#### Sample records for cnc turning center

1. CNC Turning Center Advanced Operations. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-332.

Science.gov (United States)

Skowronski, Steven D.; Tatum, Kenneth

This student guide provides materials for a course designed to introduce the student to the operations and functions of a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 presents course expectations and syllabus, covers safety precautions, and describes the CNC turning center components, CNC…

2. CNC Turning Center Operations and Prove Out. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-334.

Science.gov (United States)

Skowronski, Steven D.

This student guide provides materials for a course designed to instruct the student in the recommended procedures used when setting up tooling and verifying part programs for a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 discusses course content and reviews and demonstrates set-up procedures…

3. Fuzzy Linguistic Optimization on Surface Roughness for CNC Turning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tian-Syung Lan

2010-01-01

Full Text Available Surface roughness is often considered the main purpose in contemporary computer numerical controlled (CNC machining industry. Most existing optimization researches for CNC finish turning were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, the cutting depth, feed rate, speed, and tool nose runoff with low, medium, and high level are considered to optimize the surface roughness for finish turning based on L9(34 orthogonal array. Additionally, nine fuzzy control rules using triangle membership function with respective to five linguistic grades for surface roughness are constructed. Considering four input and twenty output intervals, the defuzzification using center of gravity is then completed. Thus, the optimum general fuzzy linguistic parameters can then be received. The confirmation experiment result showed that the surface roughness from the fuzzy linguistic optimization parameters is significantly advanced compared to that from the benchmark. This paper certainly proposes a general optimization scheme using orthogonal array fuzzy linguistic approach to the surface roughness for CNC turning with profound insight.

4. Fuzzy Linguistic Optimization on Surface Roughness for CNC Turning

OpenAIRE

Lan, Tian-Syung

2010-01-01

Surface roughness is often considered the main purpose in contemporary computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining industry. Most existing optimization researches for CNC finish turning were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, the cutting depth, feed rate, speed, and tool nose runoff with low, medium, and...

5. 5-axes modular CNC machining center

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2017-01-01

Full Text Available The paper presents the development of a 5-axes CNC machining center. The main goal of the machine was to provide the students a practical layout for training in advanced CAM techniques. The mechanical structure of the machine was built in a modular way by a specialized company, which also implemented the CNC controller. The authors of this paper developed the geometric and kinematic model of the CNC machining center and the post-processor, in order to use the machine in a CAM environment.

6. CNC Turning Technician. A Competency-Based Instructional System.

Science.gov (United States)

Sloan, Kelly; Hilley, Robert

This competency-based curriculum guide for instructing students in using computer numerically controlled (CNC) turning machines is one of a series of instructional guides for the machinist field developed in Oklahoma. Although developed jointly with Baxter Technologies Corporation and oriented toward the Baxter Vo-Tec 2000 Future Builder CNC…

7. Development process and data management of TurnSTEP, a STEP-compliant CNC system for turning

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Choi, I.; Suh, S.-H; Kim, K.; Song, M.S.; Jang, M.; Lee, B.-E.

2006-01-01

TurnSTEP is one of the earliest STEP-compliant CNC systems for turning. Based on the STEP-NC data model formalized as ISO 14649-12 and 121, it is designed to support intelligent and autonomous control of NC machines for e-manufacturing. The present paper introduces the development process and data

8. Development of a QFD-based expert system for CNC turning centre selection

Science.gov (United States)

Prasad, Kanika; Chakraborty, Shankar

2015-12-01

Computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools are automated devices capable of generating complicated and intricate product shapes in shorter time. Selection of the best CNC machine tool is a critical, complex and time-consuming task due to availability of a wide range of alternatives and conflicting nature of several evaluation criteria. Although, the past researchers had attempted to select the appropriate machining centres using different knowledge-based systems, mathematical models and multi-criteria decision-making methods, none of those approaches has given due importance to the voice of customers. The aforesaid limitation can be overcome using quality function deployment (QFD) technique, which is a systematic approach for integrating customers' needs and designing the product to meet those needs first time and every time. In this paper, the adopted QFD-based methodology helps in selecting CNC turning centres for a manufacturing organization, providing due importance to the voice of customers to meet their requirements. An expert system based on QFD technique is developed in Visual BASIC 6.0 to automate the CNC turning centre selection procedure for different production plans. Three illustrative examples are demonstrated to explain the real-time applicability of the developed expert system.

9. CAE Analysis of Secondary Shaft Systems in Great Five-axis Turning-Milling Complex CNC Machine

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Chih-Chiang Hong

2018-01-01

Full Text Available The commercial computer aided engineering (CAE software is used to analyze the linear-static construction, stress and deformation for the secondary shaft systems in great five-axis turning-milling complex computer numerical control (CNC machine. It is convenient and always only three dimensional (3D graphic parts needed firstly prepared and further more detail used for the commercial CAE. It is desirable to predict a deformed position for the cut tool under external pressure loads in the working process of CNC machine. The linear results for static analysis of stresses, displacements in corresponding to the screw shaft locates at top, medium and bottom positions of the secondary shaft systems are obtained by using the simulation module of SOLIDWORKS®.

10. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

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Zhongqi Sheng

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to assembly connection strength to depict the assembling difficulty level. The transmissibility based on trust relationship was applied on the assembly connection strength. Assembly unit partition based on assembly connection strength was conducted, and interferential assembly units were identified and revised. The assembly sequence planning and optimization of parts in each assembly unit and between assembly units was conducted using genetic algorithm. With certain type of high speed CNC turning center, as an example, this paper explored into the assembly modeling, assembly unit partition, and assembly sequence planning and optimization and realized the optimized assembly sequence of headstock of CNC machine tool.

11. CNC LATHE MACHINE PRODUCING NC CODE BY USING DIALOG METHOD

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Yakup TURGUT

2004-03-01

Full Text Available In this study, an NC code generation program utilising Dialog Method was developed for turning centres. Initially, CNC lathes turning methods and tool path development techniques were reviewed briefly. By using geometric definition methods, tool path was generated and CNC part program was developed for FANUC control unit. The developed program made CNC part program generation process easy. The program was developed using BASIC 6.0 programming language while the material and cutting tool database were and supported with the help of ACCESS 7.0.

12. Surface roughness and cutting force estimation in the CNC turning using artificial neural networks

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2015-04-01

Full Text Available Surface roughness and cutting forces are considered as important factors to determine machinability rate and the quality of product. A number of factors like cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cutting and tool noise radius influence the surface roughness and cutting forces in turning process. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model was used to forecast surface roughness and cutting forces with related inputs, including cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool noise radius. The machined surface roughness and cutting force parameters related to input parameters are the outputs of the ANN model. In this work, 24 samples of experimental data were used to train the network. Moreover, eight other experimental tests were implemented to test the network. The study concludes that ANN was a reliable and accurate method for predicting machining parameters in CNC turning operation.

13. Tool geometry and damage mechanisms influencing CNC turning efficiency of Ti6Al4V

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Suresh, Sangeeth; Hamid, Darulihsan Abdul; Yazid, M. Z. A.; Nasuha, Nurdiyanah; Ain, Siti Nurul

2017-12-01

Ti6Al4V or Grade 5 titanium alloy is widely used in the aerospace, medical, automotive and fabrication industries, due to its distinctive combination of mechanical and physical properties. Ti6Al4V has always been perverse during its machining, strangely due to the same mix of properties mentioned earlier. Ti6Al4V machining has resulted in shorter cutting tool life which has led to objectionable surface integrity and rapid failure of the parts machined. However, the proven functional relevance of this material has prompted extensive research in the optimization of machine parameters and cutting tool characteristics. Cutting tool geometry plays a vital role in ensuring dimensional and geometric accuracy in machined parts. In this study, an experimental investigation is actualized to optimize the nose radius and relief angles of the cutting tools and their interaction to different levels of machining parameters. Low elastic modulus and thermal conductivity of Ti6Al4V contribute to the rapid tool damage. The impact of these properties over the tool tips damage is studied. An experimental design approach is utilized in the CNC turning process of Ti6Al4V to statistically analyze and propose optimum levels of input parameters to lengthen the tool life and enhance surface characteristics of the machined parts. A greater tool nose radius with a straight flank, combined with low feed rates have resulted in a desirable surface integrity. The presence of relief angle has proven to aggravate tool damage and also dimensional instability in the CNC turning of Ti6Al4V.

14. GA based CNC turning center exploitation process parameters optimization

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Z. Car

2009-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents machining parameters (turning process optimization based on the use of artificial intelligence. To obtain greater efficiency and productivity of the machine tool, optimal cutting parameters have to be obtained. In order to find optimal cutting parameters, the genetic algorithm (GA has been used as an optimal solution finder. Optimization has to yield minimum machining time and minimum production cost, while considering technological and material constrains.

15. ANALYSIS OF CUTTING FORCES ON CNC LATHES EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

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Erdem Koç

1996-01-01

Full Text Available Objective of this study is to make use easy programming of CNC lathes and to achieve the optimization of part program prepared considering the limiting parameters of the machine. In the present study, a BOXFORD 250 B CNC lathe has been used for experiment and optimization process. The measurement of cutting forces exerted on the cutting tool of CNC lathe has been performed. The cutting forces occurring during the turning operation have been determined for different depth of" cut, feed rate and cutting speed as well as different cutting tools and related data base has been obtained.

16. The Neural-fuzzy Thermal Error Compensation Controller on CNC Machining Center

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Tseng, Pai-Chung; Chen, Shen-Len

The geometric errors and structural thermal deformation are factors that influence the machining accuracy of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining center. Therefore, researchers pay attention to thermal error compensation technologies on CNC machine tools. Some real-time error compensation techniques have been successfully demonstrated in both laboratories and industrial sites. The compensation results still need to be enhanced. In this research, the neural-fuzzy theory has been conducted to derive a thermal prediction model. An IC-type thermometer has been used to detect the heat sources temperature variation. The thermal drifts are online measured by a touch-triggered probe with a standard bar. A thermal prediction model is then derived by neural-fuzzy theory based on the temperature variation and the thermal drifts. A Graphic User Interface (GUI) system is also built to conduct the user friendly operation interface with Insprise C++ Builder. The experimental results show that the thermal prediction model developed by neural-fuzzy theory methodology can improve machining accuracy from 80µm to 3µm. Comparison with the multi-variable linear regression analysis the compensation accuracy is increased from ±10µm to ±3µm.

17. PENGEMBANGAN MESIN CNC VIRTUAL SEBAGAI MEDIA INTERAKTIF DALAM PEMBELAJARAN PEMROGRAMAN CNC

OpenAIRE

Bambang Setyo Hari Purwoko

2013-01-01

Penelitian ini bertujuan: (1) menghasilkan prototype tampilan lingkungan fisik sebuah mesin bubut CNC (Virtual Reality CNC) pada layar komputer yang dapat menerima masukan dan dioperasikan sebagaimana suatu mesin CNC dan (2) menguji keefektifan prototype mesin CNC Virtual tersebut sebagai media interaktif pembelajaran pemrograman CNC. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan. Obyek penelitian adalah rekayasa pemrograman dengan bahasa Visual Basic 6 guna menghasilkan mesin CNC Virtual....

18. Comparative study for different statistical models to optimize cutting parameters of CNC end milling machines

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

El-Berry, A.; El-Berry, A.; Al-Bossly, A.

2010-01-01

In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for many work pieces. Thus, that is very important to optimize cutting parameters for controlling the required manufacturing quality. Surface roughness parameter (Ra) in mechanical parts depends on turning parameters during the turning process. In the development of predictive models, cutting parameters of feed, cutting speed, depth of cut, are considered as model variables. For this purpose, this study focuses on comparing various machining experiments which using CNC vertical machining center, work pieces was aluminum 6061. Multiple regression models are used to predict the surface roughness at different experiments.

19. Extreme Learning Machine and Particle Swarm Optimization in optimizing CNC turning operation

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Janahiraman, Tiagrajah V.; Ahmad, Nooraziah; Hani Nordin, Farah

2018-04-01

The CNC machine is controlled by manipulating cutting parameters that could directly influence the process performance. Many optimization methods has been applied to obtain the optimal cutting parameters for the desired performance function. Nonetheless, the industry still uses the traditional technique to obtain those values. Lack of knowledge on optimization techniques is the main reason for this issue to be prolonged. Therefore, the simple yet easy to implement, Optimal Cutting Parameters Selection System is introduced to help the manufacturer to easily understand and determine the best optimal parameters for their turning operation. This new system consists of two stages which are modelling and optimization. In modelling of input-output and in-process parameters, the hybrid of Extreme Learning Machine and Particle Swarm Optimization is applied. This modelling technique tend to converge faster than other artificial intelligent technique and give accurate result. For the optimization stage, again the Particle Swarm Optimization is used to get the optimal cutting parameters based on the performance function preferred by the manufacturer. Overall, the system can reduce the gap between academic world and the industry by introducing a simple yet easy to implement optimization technique. This novel optimization technique can give accurate result besides being the fastest technique.

20. Experimental investigation of Surface Roughness and Cutting force in CNC Turning - A Review

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Dhiraj Patel

2014-08-01

Full Text Available The main purpose of this review paper is to check whether quality lies within desired tolerance level which can be accepted by the customers. So, experimental investigation surface roughness and cutting force using various CNC machining parameters including spindle speed (N, feed rate (f, and depth of cut (d,flow rate (Q and insert nose radius (r. As such, a solemn attempt is made in this paper to investigate the response parameters, viz., Cutting force and Surface Roughness (Ra a by experimentation on EN 19 turning process. The Design of experiments is carried-out considering Taguchi Technique with four input parameters, namely, spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, flow rate and insert nose radius .The experiments are conducted considering the above materials for L16 and then the impact of each parameter is estimated by ANOAVA. Then the regression analysis is carried-out to find the trend of the response of each material. This experimental study aims at taguchi method has been applied for finding the effect on surface roughness and cutting force by various process parameters. And after that we can easily find out that which parameter will be more affect.

1. Carney complex (CNC).

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Bertherat, Jérôme

2006-06-06

The Carney complex (CNC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A), has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A) of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65% of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80% of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing's syndrome due to PPNAD.

2. Carney complex (CNC

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bertherat Jérôme

2006-06-01

Full Text Available Abstract The Carney complex (CNC is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD. PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A, has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing

3. Multi objective optimization model for minimizing production cost and environmental impact in CNC turning process

Science.gov (United States)

Widhiarso, Wahyu; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

2018-02-01

Minimizing production cost in a manufacturing company will increase the profit of the company. The cutting parameters will affect total processing time which then will affect the production cost of machining process. Besides affecting the production cost and processing time, the cutting parameters will also affect the environment. An optimization model is needed to determine the optimum cutting parameters. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to minimize the production cost and the environmental impact in CNC turning process. The model is used a multi objective optimization. Cutting speed and feed rate are served as the decision variables. Constraints considered are cutting speed, feed rate, cutting force, output power, and surface roughness. The environmental impact is converted from the environmental burden by using eco-indicator 99. Numerical example is given to show the implementation of the model and solved using OptQuest of Oracle Crystal Ball software. The results of optimization indicate that the model can be used to optimize the cutting parameters to minimize the production cost and the environmental impact.

4. Multi-objective optimization model of CNC machining to minimize processing time and environmental impact

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Hamada, Aulia; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad

2017-11-01

Minimizing processing time in a production system can increase the efficiency of a manufacturing company. Processing time are influenced by application of modern technology and machining parameter. Application of modern technology can be apply by use of CNC machining, one of the machining process can be done with a CNC machining is turning. However, the machining parameters not only affect the processing time but also affect the environmental impact. Hence, optimization model is needed to optimize the machining parameters to minimize the processing time and environmental impact. This research developed a multi-objective optimization to minimize the processing time and environmental impact in CNC turning process which will result in optimal decision variables of cutting speed and feed rate. Environmental impact is converted from environmental burden through the use of eco-indicator 99. The model were solved by using OptQuest optimization software from Oracle Crystal Ball.

5. Case study of virtual reality in CNC machine tool exhibition

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Kao Yung-Chou

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Exhibition and demonstration are generally used in the promotion and sale-assistance of manufactured products. However, the transportation cost of the real goods from the vender factory to the exposition venue is generally expensive for huge and heavy commodity. With the advancement of computing, graphics, mobile apps, and mobile hardware the 3D visibility technology is getting more and more popular to be adopted in visual-assisted communication such as amusement games. Virtual reality (VR technology has therefore being paid great attention in emulating expensive small and/or huge and heavy equipment. Virtual reality can be characterized as 3D extension with Immersion, Interaction and Imagination. This paper was then be focused on the study of virtual reality in the assistance of CNC machine tool demonstration and exhibition. A commercial CNC machine tool was used in this study to illustrate the effectiveness and usability of using virtual reality for an exhibition. The adopted CNC machine tool is a large and heavy mill-turn machine with the width up to eleven meters and weighted about 35 tons. A head-mounted display (HMD was attached to the developed VR CNC machine tool for the immersion viewing. A user can see around the 3D scene of the large mill-turn machine and the operation of the virtual CNC machine can be actuated by bare hand. Coolant was added to demonstrate more realistic operation while collision detection function was also added to remind the operator. The developed VR demonstration system has been presented in the 2017 Taipei International Machine Tool Show (TIMTOS 2017. This case study has shown that young engineers and/or students are very impressed by the VR-based demonstration while elder persons could not adapt themselves easily to the VR-based scene because of eyesight issues. However, virtual reality has successfully being adopted and integrated with the CNC machine tool in an international show. Another machine tool on

6. Experimental Research and Mathematical Modeling of Parameters Effecting on Cutting Force and SurfaceRoughness in CNC Turning Process

Science.gov (United States)

Zeqiri, F.; Alkan, M.; Kaya, B.; Toros, S.

2018-01-01

In this paper, the effects of cutting parameters on cutting forces and surface roughness based on Taguchi experimental design method are determined. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is used to investigate the effects of machining parameters. Optimal cutting conditions are determined using the signal/noise (S/N) ratio which is calculated by average surface roughness and cutting force. Using results of analysis, effects of parameters on both average surface roughness and cutting forces are calculated on Minitab 17 using ANOVA method. The material that was investigated is Inconel 625 steel for two cases with heat treatment and without heat treatment. The predicted and calculated values with measurement are very close to each other. Confirmation test of results showed that the Taguchi method was very successful in the optimization of machining parameters for maximum surface roughness and cutting forces in the CNC turning process.

7. Normative data for the Maryland CNC Test.

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Mendel, Lisa Lucks; Mustain, William D; Magro, Jessica

2014-09-01

The Maryland consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant (CNC) Test is routinely used in Veterans Administration medical centers, yet there is a paucity of published normative data for this test. The purpose of this study was to provide information on the means and distribution of word-recognition scores on the Maryland CNC Test as a function of degree of hearing loss for a veteran population. A retrospective, descriptive design was conducted. The sample consisted of records from veterans who had Compensation and Pension (C&P) examinations at a Veterans Administration medical center (N = 1,760 ears). Audiometric records of veterans who had C&P examinations during a 10 yr period were reviewed, and the pure-tone averages (PTA4) at four frequencies (1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz) were documented. The maximum word-recognition score (PBmax) was determined from the performance-intensity functions obtained using the Maryland CNC Test. Correlations were made between PBmax and PTA4. A wide range of word-recognition scores were obtained at all levels of PTA4 for this population. In addition, a strong negative correlation between the PBmax and the PTA4 was observed, indicating that as PTA4 increased, PBmax decreased. Word-recognition scores decreased significantly as hearing loss increased beyond a mild hearing loss. Although threshold was influenced by age, no statistically significant relationship was found between word-recognition score and the age of the participants. RESULTS from this study provide normative data in table and figure format to assist audiologists in interpreting patient results on the Maryland CNC test for a veteran population. These results provide a quantitative method for audiologists to use to interpret word-recognition scores based on pure-tone hearing loss. American Academy of Audiology.

8. Open architecture CNC system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tal, J. [Galil Motion Control Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Lopez, A.; Edwards, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-04-01

In this paper, an alternative solution to the traditional CNC machine tool controller has been introduced. Software and hardware modules have been described and their incorporation in a CNC control system has been outlined. This type of CNC machine tool controller demonstrates that technology is accessible and can be readily implemented into an open architecture machine tool controller. Benefit to the user is greater controller flexibility, while being economically achievable. PC based, motion as well as non-motion features will provide flexibility through a Windows environment. Up-grading this type of controller system through software revisions will keep the machine tool in a competitive state with minimal effort. Software and hardware modules are mass produced permitting competitive procurement and incorporation. Open architecture CNC systems provide diagnostics thus enhancing maintainability, and machine tool up-time. A major concern of traditional CNC systems has been operator training time. Training time can be greatly minimized by making use of Windows environment features.

9. VOLUMETRIC ERROR COMPENSATION IN FIVE-AXIS CNC MACHINING CENTER THROUGH KINEMATICS MODELING OF GEOMETRIC ERROR

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Pooyan Vahidi Pashsaki

2016-06-01

Full Text Available Accuracy of a five-axis CNC machine tool is affected by a vast number of error sources. This paper investigates volumetric error modeling and its compensation to the basis for creation of new tool path for improvement of work pieces accuracy. The volumetric error model of a five-axis machine tool with the configuration RTTTR (tilting head B-axis and rotary table in work piece side A΄ was set up taking into consideration rigid body kinematics and homogeneous transformation matrix, in which 43 error components are included. Volumetric error comprises 43 error components that can separately reduce geometrical and dimensional accuracy of work pieces. The machining accuracy of work piece is guaranteed due to the position of the cutting tool center point (TCP relative to the work piece. The cutting tool is deviated from its ideal position relative to the work piece and machining error is experienced. For compensation process detection of the present tool path and analysis of the RTTTR five-axis CNC machine tools geometrical error, translating current position of component to compensated positions using the Kinematics error model, converting newly created component to new tool paths using the compensation algorithms and finally editing old G-codes using G-code generator algorithm have been employed.

10. Developing Parametric Models for the Assembly of Machine Fixtures for Virtual Multiaxial CNC Machining Centers

Science.gov (United States)

Balaykin, A. V.; Bezsonov, K. A.; Nekhoroshev, M. V.; Shulepov, A. P.

2018-01-01

This paper dwells upon a variance parameterization method. Variance or dimensional parameterization is based on sketching, with various parametric links superimposed on the sketch objects and user-imposed constraints in the form of an equation system that determines the parametric dependencies. This method is fully integrated in a top-down design methodology to enable the creation of multi-variant and flexible fixture assembly models, as all the modeling operations are hierarchically linked in the built tree. In this research the authors consider a parameterization method of machine tooling used for manufacturing parts using multiaxial CNC machining centers in the real manufacturing process. The developed method allows to significantly reduce tooling design time when making changes of a part’s geometric parameters. The method can also reduce time for designing and engineering preproduction, in particular, for development of control programs for CNC equipment and control and measuring machines, automate the release of design and engineering documentation. Variance parameterization helps to optimize construction of parts as well as machine tooling using integrated CAE systems. In the framework of this study, the authors demonstrate a comprehensive approach to parametric modeling of machine tooling in the CAD package used in the real manufacturing process of aircraft engines.

11. Optimization of the Machining parameter of LM6 Alminium alloy in CNC Turning using Taguchi method

Science.gov (United States)

Arunkumar, S.; Muthuraman, V.; Baskaralal, V. P. M.

2017-03-01

Due to widespread use of highly automated machine tools in the industry, manufacturing requires reliable models and methods for the prediction of output performance of machining process. In machining of parts, surface quality is one of the most specified customer requirements. In order for manufactures to maximize their gains from utilizing CNC turning, accurate predictive models for surface roughness must be constructed. The prediction of optimum machining conditions for good surface finish plays an important role in process planning. This work deals with the study and development of a surface roughness prediction model for machining LM6 aluminum alloy. Two important tools used in parameter design are Taguchi orthogonal arrays and signal to noise ratio (S/N). Speed, feed, depth of cut and coolant are taken as process parameter at three levels. Taguchi’s parameters design is employed here to perform the experiments based on the various level of the chosen parameter. The statistical analysis results in optimum parameter combination of speed, feed, depth of cut and coolant as the best for obtaining good roughness for the cylindrical components. The result obtained through Taguchi is confirmed with real time experimental work.

12. Failure probabilistic model of CNC lathes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang Yiqiang; Jia Yazhou; Yu Junyi; Zheng Yuhua; Yi Shangfeng

1999-01-01

A field failure analysis of computerized numerical control (CNC) lathes is described. Field failure data was collected over a period of two years on approximately 80 CNC lathes. A coding system to code failure data was devised and a failure analysis data bank of CNC lathes was established. The failure position and subsystem, failure mode and cause were analyzed to indicate the weak subsystem of a CNC lathe. Also, failure probabilistic model of CNC lathes was analyzed by fuzzy multicriteria comprehensive evaluation

13. CNC Programming I.

Science.gov (United States)

Casey, Joe

This document contains five units for a course in computer numerical control (CNC) for computer-aided manufacturing. It is intended to familiarize students with the principles and techniques necessary to create proper CNC programs manually. Each unit consists of an introduction, instructional objectives, learning materials, learning activities,…

14. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on rheological and mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNC nanocomposites.

Science.gov (United States)

Kamal, Musa R; Khoshkava, Vahid

2015-06-05

In earlier work, we reported that spray freeze drying of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) yields porous agglomerate structures. On the other hand, the conventional spray dried CNC (CNCSD) and the freeze dried CNC (CNCFD) produce compact solid structures with very low porosity. As it is rather difficult to obtain direct microscopic evidence of the quality of dispersion of CNC in polymer nanocomposites, it was shown that supporting evidence of the quality and influence of dispersion in a polypropylene (PP)/CNC nanocomposite could be obtained by studying the rheological behavior, mechanical properties and crystallization characteristics of PP/CNC nanocomposites. In an effort to produce a sustainable, fully biosourced, biodegradable nanocomposite, this manuscript presents the results of a study of the rheological, mechanical and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNCSFD nanocomposites obtained by melt processing. The results are analyzed to determine CNC network formation, rheological percolation threshold concentrations, mechanical properties in the rubbery and glassy states, and the effect of CNCSFD on crystalline nucleation and crystallization rates of PLA. These results suggest that the porosity and network structure of CNCSFD agglomerates contribute significantly to good dispersion of CNC in the PLA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas

Science.gov (United States)

Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns Trash Into Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Central Ohio Turns

16. PERFORMANCE STUDY ON AISI316 AND AISI410 USING DIFFERENT LAYERED COATED CUTTING TOOLS IN CNC TURNING

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

K. RAJA

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Stainless steel (SS is used for many commercial and industrial applications owing to its high resistance to corrosion. It is too hard to machine due to its high strength and high work hardening property. A surface property such as surface roughness (SR is critical to the function-ability of machined components. SS is generally regarded as more difficult to machine material and poor SR is obtained during machining. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the SR produced by CNC turning on austenitic stainless steel (AISI316 and martensitic stainless steel (AISI410 by different cases of coated cutting tool used at dry conditions. Multilayered coated with TiCN/Al2O3, multilayered coated with Ti(C, N, B and single layered coated with TiAlN coated cutting tools are used. Experiments were carried out by using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array. The effect of cutting parameters on SR is evaluated and optimum cutting conditions for minimizing the SR are determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is used for identifying the significant parameters affecting the responses. Confirmation experiments are conducted to validate the results obtained from optimization.

17. Theory and design of CNC systems

CERN Document Server

Suh, Suk-Hwan; Chung, Dae-Hyuk; Stroud, Ian

2008-01-01

Computer Numerical Control (CNC) controllers are high value-added products counting for over 30% of the price of machine tools. The development of CNC technology depends on the integration of technologies from many different industries, and requires strategic long-term support. a oeTheory and Design of CNC Systemsa covers the elements of control, the design of control systems, and modern open-architecture control systems. Topics covered include Numerical Control Kernel (NCK) design of CNC, Programmable Logic Control (PLC), and the Man-Machine Interface (MMI), as well as the major modules for t

18. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

M Nafis O Z; Nafrizuan M Y; Munira M A; Kartina J

2012-01-01

This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

19. Curcumin-carboxymethyl chitosan (CNC) conjugate and CNC/LHR mixed polymeric micelles as new approaches to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs.

Science.gov (United States)

Ni, Jiang; Tian, Fengchun; Dahmani, Fatima Zohra; Yang, Hui; Yue, Deren; He, Shuwang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

2016-11-01

The low oral bioavailability of numerous drugs has been mostly attributed to the significant effect of P-gp-mediated efflux on intestinal drug transport. Herein, we developed mixed polymeric micelles (MPMs) comprised of curcumin-carboxymethyl chitosan (CNC) conjugate, as a potential inhibitor of P-gp-mediated efflux and gastrointestinal absorption enhancer, and low-molecular-weight heparin-all-trans-retinoid acid (LHR) conjugate, as loading material, with the aim to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs. CNC conjugate was synthesized by chemical bonding of curcumin (Cur) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) taking advantage of the inhibition of intestinal P-gp-mediated secretion by Cur and the intestinal absorption enhancement by CMCS. The chemical structure of CNC conjugate was characterized by 1 H NMR with a degree of substitution of Cur of 4.52-10.20%. More importantly, CNC conjugate markedly improved the stability of Cur in physiological pH. Cyclosporine A-loaded CNC/LHR MPMs (CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs) were prepared by dialysis method, with high drug loading 25.45% and nanoscaled particle size (∼200 nm). In situ single-pass perfusion studies in rats showed that both CsA + CNC mixture and CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs achieved significantly higher K a and P eff than CsA suspension in the duodenum and jejunum segments (p CNC mixture and CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs significantly increased the oral bioavailability of CsA as compared to CsA suspension. These results suggest that CNC conjugate might be considered as a promising gastrointestinal absorption enhancer, while CNC/LHR MPMs had the potential to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs.

20. Design and implementation of five-axis transformation function in CNC system

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wang Feng

2014-04-01

Full Text Available To implement five-axis functions in CNC system, based on domestic system Lan Tian series, an improved design method for the system software structure is proposed in this paper. The numerical control kernel of CNC system is divided into the task layer and the motion layer. A five-axis transformation unit is integrated into the motion layer. After classifying five-axis machines into different types and analyzing their geometry information, the five-axis kinematic library is designed according to the abstract factory pattern. Furthermore, by taking CA spindle-tilting machine as an example, the forward and the inverse kinematic transformations are deduced. Based on the new software architecture and the five-axis kinematic library, algorithms of RTCP (rotation tool center point control and 3D radius compensation for end-milling are designed and realized. The milling results show that, with five-axis functions based on such software structure, the instructions with respect to the cutter’s position and orientation can be directly carried out in the CNC system.

1. Analysis of cutting force signals by wavelet packet transform for surface roughness monitoring in CNC turning

Science.gov (United States)

García Plaza, E.; Núñez López, P. J.

2018-01-01

On-line monitoring of surface finish in machining processes has proven to be a substantial advancement over traditional post-process quality control techniques by reducing inspection times and costs and by avoiding the manufacture of defective products. This study applied techniques for processing cutting force signals based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT) method for the monitoring of surface finish in computer numerical control (CNC) turning operations. The behaviour of 40 mother wavelets was analysed using three techniques: global packet analysis (G-WPT), and the application of two packet reduction criteria: maximum energy (E-WPT) and maximum entropy (SE-WPT). The optimum signal decomposition level (Lj) was determined to eliminate noise and to obtain information correlated to surface finish. The results obtained with the G-WPT method provided an in-depth analysis of cutting force signals, and frequency ranges and signal characteristics were correlated to surface finish with excellent results in the accuracy and reliability of the predictive models. The radial and tangential cutting force components at low frequency provided most of the information for the monitoring of surface finish. The E-WPT and SE-WPT packet reduction criteria substantially reduced signal processing time, but at the expense of discarding packets with relevant information, which impoverished the results. The G-WPT method was observed to be an ideal procedure for processing cutting force signals applied to the real-time monitoring of surface finish, and was estimated to be highly accurate and reliable at a low analytical-computational cost.

2. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) particle morphology on dispersion and rheological and mechanical properties of polypropylene/CNC nanocomposites.

Science.gov (United States)

Khoshkava, Vahid; Kamal, Musa R

2014-06-11

Polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites containing spray-dried cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), freeze-dried CNC, and spray-freeze-dried CNC (CNCSFD) were prepared via melt mixing in an internal batch mixer. Polarized light, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopy showed significantly better dispersion of CNCSFD in PP/CNC nanocomposites compared with the spray-dried and freeze-dried CNCs. Rheological measurements, including linear and nonlinear viscoelastic tests, were performed on PP/CNC samples. The microscopy results were supported by small-amplitude oscillatory shear tests, which showed substantial rises in the magnitudes of key rheological parameters of PP samples containing CNCSFD. Steady-shear results revealed a strong shear thinning behavior of PP samples containing CNCSFD. Moreover, PP melts containing CNCSFD exhibited a yield stress. The magnitude of the yield stress and the degree of shear thinning behavior increased with CNCSFD concentration. It was found that CNCSFD agglomerates with a weblike structure were more effective in modifying the rheological properties. This effect was attributed to better dispersion of the agglomerates with the weblike structure. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed considerable improvement in the modulus of samples containing CNCSFD agglomerates. The percolation mechanical model with modified volume percolation threshold and filler network strength values and the Halpin-Kardos model were used to fit the experimental results.

3. Mini lathe machine converted to CNC

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alexandru Morar

2012-06-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptation of a mechanical mini-lathing machine to a computerized numerical control (CNC lathing machine. This machine is composed of a ASIST mini-lathe and a two-degrees-of-freedom XZ stage designed specifically for this application. The whole system is controlled from a PC using adequate CNC control software.

4. CURVAS PARALELAS EXPLÍCITAS DE LAS CURVAS CÓNICAS NO DEGENERADAS PARA EL TORNEADO CNC DE LENTES Y ESPEJOS ASFÉRICO-CÓNICOS EXPLICIT PARALLEL CURVES OF NON-DEGENERATE CONIC CURVES FOR THE TURNED CNC OF ASPHERIC-CONIC LENSES AND MIRORS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Juan Camilo Valencia

2008-12-01

Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el método para obtener, en coordenadas cartesianas, las líneas curvas paralelas de las curvas cónicas no degeneradas, por métodos analíticos y numéricos. Se define el offset como una función paralela a la función original a una distancia r. El offset de una cónica es importante para los procesos de fabricación de mecanismos, lentes, espejos y moldes; especialmente en el torneado con control numérico computarizado (CNC de superficies de revolución con secciones cónicas, usando buriles de diamante con punta de radio r. También se presenta una técnica refinada usando interpolación circular segmentaria para construir numéricamente el offset de una parábola, que también puede usarse como modelo para determinar el offset de la elipse y de la hipérbola.This paper presents the method to obtain, in Cartesian coordinates, the parallel curve lines of non-degenerate conical curves, by analytical and numerical methods. Offset is defined as parallel function to the original function to a distance r. Offset of a conic is important for the manufacturing processes of mechanisms, lenses, mirrors, and molds; especially in the turning with computerized numerical control (CNC of surfaces of revolution with conical sections, using diamond tools of radio r. Also a refined tip technique using segmental circular interpolation to numerically construct the parabola offset is presented, that also can be used as model to determine offsets of ellipse and hyperbola.

5. Singer CNC sewing and embroidery machine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lokodi Zsolt

2011-12-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the adaptation of a classic foot pedal operated Singer sewing machine to a computerized numerical control (CNC sewing and embroidery machine. This machine is composed of a Singer sewing machine and a two-degrees-of-freedom XY stage designed specifically for this application. The whole system is controlled from a PC using adequate CNC control software.

6. Highly Modified Cellulose Nanocrystals and Formation of Epoxy-CNC Nanocomposites.

Science.gov (United States)

Abraham, Eldho; Kam, Doron; Nevo, Yuval; Slattegard, Rikard; Rivkin, Amit; Lapidot, Shaul; Shoseyov, Oded

2016-10-05

This work presents an environmentally friendly, iodine-catalysed chemical modification method to generate highly hydrophobic, optically active cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The high degree of ester substitution (DS=2.18), hydrophobicity, crystalline behaviour and optical activity of the generated acetylated CNC (Ac-CNC) were quantified by TEM, FTIR, solid 13C NMR, contact angle, XRD and POM analyses. Ac-CNC possessing substantial enhancement in thermal stability (16.8%) and forms thin films with interlayer distance of 50-150 nm, presenting cavities suitable for entrapping nano and micro particles. Generated Ac-CNC proved as an effective reinforcing agent in hydrophobic polymer matrices for fabricating high performance nanocomposites. When integrated at a very low weight percentage (0.5%) in an epoxy matrix, Ac-CNC provided for a 73% increase in tensile strength and a 98% increase in modulus, demonstrating its remarkable reinforcing potential and effective stress transfer behaviour. The method of modification and the unique properties of the modified CNC (hydrophobicity, crystallinity, reinforcing ability and optical activity) render them a novel bionanomaterial for a range of multipurpose applications.

7. Occupational Noise Reduction in CNC Striping Process

Science.gov (United States)

Mahmad Khairai, Kamarulzaman; Shamime Salleh, Nurul; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

2018-03-01

Occupational noise hearing loss with high level exposure is common occupational hazards. In CNC striping process, employee that exposed to high noise level for a long time as 8-hour contributes to hearing loss, create physical and psychological stress that reduce productivity. In this paper, CNC stripping process with high level noises are measured and reduced to the permissible noise exposure. First condition is all machines shutting down and second condition when all CNC machine under operations. For both conditions, noise exposures were measured to evaluate the noise problems and sources. After improvement made, the noise exposures were measured to evaluate the effectiveness of reduction. The initial average noise level at the first condition is 95.797 dB (A). After the pneumatic system with leakage was solved, the noise reduced to 55.517 dB (A). The average noise level at the second condition is 109.340 dB (A). After six machines were gathered at one area and cover that area with plastic curtain, the noise reduced to 95.209 dB (A). In conclusion, the noise level exposure in CNC striping machine is high and exceed the permissible noise exposure can be reduced to acceptable levels. The reduction of noise level in CNC striping processes enhanced productivity in the industry.

8. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(II)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H.

2007-06-01

The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

9. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(II)

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H

2007-06-15

The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology.

10. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(III)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, I. B.; Yoon, K. B.; Lee, C. K.; Youm, J. H.

2008-08-01

The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

11. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool (I)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Jong Kiun; Youm, K. U.; Kim, K. S.

2006-08-01

The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

12. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(IV)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Youm, Ki Un; Lee, I. B.; Youm, J. H.

2009-09-01

The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

13. Architecture for Direct Model-to-Part CNC Manufacturing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gilbert Poon

2006-02-01

Full Text Available In the traditional paradigm for Computer Numerical Control (CNC machining, tool paths are programmed offline from the CNC machine using the Computer-Aided Design (CAD model of the workpiece. The program is downloaded to the CNC controller and the part is then machined. Since a CAD model does not exist inside the CNC controller, it is unaware of the part to be machined and cannot predict or prevent errors. Not only is this paradigm labor intensive, it can lead to catastrophic damage if there are errors during machining. This paper presents a new concept for CNC machine control whereby a CAD model of the workpiece exists inside the controller and the tool positions are generated in real-time by the controller using the computer's graphics hardware without human intervention. The new concept was implemented on an experimental lathe machine specifically designed to machine complicated ornamental wood workpieces with a personal computer. An example workpiece was machined and measured using a 3D camera. The measured data was registered to the CAD model to evaluate machining accuracy.

Science.gov (United States)

Domermuth, Dave; And Others

1996-01-01

Includes "Quick Start CNC (computer numerical control) with a Vacuum Filter and Laminated Plastic" (Domermuth); "School and Industry Cooperate for Mutual Benefit" (Buckler); and "CAD (computer-assisted drafting) Careers--What Professionals Have to Say" (Skinner). (JOW)

15. DEVELOPMENT OF A CNC MICRO-LATHE FOR BONE MICROIMPLANTS DESARROLLO DE UN MICROTORNO CNC PARA MICROIMPLANTES DE HUESO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM MICROTORNO CNC PARA MICROIMPLANTES DE OSSO

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Daniel A. Rangel

2011-06-01

16. Advanced CNC Programming (EZ-CAM). 439-366.

Science.gov (United States)

Casey, Joe

This document contains two units for an advanced course in computer numerical control (CNC) for computer-aided manufacturing. It is intended to familiarize students with the principles and techniques necessary to create proper CNC programs using computer software. Each unit consists of an introduction, instructional objectives, learning materials,…

17. Grey Relational Analyses for Multi-Objective Optimization of Turning S45C Carbon Steel

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shah, A.H.A.; Azmi, A.I.; Khalil, A.N.M.

2016-01-01

The optimization of performance characteristics in turning process can be achieved through selection of proper machining parameters. It is well known that many researchers have successfully reported the optimization of single performance characteristic. Nevertheless, the multi-objective optimization can be difficult and challenging to be studied due to its complexity in analysis. This is because an improvement of one performance characteristic may lead to degradation of other performance characteristic. As a result, the study of multi-objective optimization in CNC turning of S45C carbon steel has been attempted in this paper through Taguchi and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) method. Through this methodology, the multiple performance characteristics, namely; surface roughness, material removal rate (MRR), tool wear, and power consumption; can be optimized simultaneously. It appears from the experimental results that the multiple performance characteristics in CNC turning was achieved and improved through the methodology employed. (paper)

18. Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy measurement technique combined with grey-Taguchi method. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Keywords: CNC end milling, surface finish, material removal rate (MRR), entropy measurement technique, Taguchi method ...

19. Structural Reorganization of CNC in Injection-Molded CNC/PBAT Materials under Thermal Annealing.

Science.gov (United States)

Mariano, Marcos; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

2016-10-04

Composite materials were prepared by extrusion and injection molding from polybutyrate adipate terephthalate (PBAT) and high aspect ratio cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) extracted from capim dourado fibers. Three CNC contents were used, corresponding to 0.5, 1, and 2 times the theoretical percolation threshold. Small-amplitude oscillary shear (SAOS) experiments show that as the CNC content increases, a more elastic behavior is observed but no percolating network can form within the polymeric matrix as a result of the high shear rates involved during the injection-molding process. Annealing of the samples at 170 °C was performed, and the possible reorganization of the nanofiller was investigated. This reorganization was further elucidated using 2D-SAOS and creep experiments.

20. Structure and sorption properties of CNC reinforced PVA films.

Science.gov (United States)

Popescu, Maria-Cristina

2017-08-01

Bio-nanocomposite films based on cellulose nanocrystals reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) were obtained by solvent casting method. To assess the structural features of the films, different spectral techniques (FTIR, 2D COS and XRD) have been used. Infrared and 2D correlation spectroscopy evidenced the presence of H-bond interactions between the PVA and CNC, and the variation in the conformational rearrangements, while XRD showed that the crystallite size and the crystallinity degree were affected by the incorporation of CNC. At low content of CNC in the PVA matrix, the crystallinity degree decreased to 29.9%, while at higher CNC content increased to 80.6%, comparing to PVA (35.4%). To evaluate the interaction with water, contact angle measurement, water sorption and NIR spectroscopy were used, respectively. The increase of the CNC content induced a reduction in water sorption ability from 93% for PVA to 75% for PVA/CNC films, indicating the involvement of the hydroxyl groups in new hydrogen bonded interactions. By analyzing the variation of the NIR bands from 1930, 1902 and 1985nm, was observed that the water molecules interact with the polymer matrix through moderate hydrogen bond before diffusing into the free volume of the matrix and form stronger hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. On the polymorphic and morphological changes of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-I) upon mercerization and conversion to CNC-II.

Science.gov (United States)

Jin, Ersuo; Guo, Jiaqi; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Yangyang; Song, Junlong; Jin, Yongcan; Rojas, Orlando J

2016-06-05

Polymorphic and morphological transformations of cellulosic materials are strongly associated to their properties and applications, especially in the case of emerging nanocelluloses. Related changes that take place upon treatment of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) in alkaline conditions are studied here by XRD, TEM, AFM, and other techniques. The results indicate polymorphic transformation of CNC proceeds gradually in a certain range of alkali concentrations, i.e. from about 8% to 12.5% NaOH. In such transition alkali concentration, cellulose I and II allomorphs coexists. Such value and range of the transition concentration is strongly interdependent with the crystallite size of CNCs. In addition, it is distinctively lower than that for macroscopic fibers (12-15% NaOH). Transmission electron microscopy and particle sizing reveals that after mercerization CNCs tend to associate. Furthermore, TEMPO-oxidized mercerized CNC reveals the morphology of individual nanocrystal of the cellulose II type, which is composed of some interconnected granular structures. Overall, this work reveals how the polymorphism and morphology of individual CNC change in alkali conditions and sheds light onto the polymorphic transition from cellulose I to II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2. Program Design Report of the CNC Machine Tool(V-1)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Youm, Ki Un; Moon, J. S.; Lee, I. B.; Youn, J. H.

2010-08-01

The application of CNC machine tool being widely expanded according to variety of machine work method and rapid promotion of machine tool, cutting tool, for high speed efficient machine work. In order to conduct of the project of manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment, production design and machine work technology are continually developed, especially the application of CNC machine tool is very important for the improvement of productivity, quality and clearing up a manpower shortage. We publish technical report which it includes CNC machine tool program and drawing, it contributes to the systematic development of CNC program design and machine work technology

3. Concept of a Programmable Fixture for 3-Axis CNC

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-09-01

Full Text Available CNC machine is the one of the major reasons for industrial advancement in recent decades for its ability of producing accurate parts. The most commen CNC machines are of 3-axis and adopted widely in the industrial sector. However, for producing more complicated parts 5-axis CNC machines are required. Although the introduction of the 5-axis machine came after the 3-axis CNC machine has established itself and many manufacturers did not make the move toward the newer model and its high pricing compared to the 3-axis model did not help either. In this time the development of a fixture or a platform to help transfer the 3-axis to a 5-axis to some degree. This paper discusses the concept of a programmable fixture that gives 3-axis CNC machine the freedom to act in similar manner as the 5-axis. The paper describes the mechanism with some initial results of the testing. Result showed that the platform moves in translation manner with an average error of 5.58 % and 7.303% average error for rotation movement.

4. Lutidine-derived Ru-CNC hydrogenation pincer catalysts with versatile coordination properties

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Filonenko, Georgy A.; Cosimi, Elena; Lefort, Laurent; Conley, Matthew P.; Copéret, Christophe; Lutz, Martin; Hensen, Emiel J M; Pidko, Evgeny A.

2014-01-01

Lutidine-derived bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium CNC-pincer complexes (Ru-CNC's) were prepared. Depending on the synthetic procedure, normal (1, 2) or mixed normal/abnormal NHC-complexes (3) are formed. In the presence of phosphazene base, Ru-CNC complexes activate nitriles to give

5. Neurotensin-loaded PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes accelerate diabetic wound healing.

Science.gov (United States)

Zheng, Zhifang; Liu, Yishu; Huang, Wenhua; Mo, Yunfei; Lan, Yong; Guo, Rui; Cheng, Biao

2018-04-13

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a threat to human health and can lead to amputation and even death. Recently neurotensin (NT), an inflammatory modulator in wound healing, was found to be beneficial for diabetic wound healing. As we demonstrated previously, polylactide-polyglycolide (PLGA) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) (PLGA/CNC) nanofiber membranes show good cytocompatibility and facilitate fibroblast adhesion, spreading and proliferation. PLGA/CNC nanofiber membranes are novel materials that have not been used previously as NT carriers in diabetic wounds. This study aims to explore the therapeutic efficacy and possible mechanisms of NT-loaded PLGA/CNC nanofiber membranes in full-thickness skin wounds in spontaneously diabetic mice. The results showed that NT could be sustained released from NT-loaded PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes for 2 weeks. NT-loaded PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes induced more rapid healing than other control groups. After NT exposure, the histological scores of the epidermal and dermal regeneration and the ratios of the fibrotic area to the whole area were increased. NT-loaded PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes also decreased the expressions of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. These results suggest that NT-loaded PLGA/CNC composite nanofiber membranes for sustained delivery of NT should effectively promote tissue regeneration for the treatment of DFUs.

6. DIAGNOSTIC OF CNC LATHE WITH QC 20 BALLBAR SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jerzy Józwik

2015-11-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of the influence of the feedmotion speed on the value of selected geometric errors of CNC lathe CTX 310 eco by DMG, indentified by QC 20 Ballbar system. Diagnostically evaluated were: the deviation of the axis squareness, reversal spike, and backlash. These errors determine the forming of the dimensional and shape accuracy of a machine tool. The article discusses the process of the CNC diagnostic test, the diagnostic evaluation and formulates guidelines on further CNC operation. The results of measurements were presented in tables and diagrams.

7. Integration of CAM and CNC operation through code editing and manipulation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rosli Darmawan; Shalina Sheik Muhammad

2004-01-01

The IT technology for engineering design and manufacturing has gone through significant advancement for the last 30 years. It is widely acknowledged that IT would provide competitive advantage for engineering company in term of production cycle, productivity and efficiency. The recent development in this area is on the total system integration. While standard off-shelf CAD/CAM/CNC software and hardware packages would provide solution for system integration, more often than not users will stumble upon compatibility problems. Moreover, most of the integration deals with CAD and CAM systems. CNC integration has not been fully developed. Users always found problems in the integration of CAM and CNC machine due to the different level of technological development. CNC codes have not fundamentally progressed in the last 50 years, while CAD/CAM software packages have undergone massive evolution and improvement. This paper discusses a practical solution of CAM and CNC integration through code editing and manipulation within the CAM system in order to comply with the CNC machine requirements. (Author)

8. Complex Ornament Machining Process on a CNC Router

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Camelia COŞEREANU

2014-03-01

Full Text Available The paper investigates the CNC routering possibilities for three species of wood, namely ash (Fraxinus Excelsior, lime wood (Tilia cordata and fir wood (Abies Alba, in order to obtain right surfaces of Art Nouveau sculptured ornaments. Given the complexity of the CNC tool path for getting wavy shapes of Art Nouveau decorations, the choice of processing parameters for each processed species of wood requires a laborious research work to correlate these parameters. Two Art Nouveau ornaments are proposed for the investigation. They are CNC routered using two types of cutting tools. The processed parameters namely the spindle speed, feed speed and depth of cut were the three variables of the machining process for the three species of wood, which were combined so, to provide good surface finish as a quality attribute. There were totally forty six variants of combining the processing parameter which were applied for CNC routering the samples made of the three species of wood. At the end, an optimum combination of the processed parameters is recommended for each species of wood.

9. Fully automatic CNC machining production system

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lee Jeng-Dao

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Customized manufacturing is increasing years by years. The consumption habits change has been cause the shorter of product life cycle. Therefore, many countries view industry 4.0 as a target to achieve more efficient and more flexible automated production. To develop an automatic loading and unloading CNC machining system via vision inspection is the first step in industrial upgrading. CNC controller is adopted as the main controller to command to the robot, conveyor, and other equipment in this study. Moreover, machine vision systems are used to detect position of material on the conveyor and the edge of the machining material. In addition, Open CNC and SCADA software will be utilized to make real-time monitor, remote system of control, alarm email notification, and parameters collection. Furthermore, RFID has been added to employee classification and management. The machine handshaking has been successfully proposed to achieve automatic vision detect, edge tracing measurement, machining and system parameters collection for data analysis to accomplish industrial automation system integration with real-time monitor.

10. Repurposing mainstream CNC machine tools for laser-based additive manufacturing

Science.gov (United States)

Jones, Jason B.

2016-04-01

The advent of laser technology has been a key enabler for industrial 3D printing, known as Additive Manufacturing (AM). Despite its commercial success and unique technical capabilities, laser-based AM systems are not yet able to produce parts with the same accuracy and surface finish as CNC machining. To enable the geometry and material freedoms afforded by AM, yet achieve the precision and productivity of CNC machining, hybrid combinations of these two processes have started to gain traction. To achieve the benefits of combined processing, laser technology has been integrated into mainstream CNC machines - effectively repurposing them as hybrid manufacturing platforms. This paper reviews how this engineering challenge has prompted beam delivery innovations to allow automated changeover between laser processing and machining, using standard CNC tool changers. Handling laser-processing heads using the tool changer also enables automated change over between different types of laser processing heads, further expanding the breadth of laser processing flexibility in a hybrid CNC. This paper highlights the development, challenges and future impact of hybrid CNCs on laser processing.

11. INTEGRASI SOFTWARE CAD-CAM DALAM SISTEM OPERASI MESIN BUBUT CNC

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-12-01

Full Text Available Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM adalah sebuah teknologi aplikasi yang menggunakan perangkat lunak komputer dan mesin untuk memfasilitasi dan mengotomatisasi proses manufaktur. Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM adalah penerus dari Computer Aided Engineering (CAE dan sering digunakan bersama dengan Computer-Aided Design (CAD. Bidang manufaktur, perangkat komputer telah dipergunakan untuk mengontrol mesin-mesin produksi otomatis dengan ketepatan tinggi, misalnya mesin CNC. ?é?áArtikel ini membahas tentang penggunaan software CAD-CAM (SOLIDWorks dan CAMWorks yang terintegrasi kemudian diaplikasikan ke mesin bubut CNC yang menggunakan software Mach3, Mach3 adalah software yang bisa mengubah komputer dekstop menjadi sebuah piranti kontroller mesin CNC. Software SOLIDWorks, CAMWorks dan Mach3 diintegrasikan ke dalam sistem operasi mesin bubut CNC sehingga proses koreksi dan modifikasi format perintah gerakan dalam G/M code dapat dilakukan dalam software tersebut.

12. Vyhodnocení CNC stroje versus konvenční stroj ve firmě

OpenAIRE

Kopecký, Štěpán

2016-01-01

Bakalářská práce se zabývá analýzou CNC stroje ve firmě a porovnáním CNC oproti konvenčnímu stroji. Analýza CNC se zaměřuje na ekonomické přínosy a přínosy pro firmu z hlediska zlepšení produktivity a přesnosti. Po prostudování odborné literatury a seznámením se s CNC frézou a jejím řídicím systémem a konvenčními stroji firmy Alubra s.r.o. je porovnán výrobek. Bachelor thesis describes analysis of CNC machine in company. The analysis of CNC machine focus on economical benefits and compare ...

13. RANCANG BANGUN CNC MILLING MACHINEHOME MADE UNTUK MEMBUAT PCB

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2011-06-01

Full Text Available Kendala yang dimiliki oleh seorang penggemar elektronik untuk membuat PCB diantaranya adalah efisiensi waktu, tenaga, dan biaya. Pembuatan CNC milling machine merupakan salah satu solusi yang tepat untuk membuat PCB. CNC milling machine adalah mesin bubut otomatis yang bekerja atas dasar perintah Numerical Code. Rancang bangun CNC Milling Machine Home Made ini dikontrol oleh komputer yang akan mengontrol IC L297 melalui parallel port. IC L297 ini kemudian memberikan empat data digital a, b, c dan d untuk mengatur phase IC L298 yang menyalurkan tegangan untuk koil motor stepper unipolar. Pada akhirnya motor stepper unipolar akan memutar baut dan dapat menggerakkan meja sumbu menggunakan prinsip kerja ulir.

14. Implementation of the geometrical problem in CNC metal cutting machine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Erokhin V.V.

2017-06-01

Full Text Available The article deals with the tasks of managing the production process (technological process and technological equip-ment, the most detailed analysis of the implementation of the geometric problem in CNC machines. The influence of the solution of the geometric CNC problem on the accuracy of workpiece machining is analyzed by implementing a certain interpolation algorithm and the values of the discreteness of the movements of the working bodies of the CNC machine. The technique of forming a given trajectory of motion of the machine's executive organ is given, by means of which it is required to ensure the coordinated movement of the shaping coordinates according to a certain law, depend-ing on the specified trajectory of the cutting edge of the tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of interpolation in CNC systems by various methods are considered, and particular attention is paid to combined meth-ods of realizing interpolation.

15. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

Science.gov (United States)

Loveland, Thomas

2012-01-01

In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

16. Application of Ethernet Powerlink for communication in a Linux RTAI open CNC control system

OpenAIRE

Erwiński, Krystian; Paprocki, Marcin; Grzesiak, Lech; Karwowski, Kazimierz; Wawrzak, Andrzej

2013-01-01

In computerized numerical control (CNC) systems, the communication bus between the controller and axis servo drives must offer high bandwidth, noise immunity, and time determinism. More and more CNC systems use real-time Ethernet protocols such as Ethernet Powerlink (EPL). Many modern controllers are closed costly hardware-based solutions. In this paper, the implementation of EPL communication bus in a PC-based CNC system is presented. The CNC system includes a PC, a s...

17. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

OpenAIRE

Zhongqi Sheng; Lei Zhang; Hualong Xie; Changchun Liu

2014-01-01

Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to as...

18. An Investigation of the Potential Antifungal Properties of CNC-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Science.gov (United States)

Zehrbach, Angelina M D; Rogers, Alexandra R; Tarr, D Ellen K

2017-12-01

Caenorhabditis elegans responds to infections by upregulating specific antimicrobial peptides. The caenacin-2 ( cnc-2 ) gene is consistently upregulated in C. elegans by infection with the filamentous fungus Drechmeria coniospora , but there have been no direct studies of the CNC-2 peptide's in vivo or in vitro role in defending the nematode against this pathogen. We compared infection of wild-type and cnc-2 knockout nematode strains with four potential pathogens: D. coniospora , Candida albicans , Staphylococcus aureus , and Bacillus subtilis . There was no significant difference in survival between strains for any of the pathogens or on the maintenance strain of Escherichia coli . While we were unable to demonstrate definitively that CNC-2 is integral to fungal defenses in C. elegans , we identified possible explanations for these results as well as future work that is needed to investigate CNC-2's potential as a new antifungal treatment.

19. Hygroscopic Swelling Determination of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) Films by Polarized Light Microscopy Digital Image Correlation.

Science.gov (United States)

Shrestha, Shikha; Diaz, Jairo A; Ghanbari, Siavash; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

2017-05-08

The coefficient of hygroscopic swelling (CHS) of self-organized and shear-oriented cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films was determined by capturing hygroscopic strains produced as result of isothermal water vapor intake in equilibrium. Contrast enhanced microscopy digital image correlation enabled the characterization of dimensional changes induced by the hygroscopic swelling of the films. The distinct microstructure and birefringence of CNC films served in exploring the in-plane hygroscopic swelling at relative humidity values ranging from 0% to 97%. Water vapor intake in CNC films was measured using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) at constant temperature. The obtained experimental moisture sorption and kinetic profiles were analyzed by fitting with Guggenheim, Anderson, and deBoer (GAB) and Parallel Exponential Kinetics (PEK) models, respectively. Self-organized CNC films showed isotropic swelling, CHS ∼0.040 %strain/%C. By contrast, shear-oriented CNC films exhibited an anisotropic swelling, resulting in CHS ∼0.02 and ∼0.30 %strain/%C, parallel and perpendicular to CNC alignment, respectively. Finite element analysis (FEA) further predicted moisture diffusion as the predominant mechanism for swelling of CNC films.

20. In-situ polymerized cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) nanomaterials and applications in nanocomposite processing.

Science.gov (United States)

2016-11-20

CNC-PLLA nanomaterials were synthesized via in-situ ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide in the presence of CNC, resulting in hydrophobic, homogeneous mixture of PLLA-grafted-CNC and free PLLA homopolymer. The free PLLA serves two useful functions: as barrier to further prevent PLLA-g-CNC from forming aggregates, and in creating improved interfacial properties when these nanomaterials are blended with other polymers, hence enhancing their performance. CNC-PLLA nanomaterials can be used for medical or engineering applications as-they-are or by compounding with suitable biopolymers using versatile techniques, such as solution casting, co-extrusion or injection molding, to form hybrid nanocomposites of tunable mechanical properties. When compounded with commercial-grade PLA, the resulting CNC-PLA nanocomposites appear transparent and have tailored (dynamic and static) mechanical and barrier properties, approaching those of poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET. The effect of reaction conditions on the properties of CNC-PLLA nanomaterials have been carefully studied and detailed throughout the paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Physicochemical characterization of cellulose nanocrystal and nanoporous self-assembled CNC membrane derived from Ceiba pentandra.

Science.gov (United States)

Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; W Salleh, W N; Jaafar, Juhana; Ismail, A F; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; M Zain, M F; Awang, Nor Asikin; Mohd Hir, Zul Adlan

2017-02-10

This research involves the rare utilisation of the kapok fibre (Ceiba pentandra) as a raw material for the fabrication of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and self-assembled CNC membranes. The isolation of CNC from Ceiba pentandra began with the extraction of cellulose via the chemical alkali extraction by using 5wt% NaOH, followed by the typical acidified bleaching method and, finally, the CNC production through acid hydrolysis with 60wt% H 2 SO 4 at the optimum time of 60min. The prepared CNC was then employed for the preparation of self-assembled membrane through the water suspension casting evaporation technique. The obtained CNC membrane was characterised in terms of its composition, crystallinity, thermal stability, as well as, structural and morphological features with the use of several techniques including FTIR, XRD, AFM, TEM, FESEM, and TGA. The FESEM and AFM analyses had illustrated the achievement of a self-assembled CNC membrane with a smooth surface and a well-distributed nano-porous structure, with the porosity of 52.82±7.79%. In addition, the findings proved that the self-assembled CNC membrane displayed good adsorption capability indicated by the recorded efficiency of 79% and 85% for 10mg/L and 5mg/L of methylene blue in an aqueous solution, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2. Preparation of CNC-dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their application in conductive paper.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Kai; Nasrallah, Joseph; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Ni, Yonghao

2015-08-01

Well-dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a co-precipitation method in the presence of cellulose nano-crystals (CNC) as the template. The thus prepared Fe3O4 NPs were then used as a coating agent for the preparation of conductive paper. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results revealed that the Fe3O4 NPs were immobilized on the CNC through interactions between the hydroxyl groups of CNC and Fe3O4. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images showed that the Fe3O4 NPs prepared in the presence of CNC can be dispersed in the CNC network, while the Fe3O4 NPs prepared in the absence of CNC tended to aggregate in aqueous solutions. The conductivity of the Fe3O4 NPs coated paper can reach to 0.0269 S/m at the coating amount of 14.75 g/m(2) Fe3O4/CNC nanocomposites. Therefore, the thus obtained coated paper can be potentially used as anti-static packaging material in the packaging field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

3. CNC Preparation Meets Manufacturing Opportunity

Science.gov (United States)

Cassola, Joel

2006-01-01

This article features the machining technology program at Cape Fear Community College (CFCC) of Wilmington, North Carolina. North Carolina's Cape Fear Community College is working to meet diverse industry needs through its CNC training. The school's program has gained the attention of the local manufacturing community and students when it shifted…

4. An integrated model for part-operation allocation and investments in CNC technology

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Slomp, J.; Suresh, N.

2002-01-01

This study addresses the issue of investment appraisal of new technology, specifically computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools in conjunction with optimal allocation of parts and operations on CNC machines as the investments take place. Part-operation allocation is the allocation of parts and

5. Researches Regarding The Circular Interpolation Algorithms At CNC Laser Cutting Machines

Science.gov (United States)

Tîrnovean, Mircea Sorin

2015-09-01

This paper presents an integrated simulation approach for studying the circular interpolation regime of CNC laser cutting machines. The circular interpolation algorithm is studied, taking into consideration the numerical character of the system. A simulation diagram, which is able to generate the kinematic inputs for the feed drives of the CNC laser cutting machine is also presented.

6. Designing CNC Knit for Hybrid Membrane And Bending Active Structures

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders; Gengnagel, Christoph

2015-01-01

specific properties and detailing. CNC knitting with high tenacity yarn enables this practice and offers an alternative to current woven membranes. The design and fabrication of an 8m high fabric tower through an interdisciplinary team of architects, structural and textile engineers, allowed to investigate...... means to design, specify, make and test CNC knit as material for hybrid structures in architectural scale. This paper shares the developed process, identifies challenges, potentials and future work...

7. Tool life of ceramic wedges during precise turning of tungsten

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Legutko Stanislaw

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Properties, application and machinability of tungsten and its alloys have been demonstrated. The comparison of the tool life and wear of the wedges made of SiAlON and whisker ceramics during the precise turning at different cutting parameters have been presented. The CNC lathe DMG CTX 310 Ecoline and tungsten of 99.7 % purity were used during the experiments. Only the wedge of whisker ceramics has proved to be sufficiently suitable and only for relatively low cutting speeds.

8. Conversion economics of forest biomaterials: risk and financial analysis of CNC manufacturing

Science.gov (United States)

Camilla Abbati de Assis; Carl Houtman; Richard Phillips; E.M. Ted Bilek; Orlando J. Rojas; Lokendra Pal; Maria Soledad Peresin; Hasan Jameel; Ronalds Gonzalez

2017-01-01

Commercialization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) presents opportunities for a wide range of new products. Techno-economic assessments can provide insightful information for the effi cient design of conversion processes, drive cost-saving efforts, and reduce fi nancial risks. In this study, we conducted techno-economic assessments for CNC production using information...

9. Generation of gear tooth surfaces by application of CNC machines

Science.gov (United States)

Litvin, F. L.; Chen, N. X.

1994-01-01

This study will demonstrate the importance of application of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines in generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. This topology decreases gear vibration and will extend the gear capacity and service life. A preliminary investigation by a tooth contact analysis (TCA) program has shown that gear tooth surfaces in line contact (for instance, involute helical gears with parallel axes, worm gear drives with cylindrical worms, etc.) are very sensitive to angular errors of misalignment that cause edge contact and an unfavorable shape of transmission errors and vibration. The new topology of gear tooth surfaces is based on the localization of bearing contact, and the synthesis of a predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to absorb a piecewise linear function of transmission errors caused by gear misalignment. The report will describe the following topics: description of kinematics of CNC machines with six degrees of freedom that can be applied for generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. A new method for grinding of gear tooth surfaces by a cone surface or surface of revolution based on application of CNC machines is described. This method provides an optimal approximation of the ground surface to the given one. This method is especially beneficial when undeveloped ruled surfaces are to be ground. Execution of motions of the CNC machine is also described. The solution to this problem can be applied as well for the transfer of machine tool settings from a conventional generator to the CNC machine. The developed theory required the derivation of a modified equation of meshing based on application of the concept of space curves, space curves represented on surfaces, geodesic curvature, surface torsion, etc. Condensed information on these topics of differential geometry is provided as well.

10. Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abdul Hafid

2008-01-01

CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

11. Servo-controlling structure of five-axis CNC system for real-time NURBS interpolating

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Liangji; Guo, Guangsong; Li, Huiying

2017-07-01

NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) is widely used in CAD/CAM (Computer-Aided Design / Computer-Aided Manufacturing) to represent sculptured curves or surfaces. In this paper, we develop a 5-axis NURBS real-time interpolator and realize it in our developing CNC(Computer Numerical Control) system. At first, we use two NURBS curves to represent tool-tip and tool-axis path respectively. According to feedrate and Taylor series extension, servo-controlling signals of 5 axes are obtained for each interpolating cycle. Then, generation procedure of NC(Numerical Control) code with the presented method is introduced and the method how to integrate the interpolator into our developing CNC system is given. And also, the servo-controlling structure of the CNC system is introduced. Through the illustration, it has been indicated that the proposed method can enhance the machining accuracy and the spline interpolator is feasible for 5-axis CNC system.

12. [CNC proteins in physiology and pathology].

Science.gov (United States)

Gęgotek, Agnieszka; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

2015-07-06

CNC proteins consist of Bach1, Bach2 and 4 homologous transcription factors: Nrf1, Nrf2, Nrf3 and p45NF-E2. Transcription factors belonging to this group of proteins play a crucial role in protection of cells against oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, they remain in the cytoplasm in the inactive form or are degraded. However, in oxidative stress conditions, they are translocated to the nucleus, and bind to DNA in the ARE sequence. Consequently, there is transcription of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins, such as phase II enzymes, or low molecular weight antioxidant proteins (i.e., thioredoxin, ferritin, metallothionein) responsible for protecting cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) action. The activity of transcriptional proteins depends directly on the redox state of the cell. ROS as second messenger signals, control inhibitors of cytoplasmic CNC proteins or potentiate the activity of kinases (MAPK, PKC, PI3K, PERK), leading to phosphorylation of transcription factors. This is conducive to translocation of these molecules into the nucleus and to formation of complexes that initiate the gene expression. Disorders of regulation of the activity of transcription factors belonging to the CNC proteins caused by gene mutations, epigenetic modifications or increased activity of p62, p21, or k-Ras, B-Raf and c-Myc oncogenes, induce changes in the level of ARE-dependent gene expression, which can lead even to the development of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, Nrf transcription factors, inducing the expression of antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics, can be considered as a potential target of the action of chemopreventive factors in anticancer therapy.

13. CNC proteins in physiology and pathology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Agnieszka Gęgotek

2015-07-01

Full Text Available CNC proteins consist of Bach1, Bach2 and 4 homologous transcription factors: Nrf1, Nrf2, Nrf3 and p45NF-E2. Transcription factors belonging to this group of proteins play a crucial role in protection of cells against oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, they remain in the cytoplasm in the inactive form or are degraded. However, in oxidative stress conditions, they are translocated to the nucleus, and bind to DNA in the ARE sequence. Consequently, there is transcription of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins, such as phase II enzymes, or low molecular weight antioxidant proteins (i.e., thioredoxin, ferritin, metallothionein responsible for protecting cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS action. The activity of transcriptional proteins depends directly on the redox state of the cell. ROS as second messenger signals, control inhibitors of cytoplasmic CNC proteins or potentiate the activity of kinases (MAPK, PKC, PI3K, PERK, leading to phosphorylation of transcription factors. This is conducive to translocation of these molecules into the nucleus and to formation of complexes that initiate the gene expression. Disorders of regulation of the activity of transcription factors belonging to the CNC proteins caused by gene mutations, epigenetic modifications or increased activity of p62, p21, or k-Ras, B-Raf and c-Myc oncogenes, induce changes in the level of ARE-dependent gene expression, which can lead even to the development of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, Nrf transcription factors, inducing the expression of antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics, can be considered as a potential target of the action of chemopreventive factors in anticancer therapy.

14. Preliminary Development of Real Time Usage-Phase Monitoring System for CNC Machine Tools with a Case Study on CNC Machine VMC 250

Science.gov (United States)

Budi Harja, Herman; Prakosa, Tri; Raharno, Sri; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna; Nurhadi, Indra; Setyo Nogroho, Alamsyah

2018-03-01

The production characteristic of job-shop industry at which products have wide variety but small amounts causes every machine tool will be shared to conduct production process with dynamic load. Its dynamic condition operation directly affects machine tools component reliability. Hence, determination of maintenance schedule for every component should be calculated based on actual usage of machine tools component. This paper describes study on development of monitoring system to obtaining information about each CNC machine tool component usage in real time approached by component grouping based on its operation phase. A special device has been developed for monitoring machine tool component usage by utilizing usage phase activity data taken from certain electronics components within CNC machine. The components are adaptor, servo driver and spindle driver, as well as some additional components such as microcontroller and relays. The obtained data are utilized for detecting machine utilization phases such as power on state, machine ready state or spindle running state. Experimental result have shown that the developed CNC machine tool monitoring system is capable of obtaining phase information of machine tool usage as well as its duration and displays the information at the user interface application.

15. CNC TORNA TEZGAHLARINDA KESME KUVVETLERİ ANALİZİ - DENEYSEL YAKLAŞIM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Erdem Koç

1996-01-01

Full Text Available Bu çalışma, CNC torna tezgahlarında programlama yapmanın kolaylaştırılmasını, hazırlanan parça programının tezgaha ait sınır parametrelerine göre optimizasyonunu sağlamaktadır. Çalışmada deney ve optimizasyon işlemlerinde BOXFORD 250 B CNC torna tezgahı kullanılmıştır. CNC torna tezgahında kaleme gelen kuvvetlerin ölçülmesi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Yapılan deneylerde yüzey tornalama işleminde kesici uçları için oluşan kesme kuvvetleri; değişik talaş derinlikleri, ilerleme ve kesme hızları ile kesici uçları için tespit edilerek bir veri tabanı elde edilmiştir.

16. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as carriers for a spirooxazine dye and its effect on photochromic efficiency.

Science.gov (United States)

Sun, Bo; Hou, Qingxi; He, Zhibin; Liu, Zehua; Ni, Yonghao

2014-10-13

Nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) as a renewable/sustainable material, has received much attention. Herein we studied CNC as carriers for a hydrophobic spirooxazine (SO)-based dye, 1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethylspiro[2H-indole-2,3'-[3H]naphtha[2,1-b][1,4]oxazine], which may have potential applications in reversible memory photo-devices, textiles, photo-sensitive paper coatings, and inkjet printing inks. Due to the high cost and water-insolubility of this dye, it is desirable to improve its coloration efficiency and water-dispersibility. The experimental approach was to use CNC as carriers for the SO dye, thus obtaining a stable photochromic dye in aqueous systems. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation confirmed that the SO dye adsorbed on the surface of the CNC, which functioned as carriers for the photochromic dye. An impregnation process was adopted to anchor the dye onto cellulosic paper. It was found that the use of CNC resulted in a significant improvement in the SO coloration efficiency. The color stability and fatigue resistance were also studied. The use of CNC as carriers for a hydrophobic compound, its enhancement of associated properties, and its subsequent application were demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

17. Renner-Teller effects in the photoelectron spectra of CNC, CCN, and HCCN.

Science.gov (United States)

Coudert, Laurent H; Gans, Bérenger; Garcia, Gustavo A; Loison, Jean-Christophe

2018-02-07

The line intensity of photoelectron spectra when either the neutral or cationic species display a Renner-Teller coupling is derived and applied to the modeling of the photoelectron spectra of CNC, CCN, and HCCN. The rovibronic energy levels of these three radicals and of their cations are investigated starting from ab initio results. A model treating simultaneously the bending mode and the overall rotation is developed to deal with the quasilinearity problem in CNC + , CCN + , and HCCN and accounts for the large amplitude nature of their bending mode. This model is extended to treat the Renner-Teller coupling in CNC, CCN, and HCCN + . Based on the derived photoelectron line intensity, the photoelectron spectra of all three molecules are calculated and compared to the experimental ones.

18. Probability distribution of machining center failures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jia Yazhou; Wang Molin; Jia Zhixin

1995-01-01

Through field tracing research for 24 Chinese cutter-changeable CNC machine tools (machining centers) over a period of one year, a database of operation and maintenance for machining centers was built, the failure data was fitted to the Weibull distribution and the exponential distribution, the effectiveness was tested, and the failure distribution pattern of machining centers was found. Finally, the reliability characterizations for machining centers are proposed

19. PLLA-grafted cellulose nanocrystals: Role of the CNC content and grafting on the PLA bionanocomposite film properties.

Science.gov (United States)

Lizundia, Erlantz; Fortunati, Elena; Dominici, Franco; Vilas, José Luis; León, Luis Manuel; Armentano, Ilaria; Torre, Luigi; Kenny, Josè M

2016-05-20

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), extracted from microcrystalline cellulose by acid hydrolysis, were grafted by ring opening polymerization of L-Lactide initiated from the hydroxyl groups available at their surface and two different CNC:L-lactide ratios (20:80 and 5:95) were obtained. The resulting CNC-g-PLLA nanohybrids were incorporated in poly(lactic acid) (PLA) matrix by an optimized extrusion process at two different content (1 wt.% and 3 wt.%) and obtained bionanocomposite films were characterized by thermal, mechanical, optical and morphological properties. Thermal analysis showed CNC grafted with the higher ratio of lactide play a significant role as a nucleating agent. Moreover, they contribute to a significant increase in the crystallization rate of PLA, and the best efficiency was revealed with 3 wt.% of CNC-g-PLLA. This effect was confirmed by the increased in Young's modulus, suggesting the CNC graft ratio and content contribute significantly to the good dispersion in the matrix, positively affecting the final bionanocomposite properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

20. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat; Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd

2014-01-01

The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier

1. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat [Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd [Faculty of Pharmacy, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2014-09-03

The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier.

2. Prediction Model of Cutting Parameters for Turning High Strength Steel Grade-H: Comparative Study of Regression Model versus ANFIS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The Grade-H high strength steel is used in the manufacturing of many civilian and military products. The procedures of manufacturing these parts have several turning operations. The key factors for the manufacturing of these parts are the accuracy, surface roughness (Ra, and material removal rate (MRR. The production line of these parts contains many CNC turning machines to get good accuracy and repeatability. The manufacturing engineer should fulfill the required surface roughness value according to the design drawing from first trail (otherwise these parts will be rejected as well as keeping his eye on maximum metal removal rate. The rejection of these parts at any processing stage will represent huge problems to any factory because the processing and raw material of these parts are very expensive. In this paper the artificial neural network was used for predicting the surface roughness for different cutting parameters in CNC turning operations. These parameters were investigated to get the minimum surface roughness. In addition, a mathematical model for surface roughness was obtained from the experimental data using a regression analysis method. The experimental data are then compared with both the regression analysis results and ANFIS (Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System estimations.

3. Onderzoeksresultaten introductie CNC bij een zestal bedrijven

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Mal, van H.H.; Ottink, M.S.; Peters, R.B.

1987-01-01

In het kader van een afstudeerproject van de faculteit bedrijfskunde aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven is er een onderzoek gedaan naar het gebruik en de gevolgen van het gebruikvan CNC-bewerkings machines in industriële organisaties [1]. Het onderzoek werd uitgevoerd in een zestal bedrijven,

4. Integration and diversity of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors.

Science.gov (United States)

Motohashi, Hozumi; O'Connor, Tania; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

2002-07-10

Recent progress in the analysis of transcriptional regulation has revealed the presence of an exquisite functional network comprising the Maf and Cap 'n' collar (CNC) families of regulatory proteins, many of which have been isolated. Among Maf factors, large Maf proteins are important in the regulation of embryonic development and cell differentiation, whereas small Maf proteins serve as obligatory heterodimeric partner molecules for members of the CNC family. Both Maf homodimers and CNC-small Maf heterodimers bind to the Maf recognition element (MARE). Since the MARE contains a consensus TRE sequence recognized by AP-1, Jun and Fos family members may act to compete or interfere with the function of CNC-small Maf heterodimers. Overall then, the quantitative balance of transcription factors interacting with the MARE determines its transcriptional activity. Many putative MARE-dependent target genes such as those induced by antioxidants and oxidative stress are under concerted regulation by the CNC family member Nrf2, as clearly proven by mouse germline mutagenesis. Since these genes represent a vital aspect of the cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress, Nrf2-null mutant mice are highly sensitive to xenobiotic and oxidative insults. Deciphering the molecular basis of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors will undoubtedly lead to a new paradigm for the cooperative function of transcription factors.

5. Basic leucine zipper protein Cnc-C is a substrate and transcriptional regulator of the Drosophila 26S proteasome.

Science.gov (United States)

Grimberg, Kristian Björk; Beskow, Anne; Lundin, Daniel; Davis, Monica M; Young, Patrick

2011-02-01

While the 26S proteasome is a key proteolytic complex, little is known about how proteasome levels are maintained in higher eukaryotic cells. Here we describe an RNA interference (RNAi) screen of Drosophila melanogaster that was used to identify transcription factors that may play a role in maintaining levels of the 26S proteasome. We used an RNAi library against 993 Drosophila transcription factor genes to identify genes whose suppression in Schneider 2 cells stabilized a ubiquitin-green fluorescent protein reporter protein. This screen identified Cnc (cap 'n' collar [CNC]; basic region leucine zipper) as a candidate transcriptional regulator of proteasome component expression. In fact, 20S proteasome activity was reduced in cells depleted of cnc. Immunoblot assays against proteasome components revealed a general decline in both 19S regulatory complex and 20S proteasome subunits after RNAi depletion of this transcription factor. Transcript-specific silencing revealed that the longest of the seven transcripts for the cnc gene, cnc-C, was needed for proteasome and p97 ATPase production. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR confirmed the role of Cnc-C in activation of transcription of genes encoding proteasome components. Expression of a V5-His-tagged form of Cnc-C revealed that the transcription factor is itself a proteasome substrate that is stabilized when the proteasome is inhibited. We propose that this single cnc gene in Drosophila resembles the ancestral gene family of mammalian nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related transcription factors, which are essential in regulating oxidative stress and proteolysis.

6. Tailoring the yield and characteristics of wood cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using concentrated acid hydrolysis

Science.gov (United States)

Liheng Chen; Qianqian Wang; Kolby Hirth; Carlos Baez; Umesh P. Agarwal; J. Y. Zhu

2015-01-01

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) have recently received much attention in the global scientific community for their unique mechanical and optical properties. Here, we conducted the first detailed exploration of the basic properties of CNC, such as morphology, crystallinity, degree of sulfation and yield, as a function of production condition variables. The rapid cellulose...

7. ADAM13 cleavage of cadherin-11 promotes CNC migration independently of the homophilic binding site.

Science.gov (United States)

Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Becker, Sarah F; Kashef, Jubin; Alfandari, Dominique

2016-07-15

8. Frequent phosphodiesterase 11A gene (PDE11A) defects in patients with Carney complex (CNC) caused by PRKAR1A mutations: PDE11A may contribute to adrenal and testicular tumors in CNC as a modifier of the phenotype.

Science.gov (United States)

Libé, Rossella; Horvath, Anelia; Vezzosi, Delphine; Fratticci, Amato; Coste, Joel; Perlemoine, Karine; Ragazzon, Bruno; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Groussin, Lionel; Clauser, Eric; Raffin-Sanson, Marie-Laure; Siegel, Jennifer; Moran, Jason; Drori-Herishanu, Limor; Faucz, Fabio Rueda; Lodish, Maya; Nesterova, Maria; Bertagna, Xavier; Bertherat, Jerome; Stratakis, Constantine A

2011-01-01

Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominant multiple neoplasia, caused mostly by inactivating mutations of the regulatory subunit 1A of the protein kinase A (PRKAR1A). Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is the most frequent endocrine manifestation of CNC with a great inter-individual variability. Germline, protein-truncating mutations of phosphodiesterase type 11A (PDE11A) have been described to predispose to a variety of endocrine tumors, including adrenal and testicular tumors. Our objective was to investigate the role of PDE11A as a possible gene modifier of the phenotype in a series of 150 patients with CNC. A higher frequency of PDE11A variants in patients with CNC compared with healthy controls was found (25.3 vs. 6.8%, P CNC patients, those with PPNAD were significantly more frequently carriers of PDE11A variants compared with patients without PPNAD (30.8 vs. 13%, P = 0.025). Furthermore, men with PPNAD were significantly more frequently carriers of PDE11A sequence variants (40.7%) than women with PPNAD (27.3%) (P CNC patients, a high frequency of PDE11A variants, suggesting that PDE11A is a genetic modifying factor for the development of testicular and adrenal tumors in patients with germline PRKAR1A mutation.

9. Turning Wood Autohydrolysate Directly into Food Packing Composite Films with Good Toughness

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

YaJie Hu

2018-01-01

Full Text Available Bio-based composite films were produced by incorporating wood autohydrolysate (WH, chitosan (CS, and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC. In this work, WH was directly utilized without further purification, and CNC was introduced as the reinforced material to prepare WH-CS-CNC composite films with excellent properties. The effects of CNC on the properties of WH-CS-CNC composite films were investigated by characterizing their structures, mechanical properties, oxygen barrier, and thermal stability properties. The results suggested that CNC could improve tensile strength of the composite films, and the tensile strain at break could be up to 4.7%. Besides, the oxygen permeability of the prepared composite films could be as low as 3.57 cm3/day·m2·kPa, making them suitable for the food packaging materials. These above results showed that the addition of CNC is an effective method to enhance the toughness of composite films. In addition, WH-CS-CNC composite films have great potential in the field of sustainable food packing materials.

10. Investigation of influence of errors of cutting machines with CNC on displacement trajectory accuracy of their actuating devices

Science.gov (United States)

Fedonin, O. N.; Petreshin, D. I.; Ageenko, A. V.

2018-03-01

In the article, the issue of increasing a CNC lathe accuracy by compensating for the static and dynamic errors of the machine is investigated. An algorithm and a diagnostic system for a CNC machine tool are considered, which allows determining the errors of the machine for their compensation. The results of experimental studies on diagnosing and improving the accuracy of a CNC lathe are presented.

11. Accuracy and repeatability positioning of high-performancel athe for non-circular turning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Majda Paweł

2017-11-01

Full Text Available This paper presents research on the accuracy and repeatability of CNC axis positioning in an innovative lathe with an additional Xs axis. This axis is used to perform movements synchronized with the angular position of the main drive, i.e. the spindle, and with the axial feed along the Z axis. This enables the one-pass turning of non-circular surfaces, rope and trapezoidal threads, as well as the surfaces of rotary tools such as a gear cutting hob, etc. The paper presents and discusses the interpretation of results and the calibration effects of positioning errors in the lathe’s numerical control system. Finally, it shows the geometric characteristics of the rope thread turned at various spindle speeds, including before and after-correction of the positioning error of the Xs axis.

12. Accuracy and repeatability positioning of high-performancel athe for non-circular turning

Science.gov (United States)

Majda, Paweł; Powałka, Bartosz

2017-11-01

This paper presents research on the accuracy and repeatability of CNC axis positioning in an innovative lathe with an additional Xs axis. This axis is used to perform movements synchronized with the angular position of the main drive, i.e. the spindle, and with the axial feed along the Z axis. This enables the one-pass turning of non-circular surfaces, rope and trapezoidal threads, as well as the surfaces of rotary tools such as a gear cutting hob, etc. The paper presents and discusses the interpretation of results and the calibration effects of positioning errors in the lathe's numerical control system. Finally, it shows the geometric characteristics of the rope thread turned at various spindle speeds, including before and after-correction of the positioning error of the Xs axis.

13. Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

user

Bayoumi,. Kopac and Krajnik (2007) had presented the robust design of flank milling parameters dealing with the ... to manufacture low cost, high quality products in short time. ... CNC machines are considered most suitable in flexible manufacturing system. ... important factor that greatly influences production rate and cost.

14. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

V. V. Postnov

2014-07-01

Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

15. Design of Accelerated Reliability Test for CNC Motorized Spindle Based on Vibration Signal

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chen Chao

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Motorized spindle is the key functional component of CNC machining centers which is a mechatronics system with long life and high reliability. The reliability test cycle of motorized spindle is too long and infeasible. This paper proposes a new accelerated test for reliability evaluation of motorized spindle. By field reliability test, authors collect and calculate the load data including rotational speed, cutting force and torque. Load spectrum distribution law is analyzed. And authors design a test platform to apply the load spectrum. A new method to define the fuzzy acceleration factor based on the vibration signal is proposed. Then the whole test plan of accelerated reliability test is done.

16. Self-Improving CNC Milling Machine

OpenAIRE

Spilling, Torjus

2014-01-01

This thesis is a study of the ability of a CNC milling machine to create parts for itself, and an evaluation of whether or not the machine is able to improve itself by creating new machine parts. This will be explored by using off-the-shelf parts to build an initial machine, using 3D printing/rapid prototyping to create any special parts needed for the initial build. After an initial working machine is completed, the design of the machine parts will be adjusted so that the machine can start p...

17. Preparation of the CNC/Ag/beeswax composites for enhancing antibacterial and water resistance properties of paper.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Kai; Liang, Hunan; Nasrallah, Joseph; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Ni, Yonghao

2016-05-20

An effective method of preparing composites containing inorganic (Ag) and organic (beeswax) particles was established in this study. Ag nanoparticles were first immobilized on the cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) during the reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of CNC, then mixed with beeswax by high speed stirring. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images indicated that Ag and beeswax particles were uniformly dispersed and stable in the network structure formed by CNC. Upon coating on a paper surface, a layer of beeswax film was evident based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The dynamic contact angle and antibacterial activity tests indicated that the contact angle of coated paper reached 113.06° and the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli increased to 99.96%, respectively, at a coating amount of 21.53 g/m(2). When applied onto paper surface by coating, the CNC/Ag/beeswax composites can impact paper with antibacterial property and improved water resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Numerical Analysis of CNC Milling Chatter Using Embedded Miniature MEMS Microphone Array System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pang-Li Wang

2018-01-01

Full Text Available With the increasingly common use of industrial automation for mass production, there are many computer numerical control (CNC machine tools that require the collection of data from intelligent sensors in order to analyze their processing quality. In general, for high speed rotating machines, an accelerometer can be attached on the spindle to collect the data from the detected vibration of the CNC. However, due to their cost, accelerometers have not been widely adopted for use with typical CNC machine tools. This study sought to develop an embedded miniature MEMS microphone array system (Radius 5.25 cm, 8 channels to discover the vibration source of the CNC from spatial phase array processing. The proposed method utilizes voice activity detection (VAD to distinguish between the presence and absence of abnormal noise in the pre-stage, and utilizes the traditional direction of arrival method (DOA via multiple signal classification (MUSIC to isolate the spatial orientation of the noise source in post-processing. In the numerical simulation, the non-interfering noise source location is calibrated in the anechoic chamber, and is tested with real milling processing in the milling machine. As this results in a high background noise level, the vibration sound source is more accurate in the presented energy gradation graphs as compared to the traditional MUSIC method.

19. General Case in Determining Center-To-Center Spacing Between the Screw and the Roller in a Roller Drive, and Initial Contact Point of Their Mating Thread Turns. Development of Calculation Method and Software

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

D. S. Blinov

2017-01-01

20. Pemanfaatan TKKS Sebagai Pengisi Komposit Epoxy Untuk Struktur Bergerak Mesin CNC Perkayuan

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Farkhan

2017-04-01

Full Text Available Abstract CNC machinery is widely used at various kind of industrial sector to manufacture of art products up to satellite products. Instead of its massive utilization in automotive and electronic industry which mostly use metallic component, wood working industry has been using it to produces furniture’s, merchandises, and other house ware products which apply light weight non-metallic low density material. High removal rate in wood machining process needs high speed application due to its low density material; however most of wood working CNC machine is built on heavy steel structure for both its supporting structure and moving structure. In fact, the raw material is much lighter than the carrier itself. Its wasteful dynamic movement causes energy loses and vibrations that effect on machining accuracy, live of cutting tool, and productivity. This research applied new light weight composite material base on renewable resource of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB natural fiber as filler material combine with polymer epoxy as it’s matrix to be constructed as moving mechanical structure of high speed 3D CNC woodworking machine to improve its dynamic performance. Comparative analysis showed that it has better dynamic performance on high speed machining process compared with traditional cast iron material. Abstrak Mesin Perkakas CNC (Computerized Numerical Control digunakan luas oleh industri untuk memproduksi mulai dari benda-benda seni kerajinan hingga untuk membuat satelit. Selain pemanfaatannya secara besar-besaran di industri otomotif dan elektronika yang umumnya menggunakan komponen logam, industri perkayuan telah banyak menggunakannya untuk memproduksi mebel, barang kerajinan, dan peralatan rumah tangga lainnya dengan mengaplikasikan bahan bukan logam seperti kayu yang berberat jenis rendah dan ringan. Tingkat pemotongan yang tinggi pada proses permesinan kayu membutuhkan permesinan cepat akibat berat jenis bahannya yang rendah tersebut

1. An innovation on high-grade CNC machines tools for B-spline curve method of high-speed interpolation arithmetic

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Wanjun; Gao, Shanping; Cheng, Xiyan; Zhang, Feng

2017-04-01

A novel on high-grade CNC machines tools for B Spline curve method of High-speed interpolation arithmetic is introduced. In the high-grade CNC machines tools CNC system existed the type value points is more trouble, the control precision is not strong and so on, In order to solve this problem. Through specific examples in matlab7.0 simulation result showed that that the interpolation error significantly reduced, the control precision is improved markedly, and satisfy the real-time interpolation of high speed, high accuracy requirements.

2. Optimization of CNC end milling process parameters using PCA ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Optimization of CNC end milling process parameters using PCA-based Taguchi method. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... To meet the basic assumption of Taguchi method; in the present work, individual response correlations have been eliminated first by means of Principal Component ...

3. Ruthenium(II) Complexes Containing Lutidine-Derived Pincer CNC Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Hydrogenation of C-N bonds.

Science.gov (United States)

Hernández-Juárez, Martín; López-Serrano, Joaquín; Lara, Patricia; Morales-Cerón, Judith P; Vaquero, Mónica; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Salazar, Verónica; Suárez, Andrés

2015-05-11

A series of Ru complexes containing lutidine-derived pincer CNC ligands have been prepared by transmetalation with the corresponding silver-carbene derivatives. Characterization of these derivatives shows both mer and fac coordination of the CNC ligands depending on the wingtips of the N-heterocyclic carbene fragments. In the presence of tBuOK, the Ru-CNC complexes are active in the hydrogenation of a series of imines. In addition, these complexes catalyze the reversible hydrogenation of phenantridine. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies have shown the capability of the CNC ligand to be deprotonated and get involved in ligand-assisted activation of dihydrogen. More interestingly, upon deprotonation, the Ru-CNC complex 5 e(BF4 ) is able to add aldimines to the metal-ligand framework to yield an amido complex. Finally, investigation of the mechanism of the hydrogenation of imines has been carried out by means of DFT calculations. The calculated mechanism involves outer-sphere stepwise hydrogen transfer to the C-N bond assisted either by the pincer ligand or a second coordinated H2 molecule. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

4. Design and Implementation of 3 Axis CNC Router for Computer Aided Manufacturing Courses

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Aktan Mehmet Emin

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, it is intended to make the mechanical design of 3 axis Computer Numerical Control (CNC router with linear joints, production of electronic control interface cards and drivers and manufacturing of CNC router system which is a combination of mechanics and electronics. At the same time, interface program has been prepared to control router via USB. The router was developed for educational purpose. In some vocational schools and universities, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM courses are though rather theoretical. This situation cause ineffective and temporary learning. Moreover, students at schools which have the opportunity to apply for these systems can face with various dangerous accidents. Because of this situation, these students start to get knowledge about this system for the first time. For the first steps of CNC education, using smaller and less dangerous systems will be easier. A new concept CNC machine and its user interface suitable and profitable for education have been completely designed and realized during this study. To test the validity of the hypothesis which the benefits that may exist on the educational life, enhanced traditional education method with the contribution of the designed machine has been practiced on CAM course students for a semester. At the end of the semester, the new method applied students were more successful in the rate of 27.36 percent both in terms of verbal comprehension and exam grades.

5. Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite: a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue and malachite green from solutions.

Science.gov (United States)

Nekouei, Farzin; Nekouei, Shahram; Keshtpour, Farzaneh; Noorizadeh, Hossein; Wang, Shaobin

2017-11-01

In this article, Cr(OH) 3 nanoparticle-modified cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as a novel hybrid nanocomposite (Cr(OH) 3 -NPs-CNC) was prepared by a simple procedure and used as a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Different kinetic models were tested, and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found more suitable for the MB and MG adsorption processes. The BET and Langmuir models were more suitable for the adsorption processes of MB and MG. Thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption of MB and MG onto Cr(OH) 3 -NPs-CNC nanocomposite was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The maximum adsorption capacities for MB and MG were reached 106 and 104 mg/g, respectively, which were almost two times higher than unmodified CNC. The chemical stability and leaching tests of the Cr(OH) 3 -NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite showed that only small amounts of chromium were leached into the solution.

6. Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications.

Science.gov (United States)

Dunn, Christina R; Walker, David D

2008-11-10

In this paper we first contrast classical and CNC polishing techniques in regard to the repetitiveness of the machine motions. We then present a pseudo-random tool path for use with CNC sub-aperture polishing techniques and report polishing results from equivalent random and raster tool-paths. The random tool-path used - the unicursal random tool-path - employs a random seed to generate a pattern which never crosses itself. Because of this property, this tool-path is directly compatible with dwell time maps for corrective polishing. The tool-path can be used to polish any continuous area of any boundary shape, including surfaces with interior perforations.

7. Interactions between Lactobacillus sakei and CNC (Staphylococcus xylosus and Kocuria varians) and their influence on proteolytic activity.

Science.gov (United States)

Tremonte, P; Reale, A; Di Renzo, T; Tipaldi, L; Di Luccia, A; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E; Succi, M

2010-11-01

To evaluate interactions between Lactobacillus sakei and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) (Staphylococcus xylosus and Kocuria varians) and to investigate the influence of these interactions on their own proteolytic activity. Interactions occurring between strains of Lact. sakei and CNC were assessed by spectrophotometric analysis. The growth of 35 strains of Lact. sakei, used as indicators, was compared to that obtained combining the same strains with growing cells or cell-free supernatants of 20 CNC (18 Staph. xylosus and 2 K. varians). The proteolytic activity expressed by single strains or by their combinations was assessed on sarcoplasmic protein extracts by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results evidenced that interactions are able to affect not only the growth but also the in vitro proteolytic activity of Lact. sakei and CNC used in combination. A relationship between the presence of interactions among useful strains and the strength of technological characteristics, such as proteolysis, was defined. The study highlighted that CNC are able to stimulate the growth of some Lact. sakei strains. At the same time, this interaction positively influences the proteolytic activity of strains used in combination. Given the importance of proteolysis during the ripening of fermented meats, this phenomenon should be taken into account to select meat starter cultures. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

8. Optimization of machining parameters of hard porcelain on a CNC ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Optimization of machining parameters of hard porcelain on a CNC machine by Taguchi-and RSM method. ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2018) > ... The conduct of experiments was made by employing the Taguchi's L27 Orthogonal array to ...

9. Alginate based nanocomposite for microencapsulation of probiotic: Effect of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and lecithin.

Science.gov (United States)

Huq, Tanzina; Fraschini, Carole; Khan, Avik; Riedl, Bernard; Bouchard, Jean; Lacroix, Monique

2017-07-15

10. Protocadherin PAPC is expressed in the CNC and can compensate for the loss of PCNS.

Science.gov (United States)

Schneider, Martina; Huang, Chaolie; Becker, Sarah F S; Gradl, Dietmar; Wedlich, Doris

2014-02-01

11. Optical sensor platform based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) - 4'-(hexyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (HOBC) bi-phase nematic liquid crystal composite films.

Science.gov (United States)

Santos, Moliria V; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Barud, Hernane S; Napoli, Mariana; Nalin, Marcelo; Ribeiro, Sidney J L

2017-07-15

The preparation of composite materials has gained tremendous attention due to the potential synergy of the combined materials. Here we fabricate novel thermal/electrical responsive photonic composite films combining cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) with a low molecular weight nematic liquid crystal (NLC), 4'-(hexyloxy)-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (HOBC). The obtained composite material combines both intense structural coloration of photonic cellulose and thermal and conductive properties of NLC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results confirmed that liquid crystals coated CNC films maintain chiral nematic structure characteristic of CNC film and simultaneously, transversal cross-section scanning electron microscopy images indicated penetration of liquid crystals through the CNC layers. Investigated composite film maintain NLC optical properties being switchable as a function of temperature during heating/cooling cycles. The relationship between the morphology and thermoresponsive in the micro/nanostructured materials was investigated by using transmission optical microscopy (TOM). Conductive response of the composite films was proved by Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) measurement. Designed thermo- and electro-responsive materials open novel simple pathway of fabrication of CNC-based materials with tunable properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

12. The effect of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) from rattan biomass as filler and citric acid as co-plasticizer on tensile properties of sago starch biocomposite

Science.gov (United States)

Nasution, Halimatuddahliana; Harahap, Hamidah; Afandy, Yayang; Fath, M. Thoriq Al

2017-11-01

Biocomposite containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from rattan biomass as fillers and citric acid as co-plasticizer. Rattan biomass is a fiber waste from processing industry of rattan which contains 37.6% cellulose. Isolation of alpha cellulose from rattan biomass was prepared by using three stages: delignification, alkalization, and bleaching. It was delignificated with 3.5% HNO3 and NaNO2, precipitated with 17.5% NaOH, bleaching process with 10% H2O2. The preparation of CNC includes acid hydrolysis using 45% H2SO4 and followed by mechanical processes of ultrasonication, centrifugation, and filtration with a dialysis membrane. Biocomposite was prepared using a solution casting method, which includes 1-4 wt % CNC as fillers, 10-40 wt% citric acid as co-plasticizer and 30 wt% glycerol as plasticizer. The results of TGA, SEM and XRD characteristic of CNC show that CNC has low residue mass, rod like and network like shape with crystallinity index 84.46%. Biocomposite characteristic consists of SEM, tensile strength and elongation at break. The resultshows that biocomposites by addition of CNC and citric acid have a smooth surface and homogeneous distribution of fillers. The tensile strength of biocomposites was increased by addition CNC and citric acid. The addition of CNC decreases the elongation at break but by addition of citric acid, the elongation at break was increased.

13. Are computer numerical control (CNC)-manufactured patient-specific metal templates available for posterior thoracic pedicle screw insertion? Feasibility and accuracy evaluation.

Science.gov (United States)

Kong, Xiangxue; Tang, Lei; Ye, Qiang; Huang, Wenhua; Li, Jianyi

2017-11-01

Accurate and safe posterior thoracic pedicle insertion (PTPI) remains a challenge. Patient-specific drill templates (PDTs) created by rapid prototyping (RP) can assist in posterior thoracic pedicle insertion, but pose biocompatibility risks. The aims of this study were to develop alternative PDTs with computer numerical control (CNC) and assess their feasibility and accuracy in assisting PTPI. Preoperative CT images of 31 cadaveric thoracic vertebras were obtained and then the optimal pedicle screw trajectories were planned. The PDTs with optimal screw trajectories were randomly assigned to be designed and manufactured by CNC or RP in each vertebra. With the guide of the CNC- or RP-manufactured PDTs, the appropriate screws were inserted into the pedicles. Postoperative CT scans were performed to analyze any deviations at entry point and midpoint of the pedicles. The CNC group was found to be significant manufacture-time-shortening, and cost-decreasing, when compared with the RP group (P  0.05). The screw positions were grade 0 in 90.3% and grade 1 in 9.7% of the cases in the CNC group and grade 0 in 93.5% and grade 1 in 6.5% of the cases in the RP group (P = 0.641). CNC-manufactured PDTs are viable for assisting in PTPI with good feasibility and accuracy.

14. Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of 55 Cnc e

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Rodler, Florian

2014-01-01

We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e collected during six transit events between 2012 January and 2013 November with HARPS and HARPS-N. We detect no radial velocity signal above 35 cm s–1 (3σ) and confine the stellar v sin i to 0.2 ± 0.5 km s–1. The s...

15. Fidget with Widgets: CNC Activity Introduces the Flatbed Router

Science.gov (United States)

Tryon, Daniel V.

2006-01-01

The computer numerical control (CNC) flatbed router is a powerful tool and a must-have piece of equipment for any technology education program in which students will produce a product--whether it involves Manufacturing, Materials Processing, or any of the vast array of Project Lead the Way courses. This article describes an activity--producing a…

16. Catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to formates by lutidine-derived Ru-CNC pincer complex : theoretical insight into unrealized potential

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Filonenko, G.; Smykowski, D.; Szyja, B.M.; Li, G.; Szczygiel, J.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Pidko, E.A.

2015-01-01

Metal-ligand cooperative properties of a bis-N-heterocyclic carbene ruthenium CNC-pincer catalyst and its activity in CO2 hydrogenation to formates were studied by DFT calculations complemented by NMR spectroscopy and kinetic measurements. The dearomatized Ru-CNC* pincer (1*) is significantly more

17. Active chatter suppression with displacement-only measurement in turning process

Science.gov (United States)

Ma, Haifeng; Wu, Jianhua; Yang, Liuqing; Xiong, Zhenhua

2017-08-01

Regenerative chatter is a major hindrance for achieving high quality and high production rate in machining processes. Various active controllers have been proposed to mitigate chatter. However, most of existing controllers were developed on the basis of multi-states feedback of the system and state observers were usually needed. Moreover, model parameters of the machining process (mass, damping and stiffness) were required in existing active controllers. In this study, an active sliding mode controller, which employs a dynamic output feedback sliding surface for the unmatched condition and an adaptive law for disturbance estimation, is designed, analyzed, and validated for chatter suppression in turning process. Only displacement measurement is required by this approach. Other sensors and state observers are not needed. Moreover, it facilitates a rapid implementation since the designed controller is established without using model parameters of the turning process. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experiments on a computer numerical control (CNC) lathe are presented. It shows that the chatter can be substantially attenuated and the chatter-free region can be significantly expanded with the presented method.

18. A comparison between customized clear and removable orthodontic appliances manufactured using RP and CNC techniques.

Science.gov (United States)

Martorelli, Massimo; Gerbino, Salvatore; Giudice, Michele; Ausiello, Pietro

2013-02-01

Aim of the research is to compare the orthodontic appliances fabricated by using rapid prototyping (RP) systems, in particular 3D printers, with those manufactured by using computer numerical control (CNC) milling machines. 3D printing is today a well-accepted technology to fabricate orthodontic aligners by using the thermoforming process, instead the potential of CNC systems in dentistry have not yet been sufficiently explored. One patient, with mal-positioned maxillary central and lateral incisors, was initially selected. In the computer aided virtual planning was defined that, for the treatment, the patient needed to wear a series of 7 removable orthodontic appliances (ROA) over a duration of 21 weeks, with one appliance for every 3 weeks. A non-contact reverse engineering (RE) structured-light 3D scanner was used to create the 3D STL model of the impression of the patient's mouth. Numerical FEM simulations were performed varying the position of applied forces (discrete and continuous forces) on the same model, simulating, in this way, 3 models with slice thickness of 0.2 mm, 0.1 mm (RP staircase effect) and without slicing (ideal case). To define the areas of application of forces, two configuration "i" and "i-1" of the treatment were overlapped. 6 patients to which for three steps (3rd, 4th and 5th step) were made to wear aligners fabricated starting from physical models by 3D printing (3DP-ROA) and afterwards, for the next steps (6th, 7th and 8th step), aligners fabricated starting from physical models by CNC milling machine (CNC-ROA), were selected. For the 6 patients wearing the CNC-ROA, it was observed a best fitting of the aligner to the teeth and a more rapid teeth movement than the 3DP-ROA (2 weeks compared to 3 weeks for every appliance). FEM simulations showed a more uniform stress distribution for CNC-ROA than 3DP-ROA. In this research, 6 different case studies and CAD-FEM simulations showed that, to fabricate an efficient clear and removable

19. Complexity of CNC transcription factors as revealed by gene targeting of the Nrf3 locus.

Science.gov (United States)

Derjuga, Anna; Gourley, Tania S; Holm, Teresa M; Heng, Henry H Q; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Ahmed, Rafi; Andrews, Nancy C; Blank, Volker

2004-04-01

Cap'n'collar (CNC) family basic leucine zipper transcription factors play crucial roles in the regulation of mammalian gene expression and development. To determine the in vivo function of the CNC protein Nrf3 (NF-E2-related factor 3), we generated mice deficient in this transcription factor. We performed targeted disruption of two Nrf3 exons coding for CNC homology, basic DNA-binding, and leucine zipper dimerization domains. Nrf3 null mice developed normally and revealed no obvious phenotypic differences compared to wild-type animals. Nrf3(-/-) mice were fertile, and gross anatomy as well as behavior appeared normal. The mice showed normal age progression and did not show any apparent additional phenotype during their life span. We observed no differences in various blood parameters and chemistry values. We infected wild-type and Nrf3(-/-) mice with acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and found no differences in these animals with respect to their number of virus-specific CD8 and CD4 T cells as well as their B-lymphocyte response. To determine whether the mild phenotype of Nrf3 null animals is due to functional redundancy, we generated mice deficient in multiple CNC factors. Contrary to our expectations, an absence of Nrf3 does not seem to cause additional lethality in compound Nrf3(-/-)/Nrf2(-/-) and Nrf3(-/-)/p45(-/-) mice. We hypothesize that the role of Nrf3 in vivo may become apparent only after appropriate challenge to the mice.

20. A comparison of fit of CNC-milled titanium and zirconia frameworks to implants.

Science.gov (United States)

Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl; Waddell, Neil; Bennani, Vincent; Swain, Michael

2012-05-01

Computer numeric controlled (CNC) milling was proven to be predictable method to fabricate accurately fitting implant titanium frameworks. However, no data are available regarding the fit of CNC-milled implant zirconia frameworks. To compare the precision of fit of implant frameworks milled from titanium and zirconia and relate it to peri-implant strain development after framework fixation. A partially edentulous epoxy resin models received two Branemark implants in the areas of the lower left second premolar and second molar. From this model, 10 identical frameworks were fabricated by mean of CNC milling. Half of them were made from titanium and the other half from zirconia. Strain gauges were mounted close to the implants to qualitatively and quantitatively assess strain development as a result of framework fitting. In addition, the fit of the framework implant interface was measured using an optical microscope, when only one screw was tightened (passive fit) and when all screws were tightened (vertical fit). The data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. All frameworks produced measurable amounts of peri-implant strain. The zirconia frameworks produced significantly less strain than titanium. Combining the qualitative and quantitative information indicates that the implants were under vertical displacement rather than horizontal. The vertical fit was similar for zirconia (3.7 µm) and titanium (3.6 µm) frameworks; however, the zirconia frameworks exhibited a significantly finer passive fit (5.5 µm) than titanium frameworks (13.6 µm). CNC milling produced zirconia and titanium frameworks with high accuracy. The difference between the two materials in terms of fit is expected to be of minimal clinical significance. The strain developed around the implants was more related to the framework fit rather than framework material. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

1. Intellectual Control System of Processing on CNC Machines

OpenAIRE

Nekrasov, R. Y.; Lasukov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich; Starikov, A. I.; Soloviev, I. V.; Bekareva, O. V.

2016-01-01

Scientific and technical progress makes great demands for quality of engineering production. The priority is to ensure metalworking equipment with required dimensional accuracy during the entire period of operation at minimum manufacturing costs. In article considered the problem of increasing of accuracy of processing products on CNC. The authors offers a solution to the problem by providing compensating adjustment in the trajectory of the cutting tool and machining mode. The necessity of cr...

2. PENGARUH TEKNIK PENYAYATAN PAHAT MILLING PADA CNC MILLING 3 AXIS TERHADAP TINGKAT KEKASARAN PERMUKAAN BENDA BERKONTUR

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Irawan Irawan

2016-06-01

Full Text Available Dalam perindustrian penggunaan mesin CNC Milling sangat di andalkan untuk mendapatkan hasil yang optimum baik secara kualitas maupun kuantitas. Akan tetapi muncul permasalahan,bagaimana pengaruh perbedaan teknik penyayatan terhadap nilai kekasaran permukaan benda kerja berkontur dalam proses milling CNC. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh metode penyayatan pahat milling terhadap kekasaran permukaan benda kerja berkontur yang di hasilkan pada proses freis dengan menggunakan mesin milling CNC - 3Axis Makino S33. Peneliitan ini merancang dan membuat molding Cover stop kontak dikarenakan permukaan produk cover stop kontak memiliki permukaan yang berkontur. Molding ini terdiri dari Core dan Cavity. Benda kerja yang akan di ujicoba adalah bagian Core sebanyak 3 buah. Dalam pengerjaanya benda ujicoba diberikan perlakuan yang sama antara lain, kedalaman pemotongan, kecepatan spindle, dan jenis pahat yang di gunakan, kemudian dari ke 3 benda kerja tersebut masing- masing di tentukan 3 titik pengukuran. Dari hasil pengujian yang di peroleh kemudian dilakukan analisis tabel. Nilai kekasaran permukaan terendah (rata-rata kekasaran 0.899µ m dengan waktu permesinan tercepat (waktu proses 1 jam 08 menit pada penggunaan metode penyayatan 3D offset finishing. Penulis menyarankan agar dalam proses freis menggunakan mesin milling CNC 3Axis Makino S33 pada permukaan benda yang berkontur, untuk mendapatkan nilai kekasaran yang terendah disarankan menggunakan metode penyayatan 3D offset finishing.

3. Hole Feature on Conical Face Recognition for Turning Part Model

Science.gov (United States)

Zubair, A. F.; Abu Mansor, M. S.

2018-03-01

Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP) is the bridge between CAD and CAM and pre-processing of the CAD data in the CAPP system is essential. For CNC turning part, conical faces of part model is inevitable to be recognised beside cylindrical and planar faces. As the sinus cosines of the cone radius structure differ according to different models, face identification in automatic feature recognition of the part model need special intention. This paper intends to focus hole on feature on conical faces that can be detected by CAD solid modeller ACIS via. SAT file. Detection algorithm of face topology were generated and compared. The study shows different faces setup for similar conical part models with different hole type features. Three types of holes were compared and different between merge faces and unmerge faces were studied.

4. Keyboard with Universal Communication Protocol Applied to CNC Machine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mejía-Ugalde Mario

2014-04-01

Full Text Available This article describes the use of a universal communication protocol for industrial keyboard based microcontroller applied to computer numerically controlled (CNC machine. The main difference among the keyboard manufacturers is that each manufacturer has its own programming of source code, producing a different communication protocol, generating an improper interpretation of the function established. The above results in commercial industrial keyboards which are expensive and incompatible in their connection with different machines. In the present work the protocol allows to connect the designed universal keyboard and the standard keyboard of the PC at the same time, it is compatible with all the computers through the communications USB, AT or PS/2, to use in CNC machines, with extension to other machines such as robots, blowing, injection molding machines and others. The advantages of this design include its easy reprogramming, decreased costs, manipulation of various machine functions and easy expansion of entry and exit signals. The results obtained of performance tests were satisfactory, because each key has the programmed and reprogrammed facility in different ways, generating codes for different functions, depending on the application where it is required to be used.

5. Using the modern CNC controllers capabilities for estimating the machining forces during the milling process

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Machining forces can nowadays be measured by using 3D dynamometers, which are usually very expensive devices and hardly available for most of the CNC machine-tools users. On the other hand, modern CNC controllers have nowadays the ability to display and save many outputs within the machining process, such as the currents or even the torques at the shaft's level for the feed motors on each axis. These outputs can be used for estimating the machining forces, but it is to be noticed that the above-mentioned currents and torques are proportional with the overall resistant forces, which includes not only technological forces, but also friction, inertial and pre-tensioning forces. This paper presents an approach for estimating the machining forces during a milling process, by using the outputs stored in the CNC controller and separating the effects of technological forces from the other forces involved in the process. The separation was made by running two sets of experiments, one set for dry-run regime and the other one for machining regime.

6. Valence shell threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of the CHxCN (x = 0-2) and CNC radicals.

Science.gov (United States)

Garcia, Gustavo A; Krüger, Julia; Gans, Bérenger; Falvo, Cyril; Coudert, Laurent H; Loison, Jean-Christophe

2017-07-07

We present the photoelectron spectroscopy of four radical species, CH x CN (x = 0-2) and CNC, formed in a microwave discharge flow-tube reactor by consecutive H abstractions from CH 3 CN (CH x CN + F → CH x-1 CN + HF (x = 1-3)). The spectra were obtained combining tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation with double imaging electron/ion coincidence techniques, which yielded mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra. The results obtained for H 2 CCN complement existing ones while for the other radicals the data represent the first observation of their (single-photon) ionizing transitions. In the case of H 2 CCN, Franck-Condon calculations have been performed in order to assign the vibrational structure of the X + 1 A 1 ←X 2 B 1 ionizing transition. A similar treatment for the HCCN, CCN, and CNC radicals appeared to be more complicated mainly because a Renner-Teller effect strongly affects the vibrational levels of the ground electronic state of the HCCN + , CCN, and CNC species. Nevertheless, the first adiabatic ionization energies of these radicals are reported and compared to our ab initio calculated values, leading to new values for enthalpies of formation (Δ f H 298 0 (HCCN + (X 2 A ' ))=1517±12kJmol -1 ,Δ f H 298 0 (CCN(X 2 Π))=682±13kJmol -1 , and Δ f H 298 0 (CNC(X 2 Πg))=676±12kJmol -1 ), which are of fundamental importance for astrochemistry.

7. Methods of In-Process On-Machine Auto-Inspection of Dimensional Error and Auto-Compensation of Tool Wear for Precision Turning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shih-Ming Wang

2016-04-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is mainly to develop an information and communication technology (ICT-based intelligent dimension inspection and tool wear compensation method for precision tuning. With the use of vibration signal processing/characteristics analysis technology combined with ICT, statistical analysis, and diagnosis algorithms, the method can be used to proceed with an on-line dimension inspection and on-machine tool wear auto-compensation for the turning process. Meanwhile, the method can also monitor critical tool life to identify the appropriate time for cutter replacement to reduce machining costs and improve the production efficiency of the turning process. Compared to the traditional ways, the method offers the advantages of requiring less manpower, and having better production efficiency, high tool life, fewer scrap parts, and low costs for inspection instruments. Algorithms and diagnosis threshold values for the detection, cutter wear compensation, and cutter life monitoring were developed. In addition, a bilateral communication module utilizing FANUC Open CNC (computer numerical control Application Programming Interface (API Spec was developed for the on-line extraction of instant NC (numerical control codes for monitoring and transmit commands to CNC controllers for cutter wear compensation. With use of local area networks (LAN to deliver the detection and correction information, the proposed method was able to remotely control the on-machine monitoring process and upload the machining and inspection data to a remote central platform for further production optimization. The verification experiments were conducted on a turning production line. The results showed that the system provided 93% correction for size inspection and 100% correction for cutter wear compensation.

8. A CNC Sheetmetal Fabrication System for Production of Ships Ventilation Components and Flatwork

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Galie, Thomas R; Blais, David R

1981-01-01

.... By utilizing computer graphics technology and Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machine tools, it is possible to reduce the manhours required for fabrication of ventilation and flatwork by as much as 40 percent...

9. Comprehensive reliability allocation method for CNC lathes based on cubic transformed functions of failure mode and effects analysis

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Yunpeng; Ren, Hongrui; Zhang, Yimin

2015-03-01

Reliability allocation of computerized numerical controlled(CNC) lathes is very important in industry. Traditional allocation methods only focus on high-failure rate components rather than moderate failure rate components, which is not applicable in some conditions. Aiming at solving the problem of CNC lathes reliability allocating, a comprehensive reliability allocation method based on cubic transformed functions of failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is presented. Firstly, conventional reliability allocation methods are introduced. Then the limitations of direct combination of comprehensive allocation method with the exponential transformed FMEA method are investigated. Subsequently, a cubic transformed function is established in order to overcome these limitations. Properties of the new transformed functions are discussed by considering the failure severity and the failure occurrence. Designers can choose appropriate transform amplitudes according to their requirements. Finally, a CNC lathe and a spindle system are used as an example to verify the new allocation method. Seven criteria are considered to compare the results of the new method with traditional methods. The allocation results indicate that the new method is more flexible than traditional methods. By employing the new cubic transformed function, the method covers a wider range of problems in CNC reliability allocation without losing the advantages of traditional methods.

10. Pincer-CNC mononuclear, dinuclear and heterodinuclear Au(III) and Pt(II) complexes supported by mono- and poly-N-heterocyclic carbenes: synthesis and photophysical properties.

Science.gov (United States)

Gonell, S; Poyatos, M; Peris, E

2016-04-07

A family of cyclometallated Au(iii) and Pt(ii) complexes containing a CNC-pincer ligand (CNC = 2,6-diphenylpyridine) supported by pyrene-based mono- or bis-NHC ligands have been synthesized and characterized, together with the preparation of a Pt-Au hetero-dimetallic complex based on a Y-shaped tris-NHC ligand. The photophysical properties of all the new species and of two related Ru(ii)-arene complexes were studied and compared. Whereas the pyrene-based complexes only exhibit emission in solution, those containing the Y-shaped tris-NHC ligand are only luminescent when dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). In particular, the pyrene-based complexes were found to be emissive in the range of 373-440 nm, with quantum yields ranging from 3.1 to 6.3%, and their emission spectra were found to be almost superimposable, pointing to the fluorescent pyrene-centered nature of the emission. This observation suggests that the emission properties of the pyrene fragment may be combined with some of the numerous applications of NHCs as supporting ligands allowing, for instance, the design of biological luminescent agents.

11. Energy Demand Modeling Methodology of Key State Transitions of Turning Processes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shun Jia

2017-04-01

Full Text Available Energy demand modeling of machining processes is the foundation of energy optimization. Energy demand of machining state transition is integral to the energy requirements of the machining process. However, research focus on energy modeling of state transition is scarce. To fill this gap, an energy demand modeling methodology of key state transitions of the turning process is proposed. The establishment of an energy demand model of state transition could improve the accuracy of the energy model of the machining process, which also provides an accurate model and reliable data for energy optimization of the machining process. Finally, case studies were conducted on a CK6153i CNC lathe, the results demonstrating that predictive accuracy with the proposed method is generally above 90% for the state transition cases.

12. Automatic Generation of Setup for CNC Spring Coiler Based on Case-based Reasoning

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

KU Xiangchen; WANG Runxiao; LI Jishun; WANG Dongbo

2006-01-01

When producing special-shape spring in CNC spring coiler, the setup of the coiler is often a manual work using a trial-and-error method. As a result, the setup of coiler consumes so much time and becomes the bottleneck of the spring production process. In order to cope with this situation, this paper proposes an automatic generation system of setup for CNC spring coiler using case-based reasoning (CBR). The core of the study contains: (1) integrated reasoning model of CBR system;(2) spatial shape describe of special-shape spring based on feature;(3) coiling case representation using shape feature matrix; and (4) case similarity measure algorithm. The automatic generation system has implemented with C++ Builder 6.0 and is helpful in improving the automaticity and efficiency of spring coiler.

13. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Roni Permana Saputra

2012-03-01

Full Text Available This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC using personal computer (PC implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM. NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of the microcontroller with the driver actuator of the FCM in the form of a DC motor. The obtained result is in the form of a CNC router control system prototype to be implemented in the FCM which is capable to perform linear interpolation and circular interpolation.

14. Modeling of optimization strategies in the incremental CNC sheet metal forming process

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bambach, M.; Hirt, G.; Ames, J.

2004-01-01

Incremental CNC sheet forming (ISF) is a relatively new sheet metal forming process for small batch production and prototyping. In ISF, a blank is shaped by the CNC movements of a simple tool in combination with a simplified die. The standard forming strategies in ISF entail two major drawbacks: (i) the inherent forming kinematics set limits on the maximum wall angle that can be formed with ISF. (ii) since elastic parts of the imposed deformation can currently not be accounted for in CNC code generation, the standard strategies can lead to undesired deviations between the target and the sample geometry.Several enhancements have recently been put forward to overcome the above limitations, among them a multistage forming strategy to manufacture steep flanges, and a correction algorithm to improve the geometric accuracy. Both strategies have been successful in improving the forming of simple parts. However, the high experimental effort to empirically optimize the tool paths motivates the use of process modeling techniques.This paper deals with finite element modeling of the ISF process. In particular, the outcome of different multistage strategies is modeled and compared to collated experimental results regarding aspects such as sheet thickness and the onset of wrinkling. Moreover, the feasibility of modeling the geometry of a part is investigated as this is of major importance with respect to optimizing the geometric accuracy. Experimental validation is achieved by optical deformation measurement that gives the local displacements and strains of the sheet during forming as benchmark quantities for the simulation

15. Fatigue and Model Analysis of the CNC Cylindrical Grinder

OpenAIRE

Lin Jui-Chang; Lin Cheng-Jen

2016-01-01

The purpose of this study is to lower deviation of workpiece by meeting high stability and rigidity to prevent the resonance in producing procedure of the CNC universal cylindrical grinding machine. Using finite element analysis software ABAQUS in grinder machine tools for numerical simulation of several analyses for the following: structural rigidity analysis, optimized design, vibration frequency analysis and fatigue damage analysis. This work aims on state of the transmission of outer diam...

16. Modeling and Analysis of CNC Milling Process Parameters on Al3030 based Composite

Science.gov (United States)

Gupta, Anand; Soni, P. K.; Krishna, C. M.

2018-04-01

The machining of Al3030 based composites on Computer Numerical Control (CNC) high speed milling machine have assumed importance because of their wide application in aerospace industries, marine industries and automotive industries etc. Industries mainly focus on surface irregularities; material removal rate (MRR) and tool wear rate (TWR) which usually depends on input process parameters namely cutting speed, feed in mm/min, depth of cut and step over ratio. Many researchers have carried out researches in this area but very few have taken step over ratio or radial depth of cut also as one of the input variables. In this research work, the study of characteristics of Al3030 is carried out at high speed CNC milling machine over the speed range of 3000 to 5000 r.p.m. Step over ratio, depth of cut and feed rate are other input variables taken into consideration in this research work. A total nine experiments are conducted according to Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. The machining is carried out on high speed CNC milling machine using flat end mill of diameter 10mm. Flatness, MRR and TWR are taken as output parameters. Flatness has been measured using portable Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). Linear regression models have been developed using Minitab 18 software and result are validated by conducting selected additional set of experiments. Selection of input process parameters in order to get best machining outputs is the key contributions of this research work.

17. Development of Client-Server Application by Using UDP Socket Programming for Remotely Monitoring CNC Machine Environment in Fixture Process

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Darmawan Darmawan

2016-08-01

Full Text Available The use of computer technology in manufacturing industries can improve manufacturing flexibility significantly, especially in manufacturing processes; many software applications have been utilized to improve machining performance. However, none of them has discussed the abilities to perform direct machining. In this paper, an integrated system for remote operation and monitoring of Computer Numerical Control (CNC machines is put into consideration. The integrated system includes computerization, network technology, and improved holding mechanism. The work proposed by this research is mainly on the software development for such integrated system. It uses Java three-dimensional (3D programming and Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML at the client side for visualization of machining environment. This research is aimed at developing a control system to remotely operate and monitor a self-reconfiguration fixture mechanism of a CNC milling machine through internet connection and integration of Personal Computer (PC-based CNC controller, a server side, a client side and CNC milling. The performance of the developed system was evaluated by testing with one type of common protocols particularly User Datagram Protocol (UDP.  Using UDP, the developed system requires 3.9 seconds to complete the close clamping, less than 1 second to release the clamping and it can deliver 463 KiloByte.

18. Modeling of Geometric Error in Linear Guide Way to Improved the vertical three-axis CNC Milling machine’s accuracy

Science.gov (United States)

Kwintarini, Widiyanti; Wibowo, Agung; Arthaya, Bagus M.; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna

2018-03-01

The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of three-axis CNC Milling Vertical engines with a general approach by using mathematical modeling methods of machine tool geometric errors. The inaccuracy of CNC machines can be caused by geometric errors that are an important factor during the manufacturing process and during the assembly phase, and are factors for being able to build machines with high-accuracy. To improve the accuracy of the three-axis vertical milling machine, by knowing geometric errors and identifying the error position parameters in the machine tool by arranging the mathematical modeling. The geometric error in the machine tool consists of twenty-one error parameters consisting of nine linear error parameters, nine angle error parameters and three perpendicular error parameters. The mathematical modeling approach of geometric error with the calculated alignment error and angle error in the supporting components of the machine motion is linear guide way and linear motion. The purpose of using this mathematical modeling approach is the identification of geometric errors that can be helpful as reference during the design, assembly and maintenance stages to improve the accuracy of CNC machines. Mathematically modeling geometric errors in CNC machine tools can illustrate the relationship between alignment error, position and angle on a linear guide way of three-axis vertical milling machines.

19. Research on criticality analysis method of CNC machine tools components under fault rate correlation

Science.gov (United States)

Gui-xiang, Shen; Xian-zhuo, Zhao; Zhang, Ying-zhi; Chen-yu, Han

2018-02-01

In order to determine the key components of CNC machine tools under fault rate correlation, a system component criticality analysis method is proposed. Based on the fault mechanism analysis, the component fault relation is determined, and the adjacency matrix is introduced to describe it. Then, the fault structure relation is hierarchical by using the interpretive structure model (ISM). Assuming that the impact of the fault obeys the Markov process, the fault association matrix is described and transformed, and the Pagerank algorithm is used to determine the relative influence values, combined component fault rate under time correlation can obtain comprehensive fault rate. Based on the fault mode frequency and fault influence, the criticality of the components under the fault rate correlation is determined, and the key components are determined to provide the correct basis for equationting the reliability assurance measures. Finally, taking machining centers as an example, the effectiveness of the method is verified.

20. Direct Trajectory Interpolation on the Surface using an Open CNC

OpenAIRE

Beudaert , Xavier; Lavernhe , Sylvain; Tournier , Christophe

2014-01-01

International audience; Free-form surfaces are used for many industrial applications from aeronautical parts, to molds or biomedical implants. In the common machining process, computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software generates approximated tool paths because of the limitation induced by the input tool path format of the industrial CNC. Then, during the tool path interpolation, marks on finished surfaces can appear induced by non smooth feedrate planning. Managing the geometry of the tool p...

1. 3D Printing device adaptable to Computer Numerical Control (CNC)

OpenAIRE

GARDAN , Julien; Danesi , F.; Roucoules , Lionel; Schneider , A.

2014-01-01

This article presents the development of a 3D printing device for the additive manufacturing adapted to a CNC machining. The application involves the integration of a specific printing head. Additive manufacturing technology is most commonly used for modeling, prototyping, tooling through an exclusive machine or 3D printer. A global review and analysis of technologies show the additive manufacturing presents little independent solutions [6][9]. The problem studied especially the additive manu...

2. A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

Science.gov (United States)

Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

2016-09-27

Binary catalyst systems comprising a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex and an alkali metal salt were developed for selective hydroboration of CO 2 utilizing pinacolborane at r.t. and 1 atm CO 2 , with the combination of [Ru(CNC Bn )(CO) 2 (H)][PF 6 ] and KOCO 2 t Bu producing formoxyborane in 76% yield. A bicyclic catalytic mechanism was proposed and discussed.

3. An Improved Minimum Error Interpolator of CNC for General Curves Based on FPGA

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jiye HUANG

2014-05-01

Full Text Available This paper presents an improved minimum error interpolation algorithm for general curves generation in computer numerical control (CNC. Compared with the conventional interpolation algorithms such as the By-Point Comparison method, the Minimum- Error method and the Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA method, the proposed improved Minimum-Error interpolation algorithm can find a balance between accuracy and efficiency. The new algorithm is applicable for the curves of linear, circular, elliptical and parabolic. The proposed algorithm is realized on a field programmable gate array (FPGA with Verilog HDL language, and simulated by the ModelSim software, and finally verified on a two-axis CNC lathe. The algorithm has the following advantages: firstly, the maximum interpolation error is only half of the minimum step-size; and secondly the computing time is only two clock cycles of the FPGA. Simulations and actual tests have proved that the high accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm, which shows that it is highly suited for real-time applications.

4. Constant Cutting Force Control for CNC Machining Using Dynamic Characteristic-Based Fuzzy Controller

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hengli Liu

2015-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic characteristic-based fuzzy adaptive control algorithm (DCbFACA to avoid the influence of cutting force changing rapidly on the machining stability and precision. The cutting force is indirectly obtained in real time by monitoring and extraction of the motorized spindle current, the feed speed is fuzzy adjusted online, and the current was used as a feedback to control cutting force and maintain the machining process stable. Different from the traditional fuzzy control methods using the experience-based control rules, and according to the complex nonlinear characteristics of CNC machining, the power bond graph method is implemented to describe the dynamic characteristics of process, and then the appropriate variation relations are achieved between current and feed speed, and the control rules are optimized and established based on it. The numerical results indicated that DCbFACA can make the CNC machining process more stable and improve the machining precision.

5. ULTRACAM photometry of the ultracompact binaries V407 Vul and HM Cnc

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Barros, S.C.C.; Marsh, T.R.; Dhillon, V.S.; Groot, P.J.; Littlefair, S.; Nelemans, G.A.; Roelofs, G.H.A.; Steeghs, D.; Wheatley, P.J.

2007-01-01

V407 Vul (RXJ1914.4+2456) and HM Cnc (RXJ0806.3+1527) are X-ray emitting stars with X-ray light curves that are 100 per cent modulated on periods of 569 and 321 s, respectively. These periods are thought possibly to represent the orbital periods of close pairs of white dwarfs. In this paper we

6. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

Science.gov (United States)

Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

2014-08-01

Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

7. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fakhouri, F M; Casari, A C A; Martelli, S M; Mariano, M; Soldi, V; Yamashita, F; Mei, L H Innocnentini

2014-01-01

Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits

8. El control numérico computarizado en el desarrollo industrial Parte 2: desarrollo y aplicaciones del C.N.C.

OpenAIRE

Ruiz, Lino

2016-01-01

En la edición anterior nuestro principal énfasis fue el de presentar el control numérico computarizado (C.N.C.) como una alternativa tecnológica que pueda potenciar nuestro desarrollo industrial, por lo que describimos sus características principales y su incidencia en el trabajador. En el presente articulo nos enfocaremos, más al manejo de la información en las máquinas CNC, las tendencias actuales del desarrollo de las MHCNC y las tendencias industriales de nuestra época.

9. Intellectual Control System of Processing on CNC Machines

Science.gov (United States)

Nekrasov, R. Y.; Lasukov, A. A.; Starikov, A. I.; Soloviev, I. V.; Bekareva, O. V.

2016-04-01

Scientific and technical progress makes great demands for quality of engineering production. The priority is to ensure metalworking equipment with required dimensional accuracy during the entire period of operation at minimum manufacturing costs. In article considered the problem of increasing of accuracy of processing products on CNC. The authors offers a solution to the problem by providing compensating adjustment in the trajectory of the cutting tool and machining mode. The necessity of creation of mathematical models of processes behavior in an automated technological system operations (OATS). Based on the research, authors have proposed a generalized diagram of diagnosis and input operative correction and approximate mathematical models of individual processes of diagnosis.

10. Comparison of Interfacial Electron Transfer Efficiency in [Fe(ctpy)2]2+-TiO2 and [Fe(cCNC)2]2+-TiO2 Assemblies: Importance of Conformational Sampling.

Science.gov (United States)

Mukherjee, Sriparna; Liu, Chang; Jakubikova, Elena

2018-02-22

Fe(II)-polypyridines have limited applications as chromophores in dye-sensitized solar cells due to the short lifetimes (∼100 fs) of their photoactive metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) states formed upon photoexcitation. Recently, a 100-fold increase in the MLCT lifetime was observed in a [Fe(CNC) 2 ] 2+ complex (CNC = 2,6-bis(3-methylimidazole-1-ylidine)pyridine) which has strong σ-donating N-heterocyclic carbene ligand in comparison to the weaker field parent [Fe(tpy) 2 ] 2+ complex (tpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine). This study utilizes density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent DFT, and quantum dynamics simulations to investigate the interfacial electron transfer (IET) in [Fe(cCNC) 2 ] 2+ (cCNC = 4'-carboxy-2,6-bis(3-methylimidazole-1-ylidine)pyridine) and [Fe(ctpy) 2 ] 2+ (ctpy = 4'-carboxy-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) sensitized TiO 2 . Our results suggest that the replacement of tpy by CNC ligand does not significantly speed up the IET kinetics in the [Fe(cCNC) 2 ] 2+ -TiO 2 assembly in comparison to the [Fe(ctpy) 2 ] 2+ -TiO 2 analogue. The high IET efficiency in the [Fe(cCNC) 2 ] 2+ -TiO 2 assemblies is therefore due to longer lifetime of [Fe(cCNC) 2 ] 2+ photoactive 3 MLCT states rather than faster electron injection kinetics. It was also found that the inclusion of conformational sampling in the computational model is important for proper description of the IET processes in these systems, as the models relying on the use of only fully optimized structures may yield misleading results. The simulations presented in this work also illustrate various pitfalls of utilizing properties such as electronic coupling, number of available acceptor states, and driving force, as well as calculations based on Fermi's golden rule framework, to reach conclusions on the IET efficiency in dye-semiconductor systems.

11. AT Cnc: A SECOND DWARF NOVA WITH A CLASSICAL NOVA SHELL

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shara, Michael M.; Mizusawa, Trisha; Zurek, David; Wehinger, Peter; Martin, Christopher D.; Neill, James D.; Forster, Karl; Seibert, Mark

2012-01-01

We are systematically surveying all known and suspected Z Cam-type dwarf novae for classical nova shells. This survey is motivated by the discovery of the largest known classical nova shell, which surrounds the archetypal dwarf nova Z Camelopardalis. The Z Cam shell demonstrates that at least some dwarf novae must have undergone classical nova eruptions in the past, and that at least some classical novae become dwarf novae long after their nova thermonuclear outbursts, in accord with the hibernation scenario of cataclysmic binaries. Here we report the detection of a fragmented 'shell', 3 arcmin in diameter, surrounding the dwarf nova AT Cancri. This second discovery demonstrates that nova shells surrounding Z Cam-type dwarf novae cannot be very rare. The shell geometry is suggestive of bipolar, conical ejection seen nearly pole-on. A spectrum of the brightest AT Cnc shell knot is similar to that of the ejecta of the classical nova GK Per, and of Z Cam, dominated by [N II] emission. Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV imagery reveals a similar-sized, FUV-emitting shell. We determine a distance of 460 pc to AT Cnc, and an upper limit to its ejecta mass of ∼5 × 10 –5 M ☉ , typical of classical novae.

12. AT Cnc: A SECOND DWARF NOVA WITH A CLASSICAL NOVA SHELL

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shara, Michael M.; Mizusawa, Trisha; Zurek, David [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Wehinger, Peter [Steward Observatory, the University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Martin, Christopher D.; Neill, James D.; Forster, Karl [Department of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 405-47, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Seibert, Mark [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

2012-10-20

We are systematically surveying all known and suspected Z Cam-type dwarf novae for classical nova shells. This survey is motivated by the discovery of the largest known classical nova shell, which surrounds the archetypal dwarf nova Z Camelopardalis. The Z Cam shell demonstrates that at least some dwarf novae must have undergone classical nova eruptions in the past, and that at least some classical novae become dwarf novae long after their nova thermonuclear outbursts, in accord with the hibernation scenario of cataclysmic binaries. Here we report the detection of a fragmented 'shell', 3 arcmin in diameter, surrounding the dwarf nova AT Cancri. This second discovery demonstrates that nova shells surrounding Z Cam-type dwarf novae cannot be very rare. The shell geometry is suggestive of bipolar, conical ejection seen nearly pole-on. A spectrum of the brightest AT Cnc shell knot is similar to that of the ejecta of the classical nova GK Per, and of Z Cam, dominated by [N II] emission. Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV imagery reveals a similar-sized, FUV-emitting shell. We determine a distance of 460 pc to AT Cnc, and an upper limit to its ejecta mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun }, typical of classical novae.

13. Torque-Controlled Adaptive Speed Control on a CNC Marble Saw Machine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ugur Simsir

2015-02-01

Full Text Available Although CNC marble saw machines can automatically cut marble slabs to desired dimensions, saw speed and feed rate are selected by operator according to stone parameters, features of the saw, and its immersion depth. If the feed rate is selected lower than the optimal value, there will be time-loss and capacity deficiencies or if it is selected faster, cutting quality will decrease, spindle motor will draw more current, and saw blade will corrode faster. While cutting especially thick materials, saw may be stacked in the stone, cutting quality may be impaired, saw blade may be abraded earlier, precision quality may go down because of increase in measurement errors, and machine may be damaged with the increase in vibrations when improper feed rates are selected. Because of nonhomogeneity of the slabs and deterioration of the saw blade, operator cannot determine a persistent feed rate. This study is targeted to find saw speeds according to saw diameter and optimum feed rate by means of limiting vibrations and current drawn from saw motor and torque accordingly in order to increase working performance of CNC marble saw machines. Thanks to adaptive adjustment of feed rate, one can save on material as well as time, labour, and cost by making use of optimum energy.

14. GROUND-BASED TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

De Mooij, E. J. W. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); López-Morales, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Karjalainen, R.; Hrudkova, M. [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, La Palma (Spain); Jayawardhana, Ray, E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto (Canada)

2014-12-20

We report the first ground-based detections of the shallow transit of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e using a 2 m class telescope. Using differential spectrophotometry, we observed one transit in 2013 and another in 2014, with average spectral resolutions of ∼700 and ∼250, spanning the Johnson BVR photometric bands. We find a white light planet-to-star radius ratio of 0.0190{sub −0.0027}{sup +0.0023} from the 2013 observations and 0.0200{sub −0.0018}{sup +0.0017} from the 2014 observations. The two data sets combined result in a radius ratio of 0.0198{sub −0.0014}{sup +0.0013}. These values are all in agreement with previous space-based results. Scintillation noise in the data prevents us from placing strong constraints on the presence of an extended hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Nevertheless, our detections of 55 Cnc e in transit demonstrate that moderate-sized telescopes on the ground will be capable of routine follow-up observations of super-Earth candidates discovered by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite around bright stars. We expect it also will be possible to place constraints on the atmospheric characteristics of those planets by devising observational strategies to minimize scintillation noise.

15. The Use of Open Source Software for Open Architecture System on CNC Milling Machine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dalmasius Ganjar Subagio

2012-03-01

Full Text Available Computer numerical control (CNC milling machine system cannot be separated from the software required to follow the provisions of the Open Architecture capabilities that have portability, extend ability, interoperability, and scalability. When a prescribed period of a CNC milling machine has passed and the manufacturer decided to discontinue it, then the user will have problems for maintaining the performance of the machine. This paper aims to show that the using of open source software (OSS is the way out to maintain engine performance. With the use of OSS, users no longer depend on the software built by the manufacturer because OSS is open and can be developed independently. In this paper, USBCNC V.3.42 is used as an alternative OSS. The test result shows that the work piece is in match with the desired pattern. The test result shows that the performance of machines using OSS has similar performance with the machine using software from the manufacturer.

16. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

N. V. Dhandapani

2015-01-01

Full Text Available This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the operator on floor is based on suggested values of the tool manufacturer or by trial and error method. This paper describes effect of various parameters on the surface roughness characteristics of the precision machining part. The prediction method suggested is based on various experimental analysis of parameters in different compositions of input conditions which would benefit the industry on standardization of high speed CNC end milling processes. The results show a basis for selection of parameters to get better results of surface roughness values as predicted by the case study results.

17. Statistical analysis of surface roughness of machined graphite by means of CNC milling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Orquídea Sánchez López

2016-09-01

Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the influence of cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth on the surface finish of grade GSP-70 graphite specimens for use in electrical discharge machining (EDM for material removal by means of Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling with low-speed machining (LSM. A two-level factorial design for each of the three established factors was used for the statistical analysis. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicates that cutting speed and feed rate are the two most significant factors with regard to the roughness obtained with grade GSP-70 graphite by means of CNC milling. A second order regression analysis was also conducted to estimate the roughness average (Ra in terms of the cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth. Finally, the comparison between predicted roughness by means of a second order regression model and the roughness obtained by machined specimens considering the combinations of low and high levels of roughness is also presented.

18. Step-and-Repeat Nanoimprint-, Photo- and Laser Lithography from One Customised CNC Machine.

Science.gov (United States)

Greer, Andrew Im; Della-Rosa, Benoit; Khokhar, Ali Z; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

2016-12-01

The conversion of a computer numerical control machine into a nanoimprint step-and-repeat tool with additional laser- and photolithography capacity is documented here. All three processes, each demonstrated on a variety of photoresists, are performed successfully and analysed so as to enable the reader to relate their known lithography process(es) to the findings. Using the converted tool, 1 cm(2) of nanopattern may be exposed in 6 s, over 3300 times faster than the electron beam equivalent. Nanoimprint tools are commercially available, but these can cost around 1000 times more than this customised computer numerical control (CNC) machine. The converted equipment facilitates rapid production and large area micro- and nanoscale research on small grants, ultimately enabling faster and more diverse growth in this field of science. In comparison to commercial tools, this converted CNC also boasts capacity to handle larger substrates, temperature control and active force control, up to ten times more curing dose and compactness. Actual devices are fabricated using the machine including an expanded nanotopographic array and microfluidic PDMS Y-channel mixers.

19. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process.

Science.gov (United States)

Dhandapani, N V; Thangarasu, V S; Sureshkannan, G

2015-01-01

This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the operator on floor is based on suggested values of the tool manufacturer or by trial and error method. This paper describes effect of various parameters on the surface roughness characteristics of the precision machining part. The prediction method suggested is based on various experimental analysis of parameters in different compositions of input conditions which would benefit the industry on standardization of high speed CNC end milling processes. The results show a basis for selection of parameters to get better results of surface roughness values as predicted by the case study results.

20. Development of a stereolithography (STL input and computer numerical control (CNC output algorithm for an entry-level 3-D printer

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Brown, Andrew

2014-08-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a prototype Stereolithography (STL file format slicing and tool-path generation algorithm, which serves as a data front-end for a Rapid Prototyping (RP entry- level three-dimensional (3-D printer. Used mainly in Additive Manufacturing (AM, 3-D printers are devices that apply plastic, ceramic, and metal, layer by layer, in all three dimensions on a flat surface (X, Y, and Z axis. 3-D printers, unfortunately, cannot print an object without a special algorithm that is required to create the Computer Numerical Control (CNC instructions for printing. An STL algorithm therefore forms a critical component for Layered Manufacturing (LM, also referred to as RP. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm that is capable of processing and slicing an STL file or multiple files, resulting in a tool-path, and finally compiling a CNC file for an entry-level 3- D printer. The prototype algorithm was implemented for an entry-level 3-D printer that utilises the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM process or Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF process; an AM technology. Following an experimental method, the full data flow path for the prototype algorithm was developed, starting with STL data files, and then processing the STL data file into a G-code file format by slicing the model and creating a tool-path. This layering method is used by most 3-D printers to turn a 2-D object into a 3-D object. The STL algorithm developed in this study presents innovative opportunities for LM, since it allows engineers and architects to transform their ideas easily into a solid model in a fast, simple, and cheap way. This is accomplished by allowing STL models to be sliced rapidly, effectively, and without error, and finally to be processed and prepared into a G-code print file.

1. Spectroscopic investigation of the Hg-Mn star κ Cnc. I. Choice of parameters of the model atmosphere and determination of the helium abundance

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dobrichev, V.M.; Raikova, D.V.; Ryabchikova, T.A.; Topil'skaya, G.P.

1989-01-01

It is shown that a blanketed model atmosphere of the Hg-Mn star κ Cnc with T e = 12,800 degree K and log g = 3.7 (Stepien and Muthsam) completely describes the profiles of the lines H α , H γ , and H δ in the spectrum of this star. The synthetic-spectrum method is used to determine the helium abundance in the atmosphere of κ Cnc: He/H = 0.017, this value being almost three times greater than the value obtained earlier for this star by Adelman. The isotope shift of the lines leads to the isotope ratio 3 He/ 4 He = 0.35, and this indicates that there is a process of diffusion separation of the elements in the atmosphere of κ Cnc. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

2. Tool path in torus tool CNC machining

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

XU Ying

2016-10-01

Full Text Available This paper is about tool path in torus tool CNC machining.The mathematical model of torus tool is established.The tool path planning algorithm is determined through calculation of the cutter location,boundary discretization,calculation of adjacent tool path and so on,according to the conversion formula,the cutter contact point will be converted to the cutter location point and then these points fit a toolpath.Lastly,the path planning algorithm is implemented by using Matlab programming.The cutter location points for torus tool are calculated by Matlab,and then fit these points to a toolpath.While using UG software,another tool path of free surface is simulated of the same data.It is drew compared the two tool paths that using torus tool is more efficient.

3. Computer numerically controlled (CNC) aspheric shaping with toroidal Wheels (Abstract Only)

Science.gov (United States)

Ketelsen, D.; Kittrell, W. C.; Kuhn, W. M.; Parks, R. E.; Lamb, George L.; Baker, Lynn

1987-01-01

Contouring with computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines can be accomplished with several different tool geometries and coordinated machine axes. To minimize the number of coordinated axes for nonsymmetric work to three, it is common practice to use a spherically shaped tool such as a ball-end mill. However, to minimize grooving due to the feed and ball radius, it is desirable to use a long ball radius, but there is clearly a practical limit to ball diameter with the spherical tool. We have found that the use of commercially available toroidal wheels permits long effective cutting radii, which in turn improve finish and minimize grooving for a set feed. In addition, toroidal wheels are easier than spherical wheels to center accurately. Cutting parameters are also easier to control because the feed rate past the tool does not change as the slope of the work changes. The drawback to the toroidal wheel is the more complex calculation of the tool path. Of course, once the algorithm is worked out, the tool path is as easily calculated as for a spherical tool. We have performed two experiments with the Large Optical Generator (LOG) that were ideally suited to three-axis contouring--surfaces that have no axis of rotational symmetry. By oscillating the cutting head horizontally or vertically (in addition to the motions required to generate the power of the surface) , and carefully coordinating those motions with table rotation, the mostly astigmatic departure for these surfaces is produced. The first experiment was a pair of reflector molds that together correct the spherical aberration of the Arecibo radio telescope. The larger of these was 5 m in diameter and had a 12 cm departure from the best-fit sphere. The second experiment was the generation of a purely astigmatic surface to demonstrate the feasibility of producing axially symmetric asphe.rics while mounted and rotated about any off-axis point. Measurements of the latter (the first experiment had relatively

4. Experimental investigation on hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using cemented coated carbide insert

Science.gov (United States)

Pradeep Kumar, J.; Kishore, K. P.; Ranjith Kumar, M.; Saran Karthick, K. R.; Vishnu Gowtham, S.

2018-02-01

Hard turning is a developing technology that offers many potential advantages compared to grinding, which remains the standard finishing process for critical hardened surfaces. In this work, an attempt has been made to experimentally investigate hard turning of AISI 4340 steel under wet and dry condition using cemented coated carbide insert. Hardness of the workpiece material is tested using Brinell and Rockwell hardness testers. CNC LATHE and cemented coated carbide inserts of designation CNMG 120408 are used for conducting experimental trials. Significant cutting parameters like cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are considered as controllable input parameters and surface roughness (Ra), tool wear are considered as output response parameters. Design of experiments is carried out with the help of Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Results of response parameters like surface roughness and tool wear under wet and dry condition are analysed. It is found that surface roughness and tool wear are higher under dry machining condition when compared to wet machining condition. Feed rate significantly influences the surface roughness followed by cutting speed. Depth of cut significantly influences the tool wear followed by cutting speed.

5. LCA Study for Pilot Scale Production of Cellulose Nano Crystals (CNC) from Wood Pulp

Science.gov (United States)

Hongmei Gu; Richard Reiner; Richard Bergman; Alan Rudie

2015-01-01

Interest in cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)/cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) made from woody biomass has been growing rapidly with close attention from pulp and paper industry, governments, universities, and research institutes. Many new products development with CNCs have been studied intensively. However, little life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been conducted for the...

6. Chapter 1.4: Spatially Resolved Characterization of CNC-Polypropylene composite by Confocal Raman Microscopy

Science.gov (United States)

Umesh Agarwal; Ronald Sabo; Richard Reiner; Craig Clemons; Alan Rudie

2013-01-01

Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-polypropylene (PP) composites and to investigate the spatial distribution of CNCs in extruded composite filaments. Three composites were made from two forms of nanocellulose (CNCs from wood pulp and the nanoscale fraction of microcrystalline cellulose), and two of the three composites...

7. RADIAL VELOCITY PLANETS DE-ALIASED: A NEW, SHORT PERIOD FOR SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dawson, Rebekah I.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

2010-01-01

Radial velocity measurements of stellar reflex motion have revealed many extrasolar planets, but gaps in the observations produce aliases, spurious frequencies that are frequently confused with the planets' orbital frequencies. In the case of Gl 581 d, the distinction between an alias and the true frequency was the distinction between a frozen, dead planet and a planet possibly hospitable to life. To improve the characterization of planetary systems, we describe how aliases originate and present a new approach for distinguishing between orbital frequencies and their aliases. Our approach harnesses features in the spectral window function to compare the amplitude and phase of predicted aliases with peaks present in the data. We apply it to confirm prior alias distinctions for the planets GJ 876 d and HD 75898 b. We find that the true periods of Gl 581 d and HD 73526 b/c remain ambiguous. We revise the periods of HD 156668 b and 55 Cnc e, which were afflicted by daily aliases. For HD 156668 b, the correct period is 1.2699 days and the minimum mass is (3.1 ± 0.4) M + . For 55 Cnc e, the correct period is 0.7365 days-the shortest of any known planet-and the minimum mass is (8.3 ± 0.3) M + . This revision produces a significantly improved five-planet Keplerian fit for 55 Cnc, and a self-consistent dynamical fit describes the data just as well. As radial velocity techniques push to ever-smaller planets, often found in systems of multiple planets, distinguishing true periods from aliases will become increasingly important.

8. Hydrogenation of imines catalysed by ruthenium(II) complexes based on lutidine-derived CNC pincer ligands.

Science.gov (United States)

Hernández-Juárez, Martín; Vaquero, Mónica; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Salazar, Verónica; Suárez, Andrés

2013-01-14

The preparation of new Ru(II) complexes incorporating fac-coordinated lutidine-derived CNC ligands is reported. These derivatives are selectively deprotonated by (t)BuOK at one of the methylene arms of the pincer, leading to catalytically active species in the hydrogenation of imines.

9. Surface roughness prediction of particulate composites using artificial neural networks in turning operation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-07-01

Full Text Available A number of factors, e.g. cutting speed and feed rate, affect the surface roughness in machining process. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network model was used to forecast surface roughness with related inputs, including cutting speed and feed rate. The output of the ANN model input parameters related to the machined surface roughness parameters. In this research, twelve samples of experimental data were used to train the network. Moreover, four other experimental tests were implemented to test the network. The study concludes that ANN was a reliable and accurate method for predicting machining parameters in CNC turning operation of Particulate Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites (PAMCs specimens with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% filler. The aim of this work is to decrease the production cost and consequently increase the production rate of these materials for industry without any trial and error method procedure.

10. Site-Selective Modification of Cellulose Nanocrystals with Isophorone Diisocyanate and Formation of Polyurethane-CNC Composites.

Science.gov (United States)

Girouard, Natalie M; Xu, Shanhong; Schueneman, Gregory T; Shofner, Meisha L; Meredith, J Carson

2016-01-20

The unequal reactivity of the two isocyanate groups in an isophorone diisocyante (IPDI) monomer was exploited to yield modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with both urethane and isocyanate functionality. The chemical functionality of the modified CNCs was verified with ATR-FTIR analysis and elemental analysis. The selectivity for the secondary isocyanate group using dibutyl tin dilaurate (DBTDL) as the reaction catalyst was confirmed with (13)C NMR. The modified CNCs showed improvements in the onset of thermal degradation by 35 °C compared to the unmodified CNCs. Polyurethane composites based on IPDI and a trifunctional polyether alcohol were synthesized using unmodified (um-CNC) and modified CNCs (m-CNC). The degree of nanoparticle dispersion was qualitatively assessed with polarized optical microscopy. It was found that the modification step facilitated superior nanoparticle dispersion compared to the um-CNCs, which resulted in increases in the tensile strength and work of fracture of over 200% compared to the neat matrix without degradation of elongation at break.

11. Design and accuracy analysis of a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine for ship manufacturing

Science.gov (United States)

Hu, Shenghai; Zhang, Manhui; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Xi; Yu, Wei

2016-09-01

The current research of processing large size fabrication holes on complex spatial curved surface mainly focuses on the CNC flame cutting machines design for ship hull of ship manufacturing. However, the existing machines cannot meet the continuous cutting requirements with variable pass conditions through their fixed configuration, and cannot realize high-precision processing as the accuracy theory is not studied adequately. This paper deals with structure design and accuracy prediction technology of novel machine tools for solving the problem of continuous and high-precision cutting. The needed variable trajectory and variable pose kinematic characteristics of non-contact cutting tool are figured out and a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine designed through metamorphic principle is presented. To analyze kinematic accuracy of the machine, models of joint clearances, manufacturing tolerances and errors in the input variables and error models considering the combined effects are derived based on screw theory after establishing ideal kinematic models. Numerical simulations, processing experiment and trajectory tracking experiment are conducted relative to an eccentric hole with bevels on cylindrical surface respectively. The results of cutting pass contour and kinematic error interval which the position error is from-0.975 mm to +0.628 mm and orientation error is from-0.01 rad to +0.01 rad indicate that the developed machine can complete cutting process continuously and effectively, and the established kinematic error models are effective although the interval is within a `large' range. It also shows the matching property between metamorphic principle and variable working tasks, and the mapping correlation between original designing parameters and kinematic errors of machines. This research develops a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine and establishes kinematic error models for accuracy analysis of machine tools.

12. Basic CNC Operation. Training Workbook [and] Assessment and Training Guide [and] Hands-on Assessment.

Science.gov (United States)

Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

This workbook is intended for students taking a course in basic computer numerical control (CNC) operation that was developed during a project to retrain defense industry workers at risk of job loss or dislocation because of conversion of the defense industry. The workbook contains daily training guides for each of the course's 13 sessions. Among…

13. Learning Control: Sense-Making, CNC Machines, and Changes in Vocational Training for Industrial Work

Science.gov (United States)

Berner, Boel

2009-01-01

The paper explores how novices in school-based vocational training make sense of computerized numerical control (CNC) machines. Based on two ethnographic studies in Swedish schools, one from the early 1980s and one from 2006, it analyses change and continuity in the cognitive, social, and emotional processes of learning how to become a machine…

14. Maximum Feedrate Interpolator for Multi-axis CNC Machining with Jerk Constraints

OpenAIRE

Beudaert , Xavier; Lavernhe , Sylvain; Tournier , Christophe

2012-01-01

A key role of the CNC is to perform the feedrate interpolation which means to generate the setpoints for each machine tool axis. The aim of the VPOp algorithm is to make maximum use of the machine tool respecting both tangential and axis jerk on rotary and linear axes. The developed algorithm uses an iterative constraints intersection approach. At each sampling period, all the constraints given by each axis are expressed and by intersecting all of them the allowable interval for the next poin...

15. A Multiple Model Prediction Algorithm for CNC Machine Wear PHM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Huimin Chen

2011-01-01

Full Text Available The 2010 PHM data challenge focuses on the remaining useful life (RUL estimation for cutters of a high speed CNC milling machine using measurements from dynamometer, accelerometer, and acoustic emission sensors. We present a multiple model approach for wear depth estimation of milling machine cutters using the provided data. The feature selection, initial wear estimation and multiple model fusion components of the proposed algorithm are explained in details and compared with several alternative methods using the training data. The final submission ranked #2 among professional and student participants and the method is applicable to other data driven PHM problems.

16. Technical and Symbolic Knowledge in CNC Machining: A Study of Technical Workers of Different Backgrounds.

Science.gov (United States)

Martin, Laura M. W.; Beach, King

Performances of 45 individuals with varying degrees of formal and informal training in machining and programming were compared on tasks designed to tap intellectual changes that may occur with the introduction of computer numerical control (CNC). Participants--30 machinists, 8 machine operators, and 7 engineers--were asked background questions and…

17. Development of Fractal Dimension and Characteristic Roughness Models for Turned Surface of Carbon Steels

Science.gov (United States)

Zuo, Xue; Zhu, Hua; Zhou, Yuankai; Ding, Cong; Sun, Guodong

2016-08-01

Relationships between material hardness, turning parameters (spindle speed and feed rate) and surface parameters (surface roughness Ra, fractal dimension D and characteristic roughness τ∗) are studied and modeled using response surface methodology (RSM). The experiments are carried out on a CNC lathe for six carbon steel material AISI 1010, AISI 1020, AISI 1030, AISI 1045, AISI 1050 and AISI 1060. The profile of turned surface and the surface roughness value are measured by a JB-5C profilometer. Based on the profile data, D and τ∗ are computed through the root-mean-square method. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) reveals that spindle speed is the most significant factors affecting Ra, while material hardness is the most dominant parameter affecting τ∗. Material hardness and spindle speed have the same influence on D. Feed rate has less effect on three surface parameters than spindle speed and material hardness. The second-order models of RSM are established for estimating Ra, D and τ∗. The validity of the developed models is approximately 80%. The response surfaces show that a surface with small Ra and large D and τ∗ can be obtained by selecting a high speed and a large hardness material. According to the established models, Ra, D and τ∗ of six carbon steels surfaces can be predicted under cutting conditions studied in this paper. The results have an instructive meaning to estimate the surface quality before turning.

18. CNC-milled titanium frameworks supported by implants in the edentulous jaw: a 10-year comparative clinical study.

Science.gov (United States)

Örtorp, Anders; Jemt, Torsten

2012-03-01

No long-term clinical studies covering more than 5 years are available on Computer Numeric Controlled (CNC) milled titanium frameworks. To evaluate and compare the clinical and radiographic performance of implant-supported prostheses provided with CNC titanium frameworks in the edentulous jaw with prostheses with cast gold-alloy frameworks during the first 10 years of function. Altogether, 126 edentulous patients were by random provided with 67 prostheses with titanium frameworks (test) in 23 maxillas and 44 mandibles, and with 62 prostheses with gold-alloy castings (control) in 31 maxillas and 31 mandibles. Clinical and radiographic 10-year data were collected for the groups and statistically compared on patient level. The 10-year prosthesis and implant cumulative survival rate was 95.6% compared with 98.3%, and 95.0% compared with 97.9% for test and control groups, respectively (p > .05). No implants were lost after 5 years of follow-up. Smokers lost more implants than nonsmokers after 5 years of follow-up (p .05), respectively. One prosthesis was lost in each group due to loss of implants, and one prosthesis failed due to framework fracture in the test group. Two metal fractures were registered in each group. More appointments of maintenance were needed for the prostheses in the maxilla compared with those in the mandible (p CNC-milled titanium frameworks are a viable alternative to gold-alloy castings for restoring patients with implant-supported prostheses in the edentulous jaw. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

19. ANN Surface Roughness Optimization of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy Finish Turning: Minimum Machining Times at Prime Machining Costs

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2018-05-01

Full Text Available Magnesium alloys are widely used in aerospace vehicles and modern cars, due to their rapid machinability at high cutting speeds. A novel Edgeworth–Pareto optimization of an artificial neural network (ANN is presented in this paper for surface roughness (Ra prediction of one component in computer numerical control (CNC turning over minimal machining time (Tm and at prime machining costs (C. An ANN is built in the Matlab programming environment, based on a 4-12-3 multi-layer perceptron (MLP, to predict Ra, Tm, and C, in relation to cutting speed, vc, depth of cut, ap, and feed per revolution, fr. For the first time, a profile of an AZ61 alloy workpiece after finish turning is constructed using an ANN for the range of experimental values vc, ap, and fr. The global minimum length of a three-dimensional estimation vector was defined with the following coordinates: Ra = 0.087 μm, Tm = 0.358 min/cm3, C = \$8.2973. Likewise, the corresponding finish-turning parameters were also estimated: cutting speed vc = 250 m/min, cutting depth ap = 1.0 mm, and feed per revolution fr = 0.08 mm/rev. The ANN model achieved a reliable prediction accuracy of ±1.35% for surface roughness.

20. Physical Parameters of the Overcontact Binary AH Cnc in the Old Open Cluster M 67

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Yakut, K.; Aerts, C.C.

2006-01-01

We present a photometric study of the overcontact binary AH Cnc. The CCD observations were done with the Russian-Turkish 1.5 m telescope and the light-curve was solved with the Wilson-Devinney code. The physical parameters of the components have been deduced as M1 = 1.22 Msun,

1. 78 FR 50135 - CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order...

Science.gov (United States)

2013-08-16

... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading August 14, 2013. It... securities of South American Minerals, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since it filed a...

2. Application of grey fuzzy logic for the optimization of CNC milling parameters for Al–4.5%Cu–TiC MMCs with multi-performance characteristics

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Biswajit Das

2016-06-01

Full Text Available With the major application of MMCs, it is thus necessary to develop an appropriate technology for their efficient machining. Milling is the most common and versatile technology among different machining processes, characterized by an extensive range of metal cutting capacity that places it in a central role in the manufacturing industries. In the present study an attempt has been made to find out the most optimal level of process parameters for CNC milling of Al–4.5%Cu–TiC metal matrix composites using grey-fuzzy algorithm. Taguchi's L25 orthogonal array design is used for performing CNC milling operation on the composite plates. The Grey fuzzy optimization of CNC milling parameters consist of three different output characteristics; such as, cutting force Fc, surface roughness Ra and surface roughness Rz. It was found that a cutting speed of 600 rpm, feed of 40 mm/min and a depth of cut of 0.30 mm is the optimal combination of CNC milling parameters that has produced a high value of grey fuzzy reasoning grade of 0.8191 which is close to the reference value. ANOVA analysis is carried out and it is found that among three different process parameters, the cutting speed played a major role on the determination of GFRG.

3. An open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and industrial CAM software.

Science.gov (United States)

Lu, Li; Liu, Shusheng; Shi, Shenggen; Yang, Jianzhong

2011-10-01

China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestically developed industrial computer-aided manufacture (CAM) technology were used for full crown fabrication and measurement of crown accuracy, with an attempt to establish an open CAM system for dental processing and to promote the introduction of domestic dental computer-aided design (CAD)/CAM system. Commercially available scanning equipment was used to make a basic digital tooth model after preparation of crown, and CAD software that comes with the scanning device was employed to design the crown by using domestic industrial CAM software to process the crown data in order to generate a solid model for machining purpose, and then China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool was used to complete machining of the whole crown and the internal accuracy of the crown internal was measured by using 3D-MicroCT. The results showed that China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool in combination with domestic industrial CAM technology can be used for crown making and the crown was well positioned in die. The internal accuracy was successfully measured by using 3D-MicroCT. It is concluded that an open CAM system for dentistry on the basis of China-made 5-axis simultaneous contouring CNC machine tool and domestic industrial CAM software has been established, and development of the system will promote the introduction of domestically-produced dental CAD/CAM system.

4. Increase efficiency CNC lathe with the help of fuzzy logic controller (FLC

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mošorinski Predrag R.

2016-01-01

Full Text Available This paper discusses the process of increasing the effectiveness of CNC lathe for carrying out the appropriate experiments. Experiments are related to the plastics processing machine and programming fuzzy logic controller (FLC for the requirements of machining. Input parameters of the FLCare obtained as a result of previous experimental parameters set by experience and with a great subjective impact of technologists. Expected results of FLC's settings are based on the complete autonomy of the process and eliminating subjective errors.

5. An improved method for risk evaluation in failure modes and effects analysis of CNC lathe

Science.gov (United States)

Rachieru, N.; Belu, N.; Anghel, D. C.

2015-11-01

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is one of the most popular reliability analysis tools for identifying, assessing and eliminating potential failure modes in a wide range of industries. In general, failure modes in FMEA are evaluated and ranked through the risk priority number (RPN), which is obtained by the multiplication of crisp values of the risk factors, such as the occurrence (O), severity (S), and detection (D) of each failure mode. However, the crisp RPN method has been criticized to have several deficiencies. In this paper, linguistic variables, expressed in Gaussian, trapezoidal or triangular fuzzy numbers, are used to assess the ratings and weights for the risk factors S, O and D. A new risk assessment system based on the fuzzy set theory and fuzzy rule base theory is to be applied to assess and rank risks associated to failure modes that could appear in the functioning of Turn 55 Lathe CNC. Two case studies have been shown to demonstrate the methodology thus developed. It is illustrated a parallel between the results obtained by the traditional method and fuzzy logic for determining the RPNs. The results show that the proposed approach can reduce duplicated RPN numbers and get a more accurate, reasonable risk assessment. As a result, the stability of product and process can be assured.

6. Random and Systematic Errors Share in Total Error of Probes for CNC Machine Tools

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2018-03-01

Full Text Available Probes for CNC machine tools, as every measurement device, have accuracy limited by random errors and by systematic errors. Random errors of these probes are described by a parameter called unidirectional repeatability. Manufacturers of probes for CNC machine tools usually specify only this parameter, while parameters describing systematic errors of the probes, such as pre-travel variation or triggering radius variation, are used rarely. Systematic errors of the probes, linked to the differences in pre-travel values for different measurement directions, can be corrected or compensated, but it is not a widely used procedure. In this paper, the share of systematic errors and random errors in total error of exemplary probes are determined. In the case of simple, kinematic probes, systematic errors are much greater than random errors, so compensation would significantly reduce the probing error. Moreover, it shows that in the case of kinematic probes commonly specified unidirectional repeatability is significantly better than 2D performance. However, in the case of more precise strain-gauge probe systematic errors are of the same order as random errors, which means that errors correction or compensation, in this case, would not yield any significant benefits.

7. Fuzzy Linguistic Optimization on Multi-Attribute Machining

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tian-Syung Lan

2010-06-01

Full Text Available Most existing multi-attribute optimization researches for the modern CNC (computer numerical control turning industry were either accomplished within certain manufacturing circumstances, or achieved through numerous equipment operations. Therefore, a general deduction optimization scheme proposed is deemed to be necessary for the industry. In this paper, four parameters (cutting depth, feed rate, speed, tool nose runoff with three levels (low, medium, high are considered to optimize the multi-attribute (surface roughness, tool wear, and material removal rate finish turning. Through FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process with eighty intervals for each attribute, the weight of each attribute is evaluated from the paired comparison matrix constructed by the expert judgment. Additionally, twenty-seven fuzzy control rules using trapezoid membership function with respective to seventeen linguistic grades for each attribute are constructed. Considering thirty input and eighty output intervals, the defuzzifierion using center of gravity is thus completed. The TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution is moreover utilized to integrate and evaluate the multiple machining attributes for the Taguchi experiment, and thus the optimum general deduction parameters can then be received. The confirmation experiment for optimum general deduction parameters is furthermore performed on an ECOCA-3807 CNC lathe. It is shown that the attributes from the fuzzy linguistic optimization parameters are all significantly advanced comparing to those from benchmark. This paper not only proposes a general deduction optimization scheme using orthogonal array, but also contributes the satisfactory fuzzy linguistic approach for multiple CNC turning attributes with profound insight.

8. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Three Long Period Nova-Like Variables, V363 Aur, AC Cnc and RZ Gru

Science.gov (United States)

Bisol, Alexandra; Sion, E. M.

2011-01-01

We have selected three nova-like variables: V363 Aur, RZ Gru and AC Cnc, all of which are UX UMa types, having similar orbital periods well beyond the 3 to 4 hour range where most nova-likes are found. All should have very similar secondary stars given the fact that they their physical parameters are so similar. V363 Aur is a bona fide SW Sex star, and AC Cnc is a probable one, while RZ Gru is not a member of the SW Sex subclass. Our objective is to carry out the first synthetic spectral analysis of far ultraviolet spectra of the three systems using state-of-the-art models both of accretion disks and photospheres. Therefore we shall compare the distances we obtain from the best fitting synthetic spectral models to other distance estimates in the literature. We present model-derived accretion rates and distances for all three systems. The FUV flux range of RZ Gru and V363 Aur is dominated by radiation from an optically thick, steady state, accretion but for AC Cnc, we find that a hot white dwarf accounts for 70% of the FUV flux. We compare the FUV characteristics and physical properties of these three long period nova-like systems to the properties of other nova-likes at shorter periods. This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST0807892 to Villanova University.

9. Metodología para la manufactura de implantes craneales a partir de imágenes DICOM y tecnologías CAD/CAM/CNC Metodología para la manufactura de implantes craneales a partir de imágenes DICOM y tecnologías CAD/CAM/CNC

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Iván López

2005-12-01

Full Text Available El presente artículo propone una metodología para el diseño y la fabricación de implantes craneales a partir de imágenes DICOM y tecnologías CAD/CAM/CNC. Esta metodología parte de las Tomografías Axiales Computarizadas (TAC de la cabeza del paciente, con las cuales se lleva a cabo la reconstrucción tridimensional del cráneo. Luego, en el sistema CAD se reconstruye el implante variando la técnica empleada dependiendo de la región del cráneo con defecto o trauma. Una vez obtenido el modelo, se diseña el montaje y se fabrica el implante con soporte en tecnología CAM/CNC.It’s proposed a methodology in order to design and manufacture cranial implants using DICOM and CAD/CAM/CNC technologies. This methodology begins when the designer makes a three-dimensional cranial reconstruction using the Axial Computer Tomographies (ACT of the patient’s cranium. Next, using a CAD system, the designer rebuilds the implant varying the used technique depending on the aﬀected region. Finally, the designer builds the assembling and manufactures the implant.

10. Automatic fitting of conical envelopes to free-form surfaces for flank CNC machining

OpenAIRE

Bo P.; Bartoň M.; Pottmann H.

2017-01-01

We propose a new algorithm to detect patches of free-form surfaces that can be well approximated by envelopes of a rotational cone under a rigid body motion. These conical envelopes are a preferable choice from the manufacturing point of view as they are, by-definition, manufacturable by computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining using the efficient flank (peripheral) method with standard conical tools. Our geometric approach exploits multi-valued vector fields that consist of vectors in...

11. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process

OpenAIRE

Dhandapani, N. V.; Thangarasu, V. S.; Sureshkannan, G.

2015-01-01

This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the...

12. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

Science.gov (United States)

Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

13. Distributed Control System Design for Portable PC Based CNC Machine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Roni Permana Saputra

2014-07-01

Full Text Available The demand on automated machining has been increased and emerges improvement research to achieve many goals such as portability, low cost manufacturability, interoperability, and simplicity in machine usage. These improvements are conducted without ignoring the performance analysis and usability evaluation. This research has designed a distributed control system in purpose to control a portable CNC machine. The design consists of main processing unit, secondary processing unit, motor control, and motor driver. A preliminary simulation has been conducted for performance analysis including linear accuracy and circular accuracy. The results achieved in the simulation provide linear accuracy up to 2 μm with total cost for the whole processing unit is up to 5 million IDR.

14. Modeling of tool path for the CNC sheet cutting machines

Science.gov (United States)

Petunin, Aleksandr A.

2015-11-01

In the paper the problem of tool path optimization for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) cutting machines is considered. The classification of the cutting techniques is offered. We also propose a new classification of toll path problems. The tasks of cost minimization and time minimization for standard cutting technique (Continuous Cutting Problem, CCP) and for one of non-standard cutting techniques (Segment Continuous Cutting Problem, SCCP) are formalized. We show that the optimization tasks can be interpreted as discrete optimization problem (generalized travel salesman problem with additional constraints, GTSP). Formalization of some constraints for these tasks is described. For the solution GTSP we offer to use mathematical model of Prof. Chentsov based on concept of a megalopolis and dynamic programming.

15. ANN Surface Roughness Optimization of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy Finish Turning: Minimum Machining Times at Prime Machining Costs.

Science.gov (United States)

Abbas, Adel Taha; Pimenov, Danil Yurievich; Erdakov, Ivan Nikolaevich; Taha, Mohamed Adel; Soliman, Mahmoud Sayed; El Rayes, Magdy Mostafa

2018-05-16

Magnesium alloys are widely used in aerospace vehicles and modern cars, due to their rapid machinability at high cutting speeds. A novel Edgeworth⁻Pareto optimization of an artificial neural network (ANN) is presented in this paper for surface roughness ( Ra ) prediction of one component in computer numerical control (CNC) turning over minimal machining time ( T m ) and at prime machining costs ( C ). An ANN is built in the Matlab programming environment, based on a 4-12-3 multi-layer perceptron (MLP), to predict Ra , T m , and C , in relation to cutting speed, v c , depth of cut, a p , and feed per revolution, f r . For the first time, a profile of an AZ61 alloy workpiece after finish turning is constructed using an ANN for the range of experimental values v c , a p , and f r . The global minimum length of a three-dimensional estimation vector was defined with the following coordinates: Ra = 0.087 μm, T m = 0.358 min/cm³, C = \$8.2973. Likewise, the corresponding finish-turning parameters were also estimated: cutting speed v c = 250 m/min, cutting depth a p = 1.0 mm, and feed per revolution f r = 0.08 mm/rev. The ANN model achieved a reliable prediction accuracy of ±1.35% for surface roughness.

16. Towards completing the cyclopropenylidene cycle: rovibrational analysis of cyclic N3+, CNN, HCNN+, and CNC.

Science.gov (United States)

Fortenberry, Ryan C; Lee, Timothy J; Huang, Xinchuan

2017-08-30

The simple aromatic hydrocarbon, cyclopropenylidene (c-C 3 H 2 ), is a known, naturally-occurring molecule. The question remains as to whether its isoelectronic, cyclic, fellow aromatics of c-N 3 + , c-CNN, HCNN + , and c-CNC - are as well. Each of these are exciting objects for observation of Titan, and the rotational constants and vibrational frequencies produced here will allow for remote sensing of Titan's atmosphere or other astrophysical or terrestrial sources. None of these four aromatic species are vibrationally strong absorbers/emitters, but the two ions, HCNN + and c-CNC - , have dipole moments of greater than 3 D and 1 D, respectively, making them good targets for rotational spectroscopic observation. Each of these molecules is shown here to exhibit its own, unique vibrational properties, but the general trends put the vibrational behavior for corresponding fundamental modes within close ranges of one another, even producing nearly the same heavy atom, symmetric stretching frequencies for HCNN + and c-C 3 H 2 at 1600 cm -1 . The c-N 3 + cation is confirmed to be fairly unstable and has almost no intensity in its ν 2 fundamental. Hence, it will likely remain difficult to characterize experimentally.

17. Novel CNC Grinding Process Control for Nanometric Surface Roughness for Aspheric Space Optical Surfaces

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jeong-Yeol Han

2004-06-01

Full Text Available Optics fabrication process for precision space optical parts includes bound abrasive grinding, loose abrasive lapping and polishing. The traditional bound abrasive grinding with bronze bond cupped diamond wheel leaves the machine marks of about 20 μm rms in height and the subsurface damage of about 1 μm rms in height to be removed by subsequent loose abrasive lapping. We explored an efficient quantitative control of precision CNC grinding. The machining parameters such as grain size, work-piece rotation speed and feed rate were altered while grinding the work-piece surfaces of 20-100 mm in diameter. The input grinding variables and the resulting surface quality data were used to build grinding prediction models using empirical and multi-variable regression analysis. The effectiveness of such grinding prediction models was then examined by running a series of precision CNC grinding operation with a set of controlled input variables and predicted output surface quality indicators. The experiment achieved the predictability down to ±20 nm in height and the surface roughness down to 36 nm in height. This study contributed to improvement of the process efficiency reaching directly the polishing and figuring process without the need for the loose abrasive lapping stage.

18. Exploiting the CNC side chain in heterocyclic rearrangements: synthesis of 4(5)-acylamino-imidazoles.

Science.gov (United States)

Piccionello, Antonio Palumbo; Buscemi, Silvestre; Vivona, Nicolò; Pace, Andrea

2010-08-06

A new variation on the Boulton-Katritzky reaction is reported, namely, involving use of a CNC side chain. A novel Montmorillonite-K10 catalyzed nonreductive transamination of a 3-benzoyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole afforded a 3-(alpha-aminobenzyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole, which was condensed with benzaldehydes to afford the corresponding imines. In the presence of strong base, these imines underwent Boulton-Katritzky-type rearrangement to afford novel 4(5)-acylaminoimidazoles.

19. STUDY OF THE VIBRATION LEVEL IN CASE OF MANUFACTURING ON A CNC MACHINE-TOOL

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Ioan Călin ROȘCA

2015-12-01

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental research performed on a CNC machine tool type ISEL-GFV considering the vibration level developed during the manufacturing of different pieces of particleboard at six processing regimes. There were recorded signals on both time and frequency domains on the three main directions. Based on recorded data there are presented the main conclusions referring to the level of vibrations and the frequencies associated to the highest levels.

20. Chování "Mid Spatial Frequencies" při CNC opracování optických ploch

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Procháska, František; Matoušek, Ondřej; Psota, Pavel; Beneš, Jiří

2015-01-01

Roč. 60, č. 10 (2015), s. 293-295 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA03010843 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Mid Spatial Frequencies * CNC optical surface processing Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing

1. Extensión del estándar ISO 10303 AP-238 para la automatización del acceso a datos de procesos CNC

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J. Garrido

2009-01-01

2. Optimasi Parameter Permesinan Terhadap Waktu Proses Pada Pemrograman Cnc Milling Dengan Berbasis Cad/cam

OpenAIRE

2016-01-01

The milling process is one of many machining processes for manufacturing component. The length of time in the process of milling machining is influenced by selection and design of machining parameters including cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The purpose of this study to know the influence of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut as independent variables versus operation time at CNC milling process as dependent variables. Each independent variable consists of three level of fac...

3. Universal CNC platform motion control technology for industrial CT

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cheng Senlin; Wang Yang

2011-01-01

According to the more scanning methods and the higher speed of industrial CT, the higher precision of the motion location and the data collection sync-control is required at present, a new motion control technology was proposed, which was established based on the universal CNC system with high precision of multi-axis control. Aiming at the second and the third generation of CT scanning motion, a control method was researched, and achieved the demands of the changeable parameters and network control, Through the simulation of the second and the third generation of CT scanning motion process, the control precision of the rotation axis reached 0.001° and the linear axis reached 0.002 mm, Practical tests showed this system can meet the requirements of the multi-axis motion integration and the sync signal control, it also have advantages in the control precision and the performance. (authors)

4. Perancangan Coupled Fuzzy Logic Controller pada Prototipe Mesin Computer Numerical Control (CNC

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Nabilla Gustiviana

2012-09-01

Full Text Available Tingkat ketelitian mesin CNC dalam membuat suatu kontur merupakan hal yang penting. Adanya gesekan antara mata pahat dengan benda kerja saat melakukan gerakan feeding dalam membentuk suatu kontur dapat berakibat pada kesalahan bentuk kontur yang akan dihasilkan apabila di tiap sumbunya dikontrol secara individu. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut, maka dirancang kombinasi antara Fuzzy Logic Controller sebagai kontroler individu yang mengatasi permasalahan di tiap sumbu, dengan kontroler koordinasi, yaitu Cross-Coupled Controller. Algoritma dari kontroler ini dibuat dengan menggunakan software LabView 8.6. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa dengan menambahkan kontroler koordinasi, dapat memperbaiki nilai indeks performansi sebesar 37,5% untuk kontur linier dan 2,78% untuk kontur lingkaran

5. Dust Creation in CNC Drilling of Wood Composites

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Tomasz Rogoziński

2015-04-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the particle-size distribution of dust created by the drilling of selected wood composites, which was carried out using a CNC machine. The particle-size distribution was studied through two methods. Two analyses were performed: the sieve analysis of samples from the whole mass of collected dust and the laser diffraction analysis of the finest fraction isolated by sieving. The results presented general information about the particle-size distribution of the dust, as well as detailed information on the content of the finest particles. This information revealed that the particles might pose a potential risk to the health of workers employed in the woodworking industry. This potential risk is due to the possibility of their dispersion in the atmosphere surrounding the workplace and their size, which allows them to be respirable. The relationship between the fineness of the dust and the type of wood composite was also tested. Most ultrafine particles are formed during the drilling of fibreboards and are especially produced in traditional wet technology.

6. Optimization of cutting parameters in CNC turning of stainless steel 304 with TiAlN nano coated carbide cutting tool

Science.gov (United States)

Durga Prasada Rao, V.; Harsha, N.; Raghu Ram, N. S.; Navya Geethika, V.

2018-02-01

In this work, turning was performed to optimize the surface finish or roughness (Ra) of stainless steel 304 with uncoated and coated carbide tools under dry conditions. The carbide tools were coated with Titanium Aluminium Nitride (TiAlN) nano coating using Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) method. The machining parameters, viz., cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate which show major impact on Ra are considered during turning. The experiments are designed as per Taguchi orthogonal array and machining process is done accordingly. Then second-order regression equations have been developed on the basis of experimental results for Ra in terms of machining parameters used. Regarding the effect of machining parameters, an upward trend is observed in Ra with respect to feed rate, and as cutting speed increases the Ra value increased slightly due to chatter and vibrations. The adequacy of response variable (Ra) is tested by conducting additional experiments. The predicted Ra values are found to be a close match of their corresponding experimental values of uncoated and coated tools. The corresponding average % errors are found to be within the acceptable limits. Then the surface roughness equations of uncoated and coated tools are set as the objectives of optimization problem and are solved by using Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Also the tool lives of uncoated and coated tools are predicted by using Taylor’s tool life equation.

7. Static/dynamic Analysis and Optimization of Z-axis Stand of PCB CNC Drilling Machine*

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Zhou Yanjun

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The finite element analysis is used for the static and dynamic analysis of the Z axis brace of PCB CNC drilling machine. With its results of maximum displacement deformation and von Mises stress and modal frequency, the defect of original design was found out. On such bases, a variety of optimization scheme is put forward and the best size of the Z axis brace is obtained by the performance comparison of the schemes. This method offers bases for the design and renovation of other machine tool components.

8. Effect of turning parameters on surface roughness of A356/5% SiC composite produced by electromagnetic stir casting

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dwivedi, S. P.; Kumar, Sudhir; Kumar, Ajay [Noida Institute of Engineering Technology, U.P (India)

2012-12-15

In the present investigation, A356 alloy 5 wt% SiC composite is fabricated by electromagnetic stir casting process. An attempt has been made to investigate the effect of CNC lathe process parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed rate on surface roughness during machining of A356 alloy 5 wt% SiC particulate metal-matrix composites in dry condition. Response surface methodology (Box Behnken Method) is chosen to design the experiments. The results reveal that cutting speed increases surface roughness decreases, whereas depth of cut and feed increase surface roughness increase. Optimum values of speed (190 m/min), feed (0.14 mm/rev) and depth of cut (0.20 mm) during turning of A356 alloy 5 wt% SiC composites to minimize the surface roughness (3.15>m) have been find out. The mechanical properties of A356 alloy 5 wt% SiC were also analyzed.

9. Advanced CNC and CAM Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Course Syllabi, Instructor's Handbook [and] Student Laboratory Manual.

Science.gov (United States)

Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and student laboratory manual for a 1-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level positions as advanced computer numerical control (CNC) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) technicians.. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM…

10. Correction: A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

Science.gov (United States)

Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

2016-12-22

Correction for 'A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide' by Chee Koon Ng et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 11842-11845.

11. Altered Dynamic Postural Control during Step Turning in Persons with Early-Stage Parkinson’s Disease

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Jooeun Song

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Persons with early-stage Parkinson’s disease (EPD do not typically experience marked functional deficits but may have difficulty with turning tasks. Studies evaluating turning have focused on individuals in advanced stages of the disease. The purpose of this study was to compare postural control strategies adopted during turning in persons with EPD to those used by healthy control (HC subjects. Fifteen persons with EPD, diagnosed within 3 years, and 10 HC participated. Participants walked 4 meters and then turned 90°. Dynamic postural control was quantified as the distance between the center of pressure (COP and the extrapolated center of mass (eCOM. Individuals with EPD demonstrated significantly shorter COP-eCOM distances compared to HC. These findings suggest that dynamic postural control during turning is altered even in the early stages of PD.

12. Pengaturan Kecepatan Motor Spindle pada Retrofit Mesin Bubut CNC Menggunakan Kontroler PID Gain Scheduling

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Fikri Yoga Permana

2013-03-01

Full Text Available Pada mesin bubut Computerized Numerical Control (CNC, proses pemahatan benda kerja memerlukan kecepatan potong yang tetap agar hasil kerja memiliki tingkat presisi tinggi. Dalam prakteknya, ketika terjadi pemotongan, diameter benda kerja akan selalu berkurang dan tingkat kedalaman pahat berubah-ubah sesuai dengan proses yang dilakukan sehingga mempengaruhi kecepatan putar motor spindle sehingga mengakibatkan tingkat presisi hasil kerja menjadi berkurang. Pada penelitian ini, digunakan kontroler PI Gain Scheduling untuk mengatur kecapatan motor spindle. Hasil yang didapatkan berupa simulasi kontroler PI Gain Scheduling. Dari hasil simulasi didapatkan kontroler PI Gain Scheduling mampu membuat respon sistem sesuai dengan yang diinginkan.

13. Characterization of beta-turn and Asx-turns mimicry in a model peptide: stabilization via C--H . . . O interaction.

Science.gov (United States)

Thakur, A K; Kishore, R

2006-04-15

The chemical synthesis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of a model peptide, Boc-Thr-Thr-NH2 (1) comprised of proteinogenic residues bearing an amphiphilic Cbeta -stereogenic center, has been described. Interestingly, the analysis of its molecular structure revealed the existence of a distinct conformation that mimics a typical beta-turn and Asx-turns, i.e., the two Thr residues occupy the left- and right-corner positions. The main-chain torsion angles of the N- and C-terminal residues i.e., semiextended: phi = -68.9 degrees , psi = 128.6 degrees ; semifolded: phi = -138.1 degrees , psi = 2.5 degrees conformations, respectively, in conjunction with a gauche- disposition of the obligatory C-terminus Thr CgammaH3 group, characterize the occurrence of the newly described beta-turn- and Asx-turns-like topology. The preferred molecular structure is suggested to be stabilized by an effective nonconventional main-chain to side-chain Ci=O . . . H--Cgamma(i+2)-type intraturn hydrogen bond. Noteworthy, the observed topology of the resulting 10-membered hydrogen-bonded ring is essentially similar to the one perceived for a classical beta-turn and the Asx-turns, stabilized by a conventional intraturn hydrogen bond. Considering the signs as well as magnitudes of the backbone torsion angles and the orientation of the central peptide bond, the overall mimicked topology resembles the type II beta-turn or type II Asx-turns. An analysis of Xaa-Thr sequences in high-resolution X-ray elucidated protein structures revealed the novel topology prevalence in functional proteins (unpublished). In view of indubitable structural as well as functional importance of nonconventional interactions in bioorganic and biomacromolecules, we intend to highlight the participation of Thr CgammaH in the creation of a short-range C=O . . . H--Cgamma -type interaction in peptides and proteins. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

14. Optimization of surface roughness parameters in dry turning

OpenAIRE

R.A. Mahdavinejad; H. Sharifi Bidgoli

2009-01-01

Purpose: The precision of machine tools on one hand and the input setup parameters on the other hand, are strongly influenced in main output machining parameters such as stock removal, toll wear ratio and surface roughnes.Design/methodology/approach: There are a lot of input parameters which are effective in the variations of these output parameters. In CNC machines, the optimization of machining process in order to predict surface roughness is very important.Findings: From this point of view...

15. Experimental investigation and modelling of surface roughness and resultant cutting force in hard turning of AISI H13 Steel

Science.gov (United States)

Boy, M.; Yaşar, N.; Çiftçi, İ.

2016-11-01

In recent years, turning of hardened steels has replaced grinding for finishing operations. This process is compared to grinding operations; hard turning has higher material removal rates, the possibility of greater process flexibility, lower equipment costs, and shorter setup time. CBN or ceramic cutting tools are widely used hard part machining. For successful application of hard turning, selection of suitable cutting parameters for a given cutting tool is an important step. For this purpose, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of cutting tool edge geometry, feed rate and cutting speed on surface roughness and resultant cutting force in hard turning of AISI H13 steel with ceramic cutting tools. Machining experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe based on Taguchi experimental design (L16) in different levels of cutting parameters. In the experiments, a Kistler 9257 B, three cutting force components (Fc, Ff and Fr) piezoelectric dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces. Surface roughness measurements were performed by using a Mahrsurf PS1 device. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance has been performed and mathematical model have been developed for surface roughness and resultant cutting forces. The analysis of variance results showed that the cutting edge geometry, cutting speed and feed rate were the most significant factors on resultant cutting force while the cutting edge geometry and feed rate were the most significant factor for the surface roughness. The regression analysis was applied to predict the outcomes of the experiment. The predicted values and measured values were very close to each other. Afterwards a confirmation tests were performed to make a comparison between the predicted results and the measured results. According to the confirmation test results, measured values are within the 95% confidence interval.

16. Stepping in Place While Voluntarily Turning Around Produces a Long-Lasting Posteffect Consisting in Inadvertent Turning While Stepping Eyes Closed

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Stefania Sozzi

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Training subjects to step in place on a rotating platform while maintaining a fixed body orientation in space produces a posteffect consisting in inadvertent turning around while stepping in place eyes closed (podokinetic after-rotation, PKAR. We tested the hypothesis that voluntary turning around while stepping in place also produces a posteffect similar to PKAR. Sixteen subjects performed 12 min of voluntary turning while stepping around their vertical axis eyes closed and 12 min of stepping in place eyes open on the center of a platform rotating at 60°/s (pretests. Then, subjects continued stepping in place eyes closed for at least 10 min (posteffect. We recorded the positions of markers fixed to head, shoulder, and feet. The posteffect of voluntary turning shared all features of PKAR. Time decay of angular velocity, stepping cadence, head acceleration, and ratio of angular velocity after to angular velocity before were similar between both protocols. Both postrotations took place inadvertently. The posteffects are possibly dependent on the repeated voluntary contraction of leg and foot intrarotating pelvic muscles that rotate the trunk over the stance foot, a synergy common to both protocols. We propose that stepping in place and voluntary turning can be a scheme ancillary to the rotating platform for training body segment coordination in patients with impairment of turning synergies of various origin.

17. Turn by Turn Measurements at the KEK-ATF

CERN Document Server

Renier, Y; Tomas, R; Wendt, M; Eddy, N; Kubo, K; Kuroda, S; Naito, T; Okugi, T; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J

2013-01-01

The ATF damping ring has been upgraded with new read-out electronics for the beam position monitors (BPM), capable to acquire the beam orbits on a turn-by-turn basis, as well as in a high resolution averaging mode. The new BPM system allows to improve optic corrections and to achieve an even smaller vertical emittance (<2pm). Experimental results are presented based on turn-by-turn beam orbit measurements in the ring, for estimating the β functions and dispersion along the lattice. A fast method to measure spectral line amplitude in a few turns is also presented, including the evaluation of chromaticity.

18. Prepolishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

Science.gov (United States)

Schoeffler, Adrienne E.; Gregg, Leslie L.; Schoen, John M.; Fess, Edward M.; Hakiel, Michael; Jacobs, Stephen D.

2003-05-01

Deterministic microgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-5μm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an Optipro CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

19. Feedrate optimization in 5-axis machining based on direct trajectory interpolation on the surface using an open cnc

OpenAIRE

Beudaert , Xavier; Lavernhe , Sylvain; Tournier , Christophe

2014-01-01

International audience; In the common machining process of free-form surfaces, CAM software generates approximated tool paths because of the input tool path format of the industrial CNC. Then, marks on finished surfaces may appear due to non smooth feedrate planning during interpolation. The Direct Trajectory Interpolation on the Surface (DTIS) method allows managing the tool path geometry and the kinematical parameters to achieve higher productivity and a better surface quality. Machining ex...

20. Models and Algorithms for Tracking Target with Coordinated Turn Motion

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Xianghui Yuan

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Tracking target with coordinated turn (CT motion is highly dependent on the models and algorithms. First, the widely used models are compared in this paper—coordinated turn (CT model with known turn rate, augmented coordinated turn (ACT model with Cartesian velocity, ACT model with polar velocity, CT model using a kinematic constraint, and maneuver centered circular motion model. Then, in the single model tracking framework, the tracking algorithms for the last four models are compared and the suggestions on the choice of models for different practical target tracking problems are given. Finally, in the multiple models (MM framework, the algorithm based on expectation maximization (EM algorithm is derived, including both the batch form and the recursive form. Compared with the widely used interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, the EM algorithm shows its effectiveness.

1. Accuracy Enhancement with Processing Error Prediction and Compensation of a CNC Flame Cutting Machine Used in Spatial Surface Operating Conditions

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Shenghai Hu

2017-04-01

Full Text Available This study deals with the precision performance of the CNC flame-cutting machine used in spatial surface operating conditions and presents an accuracy enhancement method based on processing error modeling prediction and real-time compensation. Machining coordinate systems and transformation matrix models were established for the CNC flame processing system considering both geometric errors and thermal deformation effects. Meanwhile, prediction and compensation models were constructed related to the actual cutting situation. Focusing on the thermal deformation elements, finite element analysis was used to measure the testing data of thermal errors, the grey system theory was applied to optimize the key thermal points, and related thermal dynamics models were carried out to achieve high-precision prediction values. Comparison experiments between the proposed method and the teaching method were conducted on the processing system after performing calibration. The results showed that the proposed method is valid and the cutting quality could be improved by more than 30% relative to the teaching method. Furthermore, the proposed method can be used under any working condition by making a few adjustments to the prediction and compensation models.

2. Fatigue and Model Analysis of the CNC Cylindrical Grinder

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Lin Jui-Chang

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to lower deviation of workpiece by meeting high stability and rigidity to prevent the resonance in producing procedure of the CNC universal cylindrical grinding machine. Using finite element analysis software ABAQUS in grinder machine tools for numerical simulation of several analyses for the following: structural rigidity analysis, optimized design, vibration frequency analysis and fatigue damage analysis. This work aims on state of the transmission of outer diameter spindle to proceed in stress and fatigue life analysis by FE-SAFE Subroutine. The max values of equivalent stress and average amount of displacement in structural rigidity analysis are 0.67(Mpa and 0.92(µm. Optimization design effectively reducing extreme value of stress, the largest decline of about 5.43%. Modal analysis compared with the experimental, the average error percentage was less than 10% of parts. The whole structure error does not exceed 3%. The fatigue life of approximately 1,193,988 times, estimates into real life time can use more than sixty years, from the viewpoint of structural strength, spindle has a good high breaking strength is designed to be safe.

3. Computer numerical control (CNC) lithography: light-motion synchronized UV-LED lithography for 3D microfabrication

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Jungkwun; Allen, Mark G; Yoon, Yong-Kyu

2016-01-01

This paper presents a computer-numerical-controlled ultraviolet light-emitting diode (CNC UV-LED) lithography scheme for three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication. The CNC lithography scheme utilizes sequential multi-angled UV light exposures along with a synchronized switchable UV light source to create arbitrary 3D light traces, which are transferred into the photosensitive resist. The system comprises a switchable, movable UV-LED array as a light source, a motorized tilt-rotational sample holder, and a computer-control unit. System operation is such that the tilt-rotational sample holder moves in a pre-programmed routine, and the UV-LED is illuminated only at desired positions of the sample holder during the desired time period, enabling the formation of complex 3D microstructures. This facilitates easy fabrication of complex 3D structures, which otherwise would have required multiple manual exposure steps as in the previous multidirectional 3D UV lithography approach. Since it is batch processed, processing time is far less than that of the 3D printing approach at the expense of some reduction in the degree of achievable 3D structure complexity. In order to produce uniform light intensity from the arrayed LED light source, the UV-LED array stage has been kept rotating during exposure. UV-LED 3D fabrication capability was demonstrated through a plurality of complex structures such as V-shaped micropillars, micropanels, a micro-‘hi’ structure, a micro-‘cat’s claw,’ a micro-‘horn,’ a micro-‘calla lily,’ a micro-‘cowboy’s hat,’ and a micro-‘table napkin’ array. (paper)

4. Pre-polishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

Science.gov (United States)

2003-05-01

Deterministic micorgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-51.tm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an OptiproTM CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

5. Minimum Time Trajectory Optimization of CNC Machining with Tracking Error Constraints

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Qiang Zhang

2014-01-01

Full Text Available An off-line optimization approach of high precision minimum time feedrate for CNC machining is proposed. Besides the ordinary considered velocity, acceleration, and jerk constraints, dynamic performance constraint of each servo drive is also considered in this optimization problem to improve the tracking precision along the optimized feedrate trajectory. Tracking error is applied to indicate the servo dynamic performance of each axis. By using variable substitution, the tracking error constrained minimum time trajectory planning problem is formulated as a nonlinear path constrained optimal control problem. Bang-bang constraints structure of the optimal trajectory is proved in this paper; then a novel constraint handling method is proposed to realize a convex optimization based solution of the nonlinear constrained optimal control problem. A simple ellipse feedrate planning test is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. Then the practicability and robustness of the trajectory generated by the proposed approach are demonstrated by a butterfly contour machining example.

6. An exploration of the role and scope of the clinical nurse consultant (CNC) in a metropolitan health service.

Science.gov (United States)

Bloomer, Melissa J; Cross, Wendy M

2011-01-01

Clinical nurse consultants have been a part of the nursing workforce for some time however a lack of clarity regarding this role has led to significant variations in health service expectations, workloads and scope for the Clinical nurse consultants working within this metropolitan health service. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the CNC as it is perceived by them, in the context of this health service. A qualitative approach was used for this study. Following ethics approval a single audio-taped focus group was undertaken to gather data. Guiding questions were used to elicit responses from the group, moderated by the co-investigators. The focus group was transcribed verbatim. Each researcher independently analysed the narrative data, using coding and clustering the data to develop primary and sub-themes. Whilst each participant experiences their role individually, there were four themes derived from comments expressed by the participants: 'Diversity and conflict', 'Leaders but powerless', 'Support systems' and 'The portfolio holder role'. The role of the Clinical nurse consultant is complex and diverse. The variability in the role suggests that organisational consensus of the role, scope and purpose of the CNC position has not been actualised, resulting in a lack of support systems, and an underutilisation of the Clinical nurse consultants as leaders, where they can challenge existing practice and guide future directions in care delivery.

7. Performance improvement studies for cutting tools with perforated surface in turning of titanium alloy

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Charitha Rao

2018-01-01

Full Text Available In turning process, the cutting tool is essential for shaping materials. The cutting tools with various perforated surfaces help to increase the cutting tool life. Also, advances in CNC machining technologies have enhanced the productivity of machining process. One of the best or futuristic approaches in modern manufacturing engineering is the use of FEM Simulation for the metal cutting process. FEM simulation helps in understanding the metal deformation process and also helps in the reduction of experiments. The simulation helps the researchers to predict the major influencing cutting variable values without carrying out any experiment which is time-consuming and expensive. This research presents the simulation study of the performance of micro-hole patterned Polycrystalline Diamond cutting insert in machining Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V. Micro-holes are drilled using Electrical Discharge Wire Drilling machine on the rake face of Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD cutting inserts. FEM analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of perforations on the mechanical integrity of insert. The micro-hole patterned insert is modeled in PRO-E modeler and simulated using DEFORM-3D software. The effective stress, strain, and temperature distribution are analyzed and the results are compared with the normal insert.

8. The effect of the model posture on the forming quality in the CNC incremental forming

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhu, H; Zhang, W; Bai, J L; Yu, C; Xing, Y F

2015-01-01

Sheet rupture caused by a sheet metal thickness non-uniformity persists in CNC (Computer Numerical Control) incremental forming. Because the forming half cone angle is determined by the orientation of the model to be formed, so is the sheet metal's uniformity. The finite element analysis models for the two kinds of the postures of the model were established, and the digital simulation was conducted by using the ANSYS/LA-DYNA software. The effect of the model's posture on the sheet thickness distribution and the sheet thickness thinning rate were studied by comparing the simulation results of two kinds of the finite elements analyzes. (paper)

9. FPGA-based fused smart-sensor for tool-wear area quantitative estimation in CNC machine inserts.

Science.gov (United States)

Trejo-Hernandez, Miguel; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto

2010-01-01

Manufacturing processes are of great relevance nowadays, when there is a constant claim for better productivity with high quality at low cost. The contribution of this work is the development of a fused smart-sensor, based on FPGA to improve the online quantitative estimation of flank-wear area in CNC machine inserts from the information provided by two primary sensors: the monitoring current output of a servoamplifier, and a 3-axis accelerometer. Results from experimentation show that the fusion of both parameters makes it possible to obtain three times better accuracy when compared with the accuracy obtained from current and vibration signals, individually used.

10. Reconceptualizing Autonomy: A Relational Turn in Bioethics.

Science.gov (United States)

Jennings, Bruce

2016-05-01

History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

11. Performance Monitoring Of A Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Lathe Using Pattern Recognition Techniques

Science.gov (United States)

Daneshmend, L. K.; Pak, H. A.

1984-02-01

On-line monitoring of the cutting process in CNC lathe is desirable to ensure unattended fault-free operation in an automated environment. The state of the cutting tool is one of the most important parameters which characterises the cutting process. Direct monitoring of the cutting tool or workpiece is not feasible during machining. However several variables related to the state of the tool can be measured on-line. A novel monitoring technique is presented which uses cutting torque as the variable for on-line monitoring. A classifier is designed on the basis of the empirical relationship between cutting torque and flank wear. The empirical model required by the on-line classifier is established during an automated training cycle using machine vision for off-line direct inspection of the tool.

12. Comparative study of manufacturing condyle implant using rapid prototyping and CNC machining

Science.gov (United States)

Bojanampati, S.; Karthikeyan, R.; Islam, MD; Venugopal, S.

2018-04-01

Injuries to the cranio-maxillofacial area caused by road traffic accidents (RTAs), fall from heights, birth defects, metabolic disorders and tumors affect a rising number of patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and require maxillofacial surgery. Mandibular reconstruction poses a specific challenge in both functionality and aesthetics, and involves replacement of the damaged bone by a custom made implant. Due to material, design cycle time and manufacturing process time, such implants are in many instances not affordable to patients. In this paper, the feasibility of designing and manufacturing low-cost, custom made condyle implant is assessed using two different approaches, consisting of rapid prototyping and three-axis computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining. Two candidate rapid prototyping techniques are considered, namely fused deposition modeling (FDM) and three-dimensional printing followed by sand casting The feasibility of the proposed manufacturing processes is evaluated based on manufacturing time, cost, quality, and reliability.

13. Required coefficient of friction in the anteroposterior and mediolateral direction during turning at different walking speeds.

Science.gov (United States)

Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akito; Hokkirigawa, Kazuo

2017-01-01

This study investigated the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) and the tangent of center of mass (COM)-center of pressure (COP) angle in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions during turning at different walking speeds. Sixteen healthy young adults (8 males and 8 females) participated in this study. The participants were instructed to conduct trials of straight walking and 90° step and spin turns to the right at each of three self-selected speeds (slow, normal, and fast). The ML and AP directions during turning gait were defined using the orientation of the pelvis to construct a body-fixed reference frame. The RCOF values and COM-COP angle tangent in the ML direction during turning at weight acceptance phase were higher than those during straight walking, and those values increased with increasing walking speed. The ML component of the RCOF and COM-COP tangent values during weight acceptance for step turns were higher than those for spin turns. The mean centripetal force during turning tended to increase with an increase in walking speed and had a strong positive correlation with the RCOF values in the ML direction (R = 0.97 during the weight acceptance phase; R = 0.95 during the push-off phase). Therefore, turning, particularly step turn, is likely to cause lateral slip at weight acceptance because of the increased centripetal force compared with straight walking. Future work should test at-risk population and compare with the present results.

14. Required coefficient of friction in the anteroposterior and mediolateral direction during turning at different walking speeds.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Takeshi Yamaguchi

Full Text Available This study investigated the required coefficient of friction (RCOF and the tangent of center of mass (COM-center of pressure (COP angle in the mediolateral (ML and anteroposterior (AP directions during turning at different walking speeds. Sixteen healthy young adults (8 males and 8 females participated in this study. The participants were instructed to conduct trials of straight walking and 90° step and spin turns to the right at each of three self-selected speeds (slow, normal, and fast. The ML and AP directions during turning gait were defined using the orientation of the pelvis to construct a body-fixed reference frame. The RCOF values and COM-COP angle tangent in the ML direction during turning at weight acceptance phase were higher than those during straight walking, and those values increased with increasing walking speed. The ML component of the RCOF and COM-COP tangent values during weight acceptance for step turns were higher than those for spin turns. The mean centripetal force during turning tended to increase with an increase in walking speed and had a strong positive correlation with the RCOF values in the ML direction (R = 0.97 during the weight acceptance phase; R = 0.95 during the push-off phase. Therefore, turning, particularly step turn, is likely to cause lateral slip at weight acceptance because of the increased centripetal force compared with straight walking. Future work should test at-risk population and compare with the present results.

15. VIRTUAL MACHINES IN EDUCATION – CNC MILLING MACHINE WITH SINUMERIK 840D CONTROL SYSTEM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ireneusz Zagórski

2014-11-01

Full Text Available Machining process nowadays could not be conducted without its inseparable element: cutting edge and frequently numerically controlled milling machines. Milling and lathe machining centres comprise standard equipment in many companies of the machinery industry, e.g. automotive or aircraft. It is for that reason that tertiary education should account for this rising demand. This entails the introduction into the curricula the forms which enable visualisation of machining, milling process and virtual production as well as virtual machining centres simulation. Siemens Virtual Machine (Virtual Workshop sets an example of such software, whose high functionality offers a range of learning experience, such as: learning the design of machine tools, their configuration, basic operation functions as well as basics of CNC.

16. Towards efficient 5-axis flank CNC machining of free-form surfaces via fitting envelopes of surfaces of revolution

OpenAIRE

Bo P.; Bartoň M.; Plakhotnik D.; Pottmann H.

2016-01-01

We introduce a new method that approximates free-form surfaces by envelopes of one-parameter motions of surfaces of revolution. In the context of 5-axis computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining, we propose a flank machining methodology which is a preferable scallop-free scenario when the milling tool and the machined free-form surface meet tangentially along a smooth curve. We seek both an optimal shape of the milling tool as well as its optimal path in 3D space and propose an optimiza...

17. Natural antioxidants exhibit chemopreventive characteristics through the regulation of CNC b-Zip transcription factors in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis.

Science.gov (United States)

Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Singh, Bhupendra; Bhat, Nimee K; Chen, Jie; Bhat, Hari K

2014-12-01

The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of resveratrol (Res) and vitamin C (VC) in prevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer through regulation of cap "n"collar (CNC) b-zip transcription factors. Human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A was treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and VC or Res with or without E2. mRNA and protein expression levels of CNC b-zip transcription factors nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 3 (Nrf3), and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were quantified. The treatment with E2 suppressed, whereas VC and Res prevented E2-mediated decrease in the expression levels of SOD3, NQO1, Nrf2 mRNA, and protein in MCF-10A cells. The treatment with E2, Res, or VC significantly increased mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf1. 17β-Estradiol treatment significantly increased but VC or Res decreased Nrf3 mRNA and protein expression levels. Our studies demonstrate that estrogen-induced breast cancer might be prevented through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes via Nrf-dependent pathways. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

18. Precise gouging-free tool orientations for 5-axis CNC machining

KAUST Repository

Kim, Yong-Joon

2014-08-19

We present a precise approach to the generation of optimized collision-free and gouging-free tool paths for 5-axis CNC machining of freeform NURBS surfaces using flat-end and rounded-end (bull nose) tools having cylindrical shank. To achieve high approximation quality, we employ analysis of hyper-osculating circles (HOCs) (Wang et al., 1993a,b), that have third order contact with the target surface, and lead to a locally collision-free configuration between the tool and the target surface. At locations where an HOC is not possible, we aim at a double tangential contact among the tool and the target surface, and use it as a bridge between the feasible HOC tool paths. We formulate all such possible two-contact configurations as systems of algebraic constraints and solve them. For all feasible HOCs and two-contact configurations, we perform a global optimization to find the tool path that maximizes the approximation quality of the machining, while being gouge-free and possibly satisfying constraints on the tool tilt and the tool acceleration. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach via several experimental results.

19. The substitution reaction of (CNC)Fe-2N₂ with CO.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Hongyan; Liu, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Xiang

2013-06-01

The substitution mechanism of two N₂ ligands in (CNC)Fe-2N₂ replaced by CO was studied theoretically at the B3LYP/LACVP* level. Both SN1 and SN₂ mechanisms were considered. The calculated results for the gas phase suggested that: 1) in SN1 mechanism, N₂ elimination, which involves S₀-T₁ PESs crossing, is the rate control step for both substitution stages. The barrier heights are 9.7 kcal mol(-1) and 13.05 kcal mol(-1), respectively. 2) In SN2 mechanism, the calculated barrier heights on LS PES are respectively 13.7 and 19.83 kcal mol(-1) for the two substitution steps, but S₀-T₁ PESs crossing lowers the two barriers to 10.7 and 15.7 kcal mol(-1), respectively. 3) Inclusion of solvation effect of THF by PCM model, the relative energies of all the key species (including minima, transition states and S₀-T₁ crossing points) do not have great difference from their gas phase relative energies. Considering that for each substitution step, SN1 barrier heights is slightly smaller than SN2 barrier, SN1 mechanism seems to be slightly preferable to SN2 mechanism.

20. Precise gouging-free tool orientations for 5-axis CNC machining

KAUST Repository

Kim, Yong-Joon; Elber, Gershon; Barton, Michael; Pottmann, Helmut

2014-01-01

We present a precise approach to the generation of optimized collision-free and gouging-free tool paths for 5-axis CNC machining of freeform NURBS surfaces using flat-end and rounded-end (bull nose) tools having cylindrical shank. To achieve high approximation quality, we employ analysis of hyper-osculating circles (HOCs) (Wang et al., 1993a,b), that have third order contact with the target surface, and lead to a locally collision-free configuration between the tool and the target surface. At locations where an HOC is not possible, we aim at a double tangential contact among the tool and the target surface, and use it as a bridge between the feasible HOC tool paths. We formulate all such possible two-contact configurations as systems of algebraic constraints and solve them. For all feasible HOCs and two-contact configurations, we perform a global optimization to find the tool path that maximizes the approximation quality of the machining, while being gouge-free and possibly satisfying constraints on the tool tilt and the tool acceleration. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach via several experimental results.

1. A Parallel Strategy for High-speed Interpolation of CNC Using Data Space Constraint Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shuan-qiang Yang

2013-12-01

Full Text Available A high-speed interpolation scheme using parallel computing is proposed in this paper. The interpolation method is divided into two tasks, namely, the rough task executing in PC and the fine task in the I/O card. During the interpolation procedure, the double buffers are constructed to exchange the interpolation data between the two tasks. Then, the data space constraint method is adapted to ensure the reliable and continuous data communication between the two buffers. Therefore, the proposed scheme can be realized in the common distribution of the operation systems without real-time performance. The high-speed and high-precision motion control can be achieved as well. Finally, an experiment is conducted on the self-developed CNC platform, the test results are shown to verify the proposed method.

2. Behavioral study of cnc-retrofitting kits for lathe machine

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1999-01-01

The aim of this project is to develop a Computerized Numerical Controlled (CNC) retrofitting kit for a lathe machine, study its behavior and compare its performance with the retrofitting kit already designed and fabricated at (Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS). Design calculations were performed assuming 100 mm work piece diameter and 800 mm length of stock using tool materials HSS, uncoated carbide, coated carbide, ceramic and cermet tools for different materials. Also cutting, thrust and radial forces on a single point cutting tool were determined. Stepper motors of torque 972 oz-in were selected to drive the carriage and cross-slide in Z and X-directions respectively. Power screws were replaced with ball screws of 0.63 inch dia. (x-direction) and 1.26 in. dia. (Z-direction) which were locally manufactured in the workshop. Deep groove and Angular contact ball bearings were used to support the ball screw shafts against axial and radial loads. Flexible and plain couplings were developed to couple encoders and motors to the ball screw shafts respectively. Panel mount optical rotary encoders are being used for feedback control. Mechanical assembly is complete but due to unavailability of wiring diagram for motors, control electronics could not be accomplished. Therefore, machine could not be evaluated in terms of accuracy, repeatability and resolution using computer software. (author)

3. Continuous tone printing in silicone from CNC milled matrices

Science.gov (United States)

Hoskins, S.; McCallion, P.

2014-02-01

Current research at the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) at the University of the West of England, Bristol, is exploring the potential of creating coloured pictorial imagery from a continuous tone relief surface. To create the printing matrices the research team have been using CNC milled images where the height of the relief image is dictated by creating a tone curve and then milling this curve into a series of relief blocks from which the image is cast in a silicone ink. A translucent image is cast from each of the colour matrices and each colour is assembled - one on top of another - resulting is a colour continuous tone print, where colour tone is created by physical depth of colour. This process is a contemporary method of continuous tone colour printing based upon the Nineteenth Century black and white printing process of Woodburytype as developed by Walter Bentley Woodbury in 1865. Woodburytype is the only true continuous tone printing process invented, and although its delicate and subtle surfaces surpassed all other printing methods at the time. The process died out in the late nineteenth century as more expedient and cost effective methods of printing prevailed. New research at CFPR builds upon previous research that combines 19th Century Photomechanical techniques with digital technology to reappraise the potential of these processes.

4. The Translator's Turn: in the Cultural Turn

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

徐玮玮

2003-01-01

@@ Introduction: Douglas Robinson rose to the defense of the " atheoretical" American literary translator in The Translator's Turn (1991). Here, I borrowed the title from him, but I will write my paper in the thought of the translator's role in translating. In his book, Robinson argued that the literary translator embodies an integration of feeling and thought, of intuition and systematization. In analyzing the " turn" that the translator take from the source text to the target text, Robinson offered a " dialogical" model, that is the translator's dialogical engagement with the source language and with the ethic of the target language. Robinson allows for the translator to intervene, subvert, divert, even entertain, emphasizing the creative aspect of literary translation. The translation linguists, scientists, and philosophers have had their chance at translation theory; now it is time, he argued, for the literary translators to have their " turn".

African Journals Online (AJOL)

2013-12-07

Dec 7, 2013 ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and ... piece quality in the CNC (Computer Numerical Control) turning process. An effective approach of optimization techniques genetic algorithm (GA) and ...

6. Lorentz invariance violation and charge (non)conservation: A general theoretical frame for extensions of the Maxwell equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laemmerzahl, Claus; Macias, Alfredo; Mueller, Holger

2005-01-01

All quantum gravity approaches lead to small modifications in the standard laws of physics which in most cases lead to violations of Lorentz invariance. One particular example is the extended standard model (SME). Here, a general phenomenological approach for extensions of the Maxwell equations is presented which turns out to be more general than the SME and which covers charge nonconservation (CNC), too. The new Lorentz invariance violating terms cannot be probed by optical experiments but need, instead, the exploration of the electromagnetic field created by a point charge or a magnetic dipole. Some scalar tensor theories and higher dimensional brane theories predict CNC in four dimensions and some models violating special relativity have been shown to be connected with CNC. Its relation to the Einstein Equivalence Principle has been discussed. Because of this upcoming interest, the experimental status of electric charge conservation is reviewed. Up to now there seem to exist no unique tests of charge conservation. CNC is related to the precession of polarization, to a modification of the 1/r-Coulomb potential, and to a time dependence of the fine structure constant. This gives the opportunity to describe a dedicated search for CNC

7. Parameter identification and optimization of slide guide joint of CNC machine tools

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, S.; Sun, B. B.

2017-11-01

The joint surface has an important influence on the performance of CNC machine tools. In order to identify the dynamic parameters of slide guide joint, the parametric finite element model of the joint is established and optimum design method is used based on the finite element simulation and modal test. Then the mode that has the most influence on the dynamics of slip joint is found through harmonic response analysis. Take the frequency of this mode as objective, the sensitivity analysis of the stiffness of each joint surface is carried out using Latin Hypercube Sampling and Monte Carlo Simulation. The result shows that the vertical stiffness of slip joint surface constituted by the bed and the slide plate has the most obvious influence on the structure. Therefore, this stiffness is taken as the optimization variable and the optimal value is obtained through studying the relationship between structural dynamic performance and stiffness. Take the stiffness values before and after optimization into the FEM of machine tool, and it is found that the dynamic performance of the machine tool is improved.

8. Lattice modeling and calibration with turn-by-turn orbit data

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xiaobiao Huang

2010-11-01

Full Text Available A new method that explores turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM data to calibrate lattice models of accelerators is proposed. The turn-by-turn phase space coordinates at one location of the ring are first established using data from two BPMs separated by a simple section with a known transfer matrix, such as a drift space. The phase space coordinates are then tracked with the model to predict positions at other BPMs, which can be compared to measurements. The model is adjusted to minimize the difference between the measured and predicted orbit data. BPM gains and rolls are included as fitting variables. This technique can be applied to either the entire or a section of the ring. We have tested the method experimentally on a part of the SPEAR3 ring.

9. Lattice modeling and calibration with turn-by-turn orbit data

Science.gov (United States)

Huang, Xiaobiao; Sebek, Jim; Martin, Don

2010-11-01

A new method that explores turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data to calibrate lattice models of accelerators is proposed. The turn-by-turn phase space coordinates at one location of the ring are first established using data from two BPMs separated by a simple section with a known transfer matrix, such as a drift space. The phase space coordinates are then tracked with the model to predict positions at other BPMs, which can be compared to measurements. The model is adjusted to minimize the difference between the measured and predicted orbit data. BPM gains and rolls are included as fitting variables. This technique can be applied to either the entire or a section of the ring. We have tested the method experimentally on a part of the SPEAR3 ring.

10. Thermal Error Test and Intelligent Modeling Research on the Spindle of High Speed CNC Machine Tools

Science.gov (United States)

Luo, Zhonghui; Peng, Bin; Xiao, Qijun; Bai, Lu

2018-03-01

Thermal error is the main factor affecting the accuracy of precision machining. Through experiments, this paper studies the thermal error test and intelligent modeling for the spindle of vertical high speed CNC machine tools in respect of current research focuses on thermal error of machine tool. Several testing devices for thermal error are designed, of which 7 temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of machine tool spindle system and 2 displacement sensors are used to detect the thermal error displacement. A thermal error compensation model, which has a good ability in inversion prediction, is established by applying the principal component analysis technology, optimizing the temperature measuring points, extracting the characteristic values closely associated with the thermal error displacement, and using the artificial neural network technology.

11. Effect of turning frequency on co-composting pig manure and fungus residue.

Science.gov (United States)

Jiang-Ming, Zhou

2017-03-01

Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but also can recycle agricultural wastes and transform them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for agricultural applications. However, the composting process and final product are easily affected by the limited oxygen supply that results from insufficient aeration, especially in the center of a large-scale windrow. Hence, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the turning frequency on the composting efficiency and compost quality of used pig manure and fungus residue. Physical and chemical characteristics were measured over the course of 63 days of composting. The data indicate that higher temperatures and more rapid moisture removal generally result from a turning treatment of once every 2-4 days than in fewer, or no, turning treatments. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium contents increased in all windrows as the organic matter content decreased, but both the increases and decrease were greater in windrows that were turned more frequently. The reduction of the organic matter mass by 53.7-66.0% for a turning of once every 2-8 days is significantly higher than that for the static windrow (39.1%). Although there is an increase in nitrogen mass loss with an increased turning frequency, lower nitrogen mass losses (12.7-25.7%) in all treatments were noted compared with previous studies. A final compost product with less moisture, less weight, higher nutrient content (N, P, and K), and greater stability was obtained in windrows with turning frequencies of once every 2-4 days, which is recommended when composting pig manure and fungus residue. Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but recycling of agricultural wastes transforms them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for

12. Analysis of the influence of tool dynamics in diamond turning

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fawcett, S.C.; Luttrell, D.E.; Keltie, R.F.

1988-12-01

This report describes the progress in defining the role of machine and interface dynamics on the surface finish in diamond turning. It contains a review of literature from conventional and diamond machining processes relating tool dynamics, material interactions and tool wear to surface finish. Data from experimental measurements of tool/work piece interface dynamics are presented as well as machine dynamics for the DTM at the Center.

13. Mimicry by asx- and ST-turns of the four main types of beta-turn in proteins.

Science.gov (United States)

Duddy, William J; Nissink, J Willem M; Allen, Frank H; Milner-White, E James

2004-11-01

Hydrogen-bonded beta-turns in proteins occur in four categories: type I (the most common), type II, type II', and type I'. Asx-turns resemble beta-turns, in that both have an NH. . .OC hydrogen bond forming a ring of 10 atoms. Serine and threonine side chains also commonly form hydrogen-bonded turns, here called ST-turns. Asx-turns and ST-turns can be categorized into four classes, based on side chain rotamers and the conformation of the central turn residue, which are geometrically equivalent to the four types of beta-turns. We propose asx- and ST-turns be named using the type I, II, I', and II' beta-turn nomenclature. Using this, the frequency of occurrence of both asx- and ST-turns is: type II' > type I > type II > type I', whereas for beta-turns it is type I > type II > type I' > type II'. Almost all type II asx-turns occur as a recently described three residue feature named an asx-nest.

14. Computational modeling of turn-taking dynamics in spoken conversations

OpenAIRE

Chowdhury, Shammur Absar

2017-01-01

The study of human interaction dynamics has been at the center for multiple research disciplines in- cluding computer and social sciences, conversational analysis and psychology, for over decades. Recent interest has been shown with the aim of designing computational models to improve human-machine interaction system as well as support humans in their decision-making process. Turn-taking is one of the key aspects of conversational dynamics in dyadic conversations and is an integral part of hu...

15. OptiCentric lathe centering machine

Science.gov (United States)

Buß, C.; Heinisch, J.

2013-09-01

High precision optics depend on precisely aligned lenses. The shift and tilt of individual lenses as well as the air gap between elements require accuracies in the single micron regime. These accuracies are hard to meet with traditional assembly methods. Instead, lathe centering can be used to machine the mount with respect to the optical axis. Using a diamond turning process, all relevant errors of single mounted lenses can be corrected in one post-machining step. Building on the OptiCentric® and OptiSurf® measurement systems, Trioptics has developed their first lathe centering machines. The machine and specific design elements of the setup will be shown. For example, the machine can be used to turn optics for i-line steppers with highest precision.

16. Turning breech babies after 34 weeks: the if, how, & when of turning breech babies.

Science.gov (United States)

Cohain, Judy Slome

2007-01-01

Techniques for turning a term breech baby are 1). External cephalic version (ECV) using hands and ultrasound only; 2). Acupuncture point stimulation, by needle or moxibustion; 3). Chiropractic "Webster" technique; 4). Hypnotherapy; and 5). Special exercises. Fifty % of breech fetuses at 34 weeks will turn by themselves to head down by 38 weeks. Therefore, to be considered effective, a technique for turning breech must turn the baby and keep it turned more than 50% of the time. Only ECV with an experienced practitioner has been documented to have a greater than 50% success rate at 37 weeks; in 95% of cases the head stays down. Most women experience the fetus turning by hand as quick but very painful. "Unstable lie" is sometimes used as a baseless excuse for inducing labor after the baby turns from breech to head down. (judyslome@hotmail.com).

17. Lean energy analysis of CNC lathe

Science.gov (United States)

Liana, N. A.; Amsyar, N.; Hilmy, I.; Yusof, MD

2018-01-01

The industrial sector in Malaysia is one of the main sectors that have high percentage of energy demand compared to other sector and this problem may lead to the future power shortage and increasing the production cost of a company. Suitable initiatives should be implemented by the industrial sectors to solve the issues such as by improving the machining system. In the past, the majority of the energy consumption in industry focus on lighting, HVAC and office section usage. Future trend, manufacturing process is also considered to be included in the energy analysis. A study on Lean Energy Analysis in a machining process is presented. Improving the energy efficiency in a lathe machine by enhancing the cutting parameters of turning process is discussed. Energy consumption of a lathe machine was analyzed in order to identify the effect of cutting parameters towards energy consumption. It was found that the combination of parameters for third run (spindle speed: 1065 rpm, depth of cut: 1.5 mm, feed rate: 0.3 mm/rev) was the most preferred and ideal to be used during the turning machining process as it consumed less energy usage.

18. Diamond turning on advanced machine tool prototypes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.

1975-01-01

Specular-quality metal mirrors are being machined for use in laser optical systems. The fabrication process incorporates special quality diamond tools and specially constructed turning machines. The machines are controlled by advanced control techniques and are housed in an environmentally controlled laboratory to insure ultimate machine stability and positional accuracy. The materials from which these mirrors are primarily produced are the softer face-center-cubic structure metals, such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum. Mirror manufacturing by the single-point diamond machining process is in an early stage of development, but it is anticipated that this method will become the most economical way for producing high-quality metal mirrors. (U.S.)

19. Determination of linear optics functions from turn-by-turn data

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alexahin, Y; Gianfelice-Wendt, E, E-mail: alexahin@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2011-10-15

A method for evaluation of coupled optics functions, detection of strong perturbing elements, determination of BPM calibration errors and tilts using turn-by-turn (TBT) data is presented as well as the new version of the Hamiltonian perturbation theory of betatron oscillations the method is based upon. An example of application of the considered method to the Tevatron is given.

20. Turn-around improvements

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Redaelli, S.; Venturini Delsolaro, W.

2012-01-01

An efficient turn-around will be an important parameter for the integrated luminosity performance at LHC in 2012, when an operation with steady beam parameters and machine configuration will be achieved at the beginning of the run. Improvements of the operational cycle were already put successfully in place after the 2010 experience but additional ways to reduce the time required to setup collisions are possible. In this paper, the 2011 turn-around performance is reviewed and the benefits of the improvements from 2010 are presented. Phases of the operational cycle when further amelioration is possible are discussed and some proposal for a faster turn-around in 2012 are outlined. (authors)

1. Research on the Influence of Cutting Rates on Macrogeometry Deflections of Surfaces under Processing Complex form Products Made of Aluminium Aloys

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ieva Švagždytė

2015-03-01

Full Text Available The article reviews the influence of cutting rates on macrogeometry deflection of milling complex form products and turning an outside surface. For that purpose, one of the most popular aluminium alloys 6082 has been chosen. A ball nose mill of 8 mm in diameter has been milled employing CNC vertical centre HAAS MINI MILL and applying CNC lathe HAAS ST 20 for turning. Measurements have been carried out using coordinate measuring machine DEA micro-hite DCC, applying the probe sphere of 3mm in diameter and the probe equipped with a needle. A deviation of the surface profile from tangent to therophore parabola has been investigated. The determinants R2 of the obtained regressive equation have disclosed that the depth of the cut has the biggest influence on macrogeometry deflections, whereas feed rate has a slighter influence and cutting speed has no radical influence. For the turning process, the depth of the cut has the strongest influence on circularity while cilindrisity has been mainly affected by cutting speed.

2. Improving Machining Accuracy of CNC Machines with Innovative Design Methods

Science.gov (United States)

Yemelyanov, N. V.; Yemelyanova, I. V.; Zubenko, V. L.

2018-03-01

The article considers achieving the machining accuracy of CNC machines by applying innovative methods in modelling and design of machining systems, drives and machine processes. The topological method of analysis involves visualizing the system as matrices of block graphs with a varying degree of detail between the upper and lower hierarchy levels. This approach combines the advantages of graph theory and the efficiency of decomposition methods, it also has visual clarity, which is inherent in both topological models and structural matrices, as well as the resiliency of linear algebra as part of the matrix-based research. The focus of the study is on the design of automated machine workstations, systems, machines and units, which can be broken into interrelated parts and presented as algebraic, topological and set-theoretical models. Every model can be transformed into a model of another type, and, as a result, can be interpreted as a system of linear and non-linear equations which solutions determine the system parameters. This paper analyses the dynamic parameters of the 1716PF4 machine at the stages of design and exploitation. Having researched the impact of the system dynamics on the component quality, the authors have developed a range of practical recommendations which have enabled one to reduce considerably the amplitude of relative motion, exclude some resonance zones within the spindle speed range of 0...6000 min-1 and improve machining accuracy.

3. Turns prediction : Turns prediction

OpenAIRE

Fuchs, Patrick; Etchebest, Catherine; De Brevern, Alexandre

2007-01-01

The description of protein 3D structure usually focuses on the repetitive local folds (alpha-helices and beta-sheets). The remaining class, sometimes called unordered region, has often been considered as random (one also calls it ‘random coil'). However, some interesting local folds are also highly recurrent and definitely more structured than a real random region. One of such particularly interesting motif is tight turn; this latter is characterized by few residues (3 to 5) and by the revers...

4. Effect of transmitter turn-off time on transient soundings

Science.gov (United States)

Fitterman, D.V.; Anderson, W.L.

1987-01-01

A general procedure for computing the effect of non-zero turn-off time on the transient electromagnetic response is presented which can be applied to forward and inverse calculation methods for any transmitter-receiver configuration. We consider in detail the case of a large transmitter loop which has a receiver coil located at the center of the loop (central induction or in-loop array). For a linear turn-off ramp of width t0, the voltage response is shown to be the voltage due to an ideal step turn-off averaged over windows of width t0. Thus the effect is similar to that obtained by using averaging windows in the receiver. In general when time zero is taken to be the end of the ramp, the apparent resistivity increases for a homogeneous half-space over a limited time range. For time zero taken to be the start of the ramp the apparent resistivity is affected in the opposite direction. The effect of the ramp increases with increasing t0 and first-layer resistivity, is largest during the intermediate stage, and decreases with increasing time. It is shown that for a ramp turn-off, there is no effect in the early and late stages. For two-layered models with a resistive first layer (??1>??2), the apparent resistivity is increased in the intermediate stage. When the first layer is more conductive than the second layer (??1interpretation as shown by field examples; the influence is the greatest on near-surface layer parameters. ?? 1987.

5. Research of remote control system in turn by turn timing system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhan Zhifeng; Xiao Yanguo; Ma Kui; Yin Zejie; Wu Xiaoyi

2003-01-01

In this paper, we introduce a remote control system which is used in a frequency dividing and time-delay module. This control system is based on client/server architecture, and RS232 serial communication protocol. This control system is used in timing system of NSRL turn by turn beam position monitor

6. Application of digital lock-in detection to Hefei Light Source turn-by-turn system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yang Yongliang; Wang Junhua; Sun Baogen; Chen Yuanbo; Zhou Zeran

2010-01-01

This paper introduces the digital lock-in detection theory and discusses its feasibility to obtain the damping rate in turn-by-turn measurement systems. Numerical simulations of this method were carried out with Matlab. Then principle presenting beam experiments were conducted on the Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring. The measured beta oscillation growth time is about 0.26 ms and the damping time is about 1.2 ms. Simulation and experimental results show that, the digital lock-in detection method is effective in damping rate measurement in turn-by-turn measurement systems. (authors)

7. Turned on/turned off

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Petersen, Eva Bendix

2016-01-01

position, it attempts to sense into the lived experience of being subject to, and of, turns in social theory. As a whole the paper seeks to work with and allow for multiplicity in tone, focus, researcher positioning, reader positioning, and more, to see what knowledge that does not seek confident closure......Through cacophonic story-telling, emerging from ethnographic observations from academic scenes in Australia and elsewhere, the article seeks to explore the timeliness and untimeliness of feminist knowledge production. Rather than arguing a particular point or making a claim for a particular...

8. Immediate Effects of Clock-Turn Strategy on the Pattern and Performance of Narrow Turning in Persons With Parkinson Disease.

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Wen-Chieh; Hsu, Wei-Li; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Lin, Kwan-Hwa

2016-10-01

Turning difficulty is common in people with Parkinson disease (PD). The clock-turn strategy is a cognitive movement strategy to improve turning performance in people with PD despite its effects are unverified. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of the clock-turn strategy on the pattern of turning steps, turning performance, and freezing of gait during a narrow turning, and how these effects were influenced by concurrent performance of a cognitive task (dual task). Twenty-five people with PD were randomly assigned to the clock-turn or usual-turn group. Participants performed the Timed Up and Go test with and without concurrent cognitive task during the medication OFF period. The clock-turn group performed the Timed Up and Go test using the clock-turn strategy, whereas participants in the usual-turn group performed in their usual manner. Measurements were taken during the 180° turn of the Timed Up and Go test. The pattern of turning steps was evaluated by step time variability and step time asymmetry. Turning performance was evaluated by turning time and number of turning steps. The number and duration of freezing of gait were calculated by video review. The clock-turn group had lower step time variability and step time asymmetry than the usual-turn group. Furthermore, the clock-turn group turned faster with fewer freezing of gait episodes than the usual-turn group. Dual task increased the step time variability and step time asymmetry in both groups but did not affect turning performance and freezing severity. The clock-turn strategy reduces turning time and freezing of gait during turning, probably by lowering step time variability and asymmetry. Dual task compromises the effects of the clock-turn strategy, suggesting a competition for attentional resources.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A141).

9. Kinematics of center of mass and center of pressure predict friction requirement at shoe-floor interface during walking.

Science.gov (United States)

Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yano, Masaru; Onodera, Hiroshi; Hokkirigawa, Kazuo

2013-06-01

We aimed to determine whether inclination angles of the line connecting the whole body center of mass (COM) to the center of pressure (COP) (COM-COP angle) help predict the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) in young adult males during the weight acceptance and push-off phases in transient movements such as turning, gait termination and initiation, and steady-state movements such as straight walking. Seventeen healthy young adult males were asked to (1) walk in a straight line, (2) turn 60° with either foot (step and spin turns), and (3) initiate and terminate walking on a dry level floor. Peak absolute values of the ratio between resultant horizontal and vertical ground reaction forces during the weight acceptance and push-off phases (RCOFh and RCOFt, respectively) were calculated. COM-COP angles θh and θt at the instant of RCOFh and RCOFt, respectively, were also calculated. Bivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the |θh| and |θt| tangents were significant predictors of RCOFh (R = 0.878; R(2) = 0.770; ppush-off phases in steady-state movements such as straight walking and transient movements such as turning as well as gait termination and initiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

10. Generation of vertical angular momentum in single, double, and triple-turn pirouette en dehors in ballet.

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Jemin; Wilson, Margaret A; Singhal, Kunal; Gamblin, Sarah; Suh, Cha-Young; Kwon, Young-Hoo

2014-09-01

The purpose of this study was to investigate the vertical angular momentum generation strategies used by skilled ballet dancers in pirouette en dehors. Select kinematic parameters of the pirouette preparation (stance depth, vertical center-of-mass motion range, initial shoulder line position, shoulder line angular displacement, and maximum trunk twist angle) along with vertical angular momentum parameters during the turn (maximum momentums of the whole body and body parts, and duration and rate of generation) were obtained from nine skilled collegiate ballet dancers through a three-dimensional motion analysis and compared among three turn conditions (single, double, and triple). A one-way ('turn') multivariate analysis of variance of the kinematic parameters and angular momentum parameters of the whole body and a two-way analysis of variance ('turn' × 'body') of the maximum angular momentums of the body parts were conducted. Significant 'turn' effects were observed in the kinematic/angular momentum parameters (both the preparation and the turn) (p <  0.05). As the number of turns increased, skilled dancers generated larger vertical angular momentums by predominantly increasing the rate of momentum generation using rotation of the upper trunk and arms. The trail (closing) arm showed the largest contribution to whole-body angular momentum followed by the lead arm.

11. A Multimedia Publishing Center from Scratch (and Scavenge).

Science.gov (United States)

D'Ignazio, Fred

1995-01-01

Provides guidance for turning the library media center into a place where students can use multimedia tools for research, authoring, and publishing. Sidebars include: a multimedia club sample student contract, a component list for a multimedia workstation starter kit, a checklist for planning and assembling mini-centers, and a sample multimedia…

12. The Analysis of a Wideband Strip-Helical Antenna with 1.1 Turns

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xihui Tang

2016-01-01

Full Text Available A wideband strip-helical antenna with 1.1 turns is analyzed numerically and experimentally. By replacing the traditional wire helix with wide metallic strip, the forward traveling current on the strip helix with about one turn smoothly decays to the minimum value at the open end of the helix. Therefore, the strip helix can excite a wideband circular polarization (CP wave with 50-ohm impedance matching. The proposed antenna is printed on a hollow-cylinder with a substrate relative permittivity of εr=2.2 and a thickness of h=0.5 mm. A 50 Ω coaxial cable is directly connected to excite the strip-helical antenna without any additional impedance matching section. The ground plane is placed below the antenna in order to provide a directional radiation pattern. To demonstrate this method, a prototype of 1.1-turn strip-helical antenna is tested. The test shows that the proposed antenna can reach an overlapped bandwidth of 46% with height of 0.52λ0, where λ0 is the wavelength in free space at the center operation frequency.

13. Turn-by-Turn and Bunch-by-Bunch Transverse Profiles of a Single Bunch in a Full Ring

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kraus, R.; Fisher, A.S.

2005-01-01

The apparatus described in this paper can image the evolution of the transverse profile of a single bunch, isolated from a full PEP-II ring of 1500 bunches. Using this apparatus there are two methods of single bunch imaging; bunch-by-bunch beam profiling can image every bunch in the ring a single bunch at a time with the images of sequential bunches being in order, allowing one to see variations in beam size along a train. Turn-by-turn beam profiling images a single bunch on each successive turn it makes around the ring. This method will be useful in determining the effect that an injected bunch has on a stable bunch as the oscillations of the injected bunch damp out. Turn-by-turn imaging of the synchrotron light uses a system of lenses and mirrors to image many turns of both the major and minor axis of a single bunch across the photocathode of a gateable camera. The bunch-by-bunch method is simpler: because of a focusing mirror used in porting the light from the ring, the synchrotron light from the orbiting electrons becomes an image at a certain distance from the mirror; and since the camera does not use a lens, the photocathode is set exactly at this image distance. Bunch-by-bunch profiling has shown that in the Low Energy Ring (LER) horizontal bunch size decreases along a train. Turn-by-turn profiling has been able to image 100 turns of a single bunch on one exposure of the camera. The turn-by-turn setup has also been able to image 50 turns of the minor axis showing part of the damping process of an oscillating injected charge during a LER fill. The goal is to image the damping of oscillations of injected charge for 100 turns of both the major and minor axis throughout the damping process during trickle injection. With some changes to the apparatus this goal is within reach and will make turn-by-turn imaging a very useful tool in beam diagnostics

14. Novel Oversampling Technique for Improving Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio on Accelerometer-Based Smart Jerk Sensors in CNC Applications.

Science.gov (United States)

Rangel-Magdaleno, Jose J; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J; Osornio-Rios, Roque A; Cabal-Yepez, Eduardo

2009-01-01

Jerk monitoring, defined as the first derivative of acceleration, has become a major issue in computerized numeric controlled (CNC) machines. Several works highlight the necessity of measuring jerk in a reliable way for improving production processes. Nowadays, the computation of jerk is done by finite differences of the acceleration signal, computed at the Nyquist rate, which leads to low signal-to-quantization noise ratio (SQNR) during the estimation. The novelty of this work is the development of a smart sensor for jerk monitoring from a standard accelerometer, which has improved SQNR. The proposal is based on oversampling techniques that give a better estimation of jerk than that produced by a Nyquist-rate differentiator. Simulations and experimental results are presented to show the overall methodology performance.

15. Beam Optics Measurements Through Turn by Turn Beam Position Data in the SLS

CERN Document Server

Zisopoulos, P; Streun, A; Ziemann, v

2013-01-01

Refined Fourier analysis of turn-by-turn (TBT) transverse position data measurements can be used for determining several beam properties of a ring, such as transverse tunes, optics functions, phases, chromatic properties and coupling. In particular, the Numerical Analysis of Fundamental Frequencies (NAFF) algorithm is used to analyse TBT data from the Swiss Light Source (SLS) storage ring in order to estimate on and off-momentum beam characteristics. Of particular interest is the potential of using the full position information within one turn in order to measure beam optics properties.

16. Realistic page-turning of electronic books

Science.gov (United States)

Fan, Chaoran; Li, Haisheng; Bai, Yannan

2014-01-01

The booming electronic books (e-books), as an extension to the paper book, are popular with readers. Recently, many efforts are put into the realistic page-turning simulation o f e-book to improve its reading experience. This paper presents a new 3D page-turning simulation approach, which employs piecewise time-dependent cylindrical surfaces to describe the turning page and constructs smooth transition method between time-dependent cylinders. The page-turning animation is produced by sequentially mapping the turning page into the cylinders with different radii and positions. Compared to the previous approaches, our method is able to imitate various effects efficiently and obtains more natural animation of turning page.

17. Hummingbirds control turning velocity using body orientation and turning radius using asymmetrical wingbeat kinematics.

Science.gov (United States)

Read, Tyson J G; Segre, Paolo S; Middleton, Kevin M; Altshuler, Douglas L

2016-03-01

Turning in flight requires reorientation of force, which birds, bats and insects accomplish either by shifting body position and total force in concert or by using left-right asymmetries in wingbeat kinematics. Although both mechanisms have been observed in multiple species, it is currently unknown how each is used to control changes in trajectory. We addressed this problem by measuring body and wingbeat kinematics as hummingbirds tracked a revolving feeder, and estimating aerodynamic forces using a quasi-steady model. During arcing turns, hummingbirds symmetrically banked the stroke plane of both wings, and the body, into turns, supporting a body-dependent mechanism. However, several wingbeat asymmetries were present during turning, including a higher and flatter outer wingtip path and a lower more deviated inner wingtip path. A quasi-steady analysis of arcing turns performed with different trajectories revealed that changes in radius were associated with asymmetrical kinematics and forces, and changes in velocity were associated with symmetrical kinematics and forces. Collectively, our results indicate that both body-dependent and -independent force orientation mechanisms are available to hummingbirds, and that these kinematic strategies are used to meet the separate aerodynamic challenges posed by changes in velocity and turning radius. © 2016 The Author(s).

18. CONNECTION OF TURN AHEAD AND TURN BACK WITH MOTORIC ABILITIES OF THE FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jovica Petković

2006-06-01

Full Text Available The research is done for the purpose of determination and defining of the level of connection between some motoric abilities with success in realization of programmed contents from the area of gymnastics (turn ahead and turn back. The research is done on the sample of fifty one students from the fifth grade of Elementary School, on ten motoric tests and on two specific motoric assignments – turn ahead and turn back. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coefficients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied motoric assignments.

19. Estimation of a beam centering error in the JAERI AVF cyclotron

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fukuda, M.; Okumura, S.; Arakawa, K.; Ishibori, I.; Matsumura, A.; Nakamura, N.; Nara, T.; Agematsu, T.; Tamura, H.; Karasawa, T.

1999-01-01

A method for estimating a beam centering error from a beam density distribution obtained by a single radial probe has been developed. Estimation of the centering error is based on an analysis of radial beam positions in the direction of the radial probe. Radial motion of a particle is described as betatron oscillation around an accelerated equilibrium orbit. By fitting the radial beam positions of several consecutive turns to an equation of the radial motion, not only amplitude of the centering error but also frequency of the radial betatron oscillation and energy gain per turn can be evaluated simultaneously. The estimated centering error amplitude was consistent with a result of an orbit simulation. This method was exceedingly helpful for minimizing the centering error of a 10 MeV proton beam during the early stages of acceleration. A well-centered beam was obtained by correcting the magnetic field with a first harmonic produced by two pairs of harmonic coils. In order to push back an orbit center to a magnet center, currents of the harmonic coils were optimized on the basis of the estimated centering error amplitude. (authors)

20. ANN Based Tool Condition Monitoring System for CNC Milling Machines

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mota-Valtierra G.C.

2011-10-01

Full Text Available Most of the companies have as objective to manufacture high-quality products, then by optimizing costs, reducing and controlling the variations in its production processes it is possible. Within manufacturing industries a very important issue is the tool condition monitoring, since the tool state will determine the quality of products. Besides, a good monitoring system will protect the machinery from severe damages. For determining the state of the cutting tools in a milling machine, there is a great variety of models in the industrial market, however these systems are not available to all companies because of their high costs and the requirements of modifying the machining tool in order to attach the system sensors. This paper presents an intelligent classification system which determines the status of cutt ers in a Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine. This tool state is mainly detected through the analysis of the cutting forces drawn from the spindle motors currents. This monitoring system does not need sensors so it is no necessary to modify the machine. The correct classification is made by advanced digital signal processing techniques. Just after acquiring a signal, a FIR digital filter is applied to the data to eliminate the undesired noisy components and to extract the embedded force components. A Wavelet Transformation is applied to the filtered signal in order to compress the data amount and to optimize the classifier structure. Then a multilayer perceptron- type neural network is responsible for carrying out the classification of the signal. Achieving a reliability of 95%, the system is capable of detecting breakage and a worn cutter.

1. CERN PS Optical Properties Measured with Turn-By-Turn Orbit Data

CERN Document Server

Bach, T; Giovannozzi, M; Hernalsteens, C; Lachaize, A; Sterbini, G; Tom´as, R; Wasef, R

2013-01-01

The performance of the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) has been constantly increasing over the years both in terms of beam parameters (intensity and brightness) and beam manipulations (transverse and longitudinal splitting). This implies a very good knowledge of the linear and non-linear model of the ring. In this paper we report on a detailed campaign of beam measurements based on turn-by-turn orbit data aimed at measuring the optics in several conditions as well as the resonance driving terms.

2. Sandstone Turning by Abrasive Waterjet

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Hlaváček, Petr; Cárach, J.; Hloch, Sergej; Vasilko, K.; Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří; Lehocká, D.

2015-01-01

Roč. 48, č. 6 (2015), s. 2489-2493 ISSN 0723-2632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : turning away from the jet * conventional turning towards the jet * sandstone * abrasive water jet Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2015 http://www.springerprofessional.de/sandstone-turning-by-abrasive-waterjet/6038028.html

3. Shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia: Effect of surface treatment by CNC-milling and composite layer deposition on zirconia.

Science.gov (United States)

Santos, R L P; Silva, F S; Nascimento, R M; Souza, J C M; Motta, F V; Carvalho, O; Henriques, B

2016-07-01

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of veneering feldspathic porcelain to zirconia substrates modified by CNC-milling process or by coating zirconia with a composite interlayer. Four types of zirconia-porcelain interface configurations were tested: RZ - porcelain bonded to rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZ - porcelain bonded to zirconia substrate with surface holes (n=16); RZI - application of a composite interlayer between the veneering porcelain and the rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZI - application of a composite interlayer between the porcelain and the zirconia substrate treated by CNC-milling (n=16). The composite interlayer was composed of zirconia particles reinforced porcelain (30%, vol%). The mechanical properties of the ceramic composite have been determined. The shear bond strength test was performed at 0.5mm/min using a universal testing machine. The interfaces of fractured and untested specimens were examined by FEG-SEM/EDS. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk test to test the assumption of normality. The one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test was used to compare shear bond strength results (α=0.05). The shear bond strength of PZ (100±15MPa) and RZI (96±11MPa) specimens were higher than that recorded for RZ (control group) specimens (89±15MPa), although not significantly (p>0.05). The highest shear bond strength values were recorded for PZI specimens (138±19MPa), yielding a significant improvement of 55% relative to RZ specimens (p<0.05). This study shows that it is possible to highly enhance the zirconia-porcelain bond strength - even by ~55% - by combining surface holes in zirconia frameworks and the application of a proper ceramic composite interlayer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

4. NetTurnP--neural network prediction of beta-turns by use of evolutionary information and predicted protein sequence features.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bent Petersen

Full Text Available UNLABELLED: β-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures, and constitute on average 25% of the amino acids in proteins. The formation of β-turns plays an important role in protein folding, protein stability and molecular recognition processes. In this work we present the neural network method NetTurnP, for prediction of two-class β-turns and prediction of the individual β-turn types, by use of evolutionary information and predicted protein sequence features. It has been evaluated against a commonly used dataset BT426, and achieves a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.50, which is the highest reported performance on a two-class prediction of β-turn and not-β-turn. Furthermore NetTurnP shows improved performance on some of the specific β-turn types. In the present work, neural network methods have been trained to predict β-turn or not and individual β-turn types from the primary amino acid sequence. The individual β-turn types I, I', II, II', VIII, VIa1, VIa2, VIba and IV have been predicted based on classifications by PROMOTIF, and the two-class prediction of β-turn or not is a superset comprised of all β-turn types. The performance is evaluated using a golden set of non-homologous sequences known as BT426. Our two-class prediction method achieves a performance of: MCC=0.50, Qtotal=82.1%, sensitivity=75.6%, PPV=68.8% and AUC=0.864. We have compared our performance to eleven other prediction methods that obtain Matthews correlation coefficients in the range of 0.17-0.47. For the type specific β-turn predictions, only type I and II can be predicted with reasonable Matthews correlation coefficients, where we obtain performance values of 0.36 and 0.31, respectively. CONCLUSION: The NetTurnP method has been implemented as a webserver, which is freely available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetTurnP/. NetTurnP is the only available webserver that allows submission of multiple sequences.

5. NetTurnP--neural network prediction of beta-turns by use of evolutionary information and predicted protein sequence features.

Science.gov (United States)

Petersen, Bent; Lundegaard, Claus; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl

2010-11-30

β-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures, and constitute on average 25% of the amino acids in proteins. The formation of β-turns plays an important role in protein folding, protein stability and molecular recognition processes. In this work we present the neural network method NetTurnP, for prediction of two-class β-turns and prediction of the individual β-turn types, by use of evolutionary information and predicted protein sequence features. It has been evaluated against a commonly used dataset BT426, and achieves a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.50, which is the highest reported performance on a two-class prediction of β-turn and not-β-turn. Furthermore NetTurnP shows improved performance on some of the specific β-turn types. In the present work, neural network methods have been trained to predict β-turn or not and individual β-turn types from the primary amino acid sequence. The individual β-turn types I, I', II, II', VIII, VIa1, VIa2, VIba and IV have been predicted based on classifications by PROMOTIF, and the two-class prediction of β-turn or not is a superset comprised of all β-turn types. The performance is evaluated using a golden set of non-homologous sequences known as BT426. Our two-class prediction method achieves a performance of: MCC=0.50, Qtotal=82.1%, sensitivity=75.6%, PPV=68.8% and AUC=0.864. We have compared our performance to eleven other prediction methods that obtain Matthews correlation coefficients in the range of 0.17-0.47. For the type specific β-turn predictions, only type I and II can be predicted with reasonable Matthews correlation coefficients, where we obtain performance values of 0.36 and 0.31, respectively. The NetTurnP method has been implemented as a webserver, which is freely available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetTurnP/. NetTurnP is the only available webserver that allows submission of multiple sequences.

6. and γγ-turns in proteins revisited: A new set of amino acid turn-type de

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

mine, valine, glutamic acid and alanine has decreased for β-turns. Certain new amino acid preferences were observed for both turn types and individual amino acids showed turn-type dependent positional preferences. The rationale for new amino acid preferences are discussed in the light of hydrogen bonds and other.

7. Vestibular ablation and a semicircular canal prosthesis affect postural stability during head turns

Science.gov (United States)

Thompson, Lara A.; Haburcakova, Csilla; Lewis, Richard F.

2016-01-01

In our study, we examined postural stability during head turns for two rhesus monkeys: one, single animal study contrasted normal and mild bilateral vestibular ablation and a second animal study contrasted severe bilateral vestibular ablation with and without prosthetic stimulation. The monkeys freely stood, unrestrained on a balance platform and made voluntary head turns between visual targets. To quantify each animals’ posture, motions of the head and trunk, as well as torque about the body’s center-of-mass, were measured. In the mildly ablated animal, we observed less foretrunk sway in comparison to the normal state. When the canal prosthesis provided electric stimulation to the severely ablated animal, it showed a decrease in trunk sway during head turns. Because the rhesus monkey with severe bilateral vestibular loss exhibited a decrease in trunk sway when receiving vestibular prosthetic stimulation, we propose that the prosthetic electrical stimulation partially restored head velocity information. Our results provide an indication that a semicircular canal prosthesis may be an effective way to improve postural stability in patients with severe peripheral vestibular dysfunction. PMID:27405997

8. Beta-and gamma-turns in proteins revisited: a new set of amino acid turn-type dependent positional preferences and potentials.

Science.gov (United States)

Guruprasad, K; Rajkumar, S

2000-06-01

The number of beta-turns in a representative set of 426 protein three-dimensional crystal structures selected from the recent Protein Data Bank has nearly doubled and the number of gamma-turns in a representative set of 320 proteins has increased over seven times since the previous analysis. Beta-turns (7153) and gamma-turns (911) extracted from these proteins were used to derive a revised set of type-dependent amino acid positional preferences and potentials. Compared with previous results, the preference for proline, methionine and tryptophan has increased and the preference for glutamine, valine, glutamic acid and alanine has decreased for beta-turns. Certain new amino acid preferences were observed for both turn types and individual amino acids showed turn-type dependent positional preferences. The rationale for new amino acid preferences are discussed in the light of hydrogen bonds and other interactions involving the turns. Where main-chain hydrogen bonds of the type NH(i + 3) --> CO(i) were not observed for some beta-turns, other main-chain hydrogen bonds or solvent interactions were observed that possibly stabilize such beta-turns. A number of unexpected isolated beta-turns with proline at i + 2 position were also observed. The NH(i + 2) --> CO(i) hydrogen bond was observed for almost all gamma-turns. Nearly 20% classic gamma-turns and 43% inverse gamma-turns are isolated turns.

9. Turn-by-Turn Imaging of the Transverse Beam Profile in PEP-II

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fisher, Alan A.; Petree, Mark; /SLAC

2006-12-18

During injection or instability, the transverse profile of an individual bunch in a storage ring can change significantly in a few turns. However, most synchrotron-light imaging techniques are not designed for this time scale. We have developed a novel diagnostic that enhances the utility of a fast gated camera by adding, inexpensively, some features of a dual-axis streak camera, in order to watch the turn-by-turn evolution of the transverse profile, in both x and y. The beam's elliptical profile is reshaped using cylindrical lenses to form a tall and narrow ellipse--essentially the projection of the full ellipse onto one transverse axis. We do this projection twice, by splitting the beam into two paths at different heights, and rotating the ellipse by 90{sup o} on one path. A rapidly rotating mirror scans these vertical ''pencils'' of light horizontally across the photocathode of the camera, which is gated for 3 ns on every Nth ring turn. A single readout of the camera captures 100 images, looking like a stroboscopic photograph of a moving object. We have observed the capture of injected charge into a bunch and the rapid change of beam size at the onset of a fast instability.

10. Clinical evaluation of an automated turning bed.

Science.gov (United States)

Melland, H I; Langemo, D; Hanson, D; Olson, B; Hunter, S

1999-01-01

The purposes of this study were to assess client comfort and sleep quality, client physiologic response (skin and respiratory status), the effect on the need for caregiver assistance, and cost when using an automated turning bed. Nonexperimental, evaluative study. Twenty-four adult home or long-term care resident subjects who had a degenerative disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, or back surgery. Each subject agreed to use the automated turning bed for four weeks. Researchers completed a demographic survey and skin assessment, and assessed each subject for pressure ulcer risk and for the need of assistance of a care giver for turning before and after the four weeks of using the turning bed. Subjects rated the turning bed in terms of comfort and sleep quality. Subjects rated the turning bed as more comfortable than their own bed and expressed satisfaction at the pain relief attained when on the turning bed. While using the turning bed, there was a significant improvement in sleep quality. No skin breakdown or deterioration in respiratory status occurred. Fewer subjects required the assistance of a caregiver for turning when on the turning bed. This automated turning bed shows great promise in meeting a need for patients with limited mobility whether they are homebound or in a residential community. Future studies that further investigate use of the turning bed for postoperative back patients while still in the acute care setting are indicated. Replicative studies with a larger sample size are also indicated.

11. Photospheric Spots and Flare on the Active Dwarf Star FR Cnc

Science.gov (United States)

Kozhevnikova, A. V.; Kozhevnikov, V. P.; Alekseev, I. Yu.

2018-03-01

We perform analysis of new BVRI photometry of young active dwarf star FR Cnc (K7V), obtained at Kourovka astronomical observatory of Ural Federal University with the help of multichannel electrophotometer in February 2010. The lightcurve displays sinusoidal rotation modulation with the amplitude of 0m.15 in V band. Reddening of the brightness at the photometric minimum confirms that this modulation is caused by cold photospheric spots. An analysis of the spottedness distribution in terms of a zonal model based on our own and published data shows that the spots are localized at lower and middle latitudes from 47° to 56°, occupy 10-21% of the star's area, and are colder than the photosphere by 1650 K. A flare was detected on February 3, 2010, at a time corresponding to HJD=2455231. 3136. A maximum amplitude of 0m.11 was observed in the B band, the amplitudes in the V, R, and I bands were 0m.04, 0m.03, and 0m.02, respectively, and the duration of the flare was 32.5 min. It was noted that the flare occurred near the maximum spottedness of the star. The calculated total energy of the flare was 2.4·1033 and 1.3·1033 erg in the B and V bands, respectively. The flare was found to have an afterglow, with an overall increase in the star's brightness by 0m.02 in the B band after the flare compared to the pre-flare level.

12. and γγ-turns in proteins revisited: A new set of amino acid turn-type de

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

cent Protein Data Bank has nearly doubled and the number of γ-turns in a representative set of 320 proteins has in- creased over seven times since the previous analysis. β-turns (7153) and γ-turns (911) extracted from these proteins were used to derive a revised set of type-dependent amino acid positional preferences and ...

13. Conformational interconversions in peptide beta-turns: analysis of turns in proteins and computational estimates of barriers.

Science.gov (United States)

Gunasekaran, K; Gomathi, L; Ramakrishnan, C; Chandrasekhar, J; Balaram, P

1998-12-18

The two most important beta-turn features in peptides and proteins are the type I and type II turns, which differ mainly in the orientation of the central peptide unit. Facile conformational interconversion is possible, in principle, by a flip of the central peptide unit. Homologous crystal structures afford an opportunity to structurally characterize both possible conformational states, thus allowing identification of sites that are potentially stereochemically mobile. A representative data set of 250 high-resolution (turns that are assigned different conformational types (type I/type II) in related structures. A total of 55 examples of beta-turns were identified as possible candidates for a stereochemically mobile site. Of the 55 examples, 45 could be classified as a potential site for interconversion between type I and type II beta-turns, while ten correspond to flips from type I' to type II' structures. As a further check, the temperature factors of the central peptide unit carbonyl oxygen atom of the 55 examples were examined. The analysis reveals that the turn assignments are indeed reliable. Examination of the secondary structures at the flanking positions of the flippable beta-turns reveals that seven examples occur in the loop region of beta-hairpins, indicating that the formation of ordered secondary structures on either side of the beta-turn does not preclude local conformational variations. In these beta-turns, Pro (11 examples), Lys (nine examples) and Ser (seven examples) were most often found at the i+1 position. Glycine was found to occur overwhelmingly at position i+2 (28 examples), while Ser (seven examples) and Asn (six examples) were amongst the most frequent residues. Activation energy barriers for the interconversion between type I and type II beta-turns were computed using the peptide models Ac-Pro-Aib-NHMe and Ac-Pro-Gly-NHMe within the framework of the AM1 semi-empirical molecular orbital procedure. In order to have a uniform basis for

14. NetTurnP – Neural Network Prediction of Beta-turns by Use of Evolutionary Information and Predicted Protein Sequence Features

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Petersen, Bent; Lundegaard, Claus; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl

2010-01-01

is the highest reported performance on a two-class prediction of β-turn and not-β-turn. Furthermore NetTurnP shows improved performance on some of the specific β-turn types. In the present work, neural network methods have been trained to predict β-turn or not and individual β-turn types from the primary amino......β-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures, and constitute on average 25% of the amino acids in proteins. The formation of β-turns plays an important role in protein folding, protein stability and molecular recognition processes. In this work we present the neural network method...... NetTurnP, for prediction of two-class β-turns and prediction of the individual β-turn types, by use of evolutionary information and predicted protein sequence features. It has been evaluated against a commonly used dataset BT426, and achieves a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.50, which...

15. Electrical Machines: Turn-to-Turn Capacitance in Formed Windings with Rectangular Cross-Section Wire

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Djukic, Nenad; Encica, L.; Paulides, Johan

2015-01-01

Calculation of turn-to-turn capacitance (Ctt) in electrical machines (EMs) with formed windings with rectangular cross-section wire is presented. Three calculation methods are used for the calculation of Ctt in case of rectangular conductors – finite element (FE) method and two previously published

16. The CN/C15N isotopic ratio towards dark clouds

Science.gov (United States)

Hily-Blant, P.; Pineau des Forêts, G.; Faure, A.; Le Gal, R.; Padovani, M.

2013-09-01

Understanding the origin of the composition of solar system cosmomaterials is a central question, not only in the cosmochemistry and astrochemistry fields, and requires various approaches to be combined. Measurements of isotopic ratios in cometary materials provide strong constraints on the content of the protosolar nebula. Their relation with the composition of the parental dark clouds is, however, still very elusive. In this paper, we bring new constraints based on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in dark clouds, with the aim of understanding the chemical processes that are responsible for the observed isotopic ratios. We have observed and detected the fundamental rotational transition of C15N towards two starless dark clouds, L1544 and L1498. We were able to derive the column density ratio of C15N over 13CN towards the same clouds and obtain the CN/C15N isotopic ratios, which were found to be 500 ± 75 for both L1544 and L1498. These values are therefore marginally consistent with the protosolar value of 441. Moreover, this ratio is larger than the isotopic ratio of nitrogen measured in HCN. In addition, we present model calculations of the chemical fractionation of nitrogen in dark clouds, which make it possible to understand how CN can be deprived of 15N and HCN can simultaneously be enriched in heavy nitrogen. The non-fractionation of N2H+, however, remains an open issue, and we propose some chemical way of alleviating the discrepancy between model predictions and the observed ratios. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe reduced spectra (in FITS format) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A65

17. Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt-Chromium Implant Frameworks: Fit and Effect of Ceramic Veneering.

Science.gov (United States)

Svanborg, Per; Eliasson, Alf; Stenport, Victoria

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fit of additively manufactured cobalt-chromium and titanium and CNC-milled titanium frameworks before and after ceramic veneering. Ten stone casts simulating an edentulous maxilla provided with six abutment analogs were produced. For each stone cast, one additively manufactured cobalt-chromium framework (AM CoCr) and one titanium framework (AM Ti) were fabricated. The fit was analyzed with a coordinate measuring machine in three dimensions (x, y, and z axes) using best-fit virtual matching of center point coordinates, before and after ceramic veneering. CNC-milled titanium frameworks (CNC Ti) and earlier results from CNC-milled cobalt-chromium frameworks (CNC CoCr) were used for comparison. All frameworks presented minor misfit before and after veneering in the horizontal plane (x- and y-axes) between 2.9 and 13.5 μm and in the vertical plane (z-axis) between 1.6 and 5.4 μm. Ceramic veneering affected the fit of all groups of frameworks. Both AM Ti and AM CoCr presented significantly smaller distortion in the vertical plane compared with the CNC-milled frameworks. Implant-supported frameworks can be produced in either Ti or CoCr using either CNC milling or additive manufacturing with a fit well within the range of 20 μm in the horizontal plane and 10 μm in the vertical plane. The fit of frameworks of both materials and production techniques are affected by the ceramic veneering procedure to a small extent.

18. 32 CFR 636.23 - Turning movements.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-07-01

... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL... movements. (a) U-turns are prohibited on all streets in the cantonment area. (b) Right-turns will be made from a position as close to the right edge or right curb of the roadway as possible. (c) Left-turns...

19. Turn stability in beta-hairpin peptides: Investigation of peptides containing 3:5 type I G1 bulge turns.

Science.gov (United States)

Blandl, Tamas; Cochran, Andrea G; Skelton, Nicholas J

2003-02-01

The turn-forming ability of a series of three-residue sequences was investigated by substituting them into a well-characterized beta-hairpin peptide. The starting scaffold, bhpW, is a disulfide-cyclized 10-residue peptide that folds into a stable beta-hairpin with two antiparallel strands connected by a two-residue reverse turn. Substitution of the central two residues with the three-residue test sequences leads to less stable hairpins, as judged by thiol-disulfide equilibrium measurements. However, analysis of NMR parameters indicated that each molecule retains a significant folded population, and that the type of turn adopted by the three-residue sequence is the same in all cases. The solution structure of a selected peptide with a PDG turn contained an antiparallel beta-hairpin with a 3:5 type I + G1 bulge turn. Analysis of the energetic contributions of individual turn residues in the series of peptides indicates that substitution effects have significant context dependence, limiting the predictive power of individual amino acid propensities for turn formation. The most stable and least stable sequences were also substituted into a more stable disulfide-cyclized scaffold and a linear beta-hairpin scaffold. The relative stabilities remained the same, suggesting that experimental measurements in the bhpW context are a useful way to evaluate turn stability for use in protein design projects. Moreover, these scaffolds are capable of displaying a diverse set of turns, which can be exploited for the mimicry of protein loops or for generating libraries of reverse turns.

20. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

This paper investigates the effect of different cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut) on surface integrity defined in terms of surface roughness and microhardness in dry hard turning process. The workpiece material used was hardened alloy steel AISI 52100 and it was machined on a CNC lathe with ...

1. Turning collectors for solar radiation

Science.gov (United States)

Barak, Amitzur Z.

1976-01-01

A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

2. NetTurnP – Neural Network Prediction of Beta-turns by Use of Evolutionary Information and Predicted Protein Sequence Features

Science.gov (United States)

Petersen, Bent; Lundegaard, Claus; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl

2010-01-01

β-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures, and constitute on average 25% of the amino acids in proteins. The formation of β-turns plays an important role in protein folding, protein stability and molecular recognition processes. In this work we present the neural network method NetTurnP, for prediction of two-class β-turns and prediction of the individual β-turn types, by use of evolutionary information and predicted protein sequence features. It has been evaluated against a commonly used dataset BT426, and achieves a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.50, which is the highest reported performance on a two-class prediction of β-turn and not-β-turn. Furthermore NetTurnP shows improved performance on some of the specific β-turn types. In the present work, neural network methods have been trained to predict β-turn or not and individual β-turn types from the primary amino acid sequence. The individual β-turn types I, I', II, II', VIII, VIa1, VIa2, VIba and IV have been predicted based on classifications by PROMOTIF, and the two-class prediction of β-turn or not is a superset comprised of all β-turn types. The performance is evaluated using a golden set of non-homologous sequences known as BT426. Our two-class prediction method achieves a performance of: MCC  = 0.50, Qtotal = 82.1%, sensitivity  = 75.6%, PPV  = 68.8% and AUC  = 0.864. We have compared our performance to eleven other prediction methods that obtain Matthews correlation coefficients in the range of 0.17 – 0.47. For the type specific β-turn predictions, only type I and II can be predicted with reasonable Matthews correlation coefficients, where we obtain performance values of 0.36 and 0.31, respectively. Conclusion The NetTurnP method has been implemented as a webserver, which is freely available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetTurnP/. NetTurnP is the only available webserver that allows submission of multiple sequences. PMID:21152409

3. Finite element analysis of dovetail joint made with the use of CNC technology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Václav Sebera

2010-01-01

Full Text Available The objective of the paper is the parametrization and the finite element analysis of mechanical pro­per­ties of a through dovetail joint made with the use of a specific procedure by a 3-axis CNC machine. This corner joint was used for the simulation of the bending load of the joint in the angle plane – by compression, i.e. by pressing the joint together. The deformation fields, the stress distribution, the stiffness and the bending moment of the joints were evaluated. The finite element system ANSYS was used to create two parametric numerical models of the joint. The first one represents an ideal­ly stiff joint – both joint parts have been glued together. The second model includes the contact between the joined parts. This numerical model was used to monitor the response of the joint stiffness to the change of the static friction coefficient. The results of both models were compared both with each other and with similar analyses conducted within the research into ready-to-assemble furniture joints. The results can be employed in the designing of more complex furniture products with higher demands concerning stiffness characteristics, such as furniture for sitting. However, this assumption depends on the correction of the created parametric models by experimental testing.

4. Predicting turns in proteins with a unified model.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Qi Song

Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Turns are a critical element of the structure of a protein; turns play a crucial role in loops, folds, and interactions. Current prediction methods are well developed for the prediction of individual turn types, including α-turn, β-turn, and γ-turn, etc. However, for further protein structure and function prediction it is necessary to develop a uniform model that can accurately predict all types of turns simultaneously. RESULTS: In this study, we present a novel approach, TurnP, which offers the ability to investigate all the turns in a protein based on a unified model. The main characteristics of TurnP are: (i using newly exploited features of structural evolution information (secondary structure and shape string of protein based on structure homologies, (ii considering all types of turns in a unified model, and (iii practical capability of accurate prediction of all turns simultaneously for a query. TurnP utilizes predicted secondary structures and predicted shape strings, both of which have greater accuracy, based on innovative technologies which were both developed by our group. Then, sequence and structural evolution features, which are profile of sequence, profile of secondary structures and profile of shape strings are generated by sequence and structure alignment. When TurnP was validated on a non-redundant dataset (4,107 entries by five-fold cross-validation, we achieved an accuracy of 88.8% and a sensitivity of 71.8%, which exceeded the most state-of-the-art predictors of certain type of turn. Newly determined sequences, the EVA and CASP9 datasets were used as independent tests and the results we achieved were outstanding for turn predictions and confirmed the good performance of TurnP for practical applications.

5. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

Science.gov (United States)

Hurst, Samia

2010-10-01

Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

6. CONNECTION OF TURN AHEAD AND TURN BACK WITH MOTORIC ABILITIES OF THE FOURTH GRADE OF HIGH SCHOOL

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jovica Petković

2008-08-01

Full Text Available The research is done for the purpose of determination and defining of the level of connection between some motoric abilities with success in realization of programmed contents from the area of gymnastics (turn ahead and turn back. The research is done on the sample of fifty students from the fourth grade of High School, on ten motoric tests and on two specific motoric assignments – turn ahead and turn back. The results of this research clearly point that there exist the multitude of statistically important coefficients of correlation between treated motoric abilities and applied motoric assignments.

7. Product quality management based on CNC machine fault prognostics and diagnosis

Science.gov (United States)

Kozlov, A. M.; Al-jonid, Kh M.; Kozlov, A. A.; Antar, Sh D.

2018-03-01

This paper presents a new fault classification model and an integrated approach to fault diagnosis which involves the combination of ideas of Neuro-fuzzy Networks (NF), Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBN) and Particle Filtering (PF) algorithm on a single platform. In the new model, faults are categorized in two aspects, namely first and second degree faults. First degree faults are instantaneous in nature, and second degree faults are evolutional and appear as a developing phenomenon which starts from the initial stage, goes through the development stage and finally ends at the mature stage. These categories of faults have a lifetime which is inversely proportional to a machine tool's life according to the modified version of Taylor’s equation. For fault diagnosis, this framework consists of two phases: the first one is focusing on fault prognosis, which is done online, and the second one is concerned with fault diagnosis which depends on both off-line and on-line modules. In the first phase, a neuro-fuzzy predictor is used to take a decision on whether to embark Conditional Based Maintenance (CBM) or fault diagnosis based on the severity of a fault. The second phase only comes into action when an evolving fault goes beyond a critical threshold limit called a CBM limit for a command to be issued for fault diagnosis. During this phase, DBN and PF techniques are used as an intelligent fault diagnosis system to determine the severity, time and location of the fault. The feasibility of this approach was tested in a simulation environment using the CNC machine as a case study and the results were studied and analyzed.

8. The Philosophy of Turning Points

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Turcan, Romeo V.

2013-01-01

business and management field, the turning point is seen as a valuable unit of analysis within the research field. It is expected that this paper will encourage a dynamic scholarly conversation about the concept of turning point and how it can aid international business researchers in the development...

9. Determination of optimum parameters for surface roughness in CNC ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

This is disadvantages to both the product and the tool as it leads to dimensional by ... multi objective optimization of SR and MRR in turning of AA 1040 steel have used GRA ... AISI H13. Cutting speed (120,180,240m/min.), feed rate (0.1, 0.20,.

10. Prediction of beta-turns with learning machines.

Science.gov (United States)

Cai, Yu-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Yi-Xue; Xu, Xue-biao; Chou, Kuo-Chen

2003-05-01

The support vector machine approach was introduced to predict the beta-turns in proteins. The overall self-consistency rate by the re-substitution test for the training or learning dataset reached 100%. Both the training dataset and independent testing dataset were taken from Chou [J. Pept. Res. 49 (1997) 120]. The success prediction rates by the jackknife test for the beta-turn subset of 455 tetrapeptides and non-beta-turn subset of 3807 tetrapeptides in the training dataset were 58.1 and 98.4%, respectively. The success rates with the independent dataset test for the beta-turn subset of 110 tetrapeptides and non-beta-turn subset of 30,231 tetrapeptides were 69.1 and 97.3%, respectively. The results obtained from this study support the conclusion that the residue-coupled effect along a tetrapeptide is important for the formation of a beta-turn.

11. Turn-Based War Chess Model and Its Search Algorithm per Turn

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hai Nan

2016-01-01

Full Text Available War chess gaming has so far received insufficient attention but is a significant component of turn-based strategy games (TBS and is studied in this paper. First, a common game model is proposed through various existing war chess types. Based on the model, we propose a theory frame involving combinational optimization on the one hand and game tree search on the other hand. We also discuss a key problem, namely, that the number of the branching factors of each turn in the game tree is huge. Then, we propose two algorithms for searching in one turn to solve the problem: (1 enumeration by order; (2 enumeration by recursion. The main difference between these two is the permutation method used: the former uses the dictionary sequence method, while the latter uses the recursive permutation method. Finally, we prove that both of these algorithms are optimal, and we analyze the difference between their efficiencies. An important factor is the total time taken for the unit to expand until it achieves its reachable position. The factor, which is the total number of expansions that each unit makes in its reachable position, is set. The conclusion proposed is in terms of this factor: Enumeration by recursion is better than enumeration by order in all situations.

12. Study on Turn-to-turn Short Circuit On一line Monitoring System for Dry一type Ai r一core Reactor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

GAO Zi-wei

2017-04-01

Full Text Available The change of current value caused by turn-to-turn short circuit of dry-type air-core reactor is so little that failure detection is difficult to be carried out. In order to solve this problem，a new on-line monitoring system based on impedance variation of turn-to-turn short circuit is proposed. The numerical method is applied to analyze the variation of equivalent resistance and equivalent reactance when dry-type air-core reactor winding short circuit happens in different places，and the monitoring method based on harmonic analysis method and quasi- synchronization sampling method is analyzed by theory. The hardware system，which takes single-chip microcomputer as the core of data processing and logic control，completes data acquisition of voltage signal and current signal of the reactor. In the respect of software design，the impedance variation will be uploaded to the PC after it has been calculated by using the above monitoring method，and then monitoring of turn-to-turn short circuit fault will be realized. Finally，the design of on-line monitoring system is studied by testing. The research result shows that，the equivalent resistance increases and the equivalent reactance decreases when turn-to-turn short circuit occurs，and the variation of equivalent resistance is more obvious than equivalent reactance. The experiment results prove that this monitoring method is true and the on-line monitoring system is feasible.

13. EXPERIMENTAL PREDICTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF MATERIAL ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

It investigates the influence of machining process parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on the material removal rate (output parameter) during hard turning of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel (0.03 wt. % C (max)). A total of 27 experiments were conducted using a MORISEIKI SL-253B CNC machine ...

14. Pigeons produce aerodynamic torques through changes in wing trajectory during low speed aerial turns.

Science.gov (United States)

Ros, Ivo G; Badger, Marc A; Pierson, Alyssa N; Bassman, Lori C; Biewener, Andrew A

2015-02-01

The complexity of low speed maneuvering flight is apparent from the combination of two critical aspects of this behavior: high power and precise control. To understand how such control is achieved, we examined the underlying kinematics and resulting aerodynamic mechanisms of low speed turning flight in the pigeon (Columba livia). Three birds were trained to perform 90 deg level turns in a stereotypical fashion and detailed three-dimensional (3D) kinematics were recorded at high speeds. Applying the angular momentum principle, we used mechanical modeling based on time-varying 3D inertia properties of individual sections of the pigeon's body to separate angular accelerations of the torso based on aerodynamics from those based on inertial effects. Directly measured angular accelerations of the torso were predicted by aerodynamic torques, justifying inferences of aerodynamic torque generation based on inside wing versus outside wing kinematics. Surprisingly, contralateral asymmetries in wing speed did not appear to underlie the 90 deg aerial turns, nor did contralateral differences in wing area, angle of attack, wingbeat amplitude or timing. Instead, torso angular accelerations into the turn were associated with the outside wing sweeping more anteriorly compared with a more laterally directed inside wing. In addition to moving through a relatively more retracted path, the inside wing was also more strongly pronated about its long axis compared with the outside wing, offsetting any difference in aerodynamic angle of attack that might arise from the observed asymmetry in wing trajectories. Therefore, to generate roll and pitch torques into the turn, pigeons simply reorient their wing trajectories toward the desired flight direction. As a result, by acting above the center of mass, the net aerodynamic force produced by the wings is directed inward, generating the necessary torques for turning. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

15. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

Science.gov (United States)

... page please turn JavaScript on. National Center for Biotechnology Information Celebrates 25th Anniversary Past Issues / Winter 2014 ... Photo courtesy of NLM The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of NLM, celebrated its ...

16. Fast Turn-off Mine Transient Electromagnetic Transmitter System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

ZHENG Xiao-Liang

2014-05-01

Full Text Available For solving problems such as short turn-off time, high linear degree of falling edge, measurement of turn-off time and influence of primary signals for transient electromagnetic transmitter, and restrictions because of the environmental conditions of underground coal mine, this thesis aims at designing a new transient electromagnetic transmitter system suitable for coal mine. Supported by damping absorption circuit, such system applies small volume, sectional transmitting coil, with features of short turn-off time, high linear degree of current falling edge. It uses the transmitter monitoring circuit, which accurately measures turn-off time and simultaneously records the current value changes after turn-off, thus to eliminate the influence of primary field as well as to restore earlier secondary field signals for reference and finally to improve the ability to detect the shallow structure. It turns out that the new system has a shorter turn-off time, a higher linear degree of current falling and more accurate data record of turn-off current.

17. The age- and sex-specific decline of the 20s proteasome and the Nrf2/CncC signal transduction pathway in adaption and resistance to oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

Science.gov (United States)

Pomatto, Laura C D; Wong, Sarah; Carney, Caroline; Shen, Brenda; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J A

2017-04-01

18. Increasing protein stability by improving beta-turns.

Science.gov (United States)

Fu, Hailong; Grimsley, Gerald R; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J Martin; Pace, C Nick

2009-11-15

Our goal was to gain a better understanding of how protein stability can be increased by improving beta-turns. We studied 22 beta-turns in nine proteins with 66-370 residues by replacing other residues with proline and glycine and measuring the stability. These two residues are statistically preferred in some beta-turn positions. We studied: Cold shock protein B (CspB), Histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein, Ubiquitin, Ribonucleases Sa2, Sa3, T1, and HI, Tryptophan synthetase alpha-subunit, and Maltose binding protein. Of the 15 single proline mutations, 11 increased stability (Average = 0.8 +/- 0.3; Range = 0.3-1.5 kcal/mol), and the stabilizing effect of double proline mutants was additive. On the basis of this and our previous work, we conclude that proteins can generally be stabilized by replacing nonproline residues with proline residues at the i + 1 position of Type I and II beta-turns and at the i position in Type II beta-turns. Other turn positions can sometimes be used if the phi angle is near -60 degrees for the residue replaced. It is important that the side chain of the residue replaced is less than 50% buried. Identical substitutions in beta-turns in related proteins give similar results. Proline substitutions increase stability mainly by decreasing the entropy of the denatured state. In contrast, the large, diverse group of proteins considered here had almost no residues in beta-turns that could be replaced by Gly to increase protein stability. Improving beta-turns by substituting Pro residues is a generally useful way of increasing protein stability. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

19. The Effectiveness of Problem-based Learning Approach on Students’ Skills in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Specifically on Programming Course Using a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) Simulator

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mohamad, Hasim Bin; de Graaff, Erik

2013-01-01

Industry has a great need for highly skilled technicians that graduate from Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET). In a study started at Aalborg University (AAU) the purpose is to evaluate the effectiveness of the (PBL) approach on students’ skills, in particular on programming course...... using a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) simulator. The study will use data from the German-Malaysian Institute in Malaysia. The findings of this study will provide a general guideline for educators in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutions in implementing Problem...

20. Anticipation in turn-taking: mechanisms and information sources.

Science.gov (United States)

Riest, Carina; Jorschick, Annett B; de Ruiter, Jan P

2015-01-01

During conversations participants alternate smoothly between speaker and hearer roles with only brief pauses and overlaps. There are two competing types of accounts about how conversationalists accomplish this: (a) the signaling approach and (b) the anticipatory ('projection') approach. We wanted to investigate, first, the relative merits of these two accounts, and second, the relative contribution of semantic and syntactic information to the timing of next turn initiation. We performed three button-press experiments using turn fragments taken from natural conversations to address the following questions: (a) Is turn-taking predominantly based on anticipation or on reaction, and (b) what is the relative contribution of semantic and syntactic information to accurate turn-taking. In our first experiment we gradually manipulated the information available for anticipation of the turn end (providing information about the turn end in advance to completely removing linguistic information). The results of our first experiment show that the distribution of the participants' estimation of turn-endings for natural turns is very similar to the distribution for pure anticipation. We conclude that listeners are indeed able to anticipate a turn-end and that this strategy is predominantly used in turn-taking. In Experiment 2 we collected purely reacted responses. We used the distributions from Experiments 1 and 2 together to estimate a new dependent variable called Reaction Anticipation Proportion. We used this variable in our third experiment where we manipulated the presence vs. absence of semantic and syntactic information by low-pass filtering open-class and closed class words in the turn. The results suggest that for turn-end anticipation, both semantic and syntactic information are needed, but that the semantic information is a more important anticipation cue than syntactic information.

1. Flank wears Simulation by using back propagation neural network when cutting hardened H-13 steel in CNC End Milling

Science.gov (United States)

Hazza, Muataz Hazza F. Al; Adesta, Erry Y. T.; Riza, Muhammad

2013-12-01

High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models.

2. Flank wears Simulation by using back propagation neural network when cutting hardened H-13 steel in CNC End Milling

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Al Hazza, Muataz Hazza F; Adesta, Erry Y T; Riza, Muhammad

2013-01-01

High speed milling has many advantages such as higher removal rate and high productivity. However, higher cutting speed increase the flank wear rate and thus reducing the cutting tool life. Therefore estimating and predicting the flank wear length in early stages reduces the risk of unaccepted tooling cost. This research presents a neural network model for predicting and simulating the flank wear in the CNC end milling process. A set of sparse experimental data for finish end milling on AISI H13 at hardness of 48 HRC have been conducted to measure the flank wear length. Then the measured data have been used to train the developed neural network model. Artificial neural network (ANN) was applied to predict the flank wear length. The neural network contains twenty hidden layer with feed forward back propagation hierarchical. The neural network has been designed with MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. The results show a high correlation between the predicted and the observed flank wear which indicates the validity of the models

3. Breaking New Ground with High Resolution Turn-By-Turn BPMs at the ESRF

CERN Document Server

Farvacque, L; Scheidt, K

2001-01-01

This High-Resolution, Turn-by-Turn BPM system is a low-cost extension to the existing BPM system, based on the RF-multiplexing concept, used for slow Closed-Orbit measurements. With this extension Beam Position measurements in both planes, at all (224) BPMs in the 844 m ESRF Storage Ring, for up to 2048 Orbit Turns with 1 μm resolution are performed. The data acquisition is synchronised to a single, flat 1 μs, transverse deflection kick to the 1μs beamfill in the 2.8μs revolution period. The high quality of this synchronisation, together with the good reproducibility of the deflection kick and the overall stability of the Closed Orbit beam allows to repeat the kick and acquisition in many cycles. The subsequent averaging of the data obtained in these cycles yields the 1um resolution. The latter allows lattice measurements with high precision such as the localisation of very small focussing errors and modulation in Beta values and phase advances. It also finds an unique ...

4. Laterality of the lower limbs and carving turns

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

F Vaverka

2010-06-01

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discover whether the lateral preference of the lower limbs influences the execution of successive carving turns or not. Six skilled skiers (men, right lower limb preference, age 26.5±1.61 years old, height 1.80±0.04 m, body weight 78.83±5.46 kg executed 30 (18 left, 12 right symmetrical carving turns. Kinetic analysis of the final vertical component of reaction force FZ(t measured dynamometrically provided the information about the time of initiation and steering phases of the turn and the maximum force, average force and force impulse. Differences between right and left turns are not statistically significant. Factual analyses of the magnitude of measured variables confirmed that left turns were found to have a longer duration, a shorter initiation and longer steering phase, and higher level of produced force and force impulse in comparison with right turns. Based on the results it can be concluded that the turns where the outer leg is the preferred limb are preferentially used to regulate the speed of the ride. The study of laterality in symmetrical carving turns has proven that lateral preference of lower extremities influences the execution of the turn also by expert skiers.

5. Wittgenstein and the linguistic turn in social theory

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hermansen, Jens Christian

of Winch in social theory, the wider and more recent influence of Wittgenstein in areas such as technology and science studies, social theory, feminist and gender studies and conversation and discourse analysis is also considered. Historically, the readings of Wittgenstein in the social sciences have taken...... of the linguistic turn in social theory, the linguistic turn is a double-edged sword of both profound insights and limits; the claim is that the limits of the linguistic turn are the strengths of functionalist, structuralist and materialist approaches to the social sciences. The approach of the critical turn...... is to develop a more comprehensive social theory that is sensitive to these strengths and thus supersedes the limits of the linguistic turn. This paper suggests a different approach. Against the critical turn, the paper argues that the limits of the linguistic turn are identical with the very assumptions...

6. Turning patient-centeredness from ideal to real: lessons from 2 success stories.

Science.gov (United States)

Millenson, Michael L; DiGioia, Anthony M; Greenhouse, Pamela K; Swieskowski, David

2013-01-01

The Institute of Medicine's 2001 Crossing the Quality Chasm report established patient-centeredness as 1 of 6 core principles for health system redesign. Yet, turning aspiration into accomplishment has proven arduous. Patient-centered care has components that challenge established professional norms, and the term itself has not always been clearly defined. However, these barriers can be overcome using Rogers' principles of diffusion of innovation, as is shown by 2 case histories. One involves care at an urban academic medical center, the other outpatient care at multiple physician sites located in urban, suburban, and rural locations. At the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, the Patient- and Family-Centered Care Methodology and Practice has become the new "operating system" in 60 clinical areas, using a 6-step approach to engage patients and families as codesigners of ideal care. Meanwhile, the Health Coach Program at Mercy Clinics, Inc, Des Moines, Iowa, has used a "high-tech/high-touch" combined approach to change the organizational culture through patient-centered initiatives. By doing so, it has put the organization in a position to accept risk for populations of patients. Importantly, both programs have been financially and clinically successful, are accepted by frontline physicians and senior management, and are nationally recognized. Common principles include physician leadership, comfort with uncertainty during innovation, organizational structures that send a consistent message about expectations, and quality improvement as a constant cycle with no end point.

7. METHODICAL MODEL FOR TEACHING BASIC SKI TURN

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Danijela Kuna

2013-07-01

Full Text Available With the aim of forming an expert model of the most important operators for basic ski turn teaching in ski schools, an experiment was conducted on a sample of 20 ski experts from different countries (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia. From the group of the most commonly used operators for teaching basic ski turn the experts picked the 6 most important: uphill turn and jumping into snowplough, basic turn with hand sideways, basic turn with clapping, ski poles in front, ski poles on neck, uphill turn with active ski guiding. Afterwards, ranking and selection of the most efficient operators was carried out. Due to the set aim of research, a Chi square test was used, as well as the differences between frequencies of chosen operators, differences between values of the most important operators and differences between experts due to their nationality. Statistically significant differences were noticed between frequencies of chosen operators (c2= 24.61; p=0.01, while differences between values of the most important operators were not obvious (c2= 1.94; p=0.91. Meanwhile, the differences between experts concerning thier nationality were only noticeable in the expert evaluation of ski poles on neck operator (c2=7.83; p=0.02. Results of current research are reflected in obtaining useful information about methodological priciples of learning basic ski turn organization in ski schools.

8. Experience sharing, emotional reciprocity, and turn-taking

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Melisa eStevanovic

2015-04-01

Full Text Available In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1 the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2 the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, then again, people’s inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research.

9. Exploring interaction between a non-speaking boy using aided AAC and his everyday communication partners: features of turn organizing and turn design

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Rasmussen, Gitte

2011-01-01

-at-action is suggested. The analyses demonstrate that the boy’s turn-at-actions are oriented to as a co-constructed and thus interactionally achieved unit: the boy points at a bliss symbol which is given voice by the speaking co-participant. In and through the relevant made voicing of the turn-at-action, a turn...... AAC, bliss symbolics. The analysis indicates that the participants can collaborately create and orient to units in interaction equivalent to turns in interaction although they differ dramatically from ordinary turns-at-talk. In order to capture the nature of the described units, the category turn...

10. Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) Study: An Economic Analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Paulden, Mike; Bergstrom, Nancy; Horn, Susan D; Rapp, Mary; Stern, Anita; Barrett, Ryan; Watkiss, Michael; Krahn, Murray

2014-01-01

The Turning for Ulcer Reduction (TURN) study was a multisite, randomized controlled trial that aimed to determine the optimal frequency of turning nursing facility residents with mobility limitations who are at moderate and high risk for pressure ulcer (PrU) development. Here we present data from the economic analysis. This economic analysis aims to estimate the economic consequences for Ontario of switching from a repositioning schedule of 2-hour intervals to a schedule of 3-hour or 4-hour intervals. Costs considered in the analysis included those associated with nursing staff time spent repositioning residents and with incontinent care supplies, which included briefs, barrier cream, and washcloths. The total economic benefit of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning is estimated to be \$11.05 or \$16.74 per day, respectively, for every resident at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs. For a typical facility with 123 residents, 41 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefit is estimated to be \$453 daily for 3-hour or \$686 daily for 4-hour repositioning. For Ontario as a whole, assuming that there are 77,933 residents at 634 LTC facilities, 25,927 (33%) of whom are at moderate or high risk of developing PrUs, the total economic benefits of switching to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning are estimated to be \$286,420 or \$433,913 daily, respectively, equivalent to \$104.5 million or \$158.4 million per year. We did not consider the savings the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care might incur should less frequent repositioning reduce the incidence of work-related injury among nursing staff, so our findings are potentially conservative. A switch to 3-hour or 4-hour repositioning appears likely to yield substantial economic benefits to Ontario without placing residents at greater risk of developing PrUs.

11. Diazadienes in chemistry of lanthanides: latest view on old ligands. Synthesis, structure and properties of complexes {[(R)CNC6H3Pr2i]2}Lu(THF)2(μ-Cl)2Li(THF2 (R=CH3, CH2)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Makhrova, T.V.; Fukin, G.K.; Cherkasov, A.V.; Trifonov, A.A.

2008-01-01

Reaction of dianion derivative [DADLi 2 ] (DAD -1,4-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene) prepared in situ by the reduction of corresponding DAD by the excess of metal lithium in THF with anhydrous LuCl 3 (1:1) results in the formation of the metal cyclic complex {[(R)CNC 6 H 3 Pr 2 i ] 2 }Lu(THF) 2 (μ-Cl) 2 Li(THF) 2 (1) containing the fragment N-C(Me)=C(Me)-N. DAD Treatment by two equivalents BuLi in the mixture ether-hexane (20 Deg C) results in the activation of the C-H bond of methyl substitutes at imine carbon. By the reaction of dilithium derivative [DAD - 2 H Li 2 ] formed in situ with LuCl 3 in THF the complex {[(CH 2 )CNC 6 H 3 Pr 2 i ] 2 }Lu(THF) 2 (μ-Cl) 2 Li(THF) 2 (2) with diamide ligand N-C(=CH 2 )-C(=CH 2 )-N was prepared. Structures of 1 and 2 complexes have been established by X-ray structure analysis [ru

12. Primordial spectra from sudden turning trajectory

Science.gov (United States)

Noumi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Masahide

2013-12-01

Effects of heavy fields on primordial spectra of curvature perturbations are discussed in inflationary models with a sudden turning trajectory. When heavy fields are excited after the sudden turn and oscillate around the bottom of the potential, the following two effects are generically induced: deformation of the inflationary background spacetime and conversion interactions between adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations, both of which can affect the primordial density perturbations. In this paper, we calculate primordial spectra in inflationary models with sudden turning potentials taking into account both of the two effects appropriately. We find that there are some non-trivial correlations between the two effects in the power spectrum and, as a consequence, the primordial scalar power spectrum has a peak around the scale exiting the horizon at the turn. Though both effects can induce parametric resonance amplifications, they are shown to be canceled out for the case with the canonical kinetic terms. The peak feature and the scale dependence of bispectra are also discussed.

13. From Sümerbank to Sümerpark: Public Spaces Turning into Shopping Malls

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pınar Savaş Yavuzçehre

2015-06-01

Full Text Available Public spaces are places allowing to integrate society and culture flow. Recently, public spaces in Turkey have been undergoing a transformation in favour of shopping centers. The purpose of this research is to investigate public spaces turned into shopping centers generally in Turkey and peculiarly in Denizli Sümerpark. The main hypothesis of the study is that public spaces come to the fore with the case of rent rather than public interest, undergo a transformation and governing powers doesn’t establish extensive form in the decision making process. It has been retained that the Sümerpark project specific to Denizli is a decent example to public spaces which undergo a transformation in the effect of neoliberal policies and urban transformation. Public spaces shouldn’t be handled with high exchange values which come up with rent concerns. It should be evaluated depending on usage value. Public spaces should be used for the public benefit.

14. Kantian Turning Point in Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kristína Bosáková

2016-11-01

15. Internal and external quasicrystal inflation center and their scaling factors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Masakova, Z.; Patera, J.; Pelantova, E.

1998-01-01

The properties of quasicrystals of the cut and project type - namely, self-similarities or so-called inflation properties - are studied. A complete description is given for centers of the scaling symmetry of a quasicrystal, and the relevant scaling factors are determined for each 'inflation center'. If the center is a quasicrystal point, it is called an 'internal inflation center'; otherwise, it is an 'external' one. It turns out that, for any quasicrystal point u, the set of appropriate scaling factors is a u-dependent one-dimensional quasicrystal. There are infinitely many scaling factors common to all internal inflation centers. The description of external inflation centers, which are plentiful in any quasicrystal, is a slight modification of a similar description for the interval ones

16. Review Essay: Turn, Turn, Turn Around—Till Categories Blur

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lars Allolio-Näcke

2008-01-01

Full Text Available I begin this review by introducing the book and discussing its manifest content chapter by chapter (see 2.1, focusing particularly on the author's argumentation concerning the development of new orientations in cultural studies and on how, in relation to the turns discussed, the names of the researchers and central categories involved are collected. In a second step, I give a close reading of the book's latent content, which I consider to be more important (see 2.2. In this context I discuss several questions of scientific politics—especially the issue of hegemonic claims. Thirdly, I read the book from the critical standpoint of a psychologist, a sociologist and a theologian and show the shortcomings of BACHMANN-MEDICK's outsider perspective on these disciplines. In this regard I read the book again and provide a critique of the quality of the author's scientific performance (see 3. Finally, I state the reasons I do not recommend reading this book (see 4. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801266

17. [Study of beta-turns in globular proteins].

Science.gov (United States)

Amirova, S R; Milchevskiĭ, Iu V; Filatov, I V; Esipova, N G; Tumanian, V G

2005-01-01

The formation of beta-turns in globular proteins has been studied by the method of molecular mechanics. Statistical method of discriminant analysis was applied to calculate energy components and sequences of oligopeptide segments, and after this prediction of I type beta-turns has been drawn. The accuracy of true positive prediction is 65%. Components of conformational energy considerably affecting beta-turn formation were delineated. There are torsional energy, energy of hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals energy.

18. Influence of Cutting Fluid Flow Rate and Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Flank Wear of TiAlN Coated Tool In Turning AISI 1015 Steel Using Taguchi Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Moganapriya C.

2017-09-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters (Depth of cut, feed rate, spindle speed and cutting fluid flow rate on the surface roughness and flank wear of physical vapor deposition (PVD Cathodic arc evaporation coated TiAlN tungsten carbide cutting tool insert during CNC turning of AISI 1015 mild steel. Analysis of Variance has been applied to determine the critical influence of cutting parameters. Taguchi orthogonal test design has been employed to optimize the process parameters affecting surface roughness and tool wear. Depth of cut was found to be the most dominant factor contributing to high surface roughness (67.5% of the inserts. However, cutting speed, feed rate and flow rate of cutting fluid showed minimal contribution to surface roughness. On the other hand, cutting speed (45.6% and flow rate of cutting fluid (23% were the dominant factors influencing tool wear. The optimum cutting conditions for desired surface roughness constitutes the following parameters such as medium cutting speed, low feed rate, low depth of cut and high cutting fluid flow rate. Minimal tool wear was achieved for the following process parameters such as low cutting speed, low feed rate, medium depth of cut and high cutting fluid flow rate.

19. FIXTURING DEVICE FOR DRILLING A STRAIGHT SHAFT

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

SUSAC, Florin

2017-05-01

Full Text Available The paper presents a fixturing device used for machining by drilling a straight shaft. The shaft was manufactured on EMCO CONCEPT TURN 55 CNC. The blank used was a bar with circular cross-section. The orientation and fixing scheme of the part and the orientation elements for fixturing device are presented as they were drawn in Autodesk Inventor and AutoCAD software.

20. Tomographic reconstruction of transverse phase space from turn-by-turn profile data

CERN Document Server

Hancock, S; Lindroos, M

1999-01-01

Tomographic methods have the potential for useful application in beam diagnostics. The tomographic reconstruction of transverse phase space density from turn-by-turn profile data has been studied with particular attention to the effects of dispersion and chromaticity. It is shown that the modified Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) that deals successfully with the problem of non-linear motion in the longitudinal plane cannot, in general, be extended to cover the transverse case. Instead, an approach is proposed in which the effect of dispersion is deconvoluted from the measured profiles before the phase space picture is reconstructed using either the modified ART algorithm or the inverse Radon Transform. This requires an accurate knowledge of the momentum distribution of the beam and the modified ART reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density yields just such information. The method has been tested extensively with simulated data.

1. Turning to Ontology in STS? Turning to STS through ‘Ontology’

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van Heur, B.; Leydesdorff, L.; Wyatt, S.

2012-01-01

We examine the evidence for the claim of an ‘ontological turn’ in science and technology studies (STS). Despite an increase in references to ‘ontology’ in STS since 1989, we show that there has not so much been an ontological turn as multiple discussions deploying the language of ontology,

2. Revisiting the student centered

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sarauw, Laura Louise

2018-01-01

Has the orthodoxy of progressive pedagogy, or what praise as the student centered, become means of an overall managerial turn that erodes students’ freedom do learn? This is the main question in Bruce Macfarlane’s book Freedom to learn - The Threat to Student Academic Freedom and Why it Needs...... to be Reclaimed (2017). In eighth well-written chapters, Macfarlane explores an often-overlooked paradox in higher education teaching and learning: The idea of the student centered learning, deriving from humanist psychology and progressive pedagogy, has been hijacked by increased and continuous demands of bodily......, cognitive and emotional performance that restricts students’ freedom to develop as autonomous adults. Macfarlane’s catch 22 is, however, that his heritage from humanist psychology, i.e. the idea that we as humans are born with an inner potential that we should be free to realise though education...

3. The Light Plane Calibration Method of the Laser Welding Vision Monitoring System

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, B. G.; Wu, M. H.; Jia, W. P.

2018-03-01

According to the aerospace and automobile industry, the sheet steels are the very important parts. In the recent years, laser welding technique had been used to weld the sheet steel part. The seam width between the two parts is usually less than 0.1mm. Because the error of the fixture fixed can’t be eliminated, the welding parts quality can be greatly affected. In order to improve the welding quality, the line structured light is employed in the vision monitoring system to plan the welding path before welding. In order to improve the weld precision, the vision system is located on Z axis of the computer numerical control (CNC) tool. The planar pattern is placed on the X-Y plane of the CNC tool, and the structured light is projected on the planar pattern. The vision system stay at three different positions along the Z axis of the CNC tool, and the camera shoot the image of the planar pattern at every position. Using the calculated the sub-pixel center line of the structure light, the world coordinate of the center light line can be calculated. Thus, the structured light plane can be calculated by fitting the structured light line. Experiment result shows the effective of the proposed method.

4. FCC-hh turn-around cycle

CERN Document Server

Alemany Fernandez, Reyes; Bartmann, Wolfgang; Buffat, Xavier; Niemi, Arto; Schulte, Daniel; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Stoel, Linda

2016-01-01

The turn-around cycle time of a collider is defined as the time spent between the end of stable beams and the start of the next stable beams period, and its calculation is of fundamental importance. On one side it is a crucial ingredient for the computation of the optimal time spent in luminosity production, which defines the integrated luminosity per fill or store. On the other side, combined with the availability and reliability of the machine, it allows to perform a detailed breakdown of the operational performance of the collider over an operational season, i.e. percentage of time in stable beams and beam in the machine with respect to down time. This paper presents a preliminary operational cycle definition for the hadron-hadron Future Circular Collider, as a base line for estimating the corresponding turn-around time. The cycle definition is based on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operational cycle. Two turn-around times are presented, the theoretical one and a more realistic one based on the LHC exper...

5. Turning to alcohol?

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reiboro, S.K.

1998-01-01

Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

6. Silicon Carbide Emitter Turn-Off Thyristor

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jun Wang

2008-01-01

Full Text Available A novel MOS-controlled SiC thyristor device, the SiC emitter turn-off thyristor (ETO is a promising technology for future high-voltage switching applications because it integrates the excellent current conduction capability of a SiC thyristor with a simple MOS-control interface. Through unity-gain turn-off, the SiC ETO also achieves excellent Safe Operation Area (SOA and faster switching speeds than silicon ETOs. The world's first 4.5-kV SiC ETO prototype shows a forward voltage drop of 4.26 V at 26.5 A/cm2 current density at room and elevated temperatures. Tested in an inductive circuit with a 2.5 kV DC link voltage and a 9.56-A load current, the SiC ETO shows a fast turn-off time of 1.63 microseconds and a low 9.88 mJ turn-off energy. The low switching loss indicates that the SiC ETO could operate at about 4 kHz if 100 W/cm2 conduction and the 100 W/cm2 turn-off losses can be removed by the thermal management system. This frequency capability is about 4 times higher than 4.5-kV-class silicon power devices. The preliminary demonstration shows that the SiC ETO is a promising candidate for high-frequency, high-voltage power conversion applications, and additional developments to optimize the device for higher voltage (>5 kV and higher frequency (10 kHz are needed.

7. How ERP (Enterprise-Resource-Planning) - systems reduce energy consumption during manufacturing; Wie ERP-Systeme in der Fertigung den Energieverbrauch reduzieren

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Walz, Reinhold [Gewatec Systemloesungen GmbH, Wehingen (Germany); Ruesing, Eduard

2011-05-30

A precision manufacturer is presented, who utilize energy management for data of machine tools and operational data acquisition. The pilot center shuts down automatically the ventilation system for exhaust air of CNC-machines during nighttime and weekend. (orig./GL)

8. Recent developments in turning hardened steels - A review

Science.gov (United States)

Sivaraman, V.; Prakash, S.

2017-05-01

Hard materials ranging from HRC 45 - 68 such as hardened AISI H13, AISI 4340, AISI 52100, D2 STL, D3 STEEL Steel etc., need super hard tool materials to machine. Turning of these hard materials is termed as hard turning. Hard turning makes possible direct machining of the hard materials and also eliminates the lubricant requirement and thus favoring dry machining. Hard turning is a finish turning process and hence conventional grinding is not required. Development of the new advanced super hard tool materials such as ceramic inserts, Cubic Boron Nitride, Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride etc. enabled the turning of these materials. PVD and CVD methods of coating have made easier the production of single and multi layered coated tool inserts. Coatings of TiN, TiAlN, TiC, Al2O3, AlCrN over cemented carbide inserts has lead to the machining of difficult to machine materials. Advancement in the process of hard machining paved way for better surface finish, long tool life, reduced tool wear, cutting force and cutting temperatures. Micro and Nano coated carbide inserts, nanocomposite coated PCBN inserts, micro and nano CBN coated carbide inserts and similar developments have made machining of hardened steels much easier and economical. In this paper, broad literature review on turning of hardened steels including optimizing process parameters, cooling requirements, different tool materials etc., are done.

9. Fast and cheap prototyping of non-standard optical components for sensing speckle dynamics

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Stubager, Jørgen

2016-01-01

As a part of the work carried out a project supported by the Danish council for technology and innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothening standard CNC machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development price...... and time can become a prohibitively large part of a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces of a molding tool may be done directly using diamond turning, but it is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, however, calling for manual...... surfaces of various shapes succeeding a standard CNC machining process. Different coatings have been tested for their abilities to fill and smoothen out structures of larger scales, while removing the small-scale roughness, which is critical for optical uses. In this work we will present an optical element...

10. First turn simulations in the cooler synchrotron COSY

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dinev, D.

1991-07-01

This paper is devoted to the first turn correction and related problems in particle accelerators of synchrotron type. The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a survey of the existing methods for first turn steering. The second part is entirely devoted to the first turn in the cooler synchrotron COSY which is under assembling in KFA-Julich, Germany. (orig.)

11. First turn around strategy for RHIC

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Milutinovic, J.; Ruggiero, A.G.

1991-01-01

The authors present a strategy for achieving the so-called first turn around in RHIC. The strategy is based on the same method proposed to correct a distorted closed orbit in RHIC, i.e. on a generalization of the local three-bump method. They found out that the method is very effective in passing the beam through a non-ideal, insufficiently known, machine. The perturbed lattice was generated by the code PATRIS, which was also adapted to control the newly developed software. In ten distributions of errors the software was capable of passing the beam through in 2-3 injection attempts, at full sextupole strength. It was also determined that once the beam makes the first turn around and all the correctors are energized, it stays in the machine for at least several hundred turns

12. LIONs at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constant, T.N.; Zdarko, R.W.; Simmons, R.H.; Bennett, B.M.

1998-01-01

The term LION is an acronym for Long Ionization Chamber. This is a distributed ion chamber which is used to monitor secondary ionization along the shield walls of a beam line resulting from incorrectly steered charged particle beams in lieu of the use of many discrete ion chambers. A cone of ionizing radiation emanating from a point source as a result of incorrect steering intercepts a portion of 1-5/8 inch Heliax cable (about 100 meters in length) filled with Argon gas at 20 psi and induces a pulsed current which is proportional to the ionizing charge. This signal is transmitted via the cable to an integrator circuit whose output is directed to an electronic comparators, which in turn is used to turn off the accelerated primary beam when preset limits are exceeded. This device is used in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Beam Containment System (BCS) to prevent potentially hazardous ionizing radiation resulting from incorrectly steered beams in areas that might be occupied by people. This paper describes the design parameters and experience in use in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) area of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

13. Synthesis of conformationally restricted beta-turn mimics

NARCIS (Netherlands)

IJsselstijn, M.

2006-01-01

This thesis aims at developing methods for introducing conformational restriction in Beta-turns, the turn elements present in Beta-sheets. A conformationally restricted peptide might either be formed via incorporation of a bridging diamino acids in a growing peptide chain, or via covalent bond

14. Turn key contracts

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feretic, D.

1975-01-01

The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

15. Prediction and Control of Cutting Tool Vibration in Cnc Lathe with Anova and Ann

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. S. Abuthakeer

2011-06-01

Full Text Available Machining is a complex process in which many variables can deleterious the desired results. Among them, cutting tool vibration is the most critical phenomenon which influences dimensional precision of the components machined, functional behavior of the machine tools and life of the cutting tool. In a machining operation, the cutting tool vibrations are mainly influenced by cutting parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut and tool feed rate. In this work, the cutting tool vibrations are controlled using a damping pad made of Neoprene. Experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe where the tool holder is supported with and without damping pad. The cutting tool vibration signals were collected through a data acquisition system supported by LabVIEW software. To increase the buoyancy and reliability of the experiments, a full factorial experimental design was used. Experimental data collected were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA to understand the influences of the cutting parameters. Empirical models have been developed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Experimental studies and data analysis have been performed to validate the proposed damping system. Multilayer perceptron neural network model has been constructed with feed forward back-propagation algorithm using the acquired data. On the completion of the experimental test ANN is used to validate the results obtained and also to predict the behavior of the system under any cutting condition within the operating range. The onsite tests show that the proposed system reduces the vibration of cutting tool to a greater extend.

16. Train turn restrictions and line plan performance

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Lusby, Richard Martin

In this paper we study the impact of the `turn conditions' in end stations on the performance of a line plan. If trains have to turn on their platform in an end station, the yoccupy the platform for several minutes. A more preferred option, from a timetabling point of view, would be that a train...... in a exible and large enough shunt. Starting from a given line plan, we compare two timetables, one where trains have to turn on their platform and one where trains can turn in a shunt. We evaluate the impact on the performance of the line plan by its feasibility for timetabling,the minimum overall buffer...... disappears from the platform in its end station after dwelling and only appears again when departing for a subsequent trip. In this case, the train will not interfere with other trains that dwell on the platform during the time between these events. However, this option is only possible if the train can stay...

17. Derrida’s Turn to Franciscan Philosophy

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marko Zlomislic

2008-12-01

Full Text Available Contemporary French philosophers such as Levinas, Bataille, and Derrida, along with the existentialists Kierkegaard and Nietzsche have all made use of Franciscan insights in order to safeguard the ipseity that cannot be reduced or totalized. In keeping with the taste that concerns me, this paper will examine Derrida’s turn to the poetry of Gerard Manley Hopkins and how such a turn may place Derrida within a catholic and Franciscan tradition.

18. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Dr Obe

ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

19. Development of sacrificial support fixture using deflection analysis

Science.gov (United States)

Ramteke, Ashwini M.; Ashtankar, Kishor M.

2018-04-01

Sacrificial support fixtures are the structures used to hold the part during machining while rotating the part about the fourth axis of CNC machining. In Four axis CNC machining part is held in a indexer which is rotated about the fourth axis of rotation. So using traditional fixturing devices to hold the part during machining such as jigs, v blocks and clamping plates needs a several set ups, manufacturing time which increase the cost associated with it. Since the part is rotated about the axis of rotation in four axis CNC machining so using traditional fixturing devices to hold the part while machining we need to reorient the fixture each time for particular orientation of part about the axis of rotation. So our proposed methodology of fixture design eliminates the cost associate with the complicated fixture design for customized parts which in turn reduces the time of manufacturing of the fixtures. But while designing the layout of the fixtures it is found out that the machining the part using four axis CNC machining the accurate machining of the part is directly proportional to the deflection produced in a part. So to machine an accurate part the deflection produced in a part should be minimum. We assume that the deflection produced in a part is a result of the deflection produced in a sacrificial support fixture while machining. So this paper provides the study of the deflection checking in a part machined using sacrificial support fixture by using FEA analysis.

20. Turn over management and optimization of Shangdong nuclear power plant

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zheng Tong

2014-01-01

After the equipments' installation is completed, the system will carry out commissioning tests. After commissioning work is completed, the system will be transferred to temporary operation. The plant buildings and structures will be transferred to operation for management and maintenance after civil work. The turn over work is an important part of the transfer from construction to operation. The article describes the significance of the nuclear power plant turn over work, turn over organization and management mode, the workflow of system turn over from construction to commissioning (TOP), turn over form commissioning to operation (TOTO), house hand over (HHO), building hand over (BHO) of Shandong Haiyang nuclear power plant, and analyze the current lack and future improvements of turn over work. Shandong Haiyang nuclear power plant will usher in the peak period of turn over work in 2013, fully aware of the importance of the turn over work, will play a key role in the long-term stable operation of the unit. (author)

1. Hatchability of chicken eggs as influenced by turning frequency in ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of turning frequency of chicken eggs on hatchability in hurricane lantern incubator. There were four treatments in which eggs were not turned in treatment one (control), those in treatment two were turned once daily (morning), treatment three turned twice daily ...

2. Precision lens assembly with alignment turning system

Science.gov (United States)

Ho, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Chien-Yao; Lin, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Hui-Jean; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chen, Fong-Zhi

2017-10-01

The poker chip assembly with high precision lens barrels is widely applied to ultra-high performance optical system. ITRC applies the poker chip assembly technology to the high numerical aperture objective lenses and lithography projection lenses because of its high efficiency assembly process. In order to achieve high precision lens cell for poker chip assembly, an alignment turning system (ATS) is developed. The ATS includes measurement, alignment and turning modules. The measurement module is equipped with a non-contact displacement sensor (NCDS) and an autocollimator (ACM). The NCDS and ACM are used to measure centration errors of the top and the bottom surface of a lens respectively; then the amount of adjustment of displacement and tilt with respect to the rotational axis of the turning machine for the alignment module can be determined. After measurement, alignment and turning processes on the ATS, the centration error of a lens cell with 200 mm in diameter can be controlled within 10 arcsec. Furthermore, a poker chip assembly lens cell with three sub-cells is demonstrated, each sub-cells are measured and accomplished with alignment and turning processes. The lens assembly test for five times by each three technicians; the average transmission centration error of assembly lens is 12.45 arcsec. The results show that ATS can achieve high assembly efficiency for precision optical systems.

3. Structural and sequence features of two residue turns in beta-hairpins.

Science.gov (United States)

Madan, Bharat; Seo, Sung Yong; Lee, Sun-Gu

2014-09-01

Beta-turns in beta-hairpins have been implicated as important sites in protein folding. In particular, two residue β-turns, the most abundant connecting elements in beta-hairpins, have been a major target for engineering protein stability and folding. In this study, we attempted to investigate and update the structural and sequence properties of two residue turns in beta-hairpins with a large data set. For this, 3977 beta-turns were extracted from 2394 nonhomologous protein chains and analyzed. First, the distribution, dihedral angles and twists of two residue turn types were determined, and compared with previous data. The trend of turn type occurrence and most structural features of the turn types were similar to previous results, but for the first time Type II turns in beta-hairpins were identified. Second, sequence motifs for the turn types were devised based on amino acid positional potentials of two-residue turns, and their distributions were examined. From this study, we could identify code-like sequence motifs for the two residue beta-turn types. Finally, structural and sequence properties of beta-strands in the beta-hairpins were analyzed, which revealed that the beta-strands showed no specific sequence and structural patterns for turn types. The analytical results in this study are expected to be a reference in the engineering or design of beta-hairpin turn structures and sequences. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

4. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

1988-12-01

The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

5. Hatchability of chicken eggs as influenced by turning frequency in ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

STORAGESEVER

2008-12-03

Dec 3, 2008 ... Brake (2004) confirmed that absence of turning resulted in presentation of the head in the small end of the egg. Egg turning facilitated the transfer of yolk nutrients to the embryo via the sub-embryonic fluid (Deeming, 1989a). With modern incubators, automatic turning devices allow the eggs to be turned on ...

6. The Effect of a Textured Insole on Symmetry of Turning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Etem Curuk

2018-01-01

Full Text Available Turning while walking is a common daily activity. Individuals with unilateral impairment frequently perform turns asymmetrically. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of a discomfort-inducing textured insole on symmetry of turning. Nine healthy individuals performed turns to the right while walking with no insole, immediately after the insole was inserted in the right shoe, and after walking for six minutes with the insole. The duration of turning, displacements of pelvic markers, and perceived level of discomfort were evaluated. Utilizing the insole was associated with the increased level of perceived discomfort (p<0.05. Moreover, using the insole was linked to changes in the displacement of two pelvic markers and larger asymmetry index while turning immediately after the insole was inserted in the right shoe as compared to no insole condition (p<0.05. The duration of right turning increased immediately after the insole was inserted (p<0.05 and after walking with the insole for six minutes. The results indicate that the textured insole creates asymmetry of turning in healthy individuals. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on using a textured insole to minimize the asymmetry of turning commonly seen in individuals with unilateral impairment.

7. Characteristics of turn signal use at intersections in baseline naturalistic driving.

Science.gov (United States)

Sullivan, John M; Bao, Shan; Goudy, Roy; Konet, Heather

2015-01-01

8. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01

Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

9. Effects of Muscle Strength and Balance Control on Sit-to-Walk and Turn Durations in the Timed Up and Go Test.

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Tzurei; Chou, Li-Shan

2017-12-01

To examine the association of muscle strength and balance control with the amount of time taken to perform sit-to-walk (STW) or turning components of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in older adults. Correlations; multiple regression models. General community. Older adults (N=60) age >70 years recruited from the community. Not applicable. Muscle strength, balance control, and TUG test performance time. Muscle strength was quantified by peak joint moments during the isometric maximal voluntary contraction test for bilateral hip abductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors. Balance control was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale, and center of mass and ankle inclination angle derived during the TUG test performance. We found that balance control measures were significantly associated with both STW and turning durations even after controlling for muscle strength and other confounders (STW duration: Pbalance control is an important factor that contributes to longer STW and turning durations on the TUG test. Furthermore, strength has a higher association with STW than turning duration. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

10. Streaming instabilities of a non-neutral plasma with turning points

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Turner, L.; Finn, J.M.

1995-01-01

Streaming instabilities of a reflexing beam in a slab model of a beam Penning trap or an inertial electrostatic confinement device are studied. Particles may have turning points that may be between the walls. Linear theory is developed for the case in which the self-field cancels the external potential. If the electric field perturbation is odd about the center, these two-stream modes couple the slow waves on the two beams. Even modes consist of two classes: a class of two-stream modes and another class of complex-frequency modes, coupling the slow and fast waves on the same beam. The latter are unstable over a larger range than the two-stream modes. Thermal spread is stabilizing only when the thermal and streaming velocities are comparable. Numerical results for the general class of equilibria show both two-stream-like modes and oscillating modes

11. ω-Turn: a novel β-turn mimic in globular proteins stabilized by main-chain to side-chain C−H···O interaction.

Science.gov (United States)

Dhar, Jesmita; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Saini, Harpreet; Raghava, Gajendra Pal Singh; Kishore, Raghuvansh

2015-02-01

Mimicry of structural motifs is a common feature in proteins. The 10-membered hydrogen-bonded ring involving the main-chain C − O in a β-turn can be formed using a side-chain carbonyl group leading to Asx-turn. We show that the N − H component of hydrogen bond can be replaced by a C(γ) -H group in the side chain, culminating in a nonconventional C − H···O interaction. Because of its shape this β-turn mimic is designated as ω-turn, which is found to occur ∼ three times per 100 residues. Three residues (i to i + 2) constitute the turn with the C − H···O interaction occurring between the terminal residues, constraining the torsion angles ϕi + 1, ψi + 1, ϕi + 2 and χ'1(i + 2) (using the interacting C(γ) atom). Based on these angles there are two types of ω-turns, each of which can be further divided into two groups. C(β) -branched side-chains, and Met and Gln have high propensities to occur at i + 2; for the last two residues the carbonyl oxygen may participate in an additional interaction involving the S and amino group, respectively. With Cys occupying the i + 1 position, such turns are found in the metal-binding sites. N-linked glycosylation occurs at the consensus pattern Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr; with Thr at i + 2, the sequence can adopt the secondary structure of a ω-turn, which may be the recognition site for protein modification. Location between two β-strands is the most common occurrence in protein tertiary structure, and being generally exposed ω-turn may constitute the antigenic determinant site. It is a stable scaffold and may be used in protein engineering and peptide design. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

12. Beam polarization during a Siberian snake turn-on

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1999-01-01

Installing Siberian snakes in a circular proton accelerator allows one to overcome all spin depolarizing resonances even at very high energies. However, Siberian snake application at low energies is technically rather difficult. Turning snake on at some energy during acceleration would allow using Siberian snakes even in rings with low injection energies. It is shown that the beam polarization would be preserved during the snake ramp, provided that the snake is turned on in more than ten turns, and the energy is set near a half-integer Gγ

13. First turn around strategy for RHIC

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Milutinovic, J.; Ruggiero, A.G.

1991-06-01

We present a strategy for achieving the so-called first turn around in RHIC. The strategy is based on the same method we had proposed to correct a distorted closed orbit in RHIC, i.e., on a generalization of the local three-bump method. We found out that the method is very effective in passing the beam through a non-ideal, insufficiently known, machine. We tested that software on ten different Gaussian distributions of dominant orbit distorting lattice imperfections. The perturbed lattice was generated by the code PATRIS, which was also adapted to control the newly developed software. In all of the ten distributions the software was capable of passing the beam through in 2--3 injection attempts, at full sextupole strength. It was also determined that once the beam makes the first turn around and all the correctors are energized, it stays in the machine for at least several hundred turns that we had checked. The quality of the orbit, that was established in this way, was also found to be very good, i.e., the residual distortions at the places of large beta function were much less than one millimeter. With one or two monitors/correctors broken, the software established a first turn around without any extra difficulties. The quality of such orbit was, of course, somewhat degraded, especially around the broken devices. It was also observed that, in the process of actual closing, the beam develops free betatron oscillations in the amplitude range of 1--5 mm, which can be reduced either by changing the injection conditions to better match the actual closed orbit or by an appropriate damping device. The hardware proposed for RHIC is more than sufficient to meet the demands of the first turn controlling software. The maximum kick angle to be applied to the beam would require less than 2/3 of the corrector's top strength even at the top magnetic rigidity Bρ = 850 T·m, which means that the correctors will be performing an easy task at injection

14. Medium dependent dual turn on/turn off fluorescence sensing for Cu2 + ions using AMI/SDS assemblies

Science.gov (United States)

Gujar, Varsha B.; Ottoor, Divya

2017-02-01

Behavior of Amiloride (AMI) as a metal ion sensor in anionic surfactant assemblies of varying concentrations at different pH is depicted in this work. From a non-sensor fluorophore, AMI has been transformed in to a tunable fluorosensor for Cu2 + ions in various SDS concentrations. At premicellar concentration of SDS, ion-pair complex is expected to be formed between AMI and SDS due to electrostatic interactions between them. However at CMC concentrations of SDS, fluorescence intensity of AMI is greatly enhanced with red shift in emission, due to the incorporation of AMI molecule in the hydrophobic micellar interface. The behavior of metal sensing by AMI-SDS assemblies gives rise to several interesting observations. Micellation of SDS has been greatly enhanced by increasing copper ion concentrations, as these counter ions screens the charge on monomers of SDS which lead to the aggregation at premicellar concentrations only. Concentrations and pH dependent discrete trends of interactions between SDS-AMI and SDS-Cu2 + ions, have given tunable fluorescence responses (fluorescence turn on/turn off) of AMI for added Cu2 + ions. The electrostatic interaction between the metal cations and the anionic surfactants is the driving force for bringing the metal ions near to the vicinity of micelle where AMI resides. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism related to the 'turn on-turn off' fluorescence response of AMI with respect to pH and SDS concentration for effective Cu2 + ion sensing is illustrated in this work.

15. Simulation of turn-by-turn passage of protons through the H-minus stripping foil in booster

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gardner, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

2017-07-06

Equations for transverse emittance growth due to multiple passes of circulating proton beam through the H-minus stripping foil in Booster were developed in [1]. These were based on simple principles of statistics and simple assumptions about the initial distribution of particles incident on the foil. It was assumed there that the foil dimensions and position of the incoming beam are such that all particles hit the foil on every turn around the machine. In the present note we assume only that all incoming H-minus ions from Linac hit the foil and are stripped of their electrons. The resulting protons circulate indefinitely around the machine. Setups in which the foil width is reduced so that not all protons hit the foil on every turn are studied here by simulation. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of such setups in reducing the emittance growth of circulating proton beam during the injection of H-minus beam. The simulations also serve as a check of the equations developed in [1], and vice versa. The particulars of the simulation setup are given in Sections 1 through 11. Figures 1 through 12 show simulation results for the case in which all particles hit the foil on every turn. The results are in good agreement with those obtained from the equations of reference [1]. Figures 13 through 19 show simulation results for various setups in which the foil width is reduced. These results are summarized in Section 12. In all gures the horizontal axis gives the turn number. The unit of the vertical axis is micrometers ( m) in all plots of emittance.

16. Improvement of Polylactide Properties through Cellulose Nanocrystals Embedded in Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Electrospun Nanofibers.

Science.gov (United States)

López de Dicastillo, Carol; Garrido, Luan; Alvarado, Nancy; Romero, Julio; Palma, Juan Luis; Galotto, Maria Jose

2017-05-11

Electrospun nanofibers of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PV) were obtained to improve dispersion of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) within hydrophobic biopolymeric matrices, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Electrospun nanofibers (PV/CNC) n were successfully obtained with a final concentration of 23% ( w / w ) of CNC. Morphological, structural and thermal properties of developed CNC and electrospun nanofibers were characterized. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis revealed that the crystallinity of PV was reduced by the electrospinning process, and the incorporation of CNC increased the thermal stability of biodegradable nanofibers. Interactions between CNC and PV polymer also enhanced the thermal stability of CNC and improved the dispersion of CNC within the PLA matrix. PLA materials with CNC lyophilized were also casted in order to compare the properties with materials based on CNC containing nanofibers. Nanofibers and CNC were incorporated into PLA at three concentrations: 0.5%, 1% and 3% (CNC respect to polymer weight) and nanocomposites were fully characterized. Overall, nanofibers containing CNC positively modified the physical properties of PLA materials, such as the crystallinity degree of PLA which was greatly enhanced. Specifically, materials with 1% nanofiber 1PLA(PV/CNC) n presented highest improvements related to mechanical and barrier properties; elongation at break was enhanced almost four times and the permeation of oxygen was reduced by approximately 30%.

17. The ontological turn meets the certainty of death.

Science.gov (United States)

McDonald, Maryon

2017-08-01

The 'ontological turn' involves some anthropological points of long standing but the approaches recently coordinated into this turn have been presented as a 'call to arms', as shaking up 'mono-realist singularities' and as inherently political. This fighting talk has no doubt made important contributions to anthropology and insights from the ontological turn can help in anthropological understandings of medical practices. However, this paper contends that this helpfulness is also limited and that a call to arms may be inappropriate. This point is made through an ethnographic understanding of medical concern about the diagnosis of death.

18. Postural hemodynamic changes after turning to prone position

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Микола Віталійович Лизогуб

2015-03-01

Full Text Available Background of study. Prone position is one of the most complex positions for anesthesiologist as it is accompanied by several physiological changes that can lead to specific complications. Hemodynamic changes are most controversial.Aim of study was to establish hemodynamic changes in non-anaesthetized patients in prone position depending on body mass index.Material and methods. We examined central hemodynamics in 40 patients the day before surgery using thoracic rheography in supine position, in prone position 5 min after turning and in prone position 20 min after turning. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to body mass index (18-25 and 26-35.Results. Patients with normal body weight did not have any hemodynamic changes after turning to prone position. Patients with increased body weight had higher cardiac index. After turning to prone position obese patients’ cardiac output and cardiac index reduced 22% comparing with supine position. After 20 min in prone position these hemodynamic parameters were found to be reduced to the same level.Conclusion. Significant hemodynamic changes after turning from supine to prone position were revealed only in patients with increased body mass index. In these patients cardiac index in prone position was reduced by 22% comparing to supine position

19. Body posture recognition and turning recording system for the care of bed bound patients.

Science.gov (United States)

Hsiao, Rong-Shue; Mi, Zhenqiang; Yang, Bo-Ru; Kau, Lih-Jen; Bitew, Mekuanint Agegnehu; Li, Tzu-Yu

2015-01-01

This paper proposes body posture recognition and turning recording system for assisting the care of bed bound patients in nursing homes. The system continuously detects the patient's body posture and records the length of time for each body posture. If the patient remains in the same body posture long enough to develop pressure ulcers, the system notifies caregivers to change the patient's body posture. The objective of recording is to provide the log of body turning for querying of patients' family members. In order to accurately detect patient's body posture, we developed a novel pressure sensing pad which contains force sensing resistor sensors. Based on the proposed pressure sensing pad, we developed a bed posture recognition module which includes a bed posture recognition algorithm. The algorithm is based on fuzzy theory. The body posture recognition algorithm can detect the patient's bed posture whether it is right lateral decubitus, left lateral decubitus, or supine. The detected information of patient's body posture can be then transmitted to the server of healthcare center by the communication module to perform the functions of recording and notification. Experimental results showed that the average posture recognition accuracy for our proposed module is 92%.

20. 1.06 μm 150 psec laser damage study of diamond turned, diamond turned/polished and polished metal mirrors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saito, T.T.; Milam, D.; Baker, P.; Murphy, G.

1975-01-01

Using a well characterized 1.06 μm 150 ps glass laser pulse the damage characteristics for diamond turned, diamond turned/ polished, and polished copper and silver mirrors less than 5 cm diameter were studied. Although most samples were tested with a normal angle of incidence, some were tested at 45 0 with different linear polarization showing an increase in damage threshold for S polarization. Different damage mechanisms observed will be discussed. Laser damage is related to residual surface influences of the fabrication process. First attempts to polish diamond turned surfaces resulted in a significant decrease in laser damage threshold. The importance of including the heat of fusion in the one dimensional heat analysis of the theoretical damage threshold and how close the samples came to the theoretical damage threshold is discussed. (auth)

1. Turning around Newton's Second Law

Science.gov (United States)

Goff, John Eric

2004-01-01

Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

2. Minimum-fuel turning climbout and descent guidance of transport jets

Science.gov (United States)

Neuman, F.; Kreindler, E.

1983-01-01

The complete flightpath optimization problem for minimum fuel consumption from takeoff to landing including the initial and final turns from and to the runway heading is solved. However, only the initial and final segments which contain the turns are treated, since the straight-line climbout, cruise, and descent problems have already been solved. The paths are derived by generating fields of extremals, using the necessary conditions of optimal control together with singular arcs and state constraints. Results show that the speed profiles for straight flight and turning flight are essentially identical except for the final horizontal accelerating or decelerating turns. The optimal turns require no abrupt maneuvers, and an approximation of the optimal turns could be easily integrated with present straight-line climb-cruise-descent fuel-optimization algorithms. Climbout at the optimal IAS rather than the 250-knot terminal-area speed limit would save 36 lb of fuel for the 727-100 aircraft.

3. Structure and spectroscopic properties of the dimeric copper(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex [Cu₂(CNC(t-Bu))₂](PF₆)₂.

Science.gov (United States)

Riener, Korbinian; Pöthig, Alexander; Cokoja, Mirza; Herrmann, Wolfgang A; Kühn, Fritz E

2015-08-01

In recent years, the use of copper N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes has expanded to fields besides catalysis, namely medicinal chemistry and luminescence applications. In the latter case, multinuclear copper NHC compounds have attracted interest, however, the number of these complexes in the literature is still quite limited. Bis[μ-1,3-bis(3-tert-butylimidazolin-2-yliden-1-yl)pyridine]-1κ(4)C(2),N:N,C(2');2κ(4)C(2),N:N,C(2')-dicopper(I) bis(hexafluoridophosphate), [Cu2(C19H25N5)2](PF6)2, is a dimeric copper(I) complex bridged by two CNC, i.e. bis(N-heterocyclic carbene)pyridine, ligands. Each Cu(I) atom is almost linearly coordinated by two NHC ligands and interactions are observed between the pyridine N atoms and the metal centres, while no cuprophilic interactions were observed. Very strong absorption bands are evident in the UV-Vis spectrum at 236 and 274 nm, and an emission band is observed at 450 nm. The reported complex is a new example of a multinuclear copper NHC complex and a member of a compound class which has only rarely been reported.

4. History of Education in Canada: Historiographic "Turns" and Widening Horizons

Science.gov (United States)

Bruno-Jofré, Rosa

2014-01-01

This paper explores major historiographic "turns" in history of education with a focus, although not exclusively, on English-speaking Canada. It addresses the transformative intellectual impact of the turn toward social history on the history of education, the impact of cultural history and the linguistic turn, the reception of Michel…

5. Turn-taking cue delays in human-robot communication

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Cuijpers, R. H.; Van Den Goor, V. J.P.

2017-01-01

Fluent communication between a human and a robot relies on the use of effective turn-taking cues. In human speech staying silent after a sequence of utterances is usually accompanied by an explicit turnyielding cue to signal the end of a turn. Here we study the effect of the timing of four

6. Human Rights Education and the Post Secular Turn

Science.gov (United States)

Bowie, Bob

2012-01-01

This article questions whether human rights education (HRE) scholarship is responding adequately to the post secular turn in thinking about the place and nature of religion in society. Here the post secular turn is used to describe the discrediting of secularisation theory, the recognition of religion as an enduring and pervasive global cultural…

7. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

Science.gov (United States)

Petrenko, A. V.; Valishev, A. A.; Lebedev, V. A.

2011-09-01

Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

8. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. V. Petrenko

2011-09-01

Full Text Available Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

9. How JCAHO, WEDI, ANSI, HCFA, and Hillary Clinton will turn your systems upside down.

Science.gov (United States)

Howe, R C

1994-01-01

JCAHO, WEDI, ANSI, HCFA, the Clinton Administration health care reform task force, and other local, state, and national organizations are having a major impact on the health care system. Health care providers will become part of larger health care organizations, such as accountable health plans (AHPs), to provide health care services under a managed care or contracted fee-for-service basis. Information systems that were designed under the old health care model will no longer be applicable to the new health care reform system. The new information systems will have to be patient-centered, operate under a managed care environment, and function to handle patients throughout the continuum of care across a multiple-provider organization. The new information system will require extensive network infrastructures operating at high speeds, integration of LANs and WANs across large geographic areas, sophisticated interfacing tools, consolidation of core patient data bases, and consolidation of the supporting IS infrastructure (applications, data centers, staff, etc.). The changes associated with the health care reform initiatives may, indeed, turn current information systems upside down.

10. Zero-point energies in the two-center shell model. II

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reinhard, P.-G.

1978-01-01

The zero-point energy (ZPE) contained in the potential-energy surface of a two-center shell model (TCSM) is evaluated. In extension of previous work, the author uses here the full TCSM with l.s force, smoothing and asymmetry. The results show a critical dependence on the height of the potential barrier between the centers. The ZPE turns out to be non-negligible along the fission path for 236 U, and even more so for lighter systems. It is negligible for surface quadrupole motion and it is just on the fringe of being negligible for motion along the asymmetry coordinate. (Auth.)

11. Compensations for increased rotational inertia during human cutting turns.

Science.gov (United States)

Qiao, Mu; Brown, Brian; Jindrich, Devin L

2014-02-01

Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady state, but unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) is not well understood. We investigated the strategies used by humans to perform sidestep cutting turns when running. Previous studies have argued that because humans have small yaw rotational moments of inertia relative to body mass, deceleratory forces in the initial velocity direction that occur during the turning step, or 'braking' forces, could function to prevent body over-rotation during turns. We tested this hypothesis by increasing body rotational inertia and testing whether braking forces during stance decreased. We recorded ground reaction force and body kinematics from seven participants performing 45 deg sidestep cutting turns and straight running at five levels of body rotational inertia, with increases up to fourfold. Contrary to our prediction, braking forces remained consistent at different rotational inertias, facilitated by anticipatory changes to body rotational speed. Increasing inertia revealed that the opposing effects of several turning parameters, including rotation due to symmetrical anterior-posterior forces, result in a system that can compensate for fourfold changes in rotational inertia with less than 50% changes to rotational velocity. These results suggest that in submaximal effort turning, legged systems may be robust to changes in morphological parameters, and that compensations can involve relatively minor adjustments between steps to change initial stance conditions.

12. Concurrent Collections

OpenAIRE

Budimlić, Zoran; Burke, Michael; Cavé, Vincent; Knobe, Kathleen; Lowney, Geoff; Newton, Ryan; Palsberg, Jens; Peixotto, David; Sarkar, Vivek; Schlimbach, Frank; Taşırlar, Sağnak

2010-01-01

We introduce the Concurrent Collections (CnC) programming model. CnC supports flexible combinations of task and data parallelism while retaining determinism. CnC is implicitly parallel, with the user providing high-level operations along with semantic ordering constraints that together form a CnC graph. We formally describe the execution semantics of CnC and prove that the model guarantees deterministic computation. We evaluate the performance of CnC implementations on several applications an...

13. Characterization of jellyfish turning using 3D-PTV

Science.gov (United States)

Xu, Nicole; Dabiri, John

2017-11-01

Aurelia aurita are oblate, radially symmetric jellyfish that consist of a gelatinous bell and subumbrellar muscle ring, which contracts to provide motive force. Swimming is typically modeled as a purely vertical motion; however, asymmetric activations of swim pacemakers (sensory organs that innervate the muscle at eight locations around the bell margin) result in turning and more complicated swim behaviors. More recent studies have examined flow fields around turning jellyfish, but the input/output relationship between locomotive controls and swim trajectories is unclear. To address this, bell kinematics for both straight swimming and turning are obtained using 3D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) by injecting biocompatible elastomer tags into the bell, illuminating the tank with ultraviolet light, and tracking the resulting fluorescent particles in a multi-camera setup. By understanding these kinematics in both natural and externally controlled free-swimming animals, we can connect neuromuscular control mechanisms to existing flow measurements of jellyfish turning for applications in designing more energy efficient biohybrid robots and underwater vehicles. NSF GRFP.

14. Zigzag turning preference of freely crawling cells.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Taeseok Daniel Yang

Full Text Available The coordinated motion of a cell is fundamental to many important biological processes such as development, wound healing, and phagocytosis. For eukaryotic cells, such as amoebae or animal cells, the cell motility is based on crawling and involves a complex set of internal biochemical events. A recent study reported very interesting crawling behavior of single cell amoeba: in the absence of an external cue, free amoebae move randomly with a noisy, yet, discernible sequence of 'run-and-turns' analogous to the 'run-and-tumbles' of swimming bacteria. Interestingly, amoeboid trajectories favor zigzag turns. In other words, the cells bias their crawling by making a turn in the opposite direction to a previous turn. This property enhances the long range directional persistence of the moving trajectories. This study proposes that such a zigzag crawling behavior can be a general property of any crawling cells by demonstrating that 1 microglia, which are the immune cells of the brain, and 2 a simple rule-based model cell, which incorporates the actual biochemistry and mechanics behind cell crawling, both exhibit similar type of crawling behavior. Almost all legged animals walk by alternating their feet. Similarly, all crawling cells appear to move forward by alternating the direction of their movement, even though the regularity and degree of zigzag preference vary from one type to the other.

15. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

2016-02-01

Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

16. Investigation and Evaluation on Influence of Machining (CNC Conditions on Surface Quality of Paulownia Wood

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2012-01-01

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effective factors on surface quality of paulownia wood during machining by advanced computer numerical controled (CNC machine. For this aim paulownia logs were provided and were converted to proper sizes (2.5 x 10 x 15 cm and then air dried. The Variable of this study were cutting speed (8.37 and 15.07 m/s, feeding rate (6 and 12 m/min, cutting depth (1and 5 mm, cutting method (down and up-milling and cutting pattern (tangential and radial. Roughness of cut specimens edge were evaluated by profilometer method according to ISO 13565 standard. For evaluation of surface quality, average roughness (Ra, maximum roughness (R max, valley roughness (Rv and peak roughness (Rp were used. Degrees of effectiveness of the parameters were evaluated by fractional factorial design as completely random design at confidence level of 95%. The result showed that cutting speed, cutting method and feed rate are influencive factors on surface quality of machined specimens and their effects were significant. With increasing cutting speed and decreasing feeding rate the roughness decreased and surface quality improved. In up-milling cutting method, degree of roughness was higher and consequently surface quality was inferior. It is to be noted that cutting method in comparison to other factors had the high influence on surface quality. The rest variables did now have independent influence on surface quality at 95% Confidence level. This study for achieving the optimum surface quality recommends that cutting speed of 15.07 m/s, feeding rate of 6 m/min, cutting method of down-milling and cutting depth of 1 mm for tangential cross section.

17. Computer-Numerical-Control and the EMCO Compact 5 Lathe.

Science.gov (United States)

Mullen, Frank M.

This laboratory manual is intended for use in teaching computer-numerical-control (CNC) programming using the Emco Maier Compact 5 Lathe. Developed for use at the postsecondary level, this material contains a short introduction to CNC machine tools. This section covers CNC programs, CNC machine axes, and CNC coordinate systems. The following…

18. Phenomenology and the Empirical Turn

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Zwier, Jochem; Blok, Vincent; Lemmens, Pieter

2016-01-01

This paper provides a phenomenological analysis of postphenomenological philosophy of technology. While acknowledging that the results of its analyses are to be recognized as original, insightful, and valuable, we will argue that in its execution of the empirical turn, postphenomenology forfeits

19. Crystallographic study of one turn of G/C-rich B-DNA.

Science.gov (United States)

Heinemann, U; Alings, C

1989-11-20

The DNA decamer d(CCAGGCCTGG) has been studied by X-ray crystallography. At a nominal resolution of 1.6 A, the structure was refined to R = 16.9% using stereochemical restraints. The oligodeoxyribonucleotide forms a straight B-DNA double helix with crystallographic dyad symmetry and ten base-pairs per turn. In the crystal lattice, DNA fragments stack end-to-end along the c-axis to form continuous double helices. The overall helical structure and, notably, the groove dimensions of the decamer are more similar to standard, fiber diffraction-determined B-DNA than A-tract DNA. A unique stacking geometry is observed at the CA/TG base-pair step, where an increased rotation about the helix axis and a sliding motion of the base-pairs along their long axes leads to a superposition of the base rings with neighboring carbonyl and amino functions. Three-center (bifurcated) hydrogen bonds are possible at the CC/GG base-pair steps of the decamer. In their common sequence elements, d(CCAGGCCTGG) and the related G.A mismatch decamer d(CCAAGATTGG) show very similar three-dimensional structures, except that d(CCAGGCCTGG) appears to have a less regularly hydrated minor groove. The paucity of minor groove hydration in the center of the decamer may be a general feature of G/C-rich DNA and explain its relative instability in the B-form of DNA.

20. Preparation of Fe(3)O(4)@C@CNC multifunctional magnetic core/shell nanoparticles and their application in a signal-type flow-injection photoluminescence immunosensor.

Science.gov (United States)

Chu, Chengchao; Li, Meng; Li, Long; Ge, Shenguang; Ge, Lei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

2013-11-01

We describe here the preparation of carbon-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles that were further fabricated into multifunctional core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4@C@CNCs) through a layer-by-layer self-assembly process of carbon nanocrystals (CNCs). The nanoparticles were applied in a photoluminescence (PL) immunosensor to detect the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CEA primary antibody was immobilized onto the surface of the nanoparticles. In addition, CEA secondary antibody and glucose oxidase were covalently bonded to silica nanoparticles. After stepwise immunoreactions, the immunoreagent was injected into the PL cell using a flow-injection PL system. When glucose was injected, hydrogen peroxide was obtained because of glucose oxidase catalysis and quenched the PL of the Fe3O4@C@CNC nanoparticles. The here proposed PL immunosensor allowed us to determine CEA concentrations in the 0.005–50 ng·mL-1 concentration range, with a detection limit of 1.8 pg·mL-1.

1. Turning points in the history of mathematics

CERN Document Server

Grant, Hardy

2015-01-01

This book explores some of the major turning points in the history of mathematics, ranging from ancient Greece to the present, demonstrating the drama that has often been a part of its evolution. Studying these breakthroughs, transitions, and revolutions, their stumbling-blocks and their triumphs, can help illuminate the importance of the history of mathematics for its teaching, learning, and appreciation. Some of the turning points considered are the rise of the axiomatic method (most famously in Euclid), and the subsequent major changes in it (for example, by David Hilbert); the “wedding,” via analytic geometry, of algebra and geometry; the “taming” of the infinitely small and the infinitely large; the passages from algebra to algebras, from geometry to geometries, and from arithmetic to arithmetics; and the revolutions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that resulted from Georg Cantor’s creation of transfinite set theory. The origin of each turning point is discussed, along with...

2. Postotic and preotic cranial neural crest cells differently contribute to thyroid development.

Science.gov (United States)

Maeda, Kazuhiro; Asai, Rieko; Maruyama, Kazuaki; Kurihara, Yukiko; Nakanishi, Toshio; Kurihara, Hiroki; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko

2016-01-01

Thyroid development and formation vary among species, but in most species the thyroid morphogenesis consists of five stages: specification, budding, descent, bilobation and folliculogenesis. The detailed mechanisms of these stages have not been fully clarified. During early development, the cranial neural crest (CNC) contributes to the thyroid gland. The removal of the postotic CNC (corresponding to rhombomeres 6, 7 and 8, also known as the cardiac neural crest) results in abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, thymus, parathyroid glands, and thyroid gland. To investigate the influence of the CNC on thyroid bilobation process, we divided the CNC into two regions, the postotic CNC and the preotic CNC (from the mesencephalon to rhombomere 5) regions and examined. We found that preotic CNC-ablated embryos had a unilateral thyroid lobe, and confirmed the presence of a single lobe or the absence of lobes in postotic CNC-ablated chick embryos. The thyroid anlage in each region-ablated embryos was of a normal size at the descent stage, but at a later stage, the thyroid in preotic CNC-ablated embryos was of a normal size, conflicting with a previous report in which the thyroid was reduced in size in the postotic CNC-ablated embryos. The postotic CNC cells differentiated into connective tissues of the thyroid in quail-to-chick chimeras. In contrast, the preotic CNC cells did not differentiate into connective tissues of the thyroid. We found that preotic CNC cells encompassed the thyroid anlage from the specification stage to the descent stage. Finally, we found that endothelin-1 and endothelin type A receptor-knockout mice and bosentan (endothelin receptor antagonist)-treated chick embryos showed bilobation anomalies that included single-lobe formation. Therefore, not only the postotic CNC, but also the preotic CNC plays an important role in thyroid morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3. Kennedy Space Center's NASA/Contractor Team-Centered Total Quality Management Seminar: Results, methods, and lessons learned

Science.gov (United States)

Kinlaw, Dennis C.; Eads, Jeannette

1992-01-01

It is apparent to everyone associated with the Nation's aeronautics and space programs that the challenge of continuous improvement can be reasonably addressed only if NASA and its contractors act together in a fully integrated and cooperative manner that transcends the traditional boundaries of proprietary interest. It is, however, one thing to assent to the need for such integration and cooperation; it is quite another thing to undertake the hard tasks of turning such a need into action. Whatever else total quality management is, it is fundamentally a team-centered and team-driven process of continuous improvement. The introduction of total quality management at KSC, therefore, has given the Center a special opportunity to translate the need for closer integration and cooperation among all its organizations into specific initiatives. One such initiative that NASA and its contractors have undertaken at KSC is a NASA/Contractor team-centered Total Quality Management Seminar. It is this seminar which is the subject of this paper. The specific purposes of this paper are to describe the following: Background, development, and evolution of Kennedy Space Center's Total Quality Management Seminar; Special characteristics of the seminar; Content of the seminar; Meaning and utility of a team-centered design for TQM training; Results of the seminar; Use that one KSC contractor, EG&G Florida, Inc. has made of the seminar in its Total Quality Management initiative; and Lessons learned.

4. Influence of cellulose nanocrystals concentration and ionic strength on the elaboration of cellulose nanocrystals-xyloglucan multilayered thin films.

Science.gov (United States)

Dammak, Abir; Moreau, Céline; Azzam, Firas; Jean, Bruno; Cousin, Fabrice; Cathala, Bernard

2015-12-15

The effect of the variation of CNC concentration on the growth pattern of CNC-XG films is investigated. We found that a transition in the growth slope occurs at a CNC concentration of roughly 3-4gL(-1). A close effect can be obtained by the increase of the ionic strength of the CNC suspensions, suggesting that electrostatic interactions are involved. Static light scattering investigation of CNC dispersions at increasing concentrations demonstrated that the particle-particle interactions change as the CNC concentration increases. Neutron Reflectivity (NR) was used to probe the internal structure of the films. The increase of the CNC concentration as well as the increase of the ionic strength in the CNC suspension were found to induce a densification of the adsorbed CNC layers, even though the mechanisms are not strictly identical in both cases. Small changes in these parameters provide a straightforward way of controlling the architecture of CNC-based multilayered thin films and, as a result, their functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

5. Preparation and physical properties of tara gum film reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals.

Science.gov (United States)

Ma, Qianyun; Hu, Dongying; Wang, Lijuan

2016-05-01

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) prepared from microcrystalline cellulose were blended in tara gum solution to prepare nanocomposite films. The morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the CNC and films were evaluated by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The resultant CNC was rod-shaped with diameters of around 8.6 nm. The effect of CNC content on physical and thermal properties of films was studied. The composite film tensile strength increased from 27.86 to 65.73 MPa, elastic modulus increased from 160.98 MPa to 882.49 MPa and the contact angle increased from 55.8° to 98.7° with increasing CNC content from 0 to 6 wt%. However, CNC addition increased the thermal stability slightly and CNC content above 6 wt% decreased the tensile strength by CNC aggregation in the matrix. The nanocomposite film containing 6 wt% CNC possessed the highest light transmittance, mechanical properties, and lowest oxygen permeability. CNC addition is a suitable method to modify tara gum matrix polymer properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

6. Transparent lattice characterization with gated turn-by-turn data of diagnostic bunch train

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Yongjun; Cheng, Weixing; Ha, Kiman; Rainer, Robert

2017-11-01

Methods of characterization of a storage ring's lattice have traditionally been intrusive to routine operations. More importantly, the lattice seen by particles can drift with the beam current due to collective effects. To circumvent this, we have developed a novel approach for dynamically characterizing a storage ring's lattice that is transparent to operations. Our approach adopts a dedicated filling pattern which has a short, separate diagnostic bunch train (DBT). Through the use of a bunch-by-bunch feedback system, the DBT can be selectively excited on demand. Gated functionality of a beam position monitor system is capable of collecting turn-by-turn data of the DBT, from which the lattice can then be characterized after excitation. As the DBT comprises only about one percent of the total operational bunches, the effects of its excitation are negligible to users. This approach allows us to localize the distributed quadrupolar wakefields generated in the storage ring vacuum chamber during beam accumulation. While effectively transparent to operations, our approach enables us to dynamically control the beta beat and phase beat, and unobtrusively optimize performance of the National Synchrotron Light Source-II accelerator during routine operations.

7. Epigenetic silencing of BTB and CNC homology 2 and concerted promoter CpG methylation in gastric cancer.

Science.gov (United States)

Haam, Keeok; Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Mirang; Kim, Seon-Young; Noh, Seung-Moo; Song, Kyu-Sang; Kim, Yong Sung

2014-09-01

BTB and CNC homology 2 (BACH2) is a lymphoid-specific transcription factor with a prominent role in B-cell development. Genetic polymorphisms within a single locus encoding BACH2 are associated with various autoimmune diseases and allergies. In this study, restriction landmark genomic scanning revealed methylation at a NotI site in a CpG island covering the BACH2 promoter in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric tumors. Increased methylation of the BACH2 promoter was observed in 52% (43/83) of primary gastric tumors, and BACH2 hypermethylation was significantly associated with decreased gene expression. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin. A restored BACH2 expression in BACH2-silenced gastric cancer cell lines, and knockdown of BACH2 using short hairpin RNA (i.e. RNA interference) increased cell proliferation in gastric cancer cells. Clinicopathologic data showed that decreased BACH2 expression occurred significantly more frequently in intestinal-type (27/44, 61%) compared with diffuse-type (13/50, 26%) gastric cancers (P<0.001). Furthermore, BACH2 promoter methylation paralleled that of previously identified targets, such as LRRC3B, LIMS2, PRKD1 and POPDC3, in a given set of gastric tumors. We propose that concerted methylation in many promoters plays a role in accelerating gastric tumor formation and that methylated promoter loci may be targets for therapeutic treatment, such as the recently introduced technique of epigenetic editing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

8. Cellulose nanocrystals as templates for cetyltrimethylammonium bromide mediated synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and their novel use in PLA films.

Science.gov (United States)

Yalcinkaya, E E; Puglia, D; Fortunati, E; Bertoglio, F; Bruni, G; Visai, L; Kenny, J M

2017-02-10

In the present paper, we reported how cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from microcrystalline cellulose have the capacity to assist in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles chains. A cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used as modifier for CNC surface. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on CNC, and nanoparticle density and size were optimized by varying concentrations of nitrate and reducing agents, and the reduction time. The experimental conditions were optimized for the synthesis and the resulting Ag grafted CNC (Ag-g-CNC) were characterized by means of TGA, SEM, FTIR and XRD, and then introduced in PLA matrix. PLA nanocomposite containing silver grafted cellulose nanocrystals (PLA/0.5Ag-g-1CNC) was characterized by optical and thermal analyses and the obtained data were compared with results from PLA nanocomposites containing 1% wt. of CNC (PLA/1CNC), 0.5% wt. of silver nanoparticles (PLA/0.5Ag) and hybrid system containing CNC and silver in the same amount (PLA/1CNC/0.5Ag). The results demonstrated that grafting of silver nanoparticles on CNC positively affected the thermal degradation process and cold crystallization processes of PLA matrix. Finally, the antibacterial activity of the different systems was studied at various incubation times and temperatures, showing the best performance for PLA/1CNC/0.5Ag based nanocomposite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

9. Density of Plutonium Turnings Generated from Machining Activities

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gonzales, John Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Duane M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jachimowski, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Arellano, Gerald Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Melton, Vince Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

2016-10-20

The purpose of this project was to determine the density of plutonium (Pu) turnings generated from the range of machining activities, using both surrogate material and machined Pu turnings. Verify that 500 grams (g) of plutonium will fit in a one quart container using a surrogate equivalent volume and that 100 grams of Pu will fit in a one quart Savy container.

10. Prediction and analysis of beta-turns in proteins by support vector machine.

Science.gov (United States)

Pham, Tho Hoan; Satou, Kenji; Ho, Tu Bao

2003-01-01

Tight turn has long been recognized as one of the three important features of proteins after the alpha-helix and beta-sheet. Tight turns play an important role in globular proteins from both the structural and functional points of view. More than 90% tight turns are beta-turns. Analysis and prediction of beta-turns in particular and tight turns in general are very useful for the design of new molecules such as drugs, pesticides, and antigens. In this paper, we introduce a support vector machine (SVM) approach to prediction and analysis of beta-turns. We have investigated two aspects of applying SVM to the prediction and analysis of beta-turns. First, we developed a new SVM method, called BTSVM, which predicts beta-turns of a protein from its sequence. The prediction results on the dataset of 426 non-homologous protein chains by sevenfold cross-validation technique showed that our method is superior to the other previous methods. Second, we analyzed how amino acid positions support (or prevent) the formation of beta-turns based on the "multivariable" classification model of a linear SVM. This model is more general than the other ones of previous statistical methods. Our analysis results are more comprehensive and easier to use than previously published analysis results.

11. Effects of dual task on turning ability in stroke survivors and older adults.

Science.gov (United States)

Hollands, K L; Agnihotri, D; Tyson, S F

2014-09-01

12. The informational turn in food politics: The US FDA's nutrition label as information infrastructure.

Science.gov (United States)

Frohlich, Xaq

2017-04-01

This article traces the history of the US FDA regulation of nutrition labeling, identifying an 'informational turn' in the evolving politics of food, diet and health in America. Before nutrition labeling was introduced, regulators actively sought to segregate food markets from drug markets by largely prohibiting health information on food labels, believing such information would 'confuse' the ordinary food consumer. Nutrition labeling's emergence, first in the 1970s as consumer empowerment and then later in the 1990s as a solution to information overload, reflected the belief that it was better to manage markets indirectly through consumer information than directly through command-and-control regulatory architecture. By studying product labels as 'information infrastructure', rather than a 'knowledge fix', the article shows how labels are situated at the center of a legally constructed terrain of inter-textual references, both educational and promotional, that reflects a mix of market pragmatism and evolving legal thought about mass versus niche markets. A change to the label reaches out across a wide informational environment representing food and has direct material consequences for how food is produced, distributed, and consumed. One legacy of this informational turn has been an increasing focus by policymakers, industry, and arguably consumers on the politics of information in place of the politics of the food itself.

13. Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks

OpenAIRE

Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina

2014-01-01

We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation o...

14. OpenTURNS, an open source uncertainty engineering software

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Popelin, A.L.; Dufoy, A.

2013-01-01

The needs to assess robust performances for complex systems have lead to the emergence of a new industrial simulation challenge: to take into account uncertainties when dealing with complex numerical simulation frameworks. EDF has taken part in the development of an Open Source software platform dedicated to uncertainty propagation by probabilistic methods, named OpenTURNS for Open source Treatment of Uncertainty, Risk and Statistics. OpenTURNS includes a large variety of qualified algorithms in order to manage uncertainties in industrial studies, from the uncertainty quantification step (with possibilities to model stochastic dependence thanks to the copula theory and stochastic processes), to the uncertainty propagation step (with some innovative simulation algorithms as the ziggurat method for normal variables) and the sensitivity analysis one (with some sensitivity index based on the evaluation of means conditioned to the realization of a particular event). It also enables to build some response surfaces that can include the stochastic modeling (with the chaos polynomial method for example). Generic wrappers to link OpenTURNS to the modeling software are proposed. At last, OpenTURNS is largely documented to provide rules to help use and contribution

15. Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling of the Influences of Family-Centered Care on Parent and Child Psychological Health

OpenAIRE

Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.

2009-01-01

Background. Family-centered care is now practiced throughout the world by physicians, nurses, and allied health care professionals. The call for adoption of family-centered care is based on the contention that the physical and psychological health of a child is influenced by parents' psychological health where family-centered care enhances parent well-being which in turn influences child well-being. We empirically assessed whether these relationships are supported by available evidence. M...

16. A prospective observational study of ICU patient position and frequency of turning.

Science.gov (United States)

Goldhill, D R; Badacsonyi, A; Goldhill, A A; Waldmann, C

2008-05-01

Positioning and turning critically ill patients may be beneficial but there are little data on current practice. We prospectively recorded patient position every hour over two separate days in 40 British intensive care units and analysed 393 sets of observation. Five patients were prone at any time and 3.8% (day 1) and 5% (day 2) were on rotating beds. Patients were on their back for 46.1% of observations, turned left for 28.4% and right for 25.5%, and head up for 97.4%. A turn was defined as a change between on back, turned left or turned right. The average time (SD) between turns was 4.85 (3.3) h. There was no significant association between the average time between turns and age, weight, height, gender, respiratory diagnosis, intubated and ventilated, sedation score, day of week or nurse:patient ratio. There was a significant difference between hospitals in the frequency with which patients were turned.

17. Using support vector machine to predict beta- and gamma-turns in proteins.

Science.gov (United States)

Hu, Xiuzhen; Li, Qianzhong

2008-09-01

By using the composite vector with increment of diversity, position conservation scoring function, and predictive secondary structures to express the information of sequence, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm for predicting beta- and gamma-turns in the proteins is proposed. The 426 and 320 nonhomologous protein chains described by Guruprasad and Rajkumar (Guruprasad and Rajkumar J. Biosci 2000, 25,143) are used for training and testing the predictive model of the beta- and gamma-turns, respectively. The overall prediction accuracy and the Matthews correlation coefficient in 7-fold cross-validation are 79.8% and 0.47, respectively, for the beta-turns. The overall prediction accuracy in 5-fold cross-validation is 61.0% for the gamma-turns. These results are significantly higher than the other algorithms in the prediction of beta- and gamma-turns using the same datasets. In addition, the 547 and 823 nonhomologous protein chains described by Fuchs and Alix (Fuchs and Alix Proteins: Struct Funct Bioinform 2005, 59, 828) are used for training and testing the predictive model of the beta- and gamma-turns, and better results are obtained. This algorithm may be helpful to improve the performance of protein turns' prediction. To ensure the ability of the SVM method to correctly classify beta-turn and non-beta-turn (gamma-turn and non-gamma-turn), the receiver operating characteristic threshold independent measure curves are provided. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

18. pi-Turns: types, systematics and the context of their occurrence in protein structures.

Science.gov (United States)

Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Chakrabarti, Pinak

2008-09-22

For a proper understanding of protein structure and folding it is important to know if a polypeptide segment adopts a conformation inherent in the sequence or it depends on the context of its flanking secondary structures. Turns of various lengths have been studied and characterized starting from three-residue gamma-turn to six-residue pi-turn. The Schellman motif occurring at the C-terminal end of alpha-helices is a classical example of hydrogen bonded pi-turn involving residues at (i) and (i+5) positions. Hydrogen bonded and non-hydrogen bonded beta- and alpha-turns have been identified previously; likewise, a systematic characterization of pi-turns would provide valuable insight into turn structures. An analysis of protein structures indicates that at least 20% of pi-turns occur independent of the Schellman motif. The two categories of pi-turns, designated as pi-HB and SCH, have been further classified on the basis of backbone conformation and both have AAAa as the major class. They differ in the residue usage at position (i+1), the former having a large preference for Pro that is absent in the latter. As in the case of shorter length beta- and alpha-turns, pi-turns have also been identified not only on the basis of the existence of hydrogen bond, but also using the distance between terminal C alpha-atoms, and this resulted in a comparable number of non-hydrogen-bonded pi-turns (pi-NHB). The presence of shorter beta- and alpha-turns within all categories of pi-turns, the subtle variations in backbone torsion angles along the turn residues, the location of the turns in the context of tertiary structures have been studied. pi-turns have been characterized, first using hydrogen bond and the distance between C alpha atoms of the terminal residues, and then using backbone torsion angles. While the Schellman motif has a structural role in helix termination, many of the pi-HB turns, being located on surface cavities, have functional role and there is also sequence

19. Topological side-chain classification of beta-turns: ideal motifs for peptidomimetic development.

Science.gov (United States)

Tran, Tran Trung; McKie, Jim; Meutermans, Wim D F; Bourne, Gregory T; Andrews, Peter R; Smythe, Mark L

2005-08-01

Beta-turns are important topological motifs for biological recognition of proteins and peptides. Organic molecules that sample the side chain positions of beta-turns have shown broad binding capacity to multiple different receptors, for example benzodiazepines. Beta-turns have traditionally been classified into various types based on the backbone dihedral angles (phi2, psi2, phi3 and psi3). Indeed, 57-68% of beta-turns are currently classified into 8 different backbone families (Type I, Type II, Type I', Type II', Type VIII, Type VIa1, Type VIa2 and Type VIb and Type IV which represents unclassified beta-turns). Although this classification of beta-turns has been useful, the resulting beta-turn types are not ideal for the design of beta-turn mimetics as they do not reflect topological features of the recognition elements, the side chains. To overcome this, we have extracted beta-turns from a data set of non-homologous and high-resolution protein crystal structures. The side chain positions, as defined by C(alpha)-C(beta) vectors, of these turns have been clustered using the kth nearest neighbor clustering and filtered nearest centroid sorting algorithms. Nine clusters were obtained that cluster 90% of the data, and the average intra-cluster RMSD of the four C(alpha)-C(beta) vectors is 0.36. The nine clusters therefore represent the topology of the side chain scaffold architecture of the vast majority of beta-turns. The mean structures of the nine clusters are useful for the development of beta-turn mimetics and as biological descriptors for focusing combinatorial chemistry towards biologically relevant topological space.

20. Air Risk Information Support Center

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31

The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

1. Head turning as a prominent motor symptom in status epilepticus.

Science.gov (United States)

Bauer, Gerhard; Broessner, Gregor; Unterberger, Iris; Walser, Gerald; Pfausler, Bettina; Trinka, Eugen

2008-06-01

Head and eye turning is frequently observed during seizures. Versions with tonic and/or clonic symptoms can be differentiated from smooth head deviations. Head turning as a prominent symptom of status epilepticus has not previously been reported. We present eight case reports, (7 women/1 man, mean age 41 years, median 41.5, range 10 to 74), of status epilepticus (SE), with head turning as a prominent motor symptom. Six were accompanied by continuous frontal, occipital and temporal ictal epileptiform discharges. Furthermore, two patients had absence status with rhythmic and clonic head versions. While the localizing significance of head turnings in SE is low, in our cases, the direction was away from the discharging hemisphere in all cases of focal SE regardless of whether the turning was classified as version (three cases) or deviation (three cases). In this small series of SE, the classical observation of a patient looking away from the discharging hemisphere is still valid.

2. Turn Management or Impression Management?

NARCIS (Netherlands)

ter Maat, Mark; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Kipp, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Vilhjálmsson, H.H.

2009-01-01

We look at how some basic choices in the management of turns influence the impression that people get from an agent. We look at scales concerning personality, emotion and interpersonal stance. We do this by a person perception study, or rather an agent perception study, using simulated conversations

3. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

Science.gov (United States)

Chamot, Dennis

1976-01-01

White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

4. A Cognitive Analysis of Truck Drivers’ Right-hand Turns

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sieker, Tobias Grønborg; G. Skulason, Thorgeir; Sletting, Kristian

2015-01-01

This paper presents an investigation of truck drivers’ performance during right-hand turns performed in intersections with traffic lights in order to elicit the truck drivers’ domain, decision-making processes, and the strategies used while executing the turn. To gain knowledge about this, a truc...

5. Assessing lexical, syntactic, and conceptual turn-by-turn alignment in conversations involving conflict and deception

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Duran, Nicholas; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Paxton, Alexandra

2015-01-01

-based NLP tools, the procedure begins by taking conversational partners' turns and converting each into a lemmatized sequence of words, assigning part-of-speech tags and computing high-dimensional semantic vectors per each utterance. Words and part-of-speech tags are further sequenced into n-g! rams...

6. Turn me on! Using the “Internet of Things” to turn things on and off

CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

Butgereit, L

2011-10-01

Full Text Available to the Internet. There are many examples of things posting their status on Twitter and allowing uni-directional access. TurnMeOn is an example of allowing bidirectional access between people and things using Internet protocols. Users can query the status of a...

7. Semiautomatic machine for turning inside out industrial leather gloves

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aragón-Gonzalez, G; Cano-Blanco, M; León-Galicia, A; Medrano-Sierra, L F; Morales-Gómez, J R

2015-01-01

The last step in the industrial leather gloves manufacturing is to turn the inside out so that the sewing be in the inside of the glove. This work presents the design and testing of a machine for that purpose. In order to quantify the relevant variables, testing was performed with a prototype glove. The employed devices and the testing proceeding were developed experimentally. The obtained information was used to build the turning inside out machine. This machine works with pneumatic power to carry the inside out turning by means of double effect lineal actuators. It has two independent work stations that could be operated simultaneously by two persons, one in each station or in single mode operating one station by one person. The turning inside out cycle is started by means of directional control valves operated with pedals. The velocity and developed force by the actuators is controlled with typical pneumatic resources. The geometrical dimensions of the machine are: 1.15 m length; 0.71 m width and 2.15 m high. Its approximated weight is 120 kg. The air consumption is 5.4 fps by each working station with 60 psig work pressure. The turning inside out operation is 40 s for each industrial leather glove

8. Predicting the surface roughness in the dry machining of duplex stainless steel (DSS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

G. Krolczyk

2013-04-01

Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of cutting parameters, namely cutting speed, feed and depth of cut onto surface roughness after DSS turning process. The study included developing a mathematical model to determine the surface roughness. Verification research has been carried out on CNC lathe; hence the test plan has been adjusted to the possibility of programmable machines controlling GE Fanuc Series 0-T. The comparison of results obtained by given experimental plan was performed in industrial company.

9. Adsorption of polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto cellulose nano-crystals to improve its dispersity.

Science.gov (United States)

Cheng, Dong; Wen, Yangbing; Wang, Lijuan; An, Xingye; Zhu, Xuhai; Ni, Yonghao

2015-06-05

In this work, the adsorption of polyethylene glycol (PEG) onto cellulose nano-crystals (CNC) was investigated for preparing re-dispersible dried CNC. Results showed that the re-dispersity of CNC in water can be significantly enhanced using a PEG1000 dosage of 5wt% (based on the dry weight of CNC). The elemental analysis confirmed the adsorption of PEG onto the CNC surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the dry powder and indicated that the irreversible agglomeration of CNC after drying was essentially eliminated based on the PEG adsorption concept. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that CNC crystallinity and thermal stability were not affected by the adsorption of PEG. Thus, the adsorption of PEG has great potential for producing re-dispersible powder CNC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

10. Family matters: Directionality of turning bias while kissing is modulated by context.

Science.gov (United States)

Sedgewick, Jennifer R; Elias, Lorin J

2016-01-28

When leaning forward to kiss to a romantic partner, individuals tend to direct their kiss to the right more often than the left. Studies have consistently demonstrated this kissing asymmetry, although other factors known to influence lateral biases, such as sex or situational context, had yet to be explored. The primary purpose of our study was to investigate if turning direction was consistent between a romantic (parent-parent) and parental (parent-child) kissing context, and secondly, to examine if sex differences influenced turning bias between parent-child kissing partners. An archival analysis coded the direction of turning bias for 161 images of romantic kissing (mothers kissing fathers) and 529 images of parental kissing (mothers or fathers kissing sons or daughters). The results indicated that the direction of turning bias differed between kissing contexts. As expected, a right-turn bias was observed for romantic kissing; however, a left-turn bias was exhibited for parental kissing. There was no significant difference of turning bias between any parent-child kissing partners. Interpretations for the left-turn bias discuss parental kissing as a learned lateral behaviour.

11. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-03-01

The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

12. An expert machine tools selection system for turning operation

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Tan, C.F.; Khalil, S.N.; Karjanto, J.; Wahidin, L.S.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

2015-01-01

The turning machining process is an important process in the manufacturing industry. It is important to select the right tool for the turning process so that the manufacturing cost will be decreased. The main objective of this research is to select the most suitable machine tools with respect to

13. The Humboldt High Magnetic Field Center at Berlin

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hansel, S; Mueller, H-U; Anh, T T; Richter, B; Rossmann, H; Ortenberg, M von

2006-01-01

The Humboldt High Magnetic Field Center is operated by the Chair for Magnetotransport in Solids of the Department of Physics of the Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin. It provides DC-magnetic fields up to 20 T, pulsed nondestructive fields of up to 60 T and megagauss fields of up to 331 T using a single-turn coil generator for experimental application focusing on solid state physics. Magneto-optical investigations are carried out in the MIR, NIR and visible wavelength range as well as transport and magnetization experiments. The facility is open to the scientific community and welcomes users within the European project EuroMagNET. The laboratory will be closed in fall 2006 but its experimental facilities will be further accessible to the community in other labs. The single-turn coil generator will be transferred to LNCMP, Toulouse, France, continuing to provide applicable megagauss fields to the European Community

14. Support vector machines for prediction and analysis of beta and gamma-turns in proteins.

Science.gov (United States)

Pham, Tho Hoan; Satou, Kenji; Ho, Tu Bao

2005-04-01

Tight turns have long been recognized as one of the three important features of proteins, together with alpha-helix and beta-sheet. Tight turns play an important role in globular proteins from both the structural and functional points of view. More than 90% tight turns are beta-turns and most of the rest are gamma-turns. Analysis and prediction of beta-turns and gamma-turns is very useful for design of new molecules such as drugs, pesticides, and antigens. In this paper we investigated two aspects of applying support vector machine (SVM), a promising machine learning method for bioinformatics, to prediction and analysis of beta-turns and gamma-turns. First, we developed two SVM-based methods, called BTSVM and GTSVM, which predict beta-turns and gamma-turns in a protein from its sequence. When compared with other methods, BTSVM has a superior performance and GTSVM is competitive. Second, we used SVMs with a linear kernel to estimate the support of amino acids for the formation of beta-turns and gamma-turns depending on their position in a protein. Our analysis results are more comprehensive and easier to use than the previous results in designing turns in proteins.

15. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

Science.gov (United States)

... out, but people with naturally lighter hair are just as likely to go gray. From the time a person notices a few gray hairs, it may take more than 10 years for all of that person's hair to turn ... really believe that this happens. Just in case, try not to freak out your ...

16. ADAM13 function is required in the 3 dimensional context of the embryo during cranial neural crest cell migration in Xenopus laevis

Science.gov (United States)

Cousin, Hélène; Abbruzzese, Genevieve; McCusker, Catherine; Alfandari, Dominique

2012-01-01

The cranial neural crest (CNC) is a population of cells that arises from the lateral part of the developing brain, migrates ventrally and coordinates the entire craniofacial development of vertebrates. Many molecules are involved in CNC migration including the transmembrane metalloproteases ADAM13 and 19. We have previously shown that these ADAMs cleave a number of extracellular proteins and modify the transcription of a number of genes, and that both of these activities are important for cell migration. Here we show that the knock down of ADAM13 inhibits CNC migration in vivo but not in vitro, indicating that ADAM13 function is required in the 3-dimentional context of the embryo. We further show that the migration of CNC that do not express ADAM13 and ADAM19 can be rescued in vivo by co-grafting wild type CNC. Furthermore, the migration of CNC lacking ADAM13 can be rescued by mechanically separating the CNC from the surrounding ectoderm and mesoderm. Finally, we show that ADAM13 function is autonomous to CNC tissue, as the migration of morphant CNC can only be rescued by ADAM13 expression in the CNC and not the surrounding tissues. Together our results suggest that ADAM13 changes CNC interaction with the extracellular environment and that this change is necessary for their migration in vivo. PMID:22683825

17. Crack turning in integrally stiffened aircraft structures

Science.gov (United States)

Pettit, Richard Glen

Current emphasis in the aircraft industry toward reducing manufacturing cost has created a renewed interest in integrally stiffened structures. Crack turning has been identified as an approach to improve the damage tolerance and fail-safety of this class of structures. A desired behavior is for skin cracks to turn before reaching a stiffener, instead of growing straight through. A crack in a pressurized fuselage encounters high T-stress as it nears the stiffener---a condition favorable to crack turning. Also, the tear resistance of aluminum alloys typically varies with crack orientation, a form of anisotropy that can influence the crack path. The present work addresses these issues with a study of crack turning in two-dimensions, including the effects of both T-stress and fracture anisotropy. Both effects are shown to have relation to the process zone size, an interaction that is central to this study. Following an introduction to the problem, the T-stress effect is studied for a slightly curved semi-infinite crack with a cohesive process zone, yielding a closed form expression for the future crack path in an infinite medium. For a given initial crack tip curvature and tensile T-stress, the crack path instability is found to increase with process zone size. Fracture orthotropy is treated using a simple function to interpolate between the two principal fracture resistance values in two-dimensions. An extension to three-dimensions interpolates between the six principal values of fracture resistance. Also discussed is the transition between mode I and mode II fracture in metals. For isotropic materials, there is evidence that the crack seeks out a direction of either local symmetry (pure mode I) or local asymmetry (pure mode II) growth. For orthotropic materials the favored states are not pure modal, and have mode mixity that is a function of crack orientation. Drawing upon these principles, two crack turning prediction approaches are extended to include fracture

18. Prediction of beta-turns and beta-turn types by a novel bidirectional Elman-type recurrent neural network with multiple output layers (MOLEBRNN).

Science.gov (United States)

Kirschner, Andreas; Frishman, Dmitrij

2008-10-01

Prediction of beta-turns from amino acid sequences has long been recognized as an important problem in structural bioinformatics due to their frequent occurrence as well as their structural and functional significance. Because various structural features of proteins are intercorrelated, secondary structure information has been often employed as an additional input for machine learning algorithms while predicting beta-turns. Here we present a novel bidirectional Elman-type recurrent neural network with multiple output layers (MOLEBRNN) capable of predicting multiple mutually dependent structural motifs and demonstrate its efficiency in recognizing three aspects of protein structure: beta-turns, beta-turn types, and secondary structure. The advantage of our method compared to other predictors is that it does not require any external input except for sequence profiles because interdependencies between different structural features are taken into account implicitly during the learning process. In a sevenfold cross-validation experiment on a standard test dataset our method exhibits the total prediction accuracy of 77.9% and the Mathew's Correlation Coefficient of 0.45, the highest performance reported so far. It also outperforms other known methods in delineating individual turn types. We demonstrate how simultaneous prediction of multiple targets influences prediction performance on single targets. The MOLEBRNN presented here is a generic method applicable in a variety of research fields where multiple mutually depending target classes need to be predicted. http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/predator-web/.

19. Cellulose nanocrystal-filled poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite fibrous membranes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lu Ping; Hsieh, You-Lo

2009-01-01

Nanocomposite fibrous membranes have been fabricated by electrospinning cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-loaded poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) ethanol mixtures. Incorporating CNC in PAA significantly reduced fiber diameters and improved fiber uniformity. The average diameters of the as-spun nanocomposite fibers were significantly reduced from 349 nm to 162 nm, 141 nm, 90 nm and 69 nm at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% CNC loading (by weight of a constant 4% PAA solution), respectively. CNC was well dispersed in the fibers as isolated rods oriented along the fiber axis and as spheres in the PAA matrix. The Young modulus and stress of the PAA/CNC nanocomposite fibers were significantly improved with increasing CNC loadings by up to 35-fold and 16-fold, respectively. Heat-induced esterification between the CNC surface hydroxyls and PAA carboxyl groups produced covalent crosslinks at the CNC-PAA interfaces, rendering the nanocomposite fibrous membranes insoluble in water, more thermally stable and far more superior in tensile strength. With 20% CNC, the crosslinked nanocomposite fibrous membrane exhibited a very impressive 77-fold increase in modulus and 58-fold increase in stress.

20. Fabrication of cellulose nanocrystal from Carex meyeriana Kunth and its application in the adsorption of methylene blue.

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Xue; Liu, Hui; Han, Fuyi; Jiang, Shuai; Liu, Lifang; Xia, Zhaopeng

2017-11-01

1. Preventing droplet deformation during dielectrophoretic centering of a compound emulsion droplet

Science.gov (United States)

Randall, Greg; Blue, Brent

2012-11-01

Compound droplets, or droplets-within-droplets, are traditionally key components in applications ranging from drug delivery to the food industry. Presently, millimeter-sized compound droplets are precursors for shell targets in inertial fusion energy work. However, a key constraint in target fabrication is a uniform shell wall thickness, which in turn requires a centered core droplet in the compound droplet precursor. Previously, Bei et al. (2009, 2010) have shown that compound droplets could be centered in a static fluid using an electric field of 0.7 kV/cm at 20 MHz. Randall et al. (2012) developed a process to center the core of a moving compound droplet, though the ~kV/cm field induced small (fluid mechanics and interfacial rheology perspective and we discuss the effective interfacial charge from an emulsifier and its impact on centering. Work funded by General Atomics Internal R&D.

2. Facility Design Program Requirements for National Science Center

Science.gov (United States)

1991-09-01

a turn of the century structure and secondhand furniture to display exhibit items, to the Ontario Science Center in Canada which is a 10-year-old...mothers should be considered. 1.3 Visitors Coat Storage Areas 550 sq ft Pigeon hole or other storage cabinets for children’s school books , coats, and...1.4.4 Work Area (200 sq ft) 1.4.5 Office for Assistant Museum Shop Manager (75 sq ft) Function: Area for sale of books , posters, cards, slides, games

3. Expanding the peptide beta-turn in alphagamma hybrid sequences: 12 atom hydrogen bonded helical and hairpin turns.

Science.gov (United States)

Chatterjee, Sunanda; Vasudev, Prema G; Raghothama, Srinivasarao; Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekharan; Shamala, Narayanaswamy; Balaram, Padmanabhan

2009-04-29

Hybrid peptide segments containing contiguous alpha and gamma amino acid residues can form C(12) hydrogen bonded turns which may be considered as backbone expanded analogues of C(10) (beta-turns) found in alphaalpha segments. Exploration of the regular hydrogen bonded conformations accessible for hybrid alphagamma sequences is facilitated by the use of a stereochemically constrained gamma amino acid residue gabapentin (1-aminomethylcyclohexaneacetic acid, Gpn), in which the two torsion angles about C(gamma)-C(beta) (theta(1)) and C(beta)-C(alpha) (theta(2)) are predominantly restricted to gauche conformations. The crystal structures of the octapeptides Boc-Gpn-Aib-Gpn-Aib-Gpn-Aib-Gpn-Aib-OMe (1) and Boc-Leu-Phe-Val-Aib-Gpn-Leu-Phe-Val-OMe (2) reveal two distinct conformations for the Aib-Gpn segment. Peptide 1 forms a continuous helix over the Aib(2)-Aib(6) segment, while the peptide 2 forms a beta-hairpin structure stabilized by four cross-strand hydrogen bonds with the Aib-Gpn segment forming a nonhelical C(12) turn. The robustness of the helix in peptide 1 in solution is demonstrated by NMR methods. Peptide 2 is conformationally fragile in solution with evidence of beta-hairpin conformations being obtained in methanol. Theoretical calculations permit delineation of the various C(12) hydrogen bonded structures which are energetically feasible in alphagamma and gammaalpha sequences.

4. DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Review on EHF Devices Held in San Diego, California on 24-25 January 1989

Science.gov (United States)

1989-04-01

representing the official policies , either expressed or implied, of the Naval Ocean Systems Center or the U.S. Government. * I I NAVAL OCEAN SYSTEMS CENTER San...0 00 NNNc~ ___CI rI CncD I S zo I II C CC II I II....118 Iz oj z I. w z I w 0 z E 04 ww In jl ~ 11 u -i00 z~zo> Lu 0 F-J LL >- cr 0 - 0- M F-J CL z

5. BetaTPred: prediction of beta-TURNS in a protein using statistical algorithms.

Science.gov (United States)

Kaur, Harpreet; Raghava, G P S

2002-03-01

beta-turns play an important role from a structural and functional point of view. beta-turns are the most common type of non-repetitive structures in proteins and comprise on average, 25% of the residues. In the past numerous methods have been developed to predict beta-turns in a protein. Most of these prediction methods are based on statistical approaches. In order to utilize the full potential of these methods, there is a need to develop a web server. This paper describes a web server called BetaTPred, developed for predicting beta-TURNS in a protein from its amino acid sequence. BetaTPred allows the user to predict turns in a protein using existing statistical algorithms. It also allows to predict different types of beta-TURNS e.g. type I, I', II, II', VI, VIII and non-specific. This server assists the users in predicting the consensus beta-TURNS in a protein. The server is accessible from http://imtech.res.in/raghava/betatpred/

6. Effect of stern hull shape on turning circle of ships

Science.gov (United States)

Jaswar, Maimun, A.; Wahid, M. A.; Priyanto, A.; Zamani, Pauzi, Saman

2012-06-01

Many factors such as: stern hull shape, length, draught, trim, propulsion system and external forces affecting the drift angle influence rate of turn and size of turning circle of ships. This paper discusses turning circle characteristics of U and V stern hull shape of Very Large Crude Oil Carrier (VLCC) ships. The ships have same principal dimension such as length, beam, and draught. The turning circle characteristics of the VLCC ships are simulated at 35 degree of rudder angle. In the analysis, firstly, turning circle performance of U-type VLCC ship is simulated. In the simulation, initial ship speed is determined using given power and rpm. Hydrodynamic derivatives coefficients are determined by including effect of fullness of aft run. Using the obtained, speed and hydrodynamic coefficients, force and moment acting on hull, force and moment induced by propeller, force and moment induced by rudder are determined. Finally, ship trajectory, ratio of speed, yaw angle and drift angle are determined. Results of simulation results of the VLCC ship are compared with the experimental one as validation. Using the same method, V-type VLCC is simulated and the simulation results are compared with U-type VLCC ship. Results shows the turning circle of U-type is larger than V-type due to effect stern hul results of simulation are.

7. Measurement of signal use and vehicle turns as indication of driver cognition.

Science.gov (United States)

Wallace, Bruce; Goubran, Rafik; Knoefel, Frank

2014-01-01

This paper uses data analytics to provide a method for the measurement of a key driving task, turn signal usage as a measure of an automatic over-learned cognitive function drivers. The paper augments previously reported more complex executive function cognition measures by proposing an algorithm that analyzes dashboard video to detect turn indicator use with 100% accuracy without any false positives. The paper proposes two algorithms that determine the actual turns made on a trip. The first through analysis of GPS location traces for the vehicle, locating 73% of the turns made with a very low false positive rate of 3%. A second algorithm uses GIS tools to retroactively create turn by turn directions. Fusion of GIS and GPS information raises performance to 77%. The paper presents the algorithm required to measure signal use for actual turns by realigning the 0.2Hz GPS data, 30fps video and GIS turn events. The result is a measure that can be tracked over time and changes in the driver's performance can result in alerts to the driver, caregivers or clinicians as indication of cognitive change. A lack of decline can also be shared as reassurance.

8. Analysis of the lateral push-off in the freestyle flip turn.

Science.gov (United States)

Araujo, Luciana; Pereira, Suzana; Gatti, Roberta; Freitas, Elinai; Jacomel, Gabriel; Roesler, Helio; Villas-Boas, Joao

2010-09-01

The aim of this study was to examine the contact phase during the lateral push-off in the turn of front crawl swimming to determine which biomechanical variables (maximum normalized peak force, contact time, impulse, angle of knee flexion, and total turn time within 15 m) contribute to the performance of this turn technique. Thirty-four swimmers of state, national, and international competitive standard participated in the study. For data collection, the following equipment was used: an underwater force platform, a 30-Hz VHS video camera, and a MiniDv digital camera within an underwater box. Data are expressed as descriptive statistics. Inferential analyses were performed using Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regressions. All variables studied had a significant relationship with turn performance. We conclude that a turn executed with a knee flexion angle of between 100° and 120° provides optimum peak forces to generate impulses that allow the swimmer to lose less time in the turn without the need for an excessive force application and with less energy lost.

9. Leveraging human-centered design in chronic disease prevention.

Science.gov (United States)

Matheson, Gordon O; Pacione, Chris; Shultz, Rebecca K; Klügl, Martin

2015-04-01

Bridging the knowing-doing gap in the prevention of chronic disease requires deep appreciation and understanding of the complexities inherent in behavioral change. Strategies that have relied exclusively on the implementation of evidence-based data have not yielded the desired progress. The tools of human-centered design, used in conjunction with evidence-based data, hold much promise in providing an optimal approach for advancing disease prevention efforts. Directing the focus toward wide-scale education and application of human-centered design techniques among healthcare professionals will rapidly multiply their effective ability to bring the kind of substantial results in disease prevention that have eluded the healthcare industry for decades. This, in turn, would increase the likelihood of prevention by design. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

10. A novel method for calculating the energy cost of turning during running

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hatamoto Y

2013-05-01

Full Text Available Yoichi Hatamoto,1 Yosuke Yamada,2 Tatsuya Fujii,3 Yasuki Higaki,3 Akira Kiyonaga,3 Hiroaki Tanaka31Graduate School of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma Jonan-ku Fukuoka, Japan; 2The Fukuoka University Institute for Physical Activity, Nanakuma Jonan-ku Fukuoka, Japan; 3Faculty of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma Jonan-ku Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Although changes of direction are one of the essential locomotor patterns in ball sports, the physiological demand of turning during running has not been previously investigated. We proposed a novel approach by which to evaluate the physiological demand of turning. The purposes of this study were to establish a method of measuring the energy expenditure (EE of a 180° turn during running and to investigate the effect of two different running speeds on the EE of a 180° turn. Eleven young, male participants performed measurement sessions at two different running speeds (4.3 and 5.4 km/hour. Each measurement session consisted of five trials, and each trial had a different frequency of turns. At both running speeds, as the turn frequency increased the gross oxygen consumption (V · O2 also increased linearly (4.3 km/hour, r = 0.973; 5.4 km/hour, r = 0.996. The V · O2 of a turn at 5.4 km/hour (0.55 [SD 0.09] mL/kg was higher than at 4.3 km/hour (0.34 [SD 0.13] mL/kg (P < 0.001. We conclude that the gross V · O2 of running at a fixed speed with turns is proportional to turn frequency and that the EE of a turn is different at different running speeds. The Different Frequency Accumulation Method is a useful tool for assessing the physiological demands of complex locomotor activity.Keywords: energy expenditure, turning, turn frequency, running speed, V · O2, heart rate

11. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

Science.gov (United States)

... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

12. ANALYSIS OF CHIP FORMATION DURING HARD TURNING THROUGH ACOUSTIC EMISSION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Miroslav Neslušan

2012-01-01

Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of chip formation and related aspects of the chip formation during turning hardened steel 100Cr6. The paper draws a comparison of some aspects of the chip formation between turning annealed and hardened roll bearing steel. The results of the analysis show that there is the formation of a segmented chip in the case of hard turning. Frequency of segmentation is very high. A conventional piezoelectric dynamometer limits the frequency response to about 3.5 kHz. On the other hand, the frequency of process fluctuation may by obtained by using accelerometers or acoustic emission. This paper reports about the dynamic character of cutting process when hard turning and correlation among the calculated segmentation frequencies and the experimental analysis.

13. Diamond turning of glass

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01

A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

14. Optical spectroscopic elucidation of beta-turns in disulfide bridged cyclic tetrapeptides.

Science.gov (United States)

Borics, Attila; Murphy, Richard F; Lovas, Sándor

2007-01-01

Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopic features of type II beta-turns were characterized previously, but, criteria for differentiation between beta-turn types had not been established yet. Model tetrapeptides, cyclized through a disulfide bridge, were designed on the basis of previous experimental results and the observed incidence of amino acid residues in the i + 1 and i + 2 positions in beta-turns, to determine the features of VCD spectra of type I and II beta-turns. The results were correlated with electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra and VCD spectra calculated from conformational data obtained by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. All cyclic tetrapeptides yielded VCD signals with a higher frequency negative and a lower frequency positive couplet with negative lobes overlapping. MD simulations confirmed the conformational homogeneity of these peptides in solution. Comparison with ECD spectroscopy, MD, and quantum chemical calculation results suggested that the low frequency component of VCD spectra originating from the tertiary amide vibrations could be used to distinguish between types of beta-turn structures. On the basis of this observation, VCD spectroscopic features of type II and VIII beta-turns and ECD spectroscopic properties of a type VIII beta-turn were suggested. The need for independent experimental as well as theoretical investigations to obtain decisive conformational information was recognized. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

15. Improvement of antifouling performances for modified PVDF ultrafiltration membrane with hydrophilic cellulose nanocrystal

Science.gov (United States)

Lv, Jinling; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhang, Hanmin; Zhao, Chuanqi; Yang, Fenglin

2018-05-01

Hydrophilic cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was incorporated into hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane via phase inversion process to improve membrane antifouling property. The effects of CNC on membrane morphology, hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling property were investigated in-detail. Results indicated that the introduction of CNC into PVDF membrane enhanced the permeability by optimizing membrane microstructure and improving membrane hydrophilicity. A higher pure water flux of 206.9 L m-2 h-1 was achieved for CNC/PVDF membrane at 100 kPa, which was 20 times that of PVDF membrane (9.8 L m-2 h-1). In bovine serum albumin filtration measurements, the permeation flux and flux recovery ratio of CNC/PVDF membrane were increased remarkably, while the irreversible fouling-resistance of CNC/PVDF membrane decreased by 48.8%. These results indicated that the CNC/PVDF membrane possessed superior antifouling property due to the hydrophilicity of CNC that formed a hydration layer on the membrane surface to effectively reduce contaminants adsorption/deposition.

16. Turning university professors into competent learners

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Stefanova, Eliza; Ilieva, Miroslava; Nikolova, Nikolina; Stefanov, Krassen

2008-01-01

Stefanova, E., Ilieva, M., Nikolova, N, & Stefanov, K. (2008). Turning university professors into competent learners. In H. W. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagogical, organisational and

17. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 6. Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam. General Article Volume 18 Issue 6 June 2013 pp 514-521 ...

18. Ignition experiment in a single-turn-coil tokamak

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carrera, R.; Driga, M.; Gully, J.H.

1989-01-01

A novel concept for a fusion ignition experiment, IGNITEX proposed along the lines of previous ideas for a compact thermonuclear device is analyzed. A single-turn-coil tokamak is analyzed. A single-turn-coil tokamak supplied by homopolar generators can ohmically heat a DT plasma to ignition conditions and maintain a thermally stable ignited phase for about ten energy confinement times. The IGNITEX experiment can provide a simple and relatively inexpensive way to produce and control ignited plasmas for scientific study

19. Turn-taking in Human Communication--Origins and Implications for Language Processing.

Science.gov (United States)

Levinson, Stephen C

2016-01-01

Most language usage is interactive, involving rapid turn-taking. The turn-taking system has a number of striking properties: turns are short and responses are remarkably rapid, but turns are of varying length and often of very complex construction such that the underlying cognitive processing is highly compressed. Although neglected in cognitive science, the system has deep implications for language processing and acquisition that are only now becoming clear. Appearing earlier in ontogeny than linguistic competence, it is also found across all the major primate clades. This suggests a possible phylogenetic continuity, which may provide key insights into language evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

20. MR Spectroscopy to Distinguish between Supratentorial Intraventricular Subependymoma and Central Neurocytoma.

Science.gov (United States)

Ueda, Fumiaki; Aburano, Hiroyuki; Ryu, Yasuji; Yoshie, Yuichi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Matsui, Osamu; Gabata, Toshifumi

2017-07-10

The purpose of this study was to discriminate supratentorial intraventricular subependymoma (SIS) from central neurocytoma (CNC) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Single-voxel proton MRS using a 1.5T or 3T MR scanner from five SISs, five CNCs, and normal controls were evaluated. They were examined using a point-resolved spectroscopy. Automatically calculated ratios comparing choline (Cho), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myoinositol (MI), and/or glycine (Gly) to creatine (Cr) were determined. Evaluation of Cr to unsuppressed water (USW) was also performed. Mann-Whitney U test was carried out to test the significance of differences in the metabolite ratios. Detectability of lactate (Lac) and alanine (Ala) was evaluated. Although a statistically significant difference (P CNC, no statistical difference was noted between SIS and control spectra (P = 0.11). Statistically significant differences were observed in NAA/Cr between SIS and CNC (P = 0.04) or control spectra (P CNC and control spectra (P CNC for MI and/or Gly to Cr (P = 0.32). Significant statistical differences were found between SIS and control spectra (P CNC (P CNC (P CNC. The present study showed that MRS can be useful in discriminating SIS from CNC.

1. An investigation on the characteristics of cellulose nanocrystals from Pennisetum sinese

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lu, Qi-lin; Tang, Li-rong; Wang, Siqun; Huang, Biao; Chen, Yan-dan; Chen, Xue-rong

2014-01-01

The aim of this study was to explore the utilization of Pennisetum sinese as cellulose source for the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The cellulose was extracted from P. sinese by chemical treatment and bleaching, and obtained cellulose nanocrystals by acid hydrolysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that CNC were rod-like with the diameter of 20–30 nm and the length of 200–300 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) showed that chemical treatment removed most of the lignin and hemicellulose from P. sinese, and CNC had similar structure to that of native cellulose. The crystallinity indexes calculated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) for P. sinese and CNC were 40.6% and 77.3%, respectively. The zeta-potential analysis showed that CNC had higher stability than P. sinese had. The thermal stability was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the result showed that P. sinese had higher thermal stability than that of prepared CNC. - Highlights: • Pennisetum sinese Roxb is good raw material for preparing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). • Crystallinity of prepared CNC is higher than that of P. sinese Roxb. • Thermal stability of prepared CNC is lower than that of P. sinese Roxb

2. 78 FR 72016 - User Fees for Processing Installment Agreements and Offers in Compromise

Science.gov (United States)

2013-12-02

... into currently-not-collectible (CNC) status rather than enter into an installment agreement. The... qualify for CNC status. The IRS places a taxpayer in CNC status on the basis of hardship when it... taxpayer in CNC status may, without an installment agreement, pay the tax over time to help limit the...

3. Building Brains, Forging Futures: A Call to Action for the Family-Centered Medical Home

Science.gov (United States)

Kraft, Colleen

2013-01-01

The family-centered medical home describes an approach to providing comprehensive primary care. Research advances in developmental neuroscience, genetics, and epigenetics offer a framework for understanding the dynamic process of brain development. It is this process that sets the life-course trajectory for an individual; in turn, a child's…

4. FGF8 signaling sustains progenitor status and multipotency of cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells in vivo and in vitro

Science.gov (United States)

Shao, Meiying; Liu, Chao; Song, Yingnan; Ye, Wenduo; He, Wei; Yuan, Guohua; Gu, Shuping; Lin, Congxin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yanding; Tian, Weidong; Hu, Tao; Chen, YiPing

2015-01-01

The cranial neural crest (CNC) cells play a vital role in craniofacial development and regeneration. They are multi-potent progenitors, being able to differentiate into various types of tissues. Both pre-migratory and post-migratory CNC cells are plastic, taking on diverse fates by responding to different inductive signals. However, what sustains the multipotency of CNC cells and derivatives remains largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence that FGF8 signaling is able to sustain progenitor status and multipotency of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells both in vivo and in vitro. We show that augmented FGF8 signaling in pre-migratory CNC cells prevents cell differentiation and organogenesis in the craniofacial region by maintaining their progenitor status. CNC-derived mesenchymal cells with Fgf8 overexpression or control cells in the presence of exogenous FGF8 exhibit prolonged survival, proliferation, and multi-potent differentiation capability in cell cultures. Remarkably, exogenous FGF8 also sustains the capability of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells to participate in organogenesis such as odontogenesis. Furthermore, FGF8-mediated signaling strongly promotes adipogenesis but inhibits osteogenesis of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Our results reveal a specific role for FGF8 in the maintenance of progenitor status and in fate determination of CNC cells, implicating a potential application in expansion and fate manipulation of CNC-derived cells in stem cell-based craniofacial regeneration. PMID:26243590

5. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Bed Feature to Assist in Turning and Laterally Repositioning Patients.

Science.gov (United States)

Wiggermann, Neal

2016-08-01

This study investigated the effects of hospital bed features on the biomechanical stresses experienced by nurses when turning and laterally repositioning patients. Turn Assist, a common feature in ICU beds that helps to rotate patients, and side rail orientation were evaluated. Manual patient handling is a risk factor for musculoskeletal injury, and turning patients is one of the most common patient handling activities. No known studies have evaluated bed attributes such as the Turn Assist feature and side rail orientation that may affect the stresses experienced by the nurse. Nine female nurses laterally repositioned and turned a 63-kg and 123-kg subject on an ICU bed while motion capture, ground reaction forces, and hand force data were recorded. Loading of the spine and shoulder was modeled using 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP). Spine compression and shear forces did not exceed recommended limits when turning or laterally repositioning. However, the mean pull forces required to manually laterally reposition even the 63-kg subject was 340 Newtons, more than 50% greater than limits established in psychophysical testing. Turn Assist considerably reduced spine loading and pull forces for both turning and laterally repositioning. Lowering side rails reduced spinal compression by 11% when turning patients. Laterally repositioning patients as part of turning may pose an injury risk to caregivers. Turn Assist reduces physical loading on nurses when turning and repositioning patients. Caregivers should consider using Turn Assist and other aids such as mechanical lifts or sliding sheets especially when turning patients requires lateral repositioning. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

6. Virtual reality training improves turning capacity and functional reach in stroke patients

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malik, A.N.; Masood, T.

2017-01-01

Objective: To determine the added effects of virtual reality training on turning capacity, gait parameters and functional reach capacity of stroke patients compared to task oriented training alone. Methodology: A randomized control trial was conducted from February 2016 to July 2106 at Physical Rehabilitation Department Pakistan Railway Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Twenty stroke patients were selected through purposive sampling. The patients were randomly assigned through sealed envelope method into two groups; Task Oriented Training (TOT) and Virtual Reality Training (VRT) Group. The standardized tools were used for assessment. The TOT was provided for 4 days per week for 6 weeks while VRT group received additional exer-gaming training during sessions. Results: Significant improvement was observed in both groups regarding reaching forward, turning 360, gait pivot turn (p a 0.01) and FRT (p a 0.001). The two groups were statistically different from each other in terms of turning capacity, reaching forward, gait pivot turn and functional reach after 6 weeks of intervention (p a 0.05) Conclusion: Addition of virtual reality training further improves the significant improvement caused by task oriented training on turning capacity, reaching forward, gait pivot turn and functional reach in stroke patients. (author)

7. Incorporating beta-turns and a turn mimetic out of context in loop 1 of the WW domain affords cooperatively folded beta-sheets.

Science.gov (United States)

Kaul, R; Angeles, A R; Jäger, M; Powers, E T; Kelly, J W

2001-06-06

To probe the conformational requirements of loop 1 in the Pin1 WW domain, the residues at the i + 2 and i + 3 positions of a beta-turn within this loop were replaced by dPro-Gly and Asn-Gly, which are known to prefer the conformations required at the i + 1 and i + 2 positions of type II' and type I' beta-turns. Conformational specificity or lack thereof was further examined by incorporating into the i + 2 and i + 3 positions a non-alpha-amino acid-based beta-turn mimetic (4-(2'-aminoethyl)-6-dibenzofuran propionic acid residue, 1), which was designed to replace the i + 1 and i + 2 positions of beta-turns. All these Pin WW variants are monomeric and folded as discerned by analytical ultracentrifugation, NMR, and CD. They exhibit cooperative two-state transitions and display thermodynamic stability within 0.5 kcal/mol of the wild-type WW domain, demonstrating that the acquisition of native structure and stability does not require a specific sequence and, by extension, conformation within loop 1. However, it could be that these loop 1 mutations alter the kinetics of antiparallel beta-sheet folding, which will be addressed by subsequent kinetic studies.

8. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY 11973 (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao, E-mail: xiahuang@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

2016-08-21

We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

9. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

2016-08-01

We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. Furthermore, the fitting results are used for lattice correction. Our method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

10. [Abnormal head turn in a patient with Brown's syndrome].

Science.gov (United States)

van Waveren, M; Krzizok, T; Besch, D

2008-08-01

11. How turn-taking strategies influence users’ impressions of an agent

NARCIS (Netherlands)

ter Maat, Mark; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Allbeck, Jan; Badler, Norman; Bickmore, Timothy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Safonova, Alla

Different turn-taking strategies of an agent influence the impression that people have of it. We recorded conversations of a human with an interviewing agent, controlled by a wizard and using a particular turn-taking strategy. A questionnaire with 27 semantic differential scales concerning

12. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01

Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

13. Evaluation of cutting force uncertainty components in turning

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

2000-01-01

A procedure is proposed for the evaluation of those uncertainty components of a single cutting force measurement in turning that are related to the contributions of the dynamometer calibration and the cutting process itself. Based on an empirical model including errors form both sources......, the uncertainty for a single measurement of cutting force is presented, and expressions for the expected uncertainty vs. cutting parameters are proposed. This approach gives the possibility of evaluating cutting force uncertainty components in turning, for a defined range of cutting parameters, based on few...

14. Causal Role of Motor Simulation in Turn-Taking Behavior.

Science.gov (United States)

Hadley, Lauren V; Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E; Pickering, Martin J

2015-12-16

Overlap between sensory and motor representations has been documented for a range of human actions, from grasping (Rizzolatti et al., 1996b) to playing a musical instrument (Novembre and Keller, 2014). Such overlap suggests that individuals use motor simulation to predict the outcome of observed actions (Wolpert, 1997). Here we investigate motor simulation as a basis of human communication. Using a musical turn-taking task, we show that pianists call on motor representations of their partner's part to predict when to come in for their own turn. Pianists played alternating solos with a videoed partner, and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied around the turn-switch to temporarily disrupt processing in two cortical regions implicated previously in different forms of motor simulation: (1) the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), associated with automatic motor resonance during passive observation of hand actions, especially when the actions are familiar (Lahav et al., 2007); and (2) the supplementary motor area (SMA), involved in active motor imagery, especially when the actions are familiar (Baumann et al., 2007). Stimulation of the right dPMC decreased the temporal accuracy of pianists' (right-hand) entries relative to sham when the partner's (left-hand) part had been rehearsed previously. This effect did not occur for dPMC stimulation without rehearsal or for SMA stimulation. These findings support the role of the dPMC in predicting the time course of observed actions via resonance-based motor simulation during turn-taking. Because turn-taking spans multiple modes of human interaction, we suggest that simulation is a foundational mechanism underlying the temporal dynamics of joint action. Even during passive observation, seeing or hearing somebody execute an action from within our repertoire activates motor cortices of our brain. But what is the functional relevance of such "motor simulation"? By combining a musical duet task with a real

15. Factors influencing turning and its relationship with falls in individuals with Parkinson's disease.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Fang-Yu Cheng

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falls are a major problem for people with Parkinson's disease (PD. Many studies indicate that more than 50% of people with PD have difficulty in turning that may lead to falls during daily activities. The aims of this study were to identify the relationship between turning performance and falls, and to determine the factors that influence turning performance. METHODS: This study examined 45 patients with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-3 using a battery of tests, including 180° turn time, balance, and muscle strength. The levels of disease severity and freezing of gait were also measured. The number of falls in the past 6 months was recorded. RESULTS: Sixteen out of forty-five participants experienced falls in the past 6 months. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed that turn time was highly related to falls [more affected side: sensitivity = 0.81, specificity = 0.79, area under the curve (AUC = 0.83; less affected side: sensitivity = 0.88, specificity = 0.76, AUC = 0.83]. The most important factor influencing turn time was balance ability (both sides: p = 0.000 according to the regression model. Correlations between turn time and dynamic balance were further established with reaction time, movement velocity, endpoint excursion, and maximal excursion of the LOS (limits of stability test. CONCLUSION: The time needed to complete a 180° turn during the SQT (step/quick turn test is a good index to differentiate fallers from non-fallers in persons with PD. Turn time is most influenced by balance. Furthermore, balance control, especially in an anterior or sideways direction, is important for turning performance.

16. Constraining eye movement in individuals with Parkinson's disease during walking turns.

Science.gov (United States)

Ambati, V N Pradeep; Saucedo, Fabricio; Murray, Nicholas G; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

2016-10-01

Walking and turning is a movement that places individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) at increased risk for fall-related injury. However, turning is an essential movement in activities of daily living, making up to 45 % of the total steps taken in a given day. Hypotheses regarding how turning is controlled suggest an essential role of anticipatory eye movements to provide feedforward information for body coordination. However, little research has investigated control of turning in individuals with PD with specific consideration for eye movements. The purpose of this study was to examine eye movement behavior and body segment coordination in individuals with PD during walking turns. Three experimental groups, a group of individuals with PD, a group of healthy young adults (YAC), and a group of healthy older adults (OAC), performed walking and turning tasks under two visual conditions: free gaze and fixed gaze. Whole-body motion capture and eye tracking characterized body segment coordination and eye movement behavior during walking trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of group (PD, YAC, and OAC) and visual condition (free and fixed gaze) on timing of segment rotation and horizontal eye movement. Within group comparisons, revealed timing of eye and head movement was significantly different between the free and fixed gaze conditions for YAC (p  0.05). In addition, while intersegment timings (reflecting segment coordination) were significantly different for YAC and OAC during free gaze (p training programs for those with PD, possibly promoting better coordination during turning and potentially reducing the risk of falls.

17. Gold nanoparticles stabilized by poly(4-vinylpyridine) grafted cellulose nanocrystals as efficient and recyclable catalysts.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Zhen; Sèbe, Gilles; Wang, Xiaosong; Tam, Kam C

2018-02-15

pH-responsive poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) grafted cellulose nanocrystals (P4VP-g-CNC) were prepared by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI-ATRP) and subsequently used to stabilize gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as efficient and recyclable nanocatalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4NP). The presence of P4VP brushes on the CNC surface controlled the growth of Au NPs yielding smaller averaged diameter compared to Au NPs deposited directly on pristine CNC. The catalytic performances of pristine Au NPs, Au@CNC and Au@P4VP-g-CNC were compared by measuring the turnover frequency (TOF) for the catalytic reduction of 4NP. Compared to pristine Au NPs, the catalytic activity of Au@CNC and Au@P4VP-g-CNC were 10 and 24 times better. Moreover, the Au@P4VP-g-CNC material could be recovered via flocculation at pH>5, and the recycled nanocatalyst remained highly active. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Computation of the Coupling Resonance Driving term f1001 and the coupling coefficient C from turn-by-turn single-BPM data.

CERN Document Server

Franchi, A; Vanbavinkhove, G; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

2010-01-01

In this note we show how to compute the Resonance Driving Term (RDT) f1001, the local resonance term chi 1010 and the coupling coefficient C from the spectrum of turn-by-turn single-BPM data. The harmonic analysis of real coordinate x(y) is model independent, conversely to the the analysis of the complex Courant-Snyder coordinate hx,- = x-ipx. From the computation of f1001 along the ring is closely related to the global coupling coefficient C, but it is affected by an intrinsic error, discussed in this note.

19. Introducing cellulose nanocrystals in sheet molding compounds (SMC)

Science.gov (United States)

Amir Asadi; Mark Miller; Sanzida Sultana; Robert J. Moon; Kyriaki Kalaitzidou

2016-01-01

The mechanical properties of short glass fiber/epoxy composites containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) made using sheet molding compound (SMC) manufacturing method as well as the rheological and thermomechanical properties of the CNC-epoxy composites were investigated as a function of the CNC content. CNC up to 1.4 wt% were dispersed in the epoxy to produce the resin...

20. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata

Science.gov (United States)

2014-01-01

Background The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Expression patterns of cnc from two non-holometabolous insects and a millipede have suggested conservation of the labral and mandibular domains within Mandibulata. However, the activity of cnc is unknown in crustaceans and chelicerates, precluding understanding of a complete scenario for the evolution of patterning of this appendage within arthropods. To redress these lacunae, here we investigate the gene expression of the ortholog of cnc in Parhyale hawaiensis, a malacostracan crustacean, and two chelicerates: the harvestman Phalangium opilio, and the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus. Results In the crustacean P. hawaiensis, the segmental expression of Ph-cnc is the same as that reported previously in hexapods and myriapods, with two distinct head domains in the labrum and the mandibular segment. In contrast, Po-cnc and Cs-cnc expression is not enriched in the labrum of either chelicerate, but instead is expressed at comparable levels in all appendages. In further contrast to mandibulate orthologs, the expression domain of Po-cnc posterior to the labrum is not confined within the expression domain of Po-Dfd. Conclusions Expression data from two chelicerate outgroup taxa suggest that the signature two-domain head expression pattern of cnc evolved at the base of Mandibulata. The observation of the archetypal labral and mandibular segment domains in a crustacean exemplar supports the synapomorphic nature of mandibulate cnc