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Sample records for cng cab fleet

  1. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  2. UPS CNG Truck Fleet Start Up Experience: Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2001-01-01

    UPS operates 140 Freightliner Custom Chassis compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles with Cummins B5.9G engines. Fifteen are participating in the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project being funded by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies and the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies

  3. Hybrid CNG propulsion for fleet vehicles: emission reduction potential and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdz, P. [BC Research Institute, BC (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A project (1) to build an experimental hybrid electric vehicle to be used as a test bed for the development of EZEV-oriented technologies, (2) to develop a control system to manage the energy use in a series hybrid vehicle, (3) to evaluate the suitability of valve regulated lead acid batteries for hybrid propulsion, and (4) to investigate the feasibility of using hybrid propulsion for medium duty fleet vehicles was discussed. In this context, the electric G-Van, the BCRI hybrid G-Van battery, the hybrid power unit, and the electronic control unit were described. The concept of hybrid vehicle control, and the control system software were explained, and a summary of the hybrid system efficiency test was provided.

  4. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: The Case of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles in California Households

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets and households for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, and fewer air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In the United States, the adoption of CNG technology has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This study addresses the potential market for CNG vehicles at the consumer level in California. Based on semi-structured pe...

  5. Survey for the development of compressed natural gas systems (CNG) for vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Abulamosha, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, resulting in fewer air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In Europe, the adoption of CNG among consumers has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This investigation addresses the current situation of the CNG vehicle at the manufacturing level and the consumer level in Europe. Bas...

  6. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  7. CNG: a potential transport fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is an alternative transport fuel. Advantages of its use are briefly described. Infra structural requirements, if it is to be used in India are outlined. Applications of CNG as transport fuel for buses and trucks in India are discussed. (P.R.K.). 5 refs

  8. CNG transport opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The recent announcement by the Australian Government of funding for a dramatic increase in supply infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered vehicles has shored up predictions that natural gas will achieve a thirty-fold increase in its share of the Australian transport energy market by 2015. This projection, would put sales of natural gas for transport fuel in the year 2014/15 at about 10% of current retail sales across the nation. In the general transport sector, the lower particulate and noise pollution, compared with diesel-powered vehicles, is a significant advantage

  9. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  10. An assessment of the market for LPG and CNG in Peru's transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    This is an abridged version of the report prepared by Boykiw and Company Limited to provide a technical, statistical and financial assessment of potential sales of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) or propane, and compressed natural gas (CNG) to the transportation sector in Peru. Results show that use of CNG and LPG in Peru's transportation sector will primarily be a function of the counrty's vehicle population, the economics of conversion and the availability of infrastructure. With regard to conversion, the fact that 62 per cent of the nation's one million vehicles are located in Lima, combined with their age, the prospects appear to be very favourable. Changing to LPG will also benefit the environment since carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides emissions will be significantly reduced. Similar environmental benefits are expected from the use of CNG. Assuming that low cost first generation conversion kits can be made available, in combination with the growing refueling infrastructure ( from one in 1994 to 9 by the end of 1999, and an additional five in 2000) should result in a dramatic increase in the number of vehicles using LPG. By contrast, the prospect for CNG as vehicle fuel is less favourable because of the much more complex and costly refuelling station required to make it practicable. Based on very incomplete information on the Lima fleet of vehicles and their operating characteristics, the total number of CNG-fuelled vehicles five years after CNG becomes available in Lima, is estimated at between 2,000 and 3,000, and CNG requirements of between 800,000 and 1,500,000 cubic feet per day

  11. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part I. Black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Xu, Hui; Du, Ke

    2016-12-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered to be a "cleaner" fuel compared to other fossil fuels. Therefore, it is used as an alternative fuel in motor vehicles to reduce emissions of air pollutants in transportation. To quantify "how clean" burning CNG is compared to burning gasoline, quantification of pollutant emissions under the same driving conditions for motor vehicles with different fuels is needed. In this study, a fleet of bi-fuel vehicles was selected to measure the emissions of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) for driving in CNG mode and gasoline mode respectively under the same set of constant speeds and accelerations. Comparison of emission factors (EFs) for the vehicles burning CNG and gasoline are discussed. This part of the paper series reports BC EFs for bi-fuel vehicles driving on the real road, which were measured using an in situ method. Our results show that burning CNG will lead to 54%-83% reduction in BC emissions per kilometer, depending on actual driving conditions. These comparisons show that CNG is a cleaner fuel than gasoline for motor vehicles in terms of BC emissions and provide a viable option for reducing BC emissions cause by transportation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, H.

    2004-01-01

    I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

  13. Performance Characteristics Comparison of CNG Port and CNG Direct Injection in Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Patel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative performance analysis is being carried out on a four cylinder, four stroke cycle, spark ignition engine having displacement volume 1297cc. The cylinder head of original gasoline based engine was modified by drilling holes from upper surfaces of head to individual combustion chamber to convert the engine in a CNG direct injection engine. The CNG port injection (CNG-PI system and CNG direct injection (CNG-DI system were incorporated with the single engine.  The engine was retrofitted to run on both CNG-PI and CNG-DI system alternately with common CNG tank and other engine loading and measurement system. The engine was equipped with electrical dynamometer having rheostat type loading. The CNG direct injection system was incorporated with various sensors and engine ECU. The operating parameters can be obtained on computer screen by loading the computer with engine through switch box. The engine was run over the speed range of 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm with incremental speed of 300 rpm. The performance parameters were calculated from observations and recorded for both CNG-PI and CNG-DI system. The experimental investigation exhibits that, the average 7-8% reduction in BSFC while the engine was running with CNG-DI system as compared to that of CNG-PI system. Also the engine produced 8-9% higher brake torque and hence higher brake power. The engine gives 6-7% higher brake thermal efficiency with CNG-DI system as compared to CNG-PI system.

  14. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply tank...

  15. Air quality and climate impacts due to CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, Zia; Khan, Tanzila

    2013-12-17

    Dhaka had recently experienced rapid conversion of its motor vehicle fleet to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper quantifies ex-post the air quality and climate benefits of the CNG conversion policy, including monetary valuations, through an impact pathway approach. Around 2045 (1665) avoided premature deaths in greater Dhaka (City Corporation) can be attributed to air quality improvements from the CNG conversion policy in 2010, resulting in a saving of around USD 400 million. Majority of these health benefits resulted from the conversion of high-emitting diesel vehicles. CNG conversion was clearly detrimental from climate change perspective using the changes in CO2 and CH4 only (CH4 emissions increased); however, after considering other global pollutants (especially black carbon), the climate impact was ambiguous. Uncertainty assessment using input distributions and Monte Carlo simulation along with a sensitivity analysis show that large uncertainties remain for climate impacts. For our most likely estimate, there were some climate costs, valued at USD 17.7 million, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the air quality benefits. This indicates that such policies can and should be undertaken on the grounds of improving local air pollution alone and that precautions should be taken to reduce the potentially unintended increases in GHG emissions or other unintended effects.

  16. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts

  17. Compressed natural gas (CNG) in fueled systems and the significance of CNG in vehicular transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayar, G. [Besikduzu, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2006-05-15

    Most NG vehicles operate using compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG's popularity stems, in part, from its clean-burning properties. In addition, more than 85,000 CNG vehicles, including one out of every five transit buses, are operating successfully today. This compressed gas is stored in similar fashion to a car's gasoline tank, attached to the rear, top, or undercarriage of the vehicle in a tube-shaped storage tank. A CNG tank can be filled in a similar manner, and in a similar amount of time, to a gasoline tank. (author)

  18. CleanFleet. Final report: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    CleanFleet, formally known as the South Coast Alternative Fuels Demonstration, was a comprehensive demonstration of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in daily commercial service. Between April 1992 and September 1994, five alternative fuels were tested in 84 panel vans: compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, methanol as M-85, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), and electricity. The AFVs were used in normal FedEx package delivery service in the Los Angeles basin alongside 27 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} vans operating on regular gasoline. The liquid and gaseous fuel vans were model year 1992 vans from Ford, Chevrolet, and Dodge. The two electric vehicles (EVs) were on loan to FedEx from Southern California Edison. The AFVs represented a snapshot in time of 1992 technologies that (1) could be used reliably in daily FedEx operations and (2) were supported by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A typical van is shown in Figure 2. The objective of the project was to demonstrate and document the operational, emissions, and economic status of alternative fuel, commercial fleet delivery vans in the early 1990s for meeting air quality regulations in the mid to late 1990s. During the two-year demonstration, CleanFleet`s 111 vehicles travelled more than three million miles and provided comprehensive data on three major topics: fleet operations, emissions, and fleet economics. Fleet operations were examined in detail to uncover and resolve problems with the use of the fuels and vehicles in daily delivery service. Exhaust and evaporative emissions were measured on a subset of vans as they accumulated mileage. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) measured emissions to document the environmental benefits of these AFVs. At the same time, CleanFleet experience was used to estimate the costs to a fleet operator using AFVs to achieve the environmental benefits of reduced emissions.

  19. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO 2 -neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream

  20. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R. [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO{sub 2}-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream.

  1. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R. [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO{sub 2}-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream.

  2. Trans Ocean Gas CNG transportation development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation is on the rise due to increased global demand for natural gas. However, the challenge of transporting LNG lies in finding suitable locations for import terminals. Compressed natural gas (CNG) transportation offers an alternative method for transporting stranded natural gas to existing markets and for creating new natural gas markets not practical for LNG or pipelines. The founder of Trans Ocean Gas Inc. (TOG) modified an existing fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessel technology to safely store CNG on a ship. The newly developed containment system has proven to overcome all the deficiencies of steel-based systems. TOG patented the containment system and will license its use to owners of stranded gas and shipping service providers around the world. Financial support is needed to perform verification testing and for regulatory approval. The CNG systems will be built and assembled throughout facilities in Atlantic Canada. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Future perspective for CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Driving on natural gas (CNG, Compressed Natural Gas) has been the talk of the industry for many years now. Although the benefits of natural gas as an engine fuel have become well-known, this phenomenon does not seem to gain momentum in the Netherlands. Over the last few months, however, the attitude towards CNG seems to be changing. Energy companies are increasingly engaged in commercial activities, e.g. selling natural gas at petrol stations, an increasing number of car manufacturers are delivering natural gas vehicles ex-works, and recently the NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) Holland platform was set up for the unequivocal marketing of natural gas as an engine fuel

  4. Assessment of on-road emissions of four Euro V diesel and CNG waste collection trucks for supporting air-quality improvement initiatives in the city of Milan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaras, Georgios, E-mail: georgios.fontaras@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); Martini, Giorgio; Manfredi, Urbano; Marotta, Alessandro; Krasenbrink, Alois [Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); Maffioletti, Francesco; Terenghi, Roberto; Colombo, Mauro [AMSA, Azienda Milanese Servizi Ambientali, Milano (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an extensive experimental study aiming to evaluate the performance and pollutant emissions of diesel and CNG waste collection trucks under realistic and controlled operating conditions in order to support a fleet renewal initiative in the city of Milan. Four vehicles (1 diesel and 3 CNG) were tested in two phases using a portable emission measurement system. The first phase included real world operation in the city of Milan while the second involved controlled conditions in a closed track. Emissions recorded from the diesel truck were on average 2.4 kg/km for CO{sub 2}, 0.21 g/km for HC, 7.4 g/km for CO, 32.3 g/km for NO{sub x} and 46.4 mg/km for PM. For the CNG the values were 3.6 kg/km for CO{sub 2}, 2.19 g/km for HC, 15.8 g/km for CO, 4.38 g/km for NO{sub x} and 11.4 mg/km for PM. CNG vehicles presented an important advantage with regards to NO{sub x} and PM emissions but lack the efficiency of their diesel counterparts when it comes to CO, HC and particularly greenhouse gas emissions. This tradeoff needs to be carefully analyzed prior to deciding if a fleet should be shifted towards either technology. In addition it was shown that existing emission factors, used in Europe for environmental assessment studies, reflect well the operation for CNG but were not so accurate when it came to the diesel engine truck particularly for CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. With regard to NO{sub x}, it was also shown that the limits imposed by current emission standards are not necessarily reflected in real world operation, under which the diesel vehicle presented almost 4 times higher emissions. Regarding CO{sub 2}, appropriate use of PEMS data and vehicle information allows for accurate emission monitoring through computer simulation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated diesel and CNG Euro V waste collection vehicles for municipal use Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NO{sub x}-GhG emission trade-off should be considered prior to

  5. H/CNG pathway to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugyra, W.J.; Martin, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The addition of hydrogen to natural gas to produce a 'premium' fuel offers an ideal bridge to the hydrogen and fuel cell era. This pathway provides many of the expected benefits of hydrogen and fuel cells, reduces cost and risk, and facilitates the transition to hydrogen incrementally through existing infrastructure, technologies and channels. The H/CNG pathway is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively in the context of: barriers to introducing hydrogen infrastructure and how they can be addressed; potential benefits (emissions, energy security) and drawbacks (range, technical compatibility) of H/CNG blended fuels; economics; and, comparative analysis to the use of ethanol in gasoline. Leveraging the NGV industry eases the transition to fuel cells by taking advantage of existing infrastructure, technologies, skills, codes and standards, and provides for incremental change that may be more acceptable to consumers, regulators and incumbent technology providers. The greatest benefits can be achieved through a two-track pathway. One would utilize small amounts of hydrogen in existing NGVs and installed power systems - much as ethanol is added to gasoline. The second introduce products designed specifically to operate on higher levels of H/CNG, like buses, in concentrations where the greatest emission benefits can be achieved. (author)

  6. Improving fleet performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramjist, S.

    2015-01-01

    Use Fleet Initiatives to Improve Overall Fleet Performance . Tightly Integrated with Business Planning (Cause & Effect) . Leverage Strength of Broader Organization - Converge on Standard Business Practices . Ancillary Benefit of Improved Agility.

  7. Stalin's Big Fleet Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauner, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Although Dr. Milan Hauner's study 'Stalin's Big Fleet program' has focused primarily on the formation of Big Fleets during the Tsarist and Soviet periods of Russia's naval history, there are important lessons...

  8. Improving fleet performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramjist, S. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Use Fleet Initiatives to Improve Overall Fleet Performance . Tightly Integrated with Business Planning (Cause & Effect) . Leverage Strength of Broader Organization - Converge on Standard Business Practices . Ancillary Benefit of Improved Agility.

  9. FleetDASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    FleetDASH helps federal fleet managers maximize their use of alternative fuel. This presentation explains how the dashboard works and demonstrates the newest capabilities added to the tool. It also reviews complementary online tools available to fleet managers on the Alternative Fuel Data Center.

  10. Impact of CNG Crisis on Student's Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Kiran; Nadeem, Wajiha; Zia, Afsa; Shehzad, Shiza; Anwar, Zara

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the impact of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) crisis on Student's Academic Life of Karachi Pakistan. This research helps in observing the behavior of students and their educational progress includes depression and anxiety, rate of absenteeism and undesirable results in exams threatens due to CNG crisis and…

  11. Ford F250 Dedicated CNG Pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eudy, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is encouraging the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. In this study, we tested a pair of 1998 Ford F-250 pickups: one dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) model and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible. Each vehicle was run through a series of tests to evaluate acceleration, fuel economy, braking, and cold-start capabilities, as well as more subjective performance indicators such as handling, climate control, and noise

  12. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of CNG urban taxi operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives : examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed : natural gas (CNG)....

  14. Maximizing your fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, J. [GE Capital Rail Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A series of viewgraphs were presented to illustrate this discussion which focused on the economics of the railroad environment in 2001 and beyond. Fleet productivity and customer relations were described. The viewgraphs were entitled: new car builds; fleet demographics for North American LPG/AA fleet; and, issues and trends of North American LPG/AA fleet. It was noted that there is a continued demand for North American LPG/AA fleet as cars are phased out. GE Capital Rail Services is addressing the future by focusing on the following four initiatives: service, globalization, building a six sigma company, and transforming into an e-business. The company's six sigma approach is based on customer orientation, safety and compliance, quality and reliability, productivity and planning, cost, and people and culture. The actions taken thus far have been a planned maintenance program, the relocation of safety valves, and the elimination of early failures. figs.

  15. Fleet Feedback and Fleet Efficiency Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Marine Corps have 10 years of experience implementing a telematics program and several lessons to share with partner agencies. This presentation details results of a Marine Corps survey as well as methods of using telematics to promote fleet efficiency and optimize the vehicle acquisition process.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  17. Federal Fleet Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Annual report of Federal agencies' motor vehicle fleet data collected in the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST), a web-based reporting tool cosponsored by...

  18. Fleet management performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The principle goal of this project was to enhance and expand the analytical modeling methodology previously developed as part of the Fleet Management Criteria: Disposal Points and Utilization Rates project completed in 2010. The enhanced and ex...

  19. Fishing fleet profiling methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    A fishing fleet profile aims tho assist in understanding the complexity and structure of fisheries from a technical and socio-economic point of view, or from the point of view of fishing strategies...

  20. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return on technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.

  1. CNG INJECTOR RESEARCH FOR DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majczak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the tests results of the prototype design of hydraulically assisted injector, that is designed for gas supply into diesel engines. The construction of the injector allows for it positioning in the glow plug socket, so that the gas is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The cycle analysis of the four-cylinder Andoria ADCR engine with a capacity of 2.6 dm3 for different crankshaft rotational speeds allowed to determine the necessary time for fuel injection. Because of that, it was possible to determine the required mass flow rate of the injector, for replacing as much of the original fuel by gaseous fuel. To ensure a high value of flow inside the injector, supply pressure equal to 1 MPa was applied. High gas supply pressure requires high value of valve opening forces. For this purpose a injector with hydraulic control system, using a liquid under pressure for the opening process was designed. On the basis of air pressure measurements in the flow line after the injector, the analysis of opening and closing of the valve was made. Measurements of outflow mass of the injector were also carried out. The results showed that the designed injector meets the requirements necessary to supply ADCR engine by the CNG fuel.

  2. An experimental investigation of performance of diesel to CNG engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sheelam; Gupta, Ayush; Garg, Ashutosh

    2018-05-01

    Over the past few decades, diesel engines are widely used in automobiles which is responsible for hazardous increase in pollution. Around the world, many countries are trying to reduce it by replacing diesel with CNG as a fuel which is more economical and leads to pollution free environment. Engineers came up with an idea to convert diesel engine to CNG engine. This conversion is possible by doing some alteration of engine components and it also include adding some extra components to the system which includes spark plug, valves etc. and by decreasing the compression ratio of the engine. It is used worldwide today and many countries have many programs to convert older, polluting diesel vehicles to CNG enable vehicles so that they can run on clean, economical natural gas. This is, an excellent way to reduce fuel cost, reduce pollution, reduce noise with minimum possible capital costs.first, second, and third level headings.

  3. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  4. Experimental investigation of the concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG in a turbocharged spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni Movahed, M.; Basirat Tabrizi, H.; Mirsalim, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG is compared with gasoline and CNG modes. • BSFC, HC and CO emissions of the concomitant injection are lower than gasoline mode. • Deteriorations of the concomitant injection are negligible compared to gasoline mode. • Cylinder peak pressure and heat loss to coolant of the concomitant injection are lower than CNG mode. • Some shortcomings in CNG mode can be solved by changing the spark timing and lambda. - Abstract: Concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG is a new concept to overcome problems of bi-fueled spark ignition engines, which operate in single fuel mode, either in gasoline or in CNG mode. This experimental study indicates how some problems of gasoline mode such as retarded ignition timings for knock prevention and rich air–fuel mixture for component protection can be resolved with the concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG. Results clearly show that the concomitant injection improves thermal efficiency compared to gasoline mode. On the other hand, simultaneous injection of gasoline and CNG reduces some problems of CNG mode such as high cylinder pressure and heat loss to the engine coolant. This decreases the stringent requirements for thermal and mechanical strength of the engine components in CNG mode. In addition, it is shown that by modifying the spark advance and air fuel ratio in CNG mode, the engine operation improves in terms of NOx emissions and maximum in-cylinder pressure as the concomitant injection does. Nevertheless, new requirements such as an intercooler with higher cooling capacity are implied to the engine configuration. Finally, the most important concerns in control strategies of the engine control unit for a vehicle with concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG are discussed

  5. On Combustion in the CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Königsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a large interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest: the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors, the CNG-diesel dual fuelengine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the dual fuel engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste, co...

  6. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  7. Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R De La Rosa, NREL 34672 The Fleet DNA clearinghouse of commercial vehicle operations data features Odyne-have tapped into Fleet DNA." The data-driven insight and decision-making capabilities

  8. Gas Phase Emission Ratios From In-Use Diesel and CNG Curbside Passenger Buses in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Nelson, D. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Williams, P.; Silva, P. J.; Shi, Q.; Ghertner, A.; Zahniser, M.; Worsnop, D.; Kolb, C.; Lanni, T.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured gas phase and particulate emissions from in use vehicles during two campaigns in New York City. The campaigns took place during two weeks in October, 2000 and four weeks in July-August, 2001. Passenger curbside buses were the primary focus of the study, but school buses and several other heavy duty diesel vehicles were also characterized. This paper describes the methodologies used to measure individual in use vehicles and presents the results of the gas phase measurements. Emission ratios for NO, NO2, SO2, N2O, CO, CH4 and H2CO relative to CO2 have been determined across several classes of buses. The gas phase concentrations were measured each second, using Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS). Some of the categories of buses into which the data has been sorted are; diesel (both 6V92 and Series 50) with and without the Continuous Regenerative Technology (CRT) retrofit, compressed natural gas powered(CNG) and hybrid diesel-electric buses. The New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) cooperated with this work, providing details about each of their buses followed. In addition to MTA buses, other New York City passenger bus operators were also measured. In September 2000, MTA began to switch to 30 ppm sulfur diesel fuel while it is believed the non MTA operators did not. The measured emission ratios show that low sulfur fuel greatly reduces the amount of SO2 per CO2. Roughly one third of the MTA fleet of diesel buses have been equipped with the CRT retrofit. The gas phase results of interest in this category show increased direct emission of NO2 and companion work (also submitted to the 12th CRC) show the impact the CRT refit has on particulate emissions. CNG buses show increased H2CO and CH4 emission ratios relative to diesel powered motors.

  9. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn,

  10. Cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Waste Management the responsibility for disposing of high-level waste and spent fuel. A significant part of that responsibility involves transporting nuclear waste materials within the federal waste management system; that is, from the waste generator to the repository. The lead responsibility for transportation operations has been assigned to Oak Ridge Operations, with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing technical support through the Transportation Operations Support Task Group. One of the ORNL support activities involves assessing what facilities, equipment and services are required to assure that an acceptable, cost-effective and safe transportation operations system can be designed, operated and maintained. This study reviews, surveys and assesses the experience of Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) in operating a fleet of spent-fuel shipping casks to aid in developing the spent-fuel transportation system

  11. Fleet retrofit report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Flight tests are evaluated of an avionics system which aids the pilot in making two-segment approaches for noise abatement. The implications are discussed of equipping United's fleet of Boeing 727-200 aircraft with two-segment avionics for use down to Category 2 weather operating minima. The experience is reported of incorporating two-segment approach avionics systems on two different aircraft. The cost of installing dual two-segment approach systems is estimated to be $37,015 per aircraft, including parts, labor, and spares. This is based on the assumption that incremental out-of-service and training costs could be minimized by incorporating the system at airframe overhaul cycle and including training in regular recurrent training. Accelerating the modification schedule could add up to 50 percent to the modification costs. Recurring costs of maintenance of the installation are estimated to be of about the same magnitude as the potential recurrent financial benefits due to fuel savings.

  12. Innovation Ecosystem of CNG Vehicles: A Case Study of Its Cultivation and Characteristics in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ding

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the constraints of resources and environment, China is eager to cultivate a new industrial system with ecological characteristics in light of local circumstances. This paper selects the innovation ecosystem of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG vehicles in Sichuan, China as the objective of the case study to explore its cultivation and characteristics. The theoretical significance lies in three areas. Firstly, the cultivation path of the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is manifested. Secondly, the symbiotic process model among the communities within the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is found. Thirdly, the substitutive process model of the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is discovered, which reveals the substitutability among innovation ecosystems, the communities of similar products, and the enterprises of similar products. This paper is of theoretical, practical, and political significance for the development of a CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem in emerging markets in terms of regional energy security and emission reduction.

  13. Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Science and Technology Highlights Highlights in Research & Development Fleet DNA Brings Fleet Data to Life, Informs R&D Key Research Results Achievement Built on over 11.5 million miles of vehicle operations data, Fleet DNA helps users

  14. Fleet management for autonomous vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bsaybes, Sahar; Quilliot, Alain; Wagler, Annegret K.

    2016-01-01

    The VIPAFLEET project consists in developing models and algorithms for man- aging a fleet of Individual Public Autonomous Vehicles (VIPA). Hereby, we consider a fleet of cars distributed at specified stations in an industrial area to supply internal transportation, where the cars can be used in different modes of circulation (tram mode, elevator mode, taxi mode). One goal is to develop and implement suitable algorithms for each mode in order to satisfy all the requests under an economic point...

  15. Feasibility study on utilization of associated gas as CNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The Back Ho oilfield is the largest oilfield in Vietnam and at the same time is producing the largest amount of natural gas (associated gas) in Vietnam. Although the majority of the associated gas has been used in the power generation plant, a large amount of surplus gas is not effectively used because of shortage of fund and technologies. Accordingly, a feasibility study has been executed for a project to compress 20% of the associated gas into CNG, and use it effectively as automobile and factory fuel. As a result of the site survey, it was found that, although Vietnam consumes less amount of energy and emits less amount of CO2, the nation has a strong interest and a large amount of knowledge about global warming and CDM because the country is subjected to large effect of warming. Furthermore, it has been reconfirmed that introducing CNG into this territory is highly effective. Discussions have been made on places of installing the facilities, effective surplus gas utilization systems, facility specifications, utilities, and number of workers. Calculations were made on approximate cost of the facilities and the running cost. As a result of the surveys and discussions, it was determined that technological support from Japan and the Yen loan for environment with low interest rate are necessary. (NEDO)

  16. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  17. Guidance on Biogas used to Produce CNG or LNG under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides EPA’s interpretation of biogas quality and RIN generation requirements that apply to renewable fuel production pathways involving the injection into a commercial pipeline of biogas for use in producing renewable CNG or renewable LNG.

  18. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  19. Anomaly Detection in a Fleet of Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fleet is a group of systems (e.g., cars, aircraft) that are designed and manufactured the same way and are intended to be used the same way. For example, a fleet...

  20. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  1. Time to retire : Indicators for aircraft fleets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that aircraft fleets are aging alongside rising operations and support costs. Logisticians and fleet managers who better understand the milestones and timeline of an aging fleet can recognise potential savings. This paper outlines generalised milestones germane to military aircraft

  2. Nuclear fleet: Today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.M.; Kovalenko, V.K.; Sinyaev, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Many years of operational experience have shown advantages of nuclear liner icebreakers over those burning fossil fuels primarily in ensuring reliable and stable shipping along the North Sea Route with an extended navigation season being realized. The advantages of the nuclear fleet are described

  3. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinor, J. E.

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  4. Biomechanical effects of mobile computer location in a vehicle cab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginus, Kyle A; Marklin, Richard W; Seeley, Patricia; Simoneau, Guy G; Freier, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the best location to place a conventional mobile computer supported by a commercially available mount in a light truck cab. U.S. and Canadian electric utility companies are in the process of integrating mobile computers into their fleet vehicle cabs. There are no publications on the effect of mobile computer location in a vehicle cab on biomechanical loading, performance, and subjective assessment. The authors tested four locations of mobile computers in a light truck cab in a laboratory study to determine how location affected muscle activity of the lower back and shoulders; joint angles of the shoulders, elbows, and wrist; user performance; and subjective assessment. A total of 22 participants were tested in this study. Placing the mobile computer closer to the steering wheel reduced low back and shoulder muscle activity. Joint angles of the shoulders, elbows, and wrists were also closer to neutral angle. Biomechanical modeling revealed substantially less spinal compression and trunk muscle force. In general, there were no practical differences in performance between the locations. Subjective assessment indicated that users preferred the mobile computer to be as close as possible to the steering wheel. Locating the mobile computer close to the steering wheel reduces risk of injuries, such as low back pain and shoulder tendonitis. Results from the study can guide electric utility companies in the installation of mobile computers into vehicle cabs. Results may also be generalized to other industries that use trucklike vehicles, such as construction.

  5. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Cao, Xinyue; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xintong; He, Kebin

    2014-09-01

    To alleviate air pollution and lessen the petroleum demand from the motor vehicle sector in China, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been rapidly developed over the last several years. However, the understanding of the real-world emissions of NGVs is very limited. In this study, the emissions from 20 compressed-natural-gas-fueled bi-fuel taxis were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual driving conditions in Yichang, China. The emission characteristics of the tested vehicles were analyzed, revealing that the average CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the tested compressed-natural-gas (CNG) taxis under urban driving conditions were 1.6, 4.0, 2.0 and 0.98 times those under highway road conditions, respectively. The CO, HC and NOx emissions from Euro 3 CNG vehicles were approximately 40%, 55% and 44% lower than those from Euro 2 vehicles, respectively. Compared with the values for light-duty gasoline vehicles reported in the literature, the CO2 and CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were clearly lower; however, significant increases in the HC and NOx emissions were observed. Finally, we normalized the emissions under the actual driving cycles of the entire test route to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)-based emissions using a VSP modes method developed by North Carolina State University. The simulated NEDC-based CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were better than the corresponding emissions standards, whereas the simulated NEDC-based HC and NOx emissions greatly exceeded the standards. Thus, more attention should be paid to the emissions from CNG vehicles. As for the CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis currently in use, the department of environmental protection should strengthen their inspection and supervision to reduce the emissions from these vehicles. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding and controlling emissions from CNG-fueled bi-fuel vehicles in China.

  6. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  7. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A CNG DIRECT INJECTION SPARK IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rashid A. Aziz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out on a dedicated compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI engine with a compression ratio (CR of 14 and a central injection system. Several injection timing parameters from early injection timing (300 BTDC to partial direct injection (180 BTDC to full direct injection (120 BTDC were investigated. The 300 BTDC injection timing experiment was carried out to simulate the performance of a port injection engine and the result is used as a benchmark for engine performance. The full DI resulted in a 20% higher performance than the early injection timing for low engine speeds up to 2750 rpm. 180 BTDC injection timing shows the highest performance over an extensive range of engine speed because it has a similar volumetric efficiency to full DI. However, the earlier injection timing allowed for a better air–fuel mixing and gives superior performance for engine speeds above 4500 rpm. The engine performance could be explained by analysis of the heat release rate that shows that at low and intermediate engine speeds of 2000 and 3000, the full DI and partial DI resulted in the fastest heat release rate whereas at a high engine speed of 5000 rpm, the simulated port injection operation resulted in the fastest heat release rate.

  8. CERN’s automobile fleet turns a brighter shade of green

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    CERN is partnering with Services Industriels de Genève (SIG) in an environmentally friendly initiative to acquire cars running on natural gas. The first forty vehicles will arrive at CERN around mid-February, and enter service in March.   On 3 February 2011 CERN, represented by Steve Myers at the FEDRE Forum, was awarded the mobility prize. CERN currently has approximately 800 vehicles in use at its different sites. Véronique Marchal, head of Site Services in the GS Department, explains: “Our fleet includes a great variety of vehicles, from small Category A cars for staff to utility/transport vehicles. The decision to acquire cars running on natural gas is part of our strategy of diversifying CERN's automobile fleet so as to make it more environmentally friendly.” The new cars are actually bi-fuel, which means that they will have two tanks: one for regular fuel and one for compressed natural gas (CNG). “This kind of car is a little more exp...

  9. Driving on Natural Gas, Greening the Gasunie Fleet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Driving on CNG is preferable to conventional fuels because of diversification of the energy mix, local availability of natural gas, the financial benefit and the transition function towards (sustain-able) biogas and emission reduction. Furthermore, the CNG technology is expected to be safer than

  10. Perspectives of Biogas Conversion into Bio-CNG for Automobile Fuel in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for liquid and gaseous fuel for transportation application is growing very fast. This high consumption trend causes swift exhaustion of fossil fuel reserve as well as severe environment pollution. Biogas can be converted into various renewable automobile fuels such as bio-CNG, syngas, gasoline, and liquefied biogas. However, bio-CNG, a compressed biogas with high methane content, can be a promising candidate as vehicle fuel in replacement of conventional fuel to resolve this problem. This paper presents an overview of available liquid and gaseous fuel commonly used as transportation fuel in Bangladesh. The paper also illustrates the potential of bio-CNG conversion from biogas in Bangladesh. It is estimated that, in the fiscal year 2012-2013, the country had about 7.6775 billion m3 biogas potential equivalent to 5.088 billion m3 of bio-CNG. Bio-CNG is competitive to the conventional automobile fuels in terms of its properties, economy, and emission.

  11. A comparative study of emission motorcycle with gasoline and CNG fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, M. N.; Wijayanti, W.; Rahardja, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    A comparison of the exhaust emissions of the engine running gasoline and Compressed Natural Gas have been performed in this study. A gasoline engine 4 stroke single-cylinder with volume of 124.8 cc and compression ratio of 9.3:1 was converted to a CNG gaseous engine. The fuel injector was replaced with a solenoid valve system for injecting CNG gas to engine. The concentrations of CO, CO2, O2 and HC in the exhaust gas of engine were measured over the range of fuel flow rate from 25.32 mg/s to 70.22 mg/s and wide range of Air Fuel Ratio. The comparative analysis of this study showed that CNG engine has a lower HC, CO2 and CO emission at the stoichiometry mixture of fuel and air combustion. The emissions increased when the Air-Fuel ratio was switched from the stoichiometry condition. Moreover, CNG engine produced a lower HC and CO emission compared to the gasoline for difference air flow rate. The average of HC and CO emissions of the CNG was 92 % and 78 % lower than that of the gasoline

  12. Diesel/CNG Mixture Autoignition Control Using Fuel Composition and Injection Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmansyah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Combustion phasing is the main obstacle to the development of controlled auto-ignition based (CAI engines to achieve low emissions and low fuel consumption operation. Fuel combinations with substantial differences in reactivity, such as diesel/compressed natural gas (CNG, show desirable combustion outputs and demonstrate great possibility in controlling the combustion. This paper discusses a control method for diesel/CNG mixture combustion with a variation of fuel composition and fuel stratification levels. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume combustion chamber with both fuels directly injected into the chamber. The mixture composition was varied from 0 to 100% CNG/diesel at lambda 1 while the fuel stratification level was controlled by the injection phasing between the two fuels, with gaps between injections ranging from 0 to 20 ms. The results demonstrated the suppressing effect of CNG on the diesel combustion, especially at the early combustion stages. However, CNG significantly enhanced the combustion performance of the diesel in the later stages. Injection gaps, on the other hand, showed particular behavior depending on mixture composition. Injection gaps show less effect on combustion phasing but a significant effect on the combustion output for higher diesel percentage (≥70%, while it is contradictive for lower diesel percentage (<70%.

  13. CNG transport by ship with FRP pressure vessels access to east coast gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [Trans Ocean Gas Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the Trans Ocean Gas (TOG) method for transporting compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG transportation offers an alternative method for transporting stranded natural gas to existing markets and for creating new natural gas markets that are not feasible for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or pipelines. Trans Ocean Gas Inc. (TOG) modified an existing fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessel technology to safely store CNG on a ship. The newly developed containment system has proven to overcome all the deficiencies of steel-based systems. TOG patented the containment system and will license its use to owners of stranded gas and shipping service providers around the world. The CNG systems will be built and assembled throughout facilities in Atlantic Canada. FRP pressure vessels have been proven safe and reliable through critical applications in the national defense, aerospace, and natural gas vehicle industries. They are light-weight, highly reliable, have very safe failure modes, are corrosion resistant, and have excellent low temperature characteristics. Under TOG's scheme, natural gas can be stored at two thirds the density of LNG without costly processing. TOG's proposed design and testing of a CNG system was reviewed in detail. figs.

  14. A cask fleet operations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs

  15. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Emissions Reduction through Vehicle Repair Compared to CNG Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Paul L; Lesko, Jon M; Stedman, Donald H

    1996-10-01

    In return for a temporary waiver from converting five vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) for the Denver Clean Fuels program, the University of Denver identified, tested, repaired, and retested nine employee commuter vehicles. The results of the study validated the concept that employer-based identification and repair programs can be carried out in a cost-effective way. On average, each repaired vehicle removed fifty times more carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from Denver air than each CNG conversion. The average cost of each repair was eight times less than the average cost of each conversion. The average fuel economy benefit from the repairs was enough to pay for the average cost of repairs in less than three years of normal driving. When the expected lifetimes of repairs and conversions are included, the targeted repair program appears to be over sixty times more cost-effective as a CO emissions reduction strategy than CNG conversion.

  17. The Coselle CNG carrier : a new way to ship natural gas by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenning, D.

    1999-01-01

    Coselle CNG carriers represent an emerging technology option for water-borne natural gas transportation. The idea behind the Coselle is to create a large but compact CNG storage system using pipe coiled into a carousel. The system promises to significantly improve the economics of shipping natural gas over short sea routes. This would unlock many gas reserves which are stranded because of the high costs associated with shipping natural gas by conventional tankers. The innovative patented technology for Coselle CNG carriers was described in this paper. The completed work on the technology is sufficient to allow a pilot project to proceed before the next step of commercialization of the technology. The technology can be applied in the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Arabian Sea, Sakhalin Island, Canada's east coast, Deepwater offshore Brazil and Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  18. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 3 : ITS fleet management technology resource guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In todays increasingly competitive economic environment, effective management of commercial vehicle fleets is important for all types of carriers and for the trucking industry as a whole. To meet fleet management needs, carriers increasingly are t...

  19. CNG: Aiming to be an energy company, not a gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, R.

    1997-01-01

    Long before regulatory changes in the US paved the way for the union of natural gas and electric utility companies, Consolidated Natural Gas Co. (CNG) embarked on a strategy that would serve the company well in the 1990s. In 1995, CNG began a corporate repositioning to meet mounting competition, switching emphasis from its regulated businesses to the non-regulated side. The goal: to become an energy player, not only in the US but internationally. This paper focuses on the company's operations, business plans, and management strategies. The paper gives an overview, then discusses production of oil and gas, the growing exploration program and plans for the future

  20. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  1. Project risk perspective on using LNG, CNG, and GTL concepts to monetise offshore stranded gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Blikom, Lars Petter

    2010-09-15

    This paper discusses technology maturity and the key risks involved in establishing LNG, CNG, and GTL value chains in order to monetise offshore stranded and associated gas. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the economics of the various concepts and the impact of uncertainty. The conclusion is that LNG offers the most flexible value chain with the lowest level of risk exposure. CNG may offer better economics as long as the distance to market is fairly short. GTL must overcome significant technological challenges before becoming available for offshore use and also offers higher uncertainty in economic terms.

  2. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  3. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  4. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  5. New gas-fuelled engine. SBZ takes a look at the Iveco Daily CNG; Mit neuem Erdgasmotor. SBZ-Redaktion testet den Iveco Daily CNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-01-15

    In the van class, there are fewer natural-gas vehicles now on the market than before. One of these is the new Iveco Daily CNG, a low-emission industrial vehicle which is available both as a van or as a flatbed vehicle with sufficient rotary momentum and power. SBZ editor Thomas Dietrich of the Bonn office of SBZ tested several variants of the vehicle. (orig.)

  6. CONVERSION OF DIESEL ENGINE INTO SPARK IGNITION ENGINE TO WORK WITH CNG AND LPG FUELS FOR MEETING NEW EMISSION NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

  7. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi.

  8. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  9. NATIONAL FLEET DEVELOPMENT IN THE INNOVATIVE ECONOMY. CASE STUDY OF THE GREEK FLEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Grzybowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the development of the Greek fleet in the period of last ten years was discussed. The Greek fleet is an example of accommodating itself to the requirements of the global and innovative economy. Greek shipowners are developing their fleets through the consolidation and replacing older ships with new generation vessels. They are invest-ing into ships adapted for new markets, including LNG maritime transport market. As a result of it Greece became a market leader in maritime transport sector and their fleet a biggest and youngest fleet of world in 2016.

  10. Demonstration of fleet trucks fueled with PV hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, J.; Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project has been installed at the Xerox Corporation, El Segundo, California site. Three Ford Ranger trucks have been converted to use hydrogen fuel. The ''stand- alone'' electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system is powered by a photovoltaic array with no connection to the power grid. A variable frequency DC/AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 hp motor for the hydrogen compressor. Up to 400 standard cubic meters (SCM) of solar hydrogen is stored, and storage of up to 2300 SCM of commercial hydrogen is collocated. As the hydrogen storage is within 5km of Los Angeles International Airport, pilot operation of a hydrogen fuel cell bus for airport shuttle service has been demonstrated with fueling at the CAN facility. The truck engine conversions are bored to 2.91 displacement, use a Roots type supercharger and CVI (constant volume injection) fuel induction to allow performance similar to that of the gasoline powered truck. Truck fuel storage is done with carbon composite tanks at pressures up to 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Two tanks are located just behind the driver's cab, and take up nearly half of the truck bed space. The truck highway range is approximately 140 miles. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil emissions of CO and HC. NO x emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two Xerox fleet trucks have been converted, and one for the City of West Hollywood. The Clean Air Now Program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality. It further demonstrates that continued technological development and cost reduction will make such implementation competitive. (Author)

  11. Regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components from LD vehicles on petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Rijkeboer, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Four fuels (petrol, LPG, CNG and diesel) are compared on passenger cars and lighter vans. The comparisons are made for the usual regulated components, but also for a number of unregulated components. The project was financed by the Dutch government, the association of gas suppliers, a number of

  12. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  13. Evaluation of the environmental impact of modern passenger cars on petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Winkel, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    The project reported here concerns an investigation into the environmental performance of modern passenger cars on four different fuels: petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG. The objectives of the project were twofold: - To make a valid and useful comparison between modern vehicles fuelled by

  14. The combustion behavior of diesel/CNG mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heikal, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The stringent emissions and needs to increase fuel efficiency makes controlled auto-ignition (CAI) based combustion an attractive alternative for the new combustion system. However, the combustion control is the main obstacles in its development. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) that employs two fuels with significantly different in reactivity proven to be able to control the combustion. The RCCI concept applied in a constant volume chamber fuelled with direct injected diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) was tested. The mixture composition is varied from 0 - 100% diesel/CNG at lambda 1 with main data collection are pressure profile and combustion images. The results show that diesel-CNG mixture significantly shows better combustion compared to diesel only. It is found that CNG is delaying the diesel combustion and at the same time assisting in diesel distribution inside the chamber. This combination creates a multipoint ignition of diesel throughout the chamber that generate very fast heat release rate and higher maximum pressure. Furthermore, lighter yellow color of the flame indicates lower soot production in compared with diesel combustion.

  15. Influence of extensive compressed natural gas (CNG) usage on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Sikder, Helena Akhter; Jones, Charlotte Emily; Kato, Shungo; Kunimi, Hitoshi; Mohammed Hamidul Kabir, Abu Naser; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2012-07-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is an inexpensive, indigenous energy resource which currently accounts for the majority of automobile and domestic energy consumption in Bangladesh. This extensive CNG usage, particularly within the capital city, Dhaka, heavily influences the atmospheric composition (and hence air quality), yet to date measurements of trace gases in regions dominated by CNG emissions are relatively limited. Here we report continuous observations of the atmospherically important trace gases O3, CO, SO2, NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC), in ambient air in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, during May 2011. The average mixing ratios of O3, CO, SO2, and NOx for the measurement period were 18.9, 520.9, 7.6 and 21.5 ppbv, respectively. The ratios of CO to NO reveal that emissions from gasoline and CNG-fuelled vehicles were dominant during the daytime (slope of ˜26), while in contrast, owing to restrictions imposed on diesel fuelled vehicles entering Dhaka City, emissions from these vehicles only became significant during the night (slope of ˜10). The total VOC mixing ratio in Dhaka was ˜5-10 times higher than the levels reported in more developed Asian cities such as Tokyo and Bangkok, which consequently gives rise to a higher ozone formation potential (OFP). However, the most abundant VOC in Dhaka were the relatively long-lived ethane and propane (with mean mixing ratios of ˜115 and ˜30 ppbv, respectively), and as a consequence, the ozone formation potential per ppb carbon (ppbC) was lower in Dhaka than in Tokyo and Bangkok. Thus the atmospheric composition of air influenced by extensive CNG combustion may be characterized by high VOC mixing ratios, yet mixing ratios of the photochemical pollutant ozone do not drastically exceed the levels typical of Asian cities with considerably lower VOC levels.

  16. BioFleet case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    These six case studies examined the use of different biodiesel blends as fuel supply sources for businesses in British Columbia (BC). In the first case study, 6 municipalities participated in a pilot program designed to compare the performance of biodiesel and diesel fuels. Each municipality operated 2 base vehicles running on conventional diesel along with 2 similar vehicles which used biodiesel. Real time emissions tests and analyses of the vehicles using biodiesel were also conducted by 2 of the participating municipalities. All municipalities participating in the study agreed to purchase significant volumes of biodiesel. The second case study described a pilot study conducted by the City of Vancouver's equipment services branch in 2004. As a result of the study, the city now has over 530 types of equipment that use biodiesel. The third case study described a program designed by TSI Terminals in Vancouver to assess the emission reduction impact of using biodiesel at its port facility. Six different pieces of equipment were used to confirm that biodiesel could be used throughout the terminal. Test results confirmed that biodiesel blends could be used to reduce emissions. Overall emissions were reduced by 30 per cent. The fourth case study described a waste renderer that used a fleet of 36 trucks to deliver raw products to its plants. The company made the decision to use only biodiesel for its entire fleet of trucks. Since July 2005, the company has logged over 1.7 million km using biodiesel blends. The fifth case study described a salmon hatchery that switched from diesel to biodiesel in order to reduce emissions. The biodiesel blends are used to fuel the hatchery's 2 diesel generators. The hatchery has reduced emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by an estimated 1800 tonnes annually. The sixth case study described how the Township of Langley has started using biodiesel for its entire fleet of of approximately 250 pieces of equipment. The township has not

  17. A structural, functional, and computational analysis suggests pore flexibility as the base for the poor selectivity of CNG channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Luisa Maria Rosaria; Bisha, Ina; De March, Matteo; Marchesi, Arin; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Demitri, Nicola; Mazzolini, Monica; Rodriguez, Alex; Magistrato, Alessandra; Onesti, Silvia; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2015-07-07

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels, despite a significant homology with the highly selective K(+) channels, do not discriminate among monovalent alkali cations and are permeable also to several organic cations. We combined electrophysiology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and X-ray crystallography to demonstrate that the pore of CNG channels is highly flexible. When a CNG mimic is crystallized in the presence of a variety of monovalent cations, including Na(+), Cs(+), and dimethylammonium (DMA(+)), the side chain of Glu66 in the selectivity filter shows multiple conformations and the diameter of the pore changes significantly. MD simulations indicate that Glu66 and the prolines in the outer vestibule undergo large fluctuations, which are modulated by the ionic species and the voltage. This flexibility underlies the coupling between gating and permeation and the poor ionic selectivity of CNG channels.

  18. Fleet Assistance and Support Team (FAST) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FAST team was established by PMA-264 for introduction of multistatic ASW systems into the Fleet.FAST provides Air ASW mission planning, tactics/tactical sensor...

  19. Fleet replacement modeling : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project focused on two interrelated areas in equipment replacement modeling for fleets. The first area was research-oriented and addressed a fundamental assumption in engineering economic replacement modeling that all assets providing a similar ...

  20. Temporal Optimization Planning for Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state-of-the-art pla......Fleet repositioning problems pose a high financial bur- den on shipping firms, but have received little attention in the literature, despite their high importance to the shipping industry. Fleet repositioning problems are characterized by chains of interacting activities, but state......-of-the-art planning and scheduling techniques do not offer cost models that are rich enough to represent essential objectives of these problems. To this end, we introduce a novel framework called Temporal Optimization Planning (TOP). TOP uses partial order planning to build optimization models associated...

  1. Future Fleet Project. What Can We Afford

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    available to maintain the readiness of the fleet. The reduction in readiness spending coupled with continuing demands from COCOMs for assets eroded... coupled with continuing demands from COCOMs for assets eroded the number of ships in ready‑to‑deploy status. CBO’s estimate of $20.2 billion per...less-expensive aircraft carriers, and additional SSNs. Our intent in designing this fleet is to use the money saved in buying less-expensive

  2. Fracture Analysis of CNG High Pressure Container using Fractography and Measurement of Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Eui-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bursting accidents of pressure containers due to design and manufacturing defects are frequently occurring. Due to high-pressure gas or harmful substances, when this vessel is fractured, it can lead to catastrophic disasters. Especially, in the event of bursting accident of composite pressure vessel for CNG bus, many unspecified people can be damaged. Most of the accidents were caused by problems in the manufacturing process. The manufacturing process for TYPE2 pressure vessel is very complicated such as three drawing processes, two ironing processes and one spinning process. In the middle of process, various heat treatments are performed for imparting toughness and removing residual stresses. It should cause a serious problem such as bursting and fragmentation of the pressure container due to defects of this process. In this research, the fracture cause of CNG vessel is evaluated through fractography and measuring material property using IIT and analysis of chemical composition.

  3. Exhaust gas concentration of CNG fuelled direct injection engine at MBT timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.K.; Aris, I.; Mahmod, S.; Sidek, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents an experimental result of exhaust gas concentration of high compression engine fuelled with compressed natural gas (CNG) at maximum brake torque (MBT). The engine uses central direct injection (DI) technique to inject the CNG into the cylinder. The engine geometry bases on gasoline engine with 14:1 compression ratio and called CNGDI engine. The injectors are positioned within a certain degrees of spark plug location. The objective of the experiment is to study the influence and significant of MBT timing in CNGDI engine towards exhaust gases. The experimental tests were carried out using computer-controlled eddy-current dynamometer, which measures the CNGDI engine performance. At MBT region, exhaust gas concentration as such CO, HC, NO x , O 2 and CO 2 , were recorded and analyzed during the test using the Horiba analyzer. A closed loop wide band lambda sensor has been mounted at the exhaust manifold to indicate the oxygen level during the exercise. (author)

  4. Impact source location on composite CNG storage tank using acoustic emission energy based signal mapping method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Byeong Hee; Yoon, Dong Jin; Park, Chun Soo [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Safety Measurement, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Acoustic emission (AE) is one of the most powerful techniques for detecting damages and identify damage location during operations. However, in case of the source location technique, there is some limitation in conventional AE technology, because it strongly depends on wave speed in the corresponding structures having heterogeneous composite materials. A compressed natural gas(CNG) pressure vessel is usually made of carbon fiber composite outside of vessel for the purpose of strengthening. In this type of composite material, locating impact damage sources exactly using conventional time arrival method is difficult. To overcome this limitation, this study applied the previously developed Contour D/B map technique to four types of CNG storage tanks to identify the source location of damages caused by external shock. The results of the identification of the source location for different types were compared.

  5. What is behind fleet evolution: a framework for flow analysis and application to the French Atlantic fleet

    OpenAIRE

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Guyader, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The study of fishery dynamics considers national-level fleet evolution. It has, however, failed to consider the flows behind fleet evolution as well as the impact of the dynamics of owners of invested capital on fleet evolution. This paper establishes a general conceptual framework which identifies different vessel and owner flows behind fleet evolution and some relationships between these flows. This descriptive conceptual framework aims to change the current focus on drivers of fleet evolut...

  6. Comparative engine performance and emission analysis of CNG and gasoline in a retrofitted car engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahirul, M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Kalam, M.A.; Jayed, M.H.; Wazed, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis is being performed of the engine performance and exhaust emission on a gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled retrofitted spark ignition car engine. A new 1.6 L, 4-cylinder petrol engine was converted to the computer incorporated bi-fuel system which operated with either gasoline or CNG using an electronically controlled solenoid actuated valve mechanism. The engine brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust emissions (unburnt hydrocarbon, carbon mono-oxide, oxygen and carbon dioxides) were measured over a range of speed variations at 50% and 80% throttle positions through a computer based data acquisition and control system. Comparative analysis of the experimental results showed 19.25% and 10.86% reduction in brake power and 15.96% and 14.68% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at 50% and 80% throttle positions respectively while the engine was fueled with CNG compared to that with the gasoline. Whereas, the retrofitted engine produced 1.6% higher brake thermal efficiency and 24.21% higher exhaust gas temperature at 80% throttle had produced an average of 40.84% higher NO x emission over the speed range of 1500-5500 rpm at 80% throttle. Other emission contents (unburnt HC, CO, O 2 and CO 2 ) were significantly lower than those of the gasoline emissions.

  7. Spray-Wall Impingement of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Jet using Schlieren Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Mhadi Abaker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is a low cost fuel with high availability in nature. However, it cannot be used by itself in conventional diesel engines due to its low flame speed and high ignition temperature. The addition of a secondary fuel to enhance the mixture formation and combustion process facilitate its wider use as an alternative fuel. An experimental study was performed to investigate the diesel-CNG dual fuel jet-wall impingement. A constant volume optical chamber was designed to facilitate maximum optical access for the study of the jet-wall impingement at different injection pressures, temperatures and injector-wall distances. The bottom plate of the test rig was made of aluminum (piston material and it was heated up to 500 K at ambient pressure. An injector driver was used to control the single-hole nozzle diesel injector combined with a natural gas injector. The injection timing of both injectors was synchronized with a camera trigger. The jet-wall impingement of diesel and diesel-CNG dual fuel jets was recorded with a high speed camera using Schlieren imaging technique and associated image processing software. The measurements of the jet radial penetration were higher in diesel-CNG dual fuel while the jet height travel along were higher in the case of diesel single fuel.

  8. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fleet management tools for the utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caywood, J. [Terex Telelect, Watertown, SD (United States)

    2002-08-01

    In order to enable fleet managers to make the appropriate decisions concerning buying, selling, renting, leasing or repairing vehicles, information about ownership and operating cost and utilization are important. Fleet management tools are now available in the heavy construction industry. The author describes one such fleet management services customized for the utility industry: FleetEdge. This system utilizes current and future technologies to enable the managers to take proactive or predictive approaches to fleet management. An example of a company that has opted for this system was reviewed: Reliant Energy-Houston Metro. The data collection process was explained. A mini-computer processor is fitted on the equipment, and the requested monitoring parameters in turn determine the variety of sensors and alarms to be selected. Location can also be monitored through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment. The parameters normally include low engine oil pressure, high engine operating temperature, high transmission operating temperature, high hydraulic oil temperature, engine hours. Wireless data transfer is effected via cellular or satellite networks. The data is then collected and checked for errors and format at a hub before going to the computer server through the Internet. Information is transmitted from the accounting system to fleet management service through a secure interface. The data is then configured to meet the client's needs. It results in up to date, understandable information to the client. Equipment utilization, downtime and cost by machine or category is easily accessible and printed if required. Fleet equipment status is provided, as well as hourly cost analysis. Other reports are also available. 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  11. Fleet wide motor asset management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemeier, R.G.; Moxie, J.J.; Mendez, W.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) performed several studies concerning the effects of motor failures on US power production. Problems with aging and the lack of preventative maintenance were noted as major contributors to this production loss. Westinghouse has developed, and successfully utilized, a computer program to assist plants in the decision making process for maximizing the operational availability of their motor fleet. The program considers motors of a fleet as a single, critical to production asset, and aids the operator in decisions regarding the following: 1.) Purchase of spares. 2.) Rewind and refurbishment prioritization. 3.) Long-term budget forecasting. (author)

  12. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  13. 48 CFR 970.2307-1 - Motor vehicle fleet operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicle fleet..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-1 Motor vehicle fleet... that the Federal motor vehicle fleet will serve as an example and provide a leadership role in the...

  14. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Wankerl, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 46 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the Department of Energy (DOE) consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Strategic fleet planning for city logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschetti, Anna; Honhon, Dorothee; Laporte, G.; van Woensel, T.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    We study the strategic problem of a logistics service provider managing a (possibly heterogeneous) fleet of vehicles to serve a city in the presence of access restrictions. We model the problem as an area partitioning problem in which a rectangular service area has to be divided into sectors, each

  16. Transportation capabilities of the existing cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Wankerl, M.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a number of scenarios estimating the amount of spent nuclear fuel that could be transported to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility by various combinations of existing cask fleets. To develop the scenarios, the data provided by the Transportation System Data Base (TSDB) were modified to reflect the additional time for cask turnaround resulting from various startup and transportation issues. With these more realistic speed and cask-handling assumptions, the annual transportation capability of a fleet consisting of all of the existing casks is approximately 465 metric tons of uranium (MTU). The most likely fleet of existing casks that would be made available to the DOE consists of two rail, three overweight truck, and six legal weight truck casks. Under the same transportation assumptions, this cask fleet is capable of approximately transporting 270 MTU/year. These ranges of capability is a result of the assumptions pertaining to the number of casks assumed to be available. It should be noted that this assessment assumes additional casks based on existing certifications are not fabricated

  17. Formation of optimal construction fleet composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuskaeva, Zalina

    2017-10-01

    Machinery supply and its rational use in construction processes considerably determine the final product of construction organizations. Therefore, the problem of defining the type size composition of the construction fleet as one of the lowest material-intensive productions, is of a particular importance.

  18. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Azzopardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  19. The CNG program in Argentine transport sector sources: present and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres G, D.

    1988-01-01

    The CNG program in Argentina was formulated in the early 80's with the goal of reaching energy independence by means of a greater participation of natural gas in the energy demand. The transport sector is responsible of 30% of the total energy demand and 60% of all the oil consumption, so that any plan for substituting liquid fuels had to tackle transportation. The experiences which allowed gas to increase its participation from 27% to 33% may be profited by others interested in producing similar projects. (author)

  20. TEMAS: fleet-based bio-economic simulation software to evaluate management strategies accounting for fleet behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Sparre, Per Johan

    2007-01-01

    TEMAS (technical management measures) is a fleet-based bio-economic software for evaluating management strategies accounting for technical measures and fleet behaviour. It focuses on mixed fisheries in which several fleets can choose among several fishing activities to target different stocks...

  1. Application of Strategic Planning Process with Fleet Level Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Pfaender, Holger; Jimenez, Hernando; Garcia, Elena; Feron, Eric; Bernardo, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify and characterize the potential system-wide reduction of fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions, resulting from the introduction of N+2 aircraft technologies and concepts into the fleet. Although NASA goals for this timeframe are referenced against a large twin aisle aircraft we consider their application across all vehicle classes of the commercial aircraft fleet, from regional jets to very large aircraft. In this work the authors describe and discuss the formulation and implementation of the fleet assessment by addressing the main analytical components: forecasting, operations allocation, fleet retirement, fleet replacement, and environmental performance modeling.

  2. A study on the amount of pilot injection and its effects on rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture for a CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiqiang Lin; Wanhua Su [Tianjin University (China). State Key Laboratory of Engines

    2003-07-01

    A sequential port injection, lean-burn, fully electronically-controlled compressed natural gas (CNG)/diesel dual-fuel engine has been developed based on a turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. During the optimisation of engine overall performance, the effects of pilot diesel and premixed CNG/air mixture equivalence ratio on emissions (CO, HC, NO{sub x}, soot), knocking, misfire and fuel economy are studied. The rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture versus engine load are also provided, considering the acceptable values of NO{sub x} and THC emissions, respectively. It is interesting to find that there is a critical amount of pilot diesel for each load and speed point, which proved to be the optimum amount of pilot fuel. Any decrease in the amount of pilot diesel from this optimum amount results in an increase of NO{sub x} emissions, because the premixed CNG/air mixture must be made richer, otherwise THC emissions would increase. However, the soot emissions remain almost unchanged at a very low level. (author)

  3. Carbonyl compounds and PAH emissions from CNG heavy-duty engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, M.; Cericola, R.; Corbo, P.; Iannaccone, S.

    1993-01-01

    Previous works carried out in Istituto Motori laboratories have shown that natural gas is a suitable fuel for general means of transportation. This is because of its favorable effects on engine performance and pollutant emissions. The natural gas fueled engine provided the same performance as the diesel engine, met R49 emission standards, and showed very low smoke levels. On the other hand, it is well known that internal combustion engines emit some components that are harmful for human health, such as carbonyl compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This paper shows the results of carbonyl compounds and PAH emissions analysis for a heavy-duty Otto cycle engine fueled with natural gas. The engine was tested using the R49 cycle that is used to measure the regulated emissions. The test analysis has been compared with an analysis of a diesel engine, tested under the same conditions. Total PAH emissions from the CNG engine were about three orders of magnitude lower than from the diesel engine. Formaldehyde emission from the CNG engine was about ten times as much as from the diesel engine, while emissions of other carbonyl compounds were comparable

  4. Fleet operator risks for using fleets for V2G regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Davion M.; Agarwal, Arun S.; Ayello, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Future fleets of vehicles may include electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) because of potential fuel savings. Recent demonstration of diesel parallel hybrids in a delivery fleet led to fuel economy improvements, and hybrid bus demonstrations exhibited twice the fuel economy of the conventional bus. Fleet ownership may include management of a fleet of vehicles as small as 10 units and as large as hundreds or thousands. In addition to fuel savings, the newer extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) and pure EVs permit vehicle to grid (V2G) opportunities. These V2G opportunities may present additional revenue for fleets by providing ancillary services to local grid independent system operators (ISOs), provided that the burden of driving and V2G services do not accelerate the degradation of the battery systems in these vehicles. The subject of this study is to determine the financial risks associated with accelerated battery degradation in a V2G-enabled EREV fleet expected to perform ancillary service duty while charging in addition to the normal loads of drive cycle duty. We determine that battery cycle life during V2G duty is a critical parameter, which can determine whether or not the business model is viable. - Highlights: ► V2G regulation cycle life of EREV batteries must be >50,000 cycles to be profitable. ► Present knowledge and test data about the impact of V2G cycles on battery life are limited. ► Replacement of batteries and energy throughput are major factors in the cost–benefit analysis. ► V2G fleet is not viable with present data but can be viable with some technical advancement.

  5. Screening of tank-to-wheel efficiencies for CNG, DME and methanol-ethanol fuel blends in road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Jannik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    efficiency. This screening indicates methanol, methanol-ethanol blends and CNG to be readily availability, economic feasible and with the introduction of the DISI engine not technologically challenging compared to traditional fuels. Studies across fuel types indicate a marginally better fuel utilization...

  6. Energy based source location by using acoustic emission for damage detection in steel and composite CNG tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Sik; Han, Byeong Hee; Park, Choon Su; Yoon, Dong Jin [Center for Safety Measurements, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Acoustic emission (AE) is an effective nondestructive test that uses transient elastic wave generated by the rapid release of energy within a material to detect any further growth or expansion of existing defects. Over the past decades, because of environmental issues, the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel for vehicles is increasing because of environmental issues. For this reason, the importance and necessity of detecting defects on a CNG fuel tank has also come to the fore. The conventional AE method used for source location is highly affected by the wave speed on the structure, and this creates problems in inspecting a composite CNG fuel tank. Because the speed and dispersion characteristics of the wave are different according to direction of structure and laminated layers. In this study, both the conventional AE method and the energy based contour map method were used for source location. This new method based on pre-acquired D/B was used for overcoming the limitation of damage localization in a composite CNG fuel tank specimen which consists of a steel liner cylinder overwrapped by GFRP. From the experimental results, it is observed that the damage localization is determined with a small error at all tested points by using the energy based contour map method, while there were a number of mis-locations or large errors at many tested points by using the conventional AE method. Therefore, the energy based contour map method used in this work is more suitable technology for inspecting composite structures.

  7. Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, Svante

    2009-01-01

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO 2 emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  8. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  9. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  10. Air quality assessment in Delhi: before and after CNG as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha B; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-02-01

    A number of policy measures have been activated in India in order to control the levels of air pollutants such as particulate matter, sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Delhi, which is one of the most polluted cities in the world, is also going through the implementation phase of the control policies. Ambient air quality data monitored during 2000 to 2003, at 10 sites in Delhi, were analyzed to assess the impact of implementation of these measures, specifically fuel change in vehicles. This paper presents the impact of policy measures on ambient air quality levels and also the source apportionment. CO and NO(2) concentration levels in ambient air are found to be associated with the mobile sources. The temporal variation of air quality data shows the significant effect of shift to CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) in vehicles.

  11. An experimental study on premixed CNG/H2/CO2 mixture flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Yilmaz, Harun; Cam, Omer

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the effect of swirl number, gas composition and CO2 dilution on combustion and emission behaviour of CNG/H2/CO2 gas mixtures was experimentally investigated in a laboratory scale combustor. Irrespective of the gas composition, thermal power of the combustor was kept constant (5 kW). All experiments were conducted at or near stoichiometric and the local atmospheric conditions of the city of Kayseri, Turkey. During experiments, swirl number was varied and the combustion performance of this combustor was analysed by means of centreline temperature distributions. On the other hand, emission behaviour was examined with respect to emitted CO, CO2 and NOx levels. Dynamic flame behaviour was also evaluated by analysing instantaneous flame images. Results of this study revealed the great impact of swirl number and gas composition on combustion and emission behaviour of studied flames.

  12. An experimental study on premixed CNG/H2/CO2 mixture flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Ilker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of swirl number, gas composition and CO2 dilution on combustion and emission behaviour of CNG/H2/CO2 gas mixtures was experimentally investigated in a laboratory scale combustor. Irrespective of the gas composition, thermal power of the combustor was kept constant (5 kW. All experiments were conducted at or near stoichiometric and the local atmospheric conditions of the city of Kayseri, Turkey. During experiments, swirl number was varied and the combustion performance of this combustor was analysed by means of centreline temperature distributions. On the other hand, emission behaviour was examined with respect to emitted CO, CO2 and NOx levels. Dynamic flame behaviour was also evaluated by analysing instantaneous flame images. Results of this study revealed the great impact of swirl number and gas composition on combustion and emission behaviour of studied flames.

  13. Excellence in fleet combat replacement squadrons: predicting carrier qualification success

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Martin P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-part analysis of excellence criteria for fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part one focuses on the qualitative issues and management techniques identified in outstanding fleet combat replacement squadrons. Part two develops and presents a regression model for predicting a fleet replacement squadron pilot's carrier qualification grade. The model was derived using standard linear regression techniques and the SPSSx software package of the Naval Postgraduate School. ...

  14. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing US cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, F.L.; Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    This study investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. In addition, it assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.330 - What is the Federal Fleet Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fleet Report? 102-34.330 Section 102-34.330 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.330 What is the Federal Fleet Report? The Federal Fleet Report (FFR..., in evaluating the effectiveness of the operation and management of individual fleets to determine...

  16. Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-03-25

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport.

  17. Research on Operational Aspects of Large Autonomous Underwater Glider Fleets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fratantoni, David M

    2007-01-01

    This program supported research on the operational and management issues stemming from application of large fleets of autonomous underwater gliders to oceanographic research and rapid environmental...

  18. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  19. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, E.; Foresti, P.

    1992-01-01

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  20. Natural gas: Fuel for urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The search for new ecological solutions for public transport has given an important role to natural gas for vehicles in the national context. Under current prices of fuel and costs of plants, the management of a bus fleet running on natural gas allows consistent savings, besides reducing the atmospheric pollution of urban centres. Within this context, solutions offered by current technology available on the market are examined. Low polluting emissions are taken into consideration and a complete analysis of costs and savings is reported. Reference is made to the Thermie European programme which calls for fuel diversification, energy conservation and air pollution abatement

  1. On-road and laboratory emissions of NO, NO2, NH3, N2O and CH4 from late-model EU light utility vehicles: Comparison of diesel and CNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtíšek-Lom, Michal; Beránek, Vít; Klír, Vojtěch; Jindra, Petr; Pechout, Martin; Voříšek, Tomáš

    2018-03-01

    Exhaust emissions of eight Euro 6 light duty vehicles - two station wagons and six vans - half powered by diesel fuel and half by compressed natural gas (CNG) were examined using both chassis dynamometer and on-road testing. A portable on-board FTIR analyzer was used to measure concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds - NO, NO 2 and ammonia, of CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and greenhouse gases CO 2 , methane and N 2 O. Exhaust flow was inferred from engine control unit data. Total emissions per cycle were compared and found to be in good agreement with laboratory measurements of NO X , CO and CO 2 during dynamometer tests. On diesel engines, mean NO X emissions were 136-1070mg/km in the laboratory and 537-615mg/km on the road, in many cases nearly an order of magnitude higher compared to the numerical value of the Euro 6 limit. Mean N 2 O emissions were 3-19mg/km and were equivalent to several g/km CO 2 . The measurements suggest that NO X and N 2 O emissions from late-model European light utility vehicles with diesel engines are non-negligible and should be continuously assessed and scrutinized. High variances in NO X emissions among the tested diesel vehicles suggest that large number of vehicles should be tested to offer at least some insights about distribution of fleet emissions among vehicles. CNG engines exhibited relatively low emissions of NO X (12-186mg/km) and NH 3 (10-24mg/km), while mean emissions of methane were 18-45mg/km, under 1g/km CO 2 equivalent, and N 2 O, CO, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were negligible. The combination of a relatively clean-burning fuel, modern engine technology and a three-way catalyst has resulted in relatively low emissions under the wide variety of operating conditions encountered during the tests. The on-board FTIR has proven to be a useful instrument capable of covering, with the exception of total hydrocarbons, essentially all gaseous pollutants of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 23935 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...; Information Collection; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles, by any of the...

  3. 78 FR 64499 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles AGENCY: Department... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractor use of interagency fleet... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0032, Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management...

  4. Economics of symbiotic nuclear fleets at equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidaud, Adrien; Guillemin, P.; Lecarpentier, David

    2008-01-01

    Many decades of industrial experience have proven that thermal reactors are able to provide a safe, reliable and competitive source of electricity. The higher construction costs of fast reactors compared to thermal reactors could be compensated by their better use of fissile material during the probable fast development of nuclear energy in the first half of the century. Thus, despite the over-cost of their cores, on the longer term, fast reactors are expected to take the lead in the nuclear reactor race. In the mean term, multi-strata symbiotic parks, using high conversion-rate thermal reactors, may delay fast reactor start up. We compare projected fuel cycle costs and cost of electricity of various symbiotic nuclear fleets, on the basis of a simple economic model and elementary costs estimated on publicly available data. These parameters and their evolution over reactor-life time scale can hardly be estimated. That is why we look at the sensitivities of our results to large modifications of the input parameters. The aim of our simple economic model is to understand which reactor characteristics should be optimized to enhance their economic performance when working as a single symbiotic fleet. (authors)

  5. Condition Monitoring of the SSE Generation Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiddle, J.; Muthuraman, S.; Connolly, N.

    2012-05-01

    SSE (previously known as Scottish and Southern Energy) operates a diverse portfolio of generation plant, including coal, gas and renewable plant with a total generation capacity of 11,375MW (Sept 2011). In recent years a group of specialists dedicated to providing condition monitoring services has been established at the Equipment Performance Centre (EPC) based at Knottingley, West Yorkshire. We aim to illustrate the role of the EPC and the methods used for monitoring the generation fleet with the objective of maintaining asset integrity, reducing risk of plant failure and unplanned outages and describe the challenges which have been overcome in establishing the EPC. This paper describes methods including vibration and process data analysis, model-based techniques and on-site testing used for monitoring of generation plant, including gas turbines, steam turbines, generators and steam raising plant. These condition monitoring processes utilise available data, adding value to the business, by bringing services in-house and capturing knowledge of plant operation for the benefit of the whole fleet.

  6. Analysis of Engine Parameters at Using Diesel-LPG and Diesel-CNG Mixture in Compression-ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on influence of diesel engine parameters that is used with mixture of gas and diesel fuel. The first part of the article describes diesel fuel systems where small part of diesel fuel is replaced by LPG or CNG fuel. These systems are often called as Diesel-Gas systems. Next part of the article focuses on tested car and measurement equipment. Measurement was performed by common-rail diesel engine in Fiat Doblň. Tests were carried out in laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Automobile Transport at the Mendel University in Brno. They were observed changes between emissions of used fuels – diesel without addition of gas, diesel + LPG and diesel + CNG mixture. It was found that that the addition of gas had positive effect on the performance parameters and emissions.

  7. Diesel Engine Convert to Port Injection CNG Engine Using Gaseous Injector Nozzle Multi Holes Geometries Improvement: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the previous research in the development of gaseous fuel injector for port injection CNG engine converted from diesel engine. Problem statement: The regular development of internal combustion engines change direction to answer the two most important problems determining the development trends of engines technology and in particular, their combustion systems. They were environmental protection against emission and noise, shortage of hydrocarbon fuels, ...

  8. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  9. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  10. Uncertainty in Fleet Renewal: A Case from Maritime Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantuso, Giovanni; Fagerholt, Kjetil; Wallace, Stein W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the fleet renewal problem and particularly the treatment of uncertainty in the maritime case. A stochastic programming model for the maritime fleet renewal problem is presented. The main contribution is that of assessing whether or not better decisions can be achieved by using...

  11. Application of a greedy algorithm to military aircraft fleet retirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Udluft, H.; Curran, Ricky

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a retirement analysis model for aircraft fleets. By employing a greedy algorithm, the presented solution is capable of identifying individually weak assets in a fleet of aircraft with inhomogeneous historical utilization. The model forecasts future retirement scenarios

  12. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Vis, M.A. Rackliff, L. & Stipdonk, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the ‘relative severity’ of individual collisions between different vehicle

  13. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the make or buy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the first one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Methods: The paper discusses ways of fulfilling company's transportation needs (MAKE-or-BUY problem. It means the choice between using company's own and outside fleet (buying transportation services in a market. The essence of the MAKE-or-BUY problem lies in a time dependency, a seasonal nature of transportation needs. It leads to the MAKE-and-BUY solutions including utilization of both in-house and outside fleets. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the MAKE-and-BUY analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows a low economic justification for using the MAKE option in practice. Especially when a fleet composed of brand new vehicles is considered. Conclusions: The paper will be continued in two further papers dedicated to strategic vehicle fleet management problems including fleet sizing / composition and fleet replacement.

  14. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  15. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  16. The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) - Naval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC

  17. Simulation and Empirical Studies of the Commercial SI Engine Performance and Its Emission Levels When Running on a CNG and Hydrogen Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaa Saaidia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a report on a simulation based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and an empirical investigation of in-cylinder flow characteristics, In addition, it assesses the performance and emission levels of a commercial-spark ignited engine running on a CNG and Hydrogen blend in different ratios. The main objective was to determine the optimum hydrogen ratio that would yield the best brake torque and release the least polluting gases. The in-cylinder flow velocity and turbulence aspects were investigated during the intake stroke in order to analyze the intake flow behavior. To reach this goal, a 3D CFD code was adopted. For various engine speeds were investigated for gasoline, CNG and hydrogen and CNG blend (HCNG fueled engines via external mixtures. The variation of brake torque (BT, NOX and CO emissions. A series of tests were conducted on the engine within the speed range of 1000 to 5000 rpm. For this purpose, a commercial Hyundai Sonata S.I engine was modified to operate with a blend of CNG and Hydrogen in different ratios. The experiments attempted to determine the optimum allowable hydrogen ratio with CNG for normal engine operation. The engine performance and the emission levels were also analyzed. At the engine speed of 4200 rpm, the results revealed that beyond a ratio of 50% of the volume of hydrogen added to CNG a backfire phenomenon appeared. Below this ratio (0~40% of the hydrogen volume, the CNG and Hydrogen blend seemed to be beneficial for the engine performance and for curtailing the emission level. However, at low engine speeds, the NOX concentration increased simultaneously with hydrogen content. In contrast, at high engine speeds, the NOX concentration decreased to its lowest level compared to that reached with gasoline as a running fuel. The concentration levels of HC, CO2, and CO decreased with the increase of hydrogen percentage.

  18. Saildrone fleet could help replace aging buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voosen, Paul

    2018-03-01

    In April, two semiautonomous drones, developed by Saildrone, a marine tech startup based in Alameda, California, in close collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Washington, D.C., are set to return from an 8-month tour of the Pacific Ocean. This the first scientific test for the drones, which are powered only by the wind and sun, in the Pacific Ocean. The voyage is an important step in showing that such drones, carrying 15 different sensors, could help replace an aging and expensive array of buoys that are the main way scientists sniff out signs of climate-disrupting El Niño events. If successful, scientists envision fleets of similar drones spreading across the ocean, inviting thoughts of what it could be like to do oceanography without a ship.

  19. In-cab technologies : an eco-system that can improve efficiency and save you money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, T. [Geotrac International Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Doherty, R. [Verigo Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Clarotta, C. [Intermec Technologies Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lamb, J. [Vistavu Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada); Haber, T. [Telus Energy Sector Organization, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Various in-cab technologies were presented by representative from leading oil and gas communications technology experts. The presentation included details of new aircard data and cell phone data plans as well as data modem plans developed for truck fleets by Geotrac International Incorporated. Details of the company's new high speed cellular modems and messaging and mapping systems designed specifically for oil and gas fleets were also presented. The systems were capable of measuring fuel consumption and idling times as well as calculating savings for up to 50 trucks. Details of a driver fatigue and alertness study were presented by Verigo Incorporated, who have developed a system using electronic on-board recorders and wireless logs designed to provide on-line auditing and reports. The presentation provided details of amounts of time saved using the wireless logging and inspection tools. Details of field ticketing, preventative maintenance programs, and unit cost and asset management software tools developed by Vistavu Solutions were presented. New fleet mobility strategies developed by Intermec were also presented. The company specializes in the construction of rugged hand-held computers built to military specifications. It was concluded that use of the computers can provide significant cost savings for oil and gas companies. tabs., figs.

  20. An analysis of price competitiveness of CNG (compressed natural gas) versus gasoline: estimation of the elasticities of demand by CNG in a recent period in Brazil; Uma analise da competitividade de preco do GNV (Gas Natural Veicular) frente a gasolina: estimacao das elasticidades da demanda por GNV no Brasil no periodo recente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iootty, Mariana; Pinto Junior, Helder; Roppa, Bruna; Biasi, Guilherme de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2004-07-01

    One of the main determinants to the expansion of natural gas on the Brazilian domestic market is its price. Hence, it is important to analyze the price competitiveness of natural gas vis-a-vis its competitors. The current paper focuses on the market of natural gas in vehicles (the compressed natural gas - CNG), and uses co-integration techniques to estimate the price-elasticity of CNG, the cross-elasticity of CNG and gasoline, and the income-elasticity. The results suggest that price is a relevant factor in the long-run, while in the short-run income is the most significant determinant of the demand variation. In addition, the paper also shows an imperfect substitutability between CNG and gasoline. (author)

  1. How Packaging Fleet Renewal Fits French CEA Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumesnil, J.; Malvache, P.; Hugon, F.C.; Sollacaro, M.

    2006-01-01

    CEA's (French Atomic Energy Agency) packaging fleet is dedicated to transportation of test irradiated fuels, of research reactors fuels, of navy propulsion fuels, and of waste coming from and to nuclear plants or facilities. This fleet encompasses more than 30 types of casks ranging from 5 to 30 tons, with either recent designs or other dating back to the seventies. A study has been launched in order to perform a global analysis of the life expectancy of the existing CEA and COGEMA Logistics cask fleets with respect to a 2015 target, in order to anticipate its renewal, while limiting the number of type of cask. Key elements like periodical evolutions of design and transport regulations, lessons learnt of existing casks (design, approval and extensions, operational feedback, maintenance and dismantling) are taken into account in order to ensure compliance and availability of the fleet. Moreover, from design to cask delivery, including regulatory tests, safety analysis report/ CoC, and manufacturing, 3 to 5 years is needed. Therefore cask development should be taken into account earlier of invest and research's programs. The paper will address the current life expectancy study of CEA and COGEMA Logistics packaging fleet, based on lessons learnt and regulation evolution and on general R and D plans by user facilities. It will show how a comprehensive optimized fleet is made available to CEA and other customers. Such a fleet combines optimized investment and uses, thus entailing synergies for well-mastered costs of transports. (authors)

  2. Municipal green fleet management in Ontario: best practices manual 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, M.

    2008-07-01

    When households, institutional and commercial buildings, industry, and especially auto transportation use fossil fuel based energy, they generate carbon dioxide emissions. Considering the environmental concerns and the soaring fuel prices, this could be the opportunity for the municipal fleet operator to assume a leadership position regarding environmental issues and look for new cost efficiencies. To begin, a meticulous examination of the fuel expenditures, a good management approach of fleet operations and a clearly defined system or guidance for lowering fleet fuel costs would be helpful for municipal fleet managers. This document is involved in a pilot program aimed at helping Ontario municipalities understand and promote fleet efficiencies and obtain related environmental benefits. Existing and cost-effective automotive fleet management policies and practices that can mitigate pollution causing global warming are given in this guide. These policies and practices also allow money savings and contribute to a better workplace health and livability of the community. This document is based on the experience of fleet management experts and local governments in Ontario. 54 refs.

  3. Effects of pilot injection pressure on the combustion and emissions characteristics in a diesel engine using biodiesel–CNG dual fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Injection pressure of pilot fuel in dual fuel combustion (DFC) affects the engine power and exhaust emissions. • In the biodiesel–CNG DFC mode, the combustion begins and ends earlier as the pilot-fuel injection pressure increases. • The ignition delay in the DFC mode is about 1.2–2.6 °CA longer than that in the diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) mode. • The smoke and NOx emissions are significantly reduced in the DFC mode. - Abstract: Biodiesel–compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel combustion (DFC) system is studied for the simultaneous reduction of particulate matters (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel is used as a pilot injection fuel to ignite the main fuel, CNG of DFC system. In particular, the pilot injection pressure is controlled to investigate the characteristics of engine performance and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of biodiesel–CNG DFC mode is lower than that of diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) mode at higher injection pressure. However, the combustion stability of biodiesel–CNG DFC mode is increased with the increase of pilot injection pressure. At the same injection pressure, the start of combustion of biodiesel–CNG DFC is delayed compared to diesel SFC due to the increase of ignition delay of pilot fuel. On the contrary, it is observed that as the pilot injection pressure increase, the combustion process begins and ends a little earlier for biodiesel–CNG DFC. The ignition delay in the DFC is about 1.2–2.6 °CA longer compared to diesel SFC, but decreases with increases of pilot injection pressure. Smoke and NOx emissions are decreased and increased, respectively, as the pilot injection pressure increases in the biodiesel–CNG DFC. In comparison to diesel SFC, smoke emissions are significantly reduced over all the operating conditions and NOx emissions also exhibited similar

  4. Environmentální aspekty provozu vozů na CNG

    OpenAIRE

    Raiskup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce je zaměřená na téma environmentální aspekty provozu vozů na CNG. Nejprve je představen zemní plyn jako palivo pro spalovací motory. Jsou zhodnoceny jeho výhody a nevýhody. Dále jsou popsány jednotlivé spalovací systémy a komponenty motoru na stlačený zemní plyn. Hlavní část práce je zaměřená na ekologii. Je popsán vliv na životní prostředí u spalování stlačeného zemního plynu v porovnání s konvenčními palivy. Toto porovnání je provedeno také podle objektivnější Well to W...

  5. CEP action area studies : City of Yellowknife fleet review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The City of Yellowknife maintains a fleet of vehicles and equipment used for public service. Yellowknife's Community Energy Plan (CEP) has a goal to reduce Yellowknife's fleet fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20 per cent within 10 years. This report examined current fuel consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet based on available data and examined options to reduce fleet fuel consumption. It also quantified the reduction in fuel consumption, GHG emissions, as well as the financial impacts of various options. An overview of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of vehicles and equipment was first provided, as well as calculated annual values for fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and energy consumption for the City of Yellowknife's fleet. Two fleet management case studies were presented. Fuel-efficient vehicles on the market that could provide an opportunity to replace some of the City of Yellowknife's fleet of light vehicles, and bylaw vehicles with fuel-efficient vehicles were discussed. These vehicles include hybrid vehicles, smart cars, compressed natural gas vehicles, and compressed-air vehicles. Equipment maintenance for tires, preventive, synthetic oils, and driver training programs were discussed. Anti-idling campaigns and technologies were also examined. The report concluded with a discussion of renewable fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol blended gasoline. Fleet fuel consumption, GHG and financial impacts were provided for each chapter heading. It was concluded that if all of the measures identified in the report were implemented, an overall decrease in GHG emissions of approximately 15 per cent would be achieved. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  6. Temporal variability of benzene concentration in the ambient air of Delhi: a comparative assessment of pre- and post-CNG periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khillare, P S; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul; Shridhar, Vijay; Agarwal, Tripti; Balachandran, S

    2008-06-15

    CNG (compressed natural gas) was fully implemented in public transport system in Delhi in December 2002. The study assesses the benzene concentration trends at two busy traffic intersections and a background site in Delhi, India. Monitoring was done for two different time periods viz; in the year 2001-2002 (pre-CNG) and two winter months (January and February) of the year 2007 (post-CNG) to assess the impact of various policy measures adopted by the government of Delhi to improve the air quality in the city. Annual average benzene concentration for the pre-CNG period was found to be 86.47+/-53.24 microg m(-3). Average benzene concentrations for the winter months (January-February) of pre- and post-CNG periods were 116.32+/-51.65 microg m(-3) and 187.49+/-22.50 microg m(-3), respectively. Enhanced values could be solely attributed to the increase in the vehicular population from 3.5 million in the year 2001-2002 to approximately 5.1 millions in the year 2007.

  7. Numerical Evaluation ofThe Performance ofA Compression Ignition Cng Engine For Heavy DutyTrucksWithAn Optimum Speed PowerTurbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The turbocharged direct injection lean burn Diesel engine is the most efficient engine now in production for transport applications. CNG is an alternative fuel with a better carbon to hydrogen ratio therefore permitting reduced carbon dioxide emissions. It is injected in gaseous form for a much cleaner combustion almost cancelling some of the emissions of the Diesel and it permits a much better energy security within Australia. The paper discusses the best options currently available to convert Diesel engine platforms to CNG, with particular emphasis to the use of these CNG engines within Australia where the refuelling network is scarce. This option is determined in the dual fuel operation with a double injector design that couples a second CNG injector to the Diesel injector. This configuration permits the operation Diesel only or Diesel pilot and CNG main depending on the availability of refuelling stations where the vehicle operates. Results of engine performance simulations are performed for a straight six cylinder 13 litres truck engine with a novel power turbine connected to the crankshaft through a constant variable transmission that may be by-passed when non helpful to increase the fuel economy of the vehicle or when damaging the performances of the after treatment system.

  8. Preliminary assessment of fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Wang, M.Q. [and others

    1994-12-31

    To facilitate the goal of decreasing oil imports by 10 percent by the year 2000 and 30 percent by 2010, two sections of the Energy Policy Act encourage and mandate alternative fuel vehicles in the acquisition of fleet vehicles. The first step in estimating the contribution of these mandates toward meeting the aforementioned goal entails identifying affected fleets. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of potential vehicle fleet coverage. Only a limited number of companies in the methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen industries are likely to quality for this mandate. Whereas, many of the oil producers, petroleum refiners, and electricity companies are likely to be regulated.

  9. 41 CFR 101-39.104-1 - Consolidations into a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet management system. 101-39.104-1 Section 101-39.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104-1 Consolidations into a fleet management...

  10. 48 CFR 51.204 - Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) 51.204 Use of interagency fleet management system (IFMS) vehicles and related services. Contractors authorized to use interagency fleet management... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of interagency fleet...

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.104 - Notice of establishment of a fleet management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a fleet management system. 101-39.104 Section 101-39.104 Public Contracts and Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.104 Notice of establishment of a fleet management...

  12. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  13. Wireless GPS fleet tracking system at the University of Albany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the project undertaken at the University at Albany to make alternative transportation a more : viable option by implementing a GPS Tracking System on the University bus fleet and broadcasting the bus locations to c...

  14. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  15. Risk Management of an Aging KC-130 Fleet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Paul

    1999-01-01

    .... For the aging USMC KC-130 F/R fleet, a damage-tolerant approach ensured that safety would be maintained but it presented a problem in forecasting readiness, aircraft remaining in the inventory...

  16. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Kaisa Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalile "Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja" (Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel), režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  17. DVD. Sweeney Todd : Fleet Streeti deemonlik habemeajaja / Egle Loo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loo, Egle

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustus õudusmuusikalist "Sweeney Todd : The Demon Barber of Fleet Street" Stephen Sondheimi muusikali alusel : režissöör Tim Burton : peaosades Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Suurbritannia 2007

  18. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  19. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  20. US Tune Purse Seine Fleet History & Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS SWR has collected historical vessel information on the U.S. tuna cannery baitboat and purse seine fleets for many years. The database's first record of a...

  1. Business fleet refueling assessment. Final report, March 1992-November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudier, A.

    1993-01-01

    The report investigates refueling characteristics and capabilities for the light-duty market sector, particularly business automobile fleets. It develops a profile of the characteristics of light-duty and automobile business fleets in 22 designated non-attainment areas, as well as Pittsburgh and Salt Lake City. Reliable data on these subjects will enable better analysis of the market potential for natural gas in the surveyed areas

  2. TQL in the Fleet: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    distribution is unlimited. BEST-AVAILABLE Copy 94-04214 Total Quality Leadership , TQL, Total Quality Kanaginent, 191, i lo of pilo quality management ...703-602-8942). LINDA M. DOHERTY Director Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office TOL In the Fleet: From Theory to Practice...the Fleet: From Theory to Practice ix OVERVIEW ) ver the past year, the Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office (DON TQL Office) has

  3. Detecting and categorizing fleeting emotions in faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A

    2013-02-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d' analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Detecting and Categorizing Fleeting Emotions in Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Paller, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    Expressions of emotion are often brief, providing only fleeting images from which to base important social judgments. We sought to characterize the sensitivity and mechanisms of emotion detection and expression categorization when exposure to faces is very brief, and to determine whether these processes dissociate. Observers viewed 2 backward-masked facial expressions in quick succession, 1 neutral and the other emotional (happy, fearful, or angry), in a 2-interval forced-choice task. On each trial, observers attempted to detect the emotional expression (emotion detection) and to classify the expression (expression categorization). Above-chance emotion detection was possible with extremely brief exposures of 10 ms and was most accurate for happy expressions. We compared categorization among expressions using a d′ analysis, and found that categorization was usually above chance for angry versus happy and fearful versus happy, but consistently poor for fearful versus angry expressions. Fearful versus angry categorization was poor even when only negative emotions (fearful, angry, or disgusted) were used, suggesting that this categorization is poor independent of decision context. Inverting faces impaired angry versus happy categorization, but not emotion detection, suggesting that information from facial features is used differently for emotion detection and expression categorizations. Emotion detection often occurred without expression categorization, and expression categorization sometimes occurred without emotion detection. These results are consistent with the notion that emotion detection and expression categorization involve separate mechanisms. PMID:22866885

  5. FLEET Velocimetry Measurements on a Transonic Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used to study the flowfield around a symmetric, transonic airfoil in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT facility. A nominal Mach number of 0.85 was investigated with a total pressure of 125 kPa and total temperature of 280 K. Two-components of velocity were measured along vertical profiles at different locations above, below, and aft of the airfoil at angles of attack of 0 deg, 3.5 deg, and 7deg. Measurements were assessed for their accuracy, precision, dynamic range, spatial resolution, and overall measurement uncertainty in the context of the applied flowfield. Measurement precisions as low as 1 m/s were observed, while overall uncertainties ranged from 4 to 5 percent. Velocity profiles within the wake showed sufficient accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to resolve both the mean and fluctuating velocities and general flow physics such as shear layer growth. Evidence of flow separation is found at high angles of attack.

  6. Injection characteristics study of high-pressure direct injector for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) using experimental and analytical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Z.; Rahim, MF Abdul; Mamat, R.

    2017-10-01

    The injection characteristics of direct injector affect the mixture formation and combustion processes. In addition, the injector is converted from gasoline operation for CNG application. Thus measurement of CNG direct injector mass flow rate was done by independently tested a single injector on a test bench. The first case investigated the effect of CNG injection pressure and the second case evaluate the effect of pulse-width of injection duration. An analytical model was also developed to predict the mass flow rate of the injector. The injector was operated in a choked condition in both the experiments and simulation studies. In case 1, it was shown that mass flow rate through the injector is affected by injection pressure linearly. Based on the tested injection pressure of 20 bar to 60 bar, the resultant mass flow rate are in the range of 0.4 g/s to 1.2 g/s which are met with theoretical flow rate required by the engine. However, in Case 2, it was demonstrated that the average mass flow rate at short injection durations is lower than recorded in Case 1. At injection pressure of 50 bar, the average mass flow rate for Case 2 and Case 1 are 0.7 g/s and 1.1 g/s respectively. Also, the measured mass flow rate at short injection duration showing a fluctuating data in the range of 0.2 g/s - 1.3 g/s without any noticeable trends. The injector model able to predict the trend of the mass flow rate at different injection pressure but unable to track the fluctuating trend at short injection duration.

  7. Experimental investigations of effects of EGR on performance and emissions characteristics of CNG fueled reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Kalsi, Sunmeet; Subramanian, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • NO_x emission decreased drastically in RCCI engine with EGR. • CO and HC emissions decreased with 8% EGR. • Smoke emission increased with EGR but is still less than base diesel. • Brake thermal efficiency does not change with EGR up to 15% • 8% EGR is optimum based on less CO, HC, NO_x except smoke. - Abstract: Experimental: tests were carried out on a single cylinder diesel engine (7.4 kW rated power at 1500 rpm) under dual fuel mode (CNG-Diesel) with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). Less reacting fuel (CNG) was injected inside the intake manifold using timed manifold gas injection system whereas high reactive diesel fuel was directly injected into the engine’s cylinder for initiation of ignition. EGR at different percentages (8%, 15% and 30%) was inducted to the engine through intake manifold and tests were conducted at alternator power output of 2 kW and 5 kW. The engine can operate under dual fuel mode with maximum CNG energy share of 85% and 92% at 5 kW and 2 kW respectively. The brake thermal efficiency of diesel engine improved marginally at 5 kW power output under conventional dual fuel mode with the CNG share up to 37% whereas the efficiency did not change with up to 15% EGR however it decreased beyond the EGR percentage. NO_x emission in diesel engine under conventional dual fuel mode decreased significantly and it further decreased drastically with EGR. The notable point emerged from this study is that CO and HC emissions, which are major problems at part load in reactivity controlled compression ignition engine (RCCI), decreased with 8% EGR along with further reduction of NO_x. However, smoke emission is marginally higher with EGR than without EGR but it is still less than conventional mode (Diesel alone). The new concept emerged from this study is that CO and HC emissions of RCCI engine at part load can be reduced using EGR.

  8. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Effective utilization of associated gas as CNG; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado kiso chosa hokokusho. Zuihan gas no CNG to shite no yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The Back Ho oilfield is the largest oilfield in Vietnam and at the same time is producing the largest amount of natural gas (associated gas) in Vietnam. Although the majority of the associated gas has been used in the power generation plant, a large amount of surplus gas is not effectively used because of shortage of fund and technologies. Accordingly, a feasibility study has been executed for a project to compress 20% of the associated gas into CNG, and use it effectively as automobile and factory fuel. As a result of the site survey, it was found that, although Vietnam consumes less amount of energy and emits less amount of CO2, the nation has a strong interest and a large amount of knowledge about global warming and CDM because the country is subjected to large effect of warming. Furthermore, it has been reconfirmed that introducing CNG into this territory is highly effective. Discussions have been made on places of installing the facilities, effective surplus gas utilization systems, facility specifications, utilities, and number of workers. Calculations were made on approximate cost of the facilities and the running cost. As a result of the surveys and discussions, it was determined that technological support from Japan and the Yen loan for environment with low interest rate are necessary. (NEDO)

  9. 49 CFR 230.81 - Cab aprons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab aprons. 230.81 Section 230.81 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights §...

  10. Interfacing the existing cask fleet with the MRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, J.W.; Hahn, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possibility of using the existing fleet of casks to achieve spent fuel receipt at the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The existing cask fleet includes the NLI-1/2, the NAC-LWT, the TN-8 (and TN-8L), the TN-9, and the IF-300 casks. Other casks may be available, but their status is not certain. Use of the existing cask fleet at the MRS places additional design requirements on the system, and specifically affects the cask-to-MRS interface. The decision to use the existing cask fleet also places additional demands on training needs and operator certification, and the configuration management system. Some existing cask designs may not be able to mate with a bottom opening hot cell MRS. Use of the existing cask fleet also greatly increases the number of shipments that must be received, to the point that a facility larger than originally envisioned may be required

  11. Unregulated emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses configured with and without oxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Robert A; Kado, Norman Y; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Ayala, Alberto; Kobayashi, Reiko

    2006-01-01

    The unregulated emissions from two in-use heavy-duty transit buses fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and equipped with oxidation catalyst (OxiCat) control were evaluated. We tested emissions from a transit bus powered by a 2001 Cummins Westport C Gas Plus 8.3-L engine (CWest), which meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) 2002 optional NOx standard (2.0 g/bhp-hr). In California, this engine is certified only with an OxiCat, so our study did not include emissions testing without it. We also tested a 2000 New Flyer 40-passenger low-floor bus powered by a Detroit Diesel series 50G engine (DDCs50G) that is currently certified in California without an OxiCat. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) offers a "low-emission" package for this bus that includes an OxiCat for transit bus applications, thus, this configuration was also tested in this study. Previously, we reported that formaldehyde and other volatile organic emissions detected in the exhaust of the DDCs50G bus equipped with an OxiCat were significantly reduced relative to the same DDCs50G bus without OxiCat. In this paper, we examine othertoxic unregulated emissions of significance. The specific mutagenic activity of emission sample extracts was examined using the microsuspension assay. The total mutagenic activity of emissions (activity per mile) from the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus was generally lower than that from the DDC bus without the OxiCat. The CWest bus emission samples had mutagenic activity that was comparable to that of the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus. In general, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were lower forthe OxiCat-equipped buses, with greater reductions observed for the volatile and semivolatile PAH emissions. Elemental carbon (EC) was detected in the exhaust from the all three bus configurations, and we found that the total carbon (TC) composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions was primarily organic carbon (OC). The amount of carbon emissions far exceeded the

  12. Parametric optimization and heat transfer analysis of a dual loop ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system for CNG engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Zhang, Hongguang; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Enhua; Meng, Fanxiao; Liu, Hongda; Wang, Jingfu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a dual loop ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system is adopted to recover exhaust energy, waste heat from the coolant system, and intercooler heat rejection of a six-cylinder CNG (compressed natural gas) engine. The thermodynamic, heat transfer, and optimization models for the dual loop ORC system are established. On the basis of the waste heat characteristics of the CNG engine over the whole operating range, a GA (genetic algorithm) is used to solve the Pareto solution for the thermodynamic and heat transfer performances to maximize net power output and minimize heat transfer area. Combined with optimization results, the optimal parameter regions of the dual loop ORC system are determined under various operating conditions. Then, the variation in the heat transfer area with the operating conditions of the CNG engine is analyzed. The results show that the optimal evaporation pressure and superheat degree of the HT (high temperature) cycle are mainly influenced by the operating conditions of the CNG engine. The optimal evaporation pressure and superheat degree of the HT cycle over the whole operating range are within 2.5–2.9 MPa and 0.43–12.35 K, respectively. The optimal condensation temperature of the HT cycle, evaporation and condensation temperatures of the LT (low temperature) cycle, and exhaust temperature at the outlet of evaporator 1 are kept nearly constant under various operating conditions of the CNG engine. The thermal efficiency of the dual loop ORC system is within the range of 8.79%–10.17%. The dual loop ORC system achieves the maximum net power output of 23.62 kW under the engine rated condition. In addition, the operating conditions of the CNG engine and the operating parameters of the dual loop ORC system significantly influence the heat transfer areas for each heat exchanger. - Highlights: • A dual loop ORC system is adopted to recover the waste heat of a CNG engine. • Parametric optimization and heat transfer analysis are

  13. Studi Eksperimen Unjuk Kerja Mesin Diesel Menggunakan Sistem Dual Fuel Solar Gas CNG Dengan Variasi Tekanan Injeksi Gas Dan Derajat Waktu Injeksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Yoko Exoryanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar gas ini jika ditinjau dari ekonomis tergolong sangat murah dan ramah lingkungan. Namun, pengaplikasian bahan bakar gas CNG pada generator diesel dengan sistem dual fuel berdampak pada penurunan performansinya. Hal ini terjadi karena rasio campuran udara dan bahan bakar pada sistem dual fuel belum sesuai, sehingga perlunya penelitian lebih lanjut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan performa pada mesin diesel dengan memodifikasi saluran masuk udara dengan memasang injector gas CNG untuk memasukkan bahan bakar tersebut kedalam ruang bakar sehingga mesin diesel berubah menjadi sitem dual fuel. Tidak hanya saluran masuk udara saja yang di modifikasi tetapi, variasi start of injection dan tekanan gas yang masuk juga di variasikan. Penelitian ini di lakukan secara eksperimental dengan menginjeksikan gas CNG ke dalam ruang bakar melalui saluran hisap yang sudah terpasang injector. Proses pengaturan injeksi gas CNG diatur oleh ECU programamble melalui software VEMSTUNE. Sistem pengaturan yang dilakukan adalah mengatur derajat waktu injection (SOI dengan nilai 5o, 30o, 55o, dan 80o CA BTDC dan variasi tekanan masuk gas CNG dengan nilai 1, 1,5, 2, dan 2,5 N/m2. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan putaran mesin konstan sebesar 2000 rpm dengan beban 0 sampai 100 %. Hasil yang didapatkan dari eksperimen yang dilakukan kali ini, antara lain : performa dual fuel lebih optimal dibandingkan saat pengoperasian single fuel. Pengaturan paling optimal terjadi pada start of injection 80° CA BTDC dengan tekanan 1,5 gas CNG. Gas CNG dapat menggantikan porsi bahan bakar minyak solar sebesar 45,30 %. Nilai subtitusi minyak solar yang optimal sebesar 61,39 % dan SFC minyak solar rata-rata mengalami penurunan sebesar 47,10 %, tetapi SFC dual fuel rata-rata meningkat sebesar 47,67 % dibandingkan SFC single fuel. Nilai rata-rata efisiensi thermal turun sebesar 40,89 %, nilai AFR rata-rata turun dari 25,60 menjadi 12,90 dan Temperatur gas buang meningkat dari

  14. Role of subsidies in EU fleet capacity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines the imp...... of vessel decommissioning. The Danish fishing fleet case serves as an empirical example in this regard. Comments on the future capacity management regime and the role of subsidies in EU fisheries are offered.......Fisheries in the European Union (EU) continue to be overexploited by an overcapitalised fishing fleet, despite the best intentions of two decades of capacity adjustment programmes. This paper considers the progress of fishing capacity under the Multi-annual Guidance Programme and examines...

  15. Fleet Sizing of Automated Material Handling Using Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Radinal; Ai, The Jin; Ratna Yuniartha, Deny

    2018-03-01

    Automated material handling tends to be chosen rather than using human power in material handling activity for production floor in manufacturing company. One critical issue in implementing automated material handling is designing phase to ensure that material handling activity more efficient in term of cost spending. Fleet sizing become one of the topic in designing phase. In this research, simulation approach is being used to solve fleet sizing problem in flow shop production to ensure optimum situation. Optimum situation in this research means minimum flow time and maximum capacity in production floor. Simulation approach is being used because flow shop can be modelled into queuing network and inter-arrival time is not following exponential distribution. Therefore, contribution of this research is solving fleet sizing problem with multi objectives in flow shop production using simulation approach with ARENA Software

  16. Analysis of a combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a CNG-B20 fuelled diesel engine under dual fuel mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj S. Shelke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Carbon dioxide (CO2 is one of the primary greenhouse gases emitted by various human activities. CO2 is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of carbon cycle. Human activities are altering the carbon cycle by adding or removing CO2 to the atmosphere. The main human activity that emits the CO2 is combustion of fossil fuels for energy and transportation. Compression ignition (CI engines emit high amount of CO2 emission as it is the end product of complete combustion of hydro carbon fuels. Moreover, they emit higher NOx (nitrogen oxides and PM (particulate matter emissions and have higher fuel consumption. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on a CI engine under dual fuel mode with biodiesel as a pilot fuel and compressed natural gas (CNG as a main fuel. The effects of 10 % and 20 % CNG energy shares on performance and emission characteristics of the engine at rated (100% loads were studied. Experimental results indicate the beneficial of CNG addition on improvement in the engine efficiency, and reduction in NOx and CO2 emissions. The NOx and CO2 emissions decreased by 14.24 % and 30 % respectively at the rated load with biodiesel + CNG (20 % energy share as compared to base diesel. No knocking combustion was observed during the tests which confirm the smooth operation. The dual fuel operation with combination of CNG-biodiesel is an effective method to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions with an additional benefit of lower specific energy consumption.

  17. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  18. A road safety performance indicator for vehicle fleet compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Michiel; Vis, Martijn Alexander; Rackliff, Lucy; Stipdonk, Henk

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and the application of a safety performance indicator which measures the intrinsic safety of a country's vehicle fleet related to fleet composition. The indicator takes into account both the 'relative severity' of individual collisions between different vehicle types, and the share of those vehicle types within a country's fleet. The relative severity is a measure for the personal damage that can be expected from a collision between two vehicles of any type, relative to that of a collision between passenger cars. It is shown how this number can be calculated using vehicle mass only. A sensitivity analysis is performed to study the dependence of the indicator on parameter values and basic assumptions made. The indicator is easy to apply and satisfies the requirements for appropriate safety performance indicators. It was developed in such a way that it specifically scores the intrinsic safety of a fleet due to its composition, without being influenced by other factors, like helmet wearing. For the sake of simplicity, and since the required data is available throughout Europe, the indicator was applied to the relative share of three of the main vehicle types: passenger cars, heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles. Using the vehicle fleet data from 13EU Member States and Norway, the indicator was used to rank the countries' safety performance. The UK was found to perform best in terms of its fleet composition (value is 1.07), while Greece has the worst performance with the highest indicator value (1.41). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposure assessment of particulates originating from diesel and CNG fuelled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravisjaervi, K.; Pietikaeinen, M.; Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: kati.oravisjarvi@oulu.fi; Voutilainen, A. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Haataja, M. (Oulu Univ. of Applied Sciences (Finland); Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Finland)); Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environmental Sciences (Finland)); Rautio, A. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    given mass, and the surface may be able to act as a catalyst for specific reactions with cells or as a carrier for co-pollutants. They also penetrate deeper into the lungs. Hydrocarbons, as lipid soluble compounds, can also penetrate the cell membranes of the lung cells, enter into the blood circulation and influence the whole organ system, even reach the brain. The aim of this study was to compare children's exposure to diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) exhaust particulates, which have been formed and then distributed into the human lung. Particulate measurements were carried out in the Technical Research Centre of Finland for two Euro 2 diesel buses with an oxidation catalyst on one and a partial-DPF catalyst on the other vehicle (DI-OC and DI-pDPF, respectively), and one Euro 3 natural gas bus with an oxidation catalyst on the vehicle (CNG-OC). For the evaluation of particulate emissions in an urban bus route the Braunschweig City Driving Cycle, a transient chassis dynamometer test cycle was used. Particulate number size distributions were measured using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) instrument (Dekati Ltd, Finland) with the size range of 7 nm to 10 mum. The ELPI measurement system yields particulate number concentrations in 12 nonoverlapping size bins covering the whole measurement size range. Estimation of deposited particles into human lung system was computed with a lung deposition model based on a ICRP 66 lung deposition model published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The model includes specific information related to the subjects (including age, ventilation rate, breathing pattern, gender). The respiratory tract is divided into five main deposition regions: the anterior nasal region (ET1), the main extra thoracic region (ET2, including the posterior nasal region, mouth, pharynx and larynx), the bronchial region (BB, consisting of the trachea and bronchi), the bronchiolar region (bb, consisting of the

  20. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  1. RDE-based assessment of a factory bi-fuel CNG/gasoline light-duty vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašić, Davor; Rodman Oprešnik, Samuel; Seljak, Tine; Vihar, Rok; Baškovič, Urban Žvar; Wechtersbach, Tomaž; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2017-10-01

    On-road exhaust emissions of a Euro 5 factory bi-fuel CNG/gasoline light-duty vehicle equipped with the TWC were assessed considering the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) guidelines. The vehicle was equipped with a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) that enabled the measurement of THC, CO, NOx, CO2, and CH4. With respect to the characteristics of the vehicle, the appropriate Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycles (WLTC) were selected and based on the requirements of the RDE legislation a suitable route was conceived. In addition to the moderate RDE-based route, an extended RDE-based route was also determined. The vehicle was driven along each defined route twice, once with each individual fuel option and with a fully warm vehicle. RDE routes feature a multitude of new driving patterns that are significantly different to those encountered in the NEDC. However, as these driving patterns can greatly influence the cumulative emissions an insight in to local time trace phenomena is crucial to understand, reason and to possibly reduce the cumulative emissions. Original contributions of this paper comprise analyses of the RDE-LDV local time resolved driving emissions phenomena of a CNG-powered vehicle that are benchmarked against the ones measured under the use of gasoline in the same vehicle and under similar operating conditions to reason emission trends through driving patterns and powertrain parameters and exposing the strong cold-start independent interference of CO and N2O infrared absorption bands in the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. The paper provides experimental evidence on this interference, which significantly influences on the readings of CO emissions. The paper further provides hypotheses why CO and N2O interference is more pronounced when using CNG in LDVs and supports these hypotheses by PEMS tests. The study reveals that the vehicle's NOx real-world emission values of both conceived RDE-based routes when using both fuels are

  2. The Potential Impact of Collaborative and Three-Dimensional Imaging Technology on SHIPMAIN Fleet Modernization Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seaman, Nathan L; Housel, Thomas; Mun, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance and modernization of the US Navy fleet is big business. The Navy has invested substantial fiscal and human resources to standardize the processes used to accomplish maintenance modernization and repair for its fleet of ships...

  3. A Qualitative Examination of the Administrative Process of Fleet Enlisted Personnel in Various Medical Categories

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weatherford, Lenora

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the medical management process of placing and monitoring active duty fleet enlisted personnel in a temporary medical duty status and its impact on fleet readiness...

  4. Risk Assessment and Analysis of the M109 Family of Vehicles Fleet Management Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitz, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    ...) Fleet Management Pilot Program. The objective of this program is to reengineer the fleet's logistical support system by outsourcing those functions which make sense and that can be performed more efficiently by private industry...

  5. The Fleet Support Community: Meeting Its Mission in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murdy, Deanna

    1999-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of the Fleet Support community's management practices in meeting the dynamic changes in the complex fleet support arena, while increasing its value to the Navy in the future...

  6. The Retrofit Puzzle Extended: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior over Multiple Time Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-04

    In "The Retrofit Puzzle: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior in the Context of Diesel Retrofit Incentive Programs" (1) an integer program was developed to model profit-maximizing diesel fleet owner behavior when selecting pollution reduction retrofits. Flee...

  7. Commercial vehicle fleet management and information systems. Technical memorandum 2 : summary of case study interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The FHWA has commissioned the Commercial Vehicle Fleet Management and Information Systems study to determine if there are fleet management needs that the public sector can address through the development of ITS for commercial vehicle operations. As p...

  8. The Fleet-Management as an Element of the Modern Development in the Ukrainian Leasing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Garafonova Olga I.; Svynarchuk Anastasiia V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at researching practical aspects of the fleet-management development in Ukraine; relationships that arise in this process; elements that interact in the market. The preconditions of the companies’ transition to the use of this concept in the management of fleet, as well as the opportunities that arise in the enterprises using the principles of fleet-management were considered. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of fleet-management in companies wit...

  9. Recruitment to the Norwegian fishing fleet: storylines, paradoxes, and pragmatism in Norwegian fisheries and recruitment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sønvisen, Signe Annie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of actors in the Norwegian fisheries consider recruitment of fishers to be the main future challenge for the Norwegian fishing fleet. As fleet recruitment is a highly politicized field, the problem of how to mitigate the recruitment problem is a subject of heavy debate. Some argue that recruitment problems are caused by low fleet profitability, while others argue that recruitment problems are caused by fleet restructuring polices. This article aims to explore th...

  10. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR AGENCY: Coast... during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2, 2010, through June 7, 2010. The security zone... is a need to provide a security zone for the 2010 Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, and there is...

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.105-1 - Transfers from discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discontinued or curtailed fleet management systems. 101-39.105-1 Section 101-39.105-1 Public Contracts and... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.105-1 Transfers from...

  12. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel..., insert the following clause in contracts providing for Contractor management of the motor vehicle fleet... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle fleet...

  13. 48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services. As prescribed in 51.205, insert the following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System... to obtain interagency fleet management system vehicles and related services for use in the...

  14. 76 FR 1521 - Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ...-AA87 Security Zone: Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Diego, CA. The existing security zone is around the former Fleet Industrial Supply Center Pier. The security zone encompasses all navigable waters within 100 feet of the former Fleet Industrial Supply Center...

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.340 - Do we need a fleet management information system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management information system? 102-34.340 Section 102-34.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report § 102-34.340 Do we need a fleet management information system? Yes, you must have a fleet management information system at the department or agency level that — (a...

  16. Evolution of the deep-sea fleet that supports Canada's international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This study identifies the flag-related trends of fleets used in Canada's international sea-borne trade relative to the world fleet during the 15-year period from 1985 to 1999. The goal is to determine if there is any indication that fleets that serve...

  17. 75 FR 8563 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... Fleet Week Maritime Festival. This safety zone is necessary as these events have historically resulted... the safety of life and property on navigable waters during the annual Fleet Week Maritime Festival...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  19. Guidance for Federal Agencies on Executive Order 13693 - Federal Fleet Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-02

    Document contains guidance on the federal fleet requirements of Executive Order 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade and helps federal agencies subject to the executive order develop an overall approach for reducing total fleet greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fleet-wide per-mile GHG emissions.

  20. Screening of tank-to-wheel efficiencies for CNG, DME and methanol-ethanol fuel blends in road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappel, J.; Vad Mathiesen, B.

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the fuel efficiency of selected alternative fuels based on vehicle performance in a standardised drive cycle test. All studies reviewed are either based on computer modelling of current or future vehicles or tests of just one alternative fuel, under different conditions and concentrations against either petrol or diesel. No studies were found testing more than one type of alternative fuel in the same setup. Due to this one should be careful when comparing results on several alternative fuels. Only few studies have been focused on vehicle energy efficiency. This screening indicates methanol, methanol-ethanol blends and CNG to be readily availability, economic feasible and with the introduction of the DISI engine not technologically challenging compared to traditional fuels. Studies across fuel types indicate a marginally better fuel utilization for methanol-ethanol fuel mixes. (Author)

  1. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  2. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  3. Scenario tree airline fleet planning for demand uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repko, M.G.J.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative multi-period modeling approach to solve the airline fleet planning problem under demand uncertainty. The problem is modeled using a scenario tree approach. The tree is composed of nodes, which represent points of decision in multiple time stages of the planning

  4. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  5. Fleet Management Decision Making With Individual Aircraft Tracking Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can

  6. Report: EPA’s Fleet Management Program Needs Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0001, October 6, 2014. If oversight of the EPA’s fleet is not improved, the $6 million-per-year program could be ineffective and inefficient in supporting the agency’s mission and reporting data to the federal system.

  7. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  8. Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the results of the cod monitoring program 2016. The research was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs within the EZ-program Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek. Cod catches of the vessels in the fleet segments BT2 (beam trawl and pulse trawl) and TR (otter trawls

  9. Optimal charging schedule of an electric vehicle fleet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the charging schedule of an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet both taking into account spot price and individual EV driving requirement with the goal of minimizing charging costs. A flexible and suitable mathematic model is introduced to characterize...

  10. Applying Column Generation to the Discrete Fleet Planning Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation that describes the problem of planning the use of domestic distributed generators, under individual as well as fleet constraints. The planning problem comprises the assignment of time intervals during which the local generator must

  11. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomic, Jasna; Kempton, Willett

    2007-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles can provide power to the electric grid when they are parked (vehicle-to-grid power). We evaluated the economic potential of two utility-owned fleets of battery-electric vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a) 100 Th.nk City vehicle and (b) 252 Toyota RAV4. Important variables are: (a) the market value of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy capacity (kWh) of the vehicle's battery. With a few exceptions when the annual market value of regulation was low, we find that vehicle-to-grid power for regulation services is profitable across all four markets analyzed. Assuming now more than current Level 2 charging infrastructure (6.6 kW) the annual net profit for the Th.nk City fleet is from US$ 7000 to 70,000 providing regulation down only. For the RAV4 fleet the annual net profit ranges from US$ 24,000 to 260,000 providing regulation down and up. Vehicle-to-grid power could provide a significant revenue stream that would improve the economics of grid-connected electric-drive vehicles and further encourage their adoption. It would also improve the stability of the electrical grid. (author)

  12. Optimal fleet conversion policy from a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyung Chul Kim; Ross, M.H.; Keoleian, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicles typically deteriorate with accumulating mileage and emit more tailpipe air pollutants per mile. Although incentive programs for scrapping old, high-emitting vehicles have been implemented to reduce urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases, these policies may create additional sales of new vehicles as well. From a life cycle perspective, the emissions from both the additional vehicle production and scrapping need to be addressed when evaluating the benefits of scrapping older vehicles. This study explores an optimal fleet conversion policy based on mid-sized internal combustion engine vehicles in the US, defined as one that minimizes total life cycle emissions from the entire fleet of new and used vehicles. To describe vehicles' lifetime emission profiles as functions of accumulated mileage, a series of life cycle inventories characterizing environmental performance for vehicle production, use, and retirement was developed for each model year between 1981 and 2020. A simulation program is developed to investigate ideal and practical fleet conversion policies separately for three regulated pollutants (CO, NMHC, and NO x ) and for CO 2 . According to the simulation results, accelerated scrapping policies are generally recommended to reduce regulated emissions, but they may increase greenhouse gases. Multi- objective analysis based on economic valuation methods was used to investigate trade-offs among emissions of different pollutants for optimal fleet conversion policies. (author)

  13. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  14. Planning and forecasting demand for aircraft engines airline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Кучер

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available  The questions of air-engines supply system processes analysis on the basis of order planning and air-engine demand forecasting of airline’s air fleet with the use of imitating simulation methods are considered.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fleet Application for School Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propane Buses Jan. 26, 2016 Video thumbnail for Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets Biodiesel thumbnail for Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama Biodiesel Fuels Education in Alabama May 1, 2012 Video School Transportation Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for New Hampshire Cleans up with Biodiesel Buses

  16. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  17. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF RUSSIAN INNOVATIVE AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS FLEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kryazhkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of tractors park and its perspective development are carried out on the basis of realization and improvement of the scientifically based types range constructed on a traction classification sign which conforms to requirements of agricultural production when performing two main conditions: full meeting the requirements for various standard sizes of tractors applicable to conditions of the corresponding zones of Russia and continuous reproduction and development of tractor fleet, both by quantity of efficient machinery and its structure. The developed types range practically runs the gamut of organizational and economic and climatic conditions, and also all range of forms of the organizations using machinery, beginning from individual consumers, small and large rent and contract collectives and finishing large-scale enterprises and their associations. Federal Service of State Statistics (Rosstat information about a steady tendency of fleet reduction was used for studying of regularities of development of tractor fleet. This information was added by analytical synthesis of data about the annual brand purchases in the Russian market of agricultural tractors. The developed database shows a share of the tractors in fleets of agricultural organizations, which are used over depreciation term, and also minimum necessary number of new machines introduction for formation of volume of tractors with limit age and the total quantity of tractors necessary for minimization of set of expenses. It was established that it is possible to estimate visually the developed quantitative and age structure of tractors fleet and to predict its development on prospect by worked out database representing set of annual tractors brand lines purchasing.

  18. Path Planning Algorithms for the Adaptive Sensor Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric; Hosler, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The Adaptive Sensor Fleet (ASF) is a general purpose fleet management and planning system being developed by NASA in coordination with NOAA. The current mission of ASF is to provide the capability for autonomous cooperative survey and sampling of dynamic oceanographic phenomena such as current systems and algae blooms. Each ASF vessel is a software model that represents a real world platform that carries a variety of sensors. The OASIS platform will provide the first physical vessel, outfitted with the systems and payloads necessary to execute the oceanographic observations described in this paper. The ASF architecture is being designed for extensibility to accommodate heterogenous fleet elements, and is not limited to using the OASIS platform to acquire data. This paper describes the path planning algorithms developed for the acquisition phase of a typical ASF task. Given a polygonal target region to be surveyed, the region is subdivided according to the number of vessels in the fleet. The subdivision algorithm seeks a solution in which all subregions have equal area and minimum mean radius. Once the subregions are defined, a dynamic programming method is used to find a minimum-time path for each vessel from its initial position to its assigned region. This path plan includes the effects of water currents as well as avoidance of known obstacles. A fleet-level planning algorithm then shuffles the individual vessel assignments to find the overall solution which puts all vessels in their assigned regions in the minimum time. This shuffle algorithm may be described as a process of elimination on the sorted list of permutations of a cost matrix. All these path planning algorithms are facilitated by discretizing the region of interest onto a hexagonal tiling.

  19. An approach to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Fesenko, Herman; Doukas, Nikos

    2017-09-01

    An approach and the algorithm to the drone fleet survivability assessment based on a stochastic continues-time model are proposed. The input data are the number of the drones, the drone fleet redundancy coefficient, the drone stability and restoration rate, the limit deviation from the norms of the drone fleet recovery, the drone fleet operational availability coefficient, the probability of the drone failure-free operation, time needed for performing the required tasks by the drone fleet. The ways for improving the recoverable drone fleet survivability taking into account amazing factors of system accident are suggested. Dependencies of the drone fleet survivability rate both on the drone stability and the number of the drones are analysed.

  20. Engaging with Community Advisory Boards (CABs) in Lusaka Zambia: perspectives from the research team and CAB members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinga, Alwyn; Moodley, Keymanthri

    2015-06-03

    The use of a Community Advisory Board (CAB) is one method of ensuring community engagement in community based research. To identify the process used to constitute CABs in Zambia, this paper draws on the perspectives of both research team members and CAB members from research groups who used CABs in Lusaka. Enabling and restricting factors impacting on the functioning of the CAB were identified. All studies approved by the University of Zambia Bioethics Research Committee (UBNZABREC) from 2008 - 2012 were reviewed to identify those studies that were likely to include a CAB. Eight teams with studies that included a CAB were identified. For each of these studies, consent was obtained to conduct an informal interview with a research team member and to obtain contact details for one CAB member. In total 14 interviews were conducted with 8 research team members and 6 CAB members from 12-30 August 2013. Identification of potential CAB members from the community and their participation in developing the terms of reference for CABs was perceived to have contributed to the success of the CAB. Due to the trust that the community had in members of their community the CABs were then in a stronger position to influence community participation in the research. Training of CAB members was identified as a factor that enhanced the functioning of a CAB. Lack of commitment and low literacy levels of CAB members posed a threat to the role of the CAB. Although compensation in the form of a stipend was not provided, CAB members were provided with transport reimbursements for attending meetings. Selection of CAB members from within the community contributed to community confidence in the CAB, enhancing its ability to act as an effective link between study team and community. This contributed positively to the conduct of the study and enhanced community awareness and acceptance of the research. However, establishment of study specific CABs has the potential to compromise CAB independence

  1. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  2. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 5, employee attitude assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The experiences of couriers, operations managers, vehicle handlers (refuelers), and mechanics who drove and/or worked with alternative fuel vehicles, and the attitudes and perceptions of people with these experiences, are examined. Five alternative fuels studied in the CleanFleet project are considers& compressed natural gas, propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline, M-85, and electricity. The three major areas of interest include comparative analysis of issues such as health, safety and vehicle performance, business issues encompassing several facets of station operations, and personal commentary and opinions about the CleanFleet project and the alterative fuels. Results of the employee attitude assessment are presented as both statistical and qualitative analysis.

  3. The relative importance of real-time in-cab and external feedback in managing fatigue in real-world commercial transport operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzharris, Michael; Liu, Sara; Stephens, Amanda N; Lenné, Michael G

    2017-05-29

    Real-time driver monitoring systems represent a solution to address key behavioral risks as they occur, particularly distraction and fatigue. The efficacy of these systems in real-world settings is largely unknown. This article has three objectives: (1) to document the incidence and duration of fatigue in real-world commercial truck-driving operations, (2) to determine the reduction, if any, in the incidence of fatigue episodes associated with providing feedback, and (3) to tease apart the relative contribution of in-cab warnings from 24/7 monitoring and feedback to employers. Data collected from a commercially available in-vehicle camera-based driver monitoring system installed in a commercial truck fleet operating in Australia were analyzed. The real-time driver monitoring system makes continuous assessments of driver drowsiness based on eyelid position and other factors. Data were collected in a baseline period where no feedback was provided to drivers. Real-time feedback to drivers then occurred via in-cab auditory and haptic warnings, which were further enhanced by direct feedback by company management when fatigue events were detected by external 24/7 monitors. Fatigue incidence rates and their timing of occurrence across the three time periods were compared. Relative to no feedback being provided to drivers when fatigue events were detected, in-cab warnings resulted in a 66% reduction in fatigue events, with a 95% reduction achieved by the real-time provision of direct feedback in addition to in-cab warnings (p safety culture of the company in terms of how the information is used. Data were analysed on a per-truck trip basis, and the findings are indicative of fatigue events in a large-scale commercial transport fleet. Future research ought to account for individual driver performance, which was not possible with the available data in this retrospective analysis. Evidence that real-time driver monitoring feedback is effective in reducing fatigue events is

  4. Renewal of the French fleet of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2012-01-01

    While supposing the lifetime of all present PWR reactors would be extended to sixty years, the author compares two scenarios regarding the renewal of the French fleet of nuclear reactors: the first one over 40 years and the second one over 20 years. This renewal is based on the construction of EPR reactors at different rhythms. The author compares the associated production costs and assesses the exploitation costs. A renewal scenario over 40 years seems to give better results

  5. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  6. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Ji, Qingkai; Chiu, Chun-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS) to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP), where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this proble...

  7. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  8. Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance; Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ahdieh, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bentley, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook that builds upon the "Guidance for Federal Agencies on E.O. 13514 Section 12-Federal Fleet Management" and provides information to help fleet managers select optimal greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction strategies for each location, meeting or exceeding related fleet requirements, acquiring vehicles to support these strategies while minimizing fleet size and vehicle miles traveled, and refining strategies based on agency performance.

  9. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  10. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  11. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  12. Fleet renewal: An approach to achieve sustainable road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Aleksandar V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With more stringent requirements for efficient utilization of energy resources within the transport industry a need for implementation of sustainable development principles has appeared. Such action will be one of competitive advantages in the future. This is especially confirmed within the road transport sector. A methodology implemented in public procurement procedures for fleet renewal regarding the calculation of road vehicles’ operational lifecycle costs has been analyzed in detail in this paper. Afore mentioned calculation comprises the costs for: vehicle ownership, energy, carbon dioxide and pollutants emissions. Implementation of this methodology allows making the choice of energy efficient vehicles and vehicles with notable positive environmental effects. The objective of the research is to assess the influence of specific parameters of vehicle operational lifecycle costs, especially energy costs and estimated vehicle energy consumption, on vehicle choice in the procurement procedure. The case of urban bus fleet in Serbia was analyzed. Their operational lifecycle costs were calculated and differently powered vehicles were assessed. Energy consumption input values were defined. It was proved that defined fleet renewal scenarios could influence unquestionable decrease in energy consumption.

  13. Can propulsion and fuel diversity for the bus fleet achieve the win–win strategy of energy conservation and environmental protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Renjie; Wu, Ye; Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhou, Boya; Hao, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We first report WTW energy and environmental impacts of new-energy buses in China. • Both CNGV and BEV eliminate petroleum use but increase the burden of other fossil fuels. • BEV is the best to reduce WTW NO X and VOC emissions but no benefit for PM 2.5 and SO 2 . • CNGV has PM 2.5 emission reductions by 70% greater than DV but no benefit in GHG emissions. • HEV is the only option that can reduce energy use and pollutant emissions at the same time. - Abstract: China is facing serious issues involving energy sufficiency, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution caused partly by the rapid growth of vehicles. In order to relieve those problems, new energy vehicles are introduced into the bus and car market. We adopt life cycle analysis to evaluate the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and pollutant emissions from the traditional diesel bus and new energy buses, including diesel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), compressed natural gas vehicles (CNGVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This study reports the current situation and projects future scenarios for the BEV bus for several regions in China due to significant regional differences in the power generation mix. Compared to the diesel bus, the HEV bus can reduce petroleum, fossil fuel use and CO 2 emissions by about 20%, and, at the same time, produce stable reduction benefits for all air pollutants. The CNG bus achieves reductions of WTW primary PM 2.5 emissions by 70% over its diesel counterpart and, of course, uses little petroleum; but increases fossil fuel consumption moderately and has no benefit in GHG emissions. The BEV bus can deliver a substantial petroleum consumption advantage and greatly reduce the WTW NO X , VOC and CO emissions; but, if the electricity is generated from burning coal, the BEV bus has no PM 2.5 emission benefit compared to the conventional diesel bus. Currently, the BEV bus increases fossil energy use and CO 2 emissions in the

  14. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the concept of equilibrium optimum to design heuristic algorithm for solving the model. Through case study and comparison, the heuristic algorithm is proved to be effective. By using the algorithm presented in this paper, the fleet operational profit is significantly increased compared with the use of the existing route-based model. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the fleet size and structure are more sensitive to the increase of fare price than to the increase of passenger demand.

  15. Size and transportation capabilities of the existing U.S. cask fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, F.L.; Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the current spent nuclear fuel cask fleet capability in the United States. It assesses the degree to which the current fleet would be available, as a contingency, until proposed Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management casks become operational. A limited fleet of ten spent fuel transportation casks is found to be readily available for use in Federal waste management efforts over the next decade

  16. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A concise guide to effective management of the public works equipment fleet

    OpenAIRE

    De Armas, Vicente.

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form the principles and fundamentals of managing the public works equipment fleet, providing a basis from which to develop an effective fleet management program. The report begins with a review of today's trends in fleet management, including, organization, privatization, effects of environmental regulations and a discussion on info...

  18. Telematics Framework for Federal Agencies: Lessons from the Marine Corps Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singer, Mark R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Executive Order 13693 requires federal agencies to acquire telematics for their light- and medium-duty vehicles as appropriate. This report is intended to help agencies that are deploying telematics systems and seeking to integrate them into their fleet management process. It provides an overview of telematics capabilities, lessons learned from the deployment of telematics in the Marine Corps fleet, and recommendations for federal fleet managers to maximize value from telematics.

  19. A multi-agent based intelligent configuration method for aircraft fleet maintenance personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Qiang; Li, Songjie; Sun, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A multi-agent based fleet maintenance personnel configuration method is proposed to solve the mission oriented aircraft fleet maintenance personnel configuration problem. The maintenance process of an aircraft fleet is analyzed first. In the process each aircraft contains multiple parts, and different parts are repaired by personnel with different majors and levels. The factors and their relationship involved in the process of maintenance are analyzed and discussed. Then the whole maintenance...

  20. Fleet Purchase Behavior: Decision Processes and Implications for New Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, Kevin; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Vehicle fleets are a poorly understood part of the economy. They are important, though, in that they purchase a large share of light-duty vehicles and are often targeted by governments as agents of change. We investigate fleet purchase behavior, using focus groups, interviews, and mail and telephone surveys. We categorize fleets into four different decision-making structures (autocratic, bureaucratic, hierarchic, and democratic), determine what share of the market sector each represents, d...

  1. A Framework for Creating Value from Fleet Data at Ecosystem Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Sini-Kaisu; Hanski, Jyri; Marttonen-Arola, Salla; Kärri, Timo

    2017-09-01

    As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambition of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal - to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possible, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  2. A FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING VALUE FROM FLEET DATA AT ECOSYSTEM LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini-Kaisu KINNUNEN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As companies have recently gotten more interested in utilizing the increasingly gathered data and realizing the potential of data analysis, the ability to upgrade data into value for business has been recognized as an advantage. Companies gain competitive advantage if they are able to benefit from the fleet data that is produced both in and outside the boundaries of the company. Benefits of fleet management are based on the possibility to have access to the massive amounts of asset data that can then be utilized e.g. to gain cost savings and to develop products and services. The ambi-tion of the companies is to create value from fleet data but this requires that different actors in ecosystem are working together for a common goal – to get the most value out of fleet data for the ecosystem. In order that this could be possi-ble, we need a framework to meet the requirements of the fleet life-cycle data utilization. This means that the different actors in the ecosystem need to understand their role in the fleet data refining process in order to promote the value creation from fleet data. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework for knowledge management in order to create value from fleet data in ecosystems. As a result, we present a conceptual framework which helps companies to develop their asset management practices related to the fleet of assets.

  3. Analysis of Fleet Readiness Center Southwest Concept Integration: New-Employee Orientation and Communication Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clemmons, Francini R; Falconieri, Holly M

    2007-01-01

    Fleet Readiness Center Southwest has embraced integration of personnel and processes from Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Departments and Naval Aviation Depots supporting Naval Aviation Maintenance...

  4. Fleets of enduring drones to probe atmospheric phenomena with clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Simon; Roberts, Greg; Benard, Emmanuel; Bronz, Murat; Burnet, Frédéric; Bouhoubeiny, Elkhedim; Condomines, Jean-Philippe; Doll, Carsten; Hattenberger, Gautier; Lamraoui, Fayçal; Renzaglia, Alessandro; Reymann, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    A full spatio-temporal four-dimensional characterization of the microphysics and dynamics of cloud formation including the onset of precipitation has never been reached. Such a characterization would yield a better understanding of clouds, e.g. to assess the dominant mixing mechanism and the main source of cloudy updraft dilution. It is the sampling strategy that matters: fully characterizing the evolution over time of the various parameters (P, T, 3D wind, liquid water content, aerosols...) within a cloud volume requires dense spatial sampling for durations of the order of one hour. A fleet of autonomous lightweight UAVs that coordinate themselves in real-time as an intelligent network can fulfill this purpose. The SkyScanner project targets the development of a fleet of autonomous UAVs to adaptively sample cumuli, so as to provide relevant data to address long standing questions in atmospheric science. It mixes basic researches and experimental developments, and gathers scientists in UAV conception, in optimal flight control, in intelligent cooperative behaviors, and of course atmospheric scientists. Two directions of researches are explored: optimal UAV conception and control, and optimal control of a fleet of UAVs. The design of UAVs for atmospheric science involves the satisfaction of trade-offs between payload, endurance, ease of deployment... A rational conception scheme that integrates the constraints to optimize a series of criteria, in particular energy consumption, would yield the definition of efficient UAVs. This requires a fine modeling of each involved sub-system and phenomenon, from the motor/propeller efficiency to the aerodynamics at small scale, including the flight control algorithms. The definition of mission profiles is also essential, considering the aerodynamics of clouds, to allow energy harvesting schemes that exploit thermals or gusts. The conception also integrates specific sensors, in particular wind sensor, for which classic

  5. Multiobjective optimization for nuclear fleet evolution scenarios using COSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freynet David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of various fleet evolution options on material inventories and flux in fuel cycle and waste can be analysed by means of transition scenario studies. The COSI code is currently simulating chronologically scenarios whose parameters are fully defined by the user and is coupled with the CESAR depletion code. As the interactions among reactors and fuel cycle facilities can be complex, and the ways in which they may be configured are many, the development of optimization methodology could improve scenario studies. The optimization problem definition needs to list: (i criteria (e.g. saving natural resources and minimizing waste production; (ii variables (scenario parameters related to reprocessing, reactor operation, installed power distribution, etc.; (iii constraints making scenarios industrially feasible. The large number of scenario calculations needed to solve an optimization problem can be time-consuming and hardly achievable; therefore, it requires the shortening of the COSI computation time. Given that CESAR depletion calculations represent about 95% of this computation time, CESAR surrogate models have been developed and coupled with COSI. Different regression models are compared to estimate CESAR outputs: first- and second-order polynomial regressions, Gaussian process and artificial neural network. This paper is about a first optimization study of a transition scenario from the current French nuclear fleet to a Sodium Fast Reactors fleet as defined in the frame of the 2006 French Act for waste management. The present article deals with obtaining the optimal scenarios and validating the methodology implemented, i.e. the coupling between the simulation software COSI, depletion surrogate models and a genetic algorithm optimization method.

  6. Quality assurance in a cask fleet parts control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; Shappert, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses applicable portions of the eighteen Quality Assurance criteria of Subpart H, 10 CFR 71 which are incorporated into a relational data base system which has been designed to manage the spare parts control system for a fleet of spent nuclear fuel casks. The system includes not only parts in warehouse storage but parts in use in the field plus casks, ancillary equipment, test equipment, support devices, and even personnel. It provides a high degree of assurance that any device for which a condition for certification has expired will be flagged for recertification testing or removal from service well before the critical date

  7. Quality assurance in a cask fleet parts control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, C.; McCreery, P.N.; Shappert, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Applicable portions of the eighteen Quality Assurance criteria of Subpart H, 10 CFR 71 are incorporated into a relational data base system which has been designed to manage the spare parts control system for a fleet of spent nuclear fuel casks. The system includes not only parts in warehouse storage but parts in use in the field plus casks, ancillary equipment, test equipment, support devices, and even personnel. It provides a high degree of assurance that any device for which a condition for certification has expired will be flagged for recertification testing or removal from service well before the critical date

  8. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...... location problem which are known for their tightness. The demand is considered to be elastic in the sense that the service provider can accept any fraction of the origin-destination demand. We then propose a primal decomposition method to solve instances of the problem to optimality. Numerical results...... confirm superiority of our approach in comparison with a general-purpose mixed integer programming solver....

  9. Cooperative aquatic sensing using the telesupervised adaptive ocean sensor fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, John M.; Podnar, Gregg W.; Stancliff, Stephen; Low, Kian Hsiang; Elfes, Alberto; Higinbotham, John; Hosler, Jeffrey; Moisan, Tiffany; Moisan, John

    2009-09-01

    Earth science research must bridge the gap between the atmosphere and the ocean to foster understanding of Earth's climate and ecology. Typical ocean sensing is done with satellites or in situ buoys and research ships which are slow to reposition. Cloud cover inhibits study of localized transient phenomena such as Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB). A fleet of extended-deployment surface autonomous vehicles will enable in situ study of characteristics of HAB, coastal pollutants, and related phenomena. We have developed a multiplatform telesupervision architecture that supports adaptive reconfiguration based on environmental sensor inputs. Our system allows the autonomous repositioning of smart sensors for HAB study by networking a fleet of NOAA OASIS (Ocean Atmosphere Sensor Integration System) surface autonomous vehicles. In situ measurements intelligently modify the search for areas of high concentration. Inference Grid and complementary information-theoretic techniques support sensor fusion and analysis. Telesupervision supports sliding autonomy from high-level mission tasking, through vehicle and data monitoring, to teleoperation when direct human interaction is appropriate. This paper reports on experimental results from multi-platform tests conducted in the Chesapeake Bay and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania waters using OASIS platforms, autonomous kayaks, and multiple simulated platforms to conduct cooperative sensing of chlorophyll-a and water quality.

  10. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, T [Bellona Foundation, Oslo (Norway); Kudrik, I [Bellona Foundation Branch Office, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Nikitin, A [Scientific Production Association ` ` Typhoon` ` , Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs.

  11. IMPROVING LOGISTICS SERVICES THROUGH THE TECHNOLOGY USED IN FLEET MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Vivaldini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing logistics has established itself in the area of the LSP (Logistics Service Provider, which offers a range of services to its customers. In this line, transportation is characterized as one of the most important services, and therefore efficient fleet management is essential for establishing a high level of customer service. With advances in technology and vehicle tracking systems, this approach of management has gained new possibilities for the improvement of logistics services. By studying the specific case of an LSP, this paper investigates the use of these technologies in the management of their business and services. The results indicate that the LSP seeks to increase its services and to streamline information in order to respond to customer needs in real time. It is also evident in this case under study that the combination of the technology available together with the fleet management system has become a distinguishing feature for this LSP, one which increases their skills and important information for both customers and business.

  12. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, T.; Kudrik, I.; Nikitin, A.

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs

  13. Process Approach for Modeling of Machine and Tractor Fleet Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokin, B. D.; Aletdinova, A. A.; Kravchenko, M. S.; Tsybina, Y. S.

    2018-05-01

    The existing software complexes on modelling of the machine and tractor fleet structure are mostly aimed at solving the task of optimization. However, the creators, choosing only one optimization criterion and incorporating it in their software, provide grounds on why it is the best without giving a decision maker the opportunity to choose it for their enterprise. To analyze “bottlenecks” of machine and tractor fleet modelling, the authors of this article created a process model, in which they included adjustment to the plan of using machinery based on searching through alternative technologies. As a result, the following recommendations for software complex development have been worked out: the introduction of a database of alternative technologies; the possibility for a user to change the timing of the operations even beyond the allowable limits and in that case the calculation of the incurred loss; the possibility to rule out the solution of an optimization task, and if there is a necessity in it - the possibility to choose an optimization criterion; introducing graphical display of an annual complex of works, which could be enough for the development and adjustment of a business strategy.

  14. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  15. Performance analysis of a novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain using a CNG engine and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Zhang, Weilin; Wang, Enhua; Yang, Fuyuan; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhongyan; Yu, Ping; Ye, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four different types of hybrid powertrain for heavy-duty vehicles are reviewed. • A novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain is proposed and models are developed. • Performance characteristics are analyzed and compared to a conventional powertrain. • Fuel saving potential is evaluated and explained using energy efficiency method. - Abstract: Energy conservation is a very important task for the automotive industry. The use of hybrid electric vehicles can improve energy efficiency, thus reducing fuel consumption and carbon emissions. In this research, the performance characteristics of a novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain for a transit bus are presented. The power sources are a combination of a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine and supercapacitors. A mathematical model for the coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain is established. Subsequently, an analysis program is developed based on Matlab and Advisor. The parameters are specified using experimental data. Afterwards, a rule-based control strategy is designed and optimized from the viewpoint of energy efficiency. Later, the system performance is evaluated using the Chinese Transit Bus City Driving Cycle and compared to a conventional powertrain. The results indicate that the proposed coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain can fulfill the requirements of the transit bus and enhance the energy efficiency dramatically. Moreover, the average energy efficiency of the supercapacitors was found to be above 97% over the entire driving cycle. Using supercapacitors as energy storage devices for the coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain can effectively recover the kinetic energy during regenerative braking and is a good solution for transit buses that require frequent acceleration and deceleration.

  16. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  17. The Fleet-Management as an Element of the Modern Development in the Ukrainian Leasing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garafonova Olga I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching practical aspects of the fleet-management development in Ukraine; relationships that arise in this process; elements that interact in the market. The preconditions of the companies’ transition to the use of this concept in the management of fleet, as well as the opportunities that arise in the enterprises using the principles of fleet-management were considered. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of fleet-management in companies with the available fleet of various sizes were researched. The main features, current tendencies of the fleet-management development have been indicated, ways of attraction of automobile enterprises to the use of leasing have been suggested. Prospects for further researches in this direction will be consideration of possibility of attraction of more enterprises to the use of principles of fleet-management in their management routine. Further development of fleet management will provide enterprises with significant opportunities and the reserve funds that can be used for development.

  18. New heuristics for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaert, W.; Janssens, Gerrit K.; Sirensen, K.; Vernimmen, Bert

    2002-01-01

    In the Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (FSMVRPTW) customers need to be serviced in their time windows at minimal costs by a heterogeneous fleet. In this paper new heuristics for the FSMVRPTW are developed. The performance of the heuristics is shown to be significantly

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there fleet average... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1121 - Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guard District § 165.1121 Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. (a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Fleet Supply Center Industrial Pier, San Diego, CA. 165.1121 Section 165.1121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  1. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  2. 77 FR 35862 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0062] Safety Zone; Fleet Week Maritime Festival, Pier 66 Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Fleet Week Maritime...

  3. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets AGENCY: Office of...-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets... regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel...

  4. Modelling the spatial behaviour of a tropical tuna purse seine fleet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Davies

    Full Text Available Industrial tuna fisheries operate in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but concerns over sustainability and environmental impacts of these fisheries have resulted in increased scrutiny of how they are managed. An important but often overlooked factor in the success or failure of tuna fisheries management is the behaviour of fishers and fishing fleets. Uncertainty in how a fishing fleet will respond to management or other influences can be reduced by anticipating fleet behaviour, although to date there has been little research directed at understanding and anticipating the human dimension of tuna fisheries. The aim of this study was to address gaps in knowledge of the behaviour of tuna fleets, using the Indian Ocean tropical tuna purse seine fishery as a case study. We use statistical modelling to examine the factors that influence the spatial behaviour of the purse seine fleet at broad spatiotemporal scales. This analysis reveals very high consistency between years in the use of seasonal fishing grounds by the fleet, as well as a forcing influence of biophysical ocean conditions on the distribution of fishing effort. These findings suggest strong inertia in the spatial behaviour of the fleet, which has important implications for predicting the response of the fleet to natural events or management measures (e.g., spatial closures.

  5. A multi-agent based intelligent configuration method for aircraft fleet maintenance personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-agent based fleet maintenance personnel configuration method is proposed to solve the mission oriented aircraft fleet maintenance personnel configuration problem. The maintenance process of an aircraft fleet is analyzed first. In the process each aircraft contains multiple parts, and different parts are repaired by personnel with different majors and levels. The factors and their relationship involved in the process of maintenance are analyzed and discussed. Then the whole maintenance process is described as a 3-layer multi-agent system (MAS model. A communication and reasoning strategy among the agents is put forward. A fleet maintenance personnel configuration algorithm is proposed based on contract net protocol (CNP. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircraft is studied for verification purposes. A mission type with 3 waves of continuous dispatch is imaged. Compared with the traditional methods that can just provide configuration results, the proposed method can provide optimal maintenance strategies as well.

  6. 48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services. As prescribed in 251.205, use the following clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and Related Services (DEC 1991... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of Interagency Fleet...

  7. Computational exploration of cis-regulatory modules in rhythmic expression data using the "Exploration of Distinctive CREs and CRMs" (EDCC) and "CRM Network Generator" (CNG) programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiaris, Pavlos Stephanos; Tekath, Tobias; Staiger, Dorothee; Danisman, Selahattin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the effect of cis-regulatory elements (CRE) and clusters of CREs, which are called cis-regulatory modules (CRM), in eukaryotic gene expression is a challenge of computational biology. We developed two programs that allow simple, fast and reliable analysis of candidate CREs and CRMs that may affect specific gene expression and that determine positional features between individual CREs within a CRM. The first program, "Exploration of Distinctive CREs and CRMs" (EDCC), correlates candidate CREs and CRMs with specific gene expression patterns. For pairs of CREs, EDCC also determines positional preferences of the single CREs in relation to each other and to the transcriptional start site. The second program, "CRM Network Generator" (CNG), prioritizes these positional preferences using a neural network and thus allows unbiased rating of the positional preferences that were determined by EDCC. We tested these programs with data from a microarray study of circadian gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analyzing more than 1.5 million pairwise CRE combinations, we found 22 candidate combinations, of which several contained known clock promoter elements together with elements that had not been identified as relevant to circadian gene expression before. CNG analysis further identified positional preferences of these CRE pairs, hinting at positional information that may be relevant for circadian gene expression. Future wet lab experiments will have to determine which of these combinations confer daytime specific circadian gene expression.

  8. Lessons of the Past. Development of an alternative fuel infrastructure. The case of LPG/CNG in the Netherlands and other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, J.; Bunzeck, I.G.

    2010-04-01

    The introduction of an alternative transport fuel always bears a challenge that is often referred to as a 'chicken and egg' problem: while people will only become interested in and start switching to a new fuel if sufficient refuelling stations are available, industry will only start investing in the development of a refuelling infrastructure if the market is sufficiently developed and existing stations are economically viable. Governments have a variety of, for example, fiscal or regulatory measures at hand to facilitate and support the introduction of an alternative transport fuel. This report describes and analyses the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or compressed natural gas (CNG) in the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Canada and Argentina. In particular, the report pays attention to the development of station coverage and vehicle numbers for these alternative fuels. Drivers and barriers to the introduction of LPG or CNG, such as fuel price developments, supporting policy instruments or a lack thereof were identified. Main focus are the Netherlands where LPG was introduced in the mid-1950s. A comparison of developments in the Netherlands with the other four countries reveals that well concerted efforts by policy makers and industry supporting a parallel development of vehicle uptake and refuelling station availability may lead to the firm establishment of an alternative fuel market. The report concludes with lessons learned for the introduction of hydrogen as an alternative transport fuel.

  9. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  10. Optimal Routing for Heterogeneous Fixed Fleets of Multicompartment Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a metaheuristic called the reactive guided tabu search (RGTS to solve the heterogeneous fleet multicompartment vehicle routing problem (MCVRP, where a single vehicle is required for cotransporting multiple customer orders. MCVRP is commonly found in delivery of fashion apparel, petroleum distribution, food distribution, and waste collection. In searching the optimum solution of MCVRP, we need to handle a large amount of local optima in the solution spaces. To overcome this problem, we design three guiding mechanisms in which the search history is used to guide the search. The three mechanisms are experimentally demonstrated to be more efficient than the ones which only apply the known distance information. Armed with the guiding mechanisms and the well-known reactive mechanism, the RGTS can produce remarkable solutions in a reasonable computation time.

  11. First Battleships of the Coast Defense of Russian Emperor Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is told about design and building in Russia of the first tower armored ships, are given their characteristics, are described design features, and also basic stages of service in the composition of Baltic fleet, the advantages and disadvantages in the projects are analyzed. The authors come to the conclusion that the first navigation of tower armored vehicles revealed many design flaws. Low-built monitors and two-turret armored boat had very poor seakeeping. However, for advertising purposes the ten monitors in 1865 have been sent to the coast of Sweden. During the operation it was determined the necessity of combining the reliable protection with sufficient seaworthiness. The solution to this problem is reflected in the subsequent types of armored ships – the tower frigates.

  12. A dynamic management of a public transportation fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Celiński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present paper deals with the problems of a public transportation fleet management in public transportation operators. A management concept is proposed based on a real-time acquisition of parameters of public transportation passenger exchange. Methods: The relevant research utilised video materials documenting the processes of passenger exchange in public transportation. The proposed methodology is based on a dynamic real-time measurement of passenger streams. A characteristic feature of the measurement methodology applied is that the data is collected outside the vehicles, with a CCTV camera used per access point. Demand for the public transportation service are calculated using the image processing. Results: The derived demand characteristics allow not only an estimation of the magnitude of traffic streams in public transportation but also their qualitative description. Such an approach permits a flexible design of the transportation offer to adapt to the demand. This allows matching the timetables to the density functions describing the demand for public transportation within the space of transportation networks. In addition, based on the results of this type of research, a public transportation operator may despatch the vehicle base in a flexible way. For each run of a bus or tram fleet, basing on the registered passenger traffic streams, it is possible to rationally despatch the vehicles with suitable capacity. Conclusions: A system of this type is capable of determining the quality of work of the public transportation. With the ITS systems being introduced still more widely, the proposed methodology allows the design and implementation of dynamic timetables.

  13. Expanding the Telepresence Paradigm to the UNOLS Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D.; Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Inner Space Center (ISC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (URI-GSO) has been at the forefront of developing the tools, techniques, and protocols for telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration and education programs. Working primarily with the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the ISC facility and staff have supported dozens of research cruises with significant shore-based support, while delivering related educational programming across the globe. Through a partnership with the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), the ISC is broadening its reach and capabilities to serve vessels in the U.S. academic research fleet, managed by UNOLS. The ISC has developed and used a portable shipboard "mobile telepresence unit" (MTU) on several UNOLS ships to support projects led by ocean scientists that employed the telepresence paradigm as part of their research and outreach programs. Utilizing the ISC facilities provides opportunities for effective, successful broader impact activities and shore-based remote science connectivity. With new UNOLS ships coming online, including the R/V Sikuliaq, the R/V Neil Armstrong, and the R/V Sally Ride, in addition to future Regional Class Research Vessels (RCRVs), telepresence capability has become a technical requirement for a variety of reasons. Older vessels are being retrofit with this forward-looking technology, and URI's research vessel, the R/V Endeavor, has been recently configured with technology to support telepresence operations. This presentation will provide an overview of the future of telepresence technology, its use in ocean science research and education, and advantages for using this capability to support broader impact activities. In addition, ISC successes, challenges, and lessons learned in employing telepresence technologies and methodologies onboard the academic research fleet will be discussed.

  14. CCS Retrofit: Analysis of the Global Installed Power Plant Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity generation from coal is still growing rapidly and energy scenarios from the IEA expect a possible increase from today’s 1 600 GW of coal-fired power plants to over 2 600 GW until 2035. This trend will increase the lock-in of carbon intensive electricity sources, while IEA assessments show that two-thirds of total abatement from all sectors should come from the power sector alone to support a least-cost abatement strategy. Since coal-fired power plants have a fairly long lifetime, and in order to meet climate constraints, there is a need either to apply CCS retrofit to some of today’s installed coal-fired power plants once the technology becomes available. Another option would be to retire some plants before the end of their lifetime. This working paper discusses criteria relevant to differentiating between the technical, cost-effective and realistic potential for CCS retrofit. The paper then discusses today’s coal-fired power plant fleet from a statistical perspective, by looking at age, size and the expected performance of today’s plant across several countries. The working paper also highlights the growing demand for applying CCS retrofitting to the coal-fired power plant fleet of the future. In doing so this paper aims at emphasising the need for policy makers, innovators and power plant operators to quickly complete the development of the CCS technology and to identify key countries where retrofit applications will have the biggest extent and impact.

  15. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive cab noise. 229.121 Section 229.121... § 229.121 Locomotive cab noise. (a) Performance standards for locomotives. (1) When tested for static noise in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, all locomotives of each design or model that...

  16. An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success.

  17. Mission Engineering of a Rapid Cycle Spacecraft Logistics Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; McClendon, Randy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The requirement for logistics re-supply of the International Space Station has provided a unique opportunity for engineering the implementation of NASA's first dedicated pressurized logistics carrier fleet. The NASA fleet is comprised of three Multi-Purpose Logistics Modules (MPLM) provided to NASA by the Italian Space Agency in return for operations time aboard the International Space Station. Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for oversight of the hardware development from preliminary design through acceptance of the third flight unit, and currently manages the flight hardware sustaining engineering and mission engineering activities. The actual MPLM Mission began prior to NASA acceptance of the first flight unit in 1999 and will continue until the de-commission of the International Space Station that is planned for 20xx. Mission engineering of the MPLM program requires a broad focus on three distinct yet inter-related operations processes: pre-flight, flight operations, and post-flight turn-around. Within each primary area exist several complex subsets of distinct and inter-related activities. Pre-flight processing includes the evaluation of carrier hardware readiness for space flight. This includes integration of payload into the carrier, integration of the carrier into the launch vehicle, and integration of the carrier onto the orbital platform. Flight operations include the actual carrier operations during flight and any required real-time ground support. Post-flight processing includes de-integration of the carrier hardware from the launch vehicle, de-integration of the payload, and preparation for returning the carrier to pre-flight staging. Typical space operations are engineered around the requirements and objectives of a dedicated mission on a dedicated operational platform (i.e. Launch or Orbiting Vehicle). The MPLM, however, has expanded this envelope by requiring operations with both vehicles during flight as well as pre-launch and post

  18. Real and alleged hazard of radioactive contamination of seas caused by activities of Russian nuclear fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavkovsky, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The current paper addresses the assessment results of the degree of danger caused by radioactive contamination of seas by wastes from activities of nuclear fleets compared to the results obtained in other works, specifically, in the IASAP program

  19. Maritime Security Fleet: Factors to Consider before Deciding to Select Participants Competitively

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The Maritime Security Act established the Maritime Security Fleet (MSF) program, authorizing MARAD to enter into agreements with maritime shipping companies to provide DOD access to commercial vessels operating under U.S...

  20. Vehicle attributes constraining present electric car applicability in the fleet market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J R

    1979-12-01

    One strategy for reducing petroleum imports is to use electric cars in place of conventional vehicles. This paper examines obstacles which electric cars are likely to encounter in attempting to penetrate a key segment of the passenger car market, namely, the fleet market. A fleet is here defined as a group of cars operated by a corporation or a government agency. The primary data source is a questionnaire that was distributed to fleet operators by the Bobit Publishing Company in the summer of 1977. Six sectors of the fleet market were sampled: police, state and local government, utilities, taxi, rental, and business. The questionnaire was specifically designed to uncover factors limiting market penetration of unconventional vehicles, although no attempt was made to determine price elasticities. Emphasis is on vehicle attributes that are readily quantifiable and relatively projectable, including seating capacity, range, battery recharging characteristics, availability of power options, and ability to use interstate highways.

  1. Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator: CPEN user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, R.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to assist prospective users in the understanding and execution of Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator (CPEN). CPEN is an interactive FORTRAN program whose purpose is to produce estimates of fleet-market-penetration rates of alternative passenger cars that can be described in terms of specific physical and economic attributes. The data were derived from questionnaires distributed to fleet operators affiliated with National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA). Besides the NAFA data, CPEN uses 48 variables that are interactively inserted. Complete data-input descriptions are included in the manual along with algorithm and application flowcharts. Examples of complete successful simulator runs are included for alternative program paths. A listing of the computer program and a glossary for CPEN are included.

  2. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  3. Optimal Scheduling and Operating Target (OPTAR) Cost Model for Aircraft Carriers in the Fleet Response Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    York, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    .... This capability is developed through the Fleet Readiness Training Plan (FRTP) where the Navy's carriers are scheduled in staggered 32-month cycles consisting of four phases of progressive readiness levels...

  4. A Study of Fleet Surgical Teams Readiness Posture in Amphibious Readiness Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tennyson, Ruby

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes and evaluates Fleet Surgical Teams (FSTs). It examines how Navy Medicine adapted FSTs to changing support requirements associated with the Total Health Care Support Readiness Requirement (THCSRR...

  5. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  6. PROBLEMS OF ROUTE NETWORK AND AIRCRAFT FLEET OPTIMIZATION AS A SPECIFIC TASK OF AIRLINE STRATEGIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Karakuts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic problems of route network and aircraft fleet optimization and its role in airline strategic planning are considered. Measures to improve the methods of its implementation are proposed.

  7. The design of a comprehensive microsimulator of household vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The report describes a comprehensive vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution : simulator that can be used to forecast household vehicle ownership and mileage by type of : vehicle over time. The components of the simulator are developed ...

  8. Idle reduction assessment for the New York State Department of Transportation region 4 fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Energetics Incorporated conducted a study to evaluate the operational, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reduce idling in : the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Region 4 fleet without compromising fun...

  9. Decision support with respect to facility location and fleet composition for FoodBank Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lanz, EJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fleet Composition Current & Future Work FoodBank Cape Town First in South Africa Launched on 2 March 2009 Warehouse located in Philippi East [1] Majority of food sourced from DCs and retail sector Distributing to approximately 200 agencies... & Future Work Figure: Sourcing & distributing ow diagram EJ Lanz 40th Annual ORSSA Conference 11 of 36 Background Project Focus Demand & Candidate Sites Facility Location Problems Vehicle Fleet Composition Current & Future Work Data Demand Site...

  10. A New Formulation for the Combined Maritime Fleet Deployment and Inventory Management Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bo; Bektas, Tolga; Chandra, Saurabh; Christiansen, Marielle; Fagerholt, Kjetil

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the fleet deployment problem and in particular the treatment of inventory in the maritime case. A new model based on time-continuous formulation for the combined maritime fleet deployment and inventory management problem in Roll-on Roll-off shipping is presented. Tests based on realistic data from the Ro-Ro business show that the model yields good solutions to the combined problem within reasonable time.

  11. An evaluation and implementation study of the Zenith 120 microcomputer in West Coast Fleet Commands

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Austere funding and the increased administrative burdens being placed on fleet units will ultimately take their toll on performance, morale and combat readiness. Applying low cost microcomputer technology presents one method to alleviate many of these burdens. However, the current implementation process being used is not sufficient to meet the needs of the Fleet. Empirical evidence indicates that expenditures on computers are not ac...

  12. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Sun; Qiang Feng; Songjie Li

    2012-01-01

    According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules) based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negoti...

  13. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  14. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwan Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose.

  15. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  16. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  17. Liner Shipping Fleet Deployment with Sustainable Collaborative Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Du

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing sharp competition in the market for shipping companies, it is necessary to make reasonable and efficient decisions to optimize the container shipping line network so as to improve the shipping efficiency and reduce the transportation cost, as well as to realize the transportation sustainability. Therefore, the liner ship fleet deployment problem with collaborative transportation is proposed in this paper. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model that takes collaborative transportation into consideration. The model includes fixed cost, variable cost, berth cost, transport cost, penalty, compensation cost, and so on. To achieve the sustainable development of collaborative transportation, the shipping companies could make a selection between the internal routes and the external routes to serve each task by comparing the distance between the above routes. A real Asia-Europe-Oceania numerical experiment shows that the proposed sustainable collaborative transportation model can be efficiently solved by C++ calling ILOG CPLEX. Results demonstrate that the optimized shipping line network with sustainable collaborative transportation can improve the service efficiency, as well as the service level of shipping companies.

  18. Cooperation is fleeting in the world of transposable elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wagner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite transposons are key vehicles for the worldwide spreading of genes that allow bacteria to survive toxic compounds. Composite transposons consist of two smaller transposable elements called insertion sequences (ISs, which flank the genes that permit such survival. Each IS in a composite transposon can either transpose alone, selfishly, or it can transpose cooperatively, jointly with the other IS. Cooperative transposition can enhance an IS's chance of survival, but it also carries the risk of transposon destruction. I use game theory to show that the conditions under which cooperative transposition is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS are not biologically realistic. I then analyze the distribution of thousands of ISs in more than 200 bacterial genomes to test the following prediction of the game-theoretical model: if cooperative transposition was an ESS, then the closely spaced ISs that characterize composite transposons should be more abundant in genomes than expected by chance. The data show that this is not the case. Cooperativity can only be maintained in a transitional, far-from-equilibrium state shortly after a selection pressure first arises. This is the case in the spreading of antibiotic resistance, where we are witnessing a fleeting moment in evolution, a moment in which cooperation among selfish DNA molecules has provided a means of survival. Because such cooperation does not pay in the long run, the vehicles of such survival will eventually disappear again. My analysis demonstrates that game theory can help explain behavioral strategies even for mobile DNA.

  19. More fleet adjustments seen needed for drilling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian oil and gas industry has been in a mode of restructuring since the late 1980s as it became increasingly apparent that the natural gas boom which was to replace activity previously generated by high oil process was not going to materialize. This paper reports that the production companies operating in Canada are concentrating on rationalization of land holdings and corporate downsizing and realignment rather than exploration and development of petroleum resources. Not surprisingly, this has resulted in a substantial downturn of the contract drilling and well servicing sectors in both western Canada, where the majority (95%) of the industry activity takes place, and in the frontier and East Coast offshore arenas. The persistently low levels of utilization throughout this period and prior to the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries price shocks in the '70s illustrate that the high levels achieved in the late '70s and early '80s were an aberration. The rig fleet, which was expanded to meet this abnormally high demand, must continue to rationalize if profitability is to return on an on an industrywide basis

  20. Implications of energy use for fishing fleet-Taiwan example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Jian; Wu Yihusan

    2011-01-01

    Commercial fisheries rely heavily on fossil fuel combustion and contribute heavily to the emission of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases. Propulsion output of fishing vessels has continually increased from 30 kW in 1959 to nearly 320 kW in 2000, indicating that the Taiwanese fishing fleet tended to voyage farther and faster, and to adjust for the heavier loads demanded by more powerful fishing gear. Daily emissions from Taiwanese fishing vessels were estimated using output method. The marine fishery is unlikely to grow in the future as the government is implementing measures to ensure the development of sustainable fishing practices. There has been a rising trend in pollution to production ratios during the study period between 1959 and 2008. The ratio increased by 47% in the first decade, followed by fluctuations within the range of 50%-58% for the remainder of the statistical period. There is a need to investigate the possibility of reductions in all categories of fishing with regard to energy use and emissions through the subsidization of fishing vessels to encourage operators to switch to more energy efficient equipment and cleaner fuels. - Highlights: → Daily emissions from Taiwanese fishing vessels were estimated using output method. → We reported a steady increase in pollution to production ratio in Taiwan fishing industry. → We urged government and industry work together to ensure a transition to low carbon fishing.

  1. The Insufficient Issues In Development Of Vietnamese Ship Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Nam Chu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Vietnam Maritime Administration in 2015 the total volume of transport carried was about 118.7 million tons an increase of 9.5 compared to 2014 - the biggest increase in recent years. However the fleet of Vietnam has taken only 27.8 of total cargo through the port more than 70 of the market share of foreign shipping. By the end of April 2017 the Seal of Memorandum of Understanding PSC of the Asia-Pacific Region Tokyo-MOU comprising 20 members Australia Canada Chile China Fiji Hong Kong China Indonesia Japan South Korea Malaysia Marshall Islands New Zealand Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Russian Federation Singapore Thailand Vanuatu and Vietnam presented the results of this organization in 2016. Accordingly in 2016 members of Tokyo-MOU conducted 31678 PSC inspections of 17503 flag-nautical vessels of 101 countries to regional ports. In 31678 PSC inspections 18943 defect detection ships affected safety security maritime labor conditions environmental pollution prevention and 1090 of flagged vessels from 69 countries. Kept due to serious defects the average retention of the entire region was 3.44 down from 3.67 in 2015 and 3.96 in 2014.

  2. B612 plans asteroid hunt with fleet of small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Adam

    2018-05-01

    Last week, an asteroid the size of Egypt's Great Pyramid of Giza whizzed by Earth, missing it by half the distance to the moon. The concern that we may one day not be so lucky has long preoccupied the B612 Foundation, a private organization in Mill Valley, California, dedicated to finding asteroids that cross Earth's orbit and could devastate humanity. B612 itself had a near-death experience 3 years ago, when its bold plans for an asteroid-hunting space telescope fell apart. But now, its ambitions are rising again with a new technique for finding menacing objects. On 10 May, B612 announced a partnership with York Space Systems to investigate building a fleet of small asteroid hunters. For many years, B612 aimed to build and launch a much larger craft, Sentinel, a $450 million space telescope with a 50-centimeter mirror. But fundraising stalled and, in 2015, NASA ended an agreement to help B612 because it wasn't meeting mileposts, essentially killing the telescope. Now, B612 has developed a new technique, called synthetic tracking, that can produce similar results at a far lower cost with small space telescopes. Ed Lu, B612 co-founder and CEO, expects the first telescope to cost about $10 million and believes a full constellation "would be a factor of many, many cheaper" than Sentinel.

  3. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Hammer, S.; Keller, M.; Schmidt, N.; Sammer, K.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-09-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  4. Web Map Apps using NASA's Earth Observing Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, R.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N.; Thompson, C.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Through the miracle of open web mapping services for satellite imagery, a garden of new applications has sprouted to monitor the planet across a variety of domains. The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) provide free and open access to full resolution imagery captured by NASAs Earth observing fleet. Spanning 15+ years and running through as recently as a few hours ago, GIBS aims to provide a general-purpose window into NASA's vast archive of the planet. While the vast nature of this archive can be daunting, many domain-specific applications have been built to meet the needs of their respective communities. This presentation will demonstrate a diverse set of these new applications which can take planetarium visitors into (virtual) orbit, guide fire resource managers to hotspots, help anglers find their next catch, illustrate global air quality patterns to local regulators, and even spur a friendly competition to find clouds which are shaped the most like cats. We hope this garden will continue to grow and will illustrate upcoming upgrades to GIBS which may open new pathways for development. data visualization, web services, open access

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, SUSTAINABILITY AND GROWTH DISORDER FLEET OF MOTOR VEHICLES OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams, parking difficulties, noise horns, especially stress and the increment of air pollution by greenhouse gas emissions by the growing fleet of motor vehicles in Brazilian capitals, then, the question is: what are the possible impacts that the growing fleet of motor vehicles of the State of Ceará may cause to the environment? With the general aim of this study: to analyze the growing fleet of vehicles in the State of Ceará and its possible environmental impacts. And yet with the following specific objectives: to analyze the determinants of growth in vehicle fleet of the state of Ceará, by applying the statistical technique of Multiple Regression; discuss the relationship between economic development and environmental mitigation measures related to the growth fleet of automotive vehicles. This is a literature review, using secondary data that was applied multiple regression analysis. It was made a data analysis about the period between 1980 to 2009. Thiswork serves asawarningas theuncontrolled growthof the fleet ofvehiclesleads to anincrease in pollutionby the emission oftoxic gases, whosedirect consequence isthe destructionof the ozone layerthat protectsthe earth’s atmosphere from the exposure of UV irradiation.

  6. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Kristin S. [The George Washington University, 1776 G St. NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Jefferson, Theresa [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1101 King St, Suite 610 Alexandria, VA 22314 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  7. A systems approach to improving fleet policy compliance within the US Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Kristin S.; Jefferson, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    To reduce dependence on foreign sources of energy, address climate change, and improve environmental quality, the US government has established a goal of reducing petroleum fuel use in its federal agencies. To this end, the government requires its agencies to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and adopt other strategies to reduce petroleum consumption. Compliance with these requirements, while important, creates challenges for federal fleet managers who oversee large, geographically dispersed fleets. In this study, a group of 25 experienced federal fleet managers participated in a pilot study using a structured methodology for developing strategies to comply with fleet requirements while using agency resources as efficiently as possible. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to identify and quantify agency priorities in combination with a linear programming model to optimize the purchase of fleet vehicles. The method was successful in quantifying tradeoffs and decreasing the amount of time required to develop fleet management strategies. As such, it is recommended to federal agencies as a standard tool for the development of these strategies in the future. (author)

  8. Software Application for Remote Monitoring of Fleets Based on Geographic Information Systems Using Open Source Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Daniel Cano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlling a fleet usually implies to establish means of control of vehicles, to collect the data associated with the routes taken by these vehicles, to interpret and evaluate the meaning of the collected data and to make the appropriate decisions to improve the efficiency in the use of vehicles in an organization. The implementation of this process of fleet management is mainly performed manually and the solutions available on the market are costly because of the payments for licenses, it is also necessary that the people monitoring the fleets are geographically close to them. This paper aims to answer the following questions: How to reduce errors in the management of information resulting from the fleet management process? How to reduce the cost of remote fleet monitoring? To obtain the solution, we propose the use of GPS devices in each vehicle, the GPS device’s information is captured and consistently stored in a data base, then the information is consulted, analyzed and represented on a map. The result is a software application that allows users have fast and reliable information that will enable them to take the necessary decisions in the vehicle fleet they are trying to control at a low cost.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of alternative fleet-level selective maintenance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Kellie; Richard Cassady, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fleet-level selective maintenance refers to the process of identifying the subset of maintenance actions to perform on a fleet of repairable systems when the maintenance resources allocated to the fleet are insufficient for performing all desirable maintenance actions. The original fleet-level selective maintenance model is designed to maximize the probability that all missions in a future set are completed successfully. We extend this model in several ways. First, we consider a cost-based optimization model and show that a special case of this model maximizes the expected value of the number of successful missions in the future set. We also consider the situation in which one or more of the future missions may be canceled. These models and the original fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models are nonlinear. Therefore, we also consider an alternative model in which the objective function can be linearized. We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models. - Highlights: • Investigate nonlinear fleet-level selective maintenance optimization models. • A cost based model is used to maximize the expected number of successful missions. • Another model is allowed to cancel missions if reliability is sufficiently low. • An alternative model has an objective function that can be linearized. • We show that the alternative model is a good approximation to the other models

  10. Choice of precipitant and calcination temperature of precursor for synthesis of NiCo2O4 for control of CO-CH4 emissions from CNG vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Suverna; Prasad, Ram

    2018-03-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is most appropriate an alternative of conventional fuel for automobiles. However, emissions of carbon-monoxide and methane from such vehicles adversely affect human health and environment. Consequently, to abate emissions from CNG vehicles, development of highly efficient and inexpensive catalysts is necessary. Thus, the present work attempts to scan the effects of precipitants (Na 2 CO 3 , KOH and urea) for nickel cobaltite (NiCo 2 O 4 ) catalysts prepared by co-precipitation from nitrate solutions and calcined in a lean CO-air mixture at 400°C. The catalysts were used for oxidation of a mixture of CO and CH 4 (1:1). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface-area, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; temperature programmed reduction and Scanning electron microscopy coupled with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The Na 2 CO 3 was adjudged as the best precipitant for production of catalyst, which completely oxidized CO-CH 4 mixture at the lowest temperature (T 100 =350°C). Whereas, for catalyst prepared using urea, T 100 =362°C. On the other hand the conversion of CO-CH 4 mixture over the catalyst synthesized by KOH limited to 97% even beyond 400°C. Further, the effect of higher calcination temperatures of 500 and 600°C was examined for the best catalyst. The total oxidation of the mixture was attained at higher temperatures of 375 and 410°C over catalysts calcined at 500 and 600°C respectively. Thus, the best precipitant established was Na 2 CO 3 and the optimum calcination temperature of 400°C was found to synthesize the NiCo 2 O 4 catalyst for the best performance in CO-CH 4 oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Study of gas (CNG) SI engine with pre-chamber. Improvement of the indicated thermal efficiency on lean mixture with EGR and supercharging; Fukushitsushiki hibana tenka asshuku tennen gas (CNG) engine ni kansuru kenkyu. Kakyu to EGR ni yoru kihakuiki no netsukoritsu kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonetani, H.; Fukutani, I. [Polytechnic University, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    As lean burn of compressed natural gas (CNG) is applied to conventional gasoline engines, a combustion period largely increases, resulting in large combustion fluctuation and low thermal efficiency. Heterogeneous spacial air/fuel ratios also have an effect on combustion in lean burn area. By preparing a pre-chamber for a combustion chamber of high- compression ratio CNG pre-mixing SI engines to utilize premixture turbulence, rapid flame propagation is obtained in lean burn area, resulting high combustion performance. Furthermore, study was made on improvement of combustion performance in lean burn area under various compression ratios, intake pressures, pre-chamber shapes and EGR ratios. As a result, lean burn operation at high intake pressure by supercharging showed possible improvement of a thermal efficiency and expansion of inflammable limits. Higher thermal efficiency in lean burn area was also obtained by using higher compression ratios considering heat loss. Although EGR was effective in controlling NOx formed in lean burn area, strict control of both air excess rate and EGR rate was required to prevent lower thermal efficiency. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Layup practices at EDF PWR fleet and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Olga Alos; Pablo, Sergio De Maria; Wintergerst, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    A proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. The layup control practices are necessary to prevent corrosion damage during shutdown and are an important part of the life time extension of a nuclear power plant. EDF operational experience in this area confirms that damage to plant equipment from improper layup procedures is a cause of reduced plant reliability and availability and can increase the corrosion products ingress into the SG during start-up. The plant preservation strategy applied across the EDF fleet is based on the following principles: Anticipated time frame of the required layup: short-term outages can become long-term outages, and can necessitate the use of unplanned preservation techniques. Dry layup for a long-term outage of the condensate/feedwater system: condenser vacuum assisted draining at high temperature, estimation of air requirements (flow rate, humidity...) to guarantee the optimum conditions inside the system. Wet lay up for a short-term outage of the condensate/feedwater system: system filled with operating medium, avoiding air ingress into the system, injection of chemical agents if necessary. Dry lay-up or wet lay up for the steam generators depending on maintenance work or radiation protection needed. This article presents the EDF layup program and the improvements in layup practices. It provides information on the layup procedures, best practices and recommendations, operating experience, considerations for different durations of outages; the implementation of a preservation working group, the selection of the systems that will be included in the lay-up program. Finally, future developments will be presented, such as the development of a 'convective model' to determine air requirements (humidity, flow rate...) and the drying rate to dry a heat exchanger. (author)

  13. HVAC System Replacements for the Spanish Nuclear Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.; Gensollen, T.; Pérez, C.

    2015-07-01

    The European Union and its Member States have established regulations to phase out ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The chiller systems installed at the Spanish nuclear fleet contained zone depleting refrigerants (such as R-11, R-12, and R-22), which are being phased out of service. Due to the different material and thermodynamic properties of the replacement refrigerant (e.g. R-134A), a complete chiller system replacement is needed to comply with the EU regulations for CFCs. Delivering state of the art HVAC and Chiller systems that comply with the Nuclear Plant design basis, licensing basis, system and component specifications as well as European Union (EU) and Spanish codes and standards can be challenging for products purchased from US based manufacturers. Procurement specifications and Request for Quotes (RFQs) issued today for the procurement of original Plant components and systems will contain references to numerous codes and standards that were not in effect at the time the original components were specified and procured. The reference to EU and Spanish codes and standards that are unfamiliar to the HVAC suppliers can lead to uncertainty and concern related to specification compliance. The unnecessary burden of ambiguous codes and standards complicates the proposal process and introduces pricing uncertainty and contract risk. A review of the EU and Spanish national codes and standards that are often referenced in HVAC system related RFQs need to be performed to determine what codes and standards are applicable to HVAC systems designed, manufactured and tested in the US for export to Spain for installation in Spanish NPPs. Lessons learned and best practices should be applied to help both the Supplier (HVAC OEM) and the Purchaser Plant Operator) to optimize the procurement process and improve the quality of offerings to comply with applicable codes and standards. (Author)

  14. Averaged emission factors for the Hungarian car fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haszpra, L. [Inst. for Atmospheric Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Szilagyi, I. [Central Research Inst. for Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    The vehicular emission of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of NMHC in Hungary and in most of the industrialized countries. Non-methane hydrocarbon plays key role in the formation of photo-chemical air pollution, usually characterized by the ozone concentration, which seriously endangers the environment and human health. The ozone forming potential of the different NMHCs differs from each other significantly, while the NMHC composition of the car exhaust is influenced by the fuel and engine type, technical condition of the vehicle, vehicle speed and several other factors. In Hungary the majority of the cars are still of Eastern European origin. They represent the technological standard of the 70`s, although there are changes recently. Due to the long-term economical decline in Hungary the average age of the cars was about 9 years in 1990 and reached 10 years by 1993. The condition of the majority of the cars is poor. In addition, almost one third (31.2 %) of the cars are equipped with two-stroke engines which emit less NO{sub x} but much more hydrocarbon. The number of cars equipped with catalytic converter was negligible in 1990 and is slowly increasing only recently. As a consequence of these facts the traffic emission in Hungary may differ from that measured in or estimated for the Western European countries and the differences should be taken into account in the air pollution models. For the estimation of the average emission of the Hungarian car fleet a one-day roadway tunnel experiment was performed in the downtown of Budapest in summer, 1991. (orig.)

  15. Heuristic hybrid game approach for fleet condition-based maintenance planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Qiang; Bi, Xiong; Zhao, Xiujie; Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The condition-based maintenance (CBM) method is commonly used to select appropriate maintenance opportunities according to equipment status over a period of time. The CBM of aircraft fleets is a fleet maintenance planning problem. In this problem, mission requirements, resource constraints, and aircraft statuses are considered to find an optimal strategy set. Given that the maintenance strategies for each aircraft are finite, fleet CBM can be treated as a combinatorial optimization problem. In this study, the process of making a decision on the CBM of military fleets is analyzed. The fleet CBM problem is treated as a two-stage dynamic decision-making problem. Aircraft are divided into dispatch and standby sets; thus, the problem scale is significantly reduced. A heuristic hybrid game (HHG) approach comprising a competition game and a cooperative game is proposed on the basis of heuristic rule. In the dispatch set, a competition game approach is proposed to search for a local optimal strategy matrix. A cooperative game method for the two sets is also proposed to ensure global optimization. Finally, a case study regarding a fleet comprising 20 aircraft is conducted, with the results proving that the approach efficiently generates outcomes that meet the mission risk-oriented schedule requirement. - Highlights: • A new heuristic hybrid game method for fleet condition-based maintenance is proposed. • The problem is simplified by hierarchical solving based on dispatch and standby set. • The local optimal solution is got by competition game algorithm for dispatch set. • The global optimal solution is got by cooperative game algorithm between two sets.

  16. Addressing the minimum fleet problem in on-demand urban mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazifeh, M M; Santi, P; Resta, G; Strogatz, S H; Ratti, C

    2018-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have opened the way to new solutions for urban mobility that provide better ways to match individuals with on-demand vehicles. However, a fundamental unsolved problem is how best to size and operate a fleet of vehicles, given a certain demand for personal mobility. Previous studies 1-5 either do not provide a scalable solution or require changes in human attitudes towards mobility. Here we provide a network-based solution to the following 'minimum fleet problem', given a collection of trips (specified by origin, destination and start time), of how to determine the minimum number of vehicles needed to serve all the trips without incurring any delay to the passengers. By introducing the notion of a 'vehicle-sharing network', we present an optimal computationally efficient solution to the problem, as well as a nearly optimal solution amenable to real-time implementation. We test both solutions on a dataset of 150 million taxi trips taken in the city of New York over one year 6 . The real-time implementation of the method with near-optimal service levels allows a 30 per cent reduction in fleet size compared to current taxi operation. Although constraints on driver availability and the existence of abnormal trip demands may lead to a relatively larger optimal value for the fleet size than that predicted here, the fleet size remains robust for a wide range of variations in historical trip demand. These predicted reductions in fleet size follow directly from a reorganization of taxi dispatching that could be implemented with a simple urban app; they do not assume ride sharing 7-9 , nor require changes to regulations, business models, or human attitudes towards mobility to become effective. Our results could become even more relevant in the years ahead as fleets of networked, self-driving cars become commonplace 10-14 .

  17. Remaining useful life estimation in heterogeneous fleets working under variable operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dahidi, Sameer; Di Maio, Francesco; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The availability of condition monitoring data for large fleets of similar equipment motivates the development of data-driven prognostic approaches that capitalize on the information contained in such data to estimate equipment Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A main difficulty is that the fleet of equipment typically experiences different operating conditions, which influence both the condition monitoring data and the degradation processes that physically determine the RUL. We propose an approach for RUL estimation from heterogeneous fleet data based on three phases: firstly, the degradation levels (states) of an homogeneous discrete-time finite-state semi-markov model are identified by resorting to an unsupervised ensemble clustering approach. Then, the parameters of the discrete Weibull distributions describing the transitions among the states and their uncertainties are inferred by resorting to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method and to the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), respectively. Finally, the inferred degradation model is used to estimate the RUL of fleet equipment by direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed approach is applied to two case studies regarding heterogeneous fleets of aluminium electrolytic capacitors and turbofan engines. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in predicting the RUL and its superiority compared to a fuzzy similarity-based approach of literature. - Highlights: • The prediction of the remaining useful life for heterogeneous fleets is addressed. • A data-driven prognostics approach based on a Markov model is proposed. • The proposed approach is applied to two different heterogeneous fleets. • The results are compared with those obtained by a fuzzy similarity-based approach.

  18. Cab technology integration laboratory demonstration with moving map technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    A human performance study was conducted at the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) using a locomotive research simulatorthe Cab Technology Integration Laboratory (CTIL)that was acquired by the Federal Railroad Ad...

  19. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  20. The Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations and its Potential Impact on Neighboring Countries. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport

  1. Cost, Energy, and Environmental Impact of Automated Electric Taxi Fleets in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gordon S; Greenblatt, Jeffery B; Gerke, Brian F

    2018-04-17

    Shared automated electric vehicles (SAEVs) hold great promise for improving transportation access in urban centers while drastically reducing transportation-related energy consumption and air pollution. Using taxi-trip data from New York City, we develop an agent-based model to predict the battery range and charging infrastructure requirements of a fleet of SAEVs operating on Manhattan Island. We also develop a model to estimate the cost and environmental impact of providing service and perform extensive sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our predictions. We estimate that costs will be lowest with a battery range of 50-90 mi, with either 66 chargers per square mile, rated at 11 kW or 44 chargers per square mile, rated at 22 kW. We estimate that the cost of service provided by such an SAEV fleet will be $0.29-$0.61 per revenue mile, an order of magnitude lower than the cost of service of present-day Manhattan taxis and $0.05-$0.08/mi lower than that of an automated fleet composed of any currently available hybrid or internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). We estimate that such an SAEV fleet drawing power from the current NYC power grid would reduce GHG emissions by 73% and energy consumption by 58% compared to an automated fleet of ICEVs.

  2. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  3. An Intelligent Fleet Condition-Based Maintenance Decision Making Method Based on Multi-Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demand for condition-based maintenance online decision making among a mission oriented fleet, an intelligent maintenance decision making method based on Multi-agent and heuristic rules is proposed. The process of condition-based maintenance within an aircraft fleet (each containing one or more Line Replaceable Modules based on multiple maintenance thresholds is analyzed. Then the process is abstracted into a Multi-Agent Model, a 2-layer model structure containing host negotiation and independent negotiation is established, and the heuristic rules applied to global and local maintenance decision making is proposed. Based on Contract Net Protocol and the heuristic rules, the maintenance decision making algorithm is put forward. Finally, a fleet consisting of 10 aircrafts on a 3-wave continuous mission is illustrated to verify this method. Simulation results indicate that this method can improve the availability of the fleet, meet mission demands, rationalize the utilization of support resources and provide support for online maintenance decision making among a mission oriented fleet.

  4. Uranium in phosphate rocks and future nuclear power fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G.

    2014-01-01

    phosphoric acid. Uranium recovery as a by-product of phosphate rocks could be competitive for the moment, but limited at the most to 10 kt U per year, i.e. less than 20% of current world demand. The only way to lift the constraint of capacity production is to produce uranium as a primary product of phosphates. Unfortunately, this solution is very unlikely due to its high unit cost. In line with these considerations, the correspondence between the estimated resources and the forecast energy scenarios is examined, first with the current type of light water reactors which burn uranium, and secondly with a mixed fleet with both light water reactors and fast reactors which use plutonium. (author)

  5. A multiscale forecasting method for power plant fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei

    In recent years the electric power industry has been challenged by a high level of uncertainty and volatility brought on by deregulation and globalization. A power producer must minimize the life cycle cost while meeting stringent safety and regulatory requirements and fulfilling customer demand for high reliability. Therefore, to achieve true system excellence, a more sophisticated system-level decision-making process with a more accurate forecasting support system to manage diverse and often widely dispersed generation units as a single, easily scaled and deployed fleet system in order to fully utilize the critical assets of a power producer has been created as a response. The process takes into account the time horizon for each of the major decision actions taken in a power plant and develops methods for information sharing between them. These decisions are highly interrelated and no optimal operation can be achieved without sharing information in the overall process. The process includes a forecasting system to provide information for planning for uncertainty. A new forecasting method is proposed, which utilizes a synergy of several modeling techniques properly combined at different time-scales of the forecasting objects. It can not only take advantages of the abundant historical data but also take into account the impact of pertinent driving forces from the external business environment to achieve more accurate forecasting results. Then block bootstrap is utilized to measure the bias in the estimate of the expected life cycle cost which will actually be needed to drive the business for a power plant in the long run. Finally, scenario analysis is used to provide a composite picture of future developments for decision making or strategic planning. The decision-making process is applied to a typical power producer chosen to represent challenging customer demand during high-demand periods. The process enhances system excellence by providing more accurate market

  6. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    of an irregular room model using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method has been presented. CABS has been simulated in the irregular room model. Measurements of CABS in a real irregular room have been performed. The performance of CABS was affected by the irregular shape of the room due to the corner...

  7. 49 CFR 238.409 - Forward end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structures of power car cabs. 238.409... II Passenger Equipment § 238.409 Forward end structures of power car cabs. This section contains requirements for the forward end structure of the cab of a power car. (A conceptual implementation of this end...

  8. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent...

  9. New logistical issues in using electric vehicle fleets with battery exchange infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Adler, Jonathan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels that are more sustainable. The electric vehicle (EV) is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which "refuels" by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses some new logistical issues that must be addressed by such EV fleets, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each EV's set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges. In particular, the paper addresses (1......) the routing and scheduling of the fleet, (2) the locations of battery-exchange stations, and (3) the sizing of each facility. An overview of the literature on the topic is provided and some initial results are presented. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  10. Increased sharing of renewable energies in the electricity production system: what impact on the reactor fleet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cany, C.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Mansilla, C.; Mathonniere, G.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the flexibility of an individual reactor and of the complete fleet of reactors as a means to cope with the variability of renewable energies like solar or wind energies. Flexibility means the ability for load following and this ability is limited by both safety rules and limits on the release of radionuclides in the environment. The flexibility of the fleet depends on individual reactor flexibility but also on organisational and economic constraints. The participation of a reactor to load following depends on: its availability (not in maintenance or testing phase), its position in the cycle, the positioning of its scheduled shutdowns and the minimization of the volume of effluents. The study presents the future need of flexibility for the reactor fleet as the shares of wind and solar energies increase in the French energy mix. (A.C.)

  11. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  12. A multi-species multi-fleet bioeconomic simulation model for the English Channel artisanal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Le Gallic, B.; Dunn, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Considering the large number of technical interactions between various fishing activities, the English Channel (ICES divisions VIId and VIIe) fisheries may be regarded as one large and diverse multi-country, multi-gear and multi-species artisanal fishery, although rarely studied as such. A whole...... of the model is to study the long-term consequences of various management alternatives on the economic situation of the English and French fleets fishing in the area and on exploited resources. The model describes this feature through the links between three entities on the one hand (stocks, fleets...... and "metiers", i.e. gear x target species x fishing area), and three modules on the other hand (activity, biological production and economics). The model is described and some simulation results are presented. An example simulating a decrease of one fleet segment effort illustrates these technical interactions...

  13. Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Task 1includes a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization are used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the assessments and observations of the current non-tactical fleet, fulfilling the Task 1 requirements.

  14. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  15. Greenhouse gas implications of fleet electrification based on big data-informed individual travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Xu, Ming

    2013-08-20

    Environmental implications of fleet electrification highly depend on the adoption and utilization of electric vehicles at the individual level. Past research has been constrained by using aggregated data to assume all vehicles with the same travel pattern as the aggregated average. This neglects the inherent heterogeneity of individual travel behaviors and may lead to unrealistic estimation of environmental impacts of fleet electrification. Using "big data" mining techniques, this research examines real-time vehicle trajectory data for 10,375 taxis in Beijing in one week to characterize the travel patterns of individual taxis. We then evaluate the impact of adopting plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in the taxi fleet on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions based on the characterized individual travel patterns. The results indicate that 1) the largest gasoline displacement (1.1 million gallons per year) can be achieved by adopting PHEVs with modest electric range (approximately 80 miles) with current battery cost, limited public charging infrastructure, and no government subsidy; 2) reducing battery cost has the largest impact on increasing the electrification rate of vehicle mileage traveled (VMT), thus increasing gasoline displacement, followed by diversified charging opportunities; 3) government subsidies can be more effective to increase the VMT electrification rate and gasoline displacement if targeted to PHEVs with modest electric ranges (80 to 120 miles); and 4) while taxi fleet electrification can increase greenhouse gas emissions by up to 115 kiloton CO2-eq per year with the current grid in Beijing, emission reduction of up to 36.5 kiloton CO2-eq per year can be achieved if the fuel cycle emission factor of electricity can be reduced to 168.7 g/km. Although the results are based on a specific public fleet, this study demonstrates the benefit of using large-scale individual-based trajectory data (big data) to better understand environmental implications

  16. Application of GPS data for benefits of air quality assessment and fleet management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Song; Fat Lam, Yun; Cheong Ying, Chi; Chan, Ka Lok

    2017-04-01

    In the modern digitizedsociety, traffic data can be easily collected for use in roadway development, urban planning and vehicle emission. These data are then further parameterized to support traffic simulation and roadside emission calculations. With the commercialization of AGPS/GPS technology, GPS data are widely utilized to study habit and travelling behaviors. GPS on franchised buses can provide not only positioning information for fleet management but also raw data to analyze traffic situations. In HK, franchised buses account for 6% of RSP and 20% of NOx emissions among the whole vehicle fleet. Being the most heavily means of public transport, the setting up of bus travelling trajectories and service frequency always raise concern from citizens. On this basis, there is an increasing interest and as well as to design and realize an effective cost benefit fleet management strategy. In this study, data collection analysis is carried out on all bus routes (i.e. 112) in Shatin district, one of the 18 districts in Hong Kong. The GPS/AGPS data through Esri ArcGIS investigate the potential benefit of GPS data in different emission scenarios (such as engine type over whole bus fleet). Building on the emission factors from EMFC-HK model, we accounted for factors like travelling distance, idling time, occupancy rate, service frequency, tire and break emissions. Through the simple emission developed model we demonstrate how GPS are data are utilized to assess bus fleet emissions. Further amelioration on the results involve tuning the model with field measurement so as to assess district level emission change after fleet optimization.

  17. INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF A FLEET OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND TRACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Korotchenya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An indicator for an integral assessment of efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors is proposed. Its calculating consists in multiplying partial efficiencies together: technical and price efficiency of agricultural production, and eco-efficiency of a fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors. Using an axiomatic method, the concept of efficiency of fleet was studied within broader category of productivity and in wider scales - within agriculture. The most general and obvious statements according to which efficiency of machine and tractor fleet is considered as indirectly settlement size counted proceeding from efficiency of agricultural production, were accepted as axioms. In general, efficiency is a ratio between productivity of an object in question and that of the theoretical ideal or an object with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted equal to unity or 100%. Technical efficiency of agricultural production characterizes the ability of an agricultural sector to produce the technically maximum output of agricultural produce obtained from the available resources (land, labor, machines, etc.. Price efficiency evaluates the ability of an agricultural sector to produce output of agricultural produce with regard to employing the optimal mix of resources given their prices. Because the theoretical ideal does not exist, efficiency of an agricultural sector, e.g. in Russia and of its fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors, is measured against agriculture of another country with maximum productivity efficiency of which is accepted as equal to unity or 100 percent. The calculation can be made on the basis of the Data Envelopment Analysis method. It is possible to calculate price and economic efficiency of Russian agriculture (fleet of agricultural machinery and tractors due to use its domestic prices.

  18. CEMENT TRANSPORTATION LIMITED-FLEET MODELING AND ASSIGNING TO RATED DEMANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes MASHHADI BANDANI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is an inseparable part of the supply chain, with a key role in product distribution. This role is highlighted when ratio of “the cost of transportation” to “the value of goods” such as cement is significant. Iran has recently become one of the main centers of cement production in the world. However, transportation is the most important challenge in cement distribution because of weak structure of the transportation fleet and its independent action. Independence of and lack of commitment on the part of transportation fleets to cement companies as well as lack of timely delivery due to shortage of transportation in some routes and seasons lead to customers` dissatisfaction and even market loss or lack of market development. One of the significant differences between the transportation system in Iran and that in developed countries is lack of complete productivity of the transportation fleet. It means that trucks are driver-based in Iran. This paper introduces a model considering some issues such as driver-based trucks, size of the transportation fleet based on the number of active trucks, and demand priorities in the cement company. Taking the relation between the number of active trucks and the cement company into account, this model assigns weekly demands to the transportation fleet. It also tries to minimize the delay to respond to demands and increases the efficiency of the transportation fleet. Finally, this current condition-based model is compared with two other models including “no constraints on different routes of trucks” as well as single-route model for trucks.

  19. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  20. Fleet view of electrified transportation reveals smaller potential to reduce GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework compares GHG of plugins vs. hybrids for any vehicle type/performance. • Fleet GHG can be compared without forecasting market penetrations of vehicle sizes. • GHG/km for pure electrics must account for limited range using novel, modified Utility Factor. • Applied to the US, this points to smaller GHG reduction at fleet level than traditional fleet analyses. - Abstract: Plugin and hybrid vehicles have been shown to offer possible reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus life-cycle battery emissions and vehicle weight, and on trip patterns. We present a framework that enables GHG comparisons (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing) for three drivetrains (pure-electric, gasoline-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid), both for individual vehicles and for fleets. The framework captures effects of grid- versus vehicle-based electricity generation, grid transmission and charging losses, and manufacturing and carrying batteries. In contrast to previous work, GHG comparisons can be obtained for heterogeneous fleets of varying vehicle sizes (cars, vans, buses, trucks) and performances, without requiring forecasting of such vehicle specs and their respective market penetrations. Further, we show how a novel adaptation of the Utility Factor concept from plug-in-hybrids to mixed fleets of battery-only and gasoline-hybrids is crucial to quantifying battery-only-vehicles’ impact on fleet-wide GHG. To account for regional variations and possible future technology improvements, we show scenarios over a wide spectrum of grid-carbon-intensities (50–1200 g CO 2 e/kW h at wall), vehicle range (∼5–500 km), battery energy densities, and battery life-cycle GHG. Model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity tests. Applying the framework to trip patterns of US passenger transportation, we find that owing to the interplay of GHG/km, battery size, all-electric range, and trip patterns, GHG

  1. MPC and A enhancements for the Murmansk shipping company icebreaker fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoch, O.; Bondarev, N.; Caskey, D.; Forehand, M.; Lambert, D.; Maltsev, V.; O'Brien, M.; Gardner, B.; Tittemore, G.

    1999-01-01

    The United States and the Russian Federation entered into a cooperative agreement in 1994 that resulted in a nuclear weapons non-proliferation program within the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) currently known as the Russia/Newly Independent States (NIS) Nuclear Material Security Task Force. In 1996, a project was initiated with the Murmansk Shipping Company to enhance material protection, control, and accounting of highly enriched nuclear fuel assemblies used for the Icebreaker Fleet. The commissioning ceremony for this project is scheduled for August 1999. This paper describes the physical protection, material control, and accounting measures implemented for the Icebreaker Fleet

  2. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  3. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J.

    2017-10-02

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  4. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonzales, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  5. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  6. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  7. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Glenn Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  8. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  9. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-01-01

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments

  10. CoalFleet for tomorrow. An industry initiative to accelerate the deployment of advanced coal-based generation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkes, J.; Holt, N.; Phillips, J. [Electric Power Research Institute (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The industry initiative 'CoalFleet for tomorrow' was launched in November 2004 to accelerate the deployment and commercialization of clean, efficient, advanced coal power systems. This paper discusses the structure of CoalFleet and its strategy for reducing the cost, leadtime and risk of deploying advanced coal technologies such as combined-cycle power plants. 6 figs.

  11. A Novel Role of Cab45-G in Mediating Cell Migration in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Judong; Li, Zengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Chenying; Zheng, Weibin; He, Yan; Song, Jianyuan; Wang, Wenjie; Zhou, Xifa; Lu, Xujing; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+)-binding protein of 45 kDa (Cab45), a CREC family member, is reported to be associated with Ca(2+)-dependent secretory pathways and involved in multiple diseases including cancers. Cab45-G, a Cab45 isoform protein, plays an important role in protein sorting and secretion at Golgi complex. However, its role in cancer cell migration remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Cab45-G exhibited an increased expression in cell lines with higher metastatic potential and promoted cell migration in multiple types of cancer cells. Overexpression of Cab45-G resulted in an altered expression of the molecular mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical step in the tumor metastasis. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that overexpression of Cab45-G increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -7 (MMP-2 and MMP-7). Conversely, knock-down of Cab45-G reduced the expression of the above MMPs. Moreover, forced expression of Cab45-G upregulated the level of phosphorylated ERK and modulated the secretion of extracellular proteins fibronectin and fibulin. Furthermore, in human cervical and esophageal cancer tissues, the expression of Cab45-G was found to be significantly correlated with that of MMP-2, further supporting the importance of Cab45-G on regulating cancer metastasis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cab45-G could regulate cancer cell migration through various molecular mechanisms, which may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers.

  12. Characteristics of Early Flame Development in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition CNG Engine Fitted with a Variable Swirl Control Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rashid Abd Aziz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of the structure of the induction flow on the characteristics of early flames in a lean-stratified and lean-homogeneous charge combustion of compressed natural gas (CNG fuel in a direct injection (DI engine at different engine speeds. The engine speed was varied at 1500 rpm, 1800 rpm and 2100 rpm, and the ignition timing was set at a 38.5° crank angle (CA after top dead center (TDC for all conditions. The engine was operated in a partial-load mode and a homogeneous air/fuel charge was achieved by injecting the fuel early (before the intake valve closure, while late injection during the compression stroke was used to produce a stratified charge. Different induction flow structures were obtained by adjusting the swirl control valves (SCV. Using an endoscopic intensified CCD (ICCD camera, flame images were captured and analyzed. Code was developed to analyze the level of distortion of the flame and its wrinkledness, displacement and position relative to the spark center, as well as the flame growth rate. The results showed a higher flame growth rate with the flame kernel in the homogeneous charge, compared to the stratified combustion case. In the stratified charge combustion scenario, the 10° SCV closure (medium-tumble resulted in a higher early flame growth rate, whereas a homogeneous charge combustion (characterized by strong swirl resulted in the highest rate of flame growth.

  13. Using Discrete Event Simulation To Analyze Personnel Requirements For The Malaysian Armys New Utility Helicopter Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    HELICOPTER FLEET Hasnan bin Mohamad Rais Major, Malaysian Army B.S., University Technology of Malaysia , 2000 Submitted in partial...HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE POLICY B. The objective of MAA helicopter maintenance activities is to preserve helicopter safety and mission reliability to

  14. INL Fleet Vehicle Characterization Study for the U.S. Department of Navy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion Dale [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC collected and evaluated data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate use of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report focuses on US Department of Navy's fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  15. 77 FR 14482 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ...-road or non-road vehicle. \\2\\ The definition of the term ``low-speed electric vehicle,'' as used... alternative fuel used in Federal fleet motor vehicles. This report also would include the alternative fuel...-- (1) a motor vehicle that operates solely on alternative fuel; or (2) a low-speed electric vehicle. (g...

  16. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  17. Something To Rely On : The Influence of Stable and Fleeting Drivers on Moral Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. van Houwelingen (Gijs)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In virtually any situation we are bound to encounter short-lived influences that lure us to act in a certain way. The influence of such ‘fleeting drivers’ may or may not be in line our long-term goals and commitments (‘stable drivers’). Moral behaviour in particular

  18. Guidelines for the Establishment of a Model Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberta Brayer; Donald Karner; Kevin Morrow; James Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in both track and fleet testing environments. NEVs, which are also known as low speed vehicles, are light-duty vehicles with top speeds of between 20 and 25 mph, and total gross vehicle weights of approximately 2,000 pounds or less. NEVs have been found to be very viable alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles based on their low operating costs. However, special charging infrastructure is usually necessary for successful NEV fleet deployment. Maintenance requirements are also unique to NEVs, especially if flooded lead acid batteries are used as they have watering requirements that require training, personnel protection equipment, and adherence to maintenance schedules. This report provides guidelines for fleet managers to follow in order to successfully introduce and operate NEVs in fleet environments. This report is based on the NEV testing and operational experience of personnel from the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Electric Transportation Applications, and the Idaho National Laboratory.

  19. Aging Military Aircraft Landscape : A Case for End-of-Life Fleet Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newcamp, J.M.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Military aircraft fleets are continuing to age despite increased structural integrity concerns and rising maintenance costs. Aircraft are not being replaced or retired in large numbers but are instead having their lives extended beyond their original design service lives. Because aging aircraft cost

  20. Towards the implementation of an integrated ecosystem fleet-based management of European fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascuel, D.; Merino, G.; Döring, R.D.; Druon, D.N.; Goti, L.; Guénette, S.; Macher, C.; Soma, K.; Travers-Trolet, M.; Mackinson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Celtic Sea and the North Sea as case studies, the fleet-based approach is shown to be the pathway to implement an effective ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in European seas. First, a diagnostic on the health of each ecosystem is proposed based on the reconstruction of

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.300 - How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do we dispose of a domestic fleet motor vehicle? 102-34.300 Section 102-34.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  2. 75 FR 45055 - Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; 2010 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... (NCSM 710) which include all waters within 100 yards from the vessels while underway in the Puget Sound... authorized by the COTP, Puget Sound or Designated Representative. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 a.m...

  3. 77 FR 44475 - Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...-AA87 Security Zones; Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard... temporary rule, call or email Lieutenant Junior Grade Anthony P. LaBoy, Sector Puget Sound, Waterways Management Division, U.S. Coast Guard; telephone 206-217-6323, email SectorPugetSound[email protected] . If you...

  4. Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.

  5. Multi-objective decision-making model based on CBM for an aircraft fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Lin, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Modern production management patterns, in which multi-unit (e.g., a fleet of aircrafts) are managed in a holistic manner, have brought new challenges for multi-unit maintenance decision making. To schedule a good maintenance plan, not only does the individual machine maintenance have to be considered, but also the maintenance of the other individuals have to be taken into account. Since most condition-based maintenance researches for aircraft focused on solely reducing maintenance cost or maximizing the availability of single aircraft, as well as considering that seldom researches concentrated on both the two objectives: minimizing cost and maximizing the availability of a fleet (total number of available aircraft in fleet), a multi-objective decision-making model based on condition-based maintenance concentrated both on the above two objectives is established. Furthermore, in consideration of the decision maker may prefer providing the final optimal result in the form of discrete intervals instead of a set of points (non-dominated solutions) in real decision-making problem, a novel multi-objective optimization method based on support vector regression is proposed to solve the above multi-objective decision-making model. Finally, a case study regarding a fleet is conducted, with the results proving that the approach efficiently generates outcomes that meet the schedule requirements.

  6. 77 FR 21448 - Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children...-AA87 Security Zone; 2012 Fleet Week, Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...

  7. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Emmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis.

  8. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  9. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  10. Fleet DNA Phase 1 Refinement & Phase 2 Implementation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Duran, Adam

    2015-06-11

    Fleet DNA acts as a secure data warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle data. It demonstrates that vehicle drive cycle data can be collected and stored for large-scale analysis and modeling applications. The data serve as a real-world data source for model development and validation. Storage of the results of past/present/future data collection efforts improves analysis efficiency through pooling of shared data and provides the opportunity for 'big data' type analyses. Fleet DNA shows it is possible to develop a common database structure that can store/analyze/report on data sourced from multiple parties, each with unique data formats/types. Data filtration and normalization algorithms developed for the project allow for a wide range of data types and inputs, expanding the project’s potential. Fleet DNA demonstrates the power of integrating Big Data with existing and future tools and analyses: it provides an enhanced understanding and education of users, users can explore greenhouse gases and economic opportunities via AFLEET and ADOPT modeling, drive cycles can be characterized and visualized using DRIVE, high-level vehicle modeling can be performed using real-world drive cycles via FASTSim, and data reporting through Fleet DNA Phase 1 and 2 websites provides external users access to analysis results and gives the opportunity to explore on their own.

  11. New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1865-12 - How to comply with the fleet average CO2 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... efficiency credits earned according to the provisions of § 86.1866-12(c); (iii) Off-cycle technology credits... change Selective Enforcement Auditing or in-use testing failures from a failure to a non-failure. The.... (l) Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average CO...

  13. The choice of leasing companies for automobile fleet updating on the basis of hierarchies analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Dorohov, А.

    2007-01-01

    The basic criteria of leasing companies choice by the transport enterprises for automobile fleet updating such as terms of financing, size of advance, assortment time of existence at the market, have been determined. The determination of the best leasing company according to these parameters on the basis of hierarchies analysis method has been offered.

  14. 76 FR 40617 - Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking process. Small businesses may send... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0505] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 2011 Seattle Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, Washington AGENCY...

  15. Status of the French photovoltaic fleet on the 30 September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication first present some key data regarding photovoltaic energy production in France (connected and to be connected), and then presents the photovoltaic fleet (geographical distribution, installed power in metropolitan France, Corsica and ultramarine territories). It gives an overview of the evolution of connection request and queuing management in France and at the regional level

  16. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  17. Off-wing fleet maintenance study of a CFM56-3B turbofan engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An off wing fleet maintenance study of the CFM56-3B Turbofan engine that propels the Boeing 737-300 aircraft is presented. The engine performance and deteriorating behavior was modeled with a view to estimate the creep life consumption and operating severity. The predicted severity factor of each degradation was ...

  18. Fleet deployment, network design and hub location of liner shipping companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a deep-sea liner service provider. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub location problem...

  19. Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Kushal A.

    This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on

  20. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  1. Optimization of transit bus fleet's life cycle assessment impacts with alternative fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Tolga; Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer; Pazour, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Public transportation is one of the most promising transportation modes to reduce the environmental emissions of the transportation sector in the U.S. In order to mitigate the environmental impacts brought by the transit bus system, new energy buses are introduced into the vehicle market. The goal of this study is to find an optimal bus fleet combination for different driving conditions to minimize life cycle cost, greenhouse gas emissions, and conventional air pollutant emission impacts. For this purpose, a Multi-Objective Linear Programming approach is used to select the optimum bus fleet combinations. Given different weight scenarios, this method could effectively provide solutions for decision makers with various budget constraints or emission reduction requirements. The results indicate that in heavily congested driving cycles such as the Manhattan area, the battery electric bus is the dominant vehicle type, while the hybrid bus has more balanced performances in most scenarios because of its lower initial investment comparing to battery electric buses. Petroleum powered buses have seldom been selected by the model. The trade-off analysis shows that the overall greenhouse gas impact performance is sensitive to the life cycle cost after certain points, which could provide valuable information for the bus fleet combination planning. - Highlights: • Hybrid-Life Cycle Assessment analysis approach for transit bus operations. • Optimizing the economic and sustainability impacts of transit bus fleet operation. • CO 2 emissions and other air pollutants related health and environmental damage cost. • Trade-offs between CO 2 emissions and cost of transit bus fleet operation.

  2. Green Cabs vs. Uber in New York City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm Poulsen, Lasse; Dekkers, Daan; Wagenaar, Nicolaas

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcomes of big data analytics of ride records for Green cabs and Uber in the outer boroughs of New York City (NYC), USA. Uber is a new entrant to the taxi market in NYC and is rapidly eating away market share from the NYC Taxi & Limousine Commission's (NYCTLC...... from April-September 2014 in New York excluding Manhattan and NYC's two airports. Tableau was used as the visual analytics tool, and PostgreSQL in combination with PostGIS was used as the data processing engine. Our findings show that the performance of Green cabs in isolated zip codes differ...

  3. California Basin Studies (CaBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The California Continental Borderland's present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10 6 years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10 6 years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation

  4. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (<5%) of the personal car fleets in BKK, HCMC, and Yangon. Euro3 was generally the most advanced technology found in other fleets in these cities. Motorcycles (MC) was the most dominant fleet in all cities, except in Yangon, where they were not allowed. Low vehicle speeds, mainly below 25 km/h, were observed for all vehicle types, indicating traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0

  5. 77 FR 6080 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet Active Sonar Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities to be conducted within the Atlantic Fleet... research activities conducted within the AFAST Study Area under regulations issued on January 22, 2009 (74... [[Page 6082

  6. Causes and consequences of fleet diversity in fisheries: The case of the Norwegian Barents Sea cod fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Eide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fisheries operate under fluctuating environmental conditions, targeting fish stocks that appear in varying densities in different areas, often with abrupt and unexpected local changes. Physical conditions, markets and management regulations constrain vessels in different and varying ways. These factors all contribute to forming the fleet diversity we find in most fisheries. Here, a simulation model of the Northeast Arctic cod fishery is used in order to investigate how this diversity is formed and maintained, assuming rational economic behaviour under varying combined constraints. The study also focuses on how the ability of vessels to find fish influences fleet diversity, profitability, stock development and seasonal profiles of the fishery. Results indicate that an increased ability to target the most profitable fishing grounds may influence fleet diversity positively or negatively, depending on overall exploitation level. High exploitation rates also increase the temporal fluctuations in fleet diversity and profits, which are amplified as the fish-finding ability increases.

  7. Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandivadekar, Anup; Cheah, Lynette; Evans, Christopher; Groode, Tiffany; Heywood, John; Kasseris, Emmanuel; Kromer, Matthew; Weiss, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term will require rapid penetration of these technologies into the vehicle fleet, and not all alternatives can meet both objectives simultaneously. Placing a much greater emphasis on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving vehicle performance can greatly reduce the required market penetration rates. Addressing the vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers rather than promoting specific vehicle technologies and fuels

  8. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes...... detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E......-FSMFTW) to model decisions to be made with regards to fleet composition and the actual vehicle routes including the choice of recharging times and locations. The available vehicle types differ in their transport capacity, battery size and acquisition cost. Furthermore, we consider time windows at customer...

  9. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses the issues that must be addressed if a transit service were to use electric vehicles, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each electric vehicle’s set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges....... In particular, the paper addresses the optimization and analysis of infrastructure design alternatives dealing with (1) the number of battery-exchange stations, (2) their locations, (3) the recharging capacity and inventory management of batteries at each facility, and (4) routing and scheduling of the fleet...

  10. Electric bus fleet size and mix problem with optimization of charging infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogge, Matthias; van der Hurk, Evelien; Larsen, Allan

    2018-01-01

    Battery electric buses are seen as a well-suited technology for the electrification of road-based public transport. However, the transition process from conventional diesel to electric buses faces major hurdles caused by range limitations and required charging times of battery buses. This work...... addresses these constraints and provides a methodology for the cost-optimized planning of depot charging battery bus fleets and their corresponding charging infrastructure. The defined problem covers the scheduling of battery buses, the fleet composition, and the optimization of charging infrastructure...... in a joint process. Vehicle schedule adjustments are monetized and evaluated together with the investment and operational costs of the bus system. The resulting total cost of ownership enables a comparison of technical alternatives on a system level, which makes this approach especially promising...

  11. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AS A CRITERION IN THE VEHICLE FLEET MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Vujanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport represents an industry sector with intense energy consumption, the road transport sector within is the dominant subsector. The objective of the research presented in this paper is in defining the activities which applied within road freight transport companies contribute to enhancing vehicles' energy efficiency. Vehicle fleet operation management process effects on fuel consumption decrease have been looked into. Operation parameters that influence vehicle fuel consumption were analysed. In this sense, a survey has been realised in order to evaluate the vehicle load factor impact on the specific fuel consumption. Measures for enhancing vehicle's logistics efficiency have been defined. As a tool for those measures' implementation an algorithm for vehicle fleet operation management was developed which represented a basis for a dedicated software package development for vehicle dispatching process decision support. A set of measures has been recommended and their effects in fuel savings were evaluated.

  12. Waste minimization, recycling and reuse in operations support services fleet maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Government regulations and smart business practices demand that organizations dramatically reduce both the type and volume of waste generated by their operations. This article describes successful waste minimization and recycling programs created by the Fleet Maintenance, Operations Support Services Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company. These comprehensive programs have greatly reduced waste formerly produced in maintaining 3,528 government-owned vehicles and nearly 200 emergency power generators at the Hanford Site. The actions are integral to preventing future contamination of the Site as well as to cleaning up the complexity of wastes from almost 50 years of defense production. The results of the Fleet Maintenance programs are impressive, recording cost savings of $290,000 in fiscal year 1993 and $965,000 since 1988

  13. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy...... resources such as wind power. This is because electric vehicles can be used to absorb the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, on the distribution system...... and industries. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging (including power to vehicle and vehicle-to-grid) of electric vehicles for fleet operators. The study firstly presents service relationships between fleet operators and other four actors in smart grids; then, modeling...

  14. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  15. Application of FLEET Velocimetry in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Halls, Benjamin R.; Jiang, Naibo

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) velocimetry is demonstrated in a large-scale transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Test conditions include total pressures, total temperatures, and Mach numbers ranging from 15 to 58 psia, 200 to 295 K, and 0.2 to 0.75, respectively. Freestream velocity measurements exhibit accuracies within 1 percent and precisions better than 1 m/s. The measured velocities adhere closely to isentropic flow theory over the domain of temperatures and pressures that were tested. Additional velocity measurements are made within the tunnel boundary layer; virtual trajectories traced out by the FLEET signal are indicative of the characteristic turbulent behavior in this region of the flow, where the unsteadiness increases demonstrably as the wall is approached. Mean velocities taken within the boundary layer are in agreement with theoretical velocity profiles, though the fluctuating velocities exhibit a greater deviation from theoretical predictions.

  16. Environmental benefits and economic rationale of expanding the Italian natural gas private car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballardin, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    There are several concerns which bring to consider natural gas as a viable alternative to liquid fuels in transport. First, natural gas allows the curbing of global pollution in this steadily growing industry. Indeed, decoupling greenhouse gas emissions from transport growth has become a major issue in tackling climate change. Second, a more extensive use of natural gas would relieve city air quality, which is presently at levels harmful of human health. Nonetheless, this is just one side of the coin. The other side entails building a refuelling station network, and this carries financial requirements. The financing fraction holds a pivotal role in deciding whether natural gas for automotive purposes is an efficient solution. The final aim of this work is, therefore, to compare the natural gas advantages, stemming from avoided global and local emission, with the economic rationale of engaging in supplementary model network investments. A system dynamics model underlies this study's economic reasoning and is taken as reference for quantitative assertions. The model, named CH 4 CleanerAir, contains data referring to two scenarios: a Business As Usual Scenario and an Expansion Scenario. Simulation runs in Expansion Scenario serve to understand how gaseous pollution diminishes and network investments rise when the natural gas-fuelled fleet, as share of the total fleet, increases. Are new infrastructures needs compatible with existing refuelling facilities? What is the extent by which the natural gas-fuelled fleet can actually reduce global and local emission? The scenarios' gap analysis lead to the work's final considerations. The sounder reductions of gaseous pollutants in the last years of the considered time lag make the overall assessment lean towards a positive evaluation of natural gas employment in this industry. The beneficial effects of increasing the natural gas-fuel-led fleet take some time to unfold, but they eventually prevail. This study shows how natural

  17. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  18. Sodium fast reactor: an asset for a PWR UOX/MOX fleet - 5327

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiphine, M.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Girieud, R.; Eschbach, R.; Chabert, C.; Grosman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its low fissile content, Pu from spent MOX fuels is sometimes regarded as not recyclable in LWR. Based on the existing French nuclear infrastructure (La Hague reprocessing plant and MELOX MOX manufacturing plant), AREVA and CEA have evaluated the conditions of Pu multi recycling in a 100% LWR fleet. As France is currently supporting a Fast Reactor prototype project, scenario studies have also been conducted to evaluate the contribution of a 600 MWe SFR in the LWR fleet. These scenario studies consider a nuclear fleet composed of 8 PWR 900 MWe, with or without the contribution of a SFR, and aim at evaluating the following points: -) the feasibility of Pu multi-recycling in PWR; -) the impact on the spent fuels storage; -) the reduction of the stored separated Pu; -) the impact on waste management and final disposal. The studies have been conducted with the COSI6 code, developed by CEA Nuclear Energy Direction since 1985, that simulates the evolution over time of a nuclear power plants fleet and of its associated fuel cycle facilities and provides material flux and isotopic compositions at each point of the scenario. To multi-recycle Pu into LWR MOX and to ensure flexibility, different reprocessing strategies were evaluated by adjusting the reprocessing order, the choice of used fuel assemblies according to their burn-up and the UOX/MOX proportions. The improvement of the Pu fissile quality and the kinetic of Pu multi-recycling in SFR depending on the initial Pu quality were also evaluated and led to a reintroduction of Pu in PWR MOX after a single irradiation in SFR, still in dilution with Pu from UOX to maintain a sufficient fissile quality. (authors)

  19. Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast Technology Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Fleet Readiness Center - Southeast TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) Jack Benfer Senior Materials...Development Program (Cadmium & Hexavalent Chromium Reduction) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Rinse Black Oxide Rinse CRES Passivation Chrome Plating Cadmium Plating Cadmium Brush Plating Class N (TRL 9) Class N (TRL 7) Class N (TRL 6

  20. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  1. Wave theory analysis of the Hungarian vehi-cle fleet especially focusing on emission categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor SZENDRO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Toyotarity means the improvement of quality, decrease of production costs and production time, increase of safety and morale. With the help of tools of toyotarity strategic factors can be determined, production or service problems can be revealed. In this paper tools of toyotarity are obtained to analyse the driving factors of Hungarian vehicle fleet and car renewal. Product analysis was conducted on the basis of wavetheory.

  2. A comparative analysis of performance and cost metrics associated with a diesel to biodiesel fleet transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrake, Scott O.; Landis, Amy E.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Collinge, William O.; Xue Xiaobo

    2010-01-01

    With energy security, economic stabilization, and environmental sustainability being at the forefront of US policy making, the development of biodiesel production and use within the United States has been growing at an astonishing rate. According to the latest DOE energy report, biodiesel production and consumption in the US has decreased since its peak in 2008, but still remains an important factor in the US energy mix. However, despite recent studies showing that B5 has similar performance qualities to that of the currently used ultra-low-sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) fleet managers and corporations still remain hesitant regarding a switch to B5. This research examined the major areas of concern that arise with transitioning fleets from ULSD to B5 with the goal of alleviating those concerns with quantitative results from an actual fleet implementation and transition. In conjunction with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) a comparison of cost, cold weather fuel properties, engine performance, fuel economy, and maintenance and repairs was conducted using data obtained over 3 years from a pilot study. The results found that B5 performed as well or better than ULSD in all performance metrics. - Research Highlights: →Conducted multi-year study of a DOT fleet transition from ULSD to biodiesel (B5)→No significant difference in cold weather performance, engine power output, or torque→No significant difference in fuel economy→No resulting increase in maintenance and repair costs or frequency→Life-cycle costing revealed no hidden costs as a result of B5 implementation

  3. Trends in the development and updating of the fishing fleet in the Northern Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuranov Yu. F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice and need to update and form the production and technical base of fishery enterprises have an increasing impact on performance of the fisheries complex and become decisive when considering the prospects for its development on an innovative basis. The paper examines the current state and development trends of the Northern Basin fishing fleet, its production capabilities in developing available bioresources, the need and prospects for renewal. During the research the influence of the main factors determining the formation of the quantitative and structural composition of the fishing fleet has been shown. The most stable and long-term impact is the state of commercial stocks of aquatic biological resources, their variability under the influence of natural factors and anthropogenic load. The second important factor is institutional changes. Initially, since the beginning of the 1990s, this took place due to the transformation of economic relations, and later – to institutional changes in the legislatively approved principles of granting fishing enterprises the right to access water biological resources. The following data have been presented: adaptation of the fleet's production capacities for specialization of fishing activities, ways of modernization and re-equipment, construction of new vessels, acquisition of vessels being in operation in the countries with developed fisheries. These changes had reduced the fleet's production potential raising its qualitative indicators (productivity, depth of processing of raw materials at sea. At the same time, the noted positive trends have been accompanied by some increase in the aging indicators for all groups and types of vessels. The institutional and economic instruments for supporting and stimulating the construction of new fishing vessels have been justified. Nowadays, in the Northern Basin the priority areas of support should be the construction of ships for pelagic fishing and coastal

  4. Tail swing performance of the South African car-carrier fleet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available PERFORMANCE OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN CAR-CARRIER FLEET Obtained BSc and currently completing MSc at the University of the Witwatersrand. Researcher at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) through the CSIR?s Studentship programme.... Obtained BSc and MSc from the University of the Witwatersrand and PhD from the University of Cambridge. Senior Lecturer in the School of Mechanical, Industrial and Aeronautical Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand. C. DE SAXE...

  5. Real-driving emissions of circulating Spanish car fleet in 2015 using RSD Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas, M; Domínguez-Sáez, A; De la Fuente, J

    2017-01-15

    In this paper we present the results corresponding to on-road traffic emissions measurements obtained during two field campaigns developed in the Madrid region (Spain) during 2014 and 2015 in the framework of the CORETRA project. The experimental strategy was based on the use of a RSD 4600 remote sensor in interurban roads. These measurements have produced a global database of >190,000 vehicles with their associated emission data (NO/CO 2 , HC/CO 2 and CO/CO 2 ), which can be considered representative of the current Spanish circulating fleet. The results of M1 vehicles were analysed according to their distribution by Euro Standard and engine model. One of the relevant findings is that, despite the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards, no NO emission reduction is observed for diesel vehicles with time, although this behavior shows significative differences among brands and engine models. We have also investigated the presence of "high emitter" (HE) vehicles in the Spanish M1 circulating fleet and most of the HE detected corresponded to diesel vehicles with very high NO/CO 2 values. With these results at hand, we strongly propose the future incorporation of the "high emitter vehicle" definition into the European environmental legislation, as well as the establishment of specific strategies in each country/region in order to identify these anomalous vehicles. Identification and repair of HE vehicles within the European circulating fleets, although are not easy tasks, should be considered very important for the improvement of air quality in the EU. The use of non-intrusive optical technologies (i.e. RSD) is an excellent option to provide instantaneous real emission data of each individual vehicle without disturbing traffic and for on-road fleet monitoring. In summary, it is a good strategy to obtain valuable information about the long term surveillance of real vehicle emission trends, specially after the introduction of new standard. Copyright

  6. Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    1 Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization David N. Ford...2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential Cost Savings with 3D Printing Combined With 3D Imaging and CPLM for Fleet Maintenance and Revitalization 5a...Manufacturing ( 3D printing ) 2 Research Context Problem: Learning curve savings forecasted in SHIPMAIN maintenance initiative have not materialized

  7. AVTA federal fleet PEV readiness data logging and characterization study for the National Park Service: Grand Canyon National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nienhueser, Ian [Intertek Testing Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report focuses on the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  8. Zinc injection on the EDF fleet monitoring the injection on 12 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Meur, Gaelle Harmand; Anne-Marie; Stutzmann, Agnes; Taunier, Stephane; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Alain, Rocher; Claeys, Myriam; Bonne, Sebastien

    2012-09-01

    After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 and Bugey 4, EDF decided to extend the program to other units of its fleet. 14 more reactors from the French fleet of 58 were chosen in order to - Reduce the radiation sources for curative or preventive (after SGR) reasons - Mitigate stress corrosion cracking on nickel alloys and reduce the rate of generalized corrosion - Prevent the risk of CIPS, mainly after a fuel management change. Zinc injection started on 9 new units in 2011, 1 unit in 2012 and will be extended to 4 other units before the end of 2013. To monitor the injection, EDF has defined a complete program concerning chemistry, radiation protection (dose rate and deposited activities measurements), materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks), fuel (oxide measurements) and waste (radiochemical characterization of filters). Reference units were chosen for each field because of the size of the fleet. This paper will detail the different monitoring programs on the EDF plants injecting zinc. (authors)

  9. Transport fleet sizing by using make and buy decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Đurđica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost reduction is among the main quoted reasons for logistics outsourcing, while transport capacities and operations are among the most outsourced logistics areas. However, according to transaction costs theory, there is often room for transport insourcing. Furthermore, nowadays many authors stress that mixed solutions can give better results than “make” or “buy” alternatives. “Make or buy” decision-making normative models, methods, and procedures in transport planning are not much explored. Instead, research is rather focused on carrier selection techniques, whereby it is supposed that outsourcing transport capacities is the most suitable solution. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the body of literature on classical “makeor-buy” decision-making in transport fleet sizing in a non-logistics enterprise. It goes beyond the basic “make or buy” decisionmaking, and intermediate solutions (i.e., “make and buy” are explored. Practical directions are given according to theoretical principles, and a case study is used to exemplify the main deductions. The research also has practical implications. Many enterprises in transition economies have faced the question of what to do with their in-house transport fleets. The obtained results are of interest to merchants and manufacturing enterprises that already have a private transport fleet and are considering how to rationalize it.

  10. Multi-objective optimization for nuclear fleet evolution scenarios using COSI - 5187

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freynet, D.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Eschbach, R.; Krivtchik, G.; Merle-Lucotte, E.

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of strategic choices on material inventories and flux in the fuel cycle can be analysed with the COSI code. Indeed COSI enables to compare various fleet evolution options (e.g. new reactor systems deployment) and different nuclear materials management (e.g. plutonium multi-recycling). COSI is coupled with the CESAR depletion code. In this paper a methodology for the nuclear fleet evolution scenarios optimization using COSI is introduced. A large number of scenario calculations is needed to solve an optimization problem, which makes infeasible an optimization calculation using the COSI/CESAR version. Given that CESAR calculations represent about 95% of the COSI computation time, CESAR irradiation surrogate models carrying out with ANN regression method and cooling analytic models have been coupled with COSI. An example of optimization study is presented involving 2 discrete variables related to the number of deployed SFR to renew the French PWR fleet and 2 criteria: minimizing the natural uranium consumption and the number of produced HLW vitrified packages

  11. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  12. Challenges and Approaches for Developing Ultrafine Particle Emission Inventories for Motor Vehicle and Bus Fleets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane U. Keogh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles in urban areas are the main source of ultrafine particles (diameters < 0.1 µm. Ultrafine particles are generally measured in terms of particle number because they have little mass and are prolific in terms of their numbers. These sized particles are of particular interest because of their ability to enter deep into the human respiratory system and contribute to negative health effects. Currently ultrafine particles are neither regularly monitored nor regulated by ambient air quality standards. Motor vehicle and bus fleet inventories, epidemiological studies and studies of the chemical composition of ultrafine particles are urgently needed to inform scientific debate and guide development of air quality standards and regulation to control this important pollution source. This article discusses some of the many challenges associated with modelling and quantifying ultrafine particle concentrations and emission rates for developing inventories and microscale modelling of motor vehicles and buses, including the challenge of understanding and quantifying secondary particle formation. Recommendations are made concerning the application of particle emission factors in developing ultrafine particle inventories for motor vehicle fleets. The article presents a précis of the first published inventory of ultrafine particles (particle number developed for the urban South-East Queensland motor vehicle and bus fleet in Australia, and comments on the applicability of the comprehensive set of average particle emission factors used in this inventory, for developing ultrafine particle (particle number and particle mass inventories in other developed countries.

  13. Modelling energy demand for a fleet of hydrogen-electric vehicles interacting with a clean energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, F.; Fowler, M.; Wan, D.; Maniyali, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the development of an energy demand model for a hydrogen-electric vehicle fleet and the modelling of the fleet interactions with a clean energy hub. The approach taken is to model the architecture and daily operation of every individual vehicle in the fleet. A generic architecture was developed based on understanding gained from existing detailed models used in vehicle powertrain design, with daily operation divided into two periods: charging and travelling. During the charging period, the vehicle charges its Electricity Storage System (ESS) and refills its Hydrogen Storage System (HSS), and during the travelling period, the vehicle depletes the ESS and HSS based on distance travelled. Daily travel distance is generated by a stochastic model and is considered an input to the fleet model. The modelling of a clean energy hub is also presented. The clean energy hub functions as an interface between electricity supply and the energy demand (i.e. hydrogen and electricity) of the vehicle fleet. Finally, a sample case is presented to demonstrate the use of the fleet model and its implications on clean energy hub sizing. (author)

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Transportation Data for

    Science.gov (United States)

    Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 7 108 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 26 16 Electric 500 121 Ethanol (E85 CNG Installation a Boost Aug. 19, 2015 Video thumbnail for Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets Aug. 18, 2015 Video thumbnail for Blue Skies

  15. Multi-Year On-Road Emission Factor Trends of Two Heavy-Duty California Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, M.; Bishop, G.

    2017-12-01

    New heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations have resulted in the development of advanced exhaust after-treatment systems that specifically target particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). This has resulted in significant decreases in the emissions of these species. The University of Denver has collected three data sets of on-road gaseous (CO, HC, NO and NOx) and PM (particle mass, black carbon and particle number) emission measurements from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the spring of 2013, 2015 and 2017 at two different locations in California. One site is located at the Port of Los Angeles, CA (1,150 HDVs measured in 2017) and the other site is located at a weigh station in Northern California near Cottonwood, CA (780 HDVs measured in 2017). The On-Road Heavy-Duty Measurement Setup measures individual HDV's fuel specific emissions (DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b06172). Vehicles drive under a tent-like structure that encapsulates vehicle exhaust and 15 seconds of data collection is integrated to give fuel specific information. The measurements obtained from these campaigns contain real-world emissions affected by different driving modes, after-treatment systems and location. The Port of Los Angeles contributes a fleet that is fully equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as a result of the San Pedro Ports Clean Air Action Plan enforced since 2010 that allows only vehicles model year 2007 or newer on the premises. This fleet, although comprised with relatively new HDVs with lower PM emissions, has increased PM emissions as it has aged. Cottonwood's fleet contains vehicles with and without after-treatment systems, a result of a gradual turnover rate, and fleet PM has decreased at a slower rate than at the Port of Los Angeles. The decrease in PM emissions is a result of more HDVs being newer model years as well as older model years being retrofit with DPFs. The complimentary fleets, studied over multiple years, have given the University of Denver

  16. Step on the gas : Calgary-based firm increases efficiency of compressor fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2005-11-01

    Many operators are reluctant to run their compressors close to optimum efficiency due to concerns that a frozen well or other problems will push units over their limit, and gas limited areas also cause the machines to be run at partial capacity. This article suggested that the key to compressor optimization lies in the correct identification of deficiencies. Petroleum companies gather thousands of compressor data points every day, ranging from temperature and pressure to control valve position and compressor volume flow, but there is no easy way of analyzing the information. A software prototype called Production Equipment Performance Reporting (PEPR) is capable of disseminating log data and model compressor performance, as well as reporting results for an entire fleet. Raw operating data is gathered for the entire fleet and compressor utilization is ranked to show which compressors are being used efficiently and which ones are lagging. Data is processed from selected points per unit and then divided into key performance indicators (KPI), such as power utilization. To experienced operators, KPIs offer concise information and a range of changes they can make to improve the efficiency of their fleets. It was noted that Devon ran PEPR at one of its major gas fields, and was so satisfied with the results that it has now applied the system to the company's entire fleet. PEPR Inc. was formed in August 2004 to commercially market the production optimization software. In addition to optimizing compressor utilization, the software also handles other important functions, such as asset management, as well as generating downtime reports. While it only takes a day to install the software and a day to train, documenting basic data for each compressor can take several months for a large fleet. It was concluded that PEPR plans to configure its software to other production-related equipment. The system is capable of using operating parameters to calculate emissions instead of

  17. Instruments to reduce pollutant emissions of the existing inland vessel fleet. Position paper for international workshop 'Emissions from the Legacy Fleet'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.

    2011-11-15

    Inland waterway transport (IWT) has a key performance on the GHG emissions per tonne kilometre shipped. Due to its potential to limit climate change, the recent EU Transport White Paper has set high goals for the non-road modes. The Ports of Rotterdam (NL), Antwerp (BE) and others strive to increase the use of IWT in their hinterland transport. The Port of Rotterdam authority has imposed a modal split on the newly built container terminals, thus increasing the use of rail and IWT. The growth is estimated to result in a quadrupling of inland barge container traffic on the Rhine corridor in the timeframe 2010-2035. Local air quality is another environmental issue, however, that plays a key role. Due to reasons of long ship engine lifetimes and progress made in road transport emissions, IWT needs to improve its air pollution profile. To turn the potential of IWT into real growth, it is important to: improve the air pollutant profile of inland shipping; take responsibility to maintain the air quality levels along inland waterway corridors over Europe, especially in urban areas where road transport, industry and IWT contribute to levels that will need to be in accordance with the EU air quality directive 2008/51. A new set of standards for new engines will shortly be proposed by the European Commission to be introduced in 2016. However, these will probably not be as tight as the Euro-VI standards for road transport. In addition, the long lifetime of inland barge engines (30,000 to over 200,000 hours, depending on the engine type) will result in a slow uptake of the phase-IV engines in the fleet. The German and Dutch authorities have the opinion that not only the air pollutant emissions of new engines need to be curbed, but deliberate over the development of instruments that will reduce the pollutant emissions of the existing fleet (legacy fleet), in addition to the limitedly effective subsidy schemes applied in recent years. This paper demonstrates the need for measures

  18. Boron-purity-dependent Raman spectra of CaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Yang, I. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Cho, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    We report significant differences in the Raman spectra of two different kinds of CaB 6 single crystals grown from boron with a purity of 99.9 % (3N) or 99.9999 % (6N). Our Raman spectra of CaB 6 (3N) show peaks around 781 (T 2g ), 1141 (E g ), and 1283 cm -1 (A 1g ), and they are very similar to previous Raman spectra of CaB 6 . The E g mode shows a characteristic double-peak feature due to an additional weak broad peak centered around 1158 cm -1 . However, the Raman spectra of CaB 6 (6N) show sharp peaks around 771 (T 2g ), 1137 (E g ), and 1266 cm -1 (A 1g ). The peak frequencies are down shifted as much as ∼17 cm -1 . In addition, no additional peak feature is observed for the E g mode so that the mode is symmetric in the case of CaB 6 (6N). The X-ray powder diffraction patterns for both CaB 6 (3N) and CaB 6 (6N) show that the lattice parameters are essentially the same. The majority of the impurity in the 99.9 %-pure (3N) boron is C. Thus, we doped CaB 6 (6N) with C, making Ca(B 0.995 C 0.005 ) 6 , and looked for differences in the Raman spectra. The Raman spectra of Ca(B 0.995 C 0.005 ) 6 are nearly identical to those of CaB 6 (6N), indicating that the differences between the Raman spectra of CaB 6 (3N) and CaB 6 (6N) are not due to a C impurity. The Raman results show that the presence of impurities, not the amount of them, is enough to trigger local symmetry breaking in CaB 6 . The broadening of T 2g , the additional E g2 mode and the asymmetry of A 1g in CaB 6 (3N) can be understood in terms of the symmetry of the arrangements of the boron octahedra lowered by local symmetry breaking.

  19. Atmospheric levels of aldehydes and BTEX and their relationship with vehicular fleet changes in Rio de Janeiro urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; Arbilla, Graciela; Bauerfeldt, Glauco Favilla; de Paula, Murilo

    2007-05-01

    A comprehensive monitoring campaign to assess aldehydes and BTEX concentrations was performed during 12 months, in the Tijuca district (Rio de Janeiro), an area with commercial activities and a high flux of vehicles. The mean concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were 151 and 30 ppb, respectively. The high formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratio was attributed to extensive use of compressed natural gas (CNG). The number of CNG vehicles in the metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro increased from 23000 in January 2001 to 161000 in January 2005. Monitoring data show that, for the same period, methane and formaldehyde concentrations increased while NO(x) and CO levels diminished. Mean concentrations for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene, were 1.1, 4.8, 3.6, 10.4 and 3.0 micro gm(-3), respectively. Benzene and toluene concentrations were lower than the values determined in 1996, for the same location. The levels of ethylbenzene and xylenes determined in this work are similar to values obtained in 1996. This fact may be explained as a consequence of changes in the gasoline composition.

  20. MODEL RESEARCH OF THE ACIVE VIBROIZOLATION CABS MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MARGIELEWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out computer simulations of mechatronic model bridge crane, which is intended to theoretical evaluation of the possibility of eliminating the mechanical vibrations affecting the operator's cab driven machine. The model studies used fixed value control, the controlled variable is selected as the vertical displacement of the cab. Also included in the research model rheological model of the operator's body. We examined four overhead cranes with lifting capacity of 50T, which are classified in accordance with the directive of the European Union concerning the design of cranes, the four classes of cranes HC stiffness. The use of an active vibration isolation system in which distinguishes two negative feedback loops, very well eliminate mechanical vibration to the operator.

  1. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. 238.447 Section 238.447 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where the...

  3. Assessment of pathways to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger car fleets: Case study in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md. Saniul; Hyde, Bernard; Duffy, Paul; McNabola, Aonghus

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of models provides a robust estimation of tailpipe CO 2 emissions. • Taxation impact of vehicle fleet dieselisation was modelled. • A scenario development approach was proposed for policy analysis. • EV provided the largest cost saving option than that of the other fuel technologies. - Abstract: This study modelled the Passenger (PC) fleet and other categories of road transport in Ireland from 2015 to 2035 to assess the impact of current and potential greenhouse gas mitigation policies on CO 2 emissions. Scenarios included the shift of purchasing towards diesel PCs over gasoline PCs. Scrappage rates were also calculated and applied to the fleet to predict future sales of PCs. Seven future policy scenarios were examined using different penetrations of PC sales for different vehicle technologies under current and alternative bio-fuel obligations. Tank to Wheel (T2W) tailpipe and Well to Wheel (W2W) CO 2 emissions, and energy demand were modelled using COPERT 4v11.3 and a recently published W2W CO 2 emissions model. A percentage reduction of conventional diesel and petrol vehicles, in different scenarios compared to a baseline scenario in the W2W model was applied to estimate the likely changes in T2W emissions at the tailpipe up to 2035. The results revealed that the biofuel policy scenario was insufficient in achieving a significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. However, without a fixed reduction target for CO 2 from the road transport sector, the success of policy scenarios in the long run is difficult to compare. The current Electric vehicle (EV) policy in Ireland is required to be implemented to reduce CO 2 emissions by a significant level. Results also show that a similar achievement of CO 2 emission reduction could be possible by using alternative vehicle technologies with higher abatement cost. However, as EV based policies have not been successful so far, Ireland may need to search for alternative pathways.

  4. 2005 nonroad engine fleet characterization in the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.; Chan, N.; Campbell, K.; Preston, K.; Bolechowsky, K.

    2007-12-01

    Metro Vancouver conducts an emission inventory for the Lower Fraser Valley on a five year basis. This report presented an estimate of the nonroad engine fleet population and emissions in the Canadian portion of the Lower Fraser Valley (CLFV). The nonroad engine fleet includes internal combustion engines of different fuel types used in mobile equipment such as on-road vehicles, aircraft, locomotives and ocean-going marine vessels. Some examples of nonroad equipment that were estimated included agricultural tractors; airport ground equipment; forklifts; excavators; generator sets; lawn mowers; railroad maintenance equipment; pleasure boats; and off-road motorcycles. The purpose of the study was to assist Metro Vancouver and other levels of government in determining what progress has been made in improving air quality, as well as the effect of policies and regulations on the environment in terms of nonroad vehicles. The report presented the objectives of the nonroad engine fleet characterization project which were to review the current data on nonroad engine populations and associated information, and confirm or improve the data through appropriate means; prepare estimates of 2005 emissions in the CLFV based on the revised engine counts using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's nonroad 2005 model; and prepare backcasts and forecasts of the 2005 nonroad engine emission estimates for 1990 to 2030 in five-year increments. Results were presented and analysed into the following 9 equipment type categories: agricultural, airport ground support, commercial, construction, industrial, lawn and garden, railway maintenance, recreational marine and recreational off-road vehicle. Four fuel types were considered for each type of equipment, notably gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gases and compressed natural gas. The report described the methodologies and sources and presented the equipment population data. Emission results for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides

  5. The design and implementation of a garbage truck fleet management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, C. H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of cloud computing and mobile computing techniques has led to the availability of a variety of mobile applications (‘apps’ in the app store. For instance, a garbage truck app that can provide the immediate location of a garbage truck, the location of collection points, and forecasted arrival times of garbage trucks would be useful for mobile users. Since the power consumption of apps on mobile devices if of concern to mobile users, an optimised power-saving mechanism for updating messages, which is based on location information, for a proposed garbage truck fleet management system (GTFMS is proposed and implemented in this paper. The GTFMS is a three- component system that includes the on-board units on garbage trucks, a fleet management system, and a garbage truck app. In this study, an arrival time forecasting method is designed and implemented in the fleet management system, so that the garbage truck app can retrieve the forecasted arrival time via web services. A message updating event is then triggered that reports the location of garbage truck and the forecasted arrival time. In experiments conducted on case studies, the results showed that the mean accuracy of predicted arrival time by the proposed method is about 81.45 per cent. As for power consumption, the cost of traditional mobile apps is 2,880 times that of the mechanism proposed in this study. Consequently, the GTFMS can provide the precise forecasted arrival time of garbage trucks to mobile users, while consuming less power.

  6. Mapping sub-surface geostrophic currents from altimetry and a fleet of gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Chiggiato, J.; Schroeder, K.

    2013-04-01

    Integrating the observations gathered by different platforms into a unique physical picture of the environment is a fundamental aspect of networked ocean observing systems. These are constituted by a spatially distributed set of sensors and platforms that simultaneously monitor a given ocean region. Remote sensing from satellites is an integral part of present ocean observing systems. Due to their autonomy, mobility and controllability, underwater gliders are envisioned to play a significant role in the development of networked ocean observatories. Exploiting synergism between remote sensing and underwater gliders is expected to result on a better characterization of the marine environment than using these observational sources individually. This study investigates a methodology to estimate the three dimensional distribution of geostrophic currents resulting from merging satellite altimetry and in situ samples gathered by a fleet of Slocum gliders. Specifically, the approach computes the volumetric or three dimensional distribution of absolute dynamic height (ADH) that minimizes the total energy of the system while being close to in situ observations and matching the absolute dynamic topography (ADT) observed from satellite at the sea surface. A three dimensional finite element technique is employed to solve the minimization problem. The methodology is validated making use of the dataset collected during the field experiment called Rapid Environmental Picture-2010 (REP-10) carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Center-NURC during August 2010. A marine region off-shore La Spezia (northwest coast of Italy) was sampled by a fleet of three coastal Slocum gliders. Results indicate that the geostrophic current field estimated from gliders and altimetry significantly improves the estimates obtained using only the data gathered by the glider fleet.

  7. On the road to fossil-free public transport: The case of Swedish bus fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2017-01-01

    Public transport is important for Sweden to acquire a fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030. The aim of this paper is to assess the status of Swedish public bus fleets towards decarbonization, and explore factors affecting regional performance variations and fuel choices. Environmental performance indicators such as renewable fuel shares, CO 2 emissions, and energy efficiency are analyzed nationally and regionally. Fuel preferences and best practices are investigated through a survey and interviews with experts working with strategic planning at Public Transport Authorities. Almost 60% of the bus transport volume ran on renewables in 2014 compared to 8% in 2007, but regional variations are significant, partly due to factors such as driving conditions, bus and fuel types, typical trip lengths, and climatic conditions. However, there is no strong correlation between population densities or bus transport volume and the share of renewables achieved. This places political will, strategic planning and policies to promote public transport as key factors affecting renewable fuel deployment. Environmental factors are a priority when choosing fuels, while barriers to renewable fuels are mainly economic and political. Meanwhile, despite the overall progress, achievements in energy efficiency improvement are falling short in comparison to emissions reduction and adoption of renewable fuels, thus requiring further attention. - Highlights: • The penetration of renewables in Swedish public bus fleets reached ca. 60% in 2014. • Public bus emissions per vehicle-km have decreased by 43% between 2007 and 2014. • Efforts are needed to improve energy efficiency in bus transport. • Electricity is likely to receive increased attention according to expert survey.

  8. Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The Impacts on Regional and Urban Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-17

    There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM 2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM 2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m -3 during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality impacts with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM 2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO 2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD region could generally play a positive role in improving regional and urban air quality.

  9. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-09-01

    Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada's healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers.

  10. Japanese and Taiwanese pelagic longline fleet dynamics and the impacts of climate change in the southern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, P. E.; Wilcox, C.; Tuck, G. N.; Hobday, A. J.; Strutton, P. G.

    2017-06-01

    Climate change is projected to continue shifting the distribution of marine species, leading to changes in local assemblages and different interactions with human activities. With regard to fisheries, understanding the relationship between fishing fleets, target species catch per unit effort (CPUE), and the environment enhances our ability to anticipate fisher response and is an essential step towards proactive management. Here, we explore the potential impact of climate change in the southern Indian Ocean by modelling Japanese and Taiwanese pelagic longline fleet dynamics. We quantify the mean and variability of target species CPUE and the relative value and cost of fishing in different areas. Using linear mixed models, we identify fleet-specific effort allocation strategies most related to observed effort and predict the future distribution of effort and tuna catch under climate change for 2063-2068. The Japanese fleet's strategy targets high-value species and minimizes the variability in CPUE of the primary target species. Conversely, the Taiwanese strategy indicated flexible targeting of a broad range of species, fishing in areas of high and low variability in catch, and minimizing costs. The projected future mean and variability in CPUE across species suggest a slight increase in CPUE in currently high CPUE areas for most species. The corresponding effort projections suggest a slight increase in Japanese effort in the western and eastern study area, and Taiwanese effort increasing east of Madagascar. This approach provides a useful method for managers to explore the impacts of different fishing and fleet management strategies for the future.

  11. Information Technology Management System: an Analysis on Computational Model Failures for Fleet Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayr Figueiredo de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an information technology model to evaluate fleet management failure. Qualitative research done by a case study within an Interstate Transport company in a São Paulo State proposed to establish a relationship between computer tools and valid trustworthy information needs, and within an acceptable timeframe, for decision making, reliability, availability and system management. Additionally, the study aimed to provide relevant and precise information, in order to minimize and mitigate failure actions that may occur, compromising all operational organization base functioning.

  12. Optimization and control method for smart charging of EVs facilitated by Fleet operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Si, Chengyong

    2013-01-01

    the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, the extra loads created by increasing EVs may have adverse impacts on grid. These factors will bring new......-tion and the facilitator EV fleet operator are introduced. Secondly, control architec-tures and their integrations in term of electricity market and distribution grid are discussed. Then, data analysis of EVs including a battery model and driving pattern is presented. Further discussion is given on mathematical modelling...

  13. Transition of R&D into Operations at Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) plays a significant role in the National capability for operational weather and ocean prediction through its operation of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean. FNMOC uniquely satisfies the military's requirement for a global operational weather prediction capability based on software certified to DoD Information Assurance standards and operated in a secure classified computer environment protected from outside intrusion by DoD certified firewalls. FNMOC operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense, other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high- resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Other models support and supplement the main models with predictions of ocean thermal structure, ocean currents, sea-ice characteristics, and other data. Fleet Numerical operates at the leading edge of science and technology, and benefits greatly from collocation with its supporting

  14. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  15. Mathematical optimization techniques for managing selective catalytic reduction for a fleet of coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis Pena, Antonio Alejandro

    Major commercial electricity generation is done by burning fossil fuels out of which coal-fired power plants produce a substantial quantity of electricity worldwide. The United States has large reserves of coal, and it is cheaply available, making it a good choice for the generation of electricity on a large scale. However, one major problem associated with using coal for combustion is that it produces a group of pollutants known as nitrogen oxides (NO x). NOx are strong oxidizers and contribute to ozone formation and respiratory illness. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates the quantity of NOx emitted to the atmosphere in the United States. One technique coal-fired power plants use to reduce NOx emissions is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). SCR uses layers of catalyst that need to be added or changed to maintain the required performance. Power plants do add or change catalyst layers during temporary shutdowns, but it is expensive. However, many companies do not have only one power plant, but instead they can have a fleet of coal-fired power plants. A fleet of power plants can use EPA cap and trade programs to have an outlet NOx emission below the allowances for the fleet. For that reason, the main aim of this research is to develop an SCR management mathematical optimization methods that, with a given set of scheduled outages for a fleet of power plants, minimizes the total cost of the entire fleet of power plants and also maintain outlet NO x below the desired target for the entire fleet. We use a multi commodity network flow problem (MCFP) that creates edges that represent all the SCR catalyst layers for each plant. This MCFP is relaxed because it does not consider average daily NOx constraint, and it is solved by a binary integer program. After that, we add the average daily NOx constraint to the model with a schedule elimination constraint (MCFPwSEC). The MCFPwSEC eliminates, one by one, the solutions that do not satisfy the average daily

  16. Flight Dynamics Operations Management of the Large and Heterogeneous Eutelsat Fleet of Commercial Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, E.

    The EUTELSAT FDU (Flight Dynamics Unit) manages the resources to perform the typical activities of the large satellite operators and faces the usual difficulties raising from a vast and heterogeneous fleet. At present 20 satellites from 9 different platforms/sub-platforms are controlled from our Satellite Control Centre. The FDU was created in 2002 with the aim to respond to the operational needs of a growing fleet in terms of number of satellites and activities. It is at present composed of 6 engineering staff with the objective to provide operations service covering the whole lifecycle of the satellites from the procurement phase till the decommissioning. The most demanding activity is the daily operations, which must ensure maximum safety and continuity of service with the highest efficiency. Solutions have been applied from different areas: management, structure, operations organisation, processes, facilities, quality standards, etc. In addition to this, EUTELSAT is a growing communications operator and the FDU needs to contribute to the global objectives of the company. This paper covers our approach.

  17. Mobile source CO2 mitigation through smart growth development and vehicle fleet hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian; Mednick, Adam C; Holloway, Tracey; Spak, Scott N

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effectiveness of smart growth development patterns and vehicle fleet hybridization in reducing mobile source emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) across 11 major metropolitan regions of the Midwestern U.S. over a 50-year period. Through the integration of a vehicle travel activity modeling framework developed by researchers atthe Oak Ridge National Laboratory with small area population projections, we model mobile source emissions of CO2 associated with alternative land development and technology change scenarios between 2000 and 2050. Our findings suggest that under an aggressive smart growth scenario, growth in emissions expected to occur under a business as usual scenario is reduced by 34%, while the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicles throughout the light vehicle fleet is found to offset the expected growth in emissions by 97%. Our results further suggest that high levels of urban densification could achieve reductions in 2050 CO2 emissions equivalent to those attainable through the full dissemination of hybrid-electric vehicle technologies.

  18. Transition to a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus fleet for Canadian urban transit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducharme, P.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Canadian Transportation Fuel Cell Alliance (CTFCA), created by the Canadian Government as part of its 2000 Climate Change Action Plan, has commissioned MARCON-DDM's Hydrogen Intervention Team (HIT) to provide a roadmap for urban transit systems that wish to move to hydrogen fuel cell-powered bus fleets. HIT is currently in the process of gathering information from hydrogen technology providers, bus manufacturers, fuelling system providers and urban transit systems in Canada, the US and Europe. In September, HIT will be in a position to provide a preview of its report to the CTFCA, due for October 2004. The planned table of contents includes: TOMORROW'S FUEL CELL (FC) URBAN TRANSIT BUS - Powertrain, on-board fuel technologies - FC engine system manufacturers - Bus technical specifications, performances, operating characteristics - FC bus manufacturers TOMORROW'S FC TRANSIT PROPERTY - Added maintenance, facilities and fuelling infrastructure requirements - Supply chain implications - Environmental and safety issues - Alternative operational concepts PATHWAYS TO THE FUTURE - Choosing the future operational concept - 'Gap' assessment - how long from here to there? - Facilities and fleet adjustments, including fuelling infrastructure - Risk mitigation, code compliance measures TRANSITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS - Cost implications - Transition schedule (author)

  19. A Column Generation for the Heterogeneous Fixed Fleet Open Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Yousefikhoshbakht

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the heterogeneous fixed fleet open vehicle routing problem (HFFOVRP, in which the vehicles are not required to return to the depot after completing a service. In this new problem, the demands of customers are fulfilled by a heterogeneous fixed fleet of vehicles having various capacities, fixed costs and variable costs. This problem is an important variant of the open vehicle routing problem (OVRP and can cover more practical situations in transportation and logistics. Since this problem belongs to NP-hard Problems, An approach based on column generation (CG is applied to solve the HFFOVRP. A tight integer programming model is presented and the linear programming relaxation of which is solved by the CG technique. Since there have been no existing benchmarks, this study generated 19 test problems and the results of the proposed CG algorithm is compared to the results of exact algorithm. Computational experience confirms that the proposed algorithm can provide better solutions within a comparatively shorter period of time.

  20. Transport control of forest fuels by fleet manager, mobile terminals and GPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikanen, Lauri; Asikainen, Antti; Lehikoinen, Mikko

    2005-01-01

    Chip transportation is undertaken by private transportation enterprises that are contracted by a larger wood fuel trader. Compared with industrial roundwood supply the volumes and value of wood fuel supply are markedly lower. As a result, the possibilities to invest in information systems for transport management are limited. New portable, wireless communication techniques and internet-based systems for fleet management enable more cost-efficient control systems with low investment costs in hard and software and also low operating costs. Mobile handsets with GPS, digital road map display and global positioning systems (GPS) or general purpose radio service data transfer protocol can be used as mobile terminals in chippers and trucks. In addition, transport management personnel can use them to locate in-forest wood fuel storage piles into the map database as well as point suitable routing to the storage piles. In a pilot study, conducted in Central Finland, an internet based management tool, Arbonaut Fleet ManagerTM, was tailored for forest fuel supply chain management and trailed for three months. It was found that use of mobile handsets with GPS and map display assisted especially in exact location of in-forest wood fuel storage piles by managers. They assisted also trucks and chippers in navigation to storages and landings, but the screen was too small for reading during driving. The management system was found helpful in stock accounting and GPS-based vehicle tracking gave transportation distances directly for invoicing

  1. GeoTrac -- Producing fleet communications, asset control solutions and logistic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2005-04-01

    GEOTrac, a Calgary-based company, that offers innovative solutions utilizing GPS, satellite and geomatic data technology in the areas of asset and fleet management, logistic tools and integrated solutions, is reviewed. The two-year-old company with a development staff of 12, has contracts with major energy companies in the Middle East, North America, Africa, China and Mexico. By integrating 30 low-earth orbit satellites, operated by Orbcomm, with GPS, leading -edge mapping and geomatic data technologies, GEOTrac provides world class communications and control solutions for assets in both urban and rural locations. The system is capable of providing up-to-the minute location data about every remote asset or vehicle in a fleet, including status reports, dispatch instructions and driving directions. Logistic tools and integrated solutions available from GEOTrac enable the simple management and visibility of equipment, vessels, containers and cargo within and into remote countries, as well as making possible remote diagnostic and storage tank level readings. In another development, advanced digital map solutions provide a suite of maps and geographic technologies for on-road and off-road driving directions, for identifying the location of services and destinations, and for creating strategic advantages by keeping up-to-date with specific company or other oilfield locations and activities.

  2. Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ''Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility'' issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan

  3. Persistent Identifiers for Field Expeditions: A Next Step for the US Oceanographic Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Oceanographic research cruises are complex affairs, typically requiring an extensive effort to secure the funding, plan the experiment, and mobilize the field party. Yet cruises are not typically published online as first-class digital objects with persistent, citable identifiers linked to the scientific literature. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; info@rvdata.us) program maintains a master catalog of oceanographic cruises for the United States research fleet, currently documenting over 6,000 expeditions on 37 active and retired vessels. In 2015, R2R started routinely publishing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each completed cruise. Cruise DOIs, in turn, are linked to related persistent identifiers where available including the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) for members of the science party, the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) for physical specimens collected during the cruise, the Open Funder Registry (FundRef) codes that supported the experiment, and additional DOIs for datasets, journal articles, and other products resulting from the cruise. Publishing a persistent identifier for each field expedition will facilitate interoperability between the many different repositories that hold research products from cruises; will provide credit to the investigators who secured the funding and carried out the experiment; and will facilitate the gathering of fleet-wide altmetrics that demonstrate the broad impact of oceanographic research.

  4. Actual car fleet emissions estimated from urban air quality measurements and street pollution models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmgren, F.; Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O.; Ziv, A.

    1999-01-01

    A method to determine emissions from the actual car fleet under realistic driving conditions has been developed. The method is based on air quality measurements, traffic counts and inverse application of street air quality models. Many pollutants are of importance for assessing the adverse impact of the air pollution, e.g. NO 2 , CO, lead, VOCs and particulate matter. Aromatic VOCs are of special great concern due to their adverse health effects. Measurements of benzene, toluene and xylenes were carried out in central Copenhagen since 1994. Significant correlation was observed between VOCs and CO concentrations, indicating that the petrol engine vehicles are the major sources of VOC air pollution in central Copenhagen. Hourly mean concentrations of benzene were observed to reach values of up to 20 ppb, what is critically high according to the WHOs recommendations. Based on inverse model calculation of dispersion of pollutants in street canyons, an average emission factor of benzene for the fleet of petrol fuelled vehicles was estimated to be 0.38 g/km in 1994 and 0.11 in 1997. This decrease was caused by the reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol since summer 1995 and increasing percentage of cars equipped with three-way catalysts. The emission factors for benzene for diesel-fuelled vehicles were low

  5. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  6. Influence of fleet renewal and trawl development on landings per unit effort of the Danish northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Munch-Petersen, Sten

    2011-01-01

    Recent stock assessments of the Pandalus stock in the Skagerrak (ICES Division IIIa) and the Norwegian Deep (Division IVa east) have relied largely on a time-series of landings per unit effort (lpue) calculated from Danish logbook data. Because of fleet renewal and trawl-size changes, the relatio......Recent stock assessments of the Pandalus stock in the Skagerrak (ICES Division IIIa) and the Norwegian Deep (Division IVa east) have relied largely on a time-series of landings per unit effort (lpue) calculated from Danish logbook data. Because of fleet renewal and trawl-size changes...

  7. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  8. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Veterans Affairs – VA Manhattan Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Manhattan Campus (VA- Manhattan) fleet to identify the daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively called PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  9. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for Department of Health and Human Services – ASPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report focuses on the Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  10. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2004 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect on January 1, 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent national emission standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and also required that companies submit reports containing information concerning the company's fleets. This report presented a summary of the regulatory requirements relating to nitric oxide (NO x ) fleet average emissions for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles under the new regulations. The effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO x emission program at achieving environmental performance objectives was also evaluated. A summary of the fleet average NO x emission performance of individual companies was presented, as well as the overall Canadian fleet average of the 2004 model year based on data submitted by companies in their end of model year reports. A total of 21 companies submitted reports covering 2004 model year vehicles in 10 test groups, comprising 1,350,719 vehicles of the 2004 model year manufactured or imported for the purpose of sale in Canada. The average NO x value for the entire Canadian LDV/LDT fleet was 0.2016463 grams per mile. The average NO x values for the entire Canadian HLDT/MDPV fleet was 0.321976 grams per mile. It was concluded that the NO x values for both fleets were consistent with the environmental performance objectives of the regulations for the 2004 model year. 9 tabs

  11. 41 CFR 102-34.335 - How do I submit information to the General Services Administration (GSA) for the Federal Fleet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Federal Fleet Report... Orders. In addition, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requires agency Fleet Managers and budget... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit...

  12. The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kraus, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86.......The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86....

  13. Analyses of changes in spatial distribution of the beam trawl fleet and their effects on the plaice and sole stock, 1990 - 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirijns, F.J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Grift, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Management measures directed at limiting fishing effort may have had an influence on the behaviour of the beam trawl fleet that negatively affected the North Sea plaice and sole stocks. This study analyses trends in fleet behaviour and fishing pressure in relation to management measures proposed by

  14. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  15. The Capability Portfolio Analysis Tool (CPAT): A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Formulation for Fleet Modernization Analysis (Version 2.0.2).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, Lucas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muldoon, Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Stephen Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Matthew John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zwerneman, April Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backlund, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melander, Darryl J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawton, Craig R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rice, Roy Eugene [Teledyne Brown Engineering, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In order to effectively plan the management and modernization of their large and diverse fleets of vehicles, Program Executive Office Ground Combat Systems (PEO GCS) and Program Executive Office Combat Support and Combat Service Support (PEO CS&CSS) commis- sioned the development of a large-scale portfolio planning optimization tool. This software, the Capability Portfolio Analysis Tool (CPAT), creates a detailed schedule that optimally prioritizes the modernization or replacement of vehicles within the fleet - respecting numerous business rules associated with fleet structure, budgets, industrial base, research and testing, etc., while maximizing overall fleet performance through time. This paper contains a thor- ough documentation of the terminology, parameters, variables, and constraints that comprise the fleet management mixed integer linear programming (MILP) mathematical formulation. This paper, which is an update to the original CPAT formulation document published in 2015 (SAND2015-3487), covers the formulation of important new CPAT features.

  16. Assessment of balance indicators for key fleet segments and review of national reports on Member States efforts to achieve balance between fleet capacity and fishing opportunities (STECF-13-28)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abella, Alvaro J.; Accadia, Paolo; Berkenhagen, Jörg

    The Expert Working Group meeting of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries EWG-13-16 on Review of national reports on Member States efforts to achieve balance between fleet capacity and fishing opportunities was from September 29 – October 4, 2013 in Edinburgh. The report...

  17. Optimizing Orbit-Instrument Configuration for Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Satellite Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Adams, James; Baptista, Pedro; Haddad, Ziad; Iguchi, Toshio; Im, Eastwood; Kummerow, Christian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Following the scientific success of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spearheaded by a group of NASA and NASDA scientists, their external scientific collaborators, and additional investigators within the European Union's TRMM Research Program (EUROTRMM), there has been substantial progress towards the development of a new internationally organized, global scale, and satellite-based precipitation measuring mission. The highlights of this newly developing mission are a greatly expanded scope of measuring capability and a more diversified set of science objectives. The mission is called the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM). Notionally, GPM will be a constellation-type mission involving a fleet of nine satellites. In this fleet, one member is referred to as the "core" spacecraft flown in an approximately 70 degree inclined non-sun-synchronous orbit, somewhat similar to TRMM in that it carries both a multi-channel polarized passive microwave radiometer (PMW) and a radar system, but in this case it will be a dual frequency Ku-Ka band radar system enabling explicit measurements of microphysical DSD properties. The remainder of fleet members are eight orbit-synchronized, sun-synchronous "constellation" spacecraft each carrying some type of multi-channel PMW radiometer, enabling no worse than 3-hour diurnal sampling over the entire globe. In this configuration the "core" spacecraft serves as a high quality reference platform for training and calibrating the PMW rain retrieval algorithms used with the "constellation" radiometers. Within NASA, GPM has advanced to the pre-formulation phase which has enabled the initiation of a set of science and technology studies which will help lead to the final mission design some time in the 2003 period. This presentation first provides an overview of the notional GPM program and mission design, including its organizational and programmatic concepts, scientific agenda, expected instrument package, and basic flight

  18. Work related mortality among merchant seafarers employed in UK Royal Fleet Auxillary shipping from 1976 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen E; Marlow, Peter B

    2006-01-01

    Over 2300 merchant seafarers are currently employed on board UK Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ships. However, little is known about work related mortality among these seafarers, and whether it is lower than among seafarers in merchant fleets. To establish the causes and circumstances of all work related deaths among seafarers who were employed in RFA ships from 1976 to 2005, to compare mortality rates with those in other merchant fleets, and to identify implications for maritime health. A population based study of work related mortality over 30 years. A total of 60 deaths among seafarers in RFA ships were caused by disease (30), accidents (19), suicide (6), homicide (one), and inconclusive causes (4). Six of the 19 fatal accidents were directly related to work duties (occupational accidents), 12 occurred during off-duty time and one resulted from a shipping disaster. The fatal accident rate was about one half, and the fatal work related accident rate was about one quarter, of corresponding rates in UK merchant shipping from 1976-2002; and they were much lower than those in merchant fleets internationally. The fatal accident rate in RFA shipping also fell by about 80% over the 30 year study period. The lower fatal accident rates in RFA shipping, particularly for work related accidents, presumably reflect a lower incidence of hazardous working practices, arising from better training and career pathways for seafarers in RFA shipping, as well as better maintained ships with higher manning levels than in merchant shipping.

  19. Effort allocation of the Dutch beam trawl fleet in response to a temporarily closed area in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Piet, G.J.; Poos, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The spawning stock of North Sea cod is at a historic low level and immediate management measures are needed to improve this situation. As a first step, the European Commission in 2001 closed a large area in the North Sea between February 15 and April 30 to all cod related fishing fleets in order to

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.70 - What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do we do with completed calculations of our fleet vehicle acquisitions? 102-34.70 Section 102-34.70 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  1. Fuel operation of EDF nuclear fleet presentation of the centralized organization for operational engineering at the nuclear generation division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The main feature of EDF Nuclear Fleet is the standardization, with 'series' of homogeneous plants (same equipment, fuel and operation technical documents). For fuel operation, this standardization is related to the concept of 'fuel management scheme' (typical fuel reloads with fixed number and enrichment of fresh assemblies) for a whole series of plants. The context of the Nuclear Fleet lead to the choice of a centralized organization for fuel engineering at the Nuclear Generation Division (DPN), located at UNIPE (National Department for Fleet Operation Engineering) in Lyon. The main features of this organization are the following: - Centralization of the engineering activities for fuel operation support in the Fuel Branch of UNIPE, - Strong real-time link with the nuclear sites, - Relations with various EDF Departments in charge of design, nuclear fuel supply and electricity production optimization. The purposes of the organization are: - Standardization of operational engineering services and products, - Autonomy with independent methods and computing tools, - Reactivity with a technical assistance for sites (24 hours 'hot line'), - Identification of different levels (on site and off site) to solve core operation problems, - Collection, analysis and valorization of operation feedback, - Contribution to fuel competence global management inside EDF. This paper briefly describes the organization. The main figures of annual engineering production are provided. A selection of examples illustrates the contribution to the Nuclear Fleet performance. (authors)

  2. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2) The...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX standards. 86.1862-04 Section 86.1862-04...-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1862-04 Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to..., maintain, and retain the following information in adequately organized and indexed records for each model...

  4. Developing cross entropy genetic algorithm for solving Two-Dimensional Loading Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem (2L-HFVRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramestha, D. L.; Santosa, B.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional Loading Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem (2L-HFVRP) is a combination of Heterogeneous Fleet VRP and a packing problem well-known as Two-Dimensional Bin Packing Problem (BPP). 2L-HFVRP is a Heterogeneous Fleet VRP in which these costumer demands are formed by a set of two-dimensional rectangular weighted item. These demands must be served by a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles with a fix and variable cost from the depot. The objective function 2L-HFVRP is to minimize the total transportation cost. All formed routes must be consistent with the capacity and loading process of the vehicle. Sequential and unrestricted scenarios are considered in this paper. We propose a metaheuristic which is a combination of the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and the Cross Entropy (CE) named Cross Entropy Genetic Algorithm (CEGA) to solve the 2L-HFVRP. The mutation concept on GA is used to speed up the algorithm CE to find the optimal solution. The mutation mechanism was based on local improvement (2-opt, 1-1 Exchange, and 1-0 Exchange). The probability transition matrix mechanism on CE is used to avoid getting stuck in the local optimum. The effectiveness of CEGA was tested on benchmark instance based 2L-HFVRP. The result of experiments shows a competitive result compared with the other algorithm.

  5. A well-scalable metaheuristic for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bräysy, Olli; Porkka, Pasi P.; Dullaert, Wout; Repoussis, Panagiotis P.; Tarantilis, Christos D.

    This paper presents an efficient and well-scalable metaheuristic for fleet size and mix vehicle routing with time windows. The suggested solution method combines the strengths of well-known threshold accepting and guided local search metaheuristics to guide a set of four local search heuristics. The

  6. 76 FR 1665 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2010-0111] Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Correction Notice. SUMMARY: On December 29, 2010, at 75 FR...

  7. The innovative aspects of the fishing fleet development in the Russian exclave region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivchenko Vladislav

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our country has set a course for the economy modernisation on the basis of innovative development. In the post-war period until 1991, the exclave of Russia — the Kaliningrad region — showed high rates of socioeconomic development due to the establishment of a large-scale sea fishing industry. Such success rested on research and innovative activity. This article analyses the successful innovative development of the fishing fleet in the historical perspective: new vessels, the development of new equipment, introduction of innovative forms of fishing organisation. The authors offer data on the efficiency of such innovative initiatives. This historical experience is of great importance given the revival of industrial fishing in the Kaliningrad region.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRU WASTE TRANSPORTATION FLEET--A SUCCESS STORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, Murthy; Morrison, Cindy; Brown, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Since March 1999, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), as a repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. More than 1,450 shipments of TRU waste for WIPP disposal have been completed, and the WIPP is currently receiving 12 to 16 shipments per week from five DOE sites around the nation. One of the largest fleets of Type B packagings supports the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP. This paper discusses the development of this fleet since the original Certificate of Compliance (C of C) for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) was issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989. Evolving site programs, closure schedules of major sites, and the TRU waste inventory at the various DOE sites have directed the sizing and packaging mix of this fleet. This paper discusses the key issues that guided this fleet development, including the following: While the average weight of a 55-gallon drum packaging debris could be less than 300 pounds (lbs.), drums containing sludge waste or compacted waste could approach the maximum allowable weight of 1,000 lbs. A TRUPACT-II shipment may consist of three TRUPACT-II packages, each of which is limited to a total weight of 19,250 lbs. Payload assembly weights dictated by ''as-built'' TRUPACT-II weights limit each drum to an average weight of 312 lbs when three TRUPACT-IIs are shipped. To optimize the shipment of heavier drums, the HalfPACT packaging was designed as a shorter and lighter version of the TRUPACT-II to accommodate a heavier load. Additional packaging concepts are currently under development, including the ''TRUPACT-III'' packaging being designed to address ''oversized'' boxes that are currently not shippable in the TRUPACT-II or HalfPACT due to size constraints. Shipment optimization is applicable not only to the addition of new

  9. MSAT wide-area fleet management: End-user requirements and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Allister

    1995-01-01

    MSAT (Mobile SATellite) Services will become a reality in North America in 1995. MSAT will provide wide-area voice, data and fax services to land, marine and aeronautical mobile users anywhere in North America including 200 nautical miles off the coasts and into the Arctic waters. MSAT will also convey GPS position information from mobiles to dispatch centers. One broad application of MSAT is Wide Area Fleet Management (WAFM). This paper defines WAFM, outlines end-user requirements and identifies potential applications of MSAT WAFM. The paper draws from information obtained in several preMSAT WAFM field trials in land, marine and aeronautical mobile environments. The paper concludes with an outline of the potential benefits of MSAT WAFM.

  10. SDIN a new information system for the EDF's fleet of French nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corre, Y.; Sasseigne, P.; Herodin, J.M.; Leclerq, J.

    2013-01-01

    The SDIN is the new information system that allows the management of operating and maintenance activities of EDF's fleet of nuclear power plants. This new system relies on 6 main softwares that allow: 1) the management of operations and maintenance, 2) the management of documentation, 3) the management of activities during unit outages, 4) the management of diagrams, schemes and designs, 5) the reporting of activities, and 6) a unified access to the SDIN. SDIN entered into operation in 2012 (6 years after its launching) in a testing phase in the Blayais power plant and in 2 engineering departments. SDIN is expected to improve the plant performance and its standard of safety as well as to prepare the way in terms of adequate technical conditions for operating life extension. (A.C.)

  11. Fleet servicing facilities for testing and maintaining rail and truck radioactive waste transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.D.; Hudson, B.J.; Preston, M.K.; Keith, D.A.; McCreery, P.N.; Knox, W.; Easterling, E.M.; Lamprey, A.S.; Wiedemann, G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines feasibility design concepts and feasibility studies of Fleet Servicing Facilities (FSF). Such facilities are intended to be used for routine servicing, preventive maintenance, and for performing requalification license compliance tests and inspections, minor repairs, and decontamination of both the transportation casks and their associated rail cars or tractor-trailers. None of the waste handling plants in the United States presently receiving radioactive wastes have an onsite FSF, nor is there an existing third party facility providing all of these services. This situation has caused the General Accounting Office to express concern regarding the quality of waste transport system maintenance once the transport system is placed into service. Thus a need is indicated for FSFs or their equivalent at various radioactive materials receiving sites. This paper also compares the respective capital costs and operating characteristics of the following three concepts of a spent fuel cask transportation FSF; integrated FSF, colocated FSF, and independent FSF

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA Stennis Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which NASA Stennis Space Center (Stennis) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  13. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchioli Caldazza, A.; Celi, G.; De Franco, A.; Parrella, A.; Minordi, L.M.; Marano, P.

    1999-01-01

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters [it

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for United States Coast Guard Headquarters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Federal agencies are mandated to purchase alternative fuel vehicles, increase consumption of alternative fuels, and reduce petroleum consumption. Available plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) provide an attractive option in the selection of alternative fuel vehicles. PEVs, which consist of both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have significant advantages over internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in terms of energy efficiency, reduced petroleum consumption, and reduced production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they provide performance benefits with quieter, smoother operation. This study intended to evaluate the extent to which the United States Coast Guard Headquarters (USCG HQ) could convert part or all of their fleet of vehicles from petroleum-fueled vehicles to PEVs.

  15. Medium-Duty Plug-in Electric Delivery Truck Fleet Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Ragatz, Adam; Simpson, Mike; Kelly, Kenneth

    2016-06-29

    In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium-duty electric vehicle (EV) operating behavior based on in-use data collected from Smith Newton electric delivery vehicles and compare their performance and operation to conventional diesel trucks operating in the same fleet. The vehicles' drive cycles and operation are analyzed and compared to demonstrate the importance of matching specific EV technologies to the appropriate operational duty cycle. The results of this analysis show that the Smith Newton EVs demonstrated a 68% reduction in energy consumption over the data reporting period compared to the conventional diesel vehicles, as well as a 46.4% reduction in carbon dioxide equivalent emissions based on the local energy generation source.

  16. On the multiple depots vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous fleet capacity and velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, F.; Hartono, A. P.; Bakhtiar, T.

    2018-03-01

    This current manuscript concerns with the optimization problem arising in a route determination of products distribution. The problem is formulated in the form of multiple depots and time windowed vehicle routing problem with heterogeneous capacity and velocity of fleet. Model includes a number of constraints such as route continuity, multiple depots availability and serving time in addition to generic constraints. In dealing with the unique feature of heterogeneous velocity, we generate a number of velocity profiles along the road segments, which then converted into traveling-time tables. An illustrative example of rice distribution among villages by bureau of logistics is provided. Exact approach is utilized to determine the optimal solution in term of vehicle routes and starting time of service.

  17. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These

  18. A trial of retrofitted advisory collision avoidance technology in government fleet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James P; Mackenzie, Jamie R R; Dutschke, Jeffrey K; Baldock, Matthew R J; Raftery, Simon J; Wall, John

    2018-06-01

    In-vehicle collision avoidance technology (CAT) has the potential to prevent crash involvement. In 2015, Transport for New South Wales undertook a trial of a Mobileye 560 CAT system that was installed in 34 government fleet vehicles for a period of seven months. The system provided headway monitoring, lane departure, forward collision and pedestrian collision warnings, using audio and visual alerts. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether the technology could change the driving behaviour of fleet vehicle drivers and improve their safety. The evaluation consisted of three components: (1) analysis of objective data to examine effects of the technology on driving behaviour, (2) analysis of video footage taken from a sample of the vehicles to examine driving circumstances that trigger headway monitoring and forward collision warnings, and (3) a survey completed by 122 of the 199 individuals who drove the trial vehicles to examine experiences with, and attitudes to, the technology. Analysis of the objective data found that the system resulted in changes in behaviour with increased headway and improved lane keeping, but that these improvements dissipated once the warning alerts were switched off. Therefore, the system is capable of altering behaviour but only when it is actively providing alerts. In-vehicle video footage revealed that over a quarter of forward collision warnings were false alarms, in which a warning event was triggered despite there being no vehicle travelling ahead. The surveyed drivers recognised that the system could improve safety but most did not wish to use it themselves as they found it to be distracting and felt that it would not prevent them from having a crash. The results demonstrate that collision avoidance technology can improve driving behaviour but drivers may need to be educated about the potential benefits for their driving in order to accept the technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A systems engineering approach to implementation of safety management systems in the Norwegian fishing fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuinness, Edgar; Utne, Ingrid B.

    2014-01-01

    The fishing industry is plagued by a long history of fatality and injury occurrence. Commercial fishing is hence recognized as the most dangerous and difficult of professional callings, in all jurisdictions. Fishing vessels have their own unique set of hazards, a myriad collection of complex occupational accident potentials, barely controlled, co-existing in a perilous work environment. The work in this article is directed by the Norwegian Systematic Health, Environmental and Safety Activities in Enterprises (1997) (Internal Control Regulations [1]), the ISM Code [2] for vessels and their recent applicability to the fishing fleet of Norway. Both safety management works place requirements on the vessel operators and crew to actively manage safety as an on-going concern. The application of these safety management system (SMS) control documents to fishing vessels is just the latest instalment in a continual drive to improve safety in this sector. The difficulty is that there has been no previous systematic approach to safety within the fishing fleet. This article uses the tenants of systems engineering to determine the requirements for such a SMS, detailing the limiting factors and restrictive issues of this complex operating environment. - Highlights: • Systems engineer is applied as a tool for determining requirements for design and construction of a safety management system (SMS). • Outlining a simplistic format, identifying, designingand facilitating improvement opportunities in the conduction and application of SMS’s on fishing vessels. • Knowledge provision is a key requirement of management systems, through provision of understanding, detail orientation and applicable skills for realization. • Outlining, what is to be done and how it is to be completed to accomplish compliance with pertinent legislative requirements. • Promoting a combination of documentation and communication arrangements by which the actionsnecessary for management can be

  20. Fossil fleet transition with fuel changes and large scale variable renewable integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Revis [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hesler, Stephen [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Bistline, John [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Variability in demand as seen by grid-connected dispatchable generators can increase due to factors such as greater production from variable generation assets (for example, wind and solar), increased reliance on demand response or customer-driven automation, and aggregation of loads. This variability results a need for these generators to operate in a range of different modes, collectively referred to as “flexible operations.” This study is designed to inform power companies, researchers, and policymakers of the scope and trends in increasing levels of flexible operations as well as reliability challenges and impacts for dispatchable assets. Background Because there is rarely a direct monetization of the value of operational flexibility, the decision to provide such flexibility is typically dependent on unit- and region-specific decisions made by asset owners. It is very likely that much greater and more widespread flexible operations capabilities will be needed due to increased variability in demand seen by grid-connected generators, uncertainty regarding investment in new units to provide adequate operational flexibility, and the retirement of older, uncontrolled sub-critical pulverized coal units. Objective To enhance understanding of the technical challenges and operational impacts associated with dispatchable assets needed to increase operational flexibility and support variable demand. Approach The study approach consists of three elements: a literature review of relevant prior studies, analysis of detailed scenarios for evolution of the future fleet over the next 35 years, and engineering assessment of the degree and scope of technical challenges associated with transformation to the future fleet. The study approach integrated two key elements rarely brought together in a single analysis—1) long-term capacity planning, which enables modeling of unit retirements and new asset investments, and 2) unit commitment analysis, which permits examination of