

  10. Perspectives of Biogas Conversion into Bio-CNG for Automobile Fuel in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for liquid and gaseous fuel for transportation application is growing very fast. This high consumption trend causes swift exhaustion of fossil fuel reserve as well as severe environment pollution. Biogas can be converted into various renewable automobile fuels such as bio-CNG, syngas, gasoline, and liquefied biogas. However, bio-CNG, a compressed biogas with high methane content, can be a promising candidate as vehicle fuel in replacement of conventional fuel to resolve this problem. This paper presents an overview of available liquid and gaseous fuel commonly used as transportation fuel in Bangladesh. The paper also illustrates the potential of bio-CNG conversion from biogas in Bangladesh. It is estimated that, in the fiscal year 2012-2013, the country had about 7.6775 billion m3 biogas potential equivalent to 5.088 billion m3 of bio-CNG. Bio-CNG is competitive to the conventional automobile fuels in terms of its properties, economy, and emission.

  11. Fly! : nojapyörä työmatkalle

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Santtu

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on kolmirenkainen kokoontaitettava nojapyörä työmatkoille. Aihevalintaan vaikutti mielenkiintoni polkupyöriä ja suuria nopeuksia kohtaan. Työssä käsitellään ensin työmatkaa ja nojapyöriä. Sen jälkeen käydään läpi tavoitteet. Työ etenee kolmen prototyypin kautta valmiiseen nojapyörään. Prosessissa käyn läpi kolmirenkaisen nojapyörän teknisiä vaatimuksia, proton testausta ja muodonantoa. Kerron myös ideoita siitä, miten tästä voisi jatkaa. Viimeisenä on tuotteen esittely ...

  12. Simulation Analysis of Combustion Parameters and Emission Characteristics of CNG Fueled HCCI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The naturally aspirated compressed natural gas (CNG fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine operation region is narrow between heavy knock at rich air-fuel mixture side and misfire at the lean air-fuel mixture side. However, high activation energy is needed to attain autoignition temperature of CNG fueled HCCI engine. This paper seeks to provide guidance in overcoming challenges of CNG fueled HCCI engine by using CHEMKIN. It is used to investigate the fundamental characteristics of the homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion process for different air-fuel mixture inlet temperature, relative air-fuel ratio of 2.5, and with hemispherical bowl types of combustion chambers. The variation of various properties like the peak cylinder pressure, peak cylinder temperature, CO emission, NO emission, soot emission, and HC emission are studied. It is necessary to develop new combustion models to simulate and predict all parameters with high accuracy.

  13. Suunnitteluprojekti : Opintojakson toteutus osin työpaikkaopintoina

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Juha-Matti

    2012-01-01

    Tässä kehittämishankkeessa tutkittiin opiskelijoiden oppimista opintojaksolla, joka toteutettiin osin työpaikkaopintoina. Opintojakso oli osana koneensuunnittelun ammattiainekokonaisuutta ja oli työpainotteinen. Opintojakso toteutettiin uuden opetussuunnitelman mukaisesti ja tarkoituksena oli erilaistaa sitä aikaisempiin toteutuksiin verrattuna. Satakunnassa on voimakas koneensuunnitteluinsinöörien tarve. Eräs tarkoitus oli myös saada opiskelijoita kiinnostumaan alasta, jolla on huomattav...

  14. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  15. Project risk perspective on using LNG, CNG, and GTL concepts to monetise offshore stranded gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Blikom, Lars Petter

    2010-09-15

    This paper discusses technology maturity and the key risks involved in establishing LNG, CNG, and GTL value chains in order to monetise offshore stranded and associated gas. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the economics of the various concepts and the impact of uncertainty. The conclusion is that LNG offers the most flexible value chain with the lowest level of risk exposure. CNG may offer better economics as long as the distance to market is fairly short. GTL must overcome significant technological challenges before becoming available for offshore use and also offers higher uncertainty in economic terms.

  16. A study on the effect of ambient temperature on CNG refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, C.G.; Oh, S.D.; Kwon, Y.H.; Yang, P.S. [Hyosung Co., Ltd. (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    CNG(Compressed Natural Gas) is a gaseous fuel for NGVs, so the temperature-dependent characteristics should be considered in operating CNG refueling station. For the case in Korea, both daily temperature difference and seasonal temperature variation is high. These ambient temperature variations affect charging process, since heat transfer take place between gas stored in vessel and the atmosphere. In this paper, the charging amount of gas, and pressure drops which occur in rapid filling considering various temperature conditions were discussed. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Determinants of Genomic RNA Encapsidation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are transposable genetic elements that replicate intracellularly, and can be considered progenitors of retroviruses. Ty1 and Ty3 are the most extensively characterized LTR retrotransposons whose RNA genomes provide the template for both protein translation and genomic RNA that is packaged into virus-like particles (VLPs and reverse transcribed. Genomic RNAs are not divided into separate pools of translated and packaged RNAs, therefore their trafficking and packaging into VLPs requires an equilibrium between competing events. In this review, we focus on Ty1 and Ty3 genomic RNA trafficking and packaging as essential steps of retrotransposon propagation. We summarize the existing knowledge on genomic RNA sequences and structures essential to these processes, the role of Gag proteins in repression of genomic RNA translation, delivery to VLP assembly sites, and encapsidation.

  18. Reilu työllistäminen kirkon työssä : Koulutusmateriaalia osatyökykyisten ihmisten työllistämisen edistämiseen

    OpenAIRE

    Liikala, Marjukka; Penttilä, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    Liikala, Marjukka & Penttilä, Päivi. Reilu työllistäminen kirkon työssä. Koulutusmateriaalia osatyökykyisten ihmisten työllistämisen edistämiseen. Syksy 2013, 76 sivua, 3 liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu, Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, Diakonisen sosiaalityön suuntautumisvaihtoehto, sosionomi (AMK) + diakonian virkakelpoisuus. Opinnäytetyöhön työstimme koulutusmateriaalin käytettäväksi osatyökyisten mielenterveyskuntoutujien ja vammaisten henkilöiden työllistämisen edistämisee...

  19. EFECTO DE EXTRACTOS ACUOSOS DE Helianthus annuus Lin. SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE Solanum lycopersicum Lin.

    OpenAIRE

    Yaniuska González Perigó; Oriela Pino Pérez; Ángel Leyva Galán; Zaida I. Antoniolli; Roberto A. Arévalo; Yanara Gómez Matos; María I. Pavón Rosales

    2015-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de extractos acuosos de Helianthus annuus Lin. sobre el crecimiento de Solanum lycopersicum Lin, se tomaron muestras de raíz y hojas de plantas recolectadas de un sistema de policultivo ubicado en un agroecosistema montañoso. Los extractos acuosos de girasol se obtuvieron a partir de raíz y hojas de plantas recolectadas durante dos años. Se evaluaron los efectos de estos extractos sobre la germinación, longitud de la radícula y del hipocótil...

  20. UPS CNG Truck Fleet Start Up Experience: Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2001-08-14

    UPS operates 140 Freightliner Custom Chassis compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles with Cummins B5.9G engines. Fifteen are participating in the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project being funded by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies and the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies.

  1. Regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components from LD vehicles on petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Rijkeboer, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Four fuels (petrol, LPG, CNG and diesel) are compared on passenger cars and lighter vans. The comparisons are made for the usual regulated components, but also for a number of unregulated components. The project was financed by the Dutch government, the association of gas suppliers, a number of

  2. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  3. Linear Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Verification of a Pressure Regulator for CNG Injection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hübner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of motor vehicles powered by internal combustion engines keeps growing despite shrinking oil reserves. As a result, compressed natural gas (CNG is gaining currency as an emerging combustion engine fuel. To this day, CNG systems – e.g., in passenger cars – are not fully integrated into the development process as conducted by vehicle or engine manufacturers. Instead, they are usually "adapted in" at a downstream stage by small, specialized companies. The present paper initially outlines the state of the art in advanced gas injection technologies. Especially the development towards sequential injection systems is described. A pressure regulator for CNG driven combustion engines is examined in detail, given its role as a highly sensitive and critical system component. Based on a precise theoretical analysis, a linear model of this pressure regulator is derived and subjected to dynamic simulation. The analytical approach is accompanied by an experimental investigation of the device. On a test rig developed at the Trier University of Applied Sciences, the static and dynamic features of the pressure regulator can be measured with the requisite precision. The comparison of measured and simulated data yields a validation of the dynamic simulation model. With the approaches developed it is now possible for the first time to model, simulate and optimize single- or multi-stage pressure regulators for CNG driven engines with less effort and higher accuracy.

  4. Comparison of the expression and function of Lin28A and Lin28B in colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Mingjiao; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Ning, Ning; Zhao, Ran; Yang, Weiwei; Jin, Yinji; Li, Jing; Redpath, Riju James Rajkumar Ezakiel; Zhang, Lei; Jin, Xiaoming; Zhong, Zhaohua; Zhang, Fengmin; Wei, Yunwei; Shen, Guomin; Wang, Dong; Liu, Ying; Wang, Guangyu; Li, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Lin28A and Lin28B are highly conserved RNA binding proteins with similar structure and functions. Recent studies demonstrated that both of them act as oncogenes and promote cancer progression. However, few researches compared the expression and functions of both oncogenes in human malignant tumors at same time. Additionally, although the expression and role of Lin28B in colon cancer is frequently reported, the expression and functions of Lin28A in colon cancer are largely unknown. In this study, we have systematically evaluated the expressional pattern, mutation status and correlation of both Lin28A and Lin28B in colon cancer tissues for the first time, and compared the roles of Lin28A and Lin28B in the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of colon cancer cells in vitro. We have showed that they are co-expressed and have functional similarities, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their similar functions may not be identical. This study contributes to clarify the similarities and differences of Lin28A and Lin28B in colon cancer progression. PMID:27793004

  5. Perehdyttämällä osaksi työyhteisöä

    OpenAIRE

    Nevanperä, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Se, miten työt yrityksessä aloitetaan, ratkaisee paljon tulevan työsuhteen kannalta. Työntekijöiden sitoutuminen työhön olisi tärkeää niin työntekijän kokeman työn mielekkyyden kannalta. Se on myös tärkeä yrityksen liiketaloudellisen menestymisen tukipilari. Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli laatia perehdytyskansio ravintola-alan kohdeyritykselle. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin toiminnalliseksi opinnäytetyöksi, joka tarkoittaa ammatillisessa kentässä työtoiminnan kehittämiseen tähtäävää työtä. Työ k...

  6. Analysis list: lin-13 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin-13 Embryo,Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/...lin-13.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-13.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-13.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/lin-13.Embryo....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/lin-13.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  7. Analysis list: lin-37 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin-37 Embryo,Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/...lin-37.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-37.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-37.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/lin-37.Embryo....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/lin-37.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  8. CONVERSION OF DIESEL ENGINE INTO SPARK IGNITION ENGINE TO WORK WITH CNG AND LPG FUELS FOR MEETING NEW EMISSION NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

  9. Työmaatoimintojen kehittäminen Maanrakennus Ahti Virtanen Oy:ssä

    OpenAIRE

    Tammisto, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin työmaatoimintojen kehittämistä Maanrakennus Ahti Virtanen Oy:ssä. Aihekokonaisuuksiin kuului työturvallisuus, toimintatapa ja riskienhallinta. Työstä rajattiin pois yrityksen hallintoon ja talouteen liittyvät asiat sekä työmaan aikataulu- ja kustannushallintaan liittyvät kokonaisuudet. Työn tarkoituksena oli luoda perusteet yrityksen toimintajärjestelmän kehittämiselle. Työssä koottiin yhteen teoria-asiaa, jonka jälkeen esiteltiin Maanrakennus Ahti Virtan...

  10. Mobiilin työntekijän tietoturva

    OpenAIRE

    Valtari, Tuomo

    2012-01-01

    Mobiilin työntekijän mahdollisuus yritysverkon etäkäyttöön on usein yritysverkon ulkopuoliselta käytöltä eristämisen vuoksi varsin rajoittunut. Työn tarkoituksena on toteuttaa myös pienille yrityksille tietoturvallinen sekä topologialtaan mahdollisimman yksinkertainen ratkaisu, joka mukautuu kuitenkin moneen käyttötarkoitukseen, poistamaan yrityksen verkon etäkäytön rajoitteita. Verkon on tarkoitus tarjota samat palvelut etäkäyttäjälle, kuin sillä verkon sisältä käytettäessä on. Työ...

  11. Kroppa instrumenttina : Muusikon työn fyysiset vaatimukset

    OpenAIRE

    Palomaa, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Soittaminen on fyysistä työskentelyä, mutta miten sen kuormittavuutta voisi mitata? Kuinka kovalle rasitukselle keho joutuu? Tämä opinnäytetyö tutkii soittamista fyysiseltä kannalta tuoden esille orkesterimuusikon työn fyysisen puolen, soittamisen aiheuttamat ongelmat ja niiden syyt sekä mistä vaivoihin voi hakea apua. Opinnäytetyössä käydään läpi muusikoille oleellista anatomiaa ja ergonomiaa, sekä selvitetään, miten soittoa tulisi harjoitella. Jotta keho kestäisi kaiken rasituksen, se vaati...

  12. KUCHEZA! : Rytminen, ilmaisullinen ja kehollinen työpaja – suunnittelusta toteutukseen (projekti ja kirjallinen työ)

    OpenAIRE

    Kyykoski, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tekijä vietti vuoden Tanskassa vaihto-oppilaana. Siellä hän tutustui suomalaisen opiskelijatoverinsa kanssa keholliseen rytmiikanopetukseen sekä kokonaisvaltaiseen musiikinopetukseen. Suomeen palattuaan he halusivat uusista musiikinopiskelun työtavoista innostuneina suunnitella ja toteuttaa opinnäytetyönään työpajan, jossa he hyödyntäisivät tanssia, liikettä, laulua, ilmaisutaitoa sekä rytmiikkaa. Opinnäytetyön kirjallisessa osiossa kerrotaan, kuinka näiden kahden opiskeli...

  13. A structural, functional, and computational analysis suggests pore flexibility as the base for the poor selectivity of CNG channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Luisa Maria Rosaria; Bisha, Ina; De March, Matteo; Marchesi, Arin; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Demitri, Nicola; Mazzolini, Monica; Rodriguez, Alex; Magistrato, Alessandra; Onesti, Silvia; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2015-07-07

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels, despite a significant homology with the highly selective K(+) channels, do not discriminate among monovalent alkali cations and are permeable also to several organic cations. We combined electrophysiology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and X-ray crystallography to demonstrate that the pore of CNG channels is highly flexible. When a CNG mimic is crystallized in the presence of a variety of monovalent cations, including Na(+), Cs(+), and dimethylammonium (DMA(+)), the side chain of Glu66 in the selectivity filter shows multiple conformations and the diameter of the pore changes significantly. MD simulations indicate that Glu66 and the prolines in the outer vestibule undergo large fluctuations, which are modulated by the ionic species and the voltage. This flexibility underlies the coupling between gating and permeation and the poor ionic selectivity of CNG channels.

  14. A study of spray development and combustion propagation processes of spark-ignited direct injection (SIDI) compressed natural gas (CNG)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yu; Yeom, Jeongkuk; Chung, Seongsik

    2013-01-01

    ... alternative fuels and it is composed primarily of methane (CH 4 )  [2] . Compressed natural gas (CNG) is made by compressing natural gas to less than 1% of the volume it occupies at standard atmo...

  15. A structural, functional, and computational analysis suggests pore flexibility as the base for the poor selectivity of CNG channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Luisa Maria Rosaria; Bisha, Ina; De March, Matteo; Marchesi, Arin; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Demitri, Nicola; Mazzolini, Monica; Rodriguez, Alex; Magistrato, Alessandra; Onesti, Silvia; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels, despite a significant homology with the highly selective K+ channels, do not discriminate among monovalent alkali cations and are permeable also to several organic cations. We combined electrophysiology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and X-ray crystallography to demonstrate that the pore of CNG channels is highly flexible. When a CNG mimic is crystallized in the presence of a variety of monovalent cations, including Na+, Cs+, and dimethylammonium (DMA+), the side chain of Glu66 in the selectivity filter shows multiple conformations and the diameter of the pore changes significantly. MD simulations indicate that Glu66 and the prolines in the outer vestibule undergo large fluctuations, which are modulated by the ionic species and the voltage. This flexibility underlies the coupling between gating and permeation and the poor ionic selectivity of CNG channels. PMID:26100907

  16. Analysis list: lin-35 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lin-35 Adult,Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/l...in-35.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-35.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/lin-35.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/lin-35.Adult.t...sv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/lin-35.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Adult.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  17. Impact source location on composite CNG storage tank using acoustic emission energy based signal mapping method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Byeong Hee; Yoon, Dong Jin; Park, Chun Soo [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Safety Measurement, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Acoustic emission (AE) is one of the most powerful techniques for detecting damages and identify damage location during operations. However, in case of the source location technique, there is some limitation in conventional AE technology, because it strongly depends on wave speed in the corresponding structures having heterogeneous composite materials. A compressed natural gas(CNG) pressure vessel is usually made of carbon fiber composite outside of vessel for the purpose of strengthening. In this type of composite material, locating impact damage sources exactly using conventional time arrival method is difficult. To overcome this limitation, this study applied the previously developed Contour D/B map technique to four types of CNG storage tanks to identify the source location of damages caused by external shock. The results of the identification of the source location for different types were compared.

  18. CNG as a Feasible Replacement for the U.S. Transportation Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    January 16, 2012, from http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/index.cfm Lumato, M. M. (2005). Natural Gas aS Fuel for Commuter Buses in dar es Salaam ...great impact on light vehicles. In table 10, current fuel efficiency standards is obtained from the report prepared for congress by the Energy Policy...CNG AS A FEASIBLE REPLACEMENT FOR THE U.S. TRANSPORTATION SECTOR THESIS

  19. Psykiatrisen hoitotyön vetovoimaisuuteen, työhyvinvointiin ja työn imuun vaikuttavat tekijät mieshoitajien kokemana

    OpenAIRE

    Hammar, Suvi; Pelkonen, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Psykiatrisessa hoitotyössä on aina työskennellyt miehiä. Tällä hetkellä mieshoitajien osuus psykiatrisen hoitotyön työvoimasta on kuitenkin melko pieni. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää psykiatrisen hoitotyön vetovoimaisuutta ja työhyvinvointia ylläpitäviä ja työn imua lisääviä tekijöitä mieshoitajien näkökulmasta. Tavoitteena oli osoittaa tekijöitä, jotka ylläpitävät mieshoitajien työn vetovoimaisuutta ja työhyvinvointia psykiatrisessa hoitotyössä. Tämän lisäksi opinnäytetyön tavoit...

  20. Työpaikkakokoukset osana yhteistoimintaa : Osastonhoitajien kokemuksia työpaikkakokouksista Kanta-Hämeen sairaanhoitopiirissä

    OpenAIRE

    Heliölä, Kaisu; Harviainen, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin työpaikkakokouksia osana yhteistoimintaa Kanta-Hämeen sairaanhoitopiirissä. Näkökulmaksi rajattiin osastonhoitajien kokemukset konservatiivisella, operatiivisella, psykiatrian ja sairaanhoidollisten palveluiden tulosalueilla. Tarve yhteistoiminnan kartoittamiselle oli esitetty henkilöstöohjelmassa ja yhteistyötoimikunnan kokouksissa. Yhteistoimintaa tarkasteltaessa painopiste on usein yhteistoimintaneuvotteluissa, vaikka yhteistoimintalain perusteluissa korostetaan ...

  1. Spray-Wall Impingement of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Jet using Schlieren Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Mhadi Abaker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is a low cost fuel with high availability in nature. However, it cannot be used by itself in conventional diesel engines due to its low flame speed and high ignition temperature. The addition of a secondary fuel to enhance the mixture formation and combustion process facilitate its wider use as an alternative fuel. An experimental study was performed to investigate the diesel-CNG dual fuel jet-wall impingement. A constant volume optical chamber was designed to facilitate maximum optical access for the study of the jet-wall impingement at different injection pressures, temperatures and injector-wall distances. The bottom plate of the test rig was made of aluminum (piston material and it was heated up to 500 K at ambient pressure. An injector driver was used to control the single-hole nozzle diesel injector combined with a natural gas injector. The injection timing of both injectors was synchronized with a camera trigger. The jet-wall impingement of diesel and diesel-CNG dual fuel jets was recorded with a high speed camera using Schlieren imaging technique and associated image processing software. The measurements of the jet radial penetration were higher in diesel-CNG dual fuel while the jet height travel along were higher in the case of diesel single fuel.

  2. A Basic Behavior of CNG DI Combustion in a Spark-Ignited Rapid Compression Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zuohua; Shiga, Seiichi; Ueda, Takamasa; Jingu, Nobuhisa; Nakamura, Hisao; Ishima, Tsuneaki; Obokata, Tomio; Tsue, Mitsuhiro; Kono, Michikata

    A basic characteristics of compressed natural gas direct-injection (CNG DI) combustion was studied by using a rapid compression machine. Results show that comparing with homogeneous mixture, CNG DI has short combustion duration, high pressure rise due to combustion, and high rate of heat release, which are considered to come from the charge stratification and the gas flow generated by the fuel injection. CNG DI can realize extremely lean combustion which reaches 0.03 equivalence ratio, φ. Combustion duration, maximum pressure rise due to combustion and combustion efficiency are found to be insensitive to the injection modes. Unburned methane showed almost the same level as that of homogeneous mixture combustion. CO increased steeply with the increase in φ when φ was greater than 0.8 due to the excessive stratification, and NOx peak value shifted to the region of lower φ. Combustion inefficiency maintains less than 0.08 in the range of φ from 0.1 to 0.9 and increases at very low φ due to bulk quenching and at higher φ due to excessive stratification. The combustion efficiency estimated from combustion products shows good agreement with that of heat release analysis.

  3. NOPS -hanke 2010-2012, Nuorten työ- ja toimintakyvyn edistäminen ammattiopistoissa : Ammattiopiston opiskelijan terveystottumukset ja työkyky NOPS-hankkeen alkuvaiheessa

    OpenAIRE

    Vähäsarja, Tiina; Lindström, Leena

    2012-01-01

    NOPS 2010–2012, Nuoren työ- ja toimintakyvyn edistäminen ammattiopistoissa –hankkeen tarkoituksena on luoda nuoren työ- ja toimintakykyä edistävä toimintamalli, jossa ammattikorkeakoulun opiskelijat kytketään osaksi ammattiopistojen terveyttä edistävää työtä. Hankkeessa kehitetään myös sellaisia terveyden edistämisen menetelmiä, jotka soveltuvat ammattiopistossa opiskelevien nuorten työ- ja toimintakyvyn edistämiseen. Hankkeessa tehdään myös seitsemän erilaista vaikuttavuustutkimusta. Tavoit...

  4. Sosiaalisen median käyttö ja hyödyntäminen työnhaussa : Työnhakukampanjat ja blogit

    OpenAIRE

    Kohtamäki, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää Seinäjoen ammattikorkeakoulun liiketalouden opiskelijoiden sosiaalisen median käyttöä ja hyödyntämistä työnhaussa. Toisena tavoitteena oli kartoittaa työnhakukampanjan toteuttaneiden sekä myynnin, markkinoinnin ja rekrytoinnin ammattilaisten ajatuksia blogin hyödyntämisestä työnhaussa sekä heidän ajatuksiaan sosiaalisen median ja digitalisaation vaikutuksista työnhakuun tulevaisuudessa. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana oli Seinäjoen ammattikorkeakoulu. ...

  5. Naisten ja miesten eriarvoisuus työelämässä Suomessa

    OpenAIRE

    Aho, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Työn tavoitteena on tutkia syitä naisten ja miesten eriarvoiseen asemaan työelämässä. Työssä keskitytään etenkin palkkaeroihin, joista naisten ja miesten eriarvoisuus työelämässä on nähtävissä selvästi. Jotta tasa-arvoisuuteen päästäisiin naisten ja miesten välillä, on pyrittävä tukemaan heikommassa asemassa olevia. Työnantajan tulee aktiivisesti edistää tasa-arvoa työelämässä, ja tasa-arvosuunnitelman laatiminen on yksi askel kohti tasa-arvoisempaa työyhteisöä. Lainsäädäntö asettaa vaat...

  6. Ruokataukojen vaikutus työssäjaksamiseen ravintola-alalla Kuopiossa

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Roosa-Maria; Tuomainen, Teija

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoitus on tutkia, kuinka ravintoloiden henkilökunta viettää taukoja ja kuinka ravinto vaikuttaa työssäjaksamiseen. Laki sekä työehdot määräävät työajoista ja tauotuksesta, mutta niiden toteutuminen käytännössä ei välttämättä mene lakien mukaan. Opinnäytetyön teoreettisessa osuudessa käsittelemme työlainsäädäntöä, ravitsemusta sekä työhyvinvointia. Ker-romme tarkemmin Matkailu-, ravintola- ja vapaa-ajan palveluiden työehtosopimuksesta sekä työaikoihin liittyvistä la...

  7. Keskittyminen muusikon työvälineenä

    OpenAIRE

    Mäenpää, Kaisa

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia keskittymistä ja löytää tapoja harjoittaa sitä harjoittelutulosten parantamiseksi sekä esiintymisjännityksen lieventämiseksi. Työn pohjana on käytetty urheilijan ja muusikon psyykkistä valmennusta, tietoista läsnäoloa ja muistia käsitteleviä teoksia, keskittymistä, mentaaliharjoittelua ja esiintymisjännitystä käsitteleviä opinnäytetöitä sekä harjoittelua ja oppimista käsitteleviä internet-sivustoja. Keskeisenä osana työtä ovat erilaiset aiheeseen...

  8. In vitro expansion of Lin{sup +} and Lin{sup −} mononuclear cells from human peripheral blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norhaiza, H. Siti; Zarina, Z. A. Intan; Hisham, Z. A. Shahrul [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Rohaya, M. A. W. [Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are used in the therapy of blood disorders due to the ability of these cells to reconstitute haematopoietic lineage cells when transplanted into myeloablative recipients. However, substantial number of cells is required in order for the reconstitution to take place. Since HSCs present in low frequency, larger number of donor is required to accommodate the demand of transplantable HSCs. Therefore, in vitro expansion of HSCs will have profound impact on clinical purposes. The aim of this study was to expand lineage negative (Lin{sup −}) stem cells from human peripheral blood. Total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were fractionated from human blood by density gradient centrifugation. Subsequently, PBMNCs were subjected to magnetic assisted cell sorter (MACS) which depletes lineage positive (Lin{sup +}) mononuclear cells expressing lineage positive markers such as CD2, CD3, CD11b, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD19, CD56, CD123, and CD235a to obtained Lin{sup −} cell population. The ability of Lin{sup +} and Lin{sup −} to survive in vitro was explored by culturing both cell populations in complete medium consisting of Alpha-Minimal Essential Medium (AMEM) +10% (v/v) Newborn Calf Serum (NBCS)+ 2% (v/v) pen/strep. In another experiment, Lin{sup +} and Lin{sup −} were cultured with complete medium supplemented with 10ng/mL of the following growth factors: stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), 2IU/mL of Erythropoietin (Epo) and 20ng/mL of IL-6. Three samples were monitored in static culture for 22 days. The expansion potential was assessed by the number of total viable cells, counted by trypan blue exclusion assay. It was found that Lin{sup +} mononuclear cells were not able to survive either in normal proliferation medium or proliferation medium supplemented with cytokines. Similarly, Lin{sup −} stem cells were not able to survive in proliferation medium however

  9. Selainpohjainen osaamisenhallinnan sovellus tehtaan työnjohdolle

    OpenAIRE

    Koskelainen, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa tietokantapohjainen sovellus osaamisenhallinnan työkaluksi. Ohjelman tilaajana toimi puujalosteita valmistava Metsä Wood Punkaharju. Asiakkaan toiveiden mukainen sovellus oli luonteva toteuttaa web-teknologioita ja avoimen lähdekoodin ratkaisuja hyödyntäen. Sovellus rakentui muun muassa Python-ohjelmointikielen, Flask-sovelluskehyksen, SQLite-tietokantamoottorin, SQLBuilder-kirjaston, jQuery-kirjaston ja DataTables-taulukkokomponenti...

  10. Lin-28 regulates oogenesis and muscle formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratoulias, Vassilis; Heino, Tapio I; Michon, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the control of stem cell (SC) differentiation is important to comprehend developmental processes as well as to develop clinical applications. Lin28 is a conserved molecule that is involved in SC maintenance and differentiation by regulating let-7 miRNA maturation. However, little is known about the in vivo function of Lin28. Here, we report critical roles for lin-28 during oogenesis. We found that let-7 maturation was increased in lin-28 null mutant fly ovaries. We showed that lin-28 null mutant female flies displayed reduced fecundity, due to defects in egg chamber formation. More specifically, we demonstrated that in mutant ovaries, the egg chambers fuse during early oogenesis resulting in abnormal late egg chambers. We also showed that this phenotype is the combined result of impaired germline SC differentiation and follicle SC differentiation. We suggest a model in which these multiple oogenesis defects result from a misregulation of the ecdysone signaling network, through the fine-tuning of Abrupt and Fasciclin2 expression. Our results give a better understanding of the evolutionarily conserved role of lin-28 on GSC maintenance and differentiation.

  11. The Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-3 are allelic and code for DFDGD-class RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten G Verlaan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Disease incited by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV causes huge losses in tomato production worldwide and is caused by different related begomovirus species. Breeding for TYLCV resistance has been based on the introgression of multiple resistance genes originating from several wild tomato species. In this study we have fine-mapped the widely used Solanum chilense-derived Ty-1 and Ty-3 genes by screening nearly 12,000 plants for recombination events and generating recombinant inbred lines. Multiple molecular markers were developed and used in combination with disease tests to fine-map the genes to a small genomic region (approximately 70 kb. Using a Tobacco Rattle Virus-Virus Induced Gene Silencing approach, the resistance gene was identified. It is shown that Ty-1 and Ty-3 are allelic and that they code for a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR belonging to the RDRγ type, which has an atypical DFDGD motif in the catalytic domain. In contrast to the RDRα type, characterized by a catalytic DLDGD motif, no clear function has yet been described for the RDRγ type, and thus the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene unveils a completely new class of resistance gene. Although speculative, the resistance mechanism of Ty-1/Ty-3 and its specificity towards TYLCV are discussed in light of the function of the related RDRα class in the amplification of the RNAi response in plants and transcriptional silencing of geminiviruses in plants.

  12. Assessing the genetic variation of Ty-1 and Ty-3 alleles conferring resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in a broad tomato germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro Rios, C.M.; Verlaan, M.G.; Julian, O.; Finkers, H.J.; Wolters, A.M.A.; Hutton, S.F.; Scott, J.W.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Diez, M.J.; Perez-de-Castro, A.; Bai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) hampers tomato production worldwide. Our previous studies have focussed on mapping and ultimately cloning of the TYLCV resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-3. Both genes are derived from Solanum chilense and were shown to be allelic. They code for an RNA-dependent RNA

  13. Ulkomaan työharjoittelu osana kulttuurituottajan ammatillista kasvua : Näkemyksiä ja kehitysehdotuksia Humanistisen ammattikorkeakoulun kansainväliseen työharjoitteluun

    OpenAIRE

    Pänkäläinen, Raisa

    2013-01-01

    Ammatillinen kasvu on olennainen osa korkeakouluopintoja ja se jatkuu läpi elämän. Ammatilliseen kasvuun vaikuttavat monet eri seikat ja yksi niistä on kansainvälisyys opinnoissa. Koko Euroopan alueella työväestö vanhenee ja onkin tärkeää, että työvoima liikkuu maiden välillä ja pitää näin yllä työllisyyttä. Hyödyntääkseen Euroopan vapaata liikkuvuutta on hyvä ymmärtää vieraita kulttuureja ja osata työskennellä erilaisissa työympäristöissä. Korkeakouluopiskelijan kannattaakin jo opiskeluai...

  14. Sequence requirements for localization and packaging of Ty3 retroelement RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Kristina; Bilanchone, Virginia; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Larsen, Liza S Z; Nguyen, Kim; Sandmeyer, Suzanne

    2013-02-01

    Retroviruses and retrotransposons package genomic RNA into virus-like particles (VLPs) in a poorly understood process. Expression of the budding yeast retrotransposon Ty3 results in the formation of cytoplasmic Ty3 VLP assembly foci comprised of Ty3 RNA and proteins, and cellular factors associated with RNA processing body (PB) components, which modulate translation and effect nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). A series of Ty3 RNA variants were tested to understand the effects of read-through translation via programmed frameshifting on RNA localization and packaging into VLPs, and to identify the roles of coding and non-coding sequences in those processes. These experiments showed that a low level of read-through translation of the downstream open reading frame (as opposed to no translation or translation without frameshifting) is important for localization of full-length Ty3 RNA to foci. Ty3 RNA variants associated with PB components via independent determinants in the native Ty3 untranslated regions (UTRs) and in GAG3-POL3 sequences flanked by UTRs adapted from non-Ty3 transcripts. However, despite localization, RNAs containing GAG3-POL3 but lacking Ty3 UTRs were not packaged efficiently. Surprisingly, sequences within Ty3 UTRs, which bind the initiator tRNA(Met) proposed to provide the dimerization interface, were not required for packaging of full-length Ty3 RNA into VLPs. In summary, our results demonstrate that Gag3 is sufficient and required for localization and packaging of RNAs containing Ty3 UTRs and support a role for POL3 sequences, translation of which is attenuated by programmed frameshifting, in both localization and packaging of the Ty3 full-length gRNA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Opettajien itsemyötätunto - Erityisopettajien itsemyötätunnon yhteys työuupumukseen, työn imuun ja työn merkityksellisyyden kokemuksiin

    OpenAIRE

    Kaarto, Raisa

    2017-01-01

    Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksessa pyritään selvittämään erityisopettajien itsemyötätunnon yhteyttä työuupumukseen, työn imuun ja työn merkitykseen. Aiemmat tutkimukset ovat osoittaneet itsemyötätunnon myönteiset vaikutukset hyvinvoinnille. Opettajien itsemyötätuntoa on toistaiseksi tutkittu niukasti. Tutkimukset ovat osoittaneet, että itsemyötätuntoinen opettaja on sosioemotionaalisesti kyvykkäämpi ja suhtautuu inkluusioon myönteisemmin. Menetelmät. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin verkkokyselylom...

  16. Development of CNG direct injection (CNGDI) clean fuel system for extra power in small engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yusoff; Shamsudeen, Azhari; Abdullah, Shahrir; Mahmood, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan

    2012-06-01

    A new design of fuel system for CNG engine with direct injection (CNGDI) was developed for a demonstration project. The development of the fuel system was done on the engine with cylinder head modifications, for fuel injector and spark plug openings included in the new cylinder head. The piston was also redesigned for higher compression ratio. The fuel rails and the regulators are also designed for the direct injection system operating at higher pressure about 2.0 MPa. The control of the injection timing for the direct injectors are also controlled by the Electronic Control Unit specially designed for DI by another group project. The injectors are selected after testing with the various injection pressures and spray angles. For the best performance of the high-pressure system, selection is made from the tests on single cylinder research engine (SCRE). The components in the fuel system have to be of higher quality and complied with codes and standards to secure the safety of engine for high-pressure operation. The results of the CNGDI have shown that better power output is produced and better emissions were achieved compared to the aspirated CNG engine.

  17. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  18. Jokerin viitassa : pohdintaa teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaajan työnkuvasta

    OpenAIRE

    Hellman-Eronen, Leila

    2008-01-01

    Tässä teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaajan aikuiskoulutuksen opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaajan työnkuvaa ja siinä vaadittavia jokerointitaitoja. Jokeroinnilla tarkoitetaan tässä opinnäytetyössä brasilialaisen teatteriohjaajan Augusto Boalin luoman forum-teatterin jokerin työtä. Työn tekijän oman lähtöajatuksen mukaan jokeroinnissa on paljon sellaista, mitä teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaaja voi hyödyntää erilaisissa työrooleissa. Näitä rooleja ovat teatteriohjaajan rooli soveltavan teatte...

  19. Työsuhteen irtisanomisen ja purkamisen raja oikeuskirjallisuuden ja oikeustapausten valossa

    OpenAIRE

    Rastas, Elli

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on tutkia, milloin työsuhde päättyy irtisanomisella ja milloin purkamisella. Tutkin työsuhteen irtisanomisen ja purkamisen rajaa käytännön tasolla oikeuskirjallisuuden ja oikeustapausten valossa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on löytää vastaus siihen, milloin tietty teko on niin vakava, että se johtaa työsuhteen purkamiseen tai niin lievä että se päättyy vain irtisanomiseen. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys koostuu työoikeudellisesta lainsäädännöstä, oikeuskirjallisuu...

  20. Pop/jazz-instrumentalistikoulutus: kun työelämä tuli vastaan

    OpenAIRE

    Suninen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni on portfoliota muistuttava koonti Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulun aikana suorittamistani musiikkialan työtehtävistä. Tutkimuskysymykseni olivat: (1) Minkälaisia valmiuksia Metropolian pop/jazz-linjan muusikon suuntautumisvaihtoehdon instrumentalistin koulutusohjelma on minulle antanut? (2) Millä tavalla olen työllistynyt koulussa opiskelemieni vuosien aikana? (3) Minkälaisia asioita työelämässä on tullut vastaan, joiden pohjalta Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoulun työelämälähtöistä o...

  1. Structure-Function Model for Kissing Loop Interactions That Initiate Dimerization of Ty1 RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Gamache

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The genomic RNA of the retrotransposon Ty1 is packaged as a dimer into virus-like particles. The 5′ terminus of Ty1 RNA harbors cis-acting sequences required for translation initiation, packaging and initiation of reverse transcription (TIPIRT. To identify RNA motifs involved in dimerization and packaging, a structural model of the TIPIRT domain in vitro was developed from single-nucleotide resolution RNA structural data. In general agreement with previous models, the first 326 nucleotides of Ty1 RNA form a pseudoknot with a 7-bp stem (S1, a 1-nucleotide interhelical loop and an 8-bp stem (S2 that delineate two long, structured loops. Nucleotide substitutions that disrupt either pseudoknot stem greatly reduced helper-Ty1-mediated retrotransposition of a mini-Ty1, but only mutations in S2 destabilized mini-Ty1 RNA in cis and helper-Ty1 RNA in trans. Nested in different loops of the pseudoknot are two hairpins with complementary 7-nucleotide motifs at their apices. Nucleotide substitutions in either motif also reduced retrotransposition and destabilized mini- and helper-Ty1 RNA. Compensatory mutations that restore base-pairing in the S2 stem or between the hairpins rescued retrotransposition and RNA stability in cis and trans. These data inform a model whereby a Ty1 RNA kissing complex with two intermolecular kissing-loop interactions initiates dimerization and packaging.

  2. Eriytettyjen LVIS-hankintojen valvonta ja ohjaus työmaalla

    OpenAIRE

    Loikkanen, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli eriytettyjen LVIS-hankintojen valvonta ja ohjaus työmaalla. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää ongelmat, joita nämä hankinnat aiheuttavat työmaalle ja kehittää yhtenevä toimintaohje eriytettyjen LVIS- hankintojen valvontaan ja ohjaukseen. Työn tekeminen alkoi hankinta- ja logistiikkaprosessien teoriaan perehtymisellä. Pääkohdat opinnäytetyön teoriaosassa ovat materiaalien ja aliurakoiden hankintaprosessit sekä logistiikka. Teoriaosuudessa on tuotu esiin myös hankinto...

  3. Puolustusvoimien johtajakoulutus ja työelämän henkilövalinnat

    OpenAIRE

    Kerajärvi, Eeva

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli selvittää puolustusvoimien johtajakoulutuksen vaikutusta työelämän rekrytointiprosesseissa ja henkilövalinnoissa. Tutkimuksen haastatteluosuuden muodostivat henkilöstöhallinnon tehtävissä työskentelevät ja rekrytoinnissa aktiivisesti mukana olevat yrityksen edustajat. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa tutkitaan johtajuutta yleisellä tasolla, varusmiespalvelusta ja johtajakoulutusta, sekä työelämän rekrytointiprosessia ja henkilövalintaan vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Työn tär...

  4. Salesforcen kehittäminen myynnin työkaluksi

    OpenAIRE

    Meuronen, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    Asiakashallintajärjestelmän eli CRM (customer relationship management) ohjelmiston käyttöönotto yrityksessä on aikaa vievä ja suunnitelmallisuutta vaativa prosessi. Ohjelmiston sopeuttaminen organisaation toimintatapoihin tekee käyttöönotosta vieläkin haasteellisempaa. Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää miten Orbis Oy saisi muokattua yritykselle hankitun Salesforce CRM –järjestelmän heidän myynnilleen sopivaksi työkaluksi. Opinnäytetyöstä muodostui toiminnallinen opinnäytetyö j...

  5. Baby blues -työn yhteistyökumppaneiden käsityksiä baby blues -työstä

    OpenAIRE

    Anttila, Marika; Niemi, Saara

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tarkastelee baby blues -työn yhteistyökumppaneiden käsityksiä baby blues -työstä. Opinnäytetyömme tarkoituksena on lisätä tietoisuutta Kymenlaakson Ensi- ja turvakotiyhdistyksen ja heidän yhteistyökumppaneidensa välillä. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on myös selvittää onko baby blues -työn tietoisuudella seutukunnallisia eroja. Tutkimus toteutettiin teemahaastattelulla. Aineisto kerättiin haastattelemalla lastenohjaajaa, kahta terveydenhoitajaa sekä kolmea perhetyöntekijää. H...

  6. Stage-Specific Timing of the microRNA Regulation of lin-28 by the Heterochronic Gene lin-14 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsialikas, Jennifer; Romens, Mitchell A; Abbott, Allison; Moss, Eric G

    2017-01-01

    In normal development, the order and synchrony of diverse developmental events must be explicitly controlled. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the timing of larval events is regulated by hierarchy of proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) known as the heterochronic pathway. These regulators are organized in feedforward and feedback interactions to form a robust mechanism for specifying the timing and execution of cell fates at successive stages. One member of this pathway is the RNA binding protein LIN-28, which promotes pluripotency and cell fate decisions in successive stages. Two genetic circuits control LIN-28 abundance: it is negatively regulated by the miRNA lin-4, and positively regulated by the transcription factor LIN-14 through a mechanism that was previously unknown. In this report, we used animals that lack lin-4 to elucidate LIN-14's activity in this circuit. We demonstrate that three let-7 family miRNAs-miR-48, miR-84, and miR-241-inhibit lin-28 expression. Furthermore, we show genetically that these miRNAs act between lin-14 and lin-28, and that they comprise the pathway by which lin-14 positively regulates lin-28 We also show that the lin-4 family member mir-237, also regulates early cell fates. Finally, we show that the expression of these miRNAs is directly inhibited by lin-14 activity, making them the first known targets of lin-14 that act in the heterochronic pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. "Valmistunko työttömäksi?" : Teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaajan toiveet, odotukset ja työelämän todellisuus

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppinen, Saara

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tutkii teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaajan toiveita, odotuksia ja todellisuutta työelämältä. Tutkimus toteutettiin hankkeistettuna Centria- ammattikorkeakoululle. Kyselytutkimuksen kohderyhminä toimivat 2011 ja 2012 esittävän taiteen koulutusohjelmasta valmistuneet teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaajat ja opiskelijat, joilla on vielä opinnot kesken kyseisellä linjalla. Kyselytutkimuksen vastauksia vertailemalla analysoitiin, kuinka vielä koulussa olevien odotukset vastaa todellisuutta työelämäs...

  8. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R. [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO{sub 2}-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream.

  9. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R. [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO{sub 2}-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream.

  10. On-road measurement of regulated pollutants from diesel and CNG buses with urea selective catalytic reduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiadong; Ge, Yunshan; Hao, Lijun; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Jiaqiang; Feng, Xiangyu

    2014-12-01

    In this study, emissions from 13 buses operated in Beijing, including two Euro-III diesel buses, four Euro-IV diesel buses, three Euro-V diesel buses and four Euro-V CNG buses, were characterized in real world conditions. All of the buses tested were fitted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems except for the Euro-III diesel buses. A SEMTECH-DS was used for testing the gaseous pollutants, and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI) was used for measuring of particle numbers and size distributions. A comparison was made based on emission performance of these buses by employing the VSP approach and fuel- based emissions factors. Diesel buses emitted less CO and THC but more NOx and PM pollutants than CNG buses. The NOx reduction efficiencies of the SCR systems for CNG buses were higher because of the high exhaust temperature and high NO2/NOx ratio, whereas the efficiencies for diesel buses were lower. This resulted in extremely low NOx emissions from CNG buses, but the high NO2/NOx ratio needs further study. Failures of urea injection in the SCR systems were detected in this research, which resulted in very high NOx emissions. The CNG buses also emitted smaller numbers of particles and less particle mass with the presence of oxidation catalysts. Diesel buses satisfying the Euro-V standard performed better than Euro-IV and Euro-III diesel buses in terms of emission performance, except for more nuclei mode particles. Most of time, the Euro-IV diesel buses show no advantages in CO and NOx emissions compared with the Euro-III diesel buses.

  11. Regulators of ribonucleotide reductase inhibit Ty1 mobility in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnell John P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ty1 is a long terminal repeat retrotransposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a replication cycle similar to retrovirus replication. Structurally, Ty1 contains long terminal repeat (LTR regions flanking the gag and pol genes that encode for the proteins that enable Ty1 mobility. Reverse transcriptase produces Ty1 complementary (cDNA that can either be integrated back into the genome by integrase or recombined into the yeast genome through homologous recombination. The frequency of Ty1 mobility is temperature sensitive, with optimum activity occurring at 24-26°C. Results In this study, we identified two host genes that when deleted allow for high temperature Ty1 mobility: RFX1 and SML1. The protein products of these genes are both negative regulators of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase, a key enzyme in regulating deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP levels in the cell. Processing of Ty1 proteins is defective at high temperature, and processing is not improved in either rfx1 or sml1 deletion strains. Ty1 mobility at high temperature is mediated by homologous recombination of Ty1 cDNA to Ty1 elements within the yeast genome. We quantified cDNA levels in wild type, rfx1 and sml1 deletion background strains at different temperatures. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that cDNA levels were not markedly different between the wild type and mutant strains as temperatures increased, indicating that the increased Ty1 mobility is not a result of increased cDNA synthesis in the mutant strains. Homologous recombination efficiency was increased in both rfx1 and sml1 deletion strains at high temperatures; the rfx1 deletion strain also had heightened homologous recombination efficiency at permissive temperatures. In the presence of the dNTP reducing agent hydroxyurea at permissive temperatures, Ty1 mobility was stimulated in the wild type and sml1 deletion strains but not in the rfx1 deletion strain. Mobility frequency was greatly

  12. Yhden lavastajan identiteettikriisi : Näkökulmia elokuvalavastajan työhön

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtikangas, Salla

    2013-01-01

    Käsittelen tässä opinnäytetyössä erilaisia näkökulmia elokuvalavastavan työhön. Näkökulmia ovat suomalaisen elokuvalavastajan työ, Yhdysvalloista lähtöihin oleva production designer –työnkuva sekä omat kokemukseni koulumaailmassa molemmista edellä mainituista. Aloitan puhumalla nimikkeistä ja käännös-asioista: kun käännetään työnimikkeitä eri kielille, voidaanko lavastaja ja production designer asettaa tarkoittamaan samaa asiaa, ja mikä merkitys nykyään on työnimikkeiden oikeanlaisilla kä...

  13. Työstöprosessin kehittäminen : Case; ForestLine

    OpenAIRE

    Suominen, Katri

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli analysoida ja kehittää Patria Aerostructures Oy:n Forestline-työpisteen toimintaa, saada konekapasiteetti tehokkaaseen käyttöön ja näin vastaamaan tulevaisuuden työkuormaa. Tehtävänä oli selvittää koneen tuottamattoman ajan osuus sekä sen alkuperäinen aikalaji, tunnistaa todelliset hukat, poistaa arvoa tuottamaton työ sekä löytää ratkaisut toiminnan kehittämiseen. Työ toteutettiin valitsemalla teoriaosuudessa käsitellyistä Lean-työkaluista tavoitteeseen ja selvit...

  14. sel-11 and cdc-42, two negative modulators of LIN-12/Notch activity in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Sung; Yoo, Andrew S; Greenwald, Iva

    2010-07-29

    LIN-12/Notch signaling is important for cell-cell interactions during development, and mutations resulting in constitutive LIN-12/Notch signaling can cause cancer. Loss of negative regulators of lin-12/Notch activity has the potential for influencing cell fate decisions during development and the genesis or aggressiveness of cancer. We describe two negative modulators of lin-12 activity in C. elegans. One gene, sel-11, was initially defined as a suppressor of a lin-12 hypomorphic allele; the other gene, cdc-42, is a well-studied Rho GTPase. Here, we show that SEL-11 corresponds to yeast Hrd1p and mammalian Synoviolin. We also show that cdc-42 has the genetic properties consistent with negative regulation of lin-12 activity during vulval precursor cell fate specification. Our results underscore the multiplicity of negative regulatory mechanisms that impact on lin-12/Notch activity and suggest novel mechanisms by which constitutive lin-12/Notch activity might be exacerbated in cancer.

  15. Populaarimusiikki elokuvassa : tarinankerronnan vai markkinoinnin työkalu?

    OpenAIRE

    Puurtinen, Ville-Eemeli

    2017-01-01

    Aihe tähän opinnäytetyöhön syntyi henkilökohtaisesta kiinnostuksesta elokuviin, populaarimusiikkiin sekä populaarimusiikin käyttöön elokuvien tarinankerronnassa. Tavoitteena oli tutkia ja selvittää miten populaarimusiikkia on käytetty ja käytetään nykyään elokuvien musiikkisuunnittelussa, sekä selvittää miten musiikkia lisensoidaan käytettäväksi elokuvassa. Työssä käydään läpi populaarimusiikin roolia länsimaisissa elokuvatuotannoissa, aloittaen sen historiasta ja päätyen nykypäivään. Aiheese...

  16. File list: Oth.ALL.10.lin-13.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.lin-13.AllCell ce10 TFs and others lin-13 All cell types SRX277096,SRX27...7093,SRX043998,SRX277088,SRX277089,SRX277097,SRX277092,SRX043997,SRX043996,SRX043995 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.ALL.10.lin-13.AllCell.bed ...

  17. Antagonism of LIN-17/Frizzled and LIN-18/Ryk in nematode vulva induction reveals evolutionary alterations in core developmental pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Most diversity in animals and plants results from the modification of already existing structures. Many organ systems, for example, are permanently modified during evolution to create developmental and morphological diversity, but little is known about the evolution of the underlying developmental mechanisms. The theory of developmental systems drift proposes that the development of conserved morphological structures can involve large-scale modifications in their regulatory mechanisms. We test this hypothesis by comparing vulva induction in two genetically tractable nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. Previous work indicated that the vulva is induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF/RAS and WNT signaling in Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus, respectively. Here, we show that the evolution of vulva induction involves major molecular alterations and that this shift of signaling pathways involves a novel wiring of WNT signaling and the acquisition of novel domains in otherwise conserved receptors in Pristionchus vulva induction. First, Ppa-LIN-17/Frizzled acts as an antagonist of WNT signaling and suppresses the ligand Ppa-EGL-20 by ligand sequestration. Second, Ppa-LIN-18/Ryk transmits WNT signaling and requires inhibitory SH3 domain binding motifs, unknown from Cel-LIN-18/Ryk. Third, Ppa-LIN-18/Ryk signaling involves Axin and β-catenin and Ppa-axl-1/Axin is epistatic to Ppa-lin-18/Ryk. These results confirm developmental system drift as an important theory for the evolution of organ systems and they highlight the significance of protein modularity in signal transduction and the dynamics of signaling networks.

  18. A Dynamic Attitude Measurement System Based on LINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzhou Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic attitude measurement system (DAMS is developed based on a laser inertial navigation system (LINS. Three factors of the dynamic attitude measurement error using LINS are analyzed: dynamic error, time synchronization and phase lag. An optimal coning errors compensation algorithm is used to reduce coning errors, and two-axis wobbling verification experiments are presented in the paper. The tests indicate that the attitude accuracy is improved 2-fold by the algorithm. In order to decrease coning errors further, the attitude updating frequency is improved from 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. At the same time, a novel finite impulse response (FIR filter with three notches is designed to filter the dither frequency of the ring laser gyro (RLG. The comparison tests suggest that the new filter is five times more effective than the old one. The paper indicates that phase-frequency characteristics of FIR filter and first-order holder of navigation computer constitute the main sources of phase lag in LINS. A formula to calculate the LINS attitude phase lag is introduced in the paper. The expressions of dynamic attitude errors induced by phase lag are derived. The paper proposes a novel synchronization mechanism that is able to simultaneously solve the problems of dynamic test synchronization and phase compensation. A single-axis turntable and a laser interferometer are applied to verify the synchronization mechanism. The experiments results show that the theoretically calculated values of phase lag and attitude error induced by phase lag can both match perfectly with testing data. The block diagram of DAMS and physical photos are presented in the paper. The final experiments demonstrate that the real-time attitude measurement accuracy of DAMS can reach up to 20″ (1σ and the synchronization error is less than 0.2 ms on the condition of three axes wobbling for 10 min.

  19. Analysis of Engine Parameters at Using Diesel-LPG and Diesel-CNG Mixture in Compression-ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on influence of diesel engine parameters that is used with mixture of gas and diesel fuel. The first part of the article describes diesel fuel systems where small part of diesel fuel is replaced by LPG or CNG fuel. These systems are often called as Diesel-Gas systems. Next part of the article focuses on tested car and measurement equipment. Measurement was performed by common-rail diesel engine in Fiat Doblň. Tests were carried out in laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Automobile Transport at the Mendel University in Brno. They were observed changes between emissions of used fuels – diesel without addition of gas, diesel + LPG and diesel + CNG mixture. It was found that that the addition of gas had positive effect on the performance parameters and emissions.

  20. CONVERSION OF DIESEL ENGINE INTO SPARK IGNITION ENGINE TO WORK WITH CNG AND LPG FUELS FOR MEETING NEW EMISSION NORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Kaleemuddin; Gaddale Amba Prasad Rao

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Ma...

  1. Diesel Engine Convert to Port Injection CNG Engine Using Gaseous Injector Nozzle Multi Holes Geometries Improvement: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the previous research in the development of gaseous fuel injector for port injection CNG engine converted from diesel engine. Problem statement: The regular development of internal combustion engines change direction to answer the two most important problems determining the development trends of engines technology and in particular, their combustion systems. They were environmental protection against emission and noise, shortage of hydrocarbon fuels, ...

  2. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  3. Hypothalamic Ventromedial Lin28a Enhances Glucose Metabolism in Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Dae; Toda, Chitoku; Ramírez, Cristina M; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Diano, Sabrina

    2017-08-01

    The Lin28a/Let-7 axis has been studied in peripheral tissues for its role in metabolism regulation. However, its central function remains unclear. Here we found that Lin28a is highly expressed in the hypothalamus compared with peripheral tissues. Its expression is positively correlated with positive energy balance, suggesting a potential central role for Lin28a in metabolism regulation. Thus, we targeted the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH) to selectively overexpress (Lin28aKI(VMH) ) or downregulate (Lin28aKD(VMH) ) Lin28a expression in mice. With mice on a standard chow diet, body weight and glucose homeostasis were not affected in Lin28aKI(VMH) or Lin28aKD(VMH) mice. On a high-fat diet, although no differences in body weight and composition were observed, Lin28aKI(VMH) mice showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared with controls. Conversely, Lin28aKD(VMH) mice displayed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Changes in VMH AKT activation of diet-induced obese Lin28aKI(VMH) or Lin28aKD(VMH) mice were not associated with alterations in Let-7 levels or insulin receptor activation. Rather, we observed altered expression of TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK-1), which was found to be a direct Lin28a target mRNA. VMH-specific inhibition of TBK-1 in mice with diet-induced obesity impaired glucose metabolism and AKT activation. Altogether, our data show a TBK-1-dependent role for central Lin28a in glucose homeostasis. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  4. lin-12 Notch functions in the adult nervous system of C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucey Tim M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notch signaling pathways are conserved across species and traditionally have been implicated in cell fate determination during embryonic development. Notch signaling components are also expressed postdevelopmentally in the brains of adult mice and Drosophila. Recent studies suggest that Notch signaling may play a role in the physiological, rather than developmental, regulation of neurons. Here, we investigate a new non-developmental role for Caenorhabditis elegans lin-12 Notch signaling in neurons regulating the spontaneous reversal rate during locomotion. Results The spontaneous reversal rate of C. elegans during normal locomotion is constant. Both lin-12 gain and loss of function mutant animals had significantly increased reversal rates compared to wild type controls. These defects were caused by lin-12 activity, because the loss of function defect could be rescued by a wild type lin-12 transgene. Furthermore, overexpression of lin-12 recapitulated the gain-of-function defect. Increasing or decreasing lin-12 activity in the postdevelopmental adult animal was sufficient to rapidly and reversibly increase reversals, thereby excluding a developmental role for lin-12. Although lin-12 is expressed in the vulval and somatic gonad lineages, we find that these tissues play no role in regulating reversal rates. In contrast, altering lin-12 activity specifically in the nervous system was sufficient to increase reversals. These behavioral changes require components of the canonical lin-12 signaling cascade, including the ligand lag-2 and the transcriptional effector lag-1. Finally, the C. elegans AMPA/kainate glutamate receptor homolog glr-1 shows strong genetic interactions with lin-12, suggesting that glr-1 and/or other glutamate gated channels may be targets of lin-12 regulation. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a neuronal role for lin-12 Notch in C. elegans and suggest that lin-12 acutely regulates neuronal physiology to

  5. Sairaanhoitajan aseptinen työskentely heräämössä

    OpenAIRE

    Mäki, Sari; Lähteenmäki, Merja; Sinkko, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aihe on sairaanhoitajan aseptinen työskentely heräämössä. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin projektiyhteistyönä Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulun ja Naistenklinikan leikkaus- ja anestesiaosaston kanssa. Opinnäytetyön aihe työelämälähtöinen. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on selvittää sairaanhoitajan aseptista työskentelyä heräämössä. Opinnäytetyön tutkimusmenetelmä on kvalitatiivinen. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin avoimin kysymyksin lomakekyselynä kolmen eri sairaalan heräämössä työskentel...

  6. Omnian työyhteisöviestinnän kehittäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Tuoriniemi, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kehittää Espoon seudun koulutuskuntayhtymä Omnian työyhteisöviestintää. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin monialaiselle ammatillisen koulutuksenjärjestäjälle. Kehittämistyön tavoitteena oli kartoittaa Omnian työyhteisöviestinnän kehittämiskohteet ja määritellä niille tavoitteet, kanavat, toimenpiteet, aikataulut ja vastuuhenkilöt. Toimenpidesuunnitelman avulla kehitetään Omnian työyhteisöviestintää. Työssä prosessoitiin myös kaksi osa-aluetta, jotka ovat kokouskäytänt...

  7. Host co-factors of the retrovirus-like transposon Ty1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risler Jenni K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons have complex modes of mobility involving reverse transcription of their RNA genomes in cytoplasmic virus-like particles (VLPs and integration of the cDNA copies into the host genome. The limited coding capacity of retrotransposons necessitates an extensive reliance on host co-factors; however, it has been challenging to identify co-factors that are required for endogenous retrotransposon mobility because retrotransposition is such a rare event. Results To circumvent the low frequency of Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon mobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we used iterative synthetic genetic array (SGA analysis to isolate host mutations that reduce retrotransposition. Query strains that harbor a chromosomal Ty1his3AI reporter element and either the rtt101Δ or med1Δ mutation, both of which confer a hypertransposition phenotype, were mated to 4,847 haploid ORF deletion strains. Retrotransposition was measured in the double mutant progeny, and a set of 275 ORF deletions that suppress the hypertransposition phenotypes of both rtt101Δ and med1Δ were identified. The corresponding set of 275 retrotransposition host factors (RHFs includes 45 previously identified Ty1 or Ty3 co-factors. More than half of the RHF genes have statistically robust human homologs (E -10. The level of unintegrated Ty1 cDNA in 181 rhfΔ single mutants was altered RHF genes, including specific ribosomal protein and ribosome biogenesis genes and RNA degradation, modification and transport genes resulted in low Ty1 cDNA levels. The level of Ty1 Gag but not RNA was reduced in ribosome biogenesis mutants bud21Δ, hcr1Δ, loc1Δ, and puf6Δ. Conclusion Ty1 retrotransposition is dependent on multiple co-factors acting at different steps in the replication cycle. Human orthologs of these RHFs are potential, or in a few cases, presumptive HIV-1 co-factors in human cells. RHF genes whose absence results in decreased Ty1 c

  8. Analysis of historical gross gamma logging data from TY tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-10-19

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the TY tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface. This report presents the TY tank farm gross gamma ray data in such a way as to assist others in their study of vadose zone mechanism.

  9. NuMA-related LIN-5, ASPM-1, calmodulin and dynein promote meiotic spindle rotation independently of cortical LIN-5/GPR/Galpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Monique; Berends, Christian W H; Perreault, Audrey; Nguyen-Ngoc, Tu; Gönczy, Pierre; Vidal, Marc; Boxem, Mike; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2009-03-01

    The spindle apparatus dictates the plane of cell cleavage, which is critical in the choice between symmetric or asymmetric division. Spindle positioning is controlled by an evolutionarily conserved pathway, which involves LIN-5/GPR-1/2/Galpha in Caenorhabditis elegans, Mud/Pins/Galpha in Drosophila and NuMA/LGN/Galpha in humans. GPR-1/2 and Galpha localize LIN-5 to the cell cortex, which engages dynein and controls the cleavage plane during early mitotic divisions in C. elegans. Here we identify ASPM-1 (abnormal spindle-like, microcephaly-associated) as a novel LIN-5 binding partner. ASPM-1, together with calmodulin (CMD-1), promotes meiotic spindle organization and the accumulation of LIN-5 at meiotic and mitotic spindle poles. Spindle rotation during maternal meiosis is independent of GPR-1/2 and Galpha, yet requires LIN-5, ASPM-1, CMD-1 and dynein. Our data support the existence of two distinct LIN-5 complexes that determine localized dynein function: LIN-5/GPR-1/2/Galpha at the cortex, and LIN-5/ASPM-1/CMD-1 at spindle poles. These functional interactions may be conserved in mammals, with implications for primary microcephaly.

  10. Evaluation of aftermarket CNG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C.F.; Rowley, P.F.; Grimes, J.W. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) was contracted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate three compressed natural gas (CNG) conversion systems using a 1993 Chevrolet Lumina baseline vehicle. A fourth conversion system was added to the test matrix through funding support from Brooklyn Union. The objective of this project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of the different conversion systems, and to compare the performance to gasoline-fueled operation and each other. Different natural gas compositions were selected to represent the 10th percentile, mean, and 90th percentile compositions distributed in the Continental United States. Testing with these different compositions demonstrated the systems` ability to accommodate the spectrum of gas found in the United States. Each compressed natural gas conversion system was installed and adjusted according to the manufacturer`s instructions. In addition to the FTP testing, an evaluation of the comparative installation times and derivability tests (based on AGA and CRC guidelines) were conducted on each system.

  11. The Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, M. Joan; Lutz, Sheila; Lesage, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Summary Long-terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons generate a copy of their DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription of their RNA genome in cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. They are widespread in the eukaryotic kingdom and are the evolutionary progenitors of retroviruses [1]. The Ty1 element of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first LTR-retrotransposon demonstrated to mobilize through an RNA intermediate, and not surprisingly, is the best studied. The depth of our knowledge of Ty1 biology stems not only from the predominance of active Ty1 elements in the S. cerevisiae genome but also the ease and breadth of genomic, biochemical and cell biology approaches available to study cellular processes in yeast. This review describes the basic structure of Ty1 and its gene products, the replication cycle, the rapidly expanding compendium of host co-factors known to influence retrotransposition and the nature of Ty1's elaborate symbiosis with its host. Our goal is to illuminate the value of Ty1 as a paradigm to explore the biology of LTR-retrotransposons in multicellular organisms, where the low frequency of retrotransposition events presents a formidable barrier to investigations of retrotransposon biology. PMID:25893143

  12. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the T and TY Waste Management Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-06-08

    This report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 5 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with leaks from tanks 241-TY-105 (UPR-200-W-152) and 241-TY-106 (UPR-200-W-153). Tank 241-TY-105 is estimated to have leaked 35,000 gal of tributyl phosphate (TBP) waste from the uranium recovery process to the vadose zone in 1960. Tank 241-TY-106 is estimated to have leaked 20,000 gal of TBP-uranium recovery waste to the vadose zone in 1959. Although several drywells in the vicinity of tank 241-TY-106 contain measurable quantities of cesium-137 and/or cobalt-60, their relatively low concentrations indicate that the contaminant inventory in the vadose zone around tank 241-TY-106 is quite small. Additionally, this report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 7 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with an overfill event and leak from tank 241-T-101.

  13. Simulation and Empirical Studies of the Commercial SI Engine Performance and Its Emission Levels When Running on a CNG and Hydrogen Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaa Saaidia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a report on a simulation based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and an empirical investigation of in-cylinder flow characteristics, In addition, it assesses the performance and emission levels of a commercial-spark ignited engine running on a CNG and Hydrogen blend in different ratios. The main objective was to determine the optimum hydrogen ratio that would yield the best brake torque and release the least polluting gases. The in-cylinder flow velocity and turbulence aspects were investigated during the intake stroke in order to analyze the intake flow behavior. To reach this goal, a 3D CFD code was adopted. For various engine speeds were investigated for gasoline, CNG and hydrogen and CNG blend (HCNG fueled engines via external mixtures. The variation of brake torque (BT, NOX and CO emissions. A series of tests were conducted on the engine within the speed range of 1000 to 5000 rpm. For this purpose, a commercial Hyundai Sonata S.I engine was modified to operate with a blend of CNG and Hydrogen in different ratios. The experiments attempted to determine the optimum allowable hydrogen ratio with CNG for normal engine operation. The engine performance and the emission levels were also analyzed. At the engine speed of 4200 rpm, the results revealed that beyond a ratio of 50% of the volume of hydrogen added to CNG a backfire phenomenon appeared. Below this ratio (0~40% of the hydrogen volume, the CNG and Hydrogen blend seemed to be beneficial for the engine performance and for curtailing the emission level. However, at low engine speeds, the NOX concentration increased simultaneously with hydrogen content. In contrast, at high engine speeds, the NOX concentration decreased to its lowest level compared to that reached with gasoline as a running fuel. The concentration levels of HC, CO2, and CO decreased with the increase of hydrogen percentage.

  14. Host co-factors of the retrovirus-like transposon Ty1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons have complex modes of mobility involving reverse transcription of their RNA genomes in cytoplasmic virus-like particles (VLPs) and integration of the cDNA copies into the host genome. The limited coding capacity of retrotransposons necessitates an extensive reliance on host co-factors; however, it has been challenging to identify co-factors that are required for endogenous retrotransposon mobility because retrotransposition is such a rare event. Results To circumvent the low frequency of Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon mobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we used iterative synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis to isolate host mutations that reduce retrotransposition. Query strains that harbor a chromosomal Ty1his3AI reporter element and either the rtt101Δ or med1Δ mutation, both of which confer a hypertransposition phenotype, were mated to 4,847 haploid ORF deletion strains. Retrotransposition was measured in the double mutant progeny, and a set of 275 ORF deletions that suppress the hypertransposition phenotypes of both rtt101Δ and med1Δ were identified. The corresponding set of 275 retrotransposition host factors (RHFs) includes 45 previously identified Ty1 or Ty3 co-factors. More than half of the RHF genes have statistically robust human homologs (E RHF genes, including specific ribosomal protein and ribosome biogenesis genes and RNA degradation, modification and transport genes resulted in low Ty1 cDNA levels. The level of Ty1 Gag but not RNA was reduced in ribosome biogenesis mutants bud21Δ, hcr1Δ, loc1Δ, and puf6Δ. Conclusion Ty1 retrotransposition is dependent on multiple co-factors acting at different steps in the replication cycle. Human orthologs of these RHFs are potential, or in a few cases, presumptive HIV-1 co-factors in human cells. RHF genes whose absence results in decreased Ty1 cDNA include characterized RNA metabolism and modification genes, consistent with their having roles in early

  15. An analysis of price competitiveness of CNG (compressed natural gas) versus gasoline: estimation of the elasticities of demand by CNG in a recent period in Brazil; Uma analise da competitividade de preco do GNV (Gas Natural Veicular) frente a gasolina: estimacao das elasticidades da demanda por GNV no Brasil no periodo recente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iootty, Mariana; Pinto Junior, Helder; Roppa, Bruna; Biasi, Guilherme de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2004-07-01

    One of the main determinants to the expansion of natural gas on the Brazilian domestic market is its price. Hence, it is important to analyze the price competitiveness of natural gas vis-a-vis its competitors. The current paper focuses on the market of natural gas in vehicles (the compressed natural gas - CNG), and uses co-integration techniques to estimate the price-elasticity of CNG, the cross-elasticity of CNG and gasoline, and the income-elasticity. The results suggest that price is a relevant factor in the long-run, while in the short-run income is the most significant determinant of the demand variation. In addition, the paper also shows an imperfect substitutability between CNG and gasoline. (author)

  16. Genetic modification of glaucoma associated phenotypes between AKXD-28/Ty and DBA/2J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabaleta Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a common disease but its molecular etiology is poorly understood. It involves retinal ganglion cell death and optic nerve damage that is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Identifying genes that modify glaucoma associated phenotypes is likely to provide insights to mechanisms of glaucoma. We previously reported glaucoma in DBA/2J mice caused by recessive alleles at two loci, isa and ipd, that cause iris stromal atrophy and iris pigment dispersion, respectively. A approach for identifying modifier genes is to study the effects of specific mutations in different mouse strains. When the phenotypic effect of a mutation is modified upon its introduction into a new strain, crosses between the parental strains can be used to identify modifier genes. The purpose of this study was to determine if the effects of the DBA/2J derived isa and ipd loci are modified in strain AKXD-28/Ty. Results AKXD-28/Ty mice develop glaucoma characterized by intraocular pressure elevation, retinal ganglion loss, and optic nerve excavation. In AKXD-28/Ty, isa causes an iris stromal atrophy phenotype as in DBA/2J. However, the iris pigment dispersion phenotype associated with ipd in DBA/2J does not occur in AKXD-28/Ty. Additionally, a greater severity and speed of retinal and optic nerve damage following intraocular pressure elevation in AKXD-28/Ty compared to DBA/2J mice suggests that AKXD-28/Ty is more susceptible to pressure-induced cell death. Conclusions The consequences of the ipd and isa mutations are modified in the AKXD-28/Ty background. These strains provide a resource for the identification of modifier genes that modulate pigment dispersion and susceptibility to pressure-induced cell death.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of TY-51924, a novel hydrophilic NHE inhibitor, in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kazuo; Nakao, Koichi; Shibata, Yoshisato; Sone, Takahito; Takayama, Tadateru; Fukuzawa, Shigeru; Nakama, Yasuharu; Hirayama, Haruo; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kosuge, Masami; Hiro, Takafumi; Sakuma, Hajime; Ishihara, Masaharu; Asakura, Masanori; Hamada, Chikuma; Kaneko, Akira; Yokoi, Toshiaki; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    In patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), reperfusion therapy limits infarct size, but can directly evoke myocardial reperfusion injury. Activation of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) plays an important role in reperfusion injury. TY-51924, a novel NHE inhibitor, significantly reduced infarct size in animal studies and was well tolerated in early-phase clinical trials. This study aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TY-51924 in patients with STEMI. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II trial, 105 patients with first anterior STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous infusion of either TY-51924 or placebo. Primary endpoints were myocardial salvage index (MSI) as determined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 3-5 days after pPCI and safety up to 7 days. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. MSI 3-5 days after pPCI (0.200 vs. 0.290, p=0.56), 3 months after pPCI (0.470 vs. 0.500, p=0.76), and the incidences of side effects did not differ between the two groups as a whole. However, on post hoc analysis of 52 patients with a large area at risk (AAR) (≥38%) and no antegrade coronary flow, MSI by SPECT at 3 months after pPCI was significantly higher in TY-51924 group (0.450 vs. 0.320, p=0.03). TY-51924 did not adversely influence hemodynamics. TY-51924 did not improve MSI or increase side effects as a whole. However, TY-51924 is potentially cardioprotective in the presence of a large AAR and no antegrade coronary flow. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Numerical Evaluation ofThe Performance ofA Compression Ignition Cng Engine For Heavy DutyTrucksWithAn Optimum Speed PowerTurbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The turbocharged direct injection lean burn Diesel engine is the most efficient engine now in production for transport applications. CNG is an alternative fuel with a better carbon to hydrogen ratio therefore permitting reduced carbon dioxide emissions. It is injected in gaseous form for a much cleaner combustion almost cancelling some of the emissions of the Diesel and it permits a much better energy security within Australia. The paper discusses the best options currently available to convert Diesel engine platforms to CNG, with particular emphasis to the use of these CNG engines within Australia where the refuelling network is scarce. This option is determined in the dual fuel operation with a double injector design that couples a second CNG injector to the Diesel injector. This configuration permits the operation Diesel only or Diesel pilot and CNG main depending on the availability of refuelling stations where the vehicle operates. Results of engine performance simulations are performed for a straight six cylinder 13 litres truck engine with a novel power turbine connected to the crankshaft through a constant variable transmission that may be by-passed when non helpful to increase the fuel economy of the vehicle or when damaging the performances of the after treatment system.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  20. LIN28 binds messenger RNAs at GGAGA motifs and regulates splicing factor abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbert, Melissa L; Huelga, Stephanie C; Kapeli, Katannya; Stark, Thomas J; Liang, Tiffany Y; Chen, Stella X; Yan, Bernice Y; Nathanson, Jason L; Hutt, Kasey R; Lovci, Michael T; Kazan, Hilal; Vu, Anthony Q; Massirer, Katlin B; Morris, Quaid; Hoon, Shawn; Yeo, Gene W

    2012-10-26

    LIN28 is a conserved RNA-binding protein implicated in pluripotency, reprogramming, and oncogenesis. It was previously shown to act primarily by blocking let-7 microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, but here we elucidate distinct roles of LIN28 regulation via its direct messenger RNA (mRNA) targets. Through crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq) in human embryonic stem cells and somatic cells expressing exogenous LIN28, we have defined discrete LIN28-binding sites in a quarter of human transcripts. These sites revealed that LIN28 binds to GGAGA sequences enriched within loop structures in mRNAs, reminiscent of its interaction with let-7 miRNA precursors. Among LIN28 mRNA targets, we found evidence for LIN28 autoregulation and also direct but differing effects on the protein abundance of splicing regulators in somatic and pluripotent stem cells. Splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrated that exogenous LIN28 expression causes widespread downstream alternative splicing changes. These findings identify important regulatory functions of LIN28 via direct mRNA interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pk-yritysten osaamistarpeet nyt ja tulevaisuudessa ja suurten muutostrendien vaikutukset työhön

    OpenAIRE

    Janhonen, Merja

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö suoritettiin HAAGA-HELIA ammattikorkeakoululle toimeksiantona. Kyseessä on laadullinen opinnäytetyö. Työn tavoitteena on ollut selvittää minkälaista osaamista pienissä ja keskisuurissa yrityksissä vaaditaan ja tarvitaan, miten suuret muutostrendit vaikuttavat työhön ja työtapoihin sekä kuinka hyvin HAAGA-HELIA ammattikorkeakoulu ja sen tarjoama johdon assistenttikoulutus tunnetaan työelämässä. Tämä opinnäytetyö on aloitettu tammikuussa 2013 ja sen valmistumisajankohta on...

  2. Lin28b is sufficient to drive liver cancer and necessary for its maintenance in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Liem H; Robinton, Daisy A; Seligson, Marc T; Wu, Linwei; Li, Lin; Rakheja, Dinesh; Comerford, Sarah A; Ramezani, Saleh; Sun, Xiankai; Parikh, Monisha S; Yang, Erin H; Powers, John T; Shinoda, Gen; Shah, Samar P; Hammer, Robert E; Daley, George Q; Zhu, Hao

    2014-08-11

    Lin28a/b are RNA-binding proteins that influence stem cell maintenance, metabolism, and oncogenesis. Poorly differentiated, aggressive cancers often overexpress Lin28, but its role in tumor initiation or maintenance has not been definitively addressed. We report that LIN28B overexpression is sufficient to initiate hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in murine models. We also detected Lin28b overexpression in MYC-driven hepatoblastomas, and liver-specific deletion of Lin28a/b reduced tumor burden, extended latency, and prolonged survival. Both intravenous siRNA against Lin28b and conditional Lin28b deletion reduced tumor burden and prolonged survival. Igf2bp proteins are upregulated, and Igf2bp3 is required in the context of LIN28B overexpression to promote growth. Therefore, multiple murine models demonstrate that Lin28b is both sufficient to initiate liver cancer and necessary for its maintenance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RCRA Assessment Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area TX-TY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Duane G.

    2007-03-26

    WMA TX-TY contains underground, single-shell tanks that were used to store liquid waste that contained chemicals and radionuclides. Most of the liquid has been removed, and the remaining waste is regulated under the RCRA as modi¬fied in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F and Washington State’s Hazardous Waste Management Act . WMA TX-TY was placed in assessment monitoring in 1993 because of elevated specific conductance. A groundwater quality assessment plan was written in 1993 describing the monitoring activities to be used in deciding whether WMA TX-TY had affected groundwater. That plan was updated in 2001 for continued RCRA groundwater quality assessment as required by 40 CFR 265.93 (d)(7). This document further updates the assessment plan for WMA TX-TY by including (1) information obtained from ten new wells installed at the WMA after 1999 and (2) information from routine quarterly groundwater monitoring during the last five years. Also, this plan describes activities for continuing the groundwater assessment at WMA TX TY.

  4. Screening of tank-to-wheel efficiencies for CNG, DME and methanol-ethanol fuel blends in road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Jannik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    efficiency. This screening indicates methanol, methanol-ethanol blends and CNG to be readily availability, economic feasible and with the introduction of the DISI engine not technologically challenging compared to traditional fuels. Studies across fuel types indicate a marginally better fuel utilization...... for methanol-ethanol fuel mixes.......The purpose of this report is to evaluate the fuel efficiency of selected alternative fuels based on vehicle performance in a standardised drive cycle test. All studies reviewed are either based on computer modelling of current or future vehicles or tests of just one alternative fuel, under...

  5. Lin28a enhances in vitro osteoblastic differentiation of human periosteum-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Ho; Park, Bong-Wook; Kang, Young-Hoon; Byun, Sung-Hoon; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Deok Ryong; Woo, Dong Kyun; Byun, June-Ho

    2017-12-01

    Despite a capacity for proliferation and an ability to differentiate into multiple cell types, in long-term culture and with ageing, stem cells show a reduction in growth, display a decrease in differentiation potential, and enter senescence without evidence of transformation. The Lin28a gene encodes an RNA-binding protein that plays a role in regulating stem cell activity, including self-renewal and differentiation propensity. However, the effect of the Lin28a gene on cultured human osteoprecursor cells is poorly understood. In the present study, alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red-positive mineralization, and calcium content, positive indicators of osteogenic differentiation, were significantly higher in cultured human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) with Lin28a overexpression compared with cells without Lin28a overexpression. Lin28a overexpression by hPDCs also increased mitochondrial activity, which is essential for cellular proliferation, as suggested by a reduced presence of reactive oxygen species and significantly enhanced lactate levels and ATP production. Our results suggest that, in hPDCs, the Lin28a gene enhances osteoblastic differentiation and increases mitochondrial activity. Although Lin28a is known as a marker of undifferentiated human embryogenic stem cell, there is limited evidence regarding the influence of Lin28a on osteoblastic differentiation of cultured osteoprecursor cells. This study was to examine the impact of Lin28a on osteogenic phenotypes of human periosteum-derived cells. Their phenotypes can be similar to those of mesenchymal stem cells. Our results suggest that the Lin28a gene enhances the osteoblastic differentiation of human periosteum-derived cells. In addition, the Lin28a gene increases mitochondrial activity in human periosteum-derived cells. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of the Ty3/gypsy LTR retrotransposons in the genome of Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel C Tubio

    Full Text Available Ty3/gypsy elements represent one of the most abundant and diverse LTR-retrotransposon (LTRr groups in the Anopheles gambiae genome, but their evolutionary dynamics have not been explored in detail. Here, we conduct an in silico analysis of the distribution and abundance of the full complement of 1045 copies in the updated AgamP3 assembly. Chromosomal distribution of Ty3/gypsy elements is inversely related to arm length, with densities being greatest on the X, and greater on the short versus long arms of both autosomes. Taking into account the different heterochromatic and euchromatic compartments of the genome, our data suggest that the relative abundance of Ty3/gypsy LTRrs along each chromosome arm is determined mainly by the different proportions of heterochromatin, particularly pericentric heterochromatin, relative to total arm length. Additionally, the breakpoint regions of chromosomal inversion 2La appears to be a haven for LTRrs. These elements are underrepresented more than 7-fold in euchromatin, where 33% of the Ty3/gypsy copies are associated with genes. The euchromatin on chromosome 3R shows a faster turnover rate of Ty3/gypsy elements, characterized by a deficit of proviral sequences and the lowest average sequence divergence of any autosomal region analyzed in this study. This probably reflects a principal role of purifying selection against insertion for the preservation of longer conserved syntenyc blocks with adaptive importance located in 3R. Although some Ty3/gypsy LTRrs show evidence of recent activity, an important fraction are inactive remnants of relatively ancient insertions apparently subject to genetic drift. Consistent with these computational predictions, an analysis of the occupancy rate of putatively older insertions in natural populations suggested that the degenerate copies have been fixed across the species range in this mosquito, and also are shared with the sibling species Anopheles arabiensis.

  7. Nuorten Yrittäjyystalo ITU - duunirinki- työnvälitystoiminnan profilointi

    OpenAIRE

    Rouhiainen, Minna

    2006-01-01

    Tämän työn tavoitteena oli löytää toimintamalli ja toimintaprofiili "Nuorten Yrittäjyys Talo IDUn" nuorten Duunirinki- työnvälitystoimintaan. Kehittämishankkeen toimeksiantajana ja taustatukena toimi Nuorten Keski- Suomi ry. Hankkeen pohjatietona käytettiin Nuorten Yrittäjyys Talo- verkostohankkeessa mukana olevien talojen hyväksi havaittuja kokemuksia. Nuorten Yrittäjyystalot - verkostohanke käynnistettiin ajalle 1.5.2006- 31.12.2007 Keski-Suomen Liiton EU:n tavoite 2- ohjelman kautta. Mukan...

  8. Hoitotyöntekijöiden työturvallisuus : toimintamalli esimiehille

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Päivi

    2014-01-01

    Terveydenhuollossa hoitotyöntekijät altistuvat samaan aikaan monille erilaisille vaaroille, joten kyseessä on ala, jolla työturvallisuusvaarat ja -poikkeamat ovat suuret. Lisäksi työturvallisuusvaarat ja -poikkeamat painottuvat eri tavoilla erilaisissa toimintaympäristöissä. (Euroopan unionin komissio 2013, 108.) HoiPro- hanke on Varsinais-Suomen sairaanhoitopiirin ja Turun Ammattikorkeakoulun yhteinen Tulevaisuuden sairaala - Hoitotyön kehittämisprojekti vuosille 2009–2015. Kehittämispro...

  9. YHDESSÄ ENEMMÄN : Toimintaterapeutti luokanopettajan työparina lasten hienomotoriikkaa tukemassa

    OpenAIRE

    Kujamäki, Aini; Mäkinen, Enja

    2013-01-01

    Koululähtöisen toimintaterapian hyödyistä on saatu hyvää kansainvälistä näyttöä, ja esimerkiksi Kanadassa ja Yhdysvalloissa toimintaterapeutti työskentelee jo luontevana osana tiivistä kouluarkea. Suomessa näin ei kuitenkaan vielä ole. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantaja oli Jyväskylän Keljonkankaan koulu. Toimeksiantajan puolelta nousi kiinnostus kokeilla käytännössä toimintaterapeutin ja luokanopettajan välistä työparitoimintaa, sillä opettaja voi monen oppilaan luokassa kokea omat resurssinsa...

  10. Exposure assessment of particulates originating from diesel and CNG fuelled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravisjaervi, K.; Pietikaeinen, M.; Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: kati.oravisjarvi@oulu.fi; Voutilainen, A. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Haataja, M. (Oulu Univ. of Applied Sciences (Finland); Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Finland)); Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environmental Sciences (Finland)); Rautio, A. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    given mass, and the surface may be able to act as a catalyst for specific reactions with cells or as a carrier for co-pollutants. They also penetrate deeper into the lungs. Hydrocarbons, as lipid soluble compounds, can also penetrate the cell membranes of the lung cells, enter into the blood circulation and influence the whole organ system, even reach the brain. The aim of this study was to compare children's exposure to diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) exhaust particulates, which have been formed and then distributed into the human lung. Particulate measurements were carried out in the Technical Research Centre of Finland for two Euro 2 diesel buses with an oxidation catalyst on one and a partial-DPF catalyst on the other vehicle (DI-OC and DI-pDPF, respectively), and one Euro 3 natural gas bus with an oxidation catalyst on the vehicle (CNG-OC). For the evaluation of particulate emissions in an urban bus route the Braunschweig City Driving Cycle, a transient chassis dynamometer test cycle was used. Particulate number size distributions were measured using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) instrument (Dekati Ltd, Finland) with the size range of 7 nm to 10 mum. The ELPI measurement system yields particulate number concentrations in 12 nonoverlapping size bins covering the whole measurement size range. Estimation of deposited particles into human lung system was computed with a lung deposition model based on a ICRP 66 lung deposition model published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The model includes specific information related to the subjects (including age, ventilation rate, breathing pattern, gender). The respiratory tract is divided into five main deposition regions: the anterior nasal region (ET1), the main extra thoracic region (ET2, including the posterior nasal region, mouth, pharynx and larynx), the bronchial region (BB, consisting of the trachea and bronchi), the bronchiolar region (bb, consisting of the

  11. Distinct expression patterns predict differential roles of the miRNA-binding proteins, Lin28 and Lin28b, in the mouse testis: studies during postnatal development and in a model of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan, Francisco; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Manfredi-Lozano, María; García-Galiano, David; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; León, Silvia; Morales, Concepción; Cordido, Fernando; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Lin28 (also termed Lin28a) and Lin28b are related RNA-binding proteins, involved in the control of microRNA synthesis, especially of the let-7 family, with putative functions in early (embryo) development. However, their roles during postnatal maturation remain ill defined. Despite the general assumption that Lin28 and Lin28b share similar targets and functions, conclusive demonstration of such redundancy is still missing. In addition, recent observations suggest a role of Lin28 proteins in mammalian reproduction, which is yet to be defined. We document herein the patterns of RNA expression and protein distribution of Lin28 and Lin28b in mouse testis during postnatal development and in a model of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as a result of inactivation of the kisspeptin receptor, Gpr54. Lin28 and Lin28b mRNAs were expressed in mouse testis across postnatal maturation, but their levels disparately varied between neonatal and pubertal periods, with peak Lin28 levels in infantile testes and sustained elevation of Lin28b mRNA in young adult male gonads, where relative levels of let-7a and let-7b miRNAs were significantly suppressed. In addition, Lin28 peptides displayed totally different patterns of cellular distribution in mouse testis: Lin28 was located in undifferentiated and type-A1 spermatogonia, whereas Lin28b was confined to spermatids and interstitial Leydig cells. These profiles were perturbed in Gpr54 null mouse testis, which showed preserved but irregular Lin28 signal and absence of Lin28b peptide, which was rescued by administration of gonadotropins, mainly hCG (as super-agonist of LH). In addition, increased relative levels of Lin28, but not Lin28b, mRNA and of let-7a/let-7b miRNAs were observed in Gpr54 KO mouse testes. Altogether, our data are the first to document the divergent patterns of cellular distribution and mRNA expression of Lin28 and Lin28b in the mouse testis along postnatal maturation and their alteration in a model of congenital

  12. The heterochronic gene Lin28 regulates amphibian metamorphosis through disturbance of thyroid hormone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunes, Fernando; Gundermann, Daniel G; Muñoz, Rosana; Bruno, Renzo; Larraín, Juan

    2017-05-15

    Metamorphosis is a classic example of developmental transition, which involves important morphological and physiological changes that prepare the organism for the adult life. It has been very well established that amphibian metamorphosis is mainly controlled by Thyroid Hormone (TH). Here, we show that the heterochronic gene Lin28 is downregulated during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. Lin28 overexpression before activation of TH signaling delays metamorphosis and inhibits the expression of TH target genes. The delay in metamorphosis is rescued by incubation with exogenous TH, indicating that Lin28 works upstream or parallel to TH. High-throughput analyses performed before any delay on metamorphosis or change in TH signaling showed that overexpression of Lin28 reduces transcript levels of several hormones secreted by the pituitary, including the Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH), and regulates the expression of proteins involved in TH transport, metabolism and signaling, showing that Lin28 disrupts TH function at different levels. Our data demonstrates that the role of Lin28 in controlling developmental transitions is evolutionary conserved and establishes a functional interaction between Lin28 and thyroid hormone function introducing a new regulatory step in perinatal development with implications for our understanding of endocrine disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Studi Eksperimen Unjuk Kerja Mesin Diesel Menggunakan Sistem Dual Fuel Solar Gas CNG Dengan Variasi Tekanan Injeksi Gas Dan Derajat Waktu Injeksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Yoko Exoryanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar gas ini jika ditinjau dari ekonomis tergolong sangat murah dan ramah lingkungan. Namun, pengaplikasian bahan bakar gas CNG pada generator diesel dengan sistem dual fuel berdampak pada penurunan performansinya. Hal ini terjadi karena rasio campuran udara dan bahan bakar pada sistem dual fuel belum sesuai, sehingga perlunya penelitian lebih lanjut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan performa pada mesin diesel dengan memodifikasi saluran masuk udara dengan memasang injector gas CNG untuk memasukkan bahan bakar tersebut kedalam ruang bakar sehingga mesin diesel berubah menjadi sitem dual fuel. Tidak hanya saluran masuk udara saja yang di modifikasi tetapi, variasi start of injection dan tekanan gas yang masuk juga di variasikan. Penelitian ini di lakukan secara eksperimental dengan menginjeksikan gas CNG ke dalam ruang bakar melalui saluran hisap yang sudah terpasang injector. Proses pengaturan injeksi gas CNG diatur oleh ECU programamble melalui software VEMSTUNE. Sistem pengaturan yang dilakukan adalah mengatur derajat waktu injection (SOI dengan nilai 5o, 30o, 55o, dan 80o CA BTDC dan variasi tekanan masuk gas CNG dengan nilai 1, 1,5, 2, dan 2,5 N/m2. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan putaran mesin konstan sebesar 2000 rpm dengan beban 0 sampai 100 %. Hasil yang didapatkan dari eksperimen yang dilakukan kali ini, antara lain : performa dual fuel lebih optimal dibandingkan saat pengoperasian single fuel. Pengaturan paling optimal terjadi pada start of injection 80° CA BTDC dengan tekanan 1,5 gas CNG. Gas CNG dapat menggantikan porsi bahan bakar minyak solar sebesar 45,30 %. Nilai subtitusi minyak solar yang optimal sebesar 61,39 % dan SFC minyak solar rata-rata mengalami penurunan sebesar 47,10 %, tetapi SFC dual fuel rata-rata meningkat sebesar 47,67 % dibandingkan SFC single fuel. Nilai rata-rata efisiensi thermal turun sebesar 40,89 %, nilai AFR rata-rata turun dari 25,60 menjadi 12,90 dan Temperatur gas buang meningkat dari

  14. RDE-based assessment of a factory bi-fuel CNG/gasoline light-duty vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašić, Davor; Rodman Oprešnik, Samuel; Seljak, Tine; Vihar, Rok; Baškovič, Urban Žvar; Wechtersbach, Tomaž; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2017-10-01

    On-road exhaust emissions of a Euro 5 factory bi-fuel CNG/gasoline light-duty vehicle equipped with the TWC were assessed considering the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) guidelines. The vehicle was equipped with a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) that enabled the measurement of THC, CO, NOx, CO2, and CH4. With respect to the characteristics of the vehicle, the appropriate Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycles (WLTC) were selected and based on the requirements of the RDE legislation a suitable route was conceived. In addition to the moderate RDE-based route, an extended RDE-based route was also determined. The vehicle was driven along each defined route twice, once with each individual fuel option and with a fully warm vehicle. RDE routes feature a multitude of new driving patterns that are significantly different to those encountered in the NEDC. However, as these driving patterns can greatly influence the cumulative emissions an insight in to local time trace phenomena is crucial to understand, reason and to possibly reduce the cumulative emissions. Original contributions of this paper comprise analyses of the RDE-LDV local time resolved driving emissions phenomena of a CNG-powered vehicle that are benchmarked against the ones measured under the use of gasoline in the same vehicle and under similar operating conditions to reason emission trends through driving patterns and powertrain parameters and exposing the strong cold-start independent interference of CO and N2O infrared absorption bands in the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. The paper provides experimental evidence on this interference, which significantly influences on the readings of CO emissions. The paper further provides hypotheses why CO and N2O interference is more pronounced when using CNG in LDVs and supports these hypotheses by PEMS tests. The study reveals that the vehicle's NOx real-world emission values of both conceived RDE-based routes when using both fuels are

  15. The pluripotency factor LIN28 in monkey and human testes: a marker for spermatogonial stem cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeckerle, N.; Eildermann, K.; Drummer, C.; Ehmcke, J.; Schweyer, S.; Lerchl, A.; Bergmann, M.; Kliesch, S.; Gromoll, J.; Schlatt, S.; Behr, R.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is maintained by spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). However, since evidentiary assays and unequivocal markers are still missing in non-human primates (NHPs) and man, the identity of primate SSCs is unknown. In contrast, in mice, germ cell transplantation studies have functionally demonstrated the presence of SSCs. LIN28 is an RNA-binding pluripotent stem cell factor, which is also strongly expressed in undifferentiated mouse spermatogonia. By contrast, two recent reports indicated that LIN28 is completely absent from adult human testes. Here, we analyzed LIN28 expression in marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) and human testes during development and adulthood and compared it with that in mice. In the marmoset, LIN28 was strongly expressed in migratory primordial germ cells and gonocytes. Strikingly, we found a rare LIN28-positive subpopulation of spermatogonia also in adult marmoset testis. This was corroborated by western blotting and quantitative RT–PCR. Importantly, in contrast to previous publications, we found LIN28-positive spermatogonia also in normal adult human and additional adult NHP testes. Some seasonal breeders exhibit a degenerated (involuted) germinal epithelium consisting only of Sertoli cells and SSCs during their non-breeding season. The latter re-initiate spermatogenesis prior to the next breeding-season. Fully involuted testes from a seasonal hamster and NHP (Lemur catta) exhibited numerous LIN28-positive spermatogonia, indicating an SSC identity of the labeled cells. We conclude that LIN28 is differentially expressed in mouse and NHP spermatogonia and might be a marker for a rare SSC population in NHPs and man. Further characterization of the LIN28-positive population is required. PMID:22689537

  16. Sairaanhoitajien työelämään sijoittumiseen vaikuttavia tekijöitä : valmistuvien ja vasta valmistuneiden sairaanhoitajien odotuksia hoitotyön työpaikoilta

    OpenAIRE

    Ringvall, Emma-Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on selvittää valmistuvien ja vasta valmistuneiden sairaanhoitajien odotuksia työelämältä sekä niitä tekijöitä jotka vaikuttavat työpaikan vetovoimaisuuteen. Opinnäytetyö on toteutettu soveltamalla systemaattisen kirjallisuuskatsauksen menetelmää. Aineistoksi valikoitui 10 (=n) julkaisua. Hoitoalalla tarvitaan työvoimaa vastaamaan erityisesti suurten ikäluokkien ikääntymisestä johtuvaan lisääntyneeseen hoitotyön tarpeeseen. Nuorten sairaanhoitajien ala...

  17. Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance and Emission Characteristic of SI Engine using Hydrogen and CNG Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitnaware, Pravin Tukaram; Suryawanshi, Jiwak G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper shows exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) effects on multi-cylinder bi-fuel SI engine using blends of 0, 5, 10 and 15% hydrogen by energy with CNG. All trials are performed at a speed of 3000, 3500 and 4000 rpm with EGR rate of 0, 5, 10 and 15%, with equal spark timing and injection pressure of 2.6 bar. At specific hydrogen percentage with increase in EGR rate NOx emission reduces drastically and increases with increase in hydrogen addition. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission decreases with increase in speed and hydrogen addition. There is considerable improvement in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) at 15% EGR rate. At 3000 rpm, 5% EGR rate with 5% hydrogen had shown maximum cylinder pressure. Brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c) increased with increase in EGR rate and decreased with increase in hydrogen addition for all speeds.

  18. Screening of tank-to-wheel efficiencies for CNG, DME and methanol-ethanol fuel blends in road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappel, J.; Vad Mathiesen, B.

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the fuel efficiency of selected alternative fuels based on vehicle performance in a standardised drive cycle test. All studies reviewed are either based on computer modelling of current or future vehicles or tests of just one alternative fuel, under different conditions and concentrations against either petrol or diesel. No studies were found testing more than one type of alternative fuel in the same setup. Due to this one should be careful when comparing results on several alternative fuels. Only few studies have been focused on vehicle energy efficiency. This screening indicates methanol, methanol-ethanol blends and CNG to be readily availability, economic feasible and with the introduction of the DISI engine not technologically challenging compared to traditional fuels. Studies across fuel types indicate a marginally better fuel utilization for methanol-ethanol fuel mixes. (Author)

  19. Development of an Acid-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Ty21a Attenuated Vector For Improved Oral Vaccine Delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madushini N Dharmasena

    Full Text Available The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC. Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues. However, the ECC was selected as a more practical delivery format for both packaging/shipping and vaccine administration ease. We have sought to increase Ty21a acid-resistance to allow for removal from the ECC and immune enhancement. To improve Ty21a acid-resistance, glutamate-dependent acid resistance genes (GAD; responsible for Shigella spp. survival at very low pH were cloned on a multi-copy plasmid (pGad under a controllable arabinose-inducible promoter. pGad enhanced acid survival of Ty21a by 5 logs after 3 hours at pH 2.5, when cells were pre-grown in arabinose and under conditions that promote an acid-tolerance response (ATR. For genetically 100% stable expression, we inserted the gad genes into the Ty21a chromosome, using a method that allowed for subsequent removal of a selectable antibiotic resistance marker. Further, both bacterial growth curves and survival assays in cultured human monocytes/macrophages suggest that neither the genetic methods employed nor the resulting acid-resistance conferred by expression of the Gad proteins in Ty21a had any effect on the existing attenuation of this vaccine strain.

  20. Development of an Acid-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Ty21a Attenuated Vector For Improved Oral Vaccine Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasena, Madushini N; Feuille, Catherine M; Starke, Carly Elizabeth C; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Stibitz, Scott; Kopecko, Dennis J

    The licensed oral, live-attenuated bacterial vaccine for typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, has also been utilized as a vaccine delivery platform for expression of diverse foreign antigens that stimulate protection against shigellosis, anthrax, plague, or human papilloma virus. However, Ty21a is acid-labile and, for effective oral immunization, stomach acidity has to be either neutralized with buffer or by-passed with Ty21a in an enteric-coated capsule (ECC). Several studies have shown that efficacy is reduced when Ty21a is administered in an ECC versus as a buffered liquid formulation, the former limiting exposure to GI tract lymphoid tissues. However, the ECC was selected as a more practical delivery format for both packaging/shipping and vaccine administration ease. We have sought to increase Ty21a acid-resistance to allow for removal from the ECC and immune enhancement. To improve Ty21a acid-resistance, glutamate-dependent acid resistance genes (GAD; responsible for Shigella spp. survival at very low pH) were cloned on a multi-copy plasmid (pGad) under a controllable arabinose-inducible promoter. pGad enhanced acid survival of Ty21a by 5 logs after 3 hours at pH 2.5, when cells were pre-grown in arabinose and under conditions that promote an acid-tolerance response (ATR). For genetically 100% stable expression, we inserted the gad genes into the Ty21a chromosome, using a method that allowed for subsequent removal of a selectable antibiotic resistance marker. Further, both bacterial growth curves and survival assays in cultured human monocytes/macrophages suggest that neither the genetic methods employed nor the resulting acid-resistance conferred by expression of the Gad proteins in Ty21a had any effect on the existing attenuation of this vaccine strain.

  1. Verkkoyhteisöpalveluiden käytön hyödyt ja haitat työllistyvyydelle

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Sosiaalisen median käyttö on kasvanut viime vuosina huomattavasti ja verkkoyhteisöpalveluiden käyttö työllistyvyyden edistämisen apuna on kasvussa. Verkkoyhteisöpalveluiden käytöllä voidaan katsoa olevan sekä positiivia että negatiivisia vaikutuksia yksilön työllistyvyydelle. Sosiaalisella medialla on suuri mahdollisuus toimia erityisen tehokkaana osana yksilön työllistyvyyden edistämistä, sillä sosiaalinen media tarjoaa paljon mahdollisuuksia rekrytointiin, omien taitojen esille tuomiseen se...

  2. Työntekijöiden kokemuksia väkivaltatyöstään maahanmuuttajanaisten parissa Oulun turvakodissa

    OpenAIRE

    Hartikainen, Heidi; Hongisto, Marika

    2014-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Hartikainen, Heidi ja Hongisto, Marika. Työntekijöiden kokemuksia väkivaltatyöstään maahanmuuttajanaisten parissa Oulun turvakodissa. Syksy 2014, 63 sivua, 2 liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu. Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma. Diakonisen sosiaalityön suuntautumisvaihtoehto, sosionomidiakoni (AMK). Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin yhteistyössä Oulun turvakodin kanssa. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kuvata Oulun turvakodin työntekijöiden kokemuksia työstään parisuhdeväkivaltaa ko...

  3. Shiatsu ja vyöhyketerapia hyvinvoinnin edistäjinä työikäisten kokemina

    OpenAIRE

    Kero, Heidi; Kivelä, Eveliina

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli selvittää työikäisten asiakkaiden kokemuksia shiatsusta ja vyöhyketerapiasta Kokkolan alueella. Opinnäytetyömme oli osa Hyvinvoiva työikäinen -projektia, joka oli Keski-Pohjanmaan ammattikorkeakoulun tutkimus- ja kehittämisprojekti. Opinnäytetyömme tavoitteena oli tuottaa projektin kautta tietoa shiatsusta ja vyöhyketerapiasta terveydenhuollon henkilöstölle ja työikäisille. Tutkimuksessamme käytimme kvalitatiivista tutkimusmenetelmää. Aineistonkeruu toteutetti...

  4. Hankkeen LVI-tietomallin hyödyntäminen työvälineenä suunnittelussa

    OpenAIRE

    Tammisto, Tero

    2013-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä selvitettiin tietomallintamista LVI-suunnittelun näkökulmasta suuremman tietomallinnuskohteen rakennushankkeen aikana. Työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää tietomallien roolia työvälineenä suunnittelutyössä rakennushankkeen aikana. Erityispaino tarkastelussa annettiin suunnitteluvaiheen aikaiselle tietomallin mahdollistamalle integraatiolle ja yhteistyölle, mutta myös rakentamisvaiheessa tapahtuvalle tietomallin hyödyntämiselle annettiin katsaus. Työhön sisältyy suunnitt...

  5. Lin Biao and his Role in the «Great Cultural Revolution»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Xu Jiaqing

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of Lin Biao in the Great Сultural Revolution in China as well as social mechanisms of personal cult formation during the different historical stages.

  6. Lin28b stimulates the reprogramming of rat Müller glia to retinal progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chen; Tao, Zui; Xue, Langyue; Zeng, Yuxiao [Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Lab of Visual Damage and Regeneration & Restoration of Chongqing, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyieye@aliyun.com [Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Lab of Visual Damage and Regeneration & Restoration of Chongqing, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Haiwei, E-mail: haiweixu2001@163.com [Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Lab of Visual Damage and Regeneration & Restoration of Chongqing, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yin, Zheng Qin, E-mail: qinzyin@aliyun.com [Southwest Hospital/Southwest Eye Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Lab of Visual Damage and Regeneration & Restoration of Chongqing, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2017-03-01

    In lower-order vertebrates, Müller glia exhibit characteristics of retinal progenitor cells, while in higher vertebrates, such as mammals, the regenerative capacity of Müller glia is limited. Recently, we reported that Lin28b promoted the trans-differentiation of Müller cells to rod photoreceptor and bipolar cells in the retina of retinitis pigmentosa rat model, whereas it is unclear whether Lin28b can stimulate the reprogramming of Müller glia in vitro for transplantation into a damaged retina. In the present study, Long-Evens rat Müller glia were infected with Adeno-Lin28b or Adeno-GFP. Over-expression of Lin28b in isolated rat Müller glia resulted in the suppression of GFAP expression, enhancement of cell proliferation and a significant increase of the expression of retinal progenitor markers 5 days after infection. Moreover, Lin28b caused a significant reduction of the Let-7 family of microRNAs. Following sub-retinal space transplantation, Müller glia-derived retinal progenitors improved b-wave amplification of 30d Royal College of Surgeons retinitis pigmentosa model (RCS-P+) rats, as detected by electroretinography (ERG) recordings. Taken together, these data suggest that the up-regulation of Lin28b expression facilitated the reprogramming of Müller cells toward characteristics of retinal progenitors. - Highlights: • Lin28b reprograms Müller glia to retinal progenitors. • Let-7 micrRNAs are suppressed by Lin28b. • Transplantation of reprogrammed Müller glia restores retinal function.

  7. Le nævus épidermique verruqueux inflammatoire linéaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le nævus épidermique verruqueux inflammatoire linéaire (NEVIL) est une affection rare correspondant à des hyperplasies épidermiques bénignes qui se présentent cliniquement sous forme de lésions linéaires unilatérales hyperkératosiques. Une adolescente âgée de 16 ans, sans antécédents, présentait depuis la ...

  8. RbAp46/48LIN-53 Is Required for Holocentromere Assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Chi Hang Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Centromeres, the specialized chromosomal regions for recruiting kinetochores and directing chromosome segregation, are epigenetically marked by a centromeric histone H3 variant, CENP-A. To maintain centromere identity through cell cycles, CENP-A diluted during DNA replication is replenished. The licensing factor M18BP1KNL-2 is known to recruit CENP-A to holocentromeres. Here, we show that RbAp46/48LIN-53, a conserved histone chaperone, is required for CENP-AHCP-3 localization in holocentric Caenorhabditis elegans. Indeed, RbAp46/48LIN-53 and CENP-AHCP-3 localizations are interdependent. RbAp46/48LIN-53 localizes to the centromere during metaphase in a CENP-AHCP-3- and M18BP1KNL-2-dependent manner, suggesting CENP-AHCP-3 loading may occur before anaphase. RbAp46/48LIN-53 does not function at the centromere through histone acetylation, H3K27 trimethylation, or its known chromatin-modifying complexes. RbAp46/48LIN-53 may function independently to escort CENP-AHCP-3 for holocentromere assembly but is dispensable for other kinetochore protein recruitment. Nonetheless, depletion of RbAp46/48LIN-53 leads to anaphase bridges and chromosome missegregation. This study unravels the holocentromere assembly hierarchy and its conservation with monocentromeres.

  9. Estudio de tolerancia local de la vacuna vax-TyVi® en ratas Sprague Dawley

    OpenAIRE

    Eligio Sosa Roble; Sergio Sifontes Rodríguez; Juan Francisco Infante Bourzac; Daiyana Díaz Rivero; Yulieé López Feria; Viviana Pérez Amat; Tamara Hernández Salazar; Luis Riverón Martínez; Yolanda Valdés Abreu; Isabel García Riva; Mildrey Fariñas Medina; Elina Parajón Góngora; Niurka Rodríguez González

    2005-01-01

    La vacuna antitifoídica vax-TyVi® consiste en una preparación de polisacárido capsular Vi de Salmonella typhi, el cual es diluido en una solución buffer isotónica solución amortiguador, a la que se le añade fenol como preservo. Cada dosis de 0,5 mL contiene 25 μg de polisacárido como sustancia activa. En nuestro país el esquema de vacunación contra la fiebre tifoidea con vax- TyVi® se aplica a los alumnos de 9-10 años (5to grado), una 2da dosis a la edad de 12-13 años (8vo grado) y una 3ra do...

  10. Puhepiiri työmenetelmänä varhaispedagogiikan kehittämisessä

    OpenAIRE

    Soininen, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli laadullisen tutkimuksen keinoin selvittää, millaisena työmenetelmänä puhepiiri toimii varhaiskasvatuksessa. Näkökulmaksi valittiin varhaispedagogiikan kehittäminen ja siksi tutkimus toteutettiin päiväkodissa lastentarhanopettajista koostuvassa pedagogisessa tiimissä. Tutkimuksen taustateoria rakentui restoratiivisuudesta, ratkaisukeskeisyydestä ja dialogisuudesta. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin pedagogisen tiimin tapaamisissa äänitallenteina ja tutkijan reflekt...

  11. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration—Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-09-27

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank of the 241-T Tank Farm in 1973. Five tanks are assumed to have leaked in the TY Farm. Many of the contaminants from those leaks still reside within the vadose zone within the T and TY Tank Farms. The Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection seeks to minimize the movement of these contaminant plumes by placing interim barriers on the ground surface. Such barriers are expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plumes and moving them further. The soil water regime is monitored to determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barriers. Soil-water content and water pressure are monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. Four instrument nests were installed in the T Farm in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY2007; two nests were installed in the TY Farm in FY2010. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, and four heat-dissipation units. A meteorological station has been installed at the north side of the fence of the T Farm. This document summarizes the monitoring methods, the instrument calibration and installation, and the vadose zone monitoring plan for interim barriers in T farm and TY Farm.

  12. Trzyetapowa korekcja deformacji tyłostopia u chorej na reumatoidalne zapalenie stawów

    OpenAIRE

    Iwona Słowińska; Radosław Słowiński; Paweł Małdyk

    2011-01-01

    W artykule przedstawiono trzyetapowe leczenie operacyjne deformacjityłostopia u chorej na reumatoidalne zapalenie stawów (RZS)w Klinice Reumoortopedii Instytutu Reumatologii w Warszawie.Z powodu znacznie zaawansowanych zmian destrukcyjnych wszystkichstawów na obu poziomach stawu skokowego konieczne byłowykonanie operacji przygotowującej do zaplanowanej endoprotezoplastykistawu skokowo-goleniowego. Wykonano potrójnąartrodezę tyłostopia, następnie reoperację usztywnienia z powodunadmiernej pier...

  13. Oulujoki All-Stars : Lautapelikerho seurakunnan nuorten ja nuorten aikuisten työn muotona

    OpenAIRE

    Valtonen, Ville-Valtteri

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni Oulujoki All-Stars – Lautapelikerho seurakunnan nuorten ja nuorten aikuisten työn muotona on toteutettu Oulujoen seurakunnalle. Toiminta on aloitettu vuonna 2012. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda itsenäisesti toimiva lautapelikerho joka hyödyntää toiminnassaan miniatyyripelejä, erityisesti kiinnostuksen seurauksena Games Workshopin julkaisemaa Blood Bowl – lautapeliä. Tarkoituksena oli luoda sosiaalista toimintaa, jonka lautapeleistä kiinnostuneet nuoret ja nuoret aikuiset...

  14. Tank 241-TY-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-104. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

  15. Novel Acetone Metabolism in a Propane-Utilizing Bacterium, Gordonia sp. Strain TY-5▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Tetsuya; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Kato, Nobuo; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    In the propane-utilizing bacterium Gordonia sp. strain TY-5, propane was shown to be oxidized to 2-propanol and then further oxidized to acetone. In this study, the subsequent metabolism of acetone was studied. Acetone-induced proteins were found in extracts of cells induced by acetone, and a gene cluster designated acmAB was cloned on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of acetone-induced proteins. The acmA and acmB genes encode a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) and esterase, respectively. The BVMO encoded by acmA was purified from acetone-induced cells of Gordonia sp. strain TY-5 and characterized. The BVMO exhibited NADPH-dependent oxidation activity for linear ketones (C3 to C10) and cyclic ketones (C4 to C8). Escherichia coli expressing the acmA gene oxidized acetone to methyl acetate, and E. coli expressing the acmB gene hydrolyzed methyl acetate. Northern blot analyses revealed that polycistronic transcription of the acmAB gene cluster was induced by propane, 2-propanol, and acetone. These results indicate that the acmAB gene products play an important role in the metabolism of acetone derived from propane oxidation and clarify the propane metabolism pathway of strain TY-5 (propane → 2-propanol → acetone → methyl acetate → acetic acid + methanol). This paper provides the first evidence for BVMO-dependent acetone metabolism. PMID:17071761

  16. Reverse Transcription in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Long-Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon Ty3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Rausch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the single-stranded retroviral RNA into integration-competent double-stranded DNA is achieved through a multi-step process mediated by the virus-coded reverse transcriptase (RT. With the exception that it is restricted to an intracellular life cycle, replication of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae long terminal repeat (LTR-retrotransposon Ty3 genome is guided by equivalent events that, while generally similar, show many unique and subtle differences relative to the retroviral counterparts. Until only recently, our knowledge of RT structure and function was guided by a vast body of literature on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enzyme. Although the recently-solved structure of Ty3 RT in the presence of an RNA/DNA hybrid adds little in terms of novelty to the mechanistic basis underlying DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H activity, it highlights quite remarkable topological differences between retroviral and LTR-retrotransposon RTs. The theme of overall similarity but distinct differences extends to the priming mechanisms used by Ty3 RT to initiate (− and (+ strand DNA synthesis. The unique structural organization of the retrotransposon enzyme and interaction with its nucleic acid substrates, with emphasis on polypurine tract (PPT-primed initiation of (+ strand synthesis, is the subject of this review.

  17. The cardioprotective effects of novel Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor TY-51924 on ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamori, Jun; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Takaya, Akiyuki; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Marie; Ogino, Yamato; Chiba, Toshiki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-04-01

    The inhibitory effects of sodium 3-guanidinocarbonyl-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta[b]pyridine-9-ylmethyl sulfate monoethanolate (TY-51924) are selective for Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)-1 in PS120 cells expressing human NHE isoforms assayed by NH(4)Cl prepulse technique. The median inhibitory concentrations (micromolar) of TY-51924 were 0.095 ± 0.008 (NHE-1), 0.621 ± 0.093 (NHE-2), and >100 (NHE-3). In anesthetized dogs subjected to 90 minutes ischemia/300 minutes reperfusion, intravenous bolus TY-51924 at 5 and 10 mg/kg administered 5 minutes before reperfusion reduced infarct size. The infarct size reduction ratios of TY-51924 at 5 and 10 mg/kg versus vehicle were 32.8% and 52.4%, respectively. But TY-51924 at 10 mg/kg administered 10 minutes after reperfusion did not reduce infarct size. In 2-step intravenous infusion initiated 15 minutes before reperfusion, TY-51924 at low dose (3.8 mg/kg per 5 minutes, then 6.2 mg/kg per 20 minutes) and at high dose (7.6 mg/kg per 5 minutes, then 12.4 mg/kg per 20 minutes) reduced infarct size. The infarct size reduction ratios of TY-51924 at 10 and 20 mg/kg versus vehicle were 39.2% and 51.7%, respectively; plasma drug concentrations at reperfusion were 16.8 and 38.8 μg/mL, respectively. This indicates that maintaining a plasma drug concentration of >20 μg/mL at reperfusion enables TY-51924 to reduce infarct size by inhibiting the NHE, which is activated during the early period of reperfusion.

  18. Characterizing the functions of Ty1 Gag and the Gag-derived restriction factor p22/p18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachulska-Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Leszek; Gumna, Julita; Nishida, Yuri; Saha, Agniva; Biesiada, Marcin; Garfinkel, David J; Purzycka, Katarzyna J

    2016-01-01

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposons comprise approximately half of the human genome, and we are only beginning to understand their influence on genome function and evolution. The LTR retrotransposon Ty1 is the most abundant mobile genetic element in the S. cerevisiae reference genome. Ty1 replicates via an RNA intermediate and shares several important structural and functional characteristics with retroviruses. However, unlike retroviruses Ty1 retrotransposition is not infectious. Retrotransposons integrations can cause mutations and genome instability. Despite the fact that S. cerevisiae lacks eukaryotic defense mechanisms such as RNAi, they maintain a relatively low copy number of the Ty1 retrotransposon in their genomes. A novel restriction factor derived from the C-terminal half of Gag (p22/p18) and encoded by internally initiated transcript inhibits retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, Ty1 evolved a specific GAG organization and expression strategy to produce products both essential and antagonistic for retrotransposon movement. In this commentary we discuss our recent research aimed at defining steps of Ty1 replication influenced by p22/p18 with particular emphasis on the nucleic acid chaperone functions carried out by Gag and the restriction factor.

  19. The C. elegans hox gene lin-39 controls cell cycle progression during vulval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, Daniel; Escobar-Restrepo, Juan Miguel; Leu, Philipp; Hajnal, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Cell fate specification during organogenesis is usually followed by a phase of cell proliferation to produce the required number of differentiated cells. The Caenorhabditis elegans vulva is an excellent model to study how cell fate specification and cell proliferation are coordinated. The six vulval precursor cells (VPCs) are born at the first larval stage, but they arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle until the beginning of the third larval stage, when their fates are specified and the three proximal VPCs proliferate to generate 22 vulval cells. An epidermal growth factor (EGF) signal from the gonadal anchor cell combined with lateral DELTA/NOTCH signaling between the VPCs determine the primary (1°) and secondary (2°) fates, respectively. The hox gene lin-39 plays a key role in integrating these spatial patterning signals and in maintaining the VPCs as polarized epithelial cells. Using a fusion-defective eff-1(lf) mutation to keep the VPCs polarized, we find that VPCs lacking lin-39 can neither activate lateral NOTCH signaling nor proliferate. LIN-39 promotes cell cycle progression through two distinct mechanisms. First, LIN-39 maintains the VPCs competent to proliferate by inducing cdk-4 cdk and cye-1 cyclinE expression via a non-canonical HOX binding motif. Second, LIN-39 activates in the adjacent VPCs the NOTCH signaling pathway, which promotes VPC proliferation independently of LIN-39. The hox gene lin-39 is therefore a central node in a regulatory network coordinating VPC differentiation and proliferation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. sel-7, a positive regulator of lin-12 activity, encodes a novel nuclear protein in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiabin; Li, Xiajun; Greenwald, Iva

    2004-01-01

    Suppressor genetics in C. elegans has identified key components of the LIN-12/Notch signaling pathway. Here, we describe a genetic and molecular characterization of the suppressor gene sel-7. We show that reducing or eliminating sel-7 activity suppresses the effects of constitutive lin-12 activity, enhances the effects of partially reduced lin-12 activity, and causes a synthetic Lin-12(0) phenotype when combined with a null mutation in the sel-12 presenilin gene. These observations suggest that sel-7 is a positive regulator of lin-12 activity. We also show that SEL-7 encodes a novel nuclear protein. Through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified an apparent interaction partner, K08E3.8, that also interacts with SEL-8, a known component of the nuclear complex that forms upon LIN-12 activation. Our data suggest potential roles for SEL-7 in the assembly or function of this nuclear complex.

  1. νLIN6: An Integrated Mobility Protocol in IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Ayumi; Teraoka, Fumio

    This paper proposes a protocol called νLIN6 which supports both network mobility and host mobility in IPv6. There are several proposals to support network mobility and host mobility. Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support Protocol has several problems such as pinball routing, large header overhead due to multiple levels of tunneling, and a single point of failure. Optimized NEMO (ONEMO) and Mobile IP with Address Translation (MAT) are solutions to provide route optimization, but they generate a lot of signaling messages at a handover. In νLIN6, packet relay is required only once regardless of the nested level in network mobility while optimal routing is always provided in host mobility. A fixedsized extension header is used in network mobility while there is no header overhead in host mobility. νLIN6 is more tolerant of network failure and mobility agent failure than NEMO Basic Support Protocol. It also allows ordinary IPv6 nodes to communicate with mobile nodes and nodes in the mobile network. We implemented νLIN6 on NetBSD 2.0 Release. Our measurement results showed νLIN6 can provide host mobility and network mobility with low overhead.

  2. Lin4Neuro: a customized Linux distribution ready for neuroimaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Dan, Ippeita; Rorden, Christopher; Ohnishi, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masako; Yamashita, Fumio; Asada, Takashi

    2011-01-25

    A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.

  3. Lin4Neuro: a customized Linux distribution ready for neuroimaging analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Fumio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of neuroimaging software packages have been released from various laboratories worldwide, and many researchers use these packages in combination. Though most of these software packages are freely available, some people find them difficult to install and configure because they are mostly based on UNIX-like operating systems. We developed a live USB-bootable Linux package named "Lin4Neuro." This system includes popular neuroimaging analysis tools. The user interface is customized so that even Windows users can use it intuitively. Results The boot time of this system was only around 40 seconds. We performed a benchmark test of inhomogeneity correction on 10 subjects of three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI scans. The processing speed of USB-booted Lin4Neuro was as fast as that of the package installed on the hard disk drive. We also installed Lin4Neuro on a virtualization software package that emulates the Linux environment on a Windows-based operation system. Although the processing speed was slower than that under other conditions, it remained comparable. Conclusions With Lin4Neuro in one's hand, one can access neuroimaging software packages easily, and immediately focus on analyzing data. Lin4Neuro can be a good primer for beginners of neuroimaging analysis or students who are interested in neuroimaging analysis. It also provides a practical means of sharing analysis environments across sites.

  4. LIN-32/Atonal Controls Oxygen Sensing Neuron Development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanos, Teresa Rojo; Pladevall-Morera, David; Langebeck-Jensen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Development of complex nervous systems requires precisely controlled neurogenesis. The generation and specification of neurons occur through the transcriptional and post-Transcriptional control of complex regulatory networks. In vertebrates and invertebrates, the proneural basic-helix-loop-helix (b......HLH) family of transcription factors has multiple functions in neurogenesis. Here, we identified the LIN-32/Atonal bHLH transcription factor as a key regulator of URXL/R oxygen-sensing neuron development in Caenorhabditis elegans. When LIN-32/Atonal expression is lost, the expression of URX specification...... and terminal differentiation genes is abrogated. As such, lin-32 mutant animals are unable to respond to increases in environmental oxygen. The URX neurons are generated from a branch of the cell lineage that also produces the CEPDL/R and URADL/R neurons. We found development of these neurons is also defective...

  5. Two large-scale analyses of Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon de novo insertion events indicate that Ty1 targets nucleosomal DNA near the H2A/H2B interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridier-Nahmias Antoine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the years, a number of reports have revealed that Ty1 integration occurs in a 1-kb window upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes with an approximate 80-bp periodicity between each integration hotspot and that this targeting requires active Pol III transcription at the site of integration. However, the molecular bases of Ty1 targeting are still not understood. Findings The publications by Baller et al. and Mularoni et al. in the April issue of Genome Res. report the first high-throughput sequencing analysis of Ty1 de novo insertion events. Their observations converge to the same conclusion, that Ty1 targets a specific surface of the nucleosome at he H2A/H2B interface. Conclusion This discovery is important, and should help identifying factor(s involved in Ty1 targeting. Recent data on transposable elements and retroviruses integration site choice obtained by large-scale analyses indicate that transcription and chromatin structure play an important role in this process. The studies reported in this commentary add a new evidence of the importance of chromatin in integration selectivity that should be of interest for everyone interested in transposable elements integration.

  6. The Lin28/Let-7 system in early human embryonic tissue and ectopic pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lozoya

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs, in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7-9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤ 6-weeks and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤ 6-weeks of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (deregulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans.

  7. The Lin28/Let-7 System in Early Human Embryonic Tissue and Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffani, Liliana; Martínez, Sebastián; Monterde, Mercedes; Ferri, Blanca; Núñez, Maria Jose; AinhoaRomero-Espinós; Zamora, Omar; Gurrea, Marta; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Vega, Olivia; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs), in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases) and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls) were recruited for the study. Embryonic tissues were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR analyses for LIN28B, Let-7a, miR-132, miR-145 and mir-323-3p were performed. Our results demonstrate that the expression of LIN28B mRNA was barely detectable in embryonic tissue from early stages of gestation and sharply increased thereafter to plateau between gestational weeks 7–9. In contrast, expression levels of Let-7, mir-132 and mir-145 were high in embryonic tissue from early gestations (≤6-weeks) and abruptly declined thereafter, especially for Let-7. Opposite trends were detected for mir-323-3p. Embryonic expression of LIN28B mRNA was higher in early stages (≤6-weeks) of ectopic pregnancy than in normal gestation. In contrast, Let-7a expression was significantly lower in early ectopic pregnancies, while miR-132 and miR-145 levels were not altered. Expression of mir-323-3p was also suppressed in ectopic embryonic tissue. We are the first to document reciprocal changes in the expression profiles of the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein, LIN28B, and the related miRNAs, Let-7a, mir-132 and mir-145, in early stages of human placentation. This finding suggests the potential involvement of LIN28B/Let-7 (de)regulated pathways in the pathophysiology of ectopic pregnancy in humans. PMID:24498170

  8. Molecular characterization of a transcriptionally active Ty1/copia-like retrotransposon in Gossypium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuefen; Jiang, Yurong; Ding, Mingquan; He, Shae; Zhang, Hua; Lin, Lifeng; Rong, Junkang

    2015-06-01

    A transcriptionally active Ty1/copia -like retrotransposon was identified in the genome of Gossypium barbadense. The different heat activation of this element was observed in two tetraploid cotton species. Most retrotransposons from plants are transcriptionally silent, or activated under certain conditions. Only a small portion of elements are transcriptionally active under regular condition. A long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon was isolated from the cultivated Sea Island cotton (H7124) genome during the investigation of the function of a homeodomain leucine zipper gene (HD1) in trichome growth. Insertion of this element in HD1 gene of At sub-genome was related to the trichomeless stem in Gossypium barbadense. The element, named as GBRE-1, had all features of a typical Ty1/copia retrotransposon and possessed high similarity to the members of ONSEN retrotransposon family. It was 4997 bp long, comprising a single 4110 bp open reading frame, which encoded 1369 amino acids including the conserved domains of gag and pol. The expression of GBRE-1 was detected under regular condition in G. barbadense and G. hirsutum, and its expression level was increased under heat-stress condition in G. hirsutum. Besides, its expression pattern was similar to that of the ONSEN retrotransposon. Abundant cis-regulatory motifs related to stress-response and transcriptional regulation were found in the LTR sequence. These results suggested that GBRE-1 was a transcriptionally active retrotransposon in Gossypium. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of a complete Ty1/copia-type retrotransposon with present-day transcriptional activity in cotton.

  9. Perehdyttämisohjelma ja toimintaohjeet päivystävän sairaanhoitajan työhön

    OpenAIRE

    Palovaara, Terttu; Rantapää, Kirsi; Kaikkonen-Tiensuu, Helena; Jaako, Seija

    2010-01-01

    Suomessa perusterveydenhuollon kehittäminen on terveyspolitiikan keskei-sempiä asioita. Vuonna 2002 käynnistettiin kansallinen terveyshanke, jonka yhdeksi keskeisemmäksi teemaksi nousi eri ammattiryhmien välinen työnjako. Samanaikaisesti Kolarin terveyskeskuksessa alettiin kehittää sairaanhoitajien ja lääkäreiden välistä työnjakoa, joka koski aluksi pitkäaikaissairauksien hoitoa. Vuonna 2006 perustettiin päivystävän sairaanhoitajan toimi. Työnjaon myötä sairaanhoitajien itsenäinen työske...

  10. Detection of an inversion in the Ty-2 region between S. lycopersicum and S. habrochaites by a combination of de novo genome assembly and BAC cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Anne-Marie A; Caro, Myluska; Dong, Shufang; Finkers, Richard; Gao, Jianchang; Visser, Richard G F; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Du, Yongchen; Bai, Yuling

    2015-10-01

    A chromosomal inversion associated with the tomato Ty - 2 gene for TYLCV resistance is the cause of severe suppression of recombination in a tomato Ty - 2 introgression line. Among tomato and its wild relatives inversions are often observed, which result in suppression of recombination. Such inversions hamper the transfer of important traits from a related species to the crop by introgression breeding. Suppression of recombination was reported for the TYLCV resistance gene, Ty-2, which has been introgressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) from the wild relative S. habrochaites accession B6013. Ty-2 was mapped to a 300-kb region on the long arm of chromosome 11. The suppression of recombination in the Ty-2 region could be caused by chromosomal rearrangements in S. habrochaites compared with S. lycopersicum. With the aim of visualizing the genome structure of the Ty-2 region, we compared the draft de novo assembly of S. habrochaites accession LYC4 with the sequence of cultivated tomato ('Heinz'). Furthermore, using populations derived from intraspecific crosses of S. habrochaites accessions, the order of markers in the Ty-2 region was studied. Results showed the presence of an inversion of approximately 200 kb in the Ty-2 region when comparing S. lycopersicum and S. habrochaites. By sequencing a BAC clone from the Ty-2 introgression line, one inversion breakpoint was identified. Finally, the obtained results are discussed with respect to introgression breeding and the importance of a priori de novo sequencing of the species involved.

  11. A construção narrativa em Cidade de Deus de Paulo Lins

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Graziela Bachião Martins Colombari [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho propõe-se a fazer um estudo do romance Cidade de Deus (1ª ed. 1997) de Paulo Lins, com vistas a compreender o modo como o autor constrói a ficcionalidade no interior do texto. Obra singular da literatura brasileira, foi escrita a partir de um projeto da antropóloga Alba Zaluar sobre criminalidade no Rio de Janeiro – do qual Lins foi colaborador –, que incluiu a realização de uma série de entrevistas. Por ser palco de uma das mais violentas localidades da capital do estado ...

  12. Analyzing Lie symmetry and constructing conservation laws for time-fractional Benny-Lin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Saeede; Hejazi, S. Reza

    This paper investigates the invariance properties of the time fractional Benny-Lin equation with Riemann-Liouville and Caputo derivatives. This equation can be reduced to the Kawahara equation, fifth-order Kdv equation, the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation and Navier-Stokes equation. By using the Lie group analysis method of fractional differential equations (FDEs), we derive Lie symmetries for the Benny-Lin equation. Conservation laws for this equation are obtained with the aid of the concept of nonlinear self-adjointness and the fractional generalization of the Noether’s operators. Furthermore, by means of the invariant subspace method, exact solutions of the equation are also constructed.

  13. 78 Rôle hydrogéologique des linéaments structuraux en milieu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TEDDY

    géométriques des blocs et des débits des forages a permis de mettre en évidence le rôle hydrogéologique prépondérant des petits linéaments .... De haut en bas, nous rencontrons l'horizon altéré ... Pour établir la carte linéaments, nous avons eu recours à des images satellitaires optiques et radar. (ETM+ de Landsant-7 et ...

  14. Fysioterapeuttien käyttökokemuksia akupunktiosta työvälineenä Suomessa

    OpenAIRE

    Laitinen, Marjut; Hakasalo, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kerätä tietoa Suomessa työskentelevien fysioterapeuttien käyttökokemuksista akupunktiosta. Opinnäytetyömme tarkoituksena oli, että toimeksiantaja voi hyödyntää saatua tietoa fysioterapeuttien kokemuksista akupunktiosta esimerkiksi markkinoinnissaan sekä toimintansa kehittämisessä. Lisäksi tarkoituksena oli lisätä tietoa ja tietoisuutta akupunktiosta fysioterapia-alalla, jotta akupunktiokoulutusta voitaisiin kehittää ja fysioterapeutit tiedostaisivat akupunktion y...

  15. Tilapäisen työvoiman rekrytointiprosessin arviointi ja tehostaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Kuronen, Pietari

    2013-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin tilapäisen työvoiman rekrytointiprosessin tehostamismahdollisuuksia kohdeyrityksessä. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin myös, mitkä ovat kohdeyrityksessä käytössä olevan tilapäistyövoiman liiketoimintamallin tavoitteet ja miksi sellainen on perustettu. Kokonaisvaltaisemman kuvan saamiseksi tarkasteltiin, miten käytössä oleva järjestelmä on vaikuttanut liiketoiminnan harjoittamiseen. Opinnäytetyö tehtiin projektimuotoisena Fazer Food Services- osak...

  16. Estudio de tolerancia local de la vacuna vax-TyVi® en ratas Sprague Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eligio Sosa Roble

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available La vacuna antitifoídica vax-TyVi® consiste en una preparación de polisacárido capsular Vi de Salmonella typhi, el cual es diluido en una solución buffer isotónica solución amortiguador, a la que se le añade fenol como preservo. Cada dosis de 0,5 mL contiene 25 μg de polisacárido como sustancia activa. En nuestro país el esquema de vacunación contra la fiebre tifoidea con vax- TyVi® se aplica a los alumnos de 9-10 años (5to grado, una 2da dosis a la edad de 12-13 años (8vo grado y una 3ra dosis a la edad de 16-17 años (11no grado. Además, es vacunado el personal de riesgo de Salud Pública y el personal que manipula alimentos. En el presente trabajo se describe el ensayo de tolerancia local llevado a cabo con la vacuna vax-TyVi® durante su fase de estudios preclínicos, actualmente utilizada en la vacunación contra la fiebre tifoidea en Cuba. Se empleó un total de 170 ratas que fueron tratadas con la vacuna, su placebo (todos los componentes, excepto la materia prima activa, o que no recibieron tratamiento alguno (controles. Se realizaron observaciones clínicas diarias durante todo el ensayo, se determinó el consumo de agua y alimentos y se realizaron investigaciones anatomopatológicas a animales sacrificados 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 y 42 días después de la inoculación. No se observaron muertes ni síntomas de toxicidad; no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los pesos vivos, el consumo de agua ni el de alimentos entre los grupos del ensayo. Tampoco se observaron lesiones anatomopatológicas que indicaran toxicidad por parte del producto inoculado. Los resultados permitieron concluir que la potencialidad de la vacuna vax-TyVi® para producir efectos adversos locales es baja.

  17. Neurodynaamiset menetelmät fysioterapeuttien työvälineenä

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Saku; Horsma, Pirkka

    2014-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kerätä tietoa neurodynamiikan kursseja suorittaneiden fysioterapeuttien kokemuksista liittyen neurodynaamisten menetelmien turvallisuuteen, vaikutukseen ja käytön useuteen. Tavoitteena oli myös tarkastella millainen yhteys näillä tekijöillä on koulutukseen ja kurssien suorittaneisuuteen ja toisaalta aihealueen ymmärtäneisyyteen ja suorittamisen valmiuksiin. Työn toimeksiantaja on Suomen ortopedisen manuaalisen terapian yhdistys (SOMTY). Opinnäytetyön tarkoitu...

  18. Glucose signalling pathway controls the programmed ribosomal frameshift efficiency in retroviral-like element Ty3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkel, Sezai; Kaplan, Güliz; Farabaugh, Philip J

    2011-11-01

    Ty3 elements of S. cerevisiae contain two overlapping coding regions, GAG3 and POL3, which are functional homologues of retroviral gag and pol genes, respectively. Pol3 is translated as a Gag3-Pol3 fusion protein dependent on a +1 programmed frameshift at a site with the overlap between the two genes. We show that the Ty3 frameshift frequency varies up to 10-fold in S. cerevisiae cells depending on carbon source. Frameshift efficiency is significantly lower in cells growing on glucose as carbon source than in cells growing on poor alternative carbon sources (glycerol/lactate or galactose). Our results indicate that Ty3 programmed ribosomal frameshift efficiency in response to glucose signalling requires two protein kinases: Snf1p and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Increased frameshifting on alternative carbon sources also appears to require cytoplasmic localization of Snf1p, mediated by the Sip2p protein. In addition to the two required protein kinases, our results implicate that Stm1p, a ribosome-associated protein involved in nutrient sensing, is essential for the carbon source-dependent regulation of Ty3 frameshifting. These data indicate that Ty3 programmed ribosomal frameshift is not a constitutive process but that it is regulated in response to the glucose-signalling pathway. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Multiple transcription factors directly regulate Hox gene lin-39 expression in ventral hypodermal cells of the C. elegans embryo and larva, including the hypodermal fate regulators LIN-26 and ELT-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Ju; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M; Eisenmann, David M

    2014-05-13

    Hox genes encode master regulators of regional fate specification during early metazoan development. Much is known about the initiation and regulation of Hox gene expression in Drosophila and vertebrates, but less is known in the non-arthropod invertebrate model system, C. elegans. The C. elegans Hox gene lin-39 is required for correct fate specification in the midbody region, including the Vulval Precursor Cells (VPCs). To better understand lin-39 regulation and function, we aimed to identify transcription factors necessary for lin-39 expression in the VPCs, and in particular sought factors that initiate lin-39 expression in the embryo. We used the yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) method to screen for factors that bound to 13 fragments from the lin-39 region: twelve fragments contained sequences conserved between C. elegans and two other nematode species, while one fragment was known to drive reporter gene expression in the early embryo in cells that generate the VPCs. Sixteen transcription factors that bind to eight lin-39 genomic fragments were identified in yeast, and we characterized several factors by verifying their physical interactions in vitro, and showing that reduction of their function leads to alterations in lin-39 levels and lin-39::GFP reporter expression in vivo. Three factors, the orphan nuclear hormone receptor NHR-43, the hypodermal fate regulator LIN-26, and the GATA factor ELT-6 positively regulate lin-39 expression in the embryonic precursors to the VPCs. In particular, ELT-6 interacts with an enhancer that drives GFP expression in the early embryo, and the ELT-6 site we identified is necessary for proper embryonic expression. These three factors, along with the factors ZTF-17, BED-3 and TBX-9, also positively regulate lin-39 expression in the larval VPCs. These results significantly expand the number of factors known to directly bind and regulate lin-39 expression, identify the first factors required for lin-39 expression in the embryo, and hint at a

  20. Kinetic and sequence-structure-function analysis of known LinA variants with different hexachlorocyclohexane isomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Here we report specific activities of all seven naturally occurring LinA variants towards three different isomers, α, γ and δ, of a priority persistent pollutant, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH. Sequence-structure-function differences contributing to the differences in their stereospecificity for α-, γ-, and δ-HCH and enantiospecificity for (+- and (--α -HCH are also discussed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Enzyme kinetic studies were performed with purified LinA variants. Models of LinA2(B90A A110T, A111C, A110T/A111C and LinA1(B90A were constructed using the FoldX computer algorithm. Turnover rates (min(-1 showed that the LinAs exhibited differential substrate affinity amongst the four HCH isomers tested. α-HCH was found to be the most preferred substrate by all LinA's, followed by the γ and then δ isomer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The kinetic observations suggest that LinA-γ1-7 is the best variant for developing an enzyme-based bioremediation technology for HCH. The majority of the sequence variation in the various linA genes that have been isolated is not neutral, but alters the enantio- and stereoselectivity of the encoded proteins.

  1. Työajan kohdentaminen uutena menettelynä : Menettelyn pilotointi liikenne- ja viestintäministeriössä

    OpenAIRE

    Ilpala, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa työajan kohdentamisen pilotointi liikenne- ja viestintäministeriössä. Ministeriössä otetaan 1.4.2016 käyttöön valtion yhteinen talous- ja henkilöstöhallinnon tietojärjestelmä Kieku, jonka yhtenä osana on työajan kohdentaminen toiminnoille. Ministeriössä ei ole aikaisemmin kohdennettu työaikaa. Pilotoinnin tavoitteena oli harjoitella kohdentamista ja siten valmistaa henkilöstöä uuteen menettelyyn ja käyttöönottoon. Lisäksi tavoitteina ol...

  2. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration - Vadose Zone Monitoring FY10 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Field, Jim G. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Danny L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection has constructed interim surface barriers over a portion of the T and TY tank farms as part of the Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration Project. The interim surface barriers (hereafter referred to as the surface barriers or barriers) are designed to minimize the infiltration of precipitation into the soil zones containing radioactive contaminants and minimize the movement of the contaminants. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barriers at reducing soil moisture. Solar-powered systems were installed to continuously monitor soil water conditions at four locations in the T (i.e., instrument Nests TA, TB, TC, and TD) and the TY (i.e., instrument Nests TYA and TYB) Farms beneath the barriers and outside the barrier footprint as well as site meteorological conditions. Nests TA and TYA are placed in the area outside the barrier footprint and serve as controls, providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barriers. Nest TB provides subsurface measurements to assess surface-barrier edge effects. Nests TC, TD, and TYB are used to assess changes in soil-moisture conditions beneath the interim surface barriers.

  3. The genomic organization of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in Helianthus (Asteraceae) homoploid hybrid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Ungerer, Mark C; Moore, Richard C

    2009-09-01

    The origin of new diploid, or homoploid, hybrid species is associated with rapid genomic restructuring in the hybrid neospecies. This mode of speciation has been best characterized in wild sunflower species in the genus Helianthus, where three homoploid hybrid species (H. anomalus, H. deserticola, and H. paradoxus) have independently arisen via ancient hybridization events between the same two parental species (H. annuus and H. petiolaris). Most previous work examining genomic restructuring in these sunflower hybrid species has focused on chromosomal rearrangements. However, the origin of all three homoploid hybrid sunflower species also is associated with massive proliferation events of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in the hybrid species' genomes. We compared the genomic organization of these elements in the parent species and two of the homoploid hybrid species using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We found a significant expansion of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons confined to the pericentromeric regions of two hybrid sunflower species, H. deserticola and H. paradoxus. In contrast, we detected no significant increase in the frequency or extent of dispersed retrotransposon populations in the hybrid species within the resolution limits of our assay. We discuss the potential role that transposable element proliferation and localization plays in the evolution of homoploid hybrid species.

  4. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  5. linäituse stendid = Outdoor exhibition stands / Gert Sarv, Galina Burnakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Gert, 1971-

    2013-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2012. aasta parima eseme preemia pälvinud välinäituse stendidest Vanasadama Admiraliteedi basseini kaldapealsel. Autorid: Gert Sarv, Galina Burnakova, Loreida Hein. Sisearhitekti ja ESLi aastapreemiate žürii liikme Tea Tammelaane arvamus

  6. An Effective Implementation of K-opt Moves for the Lin-Kernighan TSP Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    Local search with k-change neighborhoods, k-opt, is the most widely used heuristic method for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). This report presents an effective implementation of k-opt for the Lin- Kernighan TSP heuristic. The effectiveness of the implementation is demonstrated with extensive...

  7. Cryptanalysis of Lin et al.'s Efficient Block-Cipher-Based Hash Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Bozhong; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Xiaohong; Qiu, Weidong; Zheng, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Hash functions are widely used in authentication. In this paper, the security of Lin et al.'s efficient block-cipher-based hash function is reviewed. By using Joux's multicollisions and Kelsey et al.'s expandable message techniques, we find the scheme is vulnerable to collision, preimage and second

  8. Combustion of Pure, Hydrolyzed and Methyl Ester Formed of Jatropha Curcas Lin oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhaji Muhaji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The density and viscosity of vegetable oil are higher than that of diesel oil. Thus its direct combustion in the diesel engine results many problems. This research was conducted to investigate the flame characteristics of combustion of jatropha curcas lin in pure, hydrolyzed and methyl ester form. The results indicated that the combustion of pure jatropha curcas lin occurs in three stages, hydrolyzed in two stages    and methyl ester in one stage. For pure jatropha curcas lin, in the first stage, unsaturated fatty acid burned for  0.265 s.  It is followed by saturated fatty acid, burned for 0.389 s in the second stage. And, in the last stage is the burned of glycerol for 0.560 s. Meanwhile for hydrolyzed one, in the first stage, unsaturated fatty acid burned for 0.736 s, followed by saturated fatty acid, burned  for 0.326 s in the second stage. And the last, for methyl ester is the burned for 0.712 s. The highest burning rate was for methyl ester which was 0.003931cc/s. The energy releasing rate of methyl ester, which was for 13,628.67 kcal/(kg.s resembled that of diesel oil the most, while the lowest rate was for pure jatropha curcas lin which was 8,200.94 kcal/(kg.s. In addition, massive explosion occurred in the fuel containing unsaturated fatty acid and glycerol

  9. Single-tube linear DNA amplification (LinDA) for robust ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shankaranarayanan, P.; Mendoza-Parra, M.A.; Walia, M.; Wang, L.; Li, N.; Trindade, L.M.; Gronemeyer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide profiling of transcription factors based on massive parallel sequencing of immunoprecipitated chromatin (ChIP-seq) requires nanogram amounts of DNA. Here we describe a high-fidelity, single-tube linear DNA amplification method (LinDA) for ChIP-seq and reChIP-seq with picogram DNA amounts

  10. The TyG Index as a Marker of Subclinical Atherosclerosis and Arterial Stiffness in Lean and Overweight Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Kazani, Maria Vasiliki; Armeni, Eleni; Georgiopoulos, Georgios; Tampakis, Konstantinos; Rizos, Demetrios; Augoulea, Areti; Kaparos, Georgios; Alexandrou, Andreas; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon

    2017-06-16

    The present study aims to examine the association of the metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as of the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG-Index), a novel marker of insulin resistance, with subclinical atherosclerosis in a cohort of postmenopausal women, stratified according to their body mass index. A total of 473 informed-consenting, non-diabetic postmenopausal women, without overt cardiovascular disease, were included in this study. We aimed to compare the association between structural and functional indices of subclinical atherosclerosis (i.e. carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, pulse wave velocity (PWV)) with the TyG-index or MS, separately for lean and overweight/obese women. The TyG-Index correlated significantly with carotid IMT (r=0.155, p=0.012) and PWV (r=0.157, p=0.013) only in the group of lean women. Multivariate analysis showed that subclinical atherosclerosis was predicted by MS, in the overweight/obese group (OR=2.517, 95% CI: 1.078-5.878, p=0.033), and by the TyG-Index the lean group (OR=3.119, 95% CI: 1.187-8.194, psubclinical atherosclerosis compared to 29.4% in women below the cut-off (p=0.043). The TyG-Index is associated with carotid atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness mainly in lean postmenopausal women, while the MS serves as a better predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis in overweight/obese women. The TyG-Index may prove a useful marker for identifying high-risk women in the normal-weight postmenopausal population. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. BIB2-hanaviinisarjan pesuvälin pidentäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Lavonen, Noora

    2015-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on Altia Oyj:n Rajamäen alkoholijuomatehtaan BIB2-sarjan CIP-pesuvälien pidentäminen. Työn alkaessa pesuväli oli 32 tuntia tai neljä viinisäiliötä. CIP-pesun kesto on noin kolme tuntia, ja pesumäärää vähentämällä on mahdollista saada tuotantoa tehostettua. Tavoitteena oli löytää pesuväli, jolla pesumäärä on riittävä viinin laadun säilyttämiseksi, mutta joka olisi myös tuotannollisesti mahdollisimman tehokas. Työssä selvitettiin, millaiset puhtaustoimet tuotanno...

  12. Expression of exogenous LIN28 contributes to proliferation and survival of mouse primary cortical neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M I H; Lee, J-H; Kim, S Y; Cho, K-O

    2013-09-17

    LIN28, an RNA-binding protein, is known to be involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, such as embryonic stem cell proliferation, cell fate succession, developmental timing, and oncogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect of constitutively expressing exogenous LIN28 on neuronal cell proliferation and viability in vitro. Plasmids containing LIN28-green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP were introduced into the embryonic mouse brains at E14.5 by in utero electroporation. Two days after electroporation, embryonic cortices were harvested and cultured. It was found that transfected cells stably overexpressed LIN28 in vitro. Viability curve from live cell imaging showed that the number of GFP-expressing cells decreased over time in line with naive primary cortical neurons. In contrast, the number of LIN28-GFP-overexpressing neurons initially increased and remained high at later time-points in culture than GFP-expressing cells. Double immunofluorescence showed that at an early time in culture, the number of Ki-67/GFP double-positive cells was higher in the LIN28-GFP group than that of controls. Moreover, there were significantly lower numbers of condensed nuclei/GFP- and cleaved caspase-3/GFP-positive cells in the LIN28-GFP groups compared to control GFP. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the LIN28-GFP-expressing cells at days in vitro (DIV)13 were neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive mature neurons. Finally, the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) was induced in LIN28-expressing primary cortical neurons, which was not detected in controls. Taken together, our results indicate that the expression of exogenous LIN28 can promote the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and exert prosurvival effect on primary cortical neurons by inhibiting caspase-dependent apoptosis, possibly via upregulation of IGF-2. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ”Se työporukka – et kun siinä on aikamoinen imu”: Sitouttamalla kohti parempaa johtamista

    OpenAIRE

    Heininen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksen lähtökohtana on ymmärtää mitä henkilöstön sitouttaminen on ja miten organisaatiot voivat siihen vaikuttaa. Tutkimuksen pääasiallisena tarkoituksena on löytää palvelualalla toimiville yrittäjille mahdollisimman käytännönläheisiä ohjeita ja työkaluja henkilöstön sitouttamiseen ja selvittää millaiseen sitouttamispakettiin organisaatioiden kannattaisi satsata, jotta ne koettaisiin mahdollisimman houkuttelevaksi työmarkkinoilla. Teoriaosiossa syvennytään myös pohtimaan millaisia...

  14. Ideologiasta kohti ideaalia : identiteetin ja maailmankäsityksen vaikutus teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaajan työssä

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, Sanniveera

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan ja reflektoidaan miten oma identiteetti ja henkilökohtainen maailmankäsitys vaikuttavat teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaajan työssä. Opinnäytetyössä esitellään autoetnografisen tutkimuksen kautta kirjoittajan subjektiivinen ja henkilökohtainen maailmankäsitys sekä identiteetin ilmentyminen suhteessa taiteelliseen työskentelyyn. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan identiteetin rakentumista ja eri osia postmodernin identiteettikäsityksen kautta. Käytännön esimerkkinä ja ensisijaise...

  15. Katso minut kauniiksi : voimauttava valokuva toimintaterapeutin työvälineenä nuorten tyttöjen kanssa

    OpenAIRE

    Gaily, Shadia; Valtanen, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä kuvaamme voimauttavan valokuvan menetelmän soveltuvuutta toimintaterapeutin työvälineeksi nuorten tyttöjen kanssa. Opinnäytetyön aineistona on ollut Helsingin Tyttöjen Talolla toteuttamamme voimauttava valokuvausprosessi. Prosessiin osallistui kaksi Tyttöjen Talolla käyvää 14-vuotiasta tyttöä, ja työskentelyämme ohjasi toimintaterapeutti Henna Lehtinen. Voimauttava valokuvausprosessi suunniteltiin vastaamaan nuorten tarpeita käyttämällä Piercen (2003) toiminnan anal...

  16. LoRa IoT -radion soveltuvuus käytettyjen työkoneiden tiedonsiirtoon

    OpenAIRE

    Hasu, Lassi

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia LoRa-radiotekniikan soveltuvuutta lastinkäsittelylaitteiden tuottaman datan tiedonsiirtoon. LoRa on teollisen internetin sovelluksia varten kehitetty pitkän kantaman radiotekniikka. Tavoitteena oli löytää käyttötapauksia, joihin LoRa-tekniikka soveltuu etsittäessä kustannustehokasta radiotekniikkaa erityisesti käytettyihin lastinkäsittelylaitteisiin. Työn toimeksiantaja oli Cargotec Finland Oy:n Kalmar-liiketoimintayksikkö. Työn tutkimusmenetelmänä käyte...

  17. Esimiestyön vaikutukset työntekijöiden motivaatioon, vuorovaikutukseen ja sitoutumiseen, case: hotellin vastaanotto

    OpenAIRE

    Sipponen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten esimiestyö vaikuttaa työntekijöiden vuorovaikutukseen, sitoutumiseen ja motivaatioon hotellin vastaanoton työntekijöiden keskuudessa. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin selvittämään myös, onko esimiestyössä alaisten mielestä puutteita ja ongelmakohtia. Esimiestyön vaikutuksia tutkittiin syväjohtamisen peruspilarien: luottamuksen rakentamisen, inspiroivan tavan motivoida, älyllisen stimuloinnin ja yksilöllisen kohtaamisen kautta. Teoriaosuudessa käsit...

  18. Aire promotes the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells through Lin28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Gu; Jiarong, Zhang; Shihao, Wang; Xiuli, Song; Cheng, Xu; Liangbiao, Chen; Ming, Zhang

    2012-10-10

    Abstract Autoimmune regulator (Aire) is one of the most well-characterized molecules in autoimmunity, but its function outside the immune system is largely unknown. The recent discovery of Aire expression in stem cells and early embryonic cells and its function in the self-renewal of embryonic stem (ES) cells highlight the importance of Aire in these cells. In this study, we present evidence that Aire promotes the expression of the pluripotent factor Lin28 and the self-renewal of ES cells. We presented the first evidence that the let-7 microRNA family contributed to the self-renewal promoting effect of Aire on ES cells. Moreover, we showed that Aire and Lin28 are co-expressed in the genital ridge, oocytes, and cleavage-stage embryos, and the expression level of Lin28 is correlated with the expression level of Aire. Although it is widely considered to be a promiscuous gene expression activator, these results indicated that Aire promotes the self-renewal of ES cells through a specific pathway (i.e., the activation of Lin28 and the inhibition of the let-7 microRNA family). The correlation between Aire and Lin28 expression in germ cells and early embryos indicated an in vivo function for Aire in toti- and pluripotent stem cells. This study presents the first molecular pathway that incorporates Aire into the pluripotency network. Moreover, it presents the first evidence that microRNAs contribute to the regulatory function of Aire and highlights a novel function of Aire in stem cell biology and reproduction. These functions reveal novel perspectives for studying the molecular mechanisms behind the establishment and sustenance of pluripotent identity.

  19. LIN28B overexpression defines a novel fetal-like subgroup of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsmoortel, Hetty H; Bresolin, Silvia; Lammens, Tim; Cavé, Hélène; Noellke, Peter; Caye, Aurélie; Ghazavi, Farzaneh; de Vries, Andrica; Hasle, Henrik; Labarque, Veerle; Masetti, Riccardo; Stary, Jan; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Philippé, Jan; Van Roy, Nadine; Benoit, Yves; Speleman, Frank; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Flotho, Christian; Basso, Giuseppe; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; De Moerloose, Barbara

    2016-03-03

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare and aggressive stem cell disease of early childhood. RAS activation constitutes the core component of oncogenic signaling. In addition, leukemic blasts in one-fourth of JMML patients present with monosomy 7, and more than half of patients show elevated age-adjusted fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the current standard of care and results in an event-free survival rate of 50% to 60%, indicating that novel molecular-driven therapeutic options are urgently needed. Using gene expression profiling in a series of 82 patient samples, we aimed at understanding the molecular biology behind JMML and identified a previously unrecognized molecular subgroup characterized by high LIN28B expression. LIN28B overexpression was significantly correlated with higher HbF levels, whereas patients with monosomy 7 seldom showed enhanced LIN28B expression. This finding gives a biological explanation of why patients with monosomy 7 are rarely diagnosed with high age-adjusted HbF levels. In addition, this new fetal-like JMML subgroup presented with reduced levels of most members of the let-7 microRNA family and showed characteristic overexpression of genes involved in fetal hematopoiesis and stem cell self-renewal. Lastly, high LIN28B expression was associated with poor clinical outcome in our JMML patient series but was not independent from other prognostic factors such as age and age-adjusted HbF levels. In conclusion, we identified elevated LIN28B expression as a hallmark of a novel fetal-like subgroup in JMML. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Original Sokos Hotel Ilveksen vastaanoton työhyvinvoinnin kartoitus : Toimintaterapeuttisesta ennaltaehkäisevästä näkökulmasta

    OpenAIRE

    Schubin, Heli

    2015-01-01

    Valveillaoloajasta keskimäärin noin puolet vietetään työssä: työn merkitys elämän laatuun on kiistaton. Se, miten ihminen voi töissä, heijastuu laajemmin hyvinvointiin elämässä. Työhy-vinvointi on käsitteenä moniulotteinen ilmiö, joka merkitsee eri asioita eri ihmisille. Erilaisissa työyhteisöissä löytyy ainutkertaisia voimavaroja ja tarpeita kehittää juuri tiettyjä vahvuuksia: jokaisen työyhteisön jäsenen näkemys ja osallistuminen on tärkeää voimavaralähtöisessä hyvinvoinnin kehittämisessä. ...

  1. Stable expression of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 O-antigen genes integrated into the chromosome of live Salmonella oral vaccine vector Ty21a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasena, Madushini N; Osorio, Manuel; Filipova, Svetlana; Marsh, Christina; Stibitz, Scott; Kopecko, Dennis J

    2016-09-20

    Typhoid fever and shigellosis cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet no anti-Shigella vaccine is currently available. However, to protect against typhoid fever, an approved vaccine, based on the attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a is available. We have investigated Ty21a as a live oral vaccine vector for expression of heterologous foreign antigens to protect against other diseases (e.g. shigellosis, anthrax, and plague). Shigella LPS is a potent vaccine antigen for serotype-specific protection against Shigellae. We previously reported the construction of a Ty21a derivative expressing S. sonnei O-antigen by insertion of a large (∼12.5 kb) operon comprising the S. sonnei O-antigen biosynthetic genes into a targeted site within the Ty21a chromosome using modified λ red recombineering methods. In the current study, S. dysenteriae 1 O-antigen biosynthetic genes from 2 separate genetic loci, rfp and rfb were assembled and inserted into the Ty21a chromosome by λ red-mediated recombineering to construct strain Ty21a-Sd. To obtain a high level of heterologous LPS expression, the native upstream promoter was replaced with the constitutive lpp promoter, which resulted in Ty21a-Sdl with enhanced heterologous LPS expression. Both Ty21a-Sd and Ty21a-Sdl elicited significant serum antibody responses in mice against both Ty21a and this heterologous Shigella LPS, and conferred protection against virulent S. dysenteriae 1 challenge. This work represents progress toward the goal of a safe and effective vaccine against Shigella. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Biodegradation of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane by transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata that accumulate recombinant bacterial LinA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Namiki, Sayuri; Oshima, Masao; Moriuchi, Ryota; Konagaya, Ken-Ichi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Otani, Takashi; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka; Tabei, Yutaka

    2016-09-01

    γ-HCH was successfully degraded using LinA-expressed transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata . Fusing an endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal peptide to LinA was essential for stable accumulation in the hairy roots. The pesticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that raises public health and environmental pollution concerns worldwide. Although several isolates of γ-HCH-degrading bacteria are available, inoculating them directly into γ-HCH-contaminated soil is ineffective because of the bacterial survival rate. Cucurbita species incorporate significant amounts of POPs from soils compared with other plant species. Here, we describe a novel bioremediation strategy that combines the bacterial degradation of γ-HCH and the efficient uptake of γ-HCH by Cucurbita species. We produced transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata that expressed recombinant bacterial linA, isolated from the bacterium Sphingobium japonicum UT26. The LinA protein was accumulated stably in the hairy root cultures by fusing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting signal peptide to LinA. Then, we demonstrated that the cultures degraded more than 90 % of γ-HCH (1 ppm) overnight and produced the γ-HCH metabolite 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, indicating that LinA degraded γ-HCH. These results indicate that the gene linA has high potential for phytoremediation of environmental γ-HCH.

  3. The let-7/Lin28 axis regulates activation of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Kelly; Huang, Li; Sato, Keisaku; Wu, Nan; Annable, Tami; Zhou, Tianhao; Ramos-Lorenzo, Sugeily; Wan, Ying; Huang, Qiaobing; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Alpini, Gianfranco; Meng, Fanyin

    2017-07-07

    The let-7/Lin28 axis is associated with the regulation of key cellular regulatory genes known as microRNAs in various human disorders and cancer development. This study evaluated the role of the let-7/Lin28 axis in regulating a mesenchymal phenotype of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury. We identified that ethanol feeding significantly down-regulated several members of the let-7 family in mouse liver, including let-7a and let-7b. Similarly, the treatment of human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) significantly decreased the expressions of let-7a and let-7b. Conversely, overexpression of let-7a and let-7b suppressed the myofibroblastic activation of cultured human HSCs induced by LPS and TGF-β, as evidenced by repressed ACTA2 (α-actin 2), COL1A1 (collagen 1A1), TIMP1 (TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1), and FN1 (fibronectin 1); this supports the notion that HSC activation is controlled by let-7. A combination of bioinformatics, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot analysis revealed that Lin28B and high-mobility group AT-hook (HMGA2) were the direct targets of let-7a and let-7b. Furthermore, Lin28B deficiency increased the expression of let-7a/let-7b as well as reduced HSC activation and liver fibrosis in mice with alcoholic liver injury. This feedback regulation of let-7 by Lin28B is verified in hepatic stellate cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from the model. The identification of the let-7/Lin28 axis as an important regulator of HSC activation as well as its upstream modulators and down-stream targets will provide insights into the involvement of altered microRNA expression in contributing to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver fibrosis and novel therapeutic approaches for human alcoholic liver diseases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Intron-specific patterns of divergence of lin-11 regulatory function in the C. elegans nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Siavash; Gupta, Bhagwati P

    2017-04-01

    The diversity of neurons in the nervous system is specified by many genes, including those that encode transcription factors (TFs) and play crucial roles in coordinating gene transcription. To understand how the spatiotemporal expression of TF genes is regulated to generate neuronal diversity, we used one member of the LIM-Hox family, lin-11, as a model that is necessary for the differentiation of amphid neurons in the nematode C. elegans and a related species C. briggsae. We characterized transcriptional regulation of lin-11 and uncovered regulatory roles of two of the largest introns, intron 3 and intron 7. These introns promote lin-11 expression in non-overlapping sets of neurons. Phenotypic rescue experiments in C. elegans revealed that intron 3 is capable of restoring lin-11 function based on gene expression patterns and behavioral assays. Interestingly, intron 3-driven reporter expression showed differences in neuronal cell types between C. briggsae and C. elegans, indicating evolutionary changes in lin-11 regulation between the two species. Reciprocal transformation experiments provided further evidence consistent with functional changes in both cis and trans regulation of lin-11. To further investigate transcriptional regulation of lin-11, we dissected the intronic regions in C. elegans and identified cell-specific enhancers. These enhancers possess multiple sequence blocks that are conserved among Caenorhabditis species and possess TF binding sites. We tested the role of a subset of predicted TFs and discovered that while three of them (SKN-1, CEH-6, and CRH-1) act via the intron 3 enhancer to negatively regulate lin-11 expression in neurons, another TF (CES-1) acts positively via the intron 7 enhancer. Overall, our findings demonstrate that neuronal expression of lin-11 involves multiple TF regulators and regulatory modules some of which have diverged in Caenorhabditis nematodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Jatkuva parantaminen Lean-ajattelun työkaluna : case: Nordea Pankki Suomi Oyj, Osasto X

    OpenAIRE

    Knuuttila, Ville

    2011-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee jatkuvaa parantamista Lean-ajattelun työkaluna. Tutkimuksessa kuvataan jatkuvan parantamisen vaikutusta kestävän Lean-ajattelun ylläpitäjänä Case-yrityksen osastolla X. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, kuinka yritys ylläpitää ja kehittää Lean-toimintaa sekä päivittäistä toimintaa jatkuvan parantamisen avulla. Lisäksi tutkimuksessa selvitetään, olisiko tasapainotetulla mittaristolla mahdollista priorisoida tehtyjen Lean-projektien tuomia hyötyjä tehokkaammin j...

  6. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  7. Fragmented Encounters, Social Slippages: Lin Huiyin's "In Ninety-Nine Degree Heat"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Prado-Fonts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reads Lin Huiyin’s short story “In Ninety-Nine Degree Heat” (1934 in relation to the context of 1930s China, as an innovative literary work which combines elements from both the Chinese and the Western traditions, and as a text which informs readers not only of the problematic of class and gender issues in 1930s Chinese society but also of the context of the liuxuesheng who returns to China –like Lin Huiyin herself. Focusing on questions like otherness, representation, and encounters, the essay analyzes how the episodic narrative structure of Lin’s short story echoes social and representational discourses in post-May Fourth China, at the same time that it explores issues such as social inequality, otherness and alienation, which were crucial to the liuxuesheng, and which reflect Lin’s own experience as a returned and alienated liuxuesheng at the time.

  8. Manipulation quantique de la lumière par un amplificateur non linéaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symul, T.; Bencheikh, K.; Levenson, J. A.

    2002-06-01

    Nous proposons un dispositif original, appelé Amplificateur Non Linéaire (ANL), permettant la génération et la manipulation d'états quantiques de la lumière. Ce dispositif permet une compression du bruit quantique de la lumière en dessous de la limite quantique standard plus efficace que celle obtenue par interactions non linéaires du second ordre ou du troisième ordre. Il permet également d'inverser les fluctuations quantiques en intensité de la lumière, et de produire des photons jumeaux ayant des corrélations quantiques plus élevées et plus robustes que ceux produits par un amplificateur paramétrique seul.

  9. GENII-LIN: a Multipurpose Health Physics Code Built on GENII-1.485

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sumini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the GENII-LIN project was to develop an open source multipurpose health physics code running on Linux platform, for calculating radiation dose and risk from radionuclides released to the environment. The general features of the GENII-LIN system include [1] capabilities for calculating radiation dose both for acute and chronic releases, with options for annual dose, committed dose and accumulated dose [2] capabilities for evaluating exposure pathways including direct exposure via water (swimming, boating, fishing, soil (buried and surface sources and air (semi-infinite cloud and finite cloud model, inhalation pathways and ingestion pathways. The release scenarios considered are: - acute release to air, from ground level or elevated sources, or to water; - chronic release to air, from ground level or elevated sources, or to water; - initial contamination of soil or surfaces. Keywords: radiation protection, Linux, health physics, risk analysis.

  10. Page 1 330 T C Lin and Jia Zhenxue present method is much ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    one obtains the transonic flow field solution for the circular arc throat region. For some common ratios of specific heats, e.g. for y = 1. 1, 1667, 1.2 etc., the throat flow field solution can be expressed by simple analytical equations (Jiazhen Hue and Lin. Tong Ji). For instance when y = 14, the resulting formulae are il(£, m) = ka ...

  11. Cobordism Obstructions to Vector Fields and a Generalization of Lin's Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie

    Atiyah and Dupont have studied the existence of linearly independent vector fields on manifolds by means of K-theory. They obtained the complete conditions for up to three independent vector fields. In the thesis, we try to copy their approach using certain spectra related to cobordism theory. We...... that it generalizes Lin's inverse system in compact cases, while it behaves completely differently in the universal case....

  12. Dynamiques complexes et morphogenèse Introduction aux sciences non linéaires

    CERN Document Server

    Misbah, Chaouqi

    2011-01-01

    Les sciences non linéaires ont pour objet l’ensemble des phénomènes dont l’analyse résiste au principe de superposition. Elles concernent en grande partie les systèmes dits « complexes » dont l’interaction et l’interdépendance entre les parties empêchent de prédire précisément l’évolution du système. Pour expliquer ces phénomènes, deux approches complémentaires ont été proposées : la théorie des bifurcations et la théorie des catastrophes. Mais la pleine compréhension et la modélisation de la non-linéarité restent chacune un défi pour les scientifiques du XXIe siècle. C’est dans la perspective d’accompagner tous ceux qui voudront le relever que ce livre a été conçu. Son objectif est d’exposer au lecteur le langage et le formalisme nécessaires à l’étude de la non-linéarité. Partant d’exemples simples, pour ensuite atteindre un niveau d’abstraction visant l’universalité, l’auteur explore les divers scénarios possibles de bifurcations et les catastr...

  13. XSHOOTER spectroscopy of the enigmatic PN Lin49 in the SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Kemper, Francisca; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L.; Aleman, Isabel; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Cami, Jan; Ochsendorf, Bram B.; Peeters, Els; Scicluna, Peter

    2017-10-01

    We performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the fullerene C60-containing planetary nebula (PN) Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Lin49 is a C-rich and metal-deficient PN (Z~0.0006) and its nebular abundances are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.25 M ⊙ stars with the metallicity Z = 0.001. By stellar absorption fitting with TLUSTY, we derived stellar abundances, effective temperature, and surface gravity. We constructed the photoionization model with CLOUDY in order to investigate physical conditions of Lin49. The model with the 0.005-0.1 μm radius graphite and a constant hydrogen density shell could not fit the ~1-5 μm spectral energy distribution (SED) owing to the strong near-IR excess. We propose that the near-IR excess indicates (1) the presence of extremely small carbon molecules or (2) the presence of high-density structure surrounding the central star.

  14. Lin28 mediates radiation resistance of breast cancer cells via regulation of caspase, H2A.X and Let-7 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linbo Wang

    Full Text Available Resistance to radiation therapy is a major obstacle for the effective treatment of cancers. Lin28 has been shown to contribute to breast tumorigenesis; however, the relationship between Lin28 and radioresistance remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the association of Lin28 with radiation resistance and identified the underlying mechanisms of action of Lin28 in human breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that the expression level of Lin28 was closely associated with resistance to radiation treatment. The T47D cancer cell line, which highly expresses Lin28, is more resistant to radiation than MCF7, Bcap-37 or SK-BR-3 cancer cell lines, which have low-level Lin28 expression. Transfection with Lin28 siRNA significantly led to an increase of sensitivity to radiation. By contrast, stable expression of Lin28 in breast cancer cells effectively attenuated the sensitivity to radiation treatment. Stable expression of Lin28 also significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis. Moreover, further studies have shown that caspases, H2A.X and Let-7 miRNA were the molecular targets of Lin28. Stable expression of Lin28 and treatment with radiation induced H2AX expression, while inhibited p21 and γ-H2A.X. Overexpression of Let-7 enhanced the sensitivities to radiation in breast cancer cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Lin28 might be one mechanism underlying radiation resistance, and Lin28 could be a potential target for overcoming radiation resistance in breast cancer.

  15. ”Teot ratkaisee, ei puheet.” : työntekijöiden kokemuksia Perheen yhdistetyn hoidon Pyyn yhteisöhoidosta.

    OpenAIRE

    Matvejeff, Emmi

    2015-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Matvejeff, Emmi. ”Teot ratkaisee, ei puheet.” Työntekijöiden kokemuksia Perheen yhdistetyn hoidon Pyyn yhteisöhoidosta. Helsinki, kevät 2015, 43 s., 3 liitettä. Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulu. Sosiaalialan koulutusohjelma, sosionomi (AMK). Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kuvata ja selittää Helsingin Diakonissalaitoksen Perheen yhdistetyn hoidon Pyyn yhteisöhoidollisessa yksikössä tällä hetkellä vallitsevia työntekijöiden kokemuksia työstään. Erityisesti haettiin vastausta ...

  16. Ammattiopiston opiskelija liikuntaosaaminen terveystapahtumissa : NOPS 2010-2012 –hanke, Nuoren työ- ja toimintakyvyn edistäminen ammattiopistoissa

    OpenAIRE

    Shabani, Golnaz

    2012-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on osa NOPS 2010–2012 –hanketta, jonka tarkoituksena on luoda nuoren työ- ja toimintakykyä edistävä toimintamalli, jossa ammattikorkeakoulun opiskelijat yhdistetään osaksi ammattiopistojen terveyttä edistävää työtä. Hankkeessa kehitetään myös sellaisia terveyden edistämisen menetelmiä, jotka sopivat ammattiopistossa opiskelevien nuorten työ- ja toimintakyvyn edistämiseen. Hankkeen päätoteuttaja on Laurea ammattikorkeakoulu. Hankkeen yhteistyökumppaneita ovat HYRIA koulutus O...

  17. Ulkoisen työnantajakuvan kehittäminen Avecra Oy:lle hotelli- ja ravintola-alan oppilaitosten näkökulmasta

    OpenAIRE

    Suhonen, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksellisen opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli tutkia Avecra Oy:n ulkoisen työnantajakuvan nykytilaa sekä löytää mahdollisia kehityskohteita ulkoisen työnantajakuvan parantamiseksi. Näkökulmana opinnäytetyössä oli toisen ja kolmannen asteen hotelli- ja ravintola-alan oppilaitokset pääkaupunkiseudulla, joiden opiskelijat ovat Avecra Oy:n potentiaalisia työnhakijoita ja -tekijöitä. Oppilaitosten opettajat toimivat ohjaajina opiskelijoiden ja yritysten välillä, joten parantamalla yhteistyö...

  18. Novel localisation and possible function of LIN7 and IRSp53 in mitochondria of HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Ilaria; Crespi, Arianna; Fornasari, Diego; Pietrini, Grazia

    2016-08-01

    By means of immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation experiments, we here demonstrate mitochondrial distribution of LIN7 and IRSp53 in HeLa cells. These peripheral proteins displayed a tight association with mitochondria and coimmunoprecipitated from mitochondrial fractions. In line with a role for LIN7 in the regulation of IRSp53 activity on actin dynamics, the morphology of mitochondria was similarly altered by changing the expression levels of either each protein or both, whereas mitochondrial morphology was preserved in cells overexpressing IRSp53 deleted of its binding domains for LIN7 (IRSp53Δ5) or for actin polymerisation modulators (IRSp53ΔSH3). In particular, the overexpression of full length LIN7 and/or IRSp53 increased the percentage of cells with short mitochondria, while downregulation of the endogenous proteins by shRNAs increased the amount of cells with elongated and perinuclear clustered mitochondria. These mitochondria were only partially resistant to fragmentation induced by dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (i.e. treatment with sodium azide), whereas mitochondria were fully protected by the fission defective mutant Drp1 K38A. Overexpression of LIN7 or IRSp53 did not prevent the formation of hyperfused mitochondria in cells coexpressing the Drp1 K38A mutant, thus suggesting that LIN7-IRSp53 complex requires functional Drp1 to regulate mitochondrial morphology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. LIN Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data is captured and helps to coordinate technical and scientific testing in the area of Trade Enforcement, WMD, Intellectual Property Rights, and Narcotics...

  20. Ohje yhtenäiseen työpukeutumiseen : Case Kansanlääkintäkeskus

    OpenAIRE

    Siekkinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    Ensivaikutelman luomiseen kuluu noin 40 sekuntia, ja tässä ajassa ei monta sanaa ehdi sanoa. Tästä johtuen oma ulkoinen olemus ja pukeutuminen ovat tärkeitä ensivaikutelman luomisessa. Lifestyle ja pukeutumiseen liittyvien blogien suosio kasvavat koko ajan, ja niitä seurataan säännöllisesti. Yhä enemmän kiinnitetään huomiota siihen, mitä vastaantulijalla on yllään. Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli löytää Kansanlääkintäkeskuksen henkilökunnalle yhteinen työpukeutumiskoodi, mikä yhdistäisi työntek...

  1. Kehitysvammaisten asumisyksikön asukkaiden läheisten ja asumisyksikön työntekijöiden välinen vuorovaikutus

    OpenAIRE

    Myllymäki, Heli

    2012-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää kehitysvammaisten asumisyksikössä työskentelevien ja asumisyksikön asukkaiden läheisten välistä vuorovaikutusta ja sen vaikutusta kehitysvammaisen elämään. Työssä tutkittiin, millaiseksi tämän hetkinen yhteistyö koetaan ja mitä on toimiva vuorovaikutus läheisten ja työntekijöiden välillä. Tavoitteena oli löytää vastauksia siihen vaikuttavatko läheisten ja työntekijöiden suhteet asumisyksikössä asuvan kehitysvammaisen elämään. Tutkimusaineisto on kerätt...

  2. CNG (Compressed natural gas) engine M366 G for electric power generation; Motor M 366 G movido a gas metano veicular versao industrial: aplicacao grupo gerador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraro, Wilson; Shiraiwa, Nilton Mitsuro [DaimlerChrysler do Brasil Ltda., Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Mantovani, Wladimir Tadeu [Woodward Governor Company, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Daimler-Chrysler of Brazil developed the M 366 G engine, in the industrial version, using compressed natural gas. This product has the combustion with lambda 1.0, it is a 6-cylinder engine in line with displacement compressor of 5.958 cm{sup 3} , power of 65 kW @ 1800 min{sup 1} (60Hz) and power of 55 kW @ 1500 min{sup 1} (50Hz). The equipment for rotation control, ignition, reducing gas and stabilizer were specially developed for industrial motors with CNG supply for the Fca Woodward. This paper presents the results of tests made on bank of evidence and test field, which showed the good performance of the product. (author)

  3. TyPol - a new methodology for organic compounds clustering based on their molecular characteristics and environmental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servien, Rémi; Mamy, Laure; Li, Ziang; Rossard, Virginie; Latrille, Eric; Bessac, Fabienne; Patureau, Dominique; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    Following legislation, the assessment of the environmental risks of 30000-100000 chemical substances is required for their registration dossiers. However, their behavior in the environment and their transfer to environmental components such as water or atmosphere are studied for only a very small proportion of the chemical in laboratory tests or monitoring studies because it is time-consuming and/or cost prohibitive. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop a new methodology, TyPol, to classify organic compounds, and their degradation products, according to both their behavior in the environment and their molecular properties. The strategy relies on partial least squares analysis and hierarchical clustering. The calculation of molecular descriptors is based on an in silico approach, and the environmental endpoints (i.e. environmental parameters) are extracted from several available databases and literature. The classification of 215 organic compounds inputted in TyPol for this proof-of-concept study showed that the combination of some specific molecular descriptors could be related to a particular behavior in the environment. TyPol also provided an analysis of similarities (or dissimilarities) between organic compounds and their degradation products. Among the 24 degradation products that were inputted, 58% were found in the same cluster as their parents. The robustness of the method was tested and shown to be good. TyPol could help to predict the environmental behavior of a "new" compound (parent compound or degradation product) from its affiliation to one cluster, but also to select representative substances from a large data set in order to answer some specific questions regarding their behavior in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trzyetapowa korekcja deformacji tyłostopia u chorej na reumatoidalne zapalenie stawów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Słowińska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono trzyetapowe leczenie operacyjne deformacjityłostopia u chorej na reumatoidalne zapalenie stawów (RZSw Klinice Reumoortopedii Instytutu Reumatologii w Warszawie.Z powodu znacznie zaawansowanych zmian destrukcyjnych wszystkichstawów na obu poziomach stawu skokowego konieczne byłowykonanie operacji przygotowującej do zaplanowanej endoprotezoplastykistawu skokowo-goleniowego. Wykonano potrójnąartrodezę tyłostopia, następnie reoperację usztywnienia z powodunadmiernej pierwotnej korekcji i ostatecznie aloplastykę stawuskokowego. Na rycinach 1–6 przedstawiono wyjściowy obraz zmiandestrukcyjnych stawów stopy pacjentki, kolejne etapy leczeniaoperacyjnego oraz zaistniałe powikłania. Pomimo powikłań dwóchpierwszych zabiegów chirurgicznych końcowy efekt był zadowa -lający. Obecnie pacjentka chodzi bez bólu w operowanej stopiei stawie skokowym, może nosić zwyczajne obuwie i jest zado wo -lona z wyglądu operowanej stopy.

  5. TROMB, a new retrotransposon of the gypsy-Ty3 group from the fly Megaselia scalaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suck, G; Traut, W

    2000-09-05

    We describe TROMB, a new LTR retrotransposon, from the phorid fly Megaselia scalaris. Three full-length copies (4226, 4160 and 4129bp) and a truncated one (319bp) have been isolated. The target site consensus is TATAT, with a 4bp target site duplication TATA. The LTRs are short (142bp) and contain a TATA-box and a polyadenylation signal. The isolated copies are degenerate to different degrees and presumably inactive. The polyprotein coding sequence contains scattered stop codons and deletions/insertions at non-homologous positions. The consensus sequence among the three full-length copies, however, has an uninterrupted open reading frame and, presumably, represents the original sequence of the active element. Southern hybridization experiments showed TROMB to be present at a low copy number in two wild-type strains of M. scalaris and absent in a related species, M. abdita. The order of domains in the polyprotein coding region, the target site specificity for AT-rich sequences, and the protein sequence similarity to blastopia, mdg3 and micropia place TROMB in the gypsy-Ty3 group of LTR retrotransposons.

  6. Tyl6, a novel Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposon in the genome of the dimorphic fungus Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Senam, Senam; Mauersberger, Stephan; Barth, Gerold

    2005-09-01

    The novel LTR retrotransposon Tyl6 was detected in the genome of the dimorphic fungus Yarrowia lipolytica. Sequence analysis revealed that this element is related to the well-known Ty3 element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and, especially, to the recently described Tse3 retrotransposon of Saccharomyces exiguus and to the del1-like plant retrotransposons. Tyl6 is 5108 bp long, is flanked by two identical long terminal repeats (LTR), each of 276 bp, and its ORFs are separated by a -1 frameshift. Both ORFs are intact and deduced translation products display a significant similarity with those of previously described Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons. Distribution of Tyl6 among Y. lipolytica strains of different origins was also analysed. A single copy of the novel retrotransposon is present in some commonly used laboratory strains, which are derivatives of the wild-type isolate YB423-12, whereas other strains of independent origin are devoid of Ty16. No solo LTR of Tyl6 was detected in the analysed strains. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-103: Results from samples collected on 4/11/95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H. [and others

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-103 (referred to as Tank TY-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H{sub 2}O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 16 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixteen tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 95% of the total organic components in Tank TY-103. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), were also detected.

  8. The Caenorhabditis elegans synthetic multivulva genes prevent ras pathway activation by tightly repressing global ectopic expression of lin-3 EGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Adam M; Kim, Dong Hyun; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Horvitz, H Robert

    2011-12-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans class A and B synthetic multivulva (synMuv) genes redundantly antagonize an EGF/Ras pathway to prevent ectopic vulval induction. We identify a class A synMuv mutation in the promoter of the lin-3 EGF gene, establishing that lin-3 is the key biological target of the class A synMuv genes in vulval development and that the repressive activities of the class A and B synMuv pathways are integrated at the level of lin-3 expression. Using FISH with single mRNA molecule resolution, we find that lin-3 EGF expression is tightly restricted to only a few tissues in wild-type animals, including the germline. In synMuv double mutants, lin-3 EGF is ectopically expressed at low levels throughout the animal. Our findings reveal that the widespread ectopic expression of a growth factor mRNA at concentrations much lower than that in the normal domain of expression can abnormally activate the Ras pathway and alter cell fates. These results suggest hypotheses for the mechanistic basis of the functional redundancy between the tumor-suppressor-like class A and B synMuv genes: the class A synMuv genes either directly or indirectly specifically repress ectopic lin-3 expression; while the class B synMuv genes might function similarly, but alternatively might act to repress lin-3 as a consequence of their role in preventing cells from adopting a germline-like fate. Analogous genes in mammals might function as tumor suppressors by preventing broad ectopic expression of EGF-like ligands.

  9. LIN7A depletion disrupts cerebral cortex development, contributing to intellectual disability in 12q21-deletion syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Interstitial deletion of 12q21 has been reported in four cases, which share several common clinical features, including intellectual disability (ID, low-set ears, and minor cardiac abnormalities. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 180K array was performed with the genomic DNA from a two-year-old Japanese boy with these symptoms, as well as hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Consequently, a 14 Mb deletion at 12q21.2-q21.33 (nt. 77 203 574-91 264 613 bp, which includes 72 genes, was detected. Of these, we focused on LIN7A, which encodes a scaffold protein that is important for synaptic function, as a possible responsible gene for ID, and we analyzed its role in cerebral cortex development. Western blotting analyses revealed that Lin-7A is expressed on embryonic day (E 13.5, and gradually increases in the mouse brain during the embryonic stage. Biochemical fractionation resulted in the enrichment of Lin-7A in the presynaptic fraction. Suppression of Lin-7A expression by RNAi, using in utero electroporation on E14.5, delayed neuronal migration on postnatal day (P 2, and Lin-7A-deficient neurons remained in the lower zone of the cortical plate and the intermediate zone. In addition, when Lin-7A was silenced in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, axonal growth in the contralateral hemisphere was delayed; development of these neurons was disrupted such that one half did not extend into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Taken together, LIN7A is a candidate gene responsible for 12q21-deletion syndrome, and abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon development may contribute to ID and corpus callosum hypoplasia, respectively.

  10. LIN7A depletion disrupts cerebral cortex development, contributing to intellectual disability in 12q21-deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ayumi; Mizuno, Makoto; Hamada, Nanako; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Jimbo, Eriko F; Momoi, Mariko Y; Nagata, Koh-ichi; Yamagata, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial deletion of 12q21 has been reported in four cases, which share several common clinical features, including intellectual disability (ID), low-set ears, and minor cardiac abnormalities. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 180K array was performed with the genomic DNA from a two-year-old Japanese boy with these symptoms, as well as hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Consequently, a 14 Mb deletion at 12q21.2-q21.33 (nt. 77 203 574-91 264 613 bp), which includes 72 genes, was detected. Of these, we focused on LIN7A, which encodes a scaffold protein that is important for synaptic function, as a possible responsible gene for ID, and we analyzed its role in cerebral cortex development. Western blotting analyses revealed that Lin-7A is expressed on embryonic day (E) 13.5, and gradually increases in the mouse brain during the embryonic stage. Biochemical fractionation resulted in the enrichment of Lin-7A in the presynaptic fraction. Suppression of Lin-7A expression by RNAi, using in utero electroporation on E14.5, delayed neuronal migration on postnatal day (P) 2, and Lin-7A-deficient neurons remained in the lower zone of the cortical plate and the intermediate zone. In addition, when Lin-7A was silenced in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, axonal growth in the contralateral hemisphere was delayed; development of these neurons was disrupted such that one half did not extend into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Taken together, LIN7A is a candidate gene responsible for 12q21-deletion syndrome, and abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon development may contribute to ID and corpus callosum hypoplasia, respectively.

  11. Association of LIN28B with adult adiposity-related traits in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko T Leinonen

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Pubertal timing is under strong genetic control and its early onset associates with several adverse health outcomes in adulthood, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Recent data indicate strong association between pubertal timing and genetic variants near LIN28B, but it is currently unknown whether the gene contributes to the association between puberty and adult disease. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the putative genetic link between early puberty and adult disease risk, we examined the association of two genetic variants near LIN28B with adult body size and metabolic profiles in randomly ascertained adult Finnish males and females. METHODS: Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs7759938, the lead SNP previously associated with pubertal timing and height, and rs314279, previously also associated with menarcheal age but only partially correlated with rs7759938 (r(2 = 0.30, were genotyped in 26,636 study subjects participating in the Finnish population survey FINRISK. Marker associations with adult height, weight, body mass index (BMI, hip and waist circumference, blood glucose, serum insulin and lipid/lipoprotein levels were determined by linear regression analyses. RESULTS: Both rs7759938 and rs314279 associated with adult height in both sexes (p = 2×10(-6 and p = 0.001. Furthermore, rs314279 associated with increased weight in females (p = 0.001. Conditioned analyses including both SNPs in the regression model verified that rs314279 independently associates with adult female weight, BMI and hip circumference (p<0.005. Neither SNP associated with glucose, lipid, or lipoprotein levels. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants near the puberty-associated gene LIN28B associate with adult weight and body shape in females, suggesting that the gene may tag molecular pathways influencing adult adiposity-related traits.

  12. Terminologia työvälineenä – aikamuotojärjestelmästä ja sen opetuskäytänteiden ergonomiasta S2-opetuksessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kok

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Artikkeli käsittelee kahta ongelmalliseksi osoittautunutta verbien tempusnimitystä, perfektiä ja imperfektiä. Tarkastelen kirjoituksessani nimitysten välittämää informaatiota, jota vertaan S2-oppikirjoissa aikamuotojen käytöstä annettuun tietoon. Kriittisen katsauksen tavoitteena on osoittaa harhaanjohtavien termien haitta ja hyvän metakielen tarve sekä myös pohtia keinoja virheellisten nimitysten korjaamiseksi. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä on työolosuhteita, työvälineitä ja työtapoja tutkiva ergonomia. Koska kielen opetus ja opiskelu ovat työtä ja metakieli on työväline, jolla opettaja ja opiskelijat yhdessä työskentelevät, on käytettävän termistön ammatillinen ja käytännönläheinen arviointi tarpeen. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/LV22.04

  13. The Lin28/Let-7 System in Early Human Embryonic Tissue and Ectopic Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Lozoya, Teresa; Domínguez, Francisco; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Steffani, Liliana; Martínez, Sebastián; Monterde, Mercedes; Ferri, Blanca; Núñez, Maria Jose; AinhoaRomero-Espinós,; Zamora, Omar; Gurrea, Marta; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Vega, Olivia; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the expression of the elements of the Lin28/Let-7 system, and related microRNAs (miRNAs), in early stages of human placentation and ectopic pregnancy, as a means to assess the potential role of this molecular hub in the pathogenesis of ectopic gestation. Seventeen patients suffering from tubal ectopic pregnancy (cases) and forty-three women with normal on-going gestation that desired voluntary termination of pregnancy (VTOP; controls) were recruited for the stud...

  14. A new nuclide transport model in soil in the GENII-LIN health physics code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, F.

    2017-11-01

    The nuclide soil transfer model, originally included in the GENII-LIN software system, was intended for residual contamination from long term activities and from waste form degradation. Short life nuclides were supposed absent or at equilibrium with long life parents. Here we present an enhanced soil transport model, where short life nuclide contributions are correctly accounted. This improvement extends the code capabilities to handle incidental release of contaminant to soil, by evaluating exposure since the very beginning of the contamination event, before the radioactive decay chain equilibrium is reached.

  15. The ceilometer inter-comparison campaign CeiLinEx2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Ina; Begbie, Robert; Boyouk, Neda; Bravo-Aranda, Juan Antonio; Brettle, Mike; Cermak, Jan; Drouin, Marc-Antoine; Geiß, Alexander; Görsdorf, Ulrich; Haefele, Alexander; Haeffelin, Martial; Hervo, Maxime; Komínková, Kateřina; Leinweber, Ronny; Müller, Gerhard; Münkel, Christoph; Pattantyús-Ábrahám, Margit; Pönitz, Kornelia; Wagner, Frank; Wiegner, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Ceilometers are well established instruments for the detection of cloud base heights. Since about 2000, modern ceilometer types (mainly CHM15k, CL51, and CL31) are used also for investigations of the top height of the planetary boundary layer and for quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of backscatter coefficients. In the framework of the European projects E-PROFILE and TOPROF, tools for the exchange of ceilometer data among European meteorological services, as well as calibration and visualization procedures are developed and established. Unfortunately, the national networks are equipped with instruments of different generations and different manufacturers. In order to quantify and reduce those inhomogeneities, the ceilometer inter-comparison experiment CeiLinEx2015 was performed between June and September 2015 at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg, Germany. We tested six different instrument types: LD40, CL31, CL51, CHM15k, CHM15kx, and CS135. Each instrument type was represented by two instruments to estimate the instrument-to-instrument variability and the influence of different firmware versions. Two Raman lidars (RAMSES and RALPH), operated by German Meteorological Service (DWD) are used as reference instruments. Further ancillary data are available, e.g., hourly eye observations, four radio soundings per day, and AERONET sun photometer observations. Beside the typical vertically pointing measurement scheme, we performed special measurements with horizontal pointing direction or blocked receiver telescope. During the experiment, we could collect measurements under very different meteorological situations: Several clear nights allow for Rayleigh-Calibration (see Hervo and CeiLinEx2015 team [EGU2016-4785]), a strong event of Sahara dust intrusion can be used to study the behaviour of the instruments in presence of large, non-spherical particles (like volcanic ash). Further investigations focus, e.g., on the detection of very low cloud base

  16. LIN28B polymorphisms are associated with central precocious puberty and early puberty in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers within &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt; have been reported to be related to the timing of pubertal growth. However, no study has investigated the frequency of genetic markers in girls with precocious puberty (PP or early puberty (EP. This study aimed to determine the frequency of putative genetic markers in girls with PP or EP. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; Genomic DNAs were obtained from 77 and 109 girls that fulfilled the criteria for PP and EP, respectively. The controls in this study were 144 healthy volunteers between 20 and 30 years of age. The haplotypes were reconstructed using 11 SNPs of &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt;, and haplotype association analysis was performed. The haplotype frequencies were compared. Differences in the clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed according to the haplotype dosage. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Eleven SNPs in &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt; were all located in a block that was in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype could be reconstructed using 2 representative SNPs, rs4946651 and rs369065. The AC haplotype was less frequently observed in the PP group than in the controls (0.069 vs. 0.144, &lt;I&gt;P&lt;/I&gt;=0.010. The trend that girls with non-AC haplotypes tended to have earlier puberty onset (&lt;I&gt;P&lt;/I&gt;=0.037 was illustrated even in the EP+PP patient group by Kaplan-Meier analysis. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The results of the present study showed that non-AC haplotypes of &lt;i&gt;LIN28B&lt;/i&gt;had a significant association with PP in girls.

  17. Therapeutic Inhibitors of LIN28/let-7 Pathway in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    generate loss of function lines (siRNA and the CrispR / Cas9 system). Task 4. Determine oncogenic properties associated with TUTase and LIN28B loss in...of-function cell lines to complement our already generated shRNA lines, we are developing handson experience with CrispR / Cas9 technology to...generate stable cell lines where our genes of interest will be inactivated. The advantage of the CrispR / Cas9 method is that stable lines can be

  18. Paralelo despretensioso: Budapeste, de Chico Buarque, e Avalovara, de Osman Lins

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Nitrini

    2008-01-01

    São contrapostos os projetos literários e as experiências de viagem vivenciadas por José Costa e Abel, personagens escritores de Budapeste, de Chico Buarque, e Avalovara, de Osman Lins. Paralelo motivado por uma formulação crítica que estabelece relação entre os dois romancistase fundamentado por uma aglutinação comum dos motivos da viagem, da relação amorosa com mulheres em cidades diferentes e da busca do ato de escrever.

  19. Solving Arc Routing Problems Using the Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    It is well known that many arc routing problems can be transformed into the Equality Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem (E-GTSP), which in turn can be transformed into a standard Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). This opens up the possibility of solving arc routing problems using...... existing solvers for TSP. This paper evaluates the performance of the state-of-the art TSP solver Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun (LKH) on a broad class of transformed arc routing instances. It is shown that LKH makes it possible to find solutions of good quality to large-scale undirected, mixed, and windy postman...

  20. Ty1-copia elements reveal diverse insertion sites linked to polymorphisms among flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Mhiri, Corinne; Grandbastien, Marie-Angèle; Deyholos, Michael K

    2016-12-07

    Initial characterization of the flax genome showed that Ty1-copia retrotransposons are abundant, with several members being recently inserted, and in close association with genes. Recent insertions indicate a potential for ongoing transpositional activity that can create genomic diversity among accessions, cultivars or varieties. The polymorphisms generated constitute a good source of molecular markers that may be associated with phenotype if the insertions alter gene activity. Flax, where accessions are bred mainly for seed nutritional properties or for fibers, constitutes a good model for studying the relationship of transpositional activity with diversification and breeding. In this study, we estimated copy number and used a type of transposon display known as Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphisms (SSAPs), to characterize six families of Ty1-copia elements across 14 flax accessions. Polymorphic insertion sites were sequenced to find insertions that could potentially alter gene expression, and a preliminary test was performed with selected genes bearing transposable element (TE) insertions. Quantification of six families of Ty1-copia elements indicated different abundances among TE families and between flax accessions, which suggested diverse transpositional histories. SSAPs showed a high level of polymorphism in most of the evaluated retrotransposon families, with a trend towards higher levels of polymorphism in low-copy number families. Ty1-copia insertion polymorphisms among cultivars allowed a general distinction between oil and fiber types, and between spring and winter types, demonstrating their utility in diversity studies. Characterization of polymorphic insertions revealed an overwhelming association with genes, with insertions disrupting exons, introns or within 1 kb of coding regions. A preliminary test on the potential transcriptional disruption by TEs of four selected genes evaluated in three different tissues, showed one case of significant

  1. Fluorescently tagged Lin7c is a dynamic marker for polarity maturation in the zebrafish retinal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Luz

    2013-07-01

    Development of epithelial cell polarity is a highly dynamic process, and often established by the sequential recruitment of conserved protein complexes, such as the Par or the Crumbs (Crb complex. However, detailed insights into the refinement of polarity and the formation of the complexes are still lacking. Here, we established fluorescently tagged Lin7c, a core member of the Crb complex, as an ideal tool to follow development of polarity in zebrafish epithelia. We find that in gastrula stages, RFP-Lin7c is found in the cytosol of the enveloping layer, while Pard3-GFP is already polarized at this stage. During development of the retinal epithelium, RFP-Lin7c localization is refined from being cytosolic at 14 hours post fertilization (hpf to almost entirely apical in cells of the eye cup at 28 hpf. This apical Lin7c localization depends on the Crb complex members Oko meduzy and Nagie oko. Thus, fluorescently tagged Lin7c can be used in a broad range of epithelia to follow polarity maturation in vivo and specifically to elucidate the sequence of events determining Crb complex-mediated polarity.

  2. Genome packaging in EL and Lin68, two giant phiKZ-like bacteriophages of P. aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolova, O.S., E-mail: sokolova@mail.bio.msu.ru [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); A.V. Shoubnikov Institute of Crystallography RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shaburova, O.V. [I.I. Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera, RAMS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pechnikova, E.V. [A.V. Shoubnikov Institute of Crystallography RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shaytan, A.K. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krylov, S.V. [I.I. Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera, RAMS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kiselev, N.A. [A.V. Shoubnikov Institute of Crystallography RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krylov, V.N. [I.I. Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera, RAMS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    A unique feature of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa giant phage phiKZ is its way of genome packaging onto a spool-like protein structure, the inner body. Until recently, no similar structures have been detected in other phages. We have studied DNA packaging in P. aeruginosa phages EL and Lin68 using cryo-electron microscopy and revealed the presence of inner bodies. The shape and positioning of the inner body and the density of the DNA packaging in EL are different from those found in phiKZ and Lin68. This internal organization explains how the shorter EL genome is packed into a large EL capsid, which has the same external dimensions as the capsids of phiKZ and Lin68. The similarity in the structural organization in EL and other phiKZ-like phages indicates that EL is phylogenetically related to other phiKZ-like phages, and, despite the lack of detectable DNA homology, EL, phiKZ, and Lin68 descend from a common ancestor. - Highlights: • We performed a comparative structural study of giant P. aeruginosa phages: EL, Lin68 and phiKZ. • We revealed that the inner body is a common feature in giant phages. • The phage genome size correlates with the overall dimensions of the inner body.

  3. Genetic variation in LIN28B is associated with the timing of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ken K; Elks, Cathy E; Li, Shengxu; Zhao, Jing Hua; Luan, Jian'an; Andersen, Lars B; Bingham, Sheila A; Brage, Soren; Smith, George Davey; Ekelund, Ulf; Gillson, Christopher J; Glaser, Beate; Golding, Jean; Hardy, Rebecca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuh, Diana; Luben, Robert; Marcus, Michele; McGeehin, Michael A; Ness, Andrew R; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan M; Rubin, Carol; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Strachan, David P; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Waterworth, Dawn M; Wong, Andrew; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Barroso, Inês; Mooser, Vincent; Loos, Ruth J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-06-01

    The timing of puberty is highly variable. We carried out a genome-wide association study for age at menarche in 4,714 women and report an association in LIN28B on chromosome 6 (rs314276, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.33, P = 1.5 × 10(-8)). In independent replication studies in 16,373 women, each major allele was associated with 0.12 years earlier menarche (95% CI = 0.08-0.16; P = 2.8 × 10(-10); combined P = 3.6 × 10(-16)). This allele was also associated with earlier breast development in girls (P = 0.001; N = 4,271); earlier voice breaking (P = 0.006, N = 1,026) and more advanced pubic hair development in boys (P = 0.01; N = 4,588); a faster tempo of height growth in girls (P = 0.00008; N = 4,271) and boys (P = 0.03; N = 4,588); and shorter adult height in women (P = 3.6 × 10(-7); N = 17,274) and men (P = 0.006; N = 9,840) in keeping with earlier growth cessation. These studies identify variation in LIN28B, a potent and specific regulator of microRNA processing, as the first genetic determinant regulating the timing of human pubertal growth and development.

  4. Wolbachia induces male-specific mortality in the mosquito Culex pipiens (LIN strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L Rasgon

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbionts that infect a diverse range of invertebrates, including insects, arachnids, crustaceans and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia are responsible for causing diverse reproductive alterations in their invertebrate hosts that maximize their transmission to the next generation. Evolutionary theory suggests that due to maternal inheritance, Wolbachia should evolve toward mutualism in infected females, but strict maternal inheritance means there is no corresponding force to select for Wolbachia strains that are mutualistic in males.Using cohort life-table analysis, we demonstrate that in the mosquito Culex pipiens (LIN strain, Wolbachia-infected females show no fitness costs due to infection. However, Wolbachia induces up to a 30% reduction in male lifespan.These results indicate that the Wolbachia infection of the Culex pipiens LIN strain is virulent in a sex-specific manner. Under laboratory situations where mosquitoes generally mate at young ages, Wolbachia strains that reduce male survival could evolve by drift because increased mortality in older males is not a significant selective force.

  5. LEDWIRE: A Versatile Networking Platform for Smart LED Lighting Applications Using LIN-Bus and WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios D. Piromalis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the architecture of a versatile networking and control platform for Light-Emitting Diode (LED lighting applications is presented, based on embedded wireless and wired networking technologies. All the possible power and control signals distribution topologies of the lighting fixtures are examined with particular focus on dynamic lighting applications with design metrics as the cost, the required wiring installation expenses and maintenance complexity. The proposed platform is optimized for applications where the grouping of LED-based lighting fictures clusters is essential, as well as their synchronization. With such an approach, the distributed control and synchronization of LED lighting fixtures' clusters is performed through a versatile network that uses the single wire Local Interconnect Network (LIN bus. The proposed networking platform is presented in terms of its physical layer architecture, its data protocol configuration, and its functionality for smart control. As a proof of concept, the design of a LED lighting fixture together with a LIN-to-IEEE802.15.4/ZigBee data gateway is presented.

  6. [Study on the correlation factors on CD44+ CD24-/low ESA+ Lin- cell ratio in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Yang, Xiao-Qin; Lü, Qing

    2014-01-01

    To explore the related factors on CD44+ CD24-/low ESA+ Lin- cell (breast caner stem cell) ratio in breast cancer patients. Flow cytometry was used to analyze CD44+ CD24-/Iow ESA+ Lin- cell ratio in fresh tumor tissues of 40 breast cancer patients administered between March of 2011 and January of 2012 in West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China. Nine individual variables, such as age, clinical stage, histological grade, axillary lymph nodes metastases, immunohistochemisty (IHC) of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), C-erbB-2, and Ki-67 were selected to study their correlation with CD44+ CD24-/low ESA+ Lin- cell ratio. CD44+ CD24-/low ESA+ Lin- cells were expressed in all breast cancer tissues (median ratio: 4.38%, ranging from 0.5% to 16.8%), in which 20 patients (50.0%) showed low expression less than or equal to 4.38%, whereas, 20 patients (50.0%) demonstrated high expression greater than 4.38%. By univariant analysis, no statistical correlation was observed between CD44+ CD24-/low ESA+ Lin- cell ratio and the factors like age, tumor size, clinical stage, histological stage, axillary nodes metastasis metastasic, ER, PR. However, when Ki-67 was divided into high expression group (> 32.0%) and low expression group (breast cancer stem cell expression (P = 0.012, OR = 6.926, (95% CI, 1.529-31.377). In fresh breast cancer tissues, Ki-67 expression was the independent impact factor on CD44+ CD24-/low ESA+ Lin- cell ratio. Further investigation should be made to explore the correlation of breast cancer stem cell ratio with therapeutic effect and prognosis.

  7. Topografia ficcional: a construção do espaço nos manuscritos de Osman Lins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gonçalves Lima Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of the narrative space of his final, unfinished novel, A cabeça levada em triunfo, Osman Lins operates both verbal, with notes planning, as iconically, through drawings. Will try to show that the author’s purpose is to clarify the topography of the work, because it establishes and harmonizes the technical functions - ie, like space, says Osman Lins, “frame” the character – and symbolic means, ie. how the space reflects, like all other elements of the work, the questioning of the head-body dichotomy.

  8. Targeting of p32 in peritoneal carcinomatosis with intraperitoneal linTT1 peptide-guided pro-apoptotic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Hedi; Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Tobi, Allan; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Sharma, Shweta; Nigul, Mait; Sugahara, Kazuki N; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Teesalu, Tambet

    2017-08-28

    Gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies disseminate in the peritoneal cavity - a condition known as peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Intraperitoneal (IP) administration can be used to improve therapeutic index of anticancer drugs used for PC treatment. Activity of IP anticancer drugs can be further potentiated by encapsulation in nanocarriers and/or affinity targeting with tumor-specific affinity ligands, such as tumor homing peptides. Here we evaluated a novel tumor penetrating peptide, linTT1 (AKRGARSTA), as a PC targeting ligand for nanoparticles. We first demonstrated that the primary homing receptor for linTT1, p32 (or gC1qR), is expressed on the cell surface of peritoneal carcinoma cell lines of gastric (MKN-45P), ovarian (SKOV-3), and colon (CT-26) origin, and that peritoneal tumors in mice and clinical peritoneal carcinoma explants express p32 protein accessible from the IP space. Iron oxide nanoworms (NWs) functionalized with the linTT1 peptide were taken up and routed to mitochondria in cultured PC cells. NWs functionalized with linTT1 peptide in tandem with a pro-apoptotic [D(KLAKLAK)2] peptide showed p32-dependent cytotoxicity in MKN-45P, SKOV-3, and CT-26 cells. Upon IP administration in mice bearing MKN-45P, SKOV-3, and CT-26 tumors, linTT1-functionalized NWs showed robust homing and penetration into malignant lesions, whereas only a background accumulation was seen in control tissues. In tumors, the linTT1-NW accumulation was seen predominantly in CD31-positive blood vessels, in LYVE-1-positive lymphatic structures, and in CD11b-positive tumor macrophages. Experimental therapy of mice bearing peritoneal MKN-45P xenografts and CT-26 syngeneic tumors with IP linTT1-D(KLAKLAK)2-NWs resulted in significant reduction of weight of peritoneal tumors and significant decrease in the number of metastatic tumor nodules, whereas treatment with untargeted D(KLAKLAK)2-NWs had no effect. Our data show that targeting of p32 with linTT1 tumor

  9. Holding Strength of a Hem-o-lok/Lapra-Ty Clip Combination on Sutures Used During Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paka, Bikal; Bossemeyer, Robert; Tourojman, Mouafak; Gupta, Ruchir; Lane, Brian R

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the anti-slip strength of closing systems employing sutures terminated with a Hem-o-lok/Lapra-Ty clip combination to determine which sutures perform best for this application. Partial nephrectomy is the reference standard for treatment of small renal masses. The main disadvantage of partial nephrectomy is the risk of technical complications, including renorrhaphy site bleeding and urine leak. A materials testing system produced a constant velocity pull on the free end of an anchored suture. A Lapra-Ty clip was attached 1 cm from the end of each suture as a backstop for the Hem-o-lok. A digital force gauge measured the tension that was applied until the suture slipped in the closing system. Vicryl, Monocryl, Chromic, Stratafix, and V-Loc sutures of diameters 1 to 4-0 were tested (n = 7 for each suture type, 161 total experiments). The holding strength of a Lapra-Ty/Hem-o-lok clip combination is lowest for Vicryl 4-0 (4.3 ± 1.4N) and highest for Monocryl 0 (16.5 ± 1.6N) sutures. Larger sutures (1 and 0) hold at higher tensions than sutures with smaller dimensions (4-0 and 3-0). For 2-0 sutures, the holding strength was 5.7N with Vicryl, 13.8N with Stratafix, and 15.9N with V-Loc sutures. The mean values of holding tension of this anchoring system for all sutures tested was greater than the amount found to be sufficient for tissue closure in previous studies (3.2N). Barbed sutures (Stratafix, V-Loc) appeared to have superior holding strength when compared with most standard sutures; barb orientation does not influence holding tension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Haukku parantaa haavat : Koira-avusteinen työskentely perhetyön menetelmänä

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Henni; Alvari, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössämme tutkimme mahdollisuuksia käyttää koiraa apuna Tukeva Oy:n tekemässä lastensuojelun perhetyössä. Tutkimme minkälaisissa tilanteissa koiraa voidaan hyödyntää, ja minkälaisiin asioihin koira-avusteisella työskentelyllä voidaan vaikuttaa. Teoriapohjana tutkimuksellemme käytimme sosiaalipedagogiikkaa ja Green Care- ajattelumallia. Tutkimuksellisen osuuden suoritimme toimintatutkimuksena Tukeva Oy:n asiakasperheissä. Perheet valikoituivat tekemämme kyselyn perusteella. Kysel...

  11. NAINEN ILMAN PAPEREITA : työntekijöiden kokemuksia paperittomista ja paperittoman kaltaisessa asemassa olevista naisista asiakkaina

    OpenAIRE

    Hällsten, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössäni tutkin paperittomien ja paperittoman kaltaisessa asemassa olevien naisten elämäntilanteita Suomessa. Paperittomiksi kutsutaan henkilöitä, jotka eivät oleskele maassa laillisesti, eivätkä näin ollen ole oikeutettuja valtion takaamiin palveluihin. Paperittoman kaltaisessa asemassa olevat oleskelevat Suomessa laillisesti, mutta heidän mahdollisuutensa käyttää yhteiskunnan tarjoamia palveluita ovat rajoitettuja. Työelämän yhteistyökumppanina toimii Pakolaisneuvonta R.y:n Paperit...

  12. Ympäristönhoitoa ja työllistämistä Keski-Suomessa -projektista toimintamalliksi

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvaja, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö on tehty LAPE-Laatua perinnerakentamisen ja ympäristönhoitoon - projektille, joka on Keski-Suomen elinkeino-, liikenne- ja ympäristökeskuksen oman tuotannon projekti. Ympäristönhoidon työllistämistöitä on toteutettu laajamittaisesti Keski-Suomen maakunnassa vuodesta 2000 alkaen Euroopan sosiaalirahaston (ESR) osarahoittamana ja sitä ennen kansallisin varoin. Tällä hetkellä Keski-Suomen ELY:n alueella, 13 kunnassa toimii ESR-rahoitteinen LAPE –Laatua perinnerakentamiseen ja ym...

  13. Functional roles of carboxylate residues comprising the DNA polymerase active site triad of Ty3 reverse transcriptase

    OpenAIRE

    Bibillo, Arkadiusz; Lener, Daniela; Klarmann, George J.; Le Grice, Stuart F. J.

    2005-01-01

    Aspartic acid residues comprising the -D-(aa) n -Y-L-D-D- DNA polymerase active site triad of reverse transcriptase from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae long terminal repeat-retrotransposon Ty3 (Asp151, Asp213 and Asp214) were evaluated via site-directed mutagenesis. An Asp151→Glu substitution showed a dramatic decrease in catalytic efficiency and a severe translocation defect following initiation of DNA synthesis. In contrast, enzymes harboring the equivalent alteration at Asp213 and Asp214 ret...

  14. Caracterização de genótipos de tomateiro resistentes a begomovírus por marcador molecular co-dominante ligado ao gene Ty-1 Fingerprinting of tomato genotypes resistant to begomovirus by a codominant molecular marker linked to Ty-1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida de Castro Nizio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar genótipos de tomateiro, quanto à resistência a begomovírus, e caracterizar, por meio do marcador molecular SSR-47, híbridos de tomate de mesa portadores do alelo de resistência ao begomovírus Ty-1, com potencial comercial. Os 24 híbridos experimentais, heterozigotos no loco Ty-1, depois de infectados via enxertia, apresentaram sintomas intermediários, em comparação aos identificados pelas linhagens homozigotas Ty-1/Ty-1 e pelos genótipos suscetíveis Ty-1+/Ty-1+, o que indica a dominância incompleta do alelo Ty-1. Esses híbridos foram considerados como parcialmente tolerantes a begomovírus. Os híbridos experimentais TEX-246, TEX-261, TEX-253, TEX-256, TEX-262, TEX-252, TEX-251 e TEX-268 aliaram médias elevadas de produção total e de massa média dos frutos; e os híbridos TEX-246, TEX-253, TEX-256, TEX-262 e TEX-252 apresentaram valores elevados também para meia-vida da firmeza e foram, portanto, considerados competitivos em comparação aos padrões comerciais usados como testemunhas. O marcador molecular SSR-47 foi eficiente em caracterizar genótipos portadores do alelo Ty-1. A infecção do begomovírus, induzida via enxertia, manifestou sintomas, nos genótipos testados, condizentes com os resultados obtidos com o marcador molecular SSR-47.The objectives of this study were to evaluate tomato genotypes for begomovirus resistance and to assess SSR-47 fingerprinting patterns associated with alleles Ty-1, in hybrids of fresh-market tomato with commercial potential. Twenty-four experimental genotypes, heterozygous at Ty-1 locus, were infected with begomovirus via grafting, and showed intermediate symptoms compared to the ones identified by homozygous Ty-1/Ty-1 lines and by susceptible genotypes Ty-1+/Ty-1+, which indicates the incomplete dominance of the Ty-1 allele. These hybrids were considered to possess partial resistance to begomovirus. The experimental hybrids TEX-246, TEX-261, TEX

  15. QUANTUM INSPIRED PARTICLE SWARM COMBINED WITH LIN-KERNIGHAN-HELSGAUN METHOD TO THE TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Avila Leal de Meirelles Herrera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP is one of the most well-known and studied problems of Operations Research field, more specifically, in the Combinatorial Optimization field. As the TSP is a NP (Non-Deterministic Polynomial time-hard problem, there are several heuristic methods which have been proposed for the past decades in the attempt to solve it the best possible way. The aim of this work is to introduce and to evaluate the performance of some approaches for achieving optimal solution considering some symmetrical and asymmetrical TSP instances, which were taken from the Traveling Salesman Problem Library (TSPLIB. The analyzed approaches were divided into three methods: (i Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun (LKH algorithm; (ii LKH with initial tour based on uniform distribution; and (iii an hybrid proposal combining Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO with quantum inspired behavior and LKH for local search procedure. The tested algorithms presented promising results in terms of computational cost and solution quality.

  16. Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hartl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC. The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.

  17. Building a rapid learning health care system for oncology: the regulatory framework of CancerLinQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilsky, Richard L; Michels, Dina L; Kearbey, Amy H; Yu, Peter Paul; Hudis, Clifford A

    2014-08-01

    Today is a time of unprecedented opportunity and challenge in health care generally and cancer care in particular. An explosion of scientific knowledge, the rapid introduction of new drugs and technologies, and the unprecedented escalation in the cost of health care challenge physicians to quickly assimilate new information and appropriately deploy new advances while also delivering efficient and high-quality care to a rapidly growing and aging patient population. At the same time, big data, with its potential to drive rapid understanding and innovation, promises to transform the health care industry, as it has many others already. CancerLinQ is an initiative of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and its Institute for Quality, developed to build on these opportunities and address these challenges by collecting information from the electronic health records of large numbers of patients with cancer. CancerLinQ is, first and foremost, a quality measurement and reporting system through which oncologists can harness the depth and power of their patients' clinical records and other data to improve the care they deliver. The development and deployment of CancerLinQ raises many important questions about the use of big data in health care. This article focuses on the US federal regulatory pathway by which CancerLinQ will accept patient records and the approach of ASCO toward stewardship of the information. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. SEL-10/Fbw7-dependent negative feedback regulation of LIN-45/Braf signaling in C. elegans via a conserved phosphodegron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cova, Claire; Greenwald, Iva

    2012-11-15

    The conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase component named SEL-10 in Caenorhabditis elegans and Fbw7 in mammals targets substrates for ubiquitin-mediated degradation through a high-affinity binding site called a Cdc4 phosphodegron (CPD). As many known substrates of Fbw7 are oncoproteins, the identification of new substrates may offer insight into cancer biology as well as aspects of proteome regulation. Here, we evaluated whether the presence of an evolutionarily conserved CPD would be a feasible complement to proteomics-based approaches for identifying new potential substrates. For functional assessments, we focused on LIN-45, a component of the signal transduction pathway underlying vulval induction and the ortholog of human Braf, an effector of Ras in numerous cancers. Our analysis demonstrates that LIN-45 behaves as a bona fide substrate of SEL-10, with mutation of the CPD or loss of sel-10 resulting in increased activity and protein stability in vivo. Furthermore, during vulval induction, the downstream kinase MPK-1/ERK is also required for LIN-45 protein degradation in a negative feedback loop, resulting in degradation of LIN-45 where ERK is highly active. As the CPD consensus sequence is conserved in human Braf, we propose that Fbw7 may also regulate Braf stability in some cell contexts. We discuss the implications of our findings for vulval development in C. elegans, the potential applicability to human Braf, and the value of a CPD-based predictive approach for human Fbw7 substrates.

  19. Uuden työelämälle suunnatun sosiaalisen median mahdollisuudet Suomessa: case: Yritys X – Sosiaalinen media Y

    OpenAIRE

    Humalainen, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on selvittää työelämälle suunnatun sosiaalisen median mahdollisuuksia menestyä Suomessa. Opinnäyteyön tavoitteena on tutkia, ovatko erikseen työelämälle suunnatut sosiaaliset mediat tarpeellisia. Työn case-yrityksenä on Yritys X ja tutkimuskohteena heidän uusi rekrytointimediansa Sosiaalinen Media Y. Teoriaosuus jakautuu kolmeen päälukuun. Ensimmäinen luku käsittelee sosiaalista mediaa yleensä. Luku määrittelee sosiaalisen mediaa käsitteenä, kertoo sen t...

  20. Functional roles of carboxylate residues comprising the DNA polymerase active site triad of Ty3 reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibillo, Arkadiusz; Lener, Daniela; Klarmann, George J; Le Grice, Stuart F J

    2005-01-01

    Aspartic acid residues comprising the -D-(aa) n -Y-L-D-D- DNA polymerase active site triad of reverse transcriptase from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae long terminal repeat-retrotransposon Ty3 (Asp151, Asp213 and Asp214) were evaluated via site-directed mutagenesis. An Asp151-->Glu substitution showed a dramatic decrease in catalytic efficiency and a severe translocation defect following initiation of DNA synthesis. In contrast, enzymes harboring the equivalent alteration at Asp213 and Asp214 retained DNA polymerase activity. Asp151-->Asn and Asp213-->Asn substitutions eliminated both polymerase activities. However, while Asp214 of the triad could be replaced by either Asn or Glu, introducing Gln seriously affected processivity. Mutants of the carboxylate triad at positions 151 and 213 also failed to catalyze pyrophosphorolysis. Finally, alterations to the DNA polymerase active site affected RNase H activity, suggesting a close spatial relationship between these N- and C-terminal catalytic centers. Taken together, our data reveal a critical role for Asp151 and Asp213 in catalysis. In contrast, the second carboxylate of the Y-L-D-D motif (Asp214) is not essential for catalysis, and possibly fulfills a structural role. Although Asp214 was most insensitive to substitution with respect to activity of the recombinant enzyme, all alterations at this position were lethal for Ty3 transposition.

  1. [Analysis of acid rain characteristics of Lin'an Regional Background Station using long-term observation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Quan; Ma, Hao; Mao, Yu-Ding; Feng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    Using long-term observation data of acid rain at Lin'an Regional Background Station (Lin'an RBS), this paper studied the interannual and monthly variations of acid rain, the reasons for the variations, and the relationships between acid rain and meteorological factors. The results showed that interannual variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS had a general increasing trend in which there were two obvious intensifying processes and two distinct weakening processes, during the period ranging from 1985 to 2012. In last two decades, the monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS indicated that rain acidity and frequency of severe acid rain were increasing but the frequency of weak acid rain was decreasing when moving towards bilateral side months of July. Acid rain occurrence was affected by rainfall intensity, wind speed and wind direction. High frequency of severe acid rain and low frequency of weak acid rain were on days with drizzle, but high frequency of weak acid rain and low frequency of severe acid rain occurred on rainstorm days. With wind speed upgrading, the frequency of acid rain and the proportion of severe acid rain were declining, the pH value of precipitation was reducing too. Another character is that daily dominant wind direction of weak acid rain majorly converged in S-W section ,however that of severe acid rain was more likely distributed in N-E section. The monthly variation of acid rain at Lin'an RBS was mainly attributed to precipitation variation, the increasing and decreasing of monthly incoming wind from SSE-WSW and NWN-ENE sections of wind direction. The interannual variation of acid rain could be due to the effects of energy consumption raising and significant green policies conducted in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shanghai.

  2. Systemic and Terminal Ileum Mucosal Immunity Elicited by Oral Immunization With the Ty21a Typhoid Vaccine in HumansSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaum S. Booth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Systemic cellular immunity elicited by the Ty21a oral typhoid vaccine has been extensively characterized. However, very limited data are available in humans regarding mucosal immunity at the site of infection (terminal ileum [TI]. Here we investigated the host immunity elicited by Ty21a immunization on terminal ileum–lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC and peripheral blood in volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy. Methods: We characterized LPMC-T memory (TM subsets and assessed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi–specific responses by multichromatic flow cytometry. Results: No differences were observed in cell yields and phenotypes in LPMC CD8+-TM subsets following Ty21a immunization. However, Ty21a immunization elicited LPMC CD8+ T cells exhibiting significant S Typhi–specific responses (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17A, and/or CD107a in all major TM subsets (T-effector/memory [TEM], T-central/memory, and TEM-CD45RA+, although each TM subset exhibited unique characteristics. We also investigated whether Ty21a immunization elicited S Typhi–specific multifunctional effectors in LPMC CD8+ TEM. We observed that LPMC CD8+ TEM responses were mostly multifunctional, except for those cells exhibiting the characteristics associated with cytotoxic responses. Finally, we compared mucosal with systemic responses and made the important observation that LPMC CD8+ S Typhi–specific responses were unique and distinct from their systemic counterparts. Conclusions: This study provides the first demonstration of S Typhi–specific responses in the human terminal ileum mucosa and provides novel insights into the generation of mucosal immune responses following oral Ty21a immunization. Keywords: Lamina Propria Mononuclear Cells, Multifunctional T Cells, CD8+-T Memory Cells, Typhoid, Vaccines

  3. Työikäisten naisten elintapoja ja niihin yhteydessä olevia tekijöitä - katsaus kirjallisuuteen

    OpenAIRE

    Behm, Kaisa; Leppälä, Kaisa; Peltola, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyömme oli osa JHL:n projektia "Voimaa naisissa". Voimaa naisissa-projekti on Metropolia ammattikorkeakoulun ja JHL:n yhteinen hanke. Projektin tarkoituksena on edistää työikäisten naisten terveyttä ja hyvinvointia. Sekä jatkossa tuottaa naisille elintapaohjausryhmiä. Opinnäytetyömme tehtävänä oli tuottaa tietoa kirjallisuuskatsaus menetelmän avulla työikäisten naisten keskeisistä elintavoista. Väestöllä on erilaisia terveyskäyttäytymiseen liittyviä elintapoja, kuten liikuntatottu...

  4. Kehotietoisuus laulajan työskentelyn tukena : psykofyysinen lähestymistapa reittinä luovuuteen ja läsnäoloon.

    OpenAIRE

    Lammi, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Mitä tarkoittaa kehotietoinen lähestymistapa laulamiseen? Miten kehon ja mielen yhteyden huomioiminen vaikuttaa laulajan työhön? Tutkin opinnäytetyössäni laulamisen psykofyysisyyttä kolmen kehometodin: Alexander-tekniikan, Feldenkrais-metodin ja kehomielityöskentelyn kautta. Sivuan myös kysymystä, miten kehotietoista lähestymistapaa voi soveltaa laulunopetukseen. Taustalla on oma työni laulajana ja laulupedagogina sekä 10 vuoden kokemukseni kehotietoisuutta kehittävien metodien höydyllisyydes...

  5. CRM-järjestelmän suunnittelu ja käyttöönotto myynnin strategiseksi työkaluksi : case: Stala Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Pirkkalainen, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on asiakkuudenhallinta- eli Customer Relationship Management(CRM)-järjestelmän suunnittelu ja käyttöönotto myynnin strategiseksi työkaluksi. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuudessa tutkitaan asiakkuudenhallintaa, CRM-järjestelmiä ja CRM-järjestelmien suunnitteluun sekä käyttöönottoon liittyviä haasteita. Työn empiirinen osuus koostuu CRM-järjestelmän käyttöoppaasta kohdeyritys Stala Oy:n myyntitiimille. Tutkimusongelma vastaa kysymykseen, miksi yrityksen tulisi panostaa a...

  6. Digitaalinen opas Osuuspankin työntekijöille tietoisuuden lisäämiseksi blockchain-teknologiasta ja sen hyödyistä

    OpenAIRE

    Kangasmäki, Meeri

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö on laadittu toimeksiantona Osuuspankille. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiannon tavoitteena oli tuottaa opas blockchain-teknologiasta ja sen hyödyistä Osuuspankin työntekijöille. Oppaan tarkoituksena on lisätä ymmärrystä blockchain-teknologian toiminnasta ja sen käyttömahdollisuuksista. Blockchain-teknologia tulee muuttamaan finanssialaa lähitulevaisuudessa ja siksi siitä on tärkeä lisätä tietoisuutta alalla työskentelevien keskuudessa. Opinnäytetyössä esitellään blockchain-teknologian...

  7. Sosiaalinen Media - Niille jotka matkustavat myös työkseen : Mitkä sosiaalisen median palvelut tuovat lisäarvoa liikematkustajille?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Jenny Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Tämän työn toimeksiantaja on liikematkatoimisto Matkatoimisto Oy Area. Työn tavoitteena on tutkimuksen avulla selvittää miten liikematkustaja käyttää ja suhtautuu sosiaaliseen mediaan sekä tulosten ja teorian avulla tulkita mitkä sosiaalisen median kanavat soveltuvat Arealle. Teoriapohja kuvaa sosiaalista mediaa monesta eri näkökulmasta, yleisesti hyväksytyn teorian puuttuessa. Teorian on tarkoituksena toimia pohjana Arean sosiaalisen median strategian luomiselle, yhdessä tutkimuksen kanssa. ...

  8. Muotoilua ja merkityksellistä elämää : voiko muotoiluajattelun työkaluja käyttää merkityksellisemmän elämän suunnitteluavuksi

    OpenAIRE

    Kujanpää, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Työnsä merkitykselliseksi kokevat henkilöt viihtyvät työssään paremmin ja kokevat enemmän työn imua kuin verrokkinsa. Merkityksellisyyden kokeminen ei ole kuitenkaan jakautunut tasaisesti. Työn lisäksi omaa merkitystään voi toteuttaa muillakin tavoilla, mutta löytääkseen itselleen tärkeän merkityksen ja pystyäkseen toteuttamaan sitä, on se ensin tunnistettava. Tässä opinnäytetyössä tavoitteena oli selvittää, voisiko muotoiluajattelu ja siihen liittyvät työkalut auttaa merkityksellisemmän eläm...

  9. LIN28 expression in malignant germ cell tumors down-regulates let-7 and increases oncogene levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Matthew J.; Saini, Harpreet K.; Siegler, Charlotte A.; Hanning, Jennifer E.; Barker, Emily M.; van Dongen, Stijn; Ward, Dawn M.; Raby, Katie L.; Groves, Ian J.; Scarpini, Cinzia G.; Pett, Mark R.; Thornton, Claire M.; Enright, Anton J.; Nicholson, James C.; Coleman, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Despite their clinico-pathologic heterogeneity, malignant germ-cell-tumors (GCTs) share molecular abnormalities that are likely to be functionally important. In this study, we investigated the potential significance of down-regulation of the let-7 family of tumor-suppressor microRNAs in malignant-GCTs. Microarray results from pediatric and adult samples (n=45) showed that LIN28, the negative-regulator of let-7 biogenesis, was abundant in malignant-GCTs, regardless of patient age, tumor site or histologic subtype. Indeed, a strong negative-correlation existed between LIN28 and let-7 levels in specimens with matched datasets. Low let-7 levels were biologically significant, since the sequence complementary to the 2-7nt common let-7 seed ‘GAGGUA’ was enriched in the 3′untranslated regions of mRNAs up-regulated in pediatric and adult malignant-GCTs, compared with normal gonads (a mixture of germ cells and somatic cells). We identified 27 mRNA targets of let-7 that were up-regulated in malignant-GCT cells, confirming significant negative-correlations with let-7 levels. Among 16 mRNAs examined in a largely independent set of specimens by qRT-PCR, we defined negative-associations with let-7e levels for six oncogenes, including MYCN, AURKB, CCNF, RRM2, MKI67 and C12orf5 (when including normal control tissues). Importantly, LIN28 depletion in malignant-GCT cells restored let-7 levels and repressed all of these oncogenic let-7 mRNA targets, with LIN28 levels correlating with cell proliferation and MYCN levels. Conversely, ectopic expression of let-7e was sufficient to reduce proliferation and down-regulate MYCN, AURKB and LIN28, the latter via a double-negative feedback loop. We concluded that the LIN28/let-7 pathway has a critical pathobiological role in malignant-GCTs and therefore offers a promising target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23774216

  10. Overexpression of Lin28b in Neural Stem Cells is Insufficient for Brain Tumor Formation, but Induces Pathological Lobulation of the Developing Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Annika K; Lindner, Sven; Schulte, Johannes H; Schüller, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    LIN28B is a homologue of the RNA-binding protein LIN28A and regulates gene expression during development and carcinogenesis. It is strongly upregulated in a variety of brain tumors, such as medulloblastoma, embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), or glioblastoma, but the effect of an in vivo overexpression of LIN28B on the developing central nervous system is unknown. We generated transgenic mice that either overexpressed Lin28b in Math1-positive cerebellar granule neuron precursors or in a broad range of Nestin-positive neural precursors. Sections of the cerebellar vermis from adult Math1-Cre::lsl-Lin28b mice had an additional subfissure in lobule IV. Vermes from p0 and p7 Nestin-Cre::lsl-Lin28b mice appeared normal, but we found a pronounced vermal hypersublobulation at p15 and p21 in these mice. Also, the external granule cell layer (EGL) was thicker at p15 than in controls, contained more proliferating cells, and persisted up to p21. Consistently, some Pax6- and NeuN-positive cells were present in the EGL of Nestin-Cre::lsl-Lin28b mice even at p21, and we detected more NeuN-positive granule neuron precursors in the molecular layer (ML) as compared to control. Finally, we found some residual Pax2-positive precursors of inhibitory interneurons in the ML of Nestin-Cre::lsl-Lin28b mice at p21, which have already disappeared in controls. We conclude that while overexpression of LIN28B in Nestin-positive cells does not lead to tumor formation, it results in a protracted development of granule cells and inhibitory interneurons and leads to a hypersublobulation of the cerebellar vermis.

  11. Disaggregazione di indicatori spaziali sintetici secondo un approccio di tipo Chow-Lin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Vidoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro si propone di mettere a punto una procedura statistica che consenta il passaggio di indicatori sintetici dal livello aggregato a quello disaggregato, laddove i termini aggregato/ disaggregato fanno riferimento, in questo caso, alla dimensione territoriale anziché, come più frequente, a quella settoriale. Più specificamente, con riferimento alla dotazione infrastrutturale presente in Italia si è cercato di ricostruire gli indicatori a livello provinciale sulla base degli analoghi indicatori disponibili a livello regionale. A tal fine si è seguito un approccio metodologico di tipo Chow-Lin, utilizzando quali regressori rappresentativi della domanda territoriale di infrastrutture alcune variabili relative agli aspetti produttivi, demografici e di uso turistico del territorio. Il confronto tra i risultati così ottenuti (ossia gli indicatori infrastrutturali “stimati” e i dati “effettivi” (ossia gli indicatori di dotazione infrastrutturale disponibili a livello provinciale ha consentito un’interessante e non banale verifica della coerenza tra fattori territoriali di domanda e offerta di infrastrutture in Italia.

  12. The Drosophila LIN54 homolog Mip120 controls two aspects of oogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsin Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conserved multi-protein MuvB core associates with the Myb oncoproteins and with the RB-E2F-DP tumor suppressor proteins in complexes that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Drosophila Mip120, a homolog of LIN54, is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein within the MuvB core. A mutant of Drosophila mip120 was previously shown to cause female and male sterility. We now show that Mip120 regulates two different aspects of oogenesis. First, in the absence of the Mip120 protein, egg chambers arrest during the transition from stage 7 to 8 with a failure of the normal program of chromosomal dynamics in the ovarian nurse cells. Specifically, the decondensation, disassembly and dispersion of the endoreplicated polytene chromosomes fail to occur without Mip120. The conserved carboxy-terminal DNA-binding and protein-protein interaction domains of Mip120 are necessary but not sufficient for this process. Second, we show that a lack of Mip120 causes a dramatic increase in the expression of benign gonial cell neoplasm (bgcn, a gene that is normally expressed in only a small number of cells within the ovary including the germline stem cells.

  13. Possible evidence for Lin's three-wave interaction mechanism at corotation in the galaxy NGC 1566

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, G.

    The distribution and kinematics of the ionized hydrogen in the large southern spiral NGC 1566 are analyzed in terms of the interaction of three spiral waves at corotation, as described by Lin (1969) and calculated in detail by Mark (1976). As reported by Comte and Duquennoy (1982), NGC 1566 has a four-arm spiral structure with two bright inner arms, two fainter outer arms, and an incomplete inner ring. The corotation circle is located at r = 130 arcsec, where the main inner open spiral vanishes. Parameters calculated include Omega(p) between 17.5 and 19 km/sec kpc for Delta = 15.3 Mpc, outer resonance at r = 300-350 arcsec, and inner Lindblad resonance just inside the inner ring at r = 35 arcsec. The pitch angles calculated using this model are found to agree with observations for r between 4.5 and 7.5 kpc. It is estimated that a shock capable of triggering star formation may occur at the front of the longer, high-contrast wave, but not at the front of the shorter, low-contrast wave.

  14. Identification and characterization of REC66, a Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of red flower of Mirabilis jalapa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunri Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirabilis jalapa Lis the most commonly grown ornamental species of Mirabilis and is available in a range of brilliant colors. However, genetic research on Mirabilis jalapa Lis limited. Using fluorescent differential display (FDD screening, we report the identification of a novel Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of the red flower of Mirabilis jalapa L, and we named it REC66based on its sequence homology to the GAG protein from Ty1-copiaretrotransposon. Using degenerate primers based on the DNA sequence of REC66, a total of fourteen different variants in reverse transcriptase (RT sequence were recovered from the genomic DNA. These RT sequences show a high degree of heterogeneity characterized mainly by deletion mutation; they can be divided into three subfamilies, of which the majority encode defective RT. This is the first report of a Ty1-copiaretrotransposon in Mirabilis jalapa L. The finding could be helpful for the development of new molecular markers for genetic studies, particularly on the origin and evolutionary relationships of M. jalapa L, and the study of Ty1-copiaretrotransposons and plant genome evolution in the genus Mirabilisor family Nyctaginaceae.

  15. Distribution of a Ty3/gypsy-like retroelement on the A and B-chromosomes of Cestrum strigilatum Ruiz & Pav. and Cestrum intermedium Sendtn. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéferson Nunes Fregonezi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroelements are a diversified fraction of eukaryotic genomes, with the Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy groups being very common in a large number of plant genomes. We isolated an internal segment of the Ty3/gypsy retroelement of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae using PCR amplification with degenerate primers for a conserved region of reverse transcriptase. The isolated segment (pCs12 was sequenced and showed similarity with Ty3/gypsy retroelements of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. This segment was used as probe in chromosomes of C. strigilatum and Cestrum intermedium. Diffuse hybridization signals were observed along the chromosomes and more accentuated terminal signals in some chromosome pairs, always associated with nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. The physical relationship between the hybridization sites of pCs12 and pTa71 ribosomal probes was assessed after sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Hybridization signals were also detected in the B chromosomes of these species, indicating an entail among the chromosomes of A complement and B-chromosomes.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sp. Strain Ade.TY, a New Biohydrogen- and Biochemical-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Landfill Leachate Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y M; Juan, J C; Ting, Adeline; Wu, T Y; Gan, H M; Austin, C M

    2014-03-06

    Clostridium sp. strain Ade.TY is potentially a new biohydrogen-producing species isolated from landfill leachate sludge. Here we present the assembly and annotation of its genome, which may provide further insights into its gene interactions for efficient biohydrogen production.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sp. Strain Ade.TY, a New Biohydrogen- and Biochemical-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Landfill Leachate Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. M.; Ting, Adeline; Wu, T. Y.; Gan, H. M.; Austin, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium sp. strain Ade.TY is potentially a new biohydrogen-producing species isolated from landfill leachate sludge. Here we present the assembly and annotation of its genome, which may provide further insights into its gene interactions for efficient biohydrogen production. PMID:24604640

  18. Henkilökohtaisen avun käyttäjän tukeminen työnantajuudessa

    OpenAIRE

    Kärkkäinen, Jaana

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana on toiminut Honkalampi säätiön ESE-keskus. Henkilökohtaisen avun käyttäjä on henkilö, joka vammansa perusteella käyttää usein toisen henkilön apua arjesta selviytymiseen. Vammaispalvelulaki velvoittaa kuntaa huolehtimaan, että vammaisille tarkoitetut palvelut ja tukitoimet on järjestetty sisällöltään sekä laajuudeltaan sellaisina kuin esiintyvä tarve edellyttää. Yksi tapa järjestää henkilökohtaista apua on työnantajamalli. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena o...

  19. A novel method to generate Salmonella Typhi Ty21a ghosts exploiting the λ phage holin-endolysin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Gayeon; Kim, Boram; Lee, John Hwa

    2017-07-18

    Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. The lysis plasmid pJHL464 harbors an R lysis cassette that is stringently regulated by dual promoters containing cI857/λPR and ParaBAD/araC components. The plasmid was introduced into an asd gene-deleted S. Typhi Ty21a strain designated JOL1675. The in vitro expression of endolysin (~17.76 kDa) in the subsequent JOL1675 vaccine construct when grown under lysis inducible conditions was validated by immunoblotting. In scanning electron microscopy analysis, surface transmembrane tunnels and a collapsed body were visualized in the ghosts. Following 48 h of lysis, no viable JOL1675 cells remained, indicating that lysis of all cells was achieved. Subcutaneous immunizations of mice with the JOL1675 ghosts produced significantly increasing titers of serum IgG and vaginal wash secretory IgA antibodies against JOL1675 outer membrane proteins during the observational period. Further, serum collected at 6 weeks post-immunization of rabbits exhibited effective bactericidal activity against wild type S. Typhi in the presence of complement. These data showed that JOL1675 ghosts are highly immunogenic and elicit humoral and mucosal responses expected to correlate with protective immunity against S. typhi. Collectively, our findings support the conclusion that incorporating a λ phage holin-endolysin-mediated lysis construct into S. Typhi is an efficient strategy for developing a novel and safe non-living typhoid vaccine candidate.

  20. Activation of gas bubble emissions indicated by the upward decreasing Lead-210 activity at a submarine mud volcano (TY1) offshore southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruta, Akihiro; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Lin, Saulwood; Su, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Nai-Chen; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Chen, Hsuan-Wen; Yang, Tsung-Han; Huang, Yu-Chun; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Chen, Song-Chuen; Song, Sheng-Rong

    2017-11-01

    A submarine mud volcano (MV) known as TY1 is one of the largest conical structures found offshore southwestern Taiwan. Active gas bubble emissions at the flat crest of the mud volcano disperse sediment particles into the water column. Changes in the mud volcanism of TY1 were revealed by radiograph and grain size analysis of the sediment cores. 210Pb geochronology was applied to the near-seafloor sediments to reveal the detailed mud volcanism from the deposition rate. In a 58-cm long sediment core taken from the northern margin of the crest, known as TY1-N.170, the size and frequency of the mud clasts decrease upward. The clasts are smaller than 8 mm above a sediment depth of 34 cm below the sea floor (cmbsf). Sediments between 0 and 19 cmbsf are massive, and particles larger than 2 mm are absent. An enrichment of coarse, silt-sized particles in the massive sediment unit and the restricted distribution of the unit suggest that the massive unit was generated by re-deposition of sediment particles that were dispersed into the water column by gas bubble emission. These characteristics suggest that during the last mud volcanism of TY1, there was a decrease in mud eruption energy, and gas bubble emission became the main activity. In core TY1-S.440, taken from the southern slope, a massive sediment unit enriched with coarse, silt-sized particles, is intercalated between mud breccia structures. This suggests repeated mud breccia flows caused by TY1. The excess 210Pb activity present in the massive sediment unit of TY1-N.170 suggests activation of gas bubble emission. In the massive unit, a decrease in excess 210Pb activity appears upward toward the seafloor. The highest value is 3.1 dpm/g at 19.8 cmbsf (26.4 g/cm2 in cumulative mass); values lower than 1.0 dpm/g are distributed 2.8-6.8 cmbsf (3.6-8.8 g/cm2). The upwardly decreasing trend is opposite that of the reference core from which a reasonable areal sedimentation rate was obtained using a constant-flux constant

  1. Lin Xiaoping, Children of Marx and Coca-Cola. Chinese Avant-garde art and independent cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Dubouloz, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    Xiaoping, currently associate professor at Queens College, New York, says in his introduction that he lived in China before moving to the United States, where he obtained a doctorate in 1993 at Yale. His book, second in the Critical Interventions series published by the University of Hawaii, offers a complementary study of the artistic avant-garde and of independent Chinese cineastes against the background of a post-socialist China in the throes of capitalist globalisation. Lin focuses his st...

  2. L'effet thérapeutique de l'huile de lin « linumusitatissimum » sur l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'augmentation de la masse grasse est accompagnée de modifications notables des paramètres lipidiques, avec une augmentation des teneurs plasmatiques et tissulaires en cholestérol et triglycérides et une diminution de taux de HDL-C. ... Mots-clés : cholestérol, triglycéride, huile de lin, obésité, omega 3, vieillissement.

  3. [Characteristics of atmospheric CO2 concentration and variation of carbon source & sink at Lin'an regional background station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jing-Jiao; Xu, Hong-Hui; Kang, Li-Li; Ma, Qian-Li

    2011-08-01

    Characteristics of Atmospheric CO2 concentration obtained by Flask measurements were analyzed at Lin'an regional background station from August 2006 to July 2009. According to the simulation results of carbon tracking model, the impact of carbon sources and sinks on CO2 concentration was evaluated in Yangtze River Delta. The results revealed that atmospheric CO2 concentrations at Lin'an regional background station were between 368.3 x 10(-6) and 414.8 x 10(-6). The CO2 concentration varied as seasons change, with maximum in winter and minimum in summer; the annual difference was about 20.5 x 10(-6). The long-term trend of CO2 concentration showed rapid growth year by year; the average growth rate was about 3.2 x 10(-6)/a. CO2 flux of Yangtze River Delta was mainly contributed by fossil fuel burning, terrestrial biosphere exchange and ocean exchange, while the contribution of fire emission was small. CO2 flux from fossil fuel burning played an important role in carbon source; terrestrial biosphere and ocean were important carbon sinks in this area. Seasonal variations of CO2 concentration at Lin'an regional background station were consistent with CO2 fluxes from fossil fuel burning and terrestrial biosphere exchange.

  4. Postharvest changes in LIN5-down-regulated plants suggest a role for sugar deficiency in cuticle metabolism during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallarino, José G; Yeats, Trevor H; Maximova, Eugenia; Rose, Jocelyn K; Fernie, Alisdair R; Osorio, Sonia

    2017-10-01

    The cell wall invertase gene (LIN5) was reported to be a key enzyme influencing sugar uptake of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. It was additionally revealed to be a key regulator of total soluble solids content in fruit as well as for reproductive development, being mainly involved in flower development, early fruit and seed development but also in ripening. Here, we demonstrate that silencing of the LIN5 gene promotes changes affecting fruit cuticle development which has a direct effect on postharvest properties. Transformants were characterized by reduced transpirational water loss in mature fruits accompanied by several other changes in the cuticle. Quantitative chemical composition, coupled with microscopy of isolated cuticle fruits revealed that the cuticle of the transformants were characterized by an increase of the thickness as well as significant increase in the content of cuticle components (cutin, phenolic compounds, and waxes). Furthermore, detailed analysis of the waxes revealed that the transformants displayed changes in waxes composition, showing higher levels of n-alkanes and triterpenoids which can shift the proportion of crystalline and amorphous waxes and change the water flux through the cuticle. Expression of the genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis indicated that LIN5 influences the biosynthesis of components of the cuticle, indicating that this process is coupled to sugar uploading via a mechanism which links carbon supply with the capacity for fruit expansion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Instabilité, solitons et solhiatons: une approche expérimentale de la dynamique non linéaire en fibres optiques

    OpenAIRE

    Van Simaeys, Gaetan

    2003-01-01

    Il y a un demi siècle, Fermi, Pasta et Ulam découvraient la récurrence du même nom, et créaient une discipline nouvelle, la dynamique non linéaire. Leur expérience numérique consistait à exciter le mode fondamental d'une chaîne d'oscillateurs reliés entre eux par des ressorts linéaires et faiblement non linéaires. Alors qu'ils s'attendaient à ce que l'énergie se répartisse progressivement sur un large spectre en raison du couplage non linéaire, ils observèrent au contraire un échange périodiq...

  6. A review of the trematode genera Haplosplanchnus Looss, 1902 and Prohaplosplanchnus Tang and Lin, 1978 with redescription of three species from the mullet in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    AI Bassel, Dayhoum A. M. L. [ديهوم عبد الحميد منصور لملوم الباسل

    1997-01-01

    The trematode genera Haplosplanchnus Looss, 1902 and Prohaplosplanchnus Tang Lin, 1978 were reviewed. H. indica Gupta and Ahmad, 1979, H, mugilis Nahhas and Cable, 1964 and P. diorchis Tang and Lin, 1979 were redescribed from Mugil capito from Libya. The three species were reported for the first time in Libya. H. mugilis and P. diorchis were reported for the first time from Mugil capito. A comparison between the previous results on 13 species of the genus Haplosplanchnus were presented. تم...

  7. A study on the morphology of Argulus foliaceus Lin., 1758 (Crustacea; Branchiura) procured from Çavuşcu Lake (Central Anatolia-Turkey) with scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    , Ali ALAŞ; *,; ÖKTENER, Ahmet; SOLAK, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 24 carps (Cyprinus carpio Lin.,1758) caught from Çavuşçu Lake (Konya; 36°41´N, 34°26´E) were examined for metazoan parasites. Infestation rate of Argulus foliaceus Lin.,1758 was found to be 45.8%. In addition, Argulus foliaceus was photographed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a light microscope.

  8. 2004 Initial Assessments for the T and TX TY Tank Farm Field Investigation Report (FIR): Numerical Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Waichler, Scott R.

    2004-09-24

    In support of CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.’s (CHG) preparation of a Field Investigative Report (FIR) for the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) T and TX-TY, a suite of numerical simulations of flow and solute transport was executed using the STOMP code to predict the performance of surface barriers for reducing long-term risks from potential groundwater contamination at the T and TX-TY WMA. The scope and parametric data for these simulations were defined by a modeling data package provided by CHG. This report documents the simulation involving 2-D cross sections through the T Tank and the TX-TY Tank Farm. Eight cases were carried out for the cross sections to simulate the effects of interim barrier, water line leak, inventory distribution, and surface recharge on water flow and the transport of long-lived radionuclides (i.e., technecium-99 and uranium) and chemicals (i.e., nitrate and chromium For simulations with barriers, it is assumed that an interim barrier is in place by the year 2010. It was also assumed that, for all simulations, as part of tank farm closure, a closure barrier was in place by the year 2040. The modeling considers the estimated inventories of contaminants within the vadose zone and calculates the associated risk. It assumes that no tanks will leak in the future. Initial conditions for contaminant concentration are provided as part of inventory estimates for uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and chromium. For moisture flow modeling, Neumann boundary conditions are prescribed at the surface with the flux equal to the recharge rate estimate. For transport modeling, a zero flux boundary is prescribed at the surface for uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and chromium. The western and eastern boundaries are assigned no-flux boundaries for both flow and transport. The water table boundary is prescribed by water table elevations and the unconfined aquifer hydraulic gradient. No-flux boundaries are used for the lower boundary

  9. DPL-1 DP, LIN-35 Rb and EFL-1 E2F act with the MCD-1 zinc-finger protein to promote programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddien, Peter W; Andersen, Erik C; Huang, Michael C; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-04-01

    The genes egl-1, ced-9, ced-4, and ced-3 play major roles in programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify genes that have more subtle activities, we sought mutations that confer strong cell-death defects in a genetically sensitized mutant background. Specifically, we screened for mutations that enhance the cell-death defects caused by a partial loss-of-function allele of the ced-3 caspase gene. We identified mutations in two genes not previously known to affect cell death, dpl-1 and mcd-1 (modifier of cell death). dpl-1 encodes the C. elegans homolog of DP, the human E2F-heterodimerization partner. By testing genes known to interact with dpl-1, we identified roles in cell death for four additional genes: efl-1 E2F, lin-35 Rb, lin-37 Mip40, and lin-52 dLin52. mcd-1 encodes a novel protein that contains one zinc finger and that is synthetically required with lin-35 Rb for animal viability. dpl-1 and mcd-1 act with efl-1 E2F and lin-35 Rb to promote programmed cell death and do so by regulating the killing process rather than by affecting the decision between survival and death. We propose that the DPL-1 DP, MCD-1 zinc finger, EFL-1 E2F, LIN-35 Rb, LIN-37 Mip40, and LIN-52 dLin52 proteins act together in transcriptional regulation to promote programmed cell death.

  10. Relevance of the Lin's and Host hydropedological models to predict grape yield and wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. C. Costantini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of precision agriculture in viticulture could be greatly enhanced by the diffusion of straightforward and easy to be applied hydropedological models, able to predict the spatial variability of available soil water. The Lin's and Host hydropedological models were applied to standard soil series descriptions and hillslope position, to predict the distribution of hydrological functional units in two vineyard and their relevance for grape yield and wine quality. A three-years trial was carried out in Chianti (Central Italy on Sangiovese. The soils of the vineyards differentiated in structure, porosity and related hydropedological characteristics, as well as in salinity. Soil spatial variability was deeply affected by earth movement carried out before vine plantation. Six plots were selected in the different hydrological functional units of the two vineyards, that is, at summit, backslope and footslope morphological positions, to monitor soil hydrology, grape production and wine quality. Plot selection was based upon a cluster analysis of local slope, topographic wetness index (TWI, and cumulative moisture up to the root limiting layer, appreciated by means of a detailed combined geophysical survey. Water content, redox processes and temperature were monitored, as well as yield, phenological phases, and chemical analysis of grapes. The isotopic ratio δ13C was measured in the wine ethanol upon harvesting to evaluate the degree of stress suffered by vines. The grapes in each plot were collected for wine making in small barrels. The wines obtained were analysed and submitted to a blind organoleptic testing.

    The results demonstrated that the combined application of the two hydropedological models can be used for the prevision of the moisture status of soils cultivated with grape during summertime in Mediterranean climate. As correctly foreseen by the models, the amount of mean daily transpirable soil water (TSW during

  11. Relevance of the Lin's and Host hydropedological models to predict grape yield and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Pellegrini, S.; Bucelli, P.; Storchi, P.; Vignozzi, N.; Barbetti, R.; Campagnolo, S.

    2009-09-01

    The adoption of precision agriculture in viticulture could be greatly enhanced by the diffusion of straightforward and easy to be applied hydropedological models, able to predict the spatial variability of available soil water. The Lin's and Host hydropedological models were applied to standard soil series descriptions and hillslope position, to predict the distribution of hydrological functional units in two vineyard and their relevance for grape yield and wine quality. A three-years trial was carried out in Chianti (Central Italy) on Sangiovese. The soils of the vineyards differentiated in structure, porosity and related hydropedological characteristics, as well as in salinity. Soil spatial variability was deeply affected by earth movement carried out before vine plantation. Six plots were selected in the different hydrological functional units of the two vineyards, that is, at summit, backslope and footslope morphological positions, to monitor soil hydrology, grape production and wine quality. Plot selection was based upon a cluster analysis of local slope, topographic wetness index (TWI), and cumulative moisture up to the root limiting layer, appreciated by means of a detailed combined geophysical survey. Water content, redox processes and temperature were monitored, as well as yield, phenological phases, and chemical analysis of grapes. The isotopic ratio δ13C was measured in the wine ethanol upon harvesting to evaluate the degree of stress suffered by vines. The grapes in each plot were collected for wine making in small barrels. The wines obtained were analysed and submitted to a blind organoleptic testing. The results demonstrated that the combined application of the two hydropedological models can be used for the prevision of the moisture status of soils cultivated with grape during summertime in Mediterranean climate. As correctly foreseen by the models, the amount of mean daily transpirable soil water (TSW) during the growing season differed

  12. SEL-2, the C. elegans neurobeachin/LRBA homolog, is a negative regulator of lin-12/Notch activity and affects endosomal traffic in polarized epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Natalie; Vallier, Laura G; Fares, Hanna; Greenwald, Iva

    2007-02-01

    The vulval precursor cells (VPCs) of Caenorhabditis elegans are polarized epithelial cells that adopt a precise pattern of fates through regulated activity of basolateral LET-23/EGF receptor and apical LIN-12/Notch. During VPC patterning, there is reciprocal modulation of endocytosis and trafficking of both LET-23 and LIN-12. We identified sel-2 as a negative regulator of lin-12/Notch activity in the VPCs, and found that SEL-2 is the homolog of two closely related human proteins, neurobeachin (also known as BCL8B) and LPS-responsive, beige-like anchor protein (LRBA). SEL-2, neurobeachin and LRBA belong to a distinct subfamily of BEACH-WD40 domain-containing proteins. Loss of sel-2 activity leads to basolateral mislocalization and increased accumulation of LIN-12 in VPCs in which LET-23 is not active, and to impaired downregulation of basolateral LET-23 in VPCs in which LIN-12 is active. Downregulation of apical LIN-12 in the VPC in which LET-23 is active is not affected. In addition, in sel-2 mutants, the polarized cells of the intestinal epithelium display an aberrant accumulation of the lipophilic dye FM4-64 when the dye is presented to the basolateral surface. Our observations indicate that SEL-2/neurobeachin/LRBA is involved in endosomal traffic and may be involved in efficient delivery of cell surface proteins to the lysosome. Our results also suggest that sel-2 activity may contribute to the appropriate steady-state level of LIN-12 or to trafficking events that affect receptor activation.

  13. Knockdown of miR-128a induces Lin28a expression and reverts myeloid differentiation blockage in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Luciana; Trino, Stefania; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Tagliaferri, Daniela; Falco, Geppino; Grieco, Vitina; Bianchino, Gabriella; Nozza, Filomena; Campia, Valentina; D'Alessio, Francesca; La Rocca, Francesco; Caivano, Antonella; Villani, Oreste; Cilloni, Daniela; Musto, Pellegrino; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2017-06-01

    Lin28A is a highly conserved RNA-binding protein that concurs to control the balance between stemness and differentiation in several tissue lineages. Here, we report the role of miR-128a/Lin28A axis in blocking cell differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by abnormally controlled proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells accompanied by partial or total inability to undergo terminal differentiation. First, we found Lin28A underexpressed in blast cells from AML patients and AML cell lines as compared with CD34+ normal precursors. In vitro transfection of Lin28A in NPM1-mutated OCI-AML3 cell line significantly triggered cell-cycle arrest and myeloid differentiation, with increased expression of macrophage associate genes (EGR2, ZFP36 and ANXA1). Furthermore, miR-128a, a negative regulator of Lin28A, was found overexpressed in AML cells compared with normal precursors, especially in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and in 'AML with maturation' (according to 2016 WHO classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia). Its forced overexpression by lentiviral infection in OCI-AML3 downregulated Lin28A with ensuing repression of macrophage-oriented differentiation. Finally, knockdown of miR-128a in OCI-AML3 and in APL/AML leukemic cells (by transfection and lentiviral infection, respectively) induced myeloid cell differentiation and increased expression of Lin28A, EGR2, ZFP36 and ANXA1, reverting myeloid differentiation blockage. In conclusion, our findings revealed a new mechanism for AML differentiation blockage, suggesting new strategies for AML therapy based upon miR-128a inhibition.

  14. Clustering pesticides according to their molecular properties and their impacts by considering additional ecotoxicological parameters in the TyPol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Harouna; Crouzet, Olivier; Mamy, Laure; Sireyjol, Christine; Rossard, Virginie; Servien, Remy; Latrille, Eric; Benoit, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of the fate of pesticides and their environmental impacts largely relies on their molecular properties. We recently developed 'TyPol' (Typology of Pollutants), a clustering method based on statistical analyses combining several environmental endpoints (i.e. environmental parameters such as sorption coefficient, degradation half-life) and one ecotoxicological one (bioconcentration factor), and structural molecular descriptors (number of atoms in the molecule, molecular surface, dipole moment, energy of orbitals…). TyPol has been conceived on the available knowledge on QSAR of a wide diversity of organic compounds (Mamy et al., 2015). This approach also allows to focus on transformation products present in different clusters and to infer possible changes in environmental fate consecutively to different degradation processes (Servien et al., 2014; Benoit et al., 2016). The initial version of TyPol did not include any ecotoxicological parameters except the bioconcentration factor (BCF), which informs more on the transfer along the trophic chain rather than on the effects on non-target organisms. The objective was to implement the TyPol database with a data set of ecotoxicological data concerning pesticides and several aquatic and terrestrial organisms, in order to test the possibility to extend TyPol to ecotoxicological effects on various organisms. The data analysis (available literature and databases) revealed that relevant ecotoxicological endpoints for terrestrial organisms such as soil microorganisms and macroinvertebrates are lacking compared to aquatic organisms. We have added seven parameters for acute (EC50, LC50) and chronic (NOEC) toxicological effects for the following organisms: Daphnia, Algae, Lemna and Earthworm. In this new configuration, TyPol was used to classify about 45 pesticides in different behavioural and ecotoxicity clusters. The clustering results were analyzed to reveals relationships between molecular descriptors

  15. Kaksi lajia, yhteinen ydin : Koripallovalmennuksen näkökulmia teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaajan työhön

    OpenAIRE

    Korpelainen, Esko

    2017-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee koripallon ja teatterin yhtäläisyyksiä. Näiden yhtäläisyyksien avulla pyritään tarjoamaan uusia näkökulmia ja ajattelumalleja teatteri-ilmaisun ohjaajan työhön. Tutkimuskohteena olevia yhtäläisyyksiä tarkastellaan neljästä eri lähtökohdasta. Näitä ovat ulkoiset muodot, draamasopimus ja koripallon säännöt, harjoitustilanteen johtaminen sekä prosessikeskeisen työn merkityksellisyys. Koripalloa ja sen valmennusta käydään opinnäytetyössä läpi amerikkalaisen ko...

  16. Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-TY-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on November 22, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, K.B.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TY-103 (Tank TY-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constituents. Two risers (Riser 8 and Riser 18) were sampled at three different elevations (Top, Middle, and Bottom) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. No analytes were determined to be above immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan (SAP).

  17. Esimiestyön kehittäminen - määränpäänä toimiva työyhteisö

    OpenAIRE

    Keituri, Saara

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön avulla selvitettiin, mitä kehitysalueita kohdeyrityksen esimiehellä oli esimiestyössään alaisten näkökulmasta sekä kuinka esimiestyötä kehittämällä voitiin vaikuttaa työyhteisön toimivuuteen. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia sitä, minkälainen on hyvä esimies ja minkälaiset esimies- ja johtamistaidot ovat tarvittavia työyhteisön toimivuuden ja hyvinvoinnin kannalta. Opinnäytetyön tutkimuskohteena toimi kuntoklubi: empiirinen arviointitutkimus suoritettiin sen yhden to...

  18. The Lipocalin LPR-1 Cooperates with LIN-3/EGF Signaling To Maintain Narrow Tube Integrity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Pu; Stone, Craig E; Burdick, Joshua T; Murray, John I; Sundaram, Meera V

    2017-03-01

    Lipocalins are secreted cup-shaped glycoproteins that bind sterols, fatty acids, and other lipophilic molecules. Lipocalins have been implicated in a wide array of processes related to lipophilic cargo transport, sequestration, and signaling, and several are used as biomarkers for human disease, but the functions of most lipocalins remain poorly understood. Here we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans lipocalin LPR-1 is required to maintain apical membrane integrity and a continuous lumen in two narrow unicellular tubes, the excretory duct and pore, during a period of rapid lumen elongation. LPR-1 fusion protein is expressed by the duct and pore and accumulates both intracellularly and in apical extracellular compartments, but it can also function cell nonautonomously when provided from outside of the excretory system. lpr-1 mutant defects can be rescued by increased signaling through the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-Ras-extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, which promotes the more elongated duct vs. less elongated pore tube fate. Spatial and temporal rescue experiments indicate that Ras signaling acts within the duct and pore tubes during or prior to cell fate determination to bypass the requirement for LPR-1 lpr-1 mutations did not disrupt LIN-3/EGF-dependent duct-fate specification, prevent functioning of any specific LIN-3/EGF isoform, or alter LET-23/EGFR localization, and reduced signaling did not phenocopy or enhance lpr-1 mutant defects. These data suggest that LPR-1 protects lumen integrity through a LIN-3/EGF-independent mechanism, but that increased signaling upregulates some target(s) that can compensate for lpr-1 absence. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. ChiLin: a comprehensive ChIP-seq and DNase-seq quality control and analysis pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qian; Mei, Shenglin; Wu, Qiu; Sun, Hanfei; Li, Lewyn; Taing, Len; Chen, Sujun; Li, Fugen; Liu, Tao; Zang, Chongzhi; Xu, Han; Chen, Yiwen; Meyer, Clifford A; Zhang, Yong; Brown, Myles; Long, Henry W; Liu, X Shirley

    2016-10-03

    Transcription factor binding, histone modification, and chromatin accessibility studies are important approaches to understanding the biology of gene regulation. ChIP-seq and DNase-seq have become the standard techniques for studying protein-DNA interactions and chromatin accessibility respectively, and comprehensive quality control (QC) and analysis tools are critical to extracting the most value from these assay types. Although many analysis and QC tools have been reported, few combine ChIP-seq and DNase-seq data analysis and quality control in a unified framework with a comprehensive and unbiased reference of data quality metrics. ChiLin is a computational pipeline that automates the quality control and data analyses of ChIP-seq and DNase-seq data. It is developed using a flexible and modular software framework that can be easily extended and modified. ChiLin is ideal for batch processing of many datasets and is well suited for large collaborative projects involving ChIP-seq and DNase-seq from different designs. ChiLin generates comprehensive quality control reports that include comparisons with historical data derived from over 23,677 public ChIP-seq and DNase-seq samples (11,265 datasets) from eight literature-based classified categories. To the best of our knowledge, this atlas represents the most comprehensive ChIP-seq and DNase-seq related quality metric resource currently available. These historical metrics provide useful heuristic quality references for experiment across all commonly used assay types. Using representative datasets, we demonstrate the versatility of the pipeline by applying it to different assay types of ChIP-seq data. The pipeline software is available open source at https://github.com/cfce/chilin . ChiLin is a scalable and powerful tool to process large batches of ChIP-seq and DNase-seq datasets. The analysis output and quality metrics have been structured into user-friendly directories and reports. We have successfully compiled 23

  20. Anthrax protective antigen delivered by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a protects mice from a lethal anthrax spore challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Manuel; Wu, Yanping; Singh, Sunil; Merkel, Tod J; Bhattacharyya, Siba; Blake, Milan S; Kopecko, Dennis J

    2009-04-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax disease, is a proven weapon of bioterrorism. Currently, the only licensed vaccine against anthrax in the United States is AVA Biothrax, which, although efficacious, suffers from several limitations. This vaccine requires six injectable doses over 18 months to stimulate protective immunity, requires a cold chain for storage, and in many cases has been associated with adverse effects. In this study, we modified the B. anthracis protective antigen (PA) gene for optimal expression and stability, linked it to an inducible promoter for maximal expression in the host, and fused it to the secretion signal of the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin protein (HlyA) on a low-copy-number plasmid. This plasmid was introduced into the licensed typhoid vaccine strain, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a, and was found to be genetically stable. Immunization of mice with three vaccine doses elicited a strong PA-specific serum immunoglobulin G response with a geometric mean titer of 30,000 (range, 5,800 to 157,000) and lethal-toxin-neutralizing titers greater than 16,000. Vaccinated mice demonstrated 100% protection against a lethal intranasal challenge with aerosolized spores of B. anthracis 7702. The ultimate goal is a temperature-stable, safe, oral human vaccine against anthrax infection that can be self-administered in a few doses over a short period of time.

  1. Land cover changes in catchment areas of lakes situated in headwaters of the Tyśmienica River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywna Antoni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the history of land cover changes in the catchment area of lakes situated in the headwaters of the Tyśmienica River. The basis of the study were topographic maps in scale 1:50 000, from 1936 and 2014. We analyzed the quantitative aspect of these changes. The study was conducted in three natural lakes (Rogóźno, Krasne, Łukcze, and in one lake transformed into a storage reservoir (Krzczeń. The technical issues of georeferencing maps in the Geographic Information System (GIS software are addressed first. In the landscape of Łęczna and Włodawa Lake District, to the end of the 19th century wetlands and bushes dominated. The first type of human pressure on this area was agriculture. Another type of pressure was recreation. In the catchment areas of studied lakes increased mainly the area of buildings and forests. Significantly increased also the length of roads and watercourses. Almost completely disappeared bushes and wastelands. In most of the analyzed basins, the area of wetlands and arable lands decreased. The probable cause of the changes in catchment use was decline in the water table, and thus overgrowing of meadows and wetlands.

  2. Two novel Ty1-copia retrotransposons isolated from coffee trees can effectively reveal evolutionary relationships in the Coffea genus (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Perla; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Dubreuil-Tranchant, Christine; Mafra D'Almeida Costa, Paulo; Duret, Caroline; Razafinarivo, Norosoa J; Couturon, Emmanuel; Hamon, Serge; de Kochko, Alexandre; Poncet, Valérie; Guyot, Romain

    2011-06-01

    In the study, we developed new markers for phylogenetic relationships and intraspecies differentiation in Coffea. Nana and Divo, two novel Ty1-copia LTR-retrotransposon families, were isolated through C. canephora BAC clone sequencing. Nana- and Divo-based markers were used to test their: (1) ability to resolve recent phylogenetic relationships; (2) efficiency in detecting intra-species differentiation. Sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP), retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) and retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism (RBIP) approaches were applied to 182 accessions (31 Coffea species and one Psilanthus accession). Nana- and Divo-based markers revealed contrasted transpositional histories. At the BAC clone locus, RBIP results on C. canephora demonstrated that Nana insertion took place prior to C. canephora differentiation, while Divo insertion occurred after differentiation. Combined SSAP and REMAP data showed that Nana could resolve Coffea lineages, while Divo was efficient at a lower taxonomic level. The combined results indicated that the retrotransposon-based markers were useful in highlighting Coffea genetic diversity and the chronological pattern of speciation/differentiation events. Ongoing complete sequencing of the C. canephora genome will soon enable exhaustive identification of LTR-RTN families, as well as more precise in-depth analyses on contributions to genome size variation and Coffea evolution.

  3. Core-linked LPS expression of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 O-antigen in live Salmonella Typhi vaccine vector Ty21a: preclinical evidence of immunogenicity and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De Qi; Cisar, John O; Osorio, Manuel; Wai, Tint T; Kopecko, Dennis J

    2007-08-14

    Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (S. dysenteriae 1) causes severe shigellosis that is typically associated with high mortality. Antibodies against Shigella serotype-specific O-polysaccharide (O-Ps) have been shown to be host protective. In this study, the rfb locus and the rfp gene with their cognate promoter regions were PCR-amplified from S. dysenteriae 1, cloned, and sequenced. Deletion analysis showed that eight rfb ORFs plus rfp are necessary for biosynthesis of this O-Ps. A tandemly-linked rfb-rfp gene cassette was cloned into low copy plasmid pGB2 to create pSd1. Avirulent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) Ty21a harboring pSd1 synthesized S. Typhi 9, 12 LPS as well as typical core-linked S. dysenteriae 1 LPS. Animal immunization studies showed that Ty21a (pSd1) induces protective immunity against high stringency challenge with virulent S. dysenteriae 1 strain 1617. These data further demonstrate the utility of S. Typhi Ty21a as a live, bacterial vaccine delivery system for heterologous O-antigens, supporting the promise of a bifunctional oral vaccine for prevention of shigellosis and typhoid fever.

  4. Isolation and characterization of Ty1-copia group of LTRs in genome of three species of Datura: D. innoxia, D. stramonium and D. metel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Alka; Nirala, N K; Narula, Alka; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, Prem S

    2011-07-01

    Retrotransposons (RT) constitute a major fraction of plant genome. They are implicated in evolution and sequence organization. These elements have been proposed to have major role in evolution and variation in genome size. The sequence information of these RT regions in terms of divergence and conservation could be utilized for determining the interrelationship among various copia retrotransposons within the genome. In order to assess the diversity of Ty1-copia group of retroelements, reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence was amplified from genomes of three medicinally important Datura species: D. innoxia, D. stramonium and D. metel using the primers derived from two conserved domains of RT region. A total of twenty one independent amplicons from RT regions were cloned, sequenced and compared. The intra-family divergence at amino acid level ranged from 4 to 52 %. Though intra-family RT sequences are conserved, no two sequences are identical. Southern blot hybridization suggested that Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons are dispersed throughout the Datura genome. The results indicate a high degree of heterogeneity among the Ty1-copia group of retroelements in Datura species.

  5. Opposing Post-transcriptional Control of InR by FMRP and LIN-28 Adjusts Stem Cell-Based Tissue Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Luhur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Although the intrinsic mechanisms that control whether stem cells divide symmetrically or asymmetrically underlie tissue growth and homeostasis, they remain poorly defined. We report that the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP limits the symmetric division, and resulting expansion, of the stem cell population during adaptive intestinal growth in Drosophila. The elevated insulin sensitivity that FMRP-deficient progenitor cells display contributes to their accelerated expansion, which is suppressed by the depletion of insulin-signaling components. This FMRP activity is mediated solely via a second conserved RNA-binding protein, LIN-28, known to boost insulin signaling in stem cells. Via LIN-28, FMRP controls progenitor cell behavior by post-transcriptionally repressing the level of insulin receptor (InR. This study identifies the stem cell-based mechanism by which FMRP controls tissue adaptation, and it raises the possibility that defective adaptive growth underlies the accelerated growth, gastrointestinal, and other symptoms that affect fragile X syndrome patients. : Luhur et al. report that FMRP acts via LIN-28 in progenitor cells to dampen the adaptive expansion of intestinal tissue in the fruit fly, raising the possibility that defective LIN28-mediated adaptive growth underlies some of the symptoms that affect fragile X syndrome patients. Keywords: FMRP, fmr1, LIN-28, insulin receptor, IIS, adaptive growth, tissue resizing, intestinal stem cell, insulin sensitivity

  6. LIN-23, an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Component, Is Required for the Repression of CDC-25.2 Activity during Intestinal Development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Miseol; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2016-11-30

    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) utilizes two different cell-cycle modes, binucleations during the L1 larval stage and endoreduplications at four larval moltings, for its postembryonic intestinal development. Previous genetic studies indicated that CDC-25.2 is specifically required for binucleations at the L1 larval stage and is repressed before endoreduplications. Furthermore, LIN-23, the C. elegans β-TrCP ortholog, appears to function as a repressor of CDC-25.2 to prevent excess intestinal divisions. We previously reported that intestinal hyperplasia in lin-23(e1883) mutants was effectively suppressed by the RNAi depletion of cdc-25.2. Nevertheless, LIN-23 targeting CDC-25.2 for ubiquitination as a component of E3 ubiquitin ligase has not yet been tested. In this study, LIN-23 is shown to be the major E3 ubiquitin ligase component, recognizing CDC-25.2 to repress their activities for proper transition of cell-cycle modes during the C. elegans postembryonic intestinal development. In addition, for the first time that LIN-23 physically interacts with both CDC-25.1 and CDC-25.2 and facilitates ubiquitination for timely regulation of their activities during the intestinal development.

  7. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of TY-51924 in patients with ST elevated acute myocardial infarction - Early phase II first in patient pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tadateru; Kimura, Kazuo; Fukuzawa, Shigeru; Hirayama, Haruo; Sone, Takahito; Ueda, Yasunori; Uematsu, Masaaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Nakao, Koichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kosuge, Masami; Hiro, Takafumi; Asakura, Masanori; Kaneko, Akira; Yokoi, Toshiaki; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    In myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injuries, the involvement of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) is considered to be one of the pathogenic mechanisms following reperfusion. TY-51924 is a novel hydrophilic NHE inhibitor with a lower risk of central neurotoxicity than previous NHE inhibitors. This open-label, dose-escalating study was undertaken to investigate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of TY-51924 in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Consent was obtained from a total of 30 patients with first anterior STEMI. After 12 patients were determined to be ineligible, the remaining 18 patients, each of whom was undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), received TY-51924 intravenously up to 10, 20, or 30mg/kg as the low-, medium-, or high-dose groups, respectively (n=6 in each group). The primary endpoints were safety (up to 7 days) and plasma drug concentration. The myocardial salvage index (MSI) was measured by (201)Tl/(123)I-beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 3-5 days after pPCI. No side effects were observed. Plasma drug concentrations increased dose-dependently, and were subsequently eliminated rapidly. MSIs were 0.118, 0.335, and 0.192 in the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups, respectively. In additional analysis, the combined MSIs in the medium- and high-dose groups were significantly higher than those in the low-dose group, in patients with a longer time from symptom onset to reperfusion (p=0.0247). No side effects were observed even at the highest dose with this novel hydrophilic NHE inhibitor. Therefore, TY-51924 is thought to be safe in patients with STEMI, even at the highest dose. Potential cardioprotective effects of intravenous TY-51924 might be expected based on the results obtained for the MSIs using SPECT at 20-30mg/kg. However, further large-scale, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies are required to confirm the efficacy and

  8. The C. elegans F-box proteins LIN-23 and SEL-10 antagonize centrosome duplication by regulating ZYG-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nina; Dougherty, Michael; Goeres, Jacqueline; Liu, Yan; O'Connell, Kevin F

    2012-08-01

    The correct segregation of DNA during cell division requires formation of a bipolar spindle, organized at each pole by a centrosome. The regulation of centrosome duplication such that each mitotic cell has exactly two centrosomes is therefore of central importance to cell division. Deregulation of centrosome duplication causes the appearance of supernumerary centrosomes, which are a hallmark of many cancer cells and can contribute to tumorigenesis. Overexpression of the kinase Plk4, which is required for centrosome duplication, causes the formation of extra centrosomes, and aberrant Plk4 expression levels are associated with cancer. Data from Drosophila and human cells show that Plk4 levels are regulated by the SCF ubiquitin ligase and proteasomal degradation. Recognition of Plk4 by the SCF complex is mediated by the F-box protein Slimb/βTrCP. We show that levels of the C. elegans Plk4 homolog ZYG-1 are elevated by impairing proteasome or SCF function, indicating that ZYG-1 is regulated by a conserved mechanism. In C. elegans, similar to Drosophila and humans, we find that the Slimb/βTrCP homolog LIN-23 regulates ZYG-1 levels. In addition, we show that a second F-box protein, SEL-10, also contributes to ZYG-1 regulation. Co-depletion of LIN-23 and SEL-10 suggests these proteins function cooperatively. Because SEL-10 is the homolog of human FBW7, which is frequently mutated in cancer, our findings have implications for understanding tumorigenesis.

  9. Nanos promotes epigenetic reprograming of the germline by down-regulation of the THAP transcription factor LIN-15B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Yung Sean; Lu, Tu

    2017-01-01

    Nanos RNA-binding proteins are required for germline development in metazoans, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have profiled the transcriptome of primordial germ cells (PGCs) lacking the nanos homologs nos-1 and nos-2 in C. elegans. nos-1nos-2 PGCs fail to silence hundreds of transcripts normally expressed in oocytes. We find that this misregulation is due to both delayed turnover of maternal transcripts and inappropriate transcriptional activation. The latter appears to be an indirect consequence of delayed turnover of the maternally-inherited transcription factor LIN-15B, a synMuvB class transcription factor known to antagonize PRC2 activity. PRC2 is required for chromatin reprogramming in the germline, and the transcriptome of PGCs lacking PRC2 resembles that of nos-1nos-2 PGCs. Loss of maternal LIN-15B restores fertility to nos-1nos-2 mutants. These findings suggest that Nanos promotes germ cell fate by downregulating maternal RNAs and proteins that would otherwise interfere with PRC2-dependent reprogramming of PGC chromatin. PMID:29111977

  10. A human tRNA methyltransferase 9-like protein prevents tumour growth by regulating LIN9 and HIF1-α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Ulrike; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Avivar-Valderas, Alvaro; Patil, Ashish; Endres, Lauren; Estrada, Yeriel; Chan, Clement TY; Su, Dan; Dedon, Peter C; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A; Begley, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to aberrant regulation of translation as a driver of cell transformation in cancer. Given the direct control of translation by tRNA modifications, tRNA modifying enzymes may function as regulators of cancer progression. Here, we show that a tRNA methyltransferase 9-like (hTRM9L/KIAA1456) mRNA is down-regulated in breast, bladder, colorectal, cervix and testicular carcinomas. In the aggressive SW620 and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines, hTRM9L is silenced and its re-expression and methyltransferase activity dramatically suppressed tumour growth in vivo. This growth inhibition was linked to decreased proliferation, senescence-like G0/G1-arrest and up-regulation of the RB interacting protein LIN9. Additionally, SW620 cells re-expressing hTRM9L did not respond to hypoxia via HIF1-α-dependent induction of GLUT1. Importantly, hTRM9L-negative tumours were highly sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics and this was associated with altered tRNA modification levels compared to antibiotic resistant hTRM9L-expressing SW620 cells. Our study links hTRM9L and tRNA modifications to inhibition of tumour growth via LIN9 and HIF1-α-dependent mechanisms. It also suggests that aminoglycoside antibiotics may be useful to treat hTRM9L-deficient tumours. PMID:23381944

  11. Filtres approchés pour un problème de filtrage non linéaire discret avec petit bruit d'observation

    OpenAIRE

    Milheiro De Oliveira, Paula

    1989-01-01

    On fait une étude asymptotique d'un problème de filtrage non linéaire discret unidimensionnel, lorsqu'un certain paramètre e tend vers 0. On traite le cas d'un problème de filtrage non linéaire discret issu d'un problème continu avec petit bruit d'observation. Des filtres de dimension finie sont proposés et les estimations sur les performances de ces filtres sont énoncées et démontrées. On commence par faire une étude dans le cas linéaire, ce qui va nous inspirer les filtres approchés à prend...

  12. The International Team in NanosafeTy (TITNT): A Multidisciplinary group for an improvement of Nanorisk Assessment and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, C.; Rolando, C.; Hirano, S.; Schuster, F.; Jolliet, O.; Maghni, K.; Meyer-Plath, A.; Hallé, S.; Vandelac, L.; Sentein, C.; Torkaski, C.

    2011-07-01

    Nanotechnology allows the ability to design many new materials and devices with multiple applications, such as in medicine, electronics, and energy production. However, nanotechnology also raises several concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials. A report published by the Council of Canadian Academies points out the necessity to respond about many uncertainties associated with risk assessment for ensuring the safety of health and environment. Nanotoxicology (or Nanosafety) is a part of the toxicology science that aims to study adverse effects of nanomaterials or nanoparticles on living organisms. This field includes different aspects from workers prevention to the environment protection. Group of researchers have initiated an international powerful interactive milieu for researchers to work in concert for a global and integrated study of many aspects of nanotoxicology. The International Team in NanosafeTy (TITNT) is composed of research scientists from 5 different countries (Canada, USA, Japan, France and Germany) working together on 6 different specific thematics, and organized as 9 different technology platforms (www.titnt.com). TITNT aims to study different features of nanomaterials related to nanosafety, such as in vivo and in vitro studies, life cycle, occupational protections and monitoring, early biomarkers detection, characterization and nanotoxicokinetic/dynamic assessment during and after nanoparticles synthesis and the societal, public policy and environmental aspects. While the rapid growth of nanotechnology is opening up a floodgate of opportunities, the legislation related is lagging behind mainly because of a lack of knowledge in the biosafety of most nanomaterials. The main goal of TITNT is to improve knowledge in nanosafety science for the benefit of the discipline, for better public policies and for the public itself.

  13. The International Team in NanosafeTy (TITNT): A Multidisciplinary group for an improvement of Nanorisk Assessment and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, C [BioSimulation Consulting Inc 220E. Delaware Ave. 1182, Newark DE, 19711 (United States); Rolando, C; Torkaski, C [MSAP, USR CNRS 3290, and Proteomique, Modifications Post-traductionnelles et Glycobiologie, IFR 147, Universite de Lille 1 Sciences et Technologies, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Hirano, S [National Institute for Environmental Studies16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Schuster, F; Sentein, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA) Saclay (France); Jolliet, O [University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Michigan (United States); Maghni, K [University of Montreal, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Department, PO Box 6128 Main Station, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Meyer-Plath, A [BAM - Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); Halle, S [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Vandelac, L, E-mail: claude.emond@biosmc.com [Departement de sociologie, Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, Qc (Canada)

    2011-07-06

    Nanotechnology allows the ability to design many new materials and devices with multiple applications, such as in medicine, electronics, and energy production. However, nanotechnology also raises several concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials. A report published by the Council of Canadian Academies points out the necessity to respond about many uncertainties associated with risk assessment for ensuring the safety of health and environment. Nanotoxicology (or Nanosafety) is a part of the toxicology science that aims to study adverse effects of nanomaterials or nanoparticles on living organisms. This field includes different aspects from workers prevention to the environment protection. Group of researchers have initiated an international powerful interactive milieu for researchers to work in concert for a global and integrated study of many aspects of nanotoxicology. The International Team in NanosafeTy (TITNT) is composed of research scientists from 5 different countries (Canada, USA, Japan, France and Germany) working together on 6 different specific thematics, and organized as 9 different technology platforms (www.titnt.com). TITNT aims to study different features of nanomaterials related to nanosafety, such as in vivo and in vitro studies, life cycle, occupational protections and monitoring, early biomarkers detection, characterization and nanotoxicokinetic/dynamic assessment during and after nanoparticles synthesis and the societal, public policy and environmental aspects. While the rapid growth of nanotechnology is opening up a floodgate of opportunities, the legislation related is lagging behind mainly because of a lack of knowledge in the biosafety of most nanomaterials. The main goal of TITNT is to improve knowledge in nanosafety science for the benefit of the discipline, for better public policies and for the public itself.

  14. Repression of let-7 by transforming growth factor-β1-induced Lin28 upregulates collagen expression in glomerular mesangial cells under diabetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Tak; Kato, Mitsuo; Lanting, Linda; Castro, Nancy; Nam, Bo Young; Wang, Mei; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of mesangial extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen type 1-α2 (Col1a2) and collagen type 4-α1 (Col4a1) is a key feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 plays important roles in ECM accumulation in DN, and evidence shows a mediatory role for microRNAs. In the present study, we found that microRNA let-7 family members (let-7b/c/d/g/i) were downregulated in TGF-β-treated mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) along with upregulation of Col1a2 and Col4a1. Ectopic expression of let-7b in TGF-β-treated MMCs attenuated Col1a2 and Col4a1 upregulation. Conversely, let-7b inhibitors increased Col1a2 and Col4a1 levels. Cotransfection of MMCs with mouse Col1a2 or Col4a1 3′-untranslated region luciferase constructs and let-7b inhibitors increased luciferase activity. However, constructs with let-7 target site mutations were unresponsive to TGF-β. TGF-β-induced 3′-untranslated region activity was attenuated by let-7b mimics, suggesting that Col1a2 and Col4a1 are direct targets of let-7b. In addition, Lin28b, a negative regulator of let-7 biogenesis, was upregulated in TGF-β-treated MMCs. Luciferase assays showed that the Lin28b promoter containing the Smad-binding element (SBE) responded to TGF-β, which was abolished in constructs without SBE. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed TGF-β-induced enrichment of Smad2/3 at the Lin28b promoter, together suggesting that Lin28b is transcriptionally induced by TGF-β through SBE. Furthermore, let-7b levels were decreased, whereas Lin28b, Col1a2, and Col4a1 levels were increased, in glomeruli of diabetic mice compared with nondiabetic control mice, demonstrating the in vivo relevance of this Lin28/let-7/collagen axis. These results identify Lin28 as a new TGF-β target gene and suggest a novel role for the Lin28/let-7 pathway in controlling TGF-β-induced collagen accumulation in DN. PMID:25354942

  15. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil in Phyllostachys praecox stands of Lin'an].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-bo; Shi, Han; Liao, Xin-feng; Lou, Zhong; Zhou, Lyu-yan; Yu, Hai-xia; Yao, Lin; Sun, Li-ping

    2015-06-01

    An investigation was carried out in an attempt to reveal the characteristics of heavy metals contamination in the soils of Phyllostachys praecox forest in Lin' an. Based on the concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in 160 topsoil samples, the pollution status and ecological risks of heavy metals in the soils were assessed by single factor pollution index, Nemerow integrated pollution index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. The spatial variability of heavy metal concentrations in the soils closely related to the distribution of traffic, industrial and livestock pollution sources. The average concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in the soils were 0.16, 7.41, 34.36, 87.98, 103.98, 0.26, 59.12, 29.56, 11.44 and 350.26 mg · kg(-1), respectively. Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations were as 2.89, 1.70, 1.12 and 1.12 times as the background values of soil in Zhejiang Province, respectively. But their concentrations were all lower than the threshold values of the National Environmental Quality Standard for Soil (GB 15618-1995). The average single factor pollution index revealed that the level of heavy metal pollution in the soils was in order of Pb>Cd>Cu= Zn>Hg>As>Ni>Co>Cr>Mn. Pb pollution was of moderate level while Cd, Cu and Zn pollutions were slight. There was no soil pollution caused by the other heavy metals. However, the Nemerow integrated pollution index showed that all the 160 soil samples were contaminated by heavy metals to a certain extent. Among total 160 soil samples, slight pollution level, moderate pollution level and heavy pollution level accounted for 55.6%, 29.4% and 15.0%, respectively. The average single factor potential ecological risk index (Er(i)) implied that the potential ecological risk related to Cd reached moderate level, while the others were of slight level. Furthermore, Cd and Hg showed higher potential ecological risk indices which reached up to 256.82 and 187.33 respectively

  16. A MULHER NEGRA E AS RELAÇÕES DE GÊNERO EM MENINO DE ENGENHO DE JOSÉ LINS DO REGO THE BLACK WOMAN AND GENDER RELATIONS IN MENINO DE ENGENHO BY JOSÉ LINS DO REGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Monteiro Bora ; Marina Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Os romances do ciclo da cana-de-açúcar, do escritor paraibano José Lins do Rego (1901-1957 e a sua relação com a sociedade e a cultura destacam-se enquanto abordagens ficcionais, através das quais o escritor buscou representar aspectos relevantes para o entendimento das relações de gênero no Nordeste, no começo do século vinte. Tal representação, indiscutivelmente, reflete a perspectiva de um narrador profundamente marcado pelo lugar privilegiado de onde narra e de sua condição existencial, como o neto de um senhor de engenho. Diante desses aspectos, propomo- nos a analisar brevemente as implicações dessa perspectiva sobre a construção simbólica da personagem negra representada no romance. Para tanto, serão utilizados como referenciais críticos, além do citado romance, os estudos de Zagury (1982, Albuquerque Jr. (1999, Azevedo (1996, 2007, Freyre (2006 Chaguri (2009, Schwarz (2008 e Raboni (2010.The so called sugar cane cycle novels by the Parahyban writer Jose Lins do Rego (1901-197 and its relationship with society and culture constitute themselves as fictional approaches through which the writer sought to represent aspects to the understanding of gender relations in the Northeast of Brazil in the early twentieth century. Such representation, undoubtedly reflects the perspective of a narrator deeply marked by the privileged place from which he narrates and his existential condition, as the son of a plantation owner. Given these aspects, we propose to examine briefly the implications of his perspective on the symbolic construction of the black woman characteres represented in the novel. The following

  17. Analyse non linéaire de la parole pour la détection des voix pathologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Mrad, Safaa

    2013-01-01

    National audience; Le présent travail s'inscrit dans le cadre de mon projet de n d'études en vu de l'obtention du diplôme national d'ingénieur en télécommunications. Ce projet porte sur l'analyse et le traitement non-linéaire du signal pour mettre en place des descripteurs de voix permettant de séparer les voix pathologiques des voix normales. A n de contribuer à établir des mesures objectives permettant de re éter au mieux la qualité de la voix, on se propose en premier lieu d'utiliser l'alg...

  18. [Yi lin cuo yao (Essentials of medical works) and its historical materials of medical exchanges between China and Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y

    2001-01-01

    Yi lin cuo yao, including 13 chapters and 128 categories, was written by Zheng Zhengxian and collated by Yang Lishou, both Korean imperial physicians in the 16 -- 17th centuries. With notation of a number of the Chinese and Korean medical books and materials in the first decade of the Li dynasty, this book is a comprehensive prescription work, very useful to clinical application. Especially with several points of the formulas from Zhong chao zhi wen fang (Sino -- Korean Prescriptions of Questioning) and zhong chao chuan xi fang (Sino -- Korean Prescriptions of Questioning) recorded in this book connected with Ren zhai zhi zhi fang lun (Renzhai's Comprehensive Prescriptions) in the Song dynasty. This book is an important record of the exchanges on medical ideas between China and Korea. However, it has nothing to do with Yi xue yi wen (Questions on Medicine) by Fu Maoguang, which records the questions and answers between Chinese and Korean officials.

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of the non-stoichiometric LinI (n = 3 and 5) clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đustebek, Jasmina; Milovanović, Milan; Jerosimić, Stanka; Veljković, Miomir; Veličković, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    The neutrals of the LinI (n = 2-6) clusters were detected using Knudsen-cell which was placed into ionization chamber of the magnetic sector mass spectrometer. The first theoretical and experimental data on the Li3I and Li5I clusters were presented in this Letter. The ionization energies of the neutral of Li3I and Li5I clusters, obtained by the electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, were (5.14 ± 0.25) and (4.62 ± 0.25) eV, respectively. We report the geometry, ionization energies and thermodynamical stability of these clusters, calculated at the restricted coupled cluster RHF-RCCSD/cc-pVTZ(Li), cc-pVTZ-PP(I) level of theory.

  20. Digital cultural heritage and its applications: case studies of Digital Mogao Grottos and Chi Lin Nunnery reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deren; Du, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yixuan; Wang, Tingsong

    2010-11-01

    Considerable damage has been done to the cultural heritage sites around the world ranging from natural erosion to artificial destruction. With the development of information sciences, frontier technologies are actively introduced to help protect cultural heritage sites. The new concept of a Digital Cultural Heritage has been presented for culture protection and is gradually becoming an efficient method to solve or to remit various difficult problems. This paper puts forward a digitalization method for cultural heritage sites which rationally integrates and utilizes multiform surveying measurements. These techniques have been successfully implemented into two projects, namely the Digital Mogao Grottos and the Chi Lin Nunnery reconstruction. Our results prove that the concept of and the techniques utilized in Digital Cultural Heritage can not only contribute to research, preservation, management, interpretation, and representation of cultural heritages but can also help resolve the conflicts between tourism and protection.

  1. Expression and associations of TRAF1, BMI-1, ALDH1, and Lin28B in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tian-Fu; Li, Yi-Cun; Ma, Si-Rui; Bing-Liu; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1, an adaptor protein of tumor necrosis factor 2, is involved in classical nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and lymphocyte recruitment. However, less is known about the expression and association of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 with cancer stem cell markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma. This study aimed to investigate the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 and stem cell characteristic markers (lin28 homolog B, B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and analyze their relations. Paraffin-embedded tissues of 78 oral squamous cell carcinomas, 39 normal oral mucosa, and 12 oral dysplasia tissues were employed in tissue microarrays, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1, B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, and lin28 homolog B was measured by immunohistostaining and digital pathological analysis. The expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 was higher in the oral squamous cell carcinoma group as compared with the expression in the oral mucosa (p oral dysplasia (p oral squamous cell carcinoma. The patient survival rate was lower in the highly expressed tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 group, although the difference was not significant. The clustering analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 was most related to aldehyde dehydrogenase 1. These findings suggest that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 has potential direct/indirect regulations with the cancer stem cell markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma, which may help in further analysis of the cancer stem cell characteristics.

  2. Tytöt taloilla - näkökulmia sukupuolisensitiiviseen tyttötyöhön nuorisotaloilla

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri, Eeva; Lehto, Heli

    2010-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin Helsingin kaupungin nuorisoasiainkeskukselle tarkoituksena selvittää tämän hetkistä tyttötyön tilannetta helsinkiläisillä nuorisotaloilla. Helsingin alueen nuorisotyössä ohjatut tyttöryhmät ovat viime aikoina vähentyneet, joten aiheen tutkimiselle katsottiin olevan tarvetta. Saatuja näkökulmia voidaan käyttää sukupuolisensitiivisen nuorisotyön kehittämiseen. Tutkimuskysymykset joihin haettiin vastausta olivat: Millainen on tyttöjen rooli talotoiminnassa? Millais...

  3. Läheisen kohtaaminen saattohoidossa : työvälineitä hyvän saattohoidon opiskeluun ja läheisen kohtaamiseen

    OpenAIRE

    Toroi, Hanna; Herranen, Henna

    2015-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on kehittämistyö, jonka tarkoituksena on tuottaa simulaatioharjoite Savonia- ammattikorkeakoulle. Simulaatioharjoite tarjoaa työvälineitä hyvän saattohoidon toteutuksen opiskeluun ja läheisen kohtaamiseen saattohoidossa. Simulaatioharjoitteen pohjalta opiskelija pystyy tuomaan esille oman teoriaosaamisensa saattohoidon keskeisestä sisällöstä. Tätä harjoitetta Savonia-ammattikorkeakoulu voi hyödyntää gerontologisen hoitotyön koulutuksessaan. Simulaatioharjo...

  4. Applying a Multiple Screening Program Aided by a Guideline-driven Computerized Decision Support System—A Pilot Experience in Yun-Lin, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jou-Wei Lin

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: A computer-aided screening program driven by the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations has been successfully implemented in Yun-Lin, Taiwan, and provided useful information about local epidemiology and implications for future health policy making. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007; 106(1:58-68

  5. Merlin/NF2-Lin28B-let-7 Is a Tumor-Suppressive Pathway that Is Cell-Density Dependent and Hippo Independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikasa, Hiroki; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Akira

    2016-03-29

    Contact inhibition of proliferation is critical for tissue organization, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Merlin/NF2 is a tumor suppressor that governs contact inhibition. Although Merlin/NF2 inhibits YAP1 and TAZ, which are paralogous Hippo pathway transcriptional co-activators and oncoproteins, it is not fully understood how Merlin/NF2-mediated signal transduction triggered by cell-cell contact exerts tumor suppression. Here, we identify Lin28B, an inhibitor of let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs), as an important downstream target of Merlin/NF2. Functional studies revealed that, at low cell density, Merlin/NF2 is phosphorylated and does not bind to Lin28B, allowing Lin28B to enter the nucleus, bind to pri-let-7 miRNAs, and inhibit their maturation in a YAP1/TAZ-independent manner. This inhibition of pri-let-7 maturation then promotes cell growth. However, cell-cell contact triggers Merlin/NF2 dephosphorylation, which sequesters Lin28B in the cytoplasm and permits pri-let-7 maturation. Our results reveal that Merlin/NF2-mediated signaling drives a tumor-suppressive pathway that is cell-density dependent and Hippo independent. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt - Dongen, S.H.F.; Beaufrere, B.; Riemersma, R.A.; Sebedio, J.L.; Chardigny, J.M.; Mensink, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    : Br J Nutr 2001 Mar;85(3):387-92 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Comment in: Br J Nutr. 2001 Mar;85(3):249-50. Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study. Vermunt SH, Beaufrere B, Riemersma RA, Sebedio JL,

  7. Curcumin Inhibits LIN-28A through the Activation of miRNA-98 in the Lung Cancer Cell Line A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is common in lung cancer and is associated with poor clinical outcomes and increased mortality. Curcumin is a natural anti-cancer agent that inhibits the metastasis of various cancers by modulating the expression of micro (mi RNAs such as miR-98, which acts as a tumor suppressor. This study investigated the effect of curcumin on miR-98 expression and in vitro cell line growth and invasiveness in lung cancer. Curcumin treatment enhanced the expression of miR-98 and reduced that of the miR-98 target gene LIN28A as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 2 and MMP9 in vitro and in vivo. MiR-98 overexpression suppressed lung cancer cell migration and invasion by inhibiting LIN28A-induced MMP2 and MMP9 expression. Meanwhile, LIN28A level was downregulated by overexpression of miR-98 mimic. Induction of miR-98 by curcumin treatment suppressed MMP2 and MMP9 by targeting LIN28A. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which curcumin suppresses lung cancer cell line growth in vitro and in vivo and invasiveness in vitro.

  8. The Many Sides of Happy Lim: aka Hom Ah Wing, Lin Jian Fu, Happy Lum, Lin Chien Fu, Hom Yen Chuck, Lam Kin Foo, Lum Kin Foo, Hom, Lim Goon Wing, Lim Gin Foo, Gin Foo Lin, Koon Wing Lim, Henry Chin, Lim Ying Chuck, Lim Ah Wing, et. al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H. Chang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Known to the FBI, INS, and IRS as Mr. Ah Wing Hom, he was also Lin Jian Fu, Jian Fu (Tough Guy, or just Fu to the readers of the many poems and short stories he published in Chinese over four decades in the twentieth century. And to still others, primarily English-readers of his writing, he was Happy Lim, an ironic, even tragically bizarre name, as his life was far from pleasant. On New Year's Day 1986, he died alone in a dingy San Francisco Chinatown bachelor hotel suffering from a bacterial infection and a chronic blood disorder that had required the amputation of all his toes the year before. He was seventy-eight years of age and had spent most of his life within blocks of where he died.

  9. The Many Sides of Happy Lim: aka Hom Ah Wing, Lin Jian Fu, Happy Lum, Lin Chien Fu, Hom Yen Chuck, Lam Kin Foo, Lum Kin Foo, Hom, Lim Goon Wing, Lim Gin Foo, Gin Foo Lin, Koon Wing Lim, Henry Chin, Lim Ying Chuck, Lim Ah Wing, et. al.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H. Chang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Known to the FBI, INS, and IRS as Mr. Ah Wing Hom, he was also Lin Jian Fu, Jian Fu (Tough Guy, or just Fu to the readers of the many poems and short stories he published in Chinese over four decades in the twentieth century. And to still others, primarily English-readers of his writing, he was Happy Lim, an ironic, even tragically bizarre name, as his life was far from pleasant. On New Year's Day 1986, he died alone in a dingy San Francisco Chinatown bachelor hotel suffering from a bacterial infection and a chronic blood disorder that had required the amputation of all his toes the year before. He was seventy-eight years of age and had spent most of his life within blocks of where he died.

  10. The oncogenic triangle of HMGA2, LIN28B and IGF2BP1 antagonizes tumor-suppressive actions of the let-7 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Bianca; Bley, Nadine; Müller, Simon; Glaß, Markus; Misiak, Danny; Lederer, Marcell; Vetter, Martina; Strauß, Hans-Georg; Thomssen, Christoph; Hüttelmaier, Stefan

    2016-05-05

    The tumor-suppressive let-7 microRNA family targets various oncogene-encoding mRNAs. We identify the let-7 targets HMGA2, LIN28B and IGF2BP1 to form a let-7 antagonizing self-promoting oncogenic triangle. Surprisingly, 3'-end processing of IGF2BP1 mRNAs is unaltered in aggressive cancers and tumor-derived cells although IGF2BP1 synthesis was proposed to escape let-7 attack by APA-dependent (alternative polyadenylation) 3' UTR shortening. However, the expression of the triangle factors is inversely correlated with let-7 levels and promoted by LIN28B impairing let-7 biogenesis. Moreover, IGF2BP1 enhances the expression of all triangle factors by recruiting the respective mRNAs in mRNPs lacking AGO proteins and let-7 miRNAs. This indicates that the downregulation of let-7, largely facilitated by LIN28B upregulation, and the protection of let-7 target mRNAs by IGF2BP1-directed shielding in mRNPs synergize in enhancing the expression of triangle factors. The oncogenic potential of this triangle was confirmed in ovarian cancer (OC)-derived ES-2 cells transduced with let-7 targeting decoys. In these, the depletion of HMGA2 only diminishes tumor cell growth under permissive conditions. The depletion of LIN28B and more prominently IGF2BP1 severely impairs tumor cell viability, self-renewal and 2D as well as 3D migration. In conclusion, this suggests the targeting of the HMGA2-LIN28B-IGF2BP1 triangle as a promising strategy in cancer treatment. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. CINCO VOZES NUM COTIDIANO DE SOMBRAS: “PENTÁGONO DE HAHN”, DE OSMAN LINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Émerson do Nascimento Cardoso (URCA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se pauta na análise da obra “Pentágono de Hahn”, que integra a obra “Nove, novena – narrativas”, de Osman Lins. A partir da chegada de um circo a uma cidade interiorana que apresenta, dentre seus espetáculos, a elefanta “Hahn”, cinco personagens expõem suas existências fadadas à brutalidade de um cotidiano “repleto” de vazios e experiências não vividas. O autor, nessa obra, arquiteta uma enredística polifônica que excede em lirismo, acuidade psicológica e catalogação de valores humanos indevassáveis o que a torna um profícuo objeto de estudo aberto às mais amplas incursões em se tratando de produção literária moderna.

    Palavras-chave: Modernismo; Narrativa moderna; Osman Lins.

  1. Lin- CD34hi CD117int/hi FcεRI+ cells in human blood constitute a rare population of mast cell progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Joakim S; Malinovschi, Andrei; Öhrvik, Helena; Sandelin, Martin; Janson, Christer; Alving, Kjell; Hallgren, Jenny

    2016-01-28

    Mast cells are rare tissue-resident immune cells that are involved in allergic reactions, and their numbers are increased in the lungs of asthmatics. Murine lung mast cells arise from committed bone marrow-derived progenitors that enter the blood circulation, migrate through the pulmonary endothelium, and mature in the tissue. In humans, mast cells can be cultured from multipotent CD34(+) progenitor cells. However, a population of distinct precursor cells that give rise to mast cells has remained undiscovered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of human lineage-negative (Lin(-)) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) progenitor cells, which represented only 0.0053% of the isolated blood cells in healthy individuals. These cells expressed integrin β7 and developed a mast cell-like phenotype, although with a slow cell division capacity in vitro. Isolated Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood cells had an immature mast cell-like appearance and expressed high levels of many mast cell-related genes as compared with human blood basophils in whole-transcriptome microarray analyses. Furthermore, serglycin, tryptase, and carboxypeptidase A messenger RNA transcripts were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Altogether, we propose that the Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood cells are closely related to human tissue mast cells and likely constitute an immediate precursor population, which can give rise to predominantly mast cells. Furthermore, asthmatics with reduced lung function had a higher frequency of Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood mast cell progenitors than asthmatics with normal lung function. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. A role of the LIN-12/Notch signaling pathway in diversifying the non-striated egg-laying muscles in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jared J; Amin, Nirav M; George, Carolyn; Via, Zachary; Shi, Herong; Liu, Jun

    2014-05-15

    The proper formation and function of an organ is dependent on the specification and integration of multiple cell types and tissues. An example of this is the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite egg-laying system, which requires coordination between the vulva, uterus, neurons, and musculature. While the genetic constituents of the first three components have been well studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the specification of the egg-laying musculature. The egg-laying muscles are non-striated in nature and consist of sixteen cells, four each of type I and type II vulval muscles and uterine muscles. These 16 non-striated muscles exhibit distinct morphology, location, synaptic connectivity and function. Using an RNAi screen targeting the putative transcription factors in the C. elegans genome, we identified a number of novel factors important for the diversification of these different types of egg-laying muscles. In particular, we found that RNAi knockdown of lag-1, which encodes the sole C. elegans ortholog of the transcription factor CSL (CBF1, Suppressor of Hairless, LAG-1), an effector of the LIN-12/Notch pathway, led to the production of extra type I vulval muscles. Similar phenotypes were also observed in animals with down-regulation of the Notch receptor LIN-12 and its DSL (Delta, Serrate, LAG-2) ligand LAG-2. The extra type I vulval muscles in animals with reduced LIN-12/Notch signaling resulted from a cell fate transformation of type II vulval muscles to type I vulval muscles. We showed that LIN-12/Notch was activated in the undifferentiated type II vulval muscle cells by LAG-2/DSL that is likely produced by the anchor cell (AC). Our findings provide additional evidence highlighting the roles of LIN-12/Notch signaling in coordinating the formation of various components of the functional C. elegans egg-laying system. We also identify multiple new factors that play critical roles in the proper specification of the different types

  3. An update on finances and financial support for medical students in Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Tan, Yeong Tze Wilnard; Fong, Jie Ming Nigel; Koh, Yun Qing; Ng, Chew Lip; Mohan, Niraj; Jang, Jin Hao Justin; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah

    2017-04-01

    Increasing financial challenges have resulted in great debt among medical graduates worldwide. In Singapore, more scholarships and bursaries have been disbursed in recent years to support students who are financially challenged. We aimed to study the financial status of medical students in National University of Singapore (NUS) Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (i.e. NUS Medicine), Singapore, and the financial support available to them. A cross-sectional quantitative study was performed. Surveys were distributed and completed by medical students of NUS Medicine. Information regarding household income, financial assistance, monthly allowance and expense, and concurrent occupations was collected. We compared our findings with the results of a similar study performed in 2007 and national income data. A total of 956 (66.2%) out of 1,445 medical students completed the survey. 19.5% and 58.5% of respondents came from households with monthly incomes SGD 7,000, respectively. 20.6% of students had loans, 18.9% had scholarships and bursaries, and 14.4% worked to support themselves. Medical school fees have risen by more than 50% over the past ten years. Our study found that there were increases in the proportion of students from both the lower- and higher-income segments, with proportionally fewer students from the middle-income segment. A large number of students were working and/or had some form of financial support. More should be done to meet the needs of financially challenged medical students to ensure equal access to quality medical education.

  4. Large-scale rainfall characteristics around the Japan Islands in East Asia relating to the typhoon approach near late autumn (A case study for Ty1326 comparing with the cases in the midsummer and "autumn rainfall" seasons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kojima, Yumi; Matsumoto, Kengo; Otani, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    The tropical cyclones, called the typhoons around East Asia, the hurricanes around North America, and so on, develop through the CISK mechanism and their rainfall systems are characterized basically by the organized ensemble of deep convective clouds. However, although the intense typhoons with wide strong-wind area sometimes approach the Japan Islands in mid-latitude from summer to late autumn, the large-scale atmospheric fields there including baroclinicity and stability for deep moist convection, etc., show rather rapid seasonal transition only in a few months, influenced greatly by the global-scale Asian monsoon. These would result in the seasonal variety of the large-scale rainfall characteristics, as well as the total precipitation, relating to the typhoon approach from summer to late autumn. In turn, detailed analyses of such rainfall variety in association with the typhoon approaches also could give us important information for understanding the seasonal cycles of the East Asian climate systems more deeply. Thus the present study examined a case in which a typhoon approached the eastern Japan around 15-16 October 2013 (near late autumn, Ty1326), comparing with those in the midsummer and "autumn rainfall" seasons (Ty1112 and Ty1115, which approached the Japan Islands around 2-4 September 2011 and around 19-21 September 2011, respectively). 10-minutes precipitation data at the meteorological stations by the JMA, the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data at the grid points with every 2.5 degrees latitude/longitude interval and so on, were mainly used for analysis. During the stage when Ty1112 passed northward around the western Japan along the western edge of the North Pacific high, the Japan Islands area was covered with very warm and moist air mass, and the stratification for deep moist convection was rather unstable. Besides, the strong low-level S-ly wind area toward the northern frontal zone extended widely to the east of the typhoon center. In this case, many

  5. ALLIUM HOOKERII LIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    interest in the cultivation of only the high yielding few cash crops and vegetables. From the result of .... Figure 2: Photos of a vegetable market selling Allium hookeri in Manipur and showing their edible parts. ...... Talati S and P Shah Nutritional Studies On Fresh and Dehydrated Onion (. Allium Cepa Linn). Shodh, Samiksha ...

  6. Stable phenotype and function of immortalized Lin-Sca-1+ cardiac progenitor cells in long-term culture: a step closer to standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Ana G; Nascimento, Diana S; Forte, Giancarlo; Valente, Mariana; Resende, Tatiana P; Pagliari, Stefania; Abreu, Cláudia; Carvalho, Isabel; Di Nardo, Paolo; Pinto-do-Ó, Perpétua

    2014-05-01

    Putative cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have been identified in the myocardium and are regarded as promising candidates for cardiac cell-based therapies. Although two distinct populations of CPCs reached the clinical setting, more detailed studies are required to portray the optimal cell type and therapeutic setting to drive robust cell engraftment and cardiomyogenesis after injury. Owing to the scarcity of the CPCs and the need for reproducibility, the generation of faithful cellular models would facilitate this scrutiny. Here, we evaluate whether immortalized Lin(-)Sca-1(+) CPCs (iCPC(Sca-1)) represent their native-cell counterpart, thereby constituting a robust in vitro model system for standardized investigation in the cardiac field. iCPC(Sca-1) were established in vitro as plastic adherent cells endowed with robust self-renewal capacity while preserving a stable phenotype in long-term culture. iCPC(Sca-1) differentiated into cardiomyocytic-, endothelial-, and smooth muscle-like cells when subjected to appropriate stimuli. The cell line consistently displayed features of Lin(-)Sca-1(+) CPCs in vitro, as well as in vivo after intramyocardial delivery in the onset of myocardial infarction (MI). Transplanted iCPC(Sca-1) significantly attenuated the functional and anatomical alterations caused by MI while promoting neovascularization. iCPC(Sca-1) are further shown to engraft, establish functional connections, and differentiate in loco into cardiomyocyte- and vasculature-like cells. These data validate iCPC(Sca-1) as an in vitro model system for Lin(-)Sca-1(+) progenitors and for systematic dissection of mechanisms underlying CPC subsets engraftment/differentiation in vivo. Moreover, iCPC(Sca-1) can be regarded as a ready-to-use CPCs source for pre-clinical bioengineering studies toward the development of novel strategies for restoration of the damaged myocardium.

  7. Décomposition de la densité de force dans l'induit d'un moteur linéaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinsard, Gérard; Laporte, Bernard; Takorabet, Noureddine; Brancher, Jean-Pierre

    1997-10-01

    The force density field in the secondary of a linear motor is computed and its decomposition into rotational and gradient parts is explained. This approach is illustrated with a practical exemple. Le champ de densité de force dans l'induit d'un moteur linéaire est calculé et sa décomposition en parties gradient et rotationnelle est expliquée. Cette démarche est illustrée par un exemple pratique.

  8. Sur une classe d’équations différentielles aux dérivées partielles non linéaires à retard

    OpenAIRE

    HARRAGA, Hafida

    2011-01-01

    Ce mémoire est consacré à l’étude d’une classe d’équations différentielles aux dérivées partielles non linéaires à retard distribué dépendant d’état. L’existence et l’unicité des solutions, les propriétés asymptotiques, dont l’existence d’un attracteur global, sont étudiées. On cherche des conditions sur la fonction noyau pour que notre système admet des solutions stationnaires.

  9. BASES PARA LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA EN EL CULTIVO DEL CACAO (Theobroma cacao, Lin) POR MEDIO DEL CRITERIO DE EXPERTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Giclis M. Suárez; René Florido Bacallao; Francisco Soto Carreño; Alberto Caballero Núñez

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cacao (Theobroma cacao, Lin) por medio del criterio de expertos mediante el método Delphi. Se seleccionaron expertos de diferentes esferas y se determinó el nivel de experticia y el nivel de competencia de cada experto respecto a la problemática relacionada con la definición de los factores que definen la ubicación del cultivo. Para ello se elaboró y aplicó un sistema de rondas de preguntas o cues...

  10. Kehitysvammaisten opiskelijoiden vanhempien kokemuksia kodin ja koulun välisestä yhteistyöstä työhön ja itsenäiseen elämään valmentavassa ja kuntouttavassa koulutuksessa

    OpenAIRE

    Jaara, Riikka

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvailla kehitysvammaisten opiskelijoiden vanhempien kokemuksia kodin ja koulun välisestä yhteistyöstä työhön ja itsenäiseen elämään valmentavassa ja kuntouttavassa koulutuksessa. Tutkimustulosten ansiosta opinnäytetyön yhteistyökumppanina toiminut ammattiopisto Luovi saa ajantasaista tietoa vanhempien kokemuksista, mikä voi auttaa Luovissa työskenteleviä ammattilaisia kehittämään vanhempien kanssa tehtävää yhteistyötä. Opinnäytetyön tutkimustehtävänä oli selvit...

  11. Evolution of Salmonella Typhi outer membrane protein-specific T and B cell responses in humans following oral Ty21a vaccination: A randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Carreño

    Full Text Available Vaccination against complex pathogens such as typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella requires the concerted action of different immune effector mechanisms. Outer membrane proteins (Omps of Salmonella Typhi are potent immunogens, which elicit long-lasting and protective immunity. Here, we followed the evolution of S. Typhi OmpC and F-specific T and B cell responses in healthy volunteers after vaccination with the vaccine strain Ty21a. To follow humoral and cellular immune responses, pre- and post-vaccination samples (PBMC, serum and stool collected from 15 vaccinated and 5 non-vaccinated individuals. Immunoglobulin levels were assessed in peripheral blood by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. B cell and T cell activation were analyzed by flow cytometry. We observed a significant increase of circulating antibody-secreting cells and maximal Omp-specific serum IgG titers at day 25 post vaccination, while IgA titers in stool peaked at day 60. Likewise, Omp-specific CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood showed the highest expansion at day 60 post vaccination, concomitant with a significant increase in IFN-γ and TNFα production. These results indicate that S. Typhi Omp-specific B cell responses and polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses evolve over a period of at least two months after application of the live attenuated vaccine. Moreover, these findings underscore the potential of S. Typhi Omps as subunit vaccine components.ISRCTN18360696.

  12. Use of the mar-lin criteria to determine the influence of porosity on the iosipescu and short beam shear properties in carbon fiber polymer matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Ancelotti Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To address a critical aspect of the fast growing use of composites in aircraft and aerospace industry, the influence of the porosity on the shear strength of composites property was investigated as a mean for determining the critical values of porosity. Acid digestion techniques were applied to determine the void volume ratio of two families of carbon epoxy laminates (8 and 16 plies. Ultrasonic inspections revealed the corresponding attenuation coefficients. The void morphology was investigated by optical microscopy. Results from Interlaminar shear and Iosipescu shear tests were correlated with the attenuation coefficient to determine critical values of porosity using a modified Mar-Lin fracture criteria. It has been shown that the shear strength decrease with the increase of void volume ratio and the effects are more significant in thicker laminates. This work showed that by using the Mar-Lin criteria the singularity order, which is an indicative of the sensibility to voids in composites, is dependent of type of loading and void distribution.

  13. AKTIVITAS KITINASE, LESITINASE, DAN HEMOLISIN ISOLAT DARI BAKTERI IKAN NILA (Oreochromis niloticus Lin. YANG DIKULTUR DALAM KERAMBA JARING APUNG WADUK JATILUHUR, PURWAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Mangunwardoyo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila Lin. merupakan bakteri patogen oportunistik akuatik yang virulensinya dipengaruhi oleh adanya enzim kitinase, lesitinase, dan toksin haemolisin, merupakan penyebab kematian ikan nila yang tinggi. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengamati aktivitas enzim kitinase, lesitinase, dan toksin hemolisin dari 30 ikan nila dari keramba jaring apung waduk Jatiluhur dengan metode tehnik agar. A. hydrophila menunjukkan positif virulen ditunjukkan adanya zona bening untuk lesitinase sebesar 7,9 mm; kitinase 8,0 mm; dan hemolisin 6,6 mm dibandingkan dengan isolat Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., dan Vibrio sp. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa A. hydrophila bersifat patogen dan virulen terhadap ikan nila. Aeromonas hydrophila Lin. is one of opportunistic aquatic pathogen bacteria where its pathogenic behavior is influenced by chitinase, lechitinase, and toxin haemolycine, and causes high mortality in nile tilapia culture. The purpose of the research was to observe the activities of two A. hydrophila’s enzymes i.e.: chitinase and lechitinase, and one extracelullar toxin, haemolycine, isolated from 30 nile tilapias cultured in floating net cage at Jatiluhur using quantitative plate assay technique. A. hydrophila was positive virulent marked with transparent zone of lechitinase of 7.9 mm, haemolycin of 6.6 mm, and chitinase of 8.0 mm compared to Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Vibrio sp. Therefore, A. hydrophila is determined as highly pathogenic bacterium and virulent for nile tilapia.

  14. TWO EXTRAORDINARY SUBSTELLAR BINARIES AT THE T/Y TRANSITION AND THE Y-BAND FLUXES OF THE COOLEST BROWN DWARFS {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Best, William M. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Leggett, S. K. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Using Keck laser guide star adaptive optics imaging, we have found that the T9 dwarf WISE J1217+1626 and T8 dwarf WISE J1711+3500 are exceptional binaries, with unusually wide separations ( Almost-Equal-To 0.''8, 8-15 AU), large near-IR flux ratios ( Almost-Equal-To 2-3 mag), and small mass ratios ( Almost-Equal-To 0.5) compared to previously known field ultracool binaries. Keck/NIRSPEC H-band spectra give a spectral type of Y0 for WISE J1217+1626B, and photometric estimates suggest T9.5 for WISE J1711+3500B. The WISE J1217+1626AB system is very similar to the T9+Y0 binary CFBDSIR J1458+1013AB; these two systems are the coldest known substellar multiples, having secondary components of Almost-Equal-To 400 K and being planetary-mass binaries if their ages are {approx}<1 Gyr. Both WISE J1217+1626B and CFBDSIR J1458+1013B have strikingly blue Y - J colors compared to previously known T dwarfs, including their T9 primaries. Combining all available data, we find that Y - J color drops precipitously between the very latest T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. The fact that this is seen in (coeval, mono-metallicity) binaries demonstrates that the color drop arises from a change in temperature, not surface gravity or metallicity variations among the field population. Thus, the T/Y transition established by near-IR spectra coincides with a significant change in the Almost-Equal-To 1 {mu}m fluxes of ultracool photospheres. One explanation is the depletion of potassium, whose broad absorption wings dominate the far-red optical spectra of T dwarfs. This large color change suggests that far-red data may be valuable for classifying objects of {approx}<500 K.

  15. Détermination de quelques paramètres biochimiques chez la rateWISTAR consommant un régime cafeteria enrichi en huile de lin

    OpenAIRE

    BENYOUB, Nor Eddine

    2011-01-01

    L’objectif de notre travail est d’évaluer les effets d’enrichissement en AGPI n-3 du régime standard (ONAB) et du régime cafétéria (hyperlipidique et hypercalorique) à l’huile de lin (2.5%) sur le poids corporel et sur quelques paramètres biochimiques (cholestérol total, triglycérides, et protéines totales) et les marqueurs du stress oxydatif (malondialdéhydes, Hydropéroxydes, Protéines carbonylés, les diènes conjugués, Vitamines A, C et E, Catalase, ORAC et oxydation des lipoprot...

  16. Sur les méthodes de réduction de modèles linéaires : application à la machine synchrone

    OpenAIRE

    Djemel, Mohamed; Derbel, Nabil; Kamoun, Mohamed

    1996-01-01

    Dans cet article, on s'intéresse à la réduction de systèmes linéaires d'ordre élevé. On présente quatre méthodes. Dans la première, un critère de sélection des modes retenus dans un modèle agrégé est envisagé. Ce dernier met en évidence la contribution de chaque état du système dans le calcul des moments de temps. La seconde méthode, appelée méthode de symétrisation interne, est basée sur une estimation du degré de commandabilité et d'observabilité du vecteur d'état x. La troisième étudie la ...

  17. Linéaire b : A-PE-O-TE dans la Tablette PY 724 An ( PY 55) : Partie II (Traduction et commentaires). Ligne .1 (3).

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINOTTI, Enriqueta; MARTINOTTI, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Traduction du linéaire B, tablette de Pylos, PY 724 An: analyse des monosyllabes dans la série des signes A-PE-O-TE .; Nous avons déjà analysé les premières séries de signes de la tablette PY 724 An de Pylos dans des publications antérieures. L’examen complet, étant si vaste, nous oblige à l’exposer dans des publications séparées. La troisième formule de la ligne .1, c'est à dire 1.3, est composée par la série de signes translittérés comme a-pe-o-te, ce qui a été considéré par Chadwick comme ...

  18. Efeito e modo de ação das bacteriocinas produzidas por Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ITAL 383, ATCC 11454 e CNRZ 150 contra Listeria innocua LIN 11 Effect and mode of action of the bacterioncin produced by Lactococcus. lactis subsp. lactis ITAL 383, ATCC 11454 e CNRZ 150 against Listeria innocua LIN 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izildinha MORENO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito e o modo de ação das bacteriocinas produzidas por L. lactis subsp. lactis ITAL 383 e CNRZ 150 são similares à nisina de L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454. Estas bacteriocinas apresentaram um modo de ação bactericida, causando a lise de células de L. innocua LIN 11, associada ao decréscimo da absorbância e da viabilidade celular. O efeito letal foi maior para células em fase exponencial comparativamente à fase estacionária de crescimento. A adsorção dessas bacteriocinas às células de L. innocua LIN 11 foi muito rápida e influenciada pelo pH do meio de suspensão; adsorção máxima foi verificada a pH 6,0 e logo após o contato inicial. Perda completa de adsorção ocorreu em pH 2,0.The effect and mode of action of the bacteriocin produced by L. lactis subsp. lactis ITAL 383 and CNRZ 150 are similar to the nisin produced by L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454. It was clearly bactericidal, and caused lysis of a strain of L. innocua LIN 11 detected by the decrease of absorbance values and the cell viability. Their lethal effect was considerably higher during the logarithmic growth when compared to the stationary phase. Adsorption developed rapidly and was influenced by the pH value of the suspension medium. Maximum adsorption was observed at pH 6,0 and immediately after initial contact and loss at pH 2,0.

  19. NOPS 2010-2012- Hanke, Nuoren työ- ja toimintakyvyn edistäminen ammattiopistoissa : Selvitys nuorten unitottumuksista ja energiajuomien käytöstä Mäntsälän ammattiopisto Keudassa

    OpenAIRE

    Enström, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää Mäntsälän ammattiopisto Keudassa opiskelevien nuorten unitottumuksia ja energiajuomien käyttöä. Opinnäytetyö sisältyy nuoren työ- ja toimintakykyä edistävään NOPS 2010-2012- hankkeeseen. Perusteet opinnäytetyölle olivat aiheen ajankohtaisuus sekä ammattiopiston henkilökunnan huoli nuorten päivittäisestä toimintakyvystä sekä energiajuomien kulutuksesta. Tämä opinnäytetyö toteutettiin kvantitatiivisena tutkimuksena kyselylomakkeen sekä keskusteluun...

  20. NOPS 2010-2012 -hanke Nuoren työ- ja toimintakyvyn edistäminen ammattiopistoissa : Nuorten naisten seksuaalisen itsetunnon tukeminen Keuda Järvenpäässä

    OpenAIRE

    Hakkarainen, Anette; Ruuttunen, Aino

    2013-01-01

    Toteutimme opinnäytetyömme NOPS-hankkeessa (Nuoren työ- ja toimintakyvyn edistäminen ammattiopistoissa 2010–2012). Hankkeen periaatteena on voimavarakeskeinen, osallistava yksilö- ja yhteisölähtöinen terveyden edistäminen. NOPS-hankkeen avulla pyritään opettamaan ammattiopistossa opiskeleville nuorille taitoja, joilla he itse voivat parantaa terveyteensä vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Tärkeää on nuorten toimintakyvyn edistäminen ja ylläpitäminen. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on vahvistaa amm...

  1. A TODA-YAMAMOTO (TY)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect between economic growth and public expenditure on both education and capital goods based on the results of this study. Keywords: Public Expenditure, Economic Growth, Wagner's law, Namibia, South Africa. JEL Classification: H5; O4. * Corresponding Author. University of Namibia. Email: eziramba@unam.na.

  2. The Story of Heathcliff’s Journey Back to Wuthering Heights de Lin Haire-Sargeant (1992, ou le « deux en un » de la ré-écriture The Story of Heathcliff’s Journey Back to Wuthering Heights by Lin Haire-Sargeant (1992, and a “Two in one” Rewrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Roblin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lin Haire-Sargeant’s 1992 novel The Story of Heathcliff’s Journey Back to Wuthering Heights is typical of the interest shown by contemporary American writers in Victorian novels. It could indeed be classified doubly as a “retro-Victorian novel” since it partly re-writes not only Emily Brontë’s most famous novel, Wuthering Heights, as the title points out, but also, somewhat less obviously, Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre. We will study in this article how Lin Haire-Sargeant’s attempt at re-writing highlights the usual aims of the retro-Victorian novel: taking advantage of the blanks left by the source novels to propose to the reader a modern critical approach, while at the same time being as faithful as possible to the writing conventions of the 19th century, and suggesting another point of view on a well-known story, through a postmodern mixing of historical and fictive characters.

  3. Differential processing of let-7a precursors influences RRM2 expression and chemosensitivity in pancreatic cancer: role of LIN-28 and SET oncoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom Doma Bhutia

    Full Text Available Overexpression of ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2 (RRM2, involved in deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, drives the chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer to nucleoside analogs (e.g., gemcitabine. While silencing RRM2 by synthetic means has shown promise in reducing chemoresistance, targeting endogenous molecules, especially microRNAs (miRNAs, to advance chemotherapeutic outcomes has been poorly explored. Based on computational predictions, we hypothesized that the let-7 tumor suppressor miRNAs will inhibit RRM2-mediated gemcitabine chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. Reduced expression of the majority of let-7 miRNAs with an inverse relationship to RRM2 expression was identified in innately gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines. Direct binding of let-7 miRNAs to the 3' UTR of RRM2 transcripts identified post-transcriptional regulation of RRM2 influencing gemcitabine chemosensitivity. Intriguingly, overexpression of human precursor-let-7 miRNAs led to differential RRM2 expression and chemosensitivity responses in a poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2. Defective processing of let-7a precursors to mature forms, in part, explained the discrepancies observed with let-7a expressional outcomes. Consistently, the ratios of mature to precursor let-7a were progressively reduced in gemcitabine-sensitive L3.6pl and Capan-1 cell lines induced to acquire gemcitabine resistance. Besides known regulators of let-7 biogenesis (e.g., LIN-28, short hairpin RNA library screening identified several novel RNA binding proteins, including the SET oncoprotein, to differentially impact let-7 biogenesis and chemosensitivity in gemcitabine-sensitive versus -resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Further, LIN-28 and SET knockdown in the cells led to profound reductions in cellular proliferation and colony-formation capacities. Finally, defective processing of let-7a precursors with a positive correlation to RRM2 overexpression was

  4. Diversity of the Ty-1 copia retrotransposon Tos17 in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the AA genome of the Oryza genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Julie; Bourgeois, Emmanuelle; Stenger, Wilfried; Bès, Martine; Droc, Gaétan; Meynard, Donaldo; Courtois, Brigitte; Ghesquière, Alain; Sabot, François; Panaud, Olivier; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel

    2009-12-01

    Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements, ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes, which have proven to be major genetic tools in determining phylogeny and structuring genetic diversity, notably in plants. We investigate here the diversity of the Ty1-copia retrotransposon Tos17 in the cultivated rice of Asian origin (Oryza sativa L.) and related AA genome species of the Oryza genus, to contribute understanding of the complex evolutionary history in this group of species through that of the element in the lineages. In that aim, we used a combination of Southern hybridization with a reverse transcriptase (RT) probe and an adapter-PCR mediated amplification, which allowed the sequencing of the genomic regions flanking Tos17 insertions. This analysis was carried out in a collection of 47 A-genome Oryza species accessions and 202 accessions of a core collection of Oryza sativa L. representative of the diversity of the species. Our Southern hybridization results show that Tos17 is present in all the accessions of the A-genome Oryza species, except for the South American species O. glumaepatula and the African species O. glaberrima and O. breviligulata. In O. sativa, the number of putative copies of Tos17 per accession ranged from 1 to 11 and multivariate analysis based on presence/absence of putative copies yielded a varietal clustering which is consistent with the isozyme classification of rice. Adapter PCR amplification and sequencing of flanking regions of Tos17 insertions in A-genome species other than O. sativa, followed by anchoring on the Nipponbare genome sequence, revealed 13 insertion sites of Tos17 in the surveyed O. rufipogon and O. longistaminata accessions, including one shared by both species. In O. sativa, the same approach revealed 25 insertions in the 6 varietal groups. Four insertion sites located on chromosomes 1, 2, 10, and 11 were found orthologous in O. rufipogon and O. sativa. The chromosome 1 insertion was also shared between O. rufipogon and O

  5. Evaluación preclínica y estudio de estabilidad de extractos a partir del follaje de Momordica charantia Lin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lagarto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la evaluación preclínica y el estudio de estabilidad de extractos a partir del follaje de Momordica charantia Lin. Se obtuvieron extractos acuoso e hidroalcohólico para los cuales se establecieron las especificaciones de calidad mediante la evaluación de tres lotes y se estudió su estabilidad por el método de vida de estante durante 12 meses. A los extractos se le evaluó el potencial genotóxico mediante ensayos de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón y aberraciones cromosómicas en linfocitos de sangre periférica. La actividad hipoglicemiante oral fue evaluada en animales con hiperglicemia temporal inducida por carga de glucosa. Como resultados se establecieron las especificaciones de calidad de los extractos acuoso e hidroalcohólico, los mismos mostraron estabilidad por 6 meses para el extracto acuoso y 12 meses para el extracto hidroalcohólico. No mostraron efecto genotóxico en los ensayos evaluados y mostraron efecto hipoglicemiante oral a la dosis de 450 mg/kg.

  6. Deficiency of Suppressor Enhancer Lin12 1 Like (SEL1L) in Mice Leads to Systemic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Embryonic Lethality*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Adam B.; Singh, Rajni; Li, Shuai; Vani, Anish K.; Yang, Liu; Munroe, Robert J.; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Cardano, Marina; Biunno, Ida; Qi, Ling; Schimenti, John C.; Long, Qiaoming

    2010-01-01

    Stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important causal role in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and diabetes mellitus. Insight into the genetic determinants responsible for ER homeostasis will greatly facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these debilitating diseases. Suppressor enhancer Lin12 1 like (SEL1L) is an ER membrane protein and was thought to be involved in the quality control of secreted proteins. Here we show that the mice homozygous mutant for SEL1L were embryonic lethal. Electron microscopy studies revealed a severely dilated ER in the fetal liver of mutant embryos, indicative of alteration in ER homeostasis. Consistent with this, several ER stress responsive genes were significantly up-regulated in the mutant embryos. Mouse embryonic fibroblast cells deficient in SEL1L exhibited activated unfolded protein response at the basal state, impaired ER-associated protein degradation, and reduced protein secretion. Furthermore, markedly increased apoptosis was observed in the forebrain and dorsal root ganglions of mutant embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate an essential role for SEL1L in protein quality control during mouse embryonic development. PMID:20197277

  7. Amélioration du filtrage non linéaire dans les modèles d'état par ré-estimation de l'état passé

    OpenAIRE

    CHONAVEL, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    National audience; Cet article propose une amélioration du comportement des techniques de filtrage dans les modèles d'état non linéaires. Pour cela, on introduit des techniques de filtrage de type Kalman étendu, "sans parfum" ou particulaire qui exploitent en particulier la concaténation des équations d'état et d'observation afin de limiter les effets des non linéarités dans la propagation de l'état et d’améliorer l’estimation de l'état 'instant antérieur. On vérifie que les performances obte...

  8. An attempt of using soil grain size in calculating the capacity of water unavailable to plants / Próba wykorzystania uziarnienia gleby do obliczania zawartości wody niedostępnej dla roślin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brogowski Zygmunt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Celem pracy była próba znalezienia możliwości obliczenia ilości wody niedostępnej dla roślin na podstawie uziarnienia gleb. Frakcje o średnicach <0,02 mm gromadzą od 90,1 do 98,8% całkowitej ilości wody niedostępnej dla roślin, a frakcja iłu koloidalnego (<0,002 mm zatrzymuje od 52,1 do 80,1% tej wody. Gromadzenie wody we frakcjach <0,02 mm znacząco zależy od ich składu mineralogicznego. Obecność we frakcjach illitu, chlorytu oraz kaolinitu powoduje zmniejszenie ilości wody niedostępnej nawet o 40% w stosunku do frakcji zbudowanych ze smektytów, wermikulitów oraz próchnicy. Ze względu na duże zróżnicowanie ilości wody niedostępnej dla roślin w poszczególnych frakcjach granulometrycznych <0,02 mm wynikaj¹ce ze zróżnicowania mineralogicznego tych frakcji nie udało się wyprowadzić współczynników pozwalających na obliczenie ilościowe w glebach wody niedostępnej dla roślin wiązanej w mikroporach <0,2 μm.

  9. A crônica esportiva de José Lins do Rego: política, paixão e relações de força

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes CAPRARO

    Full Text Available Resumo Além do envolvimento com o futebol, outra característica típica da crônica de José Lins do Rego foi o diálogo (ou debates com o círculo intelectual no qual estava inserido. As influências de Gilberto Freyre e Mário Filho foram as mais sensíveis, mas não foram poucos os seus interlocutores. Desta forma, perspectiva-se compreender o posicionamento de José Lins do Rego em suas crônicas esportivas, sem perder de vista esta interdependência estabelecida pela intelectualidade brasileira. Em caráter conclusivo, constatou-se que as crônicas de José Lins, permeadas pela racionalidade e pela paixão, exerceram funções múltiplas em se tratando do convívio com a intelectualidade brasileira.

  10. Using a Human Challenge Model of Infection to Measure Vaccine Efficacy: A Randomised, Controlled Trial Comparing the Typhoid Vaccines M01ZH09 with Placebo and Ty21a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Darton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid persists as a major cause of global morbidity. While several licensed vaccines to prevent typhoid are available, they are of only moderate efficacy and unsuitable for use in children less than two years of age. Development of new efficacious vaccines is complicated by the human host-restriction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi and lack of clear correlates of protection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of a single dose of the oral vaccine candidate, M01ZH09, in susceptible volunteers by direct typhoid challenge.We performed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adult participants at a single centre in Oxford (UK. Participants were allocated to receive one dose of double-blinded M01ZH09 or placebo or 3-doses of open-label Ty21a. Twenty-eight days after vaccination, participants were challenged with 104CFU S. Typhi Quailes strain. The efficacy of M01ZH09 compared with placebo (primary outcome was assessed as the percentage of participants reaching pre-defined endpoints constituting typhoid diagnosis (fever and/or bacteraemia during the 14 days after challenge. Ninety-nine participants were randomised to receive M01ZH09 (n = 33, placebo (n = 33 or 3-doses of Ty21a (n = 33. After challenge, typhoid was diagnosed in 18/31 (58.1% [95% CI 39.1 to 75.5] M01ZH09, 20/30 (66.7% [47.2 to 87.2] placebo, and 13/30 (43.3% [25.5 to 62.6] Ty21a vaccine recipients. Vaccine efficacy (VE for one dose of M01ZH09 was 13% [95% CI -29 to 41] and 35% [-5 to 60] for 3-doses of Ty21a. Retrospective multivariable analyses demonstrated that pre-existing anti-Vi antibody significantly reduced susceptibility to infection after challenge; a 1 log increase in anti-Vi IgG resulting in a 71% decrease in the hazard ratio of typhoid diagnosis ([95% CI 30 to 88%], p = 0.006 during the 14 day challenge period. Limitations to the study included the requirement to limit the challenge period prior to treatment to

  11. Using a Human Challenge Model of Infection to Measure Vaccine Efficacy: A Randomised, Controlled Trial Comparing the Typhoid Vaccines M01ZH09 with Placebo and Ty21a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Blohmke, Christoph J; Waddington, Claire S; Zhou, Liqing; Peters, Anna; Haworth, Kathryn; Sie, Rebecca; Green, Christopher A; Jeppesen, Catherine A; Moore, Maria; Thompson, Ben A V; John, Tessa; Kingsley, Robert A; Yu, Ly-Mee; Voysey, Merryn; Hindle, Zoe; Lockhart, Stephen; Sztein, Marcelo B; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Typhoid persists as a major cause of global morbidity. While several licensed vaccines to prevent typhoid are available, they are of only moderate efficacy and unsuitable for use in children less than two years of age. Development of new efficacious vaccines is complicated by the human host-restriction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and lack of clear correlates of protection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of a single dose of the oral vaccine candidate, M01ZH09, in susceptible volunteers by direct typhoid challenge. We performed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in healthy adult participants at a single centre in Oxford (UK). Participants were allocated to receive one dose of double-blinded M01ZH09 or placebo or 3-doses of open-label Ty21a. Twenty-eight days after vaccination, participants were challenged with 104CFU S. Typhi Quailes strain. The efficacy of M01ZH09 compared with placebo (primary outcome) was assessed as the percentage of participants reaching pre-defined endpoints constituting typhoid diagnosis (fever and/or bacteraemia) during the 14 days after challenge. Ninety-nine participants were randomised to receive M01ZH09 (n = 33), placebo (n = 33) or 3-doses of Ty21a (n = 33). After challenge, typhoid was diagnosed in 18/31 (58.1% [95% CI 39.1 to 75.5]) M01ZH09, 20/30 (66.7% [47.2 to 87.2]) placebo, and 13/30 (43.3% [25.5 to 62.6]) Ty21a vaccine recipients. Vaccine efficacy (VE) for one dose of M01ZH09 was 13% [95% CI -29 to 41] and 35% [-5 to 60] for 3-doses of Ty21a. Retrospective multivariable analyses demonstrated that pre-existing anti-Vi antibody significantly reduced susceptibility to infection after challenge; a 1 log increase in anti-Vi IgG resulting in a 71% decrease in the hazard ratio of typhoid diagnosis ([95% CI 30 to 88%], p = 0.006) during the 14 day challenge period. Limitations to the study included the requirement to limit the challenge period prior to treatment to 2

  12. The pedagogical value of a student-run community-based experiential learning project: The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine Public Health Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Tay, Clifton M; Lee, Jeannette J M; Koh, Gerald C H

    2010-09-01

    We assessed the pedagogical value of a student-led community-based experiential learning project called the Public Health Screening (PHS) run by medical and nursing students of the National University of Singapore's Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (NUS YLLSoM). We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered anonymised questionnaire on medical and nursing students who participated in PHS using the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) Survey Instrument. Participants also gave an overall score for their learning experience at the PHS. The participation rate was 93.1% (576/619) for medical students and 100% (37/37) for nursing students. All participants gave the PHS learning experience a high rating (median = 8 out of maximum of 10, inter-quartile range, 7 to 9). A majority of participants felt that PHS had helped them to improve across all domains surveyed. For medical students, those in preclinical years and females were independently more likely to feel that PHS had helped them to improve in communication skills, teamwork, ability to identify social issues, taking action, and gaining and applying their knowledge than those in clinical years and males. Improved ability to interact with patients (β=1.64, 95%CI, 1.01-2.27), appreciation of challenges to healthcare faced by Singaporeans from lower income groups (β=0.93, 95%CI, 0.49-1.37), thinking of others (β=0.70, 95%CI, 0.04-1.37) and tolerance of different people (β =0.63, 95%CI, 0.17-1.10) were strongly associated with the overall rating score. PHS was a positive learning experience in a wide range of domains for all students involved. This suggests that student-organised community-based experiential learning projects have potential educational value for both medical and nursing students.

  13. Quantitative Detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua by Real-Time PCR: Assessment of hly, iap, and lin02483 Targets and AmpliFluor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Hernández, Marta; Scortti, Mariela; Esteve, Teresa; Vázquez-Boland, José A.; Pla, Maria

    2004-01-01

    We developed and assessed real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) assays for the detection and quantification of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and the closely related nonpathogenic species L. innocua. The target genes were hly and iap for L. monocytogenes and lin02483 for L. innocua. The assays were 100% specific, as determined with 100 Listeria strains and 45 non-Listeria strains, and highly sensitive, with detection limits of one target molecule in 11 to 56% of the reactions with purified DNA and 3 CFU in 56 to 89% of the reactions with bacterial suspensions. Quantification was possible over a 5-log dynamic range, with a limit of 15 target molecules and R2 values of >0.996. There was an excellent correspondence between the predicted and the actual numbers of CFU in the samples (deviations of <23%). The hly-based assay accurately quantified L. monocytogenes in all of the samples tested. The iap-based assay, in contrast, was unsuitable for quantification purposes, underestimating the bacterial counts by 3 to 4 log units in a significant proportion of the samples due to serovar-related target sequence variability. The combination of the two assays enabled us to classify L. monocytogenes isolates into one of the two major phylogenetic divisions of the species, I and II. We also assessed the new AmpliFluor technology for the quantitative detection of L. monocytogenes by RTi-PCR. The performance of this system was similar to that of the TaqMan system, although the former system was slightly less sensitive (detection limit of 15 molecules in 45% of the reactions) and had a higher quantification limit (60 molecules). PMID:15006755

  14. PLANNING BY USING DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE SITES – A CASE STUDY OF QIONG-LIN SETTLEMENT IN KINMEN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ICOMOS Florence Declaration in 2014, encourages an in-depth reflection on human values through cultural heritage and landscapes, which emphasizes the importance of historical heritage sites, in order to achieve the application of cultural heritage records through the public participation, sharing new technology platform and facilitation tools for knowledge diffusion, for instance. Nikos adopted digitized intangible cultural heritage within i-Treasures project to create a novel digital platform in 2016. Nowadays, the display platform developed based on geographic information system has been gradually accepted and widely used to distribute cultural heritage information, aiming to combine geography, time, events, issues, trends with the interactive maps to show the context of data changes from the consideration of planarity; for example, Burnaby City in Canada has cooperated with the Columbia University to create a navigation platform for guidance of tangible cultural heritage based on story maps in order to provide public recognition function. In this study, Qiong-Lin Settlement in Kinmen Area was taken as an example to illustrate the developing process of an overall planning framework for reappearing the glory of historic settlements of cultural heritage sites with digital technology, which included tangible and intangible cultural heritage preservation and transmission planning, community participation and digital navigation programs. The digital technology with the GIS-based digital platform can provide more diverse and interesting information while using an intuitive, graphical user story mapping interface. So that tangible cultural heritage can be effectively understood, interpreted and preserved with the value-added methods, and also intangible cultural heritage can be continuously transmitted to establish a complete system of cultural heritage preservation. The main contents include several navigation technologies, such as 3D laser scanning

  15. Planning by Using Digital Technology in the Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage Sites - a Case Study of Qiong-Lin Settlement in Kinmen Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. B.; Ye, Y. N.

    2017-08-01

    ICOMOS Florence Declaration in 2014, encourages an in-depth reflection on human values through cultural heritage and landscapes, which emphasizes the importance of historical heritage sites, in order to achieve the application of cultural heritage records through the public participation, sharing new technology platform and facilitation tools for knowledge diffusion, for instance. Nikos adopted digitized intangible cultural heritage within i-Treasures project to create a novel digital platform in 2016. Nowadays, the display platform developed based on geographic information system has been gradually accepted and widely used to distribute cultural heritage information, aiming to combine geography, time, events, issues, trends with the interactive maps to show the context of data changes from the consideration of planarity; for example, Burnaby City in Canada has cooperated with the Columbia University to create a navigation platform for guidance of tangible cultural heritage based on story maps in order to provide public recognition function. In this study, Qiong-Lin Settlement in Kinmen Area was taken as an example to illustrate the developing process of an overall planning framework for reappearing the glory of historic settlements of cultural heritage sites with digital technology, which included tangible and intangible cultural heritage preservation and transmission planning, community participation and digital navigation programs. The digital technology with the GIS-based digital platform can provide more diverse and interesting information while using an intuitive, graphical user story mapping interface. So that tangible cultural heritage can be effectively understood, interpreted and preserved with the value-added methods, and also intangible cultural heritage can be continuously transmitted to establish a complete system of cultural heritage preservation. The main contents include several navigation technologies, such as 3D laser scanning, UAV images

  16. The Shadow Economy Factors and Causes Analysis by Expert Evaluation Method: Case of Lithuania Šešėlinės ekonomikos veiksnių ir priežasčių tyrimas ekspertinio vertinimo metodu: Lietuvos atvejis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Krumplytė

    2011-02-01

    shadow economy causes are the following: too big tax burden (in the case of illegal work – significant gross and net wage gap, gaps in legislation, frequent law changes, distrust of country’s government, dissatisfaction with the quality of work of governmental institutions. The main causes of the sprawl of the shadow economy – the inability to compete without being involved in the shadow economy, the lack of unified declaration of income and insufficient control of state institutions.

    Keywords: shadow economy, tax, Lithuania, factor, cause, expert evaluation method.

    Pastaraisiais metais daugelyje šalių susiformavusi sudėtinga makroekonominė situacija – sparčiai mažėjantis bendrasis vidaus produktas, didėjantis nedarbo lygis, žymus šalies biudžeto pajamų sumažėjimas – sutrikdė šalies ekonominės ir socialinės politikos įgyvendinimo galimybes. Šalia šių problemų dažnai akcentuojama šešėlinė ekonomika, apibrėžiama kaip fenomenas, kurio egzistavimas neišvengiamas ekonomikos pakilimo laikotarpiu ir matomas spartus vystymasis ekonomikos recesijos ir nuosmukio etapuose. Mokslinėje literatūroje šešėlinė ekonomika apibūdinama kaip sudėtinga daugialypė reiškinių visuma. Pažymėtina, kad nėra bendros šešėlinės ekonomikos koncepcijos, neretai tapatinami terminai „šešėlinė ekonomika“ ir „oficialiai neapskaityta ekonomika“ arba vartojami kiti terminai ir apibrėžimai. Siekiant sumažinti šešėlinės ekonomikos mastą ir sustabdyti jos sparčią raidą, svarbu identifikuoti šį procesą lemiančius veiksnius ir prie

  17. "O Romancista e o Engenho: José Lins do Rego e o regionalismo nordestino dos anos 1920 e 1930", de Mariana Ghaguri "O Romancista e o Engenho: José Lins do Rego e o regionalismo nordestino dos anos 1920 e 1930", by Mariana Chaguri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Augusto Medeiros da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se das relações entre a formalização estética do Ciclo da Cana de Açúcar e o processo social do Regionalismo Nordestino. Analisa a trajetória social e produção literária de José Lins do Rego, buscando deslindar as formas de realização social do autor, nos circuitos intelectuais e políticos de que participou (Pernambuco e Rio de Janeiro, notadamente e as condições sociais de produção de sua obra (editoras em que a mesma é publicada, recepção entre a crítica de época etc.. Em vista das disputas travadas com os Modernistas paulistas de 1922, sua interpenetração com a crise política dos anos 1930 e com as formulações de Gilberto Freyre acerca das ideias de Região e Nação, Chaguri sugere a análise do Regionalismo Nordestino como parte de um projeto estético e político, cujas intenções e consequências merecem ser sociologicamente examinadas.The book deals with the relations between the aesthetics formalization of the Sugarcane Cycle and the social process of the Brazilian Northeastern regionalism. It analyzes the social trajectory and literary work of José Lins do Rego, seeking to disclose this author's ways of social fulfillment in the intellectual and political circles he participated (especially in Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiro as well as the social conditions of production of his work (his publishers, critiques etc.. Considering his disputes with members of the 1922 modernist movement, intertwined with the political crisis of the 1930s and the formulations of Gilberto Freyre's notions about Region and Nation, Chaguri suggests the analysis of Northeastern Regionalism while part of an aesthetic and political project whose intentions and consequences deserve to be sociologically examined.

  18. Cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase from denitrifying Azoarcus sp. strain 22Lin, a novel member of the thiamine diphosphate enzyme family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Alma K; Fraas, Sonja; Harder, Jens; Tabbert, Anja; Brinkmann, Henner; Meyer, Axel; Ermler, Ulrich; Kroneck, Peter M H

    2011-12-01

    Alicyclic compounds with hydroxyl groups represent common structures in numerous natural compounds, such as terpenes and steroids. Their degradation by microorganisms in the absence of dioxygen may involve a C-C bond ring cleavage to form an aliphatic intermediate that can be further oxidized. The cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase (CDH) (EC 3.7.1.11) from denitrifying Azoarcus sp. strain 22Lin, grown on cyclohexane-1,2-diol as a sole electron donor and carbon source, is the first thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme characterized to date that cleaves a cyclic aliphatic compound. The degradation of cyclohexane-1,2-dione (CDO) to 6-oxohexanoate comprises the cleavage of a C-C bond adjacent to a carbonyl group, a typical feature of reactions catalyzed by ThDP-dependent enzymes. In the subsequent NAD(+)-dependent reaction, 6-oxohexanoate is oxidized to adipate. CDH has been purified to homogeneity by the criteria of gel electrophoresis (a single band at ∼59 kDa; calculated molecular mass, 64.5 kDa); in solution, the enzyme is a homodimer (∼105 kDa; gel filtration). As isolated, CDH contains 0.8 ± 0.05 ThDP, 1.0 ± 0.02 Mg(2+), and 1.0 ± 0.015 flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) per monomer as a second organic cofactor, the role of which remains unclear. Strong reductants, Ti(III)-citrate, Na(+)-dithionite, and the photochemical 5-deazaflavin/oxalate system, led to a partial reduction of the FAD chromophore. The cleavage product of CDO, 6-oxohexanoate, was also a substrate; the corresponding cyclic 1,3- and 1,4-diones did not react with CDH, nor did the cis- and trans-cyclohexane diols. The enzymes acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pyruvate oxidase (POX) from Lactobacillus plantarum, benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida, and pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis were identified as the closest relatives of CDH by comparative amino acid sequence analysis, and a ThDP binding motif and a 2-fold Rossmann fold

  19. Generation of a pig induced pluripotent stem cell (piPSC line from embryonic fibroblasts by incorporating LIN28 to the four transcriptional factor-mediated reprogramming: VSMUi001-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warunya Chakritbudsabong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pig induced pluripotent stem cell (piPSC line was generated from embryonic fibroblast cells using retroviral transduction approaches carrying human transcriptional factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, c-MYC and LIN28. The generated piPSC line, VSMUi001-D, was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed the pluripotency associated transcription factors including OCT4, SOX2, NANOG and surface markers SSEA-1, all iPSC hallmarks of authenticity. Furthermore, VSMUi001-D exhibited a normal karyotype and formed embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. Upon cardiac differentiation, VSMUi001-D displayed spontaneous beating and expressed cardiomyocyte markers, like cardiac Troponin T.

  20. É tempo de pipa: a representação da infância em Cidade de Deus, de Paulo Lins, e Lembrancinha do Adeus, de Júlio Ludemir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luís Nunes da Mata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally understood as an age of innocence and learning, childhood has been shown indifferent colors in the so called "slum" narratives. Thus, poor children, who live in the urban peripheral areas, are represented in fiction as a counterface for such traditional notion of childhood. Lembrancinha do Adeus, by Julio Ludemir, and Cidade de Deus, by Paulo Lins, are both novels built upon characters who maintain only remains of childhood, which indicates both a new sociability for such children and deeper social changes.

  1. WYSTĘPOWANIE ROŚLIN INWAZYJNYCH W OBRĘBIE BUDOWLI I POWIERZCHNI UTWARDZONYCH W DOLINACH RZECZNYCH KARPAT I KOTLINY SANDOMIERSKIEJ

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    Dominik WRÓBEL

    Full Text Available Badania terenowe, prowadzone w latach 2010-2016, w dolinach rzecznych polskiej części Karpat oraz w Kotlinie Sandomierskiej i w przylegającym do niej odcinku doliny Wisły, miały za zadanie uzupełnić, wiedzę o występowaniu inwazyjnych gatunków roślin (inwaderów w najsilniej przekształconych dolinach rzecznych, a w szczególności określić typy zabudowy dolin rzecznych, sprzyjające rozprzestrzenianiu się tych gatunków. Przeanalizowano 118 transektów zlokalizowanych zarówno w regionach górskich, podgórskich i nizinnych, w odcinkach uregulowanych jak i nieuregulowanych dolin rzecznych, cieków o różnej wielkości. Wyodrębniono główne typy/kategorie zabudowy, łączące w sobie: obiekty hydrotechniczne i przeciwpowodziowe, w tym obwałowania, umocnienia brzegowe i ostrogi korytowe (I, mieszkalną i usługową zabudowę śródmiejską (II, drogowe i kolejowe linie komunikacyjne, w tym mosty (III, wyrobiska górnicze, zabudowę produkcyjną, wydobywczą, magazynową i towarzyszącą (IV, zabudowę rozproszoną, ogródki działkowe (V oraz odrębne place, parkingi i składowiska (VI. Na częściach transektów, obejmujących różne formy zabudowy, najczęściej zanotowano występowanie Solidago gigantea / S. canadensis (46, Impatiens glandulifera (30, Echinocystis lobata (22, Robinia pseudoacacia (17, Helianthus tuberosus (15 i Impatiens parviflora (15. Największa liczba stanowisk gatunków inwazyjnych w relacji do wszystkich ich stwierdzeń została zanotowana na różnego rodzaju budowlach hydrotechnicznych, w tym na umocnieniach brzegowych różnego typu. Obserwacje prowadzone w zakresie wpływu inwestycji regulacyjnych na szatę roślinną wskazują, że nie ma istotnych różnic co do zastosowanych sposobów zabudowy umocnieniowej brzegów, które można byłoby uznać za bardziej przyjazne środowisku. W każdym przypadku następuje pozostawianie odkrytego podłoża i promowanie wkraczania inwaderów.

  2. Linéarité et développement d'un système technique Linearity and Development of a Technical System

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    Dautray R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Il est examiné comment la structurede la modélisation d'un phénomène ou d'un processus ou du fonctionnement d'un appareil joue un rôle déterminant dans le plan des expériences destinées à obtenir les connaissances nécessaires à son étude et à sa réalisation. Dans le cas d'une structure linéaire , il est montré, sur l'exemple de l'énergie nucléaire, que ces expériences peuvent être menées sur des appareils distincts, les résultats de l'une servant à déterminer les entrées de l'autre. Ce découplagepermet de mener en parallèle un très grand programme d'expériences, et donc de construire relativement rapidement ces nouvelles technologies. C'est en effet le cas de l'énergie nucléaire de fission : - Le phénomène de fission a été découvert en 1938. - La démonstration de la faisabilité physique de la réaction en chaîne a été démontrée en 1942. - Les premiers réacteurs nucléaires de puissance ont fonctionné à Hanford en 1945. - Et dès les années cinquante, des réacteurs nucléaires actionnaient des sous-marins et des prototypes de chaudières nucléaires pour centrales (Shippingport et Calder Hall. This article examines how the structureof the modeling of a phenomenon or process or the operating of a piece of equipment plays a determinant role in the planning of experiments for the purpose of obtaining the understanding required to analyze it and create it. For a linear structure , the example of nuclear energy is taken to show that these experiments can be performed with distinct pieces of equipment, with the results of one being used to determine the input for the other. This uncouplingenables a very widespread experimental project to be carried out in parallel, so that these new technologies can be built up relatively quickly. This is effectively true for nuclear energy from fission. - The phenomenon of fission was discovered in 1938. - The physical feasibility of the chain reaction was demonstrated

  3. Piotr Piotrowski Awangarda w cieniu Jałty. Sztuka w Europie środkowo-wschodniej w latach 1945–89 (Avant-Garde in the Shadow of Yalta. Art in East-Central Europe, 1945–1989 2005.

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    Piotr Bernatowicz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mieczysław Porębski, a distinguished Polish art historian of the 20th century, once expressed the demand for Polish art history to be researched simultaneously with foreign studies - as parallel fields. "We entered the research field of the old masters' art as partners in, so to say, a ‘furnished household', whereas in the field of contemporary art we are co-explorers, exploring a ‘virgin land'", as Porębski put it. The book by professor Piotr Piotrowski Awangarda w cieniu Jałty. Sztuka w Europie środkowo-wschodniej w latach 1945-89 (The Avant-Garde in the Shadow of Yalta. The Art in East-Central Europe, 1945-1989 fully accomplishes this demanding postulate which nowadays seems to be rather rarely remembered by Polish art historians. The explored area, the East-Central European countries, which emerged, as a result of the Yalta Conference, between the iron curtain and the border of The Soviet Union (including former Yugoslavia appears at least as an ‘old maiden' land, where scientific penetration still seems to be necessary.

  4. Wielopierścieniowe węglowodory aromatyczne i pozostałości środków ochrony roślin w sokach brzozowych z terenu rolniczego

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    Maciej Bilek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp. drzewne pobierane są wczesną wiosną, zarówno przez indywidualnych konsumentów do bezpośredniego spożycia, jak również jako surowiec do produkcji napojów dla przemysłu spożywczego. W Polsce najpopularniejszym sokiem drzewnym na przestrzeni wieków był i nadal pozostaje sok brzozowy, będący źródłem wielu składników odżywczych. W związku z rozwojem cywilizacji, pogarszającym stan środowiska naturalnego, istnieje coraz większe ryzyko skażenia soków drzewnych przez substancje szkodliwe. Celem niniejszej pracy było oznaczenie zawartości 13 wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych oraz pozostałości 40 środków ochrony roślin w sokach drzewnych. Materiał i metody. Sok brzozowy pobrano z 20 osobników gatunku brzoza zwisła (Betula pendula Roth., rosnących na terenie rolniczym w południowo-wschodniej Polsce. Zawartość wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych oraz pozostałości środków ochrony roślin oznaczono z wykorzystaniem techniki GC/MS. Wyniki. Analiza wykazała obecność śladowych ilości pięciu pestycydów, tzn. metiokarbu, propoksuru, karbarylu, parationu oraz 4,4’-DDD. W sokach brzozowych odnotowano także zawartość lekkich, wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych, tj. fluorenu, fenantrenu, pirenu, chryzenu, oraz w sokach pojedynczych osobników: antracenu, benzo[a]antracenu i acenaftylenu. Wnioski. Biorąc pod uwagę obowiązujące normy, soki brzozowe pochodzące z terenów rolniczych nie stwarzają ryzyka zdrowotnego pod względem zawartości pozosta- łości środków ochrony roślin oraz wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych, należy jednak spodziewać się znacznego zagrożenia dla zdrowia konsumentów w przypadku pobierania soków brzozowych z terenów o bardziej intensywnym stopniu antropopresji.

  5. Saúde mental no Sistema Único de Saúde: mudança do modelo de atenção na região de Lins-SP Mental health in Sistema Único de Saúde: changing the care model in the region of Lins - SP

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    Carlos Cesar Escudeiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Omunicípio de Linspassou portransformações significativas na atenção em Saúde Mental, evoluindo deum modelo de referência hospitalar para um modelo de base territorial e comunitária. Este trabalho tem como objetivo realizar uma retrospectiva históricadas mudanças ocorridas, descrevendoas ações de assistência, promoção, prevenção e reabilitação psicossocial, através da implantação deserviços substitutivos integrados à atenção básica, apontando as soluções capazes de efetivar os princípios do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Priorizou-se a implantação dos Centros de atenção Psicossocial que são dispositivos estratégicos para favorecer a inserção social. A Gestão Municipal realizou significativos investimentos técnicos e financeiros que possibilitaram a consolidação da Política Nacional de Saúde Mental, ampliando as articulações intersetoriais.The municipality of Lins, in the state of São Paulo, has undergone significant transformations in Mental Health Care, evolving from a hospital reference model to a territorial and community-based model. This work aims to carry out a historical retrospective of the changes that have occurred, describing the actions of psychosocial assistance, promotion, prevention and rehabilitation through the implementation of substitutive services integrated into primary care, pointing to the solutions that can fulfill the principles of Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System. The priority was the implementation of Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (Psychosocial Care Centers, which are strategic devices to favor social insertion. The Municipal Management has made significant technical and financial investments that have enabled the consolidation of the National Mental Health Policy, extending inter-sector articulations.

  6. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC): Vaccine effectiveness study designs: Accelerating the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines and reducing the global burden of enteric fever. Report from a meeting held on 26-27 October 2016, Oxford, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiring, James E; Gibani, Malick

    2017-09-12

    Typhoid fever is estimated to cause between 11.9-26.9 million infections globally each year with 129,000-216,510 deaths. Access to improved water sources have reduced disease incidence in parts of the world but the use of efficacious vaccines is seen as an important public health tool for countries with a high disease burden. A new generation of Vi typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), licensed for use in young children and expected to provide longer lasting protection than previous vaccines, are now available. The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) has convened a working group to review the evidence on TCVs and produce an updated WHO position paper for all typhoid vaccines in 2018 that will inform Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance's future vaccine investment strategies for TCVs. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC) has been formed through a $36.9 million funding program from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to accelerate the introduction of TCVs into Gavi-eligible countries. In October 2016, a meeting was held to initiate planning of TCV effectiveness studies that will provide the data required by policy makers and stakeholders to support decisions on TCV use in countries with a high typhoid burden. Discussion topics included (1) the latest evidence and data gaps in typhoid epidemiology; (2) WHO and Gavi methods and data requirements; (3) data on TCV efficacy; (4) cost effectiveness analysis for TCVs from mathematical models; (5) TCV delivery and effectiveness study design. Specifically, participants were asked to comment on study design in 3 sites for which population-based typhoid surveillance is underway. The conclusion of the meeting was that country-level decision making would best be informed by the respective selected sites in Africa and Asia vaccinating children aged from 9-months to 15-years-old, employing either an individual or cluster randomized design with design influenced by population characteristics

  7. Generation of a pig induced pluripotent stem cell (piPSC) line from embryonic fibroblasts by incorporating LIN28 to the four transcriptional factor-mediated reprogramming: VSMUi001-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakritbudsabong, Warunya; Sariya, Ladawan; Pamonsupornvichit, Sirikron; Pronarkngver, Rassmeepen; Chaiwattanarungruengpaisan, Somjit; Ferreira, Joao N; Setthawong, Piyathip; Phakdeedindan, Praopilas; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Tharasanit, Theerawat; Rungarunlert, Sasitorn

    2017-10-01

    Pig induced pluripotent stem cell (piPSC) line was generated from embryonic fibroblast cells using retroviral transduction approaches carrying human transcriptional factors: OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, c-MYC and LIN28. The generated piPSC line, VSMUi001-D, was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed the pluripotency associated transcription factors including OCT4, SOX2, NANOG and surface markers SSEA-1, all iPSC hallmarks of authenticity. Furthermore, VSMUi001-D exhibited a normal karyotype and formed embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. Upon cardiac differentiation, VSMUi001-D displayed spontaneous beating and expressed cardiomyocyte markers, like cardiac Troponin T. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimisation du dimensionnement d'une génératrice à induction linéaire tubulaire appliquée dans un système de micro-cogénération à moteur Stirling

    OpenAIRE

    DANG, Thu Thuy; Ruellan, Marie; BEN AHMED, Hamid; Prevond, Laurent; Multon, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Cet article présente l'optimisation du dimensionnement d'une génératrice à induction linéaire tubulaire intégrée dans un système de micro-cogénération motorisé par un moteur Stirling à piston libre " double effet ". Un des objectifs principaux est naturellement de maximiser la puissance électrique utile. Tout d'abord, un modèle analytique électromagnétique considérant la structure axisymétrique de la génératrice a été établi. Les vecteurs de Poynting radiaux y sont calculés permettant d'obten...

  9. Prevalência e características do tabagismo na população universitária da região de Lins-SP

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Janaina Benatti de; Miranda, Jéssica Steffany; Miyasaki, Sandra Cristina Shiguemi; Marques, Silvio Fernando Guideti

    2011-01-01

    O estudo objetivou conhecer a prevalência do tabagismo e descrever o perfil e hábitos tabágicos entre universitários de Lins-SP. Uma amostra de 368 alunos respondeu a um questionário com perguntas dirigidas a fumantes, ex-fumantes e não fumantes. A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 11,7%; 85,3% dos alunos não eram fumantes e 4,0% foram classificados como ex-fumantes. Do total de alunos entrevistados, 54,1% eram mulheres. Foi observado consumo médio de 5,1 ± 5,4 cigarros por dia, sendo que todos...

  10. A Formalism for the Consistent Description of Non-Linear Elasticity of Anisotropic Media Formalisme pour une description cohérente de l'élasticité non linéaire des milieux anisotropes

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    Helbig K.

    2006-12-01

    deviation can be expressed by the relative change of the eigenstiffnesses and by the variation in the direction of the eigenstrains (expressed as vectors in six-dimensional strain space. The suggested procedure is applied to the two materials discussed by Rasolofosaon and Yin (1996. The results allow a heuristic evaluation of the meaning of the reference strain , the square root of the ratio of the norms of the fourth-rank and sixth-rank stiffness tensors. It is stressed that this is not a new theory of non-linearity, but only a different way of viewing the existing theory and results. La propagation des ondes élastiques est généralement traitée sous quatre hypothèses : - le milieu est isotrope, - le milieu est homogène, - il y a une relation biunivoque entre la tension et la déformation, - les tensions sont reliées d'une façon linéaire aux déformations (et de manière équivalente, les déformations sont reliées d'une façon linéaire aux tensions. En général au moins une de ces hypothèses - et souvent toutes - n'est pas vérifiée dans les milieux réels. Une description théorique valide de la propagation des ondes dans les milieux réels dépend ainsi de la description à la fois qualitative et quantitative de l'hétérogénéité, de l'anisotropie et de la non-linéarité : soit on doit supposer (ou montrer que l'écart par rapport à l'hypothèse de départ peut être - pour le problème considéré - négligé, soit on doit développer une description théorique, valide même en présence de ces écarts. Alors que l'effet d'un seul écart par rapport à un état idéal est relativement bien connu, les difficultés surviennent quand on veut combiner plusieurs de ces écarts. Les propriétés élastiques non linéaires d'échantillons de roche anisotropes (tricliniques ont été étudiées, par P. Rasolofosaon et H. Yin au 6e IWSA à Trondheim (Rasolofosaon et Yin, 1996. L'élasticité anisotrope non linéaire est importante seulement pour les amplitudes

  11. CĂTĂLIN NICOLAE POPA, SIMON STODDART (EDS., FINGERPRINTING THE IRON AGE. APPROACHES TO IDENTITY IN THE EUROPEAN IRON AGE – INTEGRATING SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE INTO THE DEBATE, OXFORD – PHILADELPHIA, OXBOW BOOKS, 2014, 428 PP., ISBN 978-1-78297-675-2

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    Hent Alin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cătălin Nicolae Popa, Simon Stoddart (eds., Fingerprinting the Iron Age. Approaches to Identity in the European Iron Age – Integrating South-Eastern Europe into the Debate, Oxford – Philadelphia, Oxbow Books, 2014, 428 pp., ISBN 978-1-78297-675-2

  12. Perfis da província e máscaras da modernidade: uma leitura da correspondência de Gilberto Freyre com Manuel Bandeira, José Lins do Rego e Rodrigo Melo Franco de Andrade = Provincial sketches and masks of modernity: an interpretation of the Gilberto Freyre’s correspondence with Manuel Bandeira, José Lins do Rego and Rodrigo Melo Franco de Andrade

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    Dias, Silvana Moreli Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é interpretar a epistolografia de Gilberto Freyre com base no conceito de persona ou máscara. Dialogando com escrita mais grave, que beira o paroxismo e a tragédia pessoal e coletiva, de José Lins do Rego, bem como com as formas literárias aparentemente descomprometidas presentes nas cartas trocadas com Manuel Bandeira e Rodrigo Melo Franco de Andrade, articulam-se distintas personae na correspondência do ensaísta. Serão colocadas em pauta facetas ambíguas do escritor Gilberto Freyre, ao lado da tentativa de se refletir sobre aspectos da modernidade alternativa ou provinciana que lhes são subjacentes. Portanto, será possível perceber como os paradoxos presentes no ensaio social de Freyre ligam-se também às imagens contraditórias inscritas no tecido epistolar

  13. Concurrent treatment with simvastatin and NF-κB inhibitor in human castration-resistant prostate cancer cells exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects via control of the NF-κB/LIN28/let-7 miRNA signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Lee, Kyoung-Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Jeong, Chang Wook; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Kwak, Cheol

    2017-01-01

    We examined the anti-cancer effects and molecular mechanism of simvastatin in human castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells, particularly focused on LIN28B and its target molecule, let-7 microRNA (miRNA) among the various target genes of NF-κB. A human CRPC cell line (PC3) was used in the current study. Gene expression patterns were evaluated using real time-PCR and western blot analysis. CCK-8 assay was used for assessing cell viability and proliferation, and a clonogenic assay was adopted to evaluate clonal proliferative capabilities. Induction of apoptotic cell death was analyzed via flow cytometry. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) were used for manipulating the expression of genes of interest. PC3 showed relatively higher expression levels of LIN28B and lower expression levels of let-7 miRNAs. Simvastatin treatment significantly inhibited cell viability and clonal proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the downregulated let-7 miRNA family was restored after simvastatin treatment. We further observed that human CRPC cells transfected with LIN28B-siRNA or shRNA also showed upregulated let-7 miRNAs. Finally, dual treatment with simvastatin and an NF-κB inhibitor (CAPE) synergistically induced apoptotic cell death, along with reduction of LIN28B expression, and restoration of let-7 miRNAs levels. Our data illustrate that simvastatin remarkably inhibits the growth of human CRPC cells by suppressing NF-κB and LIN28B and subsequently upregulating let-7 miRNAs. Moreover, concurrent treatment with simvastatin and an NF-κB inhibitor synergistically suppressed the growth of human CRPC cells, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for human CRPC treatment.

  14. Étude numérique du couplage thermohydromécanique dans les roches. Influence des termes de couplage non linéaires pour un matériau isotrope linéaire Numerical Analysis of a Thermohydromechanical Coupling in Rocks. Influence of Nonlinear Coupling Terms on a Linear Isotropic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous présentons dans ce travail une étude numérique basée sur la méthode des éléments finis, du comportement thermoporoélastique de certaines roches. Les trois effets de couplage : déformabilité de la roche, pression interstitielle et température sont pris en compte simultanément dans la résolution numérique. Une application simple sur un puits pétrolier en conditions axisymétriques est finalement présentée afin de dégager en particulier l'influence du terme de couplage convectif non linéaire, obtenu dans l'équation de diffusivité thermique, sur l'évolution de la température et de la pression interstitielle autour du forage. This article describes a finite-element method for solving the problem of nonlinear coupling between interstitial pressure and temperature during stress on a poroelastic rock. Such coupling phenomena occur during massive injection of cold water into a petroleum borehole for example. The implementation of such a numerical solution, used here with the assumption of small deformations, first requires a review of the behavior law of the material (Eq. 2. 2 and of the equations for hydraulic diffusivity (Eq. 2. 3 and thermal diffusivity (Eq. 2. 4. This last equation (2. 4 is the one containing the nonlinear coupling terms in Grad P Grad P and Grad T. Grad P. During simulation of flow at a high flow rate, these products can no longer be neglected as shown by the results in Fig. 2. The variational formulation of the problem is then determined in relation to the three equations for equilibrium, thermal diffusivity and hydraulic diffusivity. After geometric and temporal discretizations, this formulation leads to a finite-element calculating scheme resulting in the simultaneous solving of all three equations. This solution, based on the inversion of the system of equations (2. 15, requires the updating of the rigidity matrix at each time step to take nonlinear coupling into consideration. Calculations with an

  15. Determination of beam-position dependent transfer functions of LCR-G gravimeters by means of moving mass calibration device in the Mátyáshegy Gravity and Geodynamical Observatory, Budapest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppán, András; Kis, Márta; Merényi, László; Papp, Gábor; Benedek, Judit; Meurers, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    In this presentation authors propose a method for the determination of transfer characteristics and fine calibration of LCR relative gravimeters used for earth-tide recordings, by means of the moving-mass gravimeter calibration device of Budapest-Mátyáshegy Gravity and Geodynamical Observatory. Beam-position dependent transfer functions of four relative LCR G type gravimeters were determined and compared. In order to make these instruments applicable for observatory tidal recordings, there is a need for examining the unique characteristics of equipments and adequately correcting these inherent distorting effects. Thus, the sensitivity for the tilting, temporal changes of scale factors and beam-position dependent transfer characteristics are necessary to be determined for observatory use of these instruments. During the calibration a cylindrical ring of 3200 kg mass is vertically moving around the equipment, generating gravity variations. The effect of the moving mass can be precisely calculated from the known mass and geometrical parameters. The maximum theoretical gravity variation produced by the vertical movement of the mass is ab. 110 microGal, so it provides excellent possibility for the fine calibration of gravimeters in the tidal range. Magnetic experiments were also carried out on the pillar of the calibration device as well, in order to analyse the magnetic effect of the moving stainless steel-mass. According to the magnetic measurements, a correction for the magnetic effect was applied on the measured gravimetric data series. The calibration process is aided by intelligent controller electronics. A PLC-based system has been developed to allow easy control of the movement of the calibrating mass and to measure the mass position. It enables also programmed steps of movements (waiting positions and waiting times) for refined gravity changes. All parameters (position of the mass, CPI data, X/Y leveling positions) are recorded with 1/sec. sampling rate. The

  16. Validación de un ELISA tipo inhibición para cuantificar polisacárido Vi en la vacuna antitifoídica cubana vax-TyVi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther María Fajardo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la validación de un ELISA tipo inhibición, reportado por primera vez en la literatura científica para cuantificar un antígeno vacunal: el polisacárido Vi de Salmonella Typhi, para ser empleado en el control de la calidad de la vacuna antitifoídica cubana vax- TyViâ. El ensayo consta de seis pasos: 1 Recubrimiento de placa de reacción con poli-L-lisina y posteriormente polisacárido Vi; 2 Bloqueo con leche descremada; 3 Inhibición o neutralización en tubos de suero anti-Vi de conejo, respectivamente, con polisacárido Vi de Curva de Calibración (concentraciones desde 1–32 μg/mL, control positivo y muestras de vacuna (3 diluciones; 4 Neutralización de anticuerpos anti-Vi libres, presentes en las mezclas anteriores, por el Polisacárido de Recubrimiento; 5 Reconocimiento de anticuerpos anti-Vi unidos a la placa (conjugado anti-IgG de conejo-fosfatasa alcalina y 6 Revelado por reacción enzima-sustrato. Los parámetros de validación estudiados y sus resultados fueron: 1 Precisión, expresada como coeficiente de variación a tres niveles de concentración de polisacárido, comprendidos en el rango de su especificación (35, 50 y 70 μg/mL y evaluada en términos de repetibilidad; precisión intraensayos (cuatro analistas y reproducibilidad (seis analistas: £ 20%; 2 Linealidad (100*R2: 99,68 %; 3 Límite de detección: 0,5 μg/mL; 4 Exactitud (recuperación para las tres diluciones de la muestra: entre 100 y 118%, y 5 Robustez: no influye 1,5 h de bloqueo (p = 0,52 ni ± 5 min para leer placa (p = 0,56; influye grandemente la calidad del agua (p = 0,026, a favor del agua para inyección. El ensayo es adecuado para los fines propuestos y es una medida de la inmunogenicidad in vitro del polisacárido Vi.

  17. TY AND EFFICIENCY IN LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Cîrnu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for efficiency and quality in the managerial document is more acutely felt at all levels of governance from Romanian administration. In a modern democratic society, as the society we live in claims to be, it is necessary for the administration service to be closer to the citizen-customer requirements. Essential in this regard is that the public administration, in order to be effective, needs to fit a nation as well as to each individual, as the decisions taken at this level make people as much harm as good.

  18. Experiment list: SRX043990 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : Snyder LIN-15B GFP L3 rep2 extraction2 seq1 aliquote 2 source_name=Snyder_LIN-15B_GFP_L3_rep2 extraction2_... strain. The LIN-15B::EGFP fusion protein is expressed in the correct lin-15B spatio-temporal expression pat...tern. This strain was used for ChIP-seq experiments to map the in vivo binding si...unc119(ed3);wgIs184(lin-15B::TY1 EGFP FLAG;unc119) || Sex=Hermaphrodite http://db

  19. Experiment list: SRX043996 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 676: Snyder LIN-13 GFP emb rep1 extraction1 seq1 aliquote 2 source_name=Snyder_LIN-13_GFP_emb_rep1 extractio...119(ed3) strain. The LIN-13::EGFP fusion protein is expressed in the correct LIN-13 spatio-temporal expressi...on pattern. This strain was used for ChIP-seq experiments to map the in vivo bind...ge=embryo || genotype=unc-119 (ed3) III; wgIs73 [lin-13::TY1::EGFP::FLAG; unc-119 (+)] || Sex

  20. The effect of listening to techno music on reaction times to visual stimuli Účinky poslechu techno hudby na dobu reakce na vizuální podněty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Karpljuk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to establish the influence of techno music on the reaction times of participants in the research. Our hypothesis was that stimulating music, such as techno, would shorten the participants' reaction time to visual stimuli while, without music, the reaction time would be longer. To define the reaction time to expected light stimuli we used a special apparatus for measuring the angle of elbow extension, an electric goniometer and a red colour LED diode attached to it. We also used a computer programme as well. The athletes, 10 students at the Faculty of Sports, aged between 20 and 45, participated in the research, representing the control group as well as the experimental group. In our research we established that listening to techno music does affect the shortening of participants' reaction time. Their reaction time shortens significantly according to a measurement taken after 30 minute of listening to techno music, nevertheless it is not shortened during the listening. The control group established that 35 minutes of waiting between the measurements does not significantly affect the reaction time. Moreover, it was established that 30 minutes of listening to techno music affected the shortening of the reaction time 45 seconds after the music was turned off. For further research, it would be necessary to engage more participants. However, the research results are useful data and may serve as a starting point for further research. Cílem výzkumu bylo stanovit míru vlivu techno hudby na reakční časy účastníků výzkumu. Naše hypotéza byla ta, že stimulující hudba, například techno, zkracuje dobu reakce účastníků na vizuální podněty, zatímco bez hudby je reakční čas delší. K určení doby reakce na očekávané světelné podněty jsme použili speciální zařízení na měření úhlu extenze lokte, elektrický goniometr a k němu připevněnou červenou LED diodu. Také jsme používali po

  1. A substrate specificity-determining unit of three Lin12-Notch repeat modules is formed in trans within the pappalysin-1 dimer and requires a sequence stretch C-terminal to the third module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weyer, Kathrin; Boldt, Henning Bünsow; Poulsen, Christine Bruun

    2007-01-01

    Members of the pappalysin family of metzincin metalloproteinases, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, pappalysin-1) and PAPP-A2 (pappalysin-2), regulate the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) by specific proteolytic inactivation of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). PAPP-A...... cleaves IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5, whereas PAPP-A2 cleaves only IGFBP-5. The pappalysins contain three Lin12-Notch repeat (LNR1-3) modules, previously considered unique to the Notch receptor family in which they function to regulate receptor cleavage. In contrast to the Notch receptor where three LNR modules...... are tandemly arranged, LNR3 is separated by more than 1000 residues from LNR1-2 in the pappalysin sequence. Each of the three LNR modules of PAPP-A is required for proteolysis of IGFBP-4, but not IGFBP-5. However, we here find that a C-terminal truncated variant of PAPP-A, which lacks LNR3 and therefore...

  2. CD4+ T-cell anergy induced by lin- CD117(c-kit)+ stem cell-derived immature dendritic cells loaded with nuclear antigen derived from Trypanosoma equiperdum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yumin; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Shan; Cheng, Hong

    2010-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells, which have the extraordinary capacity to initiate naïve T-cell-mediated primary immune responses. To investigate the role of DCs in the induction of antigen-specific tolerance, the immature DCs (imDCs) and mature DCs (mDCs) were generated in vitro from lin(-)CD117(c-kit)(+) stem cells isolated from mice bone marrow. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to characterize the phenotypes of DCs. These cells were loaded with nuclear antigen derived from Trypanosoma equiperdum and then co-cultured with naïve CD4(+) T cells. It was found that imDC-treated T cells had lower proliferation level and cytokine expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-12, and interferon-γ compared with mDC-treated T cells. These results demonstrated that the maturation status of DCs is critical for preventing the production of autoantibodies.

  3. Cartographie des linéaments géologiques en domaine aride par extraction semi-automatique à partir d’images satellitaires: Exemple à la région d’El Kseïbat (Sahara algérien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad, N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Geologists in charge of a detailed lineament mapping in arid and desert area, face the extent of the land and the abundance of eolian deposits. This study presents a semi-automatic approach of extraction of lineament, different from other methods, such as the automatic extraction and manual extraction, by being both fast and objective. It consists of a series of digital processing (textural and spatial filtering, binarization by thresholding and mathematic morphology ... etc. applied to a Landsat 7 ETM+scene. This semi-automatic approach has produced a detailed map of lineaments, while taking account of tectonic directions recognized in the region. It helps mitigate the effect of dune deposits meet the specifications of arid environment. The visual validation of these linear structures, by geoscientists and field data, allowed the identification of the majority of structural lineaments or at least those tried geological.[fr] Les géologues en charge d’une cartographie des linéaments détaillée en domaine aride et désertique, font face à l’étendue des terrains et la présence abondante de dépôts éoliens. La présente étude présente une approche semi-automatique différente des autres méthodes d’extraction des linéaments, à savoir l’extraction automatique et l’extraction manuelle par le fait d’être à la fois rapide et objective. Elle consiste en une succession de traitements numériques (filtrage textural et spatial, binarisation par seuillage et morphologie mathématique…etc. appliqués sur une scène LANDSAT-7 ETM+. Cette approche semi-automatique a permis d’obtenir une carte détaillée des linéaments, tout en tenant compte des directions tectoniques reconnues dans la région. Elle permet d’atténuer l’effet des dépôts dunaires répondant aux spécifications du contexte aride. La validation visuelle de ces structures linéaires, effectuée sur terrain et sur la base de la carte géologique et des données g

  4. Forces et faiblesses de l’amélioration variétale d’espèces oléagineuses de diversification, l’exemple pour la France du soja, du lin et du chanvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labalette Françoise

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available En Europe, un des freins à l’introduction des cultures de diversification dans les rotations est souvent lié à des performances limitées de la gamme variétale disponible. Ainsi pour mieux comprendre comment est organisée l’activité de sélection pour ces cultures mineures et quelles sont les principales difficultés auxquelles elles doivent faire face, trois cultures oléagineuses ont été prises en exemple : le soja, le lin oléagineux et le chanvre industriel. Ces trois espèces sont cultivées sur des faibles surfaces en France et dans l’Union Européenne, et bénéficient en France d’une activité de sélection limitée en comparaison aux cultures majoritaires. Le contexte de filière, l’organisation, les objectifs de la sélection et les spécificités du marché des semences seront analysés pour chacune de ces espèces. Les surfaces limitées et variables et, pour certaines cultures telles que le soja, le faible taux d’utilisation de semences certifiées par les agriculteurs entraînent un marché restreint et instable, décourageant les semenciers d’investir dans des programmes de sélection. La faible implication de la recherche publique sur la conservation des ressources génétiques et sur la recherche génétique ainsi que le manque de moyens limitent l’accès aux outils modernes de sélection et contribuent à ralentir le progrès génétique. Cependant, l’analyse de la situation pour le soja, le lin et le chanvre montre que certains acteurs français, souvent en lien étroit avec le secteur coopératif, continuent une activité de sélection qui est maintenant reconnue à un niveau international. Dans la majorité des cas, un schéma d’organisation original et efficace a été mis en place grâce à une implication coordonnée de toute la filière. L’étude montre également qu’une palette importante de variétés est disponible sur le marché et que le progrès génétique a porté sur plusieurs

  5. A novel Rho-dependent pathway that drives interaction of fascin-1 with p-Lin-11/Isl-1/Mec-3 kinase (LIMK 1/2 to promote fascin-1/actin binding and filopodia stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayo Asier

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fascin-1 is an actin crosslinking protein that is important for the assembly of cell protrusions in neurons, skeletal and smooth muscle, fibroblasts, and dendritic cells. Although absent from most normal adult epithelia, fascin-1 is upregulated in many human carcinomas, and is associated with poor prognosis because of its promotion of carcinoma cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Rac and Cdc42 small guanine triphosphatases have been identified as upstream regulators of the association of fascin-1 with actin, but the possible role of Rho has remained obscure. Additionally, experiments have been hampered by the inability to measure the fascin-1/actin interaction directly in intact cells. We investigated the hypothesis that fascin-1 is a functional target of Rho in normal and carcinoma cells, using experimental approaches that included a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET/fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM method to measure the interaction of fascin-1 with actin. Results Rho activity modulates the interaction of fascin-1 with actin, as detected by a novel FRET method, in skeletal myoblasts and human colon carcinoma cells. Mechanistically, Rho regulation depends on Rho kinase activity, is independent of the status of myosin II activity, and is not mediated by promotion of the fascin/PKC complex. The p-Lin-11/Isl-1/Mec-3 kinases (LIMK, LIMK1 and LIMK2, act downstream of Rho kinases as novel binding partners of fascin-1, and this complex regulates the stability of filopodia. Conclusions We have identified a novel activity of Rho in promoting a complex between fascin-1 and LIMK1/2 that modulates the interaction of fascin-1 with actin. These data provide new mechanistic insight into the intracellular coordination of contractile and protrusive actin-based structures. During the course of the study, we developed a novel FRET method for analysis of the fascin-1/actin interaction, with potential general

  6. Alimentation animale et organisation des filières : une comparaison pois protéagineux-lin oléagineux pour comprendre les facteurs freinant ou favorisant les cultures de diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charrier François

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Le processus d’intensification des élevages, entamé dans les années 1970, s’est accompagné d’un développement croissant du recours aux aliments dits « composés », fabriqués à partir de différentes matières premières pour la plupart d’origine végétale. Les pratiques de la formulation des fabricants d’aliments composés, fondées sur une très forte substituabilité des matières premières, génèrent une concurrence très forte entre ces commodités. Dans un tel contexte de marché, la valorisation de certaines espèces repose sur des mécanismes permettant de contourner ou de s’affranchir de cette concurrence, mais dont l’efficacité reste fortement dépendante de l’organisation des acteurs au sein des filières. À partir de la comparaison des filières pois et lin, nous montrons ainsi qu’au-delà de la reconnaissance de propriétés nutritionnelles spécifiques pouvant valoriser différemment certaines espèces, la coordination des acteurs le long d’une filière est déterminante dans la diffusion des incitations économiques et informationnelles nécessaires à une orientation des agriculteurs en faveur d’espèces de diversification d’intérêt agro-écologique.

  7. SKR-1, a homolog of Skp1 and a member of the SCF(SEL-10) complex, regulates sex-determination and LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Darrell J; Harvey, Elizabeth; Johnson, Peter; Otori, Muneyoshi; Mitani, Shohei; Xue, Ding

    2008-10-15

    Sex-determination in Caenorhabditis elegans requires regulation of gene transcription and protein activity and stability. sel-10 encodes a WD40-repeat-containing F-box protein that likely mediates the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of important sex-determination factors. Loss of sel-10 results in a mild masculinization of hermaphrodites, whereas dominant alleles of sel-10, such as sel-10(n1074), cause a more severe masculinization, including a reversal of the life versus death decision in sex-specific neurons. To investigate about how sel-10 regulates sex-determination, we conducted a sel-10(n1074) suppressor screen and isolated a weak loss-of-function allele of skr-1, one of 21 Skp1-related genes in C. elegans. Skp1, Cullin, and F-box proteins, such as SEL-10, are components of the SCF E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex. We present genetic evidence that the sel-10(n1074) masculinization phenotype is dependent upon skr-1 and cul-1 activity. Furthermore, we show that the SKR-1(M140I) weak loss-of-function mutation interferes with SKR-1/SEL-10 binding. Unexpectedly, we found that the G567E substitution in SEL-10 caused by the n1074 allele impairs the binding of SEL-10 to SKR-1 and the dimerization of SEL-10, which may be important for SEL-10 function. Our results suggest that SKR-1, CUL-1 and SEL-10 constitute an SCF E3 ligase complex that plays an important role in modulating sex-determination and LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans.

  8. Intensive Archaeological Testing of the Lins Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    Site, Ottawa County, Ohio. Healed Humeral Fracture in a Wild-Shot Black Crown Night Heron (with C. Owen Lovejoy and K. G. Heiple)- Analysis of the...than limited test excavations. The closest excavated sites of Aruhaic cultural affiliation lie ap- proximately 145 km. (90 miles) to the north in...long-bone fragments from other units exhibit torsion fractures of a tyre which suggests that the boner , ere t-wisted tn remove the marrow. The only

  9. De Rubem Fonseca a Paulo Lins

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Fabio Eduardo Grünewald

    2011-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Literatura, Florianópolis, 2011 Este trabalho procura verificar a forma pela qual se dá a presença da violência na literatura brasileira dos anos 1990, buscando entender o significado social dessa violência, passo necessário para se entender, inclusive, a relação entre a forma literária assentada na violência e a formação social do Brasil contemporâneo. Procuramos anal...

  10. Comportement mécanique des tuyaux. Influence de la traction, de la pression et du poids linéique. Application aux risers Mechanical Behavior of Pipes and Risers. Influence of Tension, Pressure and Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparks C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'influence de la traction, de la pression et du poids linéique sur le comportement d'un tuyau (ou d'un riser a déjà été traitée dans de nombreux articles. Malgré cela, elle est fréquemment mal comprise, ce qui a parfois de; conséquences sérieuses. Par souci de clarté, l'approche de cet article est délibérément très élémentaire. Les problèmes principaux de la flexion, du flambage, de l'allongement et de la contrainte limite, qui sont souvent traités dans des articles différents, sont ici étudiés ensemble d'une façon homogène. On présente des interprétation: physiques, faciles à visualiser, des deux concepts de tension effective et de contrainte effective, dont l'utilisation est très répandue, ainsi que leur rapport avec des notions analogues dans d'autres domaines de l'art de l'ingénieur. La puissance de ces deux concepts est démontrée à la fin de l'article où ils sont utilisés pour résoudre huit problèmes divers. The influence of tension, pressure, and weight on different aspects of pipe and riser behavior has already been the subject of many articles (see references. In spite of this it has frequently been misunderstood, sometimes with serious consequences. The object of this payer is to explain the subject clearly and the approach is therefore deliberately very elementary. The principal problems of bending, buckling, yielding and strains, usually treated in separated papers, are here treated homogeneously. The widely used concepts of effective tension and effective stress are given interpretations, easy to visualise, which are related to analogous concepts in other engineering fields. Finally, eight diverse particular examples of the influence of tension, pressure and weight on pipe and riser behavior, are discussed.

  11. Plant Type Selection for Reclamation of Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine Using Fuzzy-Topsis Approach / Wybór Gatunków Roślin Do Wykorzystania W Projekcie Rekultywacji Terenów Kopalni Miedzi Sarcheshmeh Z Wykorzystaniem Metod Logiki Rozmytej Topsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimabadi, Arash; Alavi, Iraj

    2013-09-01

    Plant species selection is a multi-criteria evaluation decision and has a strategic importance for many companies. The conventional methods for plant species selection are inadequate for dealing with the imprecise or vague nature of linguistic assessment. To overcome this difficulty, fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making methods are proposed. The aim of this study is to use the fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (F.TOPSIS) methods for the selection of plant species in mine reclamation plan. Plant type selection and planting to protect the environment and the reclamation of the mine are some of the most important solutions. Therefore, the objective of the current research study is to choose the proper plant types for reclamation of Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine using Fuzzy-topsis method. In this regard, primarily, surrounding area of Sarcheshmeh copper mine, one of the world's 10 biggest copper mine which is located near Kerman city of Iran, are surveyed, to choose the best plant type for reclamation of disturbance area. With this respect, based on reclamation plan, primary criteria were consisted of kinds of post mining land use, climate, and nature of soil. Comparison matrixes were then obtained based on experts' opinion and plant types were subsequently prioritized using the Fuzzy Topsis method. Secondary factors considered through the analysis were as follows: perspective of the region, resistance against disease and insects, strength and method of growth, availability to plant type, economic efficiency, protection of soil, storing water, and prevention of pollution. Finally, suitable plant types in the mining perimeter were prioritized as: Amygdalus scoparia, Tamarix, Pistachio Wild, Ephedra, Astragalus, Salsola, respectively. Wybór gatunków roślin jest decyzją podejmowaną w oparciu o wiele kryteriów i stanowi poważne wyzwanie strategiczne dla wielu firm. Konwencjonalne metody wyboru gatunków roślin okazują si

  12. A Real-Time Implementable NMPC Output Feedback for a Diesel Engine Air Path Commande prédictive non linéaire avec retour de sortie implémentable en temps-réel pour un circuit d’air d’un moteur Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental validation of a parameterized Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC scheme with a Moving Horizon Observer (MHO is presented for a Diesel engine air path. The control design based on the parameterized approach leads to a low dimensional optimization problem which makes the proposed controller real-time implementable. An attractive feature of this control strategy lies in its compatibility with more elaborated and fully nonlinear models since it uses the model as a black box predictor. Dans cet article, une validation expérimentale d’un schéma de commande prédictive non linéaire (CPNL paramétrique avec un observateur à horizon glissant a été proposé pour le circuit d’air d’un moteur Diesel. La stratégie de commande basée sur l’approche paramétrique à faible dimension s’est montrée implémentable en temps réel et peut être utilisée aussi en tant qu’une solution du type boîte noire indépendamment de la structure du modèle non linéaire.

  13. One-step hysteroscopic myomectomy using Lin dissecting loop and Lin myoma graspers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Liang Lin

    2012-11-01

    Conclusion: Using our technique and instruments, it is possible to remove a myoma in a single procedure safely and effectively. This surgical method can also preserve more endometrium, cause less injury to the muscle layer, and prevent fluid complications.

  14. Aspects de la dynamique non linéaire d'un oscillateur cellulaire: étude expérimentale et théorique du rôle de l'échange sodium/calcium de la cellule B pancréatique

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, David

    1999-01-01

    Dans les conditions physiologiques normales, la glycémie est maintenue dans d'étroites limites. La sécrétion d'insuline par les cellules B pancréatiques joue un rôle majeur dans ce contrôle. En effet, l'insuline est la seule hormone capable d'empêcher une élévation excessive de la glycémie. La cellule B pancréatique constitue un exemple d'oscillateur cellulaire dont la dynamique non linéaire permet l'apparition d'une activité électrique "en salves" ("bursting"). Lors de la sécrétion, les cell...

  15. Nonlinear EGR and VGT Control with Integral Action for Diesel Engines Régulation de Recirculation des Gaz d’Echappement (RGE et de Turbine à Géométrie Variable (TGV non linéaire avec action intégrée pour moteurs Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahlström J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear multivariable control design with integral action is proposed and investigated for control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT in heavy duty Diesel engines. The main control goal is to regulate oxygen/fuel ratio and intake manifold EGR-fraction, and they are specified in an outer loop. These are chosen as main performance variables since they are strongly coupled to the emissions. An existing nonlinear control design based on feedback linearization is extended with integral action. In particular, the control design method utilizes a control Lyapunov function, inverse optimal control, and a nonlinear input transformation. Comparisons between different control structures are performed in simulations showing the following four points. Firstly, integral action is necessary to handle model errors so that the controller can track the performance variables specified in the outer loop. Secondly, the proposed control design handles the nonlinear effects in the Diesel engine that results in less control errors compared to a control structure with PID controllers. Thirdly, it is important to use the input transformation and it is sufficient to use a control structure with PID controllers and input transformation to handle the nonlinear effects. Fourthly, the proposed control design is sensitive to model errors in the input transformation while a control structure with PID controllers and input transformation handles these model errors. Une conception de régulation non linéaire à variables multiples avec action intégrée est proposée et étudiée pour une régulation de la Recirculation des Gaz d’Echappement (RGE et une Turbine à Géométrie Variable (TGV au sein de moteurs Diesel à usage industriel. L’objectif principal de la régulation consiste à réguler le rapport oxygène / carburant et la fraction de RGE de tubulure d’admission, qui sont spécifiés au sein d’une boucle extérieure. Ceux

  16. Propagation des ondes élastiques dans les matériaux non linéaires Aperçu des résultats de laboratoire obtenus sur les roches et des applications possibles en géophysique Propagation of Elastic Waves in Nonlinear Materials Survey of Laboratory Results on Rock and Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasolofosaon P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Les roches présentent souvent un comportement élastique nettement non linéaire, entraînant des conséquences importantes sur la propagation des ondes. Cette non-linéarité élastique est surtout causée par les microdéfauts mécaniques ubiquistes (microfissures, joints de grains, macles, etc. dont la rigidité varie sous l'effet de la contrainte. Ce sujet fait l'objet d'études de plus en plus nombreuses. Nous nous proposons de présenter très sommairement les bases théoriques et les résultats expérimentaux permettant d'avoir un ordre de grandeur des effets caractéristiques observés dans les roches afin de pouvoir proposer une approche critique des possibilités d'applications en géophysique. Deux disciplines se sont développées en parallèle à partir du même principe physique et avec des formalismes très proches : - L'acousto-élasticité étudie l'effet des précontraintes statiques sur les vitesses de propagation des ondes élastiques. On dispose d'un formalisme mécanique élaboré permettant de relier quantitativement variation de contrainte et variation de vitesse élastique (par exemple pour ce qui concerne l'anisotropie acoustique induite par un état de contrainte et d'une méthode expérimentale de mesure des coefficients de non-linéarité. - L'acoustique non linéaire s'intéresse aux conséquences de la variation des modules élastiques au passage d'une onde qui ne peut plus être considérée comme une petite perturbation, mais qui induit localement des modifications mesurables du milieu de propagation ; modifications entraînant l'apparition de phénomènes inconnus en acoustique linéaire tels que la génération d'harmoniques et l'interaction onde-onde. Les applications à la sismique pétrolière semblent fort lointaines puisque, avec les méthodes classiques de surface ou de puits, il y a peu d'espoir de réussir à faire propager jusqu'aux couches profondes des ondes dont l'amplitude dépasserait le seuil de

  17. A comparison of nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) loci for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... morphology or the micro-anatomical phenotypes of lignum and leaves ... not easily differentiated by their phenotypes, which often ..... Terminating red imported fire ants using Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil. Bioresour Technol. 99:889-903. Chiou SJ, Yen JH, Fang CL, Chen HL, Lin TY (2007).

  18. Assessment of the Condition of Hoisting Ropes by Measuring their Geometric Parameters in a Three-Dimensional Image of their Surface / Metoda Oceny Stanu Lin Wyciągowych Poprzez Pomiar Parametrów Geometrycznych Na Trójwymiarowym Obrazie Ich Powierzchni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyna, Grzegorz; Sioma, Andrzej; Tytko, Andrzej

    2013-09-01

    This article discusses a vision method of measuring the geometric parameters of ropes and evaluating their wear based on measurements made in a three-dimensional projection of rope surface. The purposes of this method include assessment of the condition of all kinds of ropes working in the mining industry. The proposed method is novel, eliminates the shortcomings of previously used mandatory visual methods, removes their constraints, and is an important complement to magnetic methods. The article discusses the method of construction of a three-dimensional image based on mapping of the actual dimensions of the rope and on algorithms that allow determination of the parameters describing its basic geometrical dimensions and surface condition. The article discusses issues related to resolution of the vision system, resolution of laser beam analysis, and resolution relating to the measurement of the height profile on the surface of the rope. Based on the image constructed in such a way, measurements are presented in order to assess the dimensional parameters and surface defects in sample rope structures. Based on tests and analyses of the three-dimensional image, a range of inspection tasks using 3D vision systems is indicated. Praca poświęcona jest omówieniu metody pomiaru parametrów geometrycznych lin i oceny ich zużycia metodą wizyjną na bazie pomiarów wykonywanych na trójwymiarowym rozwinięciu powierzchni liny. Metoda dedykowana jest między innymi do oceny stanu wszystkich rodzajów lin pracujących w górnictwie. Proponowana metoda jest nowatorska, eliminuje wady dotychczas stosowanych obligatoryjnych metod wizualnych, usuwa ich ograniczenia oraz stanowi istotne uzupełnienie metod magnetycznych. W pracy omówiono metodę budowy obrazu trójwymiarowego opartą na odwzorowywaniu rzeczywistych wymiarów liny oraz algorytmy umożliwiające wyznaczenie parametrów opisujących jej podstawowe wymiary geometryczne oraz stan powierzchni. W artykule om

  19. THERMOLABILlTY, HEAT TOLERANCE AND RENAL FUNCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    temperature was maintained at 23C and night temperature at 19C throughout the experiment. In addition, a constant lighting ... and uric acid content and the osmolality of all samples was determined. The following ...... Illustrating the large and engorged stomach of the dassie after a relatively brief feeding period. Photo; P. C. ...

  20. Kuntosalikerho työkaluna nuorisotyössä

    OpenAIRE

    Östman, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni tarkoitus oli selvittää kuinka kuntosali ja siihen liittyvä kerhotoiminta soveltuu menetelmäksi nuorisotyössä. Tutkimuksessani korostuu nuorten oma kokemus nuorisotilalla olevan kuntosalin vaikutuksista arkeen. Tutkimukseni lähestymistapana käytin toimintatutkimusta, osallistumalla ja olemalla itse mukana tutkimusympäristössä. Tutkimusympäristönä toimi Espoon Soukan ruotsinkielinen nuorisotila, Sökö ungdomslokal. Toiminta sai alkunsa vuodenvaihteessa 2013–2014, jolloin aloitin ...

  1. Omistajuuden vaikutus: Suomalaisen työllisyyden kasvuun ja pysyvyyteen

    OpenAIRE

    Pajarinen, Mika; Rouvinen, Petri; Ylä-Anttila, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates empirically how ownership affects firms' domestic employment and its fluctuations. We look at six different ownership categories: first generation family businesses, second generation (or older) family businesses, state-owned companies, foreign-owned companies, publicly listed companies, and others (e.g. co-operatives and non-listed, non-family companies). It turns out that ownership matters. Volatility of employment in listed companies is much higher than in other firm...

  2. pop~l~ty in misogynistic ~ircles, it ms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interpretation .of these words has been the subject of discussion amongst scholars for a long time3. • Most commentators translated them as "In the beginning God made woman's ..... (Copenhagen 1955-1958). For similar myths of women made out of different animals attested from· antiquity as well as from comparatively ...

  3. DERIVÁTY PAKLITAXELU PRO CÍLENÝ TRANSPORT CYTOSTATIKA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibylová, M.; Dvořáková, M.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 11 (2010), s. 1023-1028 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : paclitaxel * targeted drug delivery Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.620, year: 2010 www.chemicke-listy.cz/common/article-vol_104-issue_11-page_1023.html

  4. Neuropsychologické koreláty emocí

    OpenAIRE

    TESAŘ, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The presented thesis deals with localization of emotions and its processing according to visual emotional stimuli from IAPS. It uses EEG analysis and non-parametric statistics Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Wilcoxon's t-test. Results confirm hemispherical asymmetry theories and it was found a new localization of the neutral emotion in the left frontal alpha EEG asymmetry, which is not clearly described by other authors. Processing of emotions shows that complex affective reaction of positive and negat...

  5. pop~l~ty in misogynistic ~ircles, it ms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bear the charaCteristics .of their origin. which means that all of them except for the bee woman, are pictured as mischiefs in the world. especially for the ynfortunate ... who is endowed with the divine spirit. mind. reason, intelligence. This means that in no case can she be treated as equal to man or be expected to behave like ...

  6. Web-analytiikka -työkalujen analysointi

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli analysoida ja kartoittaa toimeksiantajalle FlowHouse Oy:lle sopivimmat web-analytiikkatyökalut eri käyttötarkoituksiin. Tutkimuksessa etsittiin tietoa kävijäseuranta-, hakukoneoptimointi- ja sosiaalisen median analytiikkaohjelmista, jotta saatiin kokonaiskäsitys markkinoilla olevista ohjelmista. Tavoitteena oli hankkia toimeksiantajalle parempia web-analytiikka -ratkaisuja opinnäytetyössä tuotetun tiedon pohjalta. Teoriaosuus käsittelee web-analytiikan, haku...

  7. Chromosomal distribution of a new centromeric Ty3-gypsy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in wheat. Species in the genus Dasypyrum, namely D. villo- sum and D. breviaristatum, are important sources for improv- ing genetic variability of bread wheat (Liu et al. 2010). The genes for high seed protein, powdery mildew resistance, stripe rust resistance, eyespot resistance and spindle streak mosaic virus resistance ...

  8. THERMOLABILlTY, HEAT TOLERANCE AND RENAL FUNCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portion of this study submitted by the senior author in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the ... temperature was maintained at 23C and night temperature at 19C throughout the experiment. In addition, a constant ...... animals to high ambient temperatures the period of exposure to temperatures above 35C was limited to ...

  9. Méthode intégro-variationnelle appliquée aux probèmes intérieur et extérieur avec surface libre de l'hydrodynamique linéaire Integro-Variational Method Applied to Indoor and Outdoor Problems with a Free Surface of Linear Hydrodinamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhault C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est de montrer que l'on peut appliquer une rintégro-variationnelle pour résoudre les problèmes intérieur (comportementliquide en milieu confiné et extérieur (diffraction-radiation de l'hydrodynamique linéaire. Une comparaison des résultats obtenus pour le problème intérieur dans Q les méthodes classiques : équation intégrale (singularités et formulation rationnelle (éléments finis, montre les avantages de cette méthode. The aim of this article is to show that an integro-variational method can be applied for solving interior (behavior of a liquid in a confined environment and exterior (diffraction-radiation problems of linear hydrodynamics. A comparison of the results obtained for the interior problem in IR2 with conventional methods, i.e. intégral équation (singularities and variational formulation (finite elements, shows the advantages of this method.

  10. A Fully Analytical Solution of the Wellbore Stability Problem under Undrained Conditions Using a Linearised Cam-Clay Model Solution analytique au problème de stabilité de puits en conditions non drainées utilisant un modèle de Cam-Clay linéarisé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlez P. A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a linearised version of the Cam-Clay model fully integrated in the scope of the general theory of poroplasticity. The constitutive law which is developed in the scope of the effective plastic stress concept, only contains two plastic parameters (hardening modulus and slope of the critical state line. To be validated, the model is integrated over homogeneous stress paths (hydrostatic, drained triaxial and undrained triaxal then compared with experimental data issued from conventional laboratory triaxial tests. In the second part, a simplified version of the model is applied to the wellbore boundary problem (vertical well in an axisymmetric horizontal stress field and under undrained conditions. Given the linearity of the constitutive law and the a priori knowledge of the shape of the plastic region, the solution (stress, strain and pore pressure is fully analytical. The solution shows that for an overconsolidated material (overconsolidation degree less than 2 the hoop stress is strongly relaxed in the plastic zone. The higher the compressibility of the saturating fluid, the larger the relaxation of the hoop stress. In terms of stability, the more compressible the fluid saturating the porous medium is, the more stable the well will be. Finally the larger the overconsolidation ratio is, the less stable the well will be. Cet article présente une version linéarisée du modèle de Cam-Clay intégré dans le cadre général de la théorie de la poroplasticité isotherme. La loi de comportement développée à partir du concept des contraintes effectives plastiques ne contient que deux paramètres plastiques (module d'écrouissage et pente de la droite critique. Le modèle est validé sur des chemins de contrainte homogènes (hydrostatique, triaxial drainé et triaxial non drainé et comparé à des essais expérimentaux obtenus à partir d'essais conventionnels de laboratoire. Ensuite, une version simplifiée du modèle est

  11. User Data Package for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles for Navy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    replaced. One compressor was available for about sixty percent of the time of the other. These compressors were not heavy-duty mechines and, in the...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...in certain areas of the country to reduce automotive emissions to the atmosphere. 2. Petroleum Savings. At a time when oil imports are approaching 50

  12. A novel start algorithm for CNG engines using ion sense technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, T. de; Ericsson, M.; Rask, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a start algorithm that is able to control the air/fuel ratio (AFR) during the cranking phase and immediately hereafter, where the ordinary ?-control is not yet enabled. The control is based on the ion sense principle, which means that a current through the spark plug is measured

  13. Sensors for online determination of CNG gas quality; Sensorer foer onlinebestaemnning av fordonsgaskvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenlaaaas, Ola; Roedjegaard, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Swedish automotive gas has until now been a very uniform, high quality automotive fuel. Elsewhere in Europe the quality of automotive gas varies significantly. Gas from different sources with different flammability require engine settings adjusted to the chosen gas' unique composition. The prospects for a vehicle-mounted sensor based on infrared technology for gas quality measurement has been studied and solutions are presented with questions that must be answered in a possible future work. The proposed vehicle mounted sensor is based on two channels, one of which measures the partial pressure of methane and the other measures the partial pressure of heavier hydrocarbons in 'equivalents of butane'. Ethane produces a signal of about 0.6 equivalents of butane and propane about 0.8 equivalents. The sensor can be accommodated in a cube with 5 cm side and should be equipped with nipple connections to the existing system. The sensor is expected to work throughout their entire lifetime without manual calibration, through continuous automatic calibration, so-called ABC (Automatic Baseline Compensation). The sensor will have to meet tough quality and environmental standards in which primarily contact ring, vibration and prevention of leakage are identified as extra difficult. Working temperatures and the electrical conditions of power supply and communication interface is considered less challenging. In one million volumes, the cost per sensor could be 200 to 300 SEK.

  14. Current state and emission performance of CNG/LNG heavy-duty vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Patuleia, A.F.; Koornneef, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of natural gas and biogas for heavy-duty road transport is gaining popularity. Apart from economic benefits and supply security, the environmental advantages are often cited. This report, with an extended Dutch summary, gives an overview of the current situation in Europe, with a focus on

  15. Analisis Kekuatan Tangki CNG Ditinjau dengan Material Logam Lapis Komposit pada Kapal Pengangkut Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firmansah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa perbandingan pada kekuatan pressure vessel compressed natural gas. Pressure vessel yang digunakan yaitu tipe satu dan tipe tiga, tipe satu adalah tabung menggunakan material logam yaitu Carbon Steel SA 516 Grade 70 dan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061. Pada tabung tipe tiga material menggunakan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061 dengan lapisan Komposit (Carbon Fibre – Epoxy pada seluruh tabung (full wrapped. Sudut orientasi serat yang digunakan 54.73560 dan terdiri dari 4 lapis komposit yang membungkus aluminium. Variasi yang dilakukan pada tebal komposit yaitu 25% komposit, 50% komposit, dan 75% komposit. Pressure vessel mendapat perlakuan internal pressure sebesar 125 bar dan temperatur -300C. Analisa dilakukan dengan dua metode yaitu dengan perhitungan manual dan software finite element method (NASTRAN 2010. Dari hasil perhitungan tersebut tabung tipe satu dengan material logam terbukti aman karena memenuhi dari faktor keamanan yang ditentukan tetapi pressure vessel sangat berat. Pada tabung tipe tiga lamina dengan komposisi 75% komposit dan 50% komposit dinyatakan aman karena memenuhi dari kriteria tegangan maksimum. Sedangkan pada komposisi 25% komposit lamina mengalami kegagalan yang disebabkan terlalu rendahnya lapisan komposit. Dari keseluruhan hasil perhitungan dan analisa didapatkan komposisi ideal pressure vessel yaitu 75% komposit dan 25% aluminium dari tebal keseluruhan sehingga menghasilkan tegangan yang sangat kecil dan memiliki berat yang paling ringan.

  16. 93 une urbanisation linéaire, dynamique demographique et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohand

    De 1998 à 2010 : une importante croissance spatiale carac- térise cette période. L'AS de Braïdia est annexée par l'ACL, du fait du développement d'un habitat individuel, essentiellement qui va finir par joindre le cadre bâti d'Ain Kahla 2. ▫ Au début de cette période, de grands chantiers d'habitat notam- ment, sur de grandes ...

  17. Fair trade - Õiglane kaubandus / Tuuliki Kasonen-Lins

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasonen-Lins, Tuuliki

    2007-01-01

    Õiglase kaubanduse liikumise ajaloolisest arengust. Fair trade on kaubandusvõrk, kus kaubeldakse arengumaades inimväärsetes tingimustes toodetud ja sealsetelt kaupmeestelt õiglaste hindadega ostetud kaupadega. Fair Trade Euroopas

  18. Increased COX-2 expression in patients with ovarian cancer | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 66 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. CSR kui äristrateegia osa / Tuuliki Kasonen-Lins

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasonen-Lins, Tuuliki

    2008-01-01

    Autor selgitab, et ettevõtte ühiskondlik vastutus ei ole kord aastas korraldatav heategevuskampaania. Näitena ettevõtte ühiskondlikust vastutusest nimetab autor panustamist tööjõu koolitusse või töötute sotsiaalsete gruppidega tegelemisse

  20. Effects of potassium behaviour in soils on crop absorption | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potassium (K) is one of the three major elements that play important roles in plants, such as maintaining turgor of cells, promoting activation of enzymes, and improving efficiency of photosynthesis. The types of K in soil may affect the plant absorption of K. K in soils includes K minerals, K in layered silicates (clay minerals), ...

  1. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isolate, identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, was obtained using the enrichment process with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as a sole carbon source. This isolate was found to be able to degrade various highly chlorinated phenolic compounds such as pentachlorophenol, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP as well as phenol, ...

  2. Allelopathic effect of Jatropha curcas (Lin) leachate on germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelopathy refers to the chemical inhibition of one species by another. Decline in crop yields in cropping and agroforestry system in recent years has been attributed to allelopathy effects.Laboratory studies were conducted at Research Centre for Tissue Culture, Kazaure, Jigawa state (Longitude08¢ª 41 . N and Latitude12o ...

  3. Increased COX-2 expression in patients with ovarian cancer | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result was further confirmed by semi-quantitative RTPCR and Western blot. It was found that COX-2 was significantly up-regulated in ovarian cancer group in comparison with normal group on mRNA level. On protein level, COX-2 was also highly increased in ovarian cancer group. This study provides novel candidate ...

  4. Etude de préformes en fibre de lin

    OpenAIRE

    Masdeu de Pedro, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) es un proceso de fabricación industrial donde el material a moldear (generalmente un polímero) se inyecta dentro de un molde, el cual contiene previamente las fibras o la preforma del material que actuará como refuerzo. Dicho molde se precalienta por encima de la temperatura de fusión del polímero para que este fluya mejor, y se coloca en una cámara provista de un émbolo que forzará al material a avanzar por unos canales hasta las cavidades diseñada...

  5. ARPA/CSTO Rapid VLSI Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    T 2 T NETAU TX T~ I TY cw CNAu COLA T WELL CNG 53 ~iZ "PH ou ELL CWP iZZ 2 WHELL CMN IA2Z I I IRCTVECAR ’AS 91m T I SLECTCSG 54 - T MDT PSELECT CSP...project area, as well as on packaging methods. As can be seen from the table, the number of users is determined by the type of lithography employed...mass or volume is very dependent upon existing economic conditions as well as the type of business sought by the IC fabricator. 2.0 TECHNOLOGY ACCESS

  6. Curcumin: a novel therapeutic for burn pain and wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    hydrophobic drugs and phytochemicals and provide sustained delivery of these agents in vitro and in vivo [75-77]. Incorpo- ration of curcumin in an aqueous...in mice. Drug Metab Dispos 1999;27:486-94 56. Yang KY, Lin LC, Tseng TY, et al. Oral bioavailability of curcumin in rat and the herbal analysis from...injury on wound infiltration and the dermal inflammatory response. J Surg Res 2010;158:112-20 .. A detailed analysis of the differences in inflammatory

  7. Uwagi o sowietyzmach w polszczyźnie etnicznej i radzieckiej w dwudziestoleciu międzywojennym (na materiale „Encyklopedycznego słownika wyrazów obcych. Pochodzenie wyrazów, wymowa, objaśnienia pojęć, skróty, przysłowia, cytaty” Trzaski, Everta, Michalskiego i moskiewskiej „Trybuny Radzieckiej” z lat 1927–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Graczykowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the Soviet Vocabulary in the Ethnic Polish Language and the Soviet Polish Language in the Interwar Period (Based on Trzaska-Evert-Michalski “Encyclopedic Dictionary of Foreign Words” and “Trybuna Radziecka,” 1927–1938 The paper discusses the Soviet vocabulary extracted from “Trybuna Radziecka”, a cen­tral Polish weekly published in Moscow in 1927–1938 and edited by Polish left‑wing intelligentsia, living in the USRR as political émigrés in this period as well as some Sovietisms included in the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Foreign Words, edited by S. Lam, published by Trzaska-Evert-Michalski in Warsaw in 1939. The author tries to demon­strate that the new realities of life and state power in the Soviet Union had immense influence on the Polish language in Russia in the interwar period, and especially on the language of “Trybuna Radziecka.” This weekly was imbued with Sovietisms. They were in common use of the Poles living in Soviet Russia in the interwar period. The Soviet vocabulary in Trzaska-Evert-Michalski dictionary represents two layers. The first one includes lexical items fully assimilated by the Polish language, e.g. kołchoz, komsomolec. The second one contains exotic words, used occasionally, e.g. ispołkom, krasnoarmiejec, otlicznik, piatiletka.   Uwagi o sowietyzmach w polszczyźnie etnicznej i radzieckiej w dwudziestoleciu międzywojennym (na materiale Encyklopedycznego słownika wyrazów obcych. Pochodzenie wyrazów, wymowa, objaśnienia pojęć, skróty, przysłowia, cytaty Trzaski, Everta, Michalskiego i moskiewskiej „Trybuny Radzieckiej” z lat 1927–1938 W artykule omówiono słownictwo radzieckie zarejestrowane w Encyklopedycznym słowniku wyrazów obcych wydanym w 1939 r. w Warszawie przez Trzaskę, Everta, Michalskiego, pod redakcją S. Lama i jednocześnie odzwierciedlone w „Trybunie Radzieckiej”, która ukazywała się w Moskwie w latach 1927–1938. Sowietyzmy zamieszczone

  8. The Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Resistance Genes Ty-1 and Ty-3 Are Allelic and Code for DFDGD-Class RNA–Dependent RNA Polymerases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, M.G.; Hutton, S.F.; Ibrahem, R.M.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Scott, J.W.; Edwards, J.D.; Bai, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Disease incited by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) causes huge losses in tomato production worldwide and is caused by different related begomovirus species. Breeding for TYLCV resistance has been based on the introgression of multiple resistance genes originating

  9. Model curriculum outline for Alternatively Fueled Vehicle (AFV) automotive technician training in light and medium duty CNG and LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This model curriculum outline was developed using a turbo-DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process which utilizes practicing experts to undertake a comprehensive job and task analysis. The job and task analysis serves to establish current baseline data accurately and to improve both the process and the product of the job through constant and continuous improvement of training. The DACUM process is based on the following assumptions: (1) Expert workers are the best source for task analysis. (2) Any occupation can be described effectively in terms of tasks. (3) All tasks imply knowledge, skills, and attitudes/values. A DACUM panel, comprised of six experienced and knowledgeable technicians who are presently working in the field, was given an orientation to the DACUM process. The panel then identified, verified, and sequenced all the necessary job duty areas and tasks. The broad duty categories were rated according to relative importance and assigned percentage ratings in priority order. The panel then rated every task for each of the duties on a scale of 1 to 3. A rating of 3 indicates an {open_quotes}essential{close_quotes} task, a rating of 2 indicates an {open_quotes}important{close_quotes} task, and a rating of 1 indicates a {open_quotes}desirable{close_quotes} task.

  10. Effect of CNG manifold Injection on the Performance, Combustion and Emission characteristics of a CNG -Biodiesel Dual Fuel Operation/Bir manifolda enjekte edilen CNG-Biyodizel Çift Yakıt Çalışmasının Perf.,Yanma ve Emisyon Karakteristikleri Üzerine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Banapurmath, Nagaraj Ramalingayya; Y., Basavarajappa H.

    2016-01-01

    Energy demand at a global level is increasing day by day and fossil fuel resources are on the verge of becoming extinct. The drastic increase of the oil prices in the global oil market and the increased pollution levels created an interest to find renewable, sustainable and alternative fuels. Natural gas (NG) is considered as a most prominent alternative fuel due to its many advantages including its ready availability and its low emission levels. A diesel engine was converted to operate in du...

  11. I'Adverse Drug Reactions in Children: TyPes, I ncidehbe,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviews, meta-analysis studies and original researches on ADRs in adults and children was carried out. The search involved both ..... but are more common among older people who tend to have more diseases. ' ,. 4. Lack of clinical ..... progression, and regressiOn of coronary atherosclerosis and response to therapy Circ _.

  12. Brändin kehittäminen Pinterestin avulla : Pinterest markkinoinnin työkaluna

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Noora

    2015-01-01

    Pinterestin käyttäjämäärät ovat kasvaneet nopeasti ja se on yksi suosituimmista sosiaalisen median kanavista, joten Pinterestin hyödyntämiselle mainoskanavana on kysyntää. Pinterestin kautta yritys voi tavoittaa jokaisella pinnauksella näkyvyyttä, liikennettä verkkosivuilleen sekä uusia potentiaalisia asiakkaita. Opinnäytetyöni tehtiin toimeksiantona Minna Parikka Shoes Ltd:lle. Opinnäytetyöni tarkoituksena oli tutkia, miten voidaan lisätä Minna Parikan brändin tunnettuutta Pinterestissä ...

  13. MAARTEN LU TH ER OOR HOENOOD SA AK LIK D IT IS OM LA TY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    MAARTEN LuTHER, die groot Hervormer, aan wie die Christenheid van alle lande so onuitspreeklik veel verskuldig is vir sy herontdek king en geesdriftige verkondiging van die Bybelse waarheid, het ook. 'n besondere betekenis ... Sien PROP. GEORG BERLtT, Martin Luther, Thom as Murner und das Kirchen- lied des 16.

  14. Virolaisten työntekijöiden määrä kymmenkertaistunut / Jouni Kempas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kempas, Jouni

    2005-01-01

    Soomes lähetusega töötavate eestlaste arvu suurenemisest, Euroopa Liidu riikides nõutavast tõendist (vormist) E101, mis tagab, et lähetuse kestel jäävad töötaja suhtes kehtima lähetajariigi sotsiaalkindlustuse õigusaktid. Diagrammid

  15. Skandinávské mýty a báje

    OpenAIRE

    KOUTEK, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical part of the diploma thesis entitled {\\clqq}Scandinavian myths and legends, cycle of combined technique art works`` is composed of four chapters. First chapter contains essay on Scandinavians mythology. Second chapter shows the relationship between mythology and psychology. Third chapter includes analysis of Scandinavian mythology by the help of psychological theory of C. G. Jung. Last chapter is describing the creation process of art works and used combined technique. Practica...

  16. 4R 31TR4SIE TY[)E~S [)IE EOEREOORLOG

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die twee Boererepublieke is ewenwel nie na die Haagse besprekings uitgenooi nie. Die. Nederlandse Minister van Buitelandse Sake,. W. H. de Beaufort, het - aldus P. R. Botha2. - vermoed dat Engeland nie aan die konfe- rensietafel sou aansit indien die Boererepu- blieke uitgenooi word nie. Hierdie opvatting is deur sy ...

  17. I'Adverse Drug Reactions in Children: TyPes, I ncidehbe,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antigen-antibody reaction on the surface of mast cells . causes degranulation and release of pharmacologically ... Type IV (delayed, cell mediated) reactions: They are due to drug forming an antigenic conjugatewith .... organs and systems. A drug taken for a lung disease may affect the heart, and a drug taken to treat a cold.

  18. Effect of formulation on the viabilıty of biocontrol agent, Trıchoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A zeolite-water heterogeneous mixture (1:2 w/v) was found suitable medium for growing Turkish isolate of Trichoderma harzianum T1. Pelletized formulations of zeolite containing conidia of Turkish isolate of Trichoderma harzianum T1 in alginate were prepared. Formulations were more viable at 4°C than at 30°C.

  19. Tank 241-TY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

  20. Podněty z Decrolyho pedagogiky pro naši školu

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    The main topic of my diploma thesis is a pedagogy of the Belgian doctor and pedagogue Ovide Decroly. The theoretical part includes a classification of alternative approaches to education, Decroly's short biography, description of the pedagogy and thematic education in Decroly's school and in the "Step by Step" programme. In the practical part I discuss the application of Decroly's thematic education in the Step by Step programme in the classes of kindergarten and elementary school. The result...

  1. Portréty učenců v Sasku v 1. pol. 16. stol.

    OpenAIRE

    Chigladze, Kateřina

    2009-01-01

    Title: The humanists' portraits in Saxony of the first half of the 16th century In my work I tried to create an overview of the humanists' portraits in Saxony of the first half of the 16th century. I dedicated the bigger part of it to the court painters Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein, Lucas Cranach. Dürer's first portraits of Erasmus was charcoal-drawing, his second piece - a cupper engraving of Erasmus. Like Dürer Hans Holbein painted divers Erasmus portraits in different styles. Cranach paint...

  2. Atmospheric Deposition And MediterraneAN sea water productiviTy (Thales - ADAMANT) An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulaki, Sylvia; Petihakis, George; Triantafyllou, George; Pitta, Paraskevi; Papadimitriou, Vassileios; Tsiaras, Konstantinos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2015-04-01

    In the marine environment the salinity and biological pumps sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide. The biological pump is directly related to marine primary production which is controlled by nutrient availability mainly of iron, nitrogen and phosphorus. The Mediterranean Sea, especially the eastern basin is one of the most oligotrophic seas. The nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratio is unusually high, especially in the eastern basin (28:1) and primary production is limited by phosphorus availability. ADAMANT project contributes to new knowledge into how nutrients enter the marine environment through atmospheric deposition, how they are assimilated by organisms and how this influences carbon and nutrient fluxes. Experimental work has been combined with atmospheric and marine models. Important knowledge is obtained on nutrients deposition through mesocosm experiments on their uptake by the marine systems and their effects on the marine carbon cycle and food chain. Kinetic parameters of adsorption of acidic and organic volatile compounds in atmospheric samples of dust and marine salts are estimated in conjunction with solubility of N and P in mixtures contained in dust. Atmospheric and oceanographic models are coupled to create a system that is able to holistically simulate the effects of atmospheric deposition on the marine environment over time, beginning from the pre-industrial era until the future years (hind cast, present and forecast simulations). This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework - Research Funding Program: THALES, Investing in knowledge society through European Social Fund.

  3. Heterocyklické deriváty triterpenů s cytotoxickou aktivitou

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlk, M.; Šarek, J.; Martínez, M. M.; Hajduch, M.; Elbert, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 11 (2009), s. 999-1000 ISSN 0009-2770. [Pokroky v organické, bioorganické a farmaceutické chemii /44./. 27.11.2009-29.11.2009, Liblice] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : triterpenes * heterocyclic triterpenes * cytotoxic activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  4. Arithmétique et algorithmique en algèbre linéaire exacte pour la bibliothèque LinBox

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal, Giorgi

    2004-01-01

    For a few decades, numerical linear algebra has seen intensive developments in both mathematical and computer science theory which have led to genuine standard software like BLAS or LAPACK.In computer algebra the situation has not advanced as much, in particular because of the diversity of the problems and because of much of the theoretical progress have been done recently.This thesis falls into a recent class of work which aims at uniforming high-performance codes from many specialized libr...

  5. Étude dynamique linéaire et non linéaire d'une poutre couplée avec un fluide

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrist, Jean-François; Lainé, Christian; Peseux, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with dynamic study of an elastic beam coupled to an incompressible fluid with free surface. To begin with, a modal analysis of the coupled fluidstructure problem by finite element coupling is carried out. Fluid-structure interaction effects are highlighted. Then, a dynamic analysis is performed, using a non-linear model in which the geometric non-linearity due to the axial force generated by stretching of the middle surface is taken into account. The c...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK060339 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060339 001-008-C12 (P29974) cGMP-gated cation channel alpha 1 (CNG channel alpha 1) (CNG-1) (CNG1) (Cyclic... nucleotide gated channel alpha 1) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel, photoreceptor) (Cyclic

  7. SwissProt search result: AK100808 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100808 J023121M17 (P29973) cGMP-gated cation channel alpha 1 (CNG channel alpha 1) (CNG-1) (CNG1) (Cyclic... nucleotide gated channel alpha 1) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel, photoreceptor) (Cyclic

  8. SwissProt search result: AK069229 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069229 J023012H21 (Q00194) cGMP-gated cation channel alpha 1 (CNG channel alpha 1) (CNG-1) (CNG1) (Cyclic... nucleotide gated channel alpha 1) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel, photoreceptor) (Cyclic

  9. SwissProt search result: AK099993 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099993 J013132D09 (P29973) cGMP-gated cation channel alpha 1 (CNG channel alpha 1) (CNG-1) (CNG1) (Cyclic... nucleotide gated channel alpha 1) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel, photoreceptor) (Cyclic

  10. SwissProt search result: AK065938 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065938 J013045B04 (P29974) cGMP-gated cation channel alpha 1 (CNG channel alpha 1) (CNG-1) (CNG1) (Cyclic... nucleotide gated channel alpha 1) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel, photoreceptor) (Cyclic

  11. SwissProt search result: AK243602 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243602 J100084P18 (P29974) cGMP-gated cation channel alpha 1 (CNG channel alpha 1) (CNG-1) (CNG1) (Cyclic... nucleotide gated channel alpha 1) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel, photoreceptor) (Cyclic

  12. SwissProt search result: AK060339 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060339 001-008-C12 (Q62927) cGMP-gated cation channel alpha 1 (CNG channel alpha 1) (CNG-1) (CNG1) (Cyclic... nucleotide gated channel alpha 1) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel, photoreceptor) (Cyclic

  13. Vertical Temperature Simulation of Pegasus Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Steven F. Daly, Robert Haehnel...ty (k g m −3 ) Ic e Fr ac tio n Br in e Fr ac tio n Br in e Sa lin ity (P PT ) Ai r F ra ct io n Station B 800* 8.85 1 20 4.5 −3.50 877.8...shelf, Antarctica. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 11 (4): 829–839. Henneman, H. E., and H. G. Stefan. 1999. Albedo models for

  14. Lin28b promotes fetal B lymphopoiesis through the transcription factor Arid3a

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Yan; Li, Yue-Sheng; Bandi, Srinivasa Rao; Tang, Lingjuan; Shinton, Susan A; Hayakawa, Kyoko; Hardy, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    Mouse B cell precursors from fetal liver and adult bone marrow (BM) generate distinctive B cell progeny when transplanted into immunodeficient recipients, supporting a two-pathway model for B lymphopoiesis, fetal "B-1" and adult "B-2...

  15. An Adaptation of the Kernighan-Lin Heuristic to the Simple Graph Partitioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    1999-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition a simple, edge weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each consisting of no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we describe and evaluate an adaptation to this pr......The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition a simple, edge weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each consisting of no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we describe and evaluate an adaptation...... results show that among all instances with known optimal values the best partition values found by a randomized version of this heuristic lie well within 1% off the optimum....

  16. National Waterway Network (line), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [usace_nav_waterway_lin_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The National Waterway Network is a comprehensive network database of the nation's navigable waterways. The data set covers the 48 contiguous states plus the District...

  17. Valitsus haub tuuleenergia tiibade kärpimise kava / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Tuuliki Kasonen-Lins

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Kuna tuulepargid on juba mõnda aega töötanud ning saavutanud oma tootlikuse, leiavad majandusminister Juhan Parts ja rahandusminister Jürgen Ligi, et taastuvenergia toetuste määrasid peaks langetama

  18. Therapeutic Inhibitors of LIN28/let-7 Pathway in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    expression singly or in combination, using an RNAi approach. These cells have been analyzed with the respect to cell proliferation and migration. Also, high...ovarian cancer cell lines (Specific Aim 1, Months 9-24) : 20% Completed 4a. Cell proliferation (Months 9-24) 50% Completed 4b. Apoptosis (Months 9...containing the first two aspartates of the catalytic triad. Using this method, we have generated clonal cell lines where 1 or 2 alleles have been

  19. Commande non linéaire du moteur synchrone à aimants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonlinear control of permanent magnet synchronous motor driving a load with two masses. Adel Bouchahed*1 & Ali Belhamra2. 1,2 Laboratoire des Systèmes Electromécaniques (LSELM), Université Badji- Mokhtar, BP 12, 23000,. Annaba, Algérie. Soumis le 28/01/2016. Révisé le 21/07/2016. Accepté le 08/09/2016. صﺧﻟﻣ.

  20. Page 1 Chaos in mechanical systems - A review 573 Huseyin K, Lin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oscillator. Physica D34: 169-182. Iooss G, Joseph DD 1980 Elementary stability and bifurcation theory (New York: Springer-. Verlag). Isomäki HM, J von Boehm, ... Kan M, Taguchi H 1993 Chaos and fractals in nonlinear roll and capsize of a damaged ship. International Workshop on Physical and Mathematical Modelling of ...