WorldWideScience

Sample records for cmea

  1. CMEA cooperative trials in chemotherapy of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, E.S.; Pitskhelauri, V.G.; Trakhtenberg, A.Kh.

    1984-01-01

    TA comparative analysis of the immediate and short-term results of chemo- and radiotherapy of 174 patients with well differentiated inoperable lung cancer has been performed. The data were presented by the participants of the CMEA cooperative trial (the Hungarian People's Reg public, the USSR and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic over the period of 1976-1980). Comparative analysis has shown that the use of adjuvant chemotherapy tends to improve an immediate therapeutic effect. In well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, a marked positive effect was obtained in 48.6% of the patients as compared to 31.2% in radiotherapy alone. However, judging by the survival rates such differences in favor of chemotherapy were not revealed. After conservative treatment (radio- and chemotherapy) of patients with differentiated lung cancer in the inoperable stage 55.7% survived for 1, 17.27% for 2, 8.55% for 3 yrs. Direct correlation between the immediate effect of radio- and chemotherapy and the survival of the patients was revealed. Of 67 patients with a marked immediate effect 49 (73.1%) lived over 1 year, 8 out of 9 patients lived for 3 yrs

  2. Regulations for safe transport of spent fuels from nuclear power plants in CMEA member countries. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizka, B.

    1978-11-01

    The regulations for safe transport of spent fuel from nuclear power plants in the CMEA member countries consist of general provisions, technical requirements for spent fuel transport, transport conditions, procedures for submitting reports on transport, regulations for transport and protection of radioactive material to be transported, procedures for customs clearance, technical and organizational measures for the prevention of hypothetical accidents and the elimination of their consequences. The bodies responsible for spent fuel transport in the CMEA member countries are listed. (J.B.)

  3. Collaboration of the CMEA countries concerning the treatment of radiation protection terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhangel'skaya, G.V.; Rodnyanskaya, L.I.

    1986-01-01

    At present particular attention is directed to the terminology of radiation hygiene because of its intensive development and of the multitude of English terms integrated into it. The Leningrad Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene has elaborated a terminology list and characterized the terms of health physics. As to the cooperation in terminology by CMEA specialists it is proposed to elaborate a multilingual dictionary with previous drawing up of equivalent terms and coordination in defining them. Another proposal concerning cooperative publishing of compilations with terms to be recommended is made

  4. Cooperation of CMEA member states in the field of the manufacture and use of stable isotopes and compounds thus labelled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, G.; Ewald, G.

    1977-01-01

    The contribution presents a survey of scientific-technical cooperation of CMEA member states in the field of stable isotopes, it deals with the specialization of stable isotope production and compounds thus labelled, and gives the prospects for further development of this cooperation. (HK) [de

  5. Information on the activity of the Atomehnergo permanent commettee of CMEA in the area of peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Activity of the CMEA permanent committee on the peaceful use of nuclear energy is briefly outlines. It is pointed out, that data, presented to the conferences and consultations of the Committee, can be used as numerical, when constructing data retrieval systems

  6. Determination techniques of characteristics of brittle fracture for materials on the CMEA 1-35 problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhutov, N.A.; Tananov, A.I.; Koshelev, P.F.; Zatsarinnyj, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The problems concerning the development and improvement of the investigation techniques and the evaluation of the resistance to brittle fracture of a wide class of materials (the reactor ones, in particular) under different conditions of loading using modern test means are considered in the review. It is reflected in the plan of works on the theme 1-35.3 ''Development of the methods of determination of resistance to brittle fracture of the materials and elements of construct Specialists from CMEA member-countries took an active part in its implementation. The development of the 1-35.3 theme presupposes the creation of scientific bases of calculation methods of the details of machines and elements of constructions according to the criteria of resistance to brittle fracture. The results obtained when using the methods of fracture mechanics are of significant importance in the substantiation of strength and admissible defectiveness of large-size constructions operating under the extremum conditions [ru

  7. Co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the development of different reactor types, including certain aspects of their nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasenkov, A.; Barbur, I.; Barchenkov, A.; Molnar, L.; Tolpygo, V.; Khake, V.; Shcherbinin, B.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives an account of the problems of the projected development of atomic power and evaluates its role in the fuel and power complex and long-range development of interconnected power systems of the CMEA member countries. The report emphasizes the importance of scientific and technical co-operation in the creation of thermal and fast-neutron power reactors with 1000-1500MW(e) units, and in the elaboration of nuclear plants for heating services. The positive experience of the international scientific and research group of scientists of the CMEA member countries carrying out reactor-physics studies on critical assemblies is mentioned. The report contains basic conclusions from the forecasts for nuclear power in the CMEA member countries up to 1990, including forecasting methodology; the role of nuclear power plants in saving natural and enriched uranium for a projected period; and the impact of nuclear power development rates on its structure (thermal and fast reactor ratio). It lists the impacts of scientific and technical co-operation of the CMEA member countries on the fuel cycle, including the transport of spent nuclear fuel, its recovery, reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal. Particular effects of co-operation of the CMEA member countries on the radiation safety of nuclear power plants and environmental protection are analysed. The report notes the role of the international economic associations Interatomenergo and Interatominstrument in the accelerated development of nuclear power. (author)

  8. Co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the developing power reactors of various types, including some aspects of their nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbur, I.; Barchenkov, A.; Molnar, L; Panasenkov, A.; Tolpygo, V.; Hake, V.; Shcherbinin, B.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives an account of the problems of projected development of atomic power and evaluates its role in the fuel and power complex and long-range development of interconnected power systems of the CMEA member countries. The report emphasizes the importance of scientific and technical co-operation in the creation of power reactors on thermal and fast neutrons with 1000-1500 MW unit electric capacity as well as in the elaboration of nuclear plants for heating services. It notes the positive experience of the International scientific and research group of scientists of the CMEA member countries carrying out reactor-physical studies on the critical assembly and its contribution to the elaboration of power reactors. The report contains basic conclusions from the development forecast for nuclear power of the CMEA member countries up to 1990 including forecasting methodology; role of nuclear power plants in saving natural and enriched uranium for a projected period; impact of nuclear power development rates on its structure (thermal and fast reactor ratio); relation between the beginning of mass commissioning of nuclear power plants with fast reactors and the integral demand for nuclear fuel; scale of required capacities of fuel cycle services; time dependence of fuel cycle on nuclear fuel requirements. It examines the problems and lists the results of scientific and technical co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the field of fuel cycle, including the transport of spent nuclear fuel, its recovery, reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal. Particular questions of co-operation of the CMEA member countries to secure radiation safety of nuclear power plants and environmental protection are analyzed. The report notes the role of international economic associations - ''Interatomenergo'' and ''Interatominstrument'' - in the accelerated development of nuclear power on the basis of cooperation and specialization in the manufacture of equipment for nuclear power

  9. Information on scientific and technological co-operation between the CMEA member countries in radioactive waste burial in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolpygo, V.K.

    1984-02-01

    Research on radioactive waste treatment and disposal constitutes an important area of cooperation between the CMEA member countries. An important part in cooperation has been assigned to the study of systems for disposing radioactive waste of all kinds in geological formations. The cooperation which was initiated in 1971 was realized within the two research programmes scheduled for subsequent periods, viz. for 1971 to 1975, and from 1976 to 1983. Programme work for 1971 to 1975 included three major fields of research: theoretical and experimental research, scientific and technological research and methodological research. As regards methodological research and results of work by the plan for 1976 to 1983, comprehensive research on the methods of disposing radioactive waste in geological formations has been practically completed and documents relating to the industrial introduction of these methods have been prepared. The results of research renders it possible to properly organize from the standpoint of methodology surveying, designing of schematic diagrams and structures of all facilities involving the burial of radioactive waste in geological formations, the evaluation of suitability of the sanitary protection zone from the standpoint of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources. The drawing of prognostic charts and the development of recommendations on the use of interior of the earth for burying radioactive waste make it possible for the planning bodies, ministries and agencies to evaluate the possibilities for underground burial of radioactive waste in selecting a site and in designing and construction of new nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities

  10. Nuclear power in Czechoslovakia and its development within the CMEA collaboration framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of and prospects for the development of nuclear pwer and energy machine building in Czechoslovakia are considered. In 1980 the NPPs generated 1.5% of the country's energy. It is envisaged that by 1990 the share of NPPs will rise to 9.2% and by 2000 to 15%. Since 1974, when an agreement with the Soviet Union was signed on cooperation and specialization in producing equipment for NPPs, a new industry, nuclear power machine building, has been successfully developed in Czechoslovakia. The production of steam generators, volume compensators, main gate valves, pipelines, special fittings, special pumps and auxiliary systems of the primary circuit has been mastered. Presently, the Czechoslovakian industry is capable of manufacturing above 80% of the whole servicing equipment of WWER-440 power units. Alongside with the USSR, Czechoslovakia has become the second greatest supplier of equipment for NPPs among the COMECON member-states. By 2000 it is planned to put into operation 12 WWER-440 power unit and 6 WWER-1000 power units with the total capacity of 11280 MW. An experimental agro-nuclear complex will soon be constructed in which NPP heat will be utilized for growing vegetables, fruit, mushrooms and for breeding fish

  11. Current Trends in Higher Education Research in the USSR and in Other Countries of the CMEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexander Y.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S.S.R.'s Scientific Research Institute for Higher Education Problems and its research efforts are described, and other individual and cooperative efforts for higher education research by member states of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance are discussed. (MSE)

  12. Topic of nuclear power plant wastes at fifth CMEA symposium on research of fuel and radioactive solution reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Napravnik, J.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is presented of the results of the work of Session 3 of the Symposium held in Marianske Lazne from April 7 to 10, 1981. The participants heard 44 papers mainly related to the following problem areas: existing methods and methods being developed of handling radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants; improvements in the technology of the concentration of liquid wastes by evaporation and other methods; solidification of concentrated liquid wastes into suitable form; methods of the treatment of solid (combustible, non-combustible and compactable) wastes; improvements in methods of the treatment of gaseous effluents. A survey was organized on criteria applied to methods used for radioactive waste processing. The inquiry showed that the principal criteria are the product Quality, costs for waste processing and the release of harmful substances into the environment. (Ha)

  13. Atom for peace in the socialist countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasenkov, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    In general terms presented are the achievements of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) countries in the sphere of nuclear science and technology. The activities of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna and the CMEA Commission on peaceful Use of Nuclear power are described. Works on the development and construction of plants with the WWER-1000 reactor are under completion, the BN-1600 fast reactor technical project is under way. The CMEA countries energy program and their cooperation in this field are presented in short. The directions of studies on the radioactive waste reprocessing and desposal are described. The work of International Economic Union (the ''Interinstrument''), created with the aim of specialization and cooperation on the CMEA countries in the field of nuclear instrument-industry is presented

  14. 75 FR 10168 - Information on Foreign Chain of Distribution for Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA), which is Title VII of the USA PATRIOT Improvement and... for inflation) in any one year, and will not significantly or uniquely affect small governments...

  15. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-07

    Szasz (Hungary), Compen- sation of Losses as Specified in CMEA GTD; H. Strohbach (GDR), Penalty for Late and Non-delivery of Goods as Specified...ambiguities in CMEA GTD, imperfections of a number of regu- lations, disparities of national law arbitrarily applied to relationships on goods deliveries...institutions for all sorts of commitments (real fulfilment, late claims, etc.) were stressed that should be considered in the collective law -making

  16. Dictionary of terms and definitions used in radiation protection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The dictionary contains terms and definitions used in radiation protection technology. This document is developed by the Section of CMEA Secretariat on peaceful atomic energy application on the basis of materials provided by member states. The dictionary contains versions of terms and definitions in the languages of member states. Total number of terms is 94. (I.T.)

  17. The role of nuclear power in meeting future energy demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, K.

    1977-01-01

    Future energy demands and possibilities of meeting them are outlined. The current status and future developments of nuclear energetics all over the world and in the CMEA member states are discussed considering reactor safety, fission product releases, and thermal pollution of the environment

  18. Atom for peace in countries of socialosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petros'yants, A.M.; Kostadinov, K.; Osztrovszki, Gy.; Mitzinger, V.; Cardenas, R.; Felicki, Ya.; Neumann, Ya.; Panasenkov, A.F.; Kulyamin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Anniversary edition of collected articles devoted to 30 years of the council for Mutual Economic Assistance is a collective endeavour of eminent scientists and engineers from countries of the socialist community, which reflects the process of development and practical experience in the application of achievements of nuclear science and technology in national economics of the CMEA member-states. The book contains a broad account of modern problems as well as of future trends in the further development of various branches of nuclear science and technology in the CMEA member-states, their fruitful co-operation within the framework of the CMEA Permanent Commission on Peaceful Application of Nuclear Energy, the activities of corresponding international scientific and economic organizations of the CMEA member-states. The contents of the book clearly demonstrate that under the conditions of a socialist society atom for peace is an effective instrument for the acceleration of scientific and technical progress, which is used entirely for the well-being of Man [ru

  19. 75 FR 4982 - Redelegation of Functions; Delegation of Authority to Drug Enforcement Administration Official

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... other things, the CMEA amended the CSA to change the regulations for selling nonprescription products... redelegation will empower the Deputy Assistant Administrator, among other things, to exercise signing authority... Administration. The redelegation of signature authority for the regulations in part 1314 is consistent with the...

  20. State of the art and tendencies of development of factographic information systems in nuclear research and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.

    1983-01-01

    Factographic information systems for nuclear research and nuclear technology have become important preconditions of research and development process intensification in the CMEA member countries. Their consistent development and transformation into logical information systems calls for a new approach to the problems of computer technique and program development

  1. Development of experimental data bank on heat transfer crisis under stationary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshtyalek, Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an experimental data bank on heat transfer orisis under stationary conditions is discussed. The work is being carried out under the auspices of CMEA in compliance with the resolution of CMEA countries experts meetinq in January 1981 held in Moscow. The data bank is supposed to be formed as a sequential set of available experimental data on the regimes with heat-transfer crisis, recorded on a standard magnetic tape for ES or IBM comuter family. All operations with the bank are to be performed via the computer. Recommendations are given to what the record structure should be used and an example of a code is suggested for a user to extract data from the bank in accordance with various criteria. At the present time parameters of more than 12000 experimental regimes are prepared for the bank and some 3000 more are being processed [ru

  2. Viet Nam, once isolated, poised for significant role in oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Viet Nam is on its way up in the petroleum world. After years of international isolation, the country is poised for a flurry of exploration by international oil companies in the early 1990s. Viet Nam has joined the Soviet Union as the only members of the now dissolved, formerly Moscow dominated, 10 nation Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) that are self-sufficient in oil production. Moreover, Viet Nam has far outstripped neighboring China, which was not a CMEA member, in offshore oil flow even though China has a much larger Outer Continental Shelf. Prospects are that Viet Nam will continue to lead China in offshore oil production until 1995 at least

  3. Dictionnary for radiation safety terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The dictionnary of radiation protection terms has been compiled by CMEA member-country specialists under the auspisious of Scientific-Technical Council for Radiation Protection of the Permanent Commision for Peaceful Atomic Energy Applications as a means for better mutual understanding in collaborative activities. The dictionnary incorporates, along with Russian terms, the corresponding ones in the official languages of CMEA member-countries who participated in its compiling: Bulgarian, Hungarian, German, Spanish, Polish, Roumanian, Czech as well as English. The dictionnary consists of three sections: 1) Ionizing radiation; 2) Ionizing radiation interaction with materials. Ionizing radiation dosimetry; 3) Radiation protection. The first section contains 16 terms, the second - 25, the third - 110. The terms within the section are arranged in sense sequences

  4. Assessment of nuclear power sources in Czechoslovakia with respect to radiation protection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The principles are presented which underlie the determination of limits of planned population exposure during normal operation of nuclear installations and of reference levels of exceptional population exposure during nuclear power plant accidents. The introduction is discussed of authorized limits and levels in Czechoslovakia the USSR, CMEA countries and Sweden. An estimate is made of the radiation burden of the population during the development of the Czechoslovak nuclear power programme. (E.S.)

  5. Problems of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasenkov, A.

    1982-01-01

    The answers are reported given by the head of the department for peaceful uses of nuclear energy of the secretariat of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance, Mr. A. Pasenkov to questions given him in an interview for APN. The questions were related to the current state and development of world nuclear power, nuclear safety and the attitude of the general public to nuclear power in the West and in the CMEA countries. (B.S.)

  6. Results of the activities of the Scientific and Technical Coordination Council for Radiation Technique and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sille, A K [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow

    1977-03-01

    It is reported on the activities of the Scientific and Technical Coordination Council for Radiation Technique and Technology (STCC-RTT) of the CMEA Permanent Commission for the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy according to the programme 1971 to 1975. The STCC-RTT is concerned with technical applications such as radiation sterilization, food irradiation, radiation-induced chemical processes etc. The main tasks which have to be solved within the period from 1976 to 1980 are outlined.

  7. The development of the IAEA transport regulations and its implementation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection principles are laid down in a binding from in IAEA SS No 9. Regulations of world-wide validity (and, hence, for Europe) are IMO/IMDG Code for sea-going traffic, and ICAO/Technical regulations or IATA/Hazardous goods transport regulations, resp. for air traffic. The regulations by the organizations ADR, RID, ADN, ADNR, and CMEA are valid as transfrontier regulations in Europe. (DG) [de

  8. Objectives and functions of ionizing radiation metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, H.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamental objectives of ionizing radiation metrology, the main tasks of metrological research and assurances of accurate measurements in dosimetry and activity determination are summarized. With a view to the technical performance of these tasks the state-of-the-art and the trends in reproduction and dissemination of dosimetric and activity units are outlined. Problems are derived that should be solved within the framework of the CMEA Standing Commissions on Standardization and on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. (author)

  9. Reliability of nuclear power plants and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The standard sets the general principles, a list of reliability indexes and demands on their selection. Reliability indexes of nuclear power plants include the simple indexes of fail-safe operation, life and maintainability, and of storage capability. All terms and notions are explained and methods of evaluating the indexes briefly listed - statistical, and calculation experimental. The dates when the standard comes in force in the individual CMEA countries are given. (M.D.)

  10. 2. Product quality control and assurance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Product quality control and assurance are dealt with in relation to reliability in nuclear power engineering. The topics treated include product quality control in nuclear power engineering, product quality assurance of nuclear power plant equipment, quality assurance programs, classification of selected nuclear power equipment, and standards relating to quality control and assurance and to nuclear power engineering. Particular attention is paid to Czechoslovak and CMEA standards. (P.A.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  11. Identification of a protein glycosylation operon from Campylobacter jejuni JCM 2013 and its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichaisupakit, Akkaraphol; Ohashi, Takao; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human enteropathogenic bacterium possessing an N-glycosylation system. In this work, a protein glycosylation (pgl) operon conferring prokaryotic N-glycosylation in C. jejuni JCM 2013 was cloned and identified. Fourteen open reading frames (ORFs) were found in the pgl operon. The operon organization was similar to that of C. jejuni NCTC 11168, with 98% and 99% identities in overall nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence, respectively. The pgl operon was heterologously co-expressed with model protein CmeA in the Escherichia coli BL21 ΔwaaL mutant. The immuno- and lectin-blotting analysis indicated the protein glycosylation on the recombinant CmeA. In addition, to analyze the glycan composition, the recombinant CmeA was purified and subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis. The mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of the N-acetylhexosamine residue at the reducing end but not the predicted di-N-acetylbacillosamine (diNAcBac) residue. Further glycan structural study using the conventional fluorophore-labeling method revealed the GalNAcα-GalNAcα-(Hex-)HexNAc-HexNAc-HexNAc-HexNAc structure. Transcriptional analysis showed that UDP-diNAcBac synthases and diNAcBac transferase are transcribed but might not function in the constructed system. In conclusion, a pgl operon from C. jejuni JCM 2013 successfully functioned in E. coli, resulting in the observed prokaryotic glycosylation. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. International cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatkin, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    Main forms of international cooperation in peaceful use of nuclear energy are described. IAEA represents the organization called to establish the cooperation. For the purposes of wide nuclear power usage IAEA provides technical assistance to developing countries, conducting of meetings and conferences, accomplishes wide publishing activity and nuclear information exchange with the use of different data bases, including the INIS system, and coordinates the operating group activity through the INTOR program. Cooperation of socialist countries is accomplished in the framework of the CMEA. JINR, intimately connected with scientific organization of other countries including CERN, represents the center of nuclear investigations in socialist countries

  13. Cost-benefit aspects of radioisotope applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the use of isotope devices and methods in CMEA member states in 1980 has shown that the economic benefit was 1.5 billion roubles. The cost-benefit relationship, expressed by the ratio of costs needed for development, production and application to the resulting economic net effect was between 1 to 8 and 1 to 20. A trend analysis has been made for the use of isotopes in various branches of national economy considering the cost-benefit relationship, its developmnet and influencing factors

  14. Energy level alignment and sub-bandgap charge generation in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sai-Wing; Chen, Song; So, Franky

    2013-05-07

    Using charge modulated electroabsorption spectroscopy (CMEAS), for the first time, the energy level alignment of a polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cell is directly measured. The charge-transfer excitons generated by the sub-bandgap optical pumping are coupled with the modulating electric field and introduce subtle changes in optical absorption in the sub-bandgap region. This minimum required energy for sub-bandgap charge genreation is defined as the effective bandgap. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. LWR physics in SKODA Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbytovsky, A.; Lehmann, M.; Vyskocil, V.; Vacek, J.; Krysl, V.

    1980-01-01

    Computation of nuclear power reactors of the WWER-1000 type is described as are computer programs used by Skoda Works for the solution of neutron problems. The programs are analyzed for applicability in the unified program system of the CMEA countries which will be used in the preparation of safety reports, the evaluation of safety hazards, the design of fuel charges, economical studies etc. A detailed description is also presented of multigroup transport calculations and of the preparation of input data for macrocalculations of the heterogeneous lattices of LWR's. (author)

  16. Sealed radionuclide sources - new technical specifications and current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, D

    1987-03-01

    Basic technical specifications are discussed valid in Czechoslovakia for sealed radionuclide sources, based on international ISO and CMEA standards. Described are the standardization of terminology, relationships of tests, testing methods, types of sealed sources and their applications, relations to Czechoslovak regulations on radiation protection and to IAEA specifications for radioactive material shipment, etc. Practical impact is shown of the introduction of the new standards governing sealed sources on the national economy, and the purpose is explained of various documents issued with sealed sources. (author). 2 figs., 45 refs.

  17. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencko, Vladimir [Institute of Hygiene, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Ungvary, Gyoergy [National Institute of Occupational Health, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-07-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  18. Profitability of applications of radionuclides and ionizing radiation in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, L.

    1983-01-01

    The economic importance is underlined of applications of radionuclides and ionizing radiation based on the results of numerous studies conducted especially within the framework of CMEA. Fields of activity are listed in which interesting results have been achieved. Concrete data on investments and financial benefits, including improved technical and technological standards and product quality, are given. Examples are given to show that the applied techniques belong among the most important factors for intensifying the development of the national economy with quick return of invested means. (author)

  19. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencko, Vladimir; Gyoergy Ungvary

    1992-01-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  20. Russian gas export strategy and security of supply concerns in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite great publicity given to security of supply problems associated with Russian gas exports to Europe, these problems seem to be manageable. While the risk of short term technical breakdown exists, we are more likely to see a significant increase in Russian gas exports to Europe, than a significant fall. Increases could be achieved in the short term by moving more gas through the existing infrastructure. The restructuring of sales and transit relationships between Russia and other former Soviet republics (especially the Ukraine) as well as former CMEA member states in Central/Eastern Europe will be very important if export relationships are to be maintained and expanded. 7 refs., 1 tab

  1. On the state of the art and some trends in industrial utilization of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockstroh, R.

    1980-01-01

    The status achieved in nuclear power utilization in the world and the prospects of further development are presented. Concerning the technological maturity as well as the economy and the environmental aspects the experience hitherto obtained enables the conclusion that nuclear plants have not to fear any comparison with conventional power stations. The social difficulties in the industrially developed capitalist countries in managing the complex problems of utilizing nuclear power are described and commented. Some political aspects of further nuclear power development are also indicated. Information is given about the measures and some objectives for acceleration of nuclear power utilization in the CMEA member states. (author)

  2. Cooperation of Atomehnergoehksport and Skodaexport in the sphere of atomic power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulko, V.D.

    1986-01-01

    The cooperation is briefly outlined of the Czechoslovak foreign trade organization Skodaexport and its Soviet counterpart Atomehnergoehksport in nuclear power engineering. Thanks to this cooperation within socialist economic integration, 12 WWER-440 units of a total capacity of 5,280 MWe will be built in Czechoslovakia by 1990 followed by the construction of WWER-1000 reactors. Thus, by the year 2000, the total installed capacity in Czechoslovakia will be 15 to 16 thousand MWe. The reactors are being built according to Soviet project designs, with active participation of Soviet experts and organizations. Within the project of cooperation, the Soviet Union also supplies Czechoslovakia with nuclear fuel and regularly provides spent fuel disposal. On the other hand, Czechoslovakia supplies the Soviet Union and other CMEA member countries with reactor components, especially WWER-440 primary circuit equipment, and will become the main supplier of WWER-1000 primary circuit equipment, both according to Soviet project designs. This and close cooperation of Czechoslovak and Soviet organizations ranks Czechoslovakia among the major suppliers of technological equipment for nuclear power plants in CMEA countries. (L.O.)

  3. The Cuban health care system and factors currently undermining it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, K

    1995-08-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of health and health care in Cuba during a period of severe crisis by placing it within its economic, social, and political context using a comparative historical approach. It outlines Cuban achievements in health care as a consequence of the socialist transformations since 1959, noting the full commitment by the Cuban state, the planned economy, mass participation, and a self-critical, working class perspective as crucial factors. The roles of two external factors, the U.S. economic embargo and the Council of Mutual Economic Cooperation (CMEA), are explored in shaping the Cuban society and economy, including its health care system. It is argued that the former has hindered health efforts in Cuba. The role of the latter is more complex. While the CMEA was an important source for economic growth, Cuban relations with the Soviet bloc had a damaging effect on the development of socialism in Cuba. The adoption of the Soviet model of economic development fostered bureaucracy and demoralization of Cuban workers. As such, it contributed to two internal factors that have undermined further social progress including in health care: low productivity of labor and the growth of bureaucracy. While the health care system is still consistently supported by public policy and its structure is sound, economic crisis undermines its material and moral foundations and threatens its achievements. The future of the current Cuban health care system is intertwined with the potentials for its socialist development.

  4. Development of the national nuclear programme and preparations for the introduction of nuclear power in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szili, G.; Erdosi, N.; Varga, I.; Ocsai, M.; Szabo, B.

    1977-01-01

    Hungary's energy situation, energy policy and its interest in the use of nuclear energy are reviewed and the main nuclear power programme targets for the medium term (by 1990) and long term (by 2000) are given. Preparatory steps for the introduction of nuclear energy are outlined, emphasizing the important areas of the preparatory programme. A short technical description is given of Hungary's first nuclear power plant, the Paks Nuclear Power Station, including the preparations for construction and erection, the present construction plan, fuel supply, basic technical aspects of safety, and the social consequences of the plant's erection. The problems involved in the introduction of nuclear energy that must be solved by the state administration are summarized. A review is given of earlier legislation on projects and works representing a radiation hazard; duties are discharged by different state administrations. Additional problems arise from the large-scale use of nuclear energy. These require regulation by the authorities. Preliminary steps have been taken to frame appropriate laws. The activities of the authorities in regard to the practical realization of the first nuclear power station are outlined: there will be a scheduled procedure of authorization. The present potentials and trends in the development and design capacities for energy in general and particularly for nuclear power research are discussed. Hungarian R and D and design resources participate in the joint nuclear power development programme of the CMEA countries. Work is divided amongst various institutes. Preparations being made in the manufacturing, building and construction industries will lead to an expected increase in the domestic share in the construction of future nuclear power plants, compared to the first plant, for which the proportions of foreign and domestic participation are given. Hungary's industry is preparing for the manufacture of nuclear power equipment within the framework of the

  5. Separation and utilization of fission products considering economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, M.; Gorski, B.; Hennrich, M.; Pfrepper, G.; Richter, M.

    1982-01-01

    The quantity of usable fission products which will be obtained by nuclear fission till the year 2000 is estimated on the basis of prognostics for the development of nuclear energy in the world considering especially the development in the U.S.S.R. and the CMEA. The possibilities of utilization of cesium as gamma-ray source are discussed, and the present fields of application of palladium and the development of its price on the world market are shown. The fields of application of technetium, which wasn't available as artificial element in a greater quantity till now, have to be developed. The economic estimations base on data of a project for the separation of fission products in connection with a reprocessing plant, which was developed in the U.S.A. in 1978. The data show, that it is possible to produce the platinum metals and cesium with profit, the same can be expected for technetium. (author)

  6. 1984 availability of the world's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeless, A.; Oszuszky, F.

    1985-01-01

    This survey of the availability of the world's nuclear power plants in 1984 coveres 250 units (the CMEA countries excluded) with an aggregate 184,500 MWe, which are arranged by types of reactor and geographic distribution. The utilization of nuclear power plant capacity attained an average of 66% in 1984, which is an increase by 3 percentage points in the utilization of capacity over the previous year's level (63%). Capacity utilization in pressurized water reactors 1984 (69%) was 4 percentage points higher than it was in boiling water reactors (65%). The ranking list of the world's nuclear power plants is headed by one heavy water reactor and one gas cooled reactor each (98%), followed by five generating units, i.e., two pressurized water reactors, two boiling water reactors, and one heavy water reactor (all 95%). The best German nuclear power plants were Grafenrheinfeld (89%, position No. 20) and Unterweser and Stade (88%, position No. 25). (orig.) [de

  7. Individual protection of NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshcheev, V.S.; Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Chetverikova, Z.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features of NPP personnel individual protection are considered, mainly with respect to maintenance and repair works on various type reactors. The major concern is given to the selection and application reglamentations of the individual protection system (IPS), employment of sanitary locks, the organization of individual protection under the conditions of a heating microclimate. The ways are specified to the development and introduction of the most effective IPS and improvement of the entire NPP personnel individual protection system with respect to providing the necessary protection effect for maintaining high working capability of the personnel and minimizing the IPS impact on human organism functional systems. The accumulated experience in the personnel individual protection can be applied during construction and operation of NPP's in CMEA member-countries [ru

  8. ISO standardization in nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, D [Ustav pro Vyzkum, Vyrobu a Vyuziti Radioisotopu, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Cermak, O [Urad pro Normalizaci a Mereni, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1984-10-01

    The activity is described of the technical commission ISO/TC 85 which is currently divided into 4 subcommissions (SC) and 24 working groups. SC 1 ''Terminology, definitions, units, abbreviations'' has one working group. The most important document of this SC is ISO 921-1972 (Dictionary of nuclear technology). SC 2 ''Radiation protection'' has 9 working groups and has processed standards in dosimetry. SC 3 ''Technology of power reactors'' has 6 working groups and its work is related to IAEA activities within the NUSS program. SC 4 ''Technology of nuclear fuels'' has 8 working groups. SC 4 has compiled the basic standards for sealed sources and methods of testing their tightness. The results of the work of this group have been reflected into the standardization work of CMEA. A list is given of published international standards within TC 85.

  9. Experimental verification of lifetime of bolting joints for WWER reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Polachova, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results from experimental verification of cyclic lifetime of bolting joints of M 140x6 mm type used for WWER-440 MW reactor pressure vessels. Bolting joints or real dimensions were tested in a special testing equipment ZS 1000 in Skoda Concern. Stud bolts are made from 25Kh1MF or 38KhN3MFA type of steels. Tests were carried out at operating as well as at room temperatures with coefficient of asymmetry equal to 0.1; one tests was realized with given bending moment. Experimental results have been compared with calculated lifetimes according to ASME, Soviet and CMEA Codes. In all cases calculations give conservative assessments. (orig.)

  10. IAEA activities in preparation of reglamentary documents on nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The activities of the IAEA in the field of working out practical rules and recommendations ensuring the nuclear power plant safety are discussed. The practical rules will establish the aims and the minimum of requirements, that must be carried out to ensure the necessary safety of systems, components and equipment of the nuclear power plant throughout the whole period of its exploitation. Described is the procedure of the document preparation, consisting of the collection of documents, edited in different countries, the integration of documents by the IAEA Secretariat, the consideratiom of documents by the Group of senior advisers, the preparation of the draft document, the additional wort at the document in accordaqce with the remarks of the IAEA member-countries, the edition and dissemination of documents. The necessity for the active participation of the CMEA member-countries in the development and discussion of documents concerning the nuclear power plant safety is stated [ru

  11. Development of Czechoslovak nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keher, J.

    1985-01-01

    The output of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants is envisaged at 2200 MW by 1985, 4400 MW by 1990 and 10,280 MW by the year 2000. The operation so far is assessed of Bohunice V-1 and Bohunice V-2 power plants as is the construction of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. International cooperation in the fulfilment of the nuclear power programme is based on the General Agreement on Cooperation in the Prospective Development and Interlinkage of CMEA Power Systems to the year 1990, the Agreement on Multilateral International Specialization and Cooperation of Production and on Mutual Deliveries of Nuclear Power Plant Equipment. The most important factor in international cooperation is the Programme of Cooperation between the CSSR and the USSR. The primary target in the coming period is the Temelin nuclear power plant project and the establishment of unified control of the nuclear power complex. (M.D.)

  12. Czechoslovak nuclear medicine, development and present state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupka, S [Ustav Klinickej Onkologie, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1981-01-01

    The growth is described of nuclear medicine departments and units in Czechoslovakia in the past 25 years of the existence of the Czechoslovak Society for Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene, the numbers of personnel and their qualifications. While only three nuclear medicine units were involved in the use of radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the 1950's, 29 specialized departments and 15 laboratories are now in existence with a staff of 299 medical doctors and other university graduates and 365 technicians and nurses. They operate all possible instruments, from simple detector devices via gamma cameras to computer tomographs. Briefly, the involvement of the Society is described in coordinated research programs, both with institutions in the country and with the other CMEA countries and IAEA.

  13. Safety report on WWR-S reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.; Kaisler, L.; Listik, E.

    1981-04-01

    The present Safety Report of the WWR-S reactor summarizes findings obtained during the trial and partially also permanent operation of the reactor after two stages of its reconstruction implemented between 1974 and 1976. Most data are presented necessary for assessing probable risks of possible accident conditions whose consequences pose health hazards to individuals of the population, radiation personnel and the facilities themselves. Attention is devoted to the description of the locality, to components and systems, heat removal from the core, design aspects, the quality of new and old parts of the technological circuits, the systems of protection and control, the emergency core cooling system, the problems of radiation safety, and to the safety analyses of the abnormal states envisaged. The Report was compiled with regard to IAEA and CMEA recommendations concerning safe operation of research reactors and to the recommendations and binding decisions of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  14. Fitting of power generated by nuclear power plants into the Hungarian electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, Gyula; Potecz, Bela

    1984-01-01

    The moderate increase of electrical energy demands (3% at present) can only be met by the parallel application of fossil and nuclear power plants and by electric power import via the transmission lines of the CMEA countries. The changes in the electrical energy and fuel demands and the development of the available capacities during the last 35 years are reviewed. The major purpose of Hungarian power economy is to save hydrocarbon fuels by taking advantages of power import opportunities by operating nuclear power plants at maximum capacity and the coal fired power stations at high capacity. The basic principles, the algorithm applied to optimize the load distribution of the electrical power system are discussed in detail with special attention to the role of nuclear power. The planned availability of nuclear power plants and the amount of electricity generated by nuclear plants should also be optimized. (V.N.)

  15. Desactivation of liquid radioactive wastes of low and medium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinski, M.; Charomska, K.

    1978-01-01

    The results of research made according to the prodranm of scientific and technical cooperation of the CMEA countries are discussed. The main direction of these research works is on future improvement of installations for purification of liquid radioactive wastes by chemical methods of coprecipitation and coagulation, ion exchange, sorption, distillation and electrolysis. It was shown that methods of coprecipitation and coagulation have low efficiency and the activity reduction factor seldom was more than 10. In sorption processes different sorbents, both organic and nonorganic were used. The modified bentonite used as a sorbent agent has shown high selectivity towards zesium ions. Waste concentration by means of distillation is an universal but rather expensive method and is applied mainly in the cases of high salts concentration and high specific activity of liquid wastes. Electrolysis, as a method of the liquid wastes purification is used in the USSR and has high efficiency with low energy consumption. (I.T.) [ru

  16. Molecular transformation and degradation of refractory dissolved organic matter in the Atlantic and Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Kattner, Gerhard; Flerus, Ruth; McCallister, S. Leigh; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Koch, Boris P.

    2014-02-01

    (NEG) correlating FT-ICR MS peaks and measured Δ14C values (Δ14Cmeas) of 24 samples from the East Atlantic Ocean (AO) were adopted from Flerus et al. (2012) and their calibration function applied to the new Southern Ocean dataset (AMextAO). For the combined dataset we used a higher peak magnitude threshold of 0.01% (of the sum of all magnitudes) covering 43% of the POS and 65% of the NEG peaks from Flerus et al. (2012). The new set of 10 Southern Ocean Δ14Cmeas values (this study, Table 1) was then compared to the calculated Δ14C values [AMextAO: Δ14Ccalc]. A completely new age model for the Southern Ocean (AMSO) was established based on the 10 Southern Ocean Δ14Cmeas values from this study. The model resulted in a new set of 52 POS and 46 NEG peaks, each reflecting a highly significant correlation (p 0.65) of peak magnitude with the respective bulk Δ14Cmeas value. All of these Δ14Cmeas values revealed a comparably higher age than the dataset from the East Atlantic Ocean, thus extending the age model AMSO towards older and presumably more degraded SPE-DOM samples. All 34 Δ14Cmeas values were implemented to create a combined age model (comprising 187 POS and 633 NEG masses) covering the data from both the East Atlantic and the Southern Ocean (AMAO+SO) and an age range from 2000 to 5500 a. A detailed comparison of the different approaches is presented in EA Table 3 and EA Fig. 2. In summary, all three approaches similarly reflected the trends in the Δ14Cmeas values. In contrast to the combined model AMAO+SO (approach c), the AMSO model (b) is biased towards a much higher age if applied to East Atlantic Ocean samples. The AMextAO model (a) resulted in younger ages for the Southern Ocean samples compared to measured values (EA Fig. 2). After inclusion of 10 additional Δ14Cmeas values (c), 33% of the POS and 64% of the NEG masses from the previous model AMAO (Flerus et al., 2012) were covered in the new age model AMAO+SO POS and NEG lists and span the complete

  17. Nuclear science and technology at epoch of scientific and technical revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petros'yants, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    It is pointed out at the great revolutionizing influence of practical application of the nuclear energy with development of scientific and technical progress. Nowadays atomic energy being directed on the peaceful application of it is acquiring in the life of society significance which is difficult to overestimate. Completely new branch of industry has been created which is as to technology, culture of production and precision is concerned, exceeding all which had been created by mankind. Now it is difficult to manage without atomic energy in every branch of industry, in agriculture, medicine and scientific researches. History and modern state are stated of the development of main directions of nuclear science and technology, in particular: in the field of charged particles physics; nuclear physics; production of transuranium elements. Particular place is occupied by the works on creation of new energy sources, in particular, using controlled thermonuclear reactions and energy of fission. One of the forms of utilization of plasma processes is creation of MHD - generators. Structure has been shown of development of nuclear energetics in the CMEA member-states. Main types of power reactors have been listed and their characteristics have been given. Perspectives of nuclear ships building is given, as well as perspectives of applications of radioisotopes and radiations in different fields of science and technology, in particular, in different branches of industry and in nuclear medicine. The role of CMEA is stated in organizing and co-ordination of efforts of the countries of socialism in the field of development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy [ru

  18. Validación del cuestionario de motivación y estrategias de aprendizaje forma corta –MSLQ SF, en estudiantes universitarios de una institución pública-Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Sabogal Tinoco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article shows the results of a research which aim was to check the reliability and validity of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ SF: Garcia, Mckeachie & Wilbert, 1998. The sample was 630 students of Health Science Program of a Public University. 32% are male gender and 67,46% are female. The age range is between 16 and 56 years, with an average of 21 years and a standard deviation of 21 years. The results confirm the factor structure of the test with some variations for the CMEA FC, as a suitable reliability. Therefore, we concluded that the questionnaire is suitable for measuring the cognitive strategies and motivational aspects involved in learning. Resumen El presente artículo de investigación presenta los resultados de un estudio cuyo objetivo consistió en comprobar la fiabilidad y validez del Cuestionario de Motivación y Estrategias de Aprendizaje Forma Corta (MSLQ SF: García, Mckeachie & Wilbert, 1988. Se contó con una muestra de 630 estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de una institución pública. De ellos el 32,5% son de género masculino y el 67,46% de género femenino, con un rango de edad entre los 16 y los 56 años, con una media de 21 años y una desviación estándar de 21 años. Los resultados confirman la estructura factorial de la prueba con algunas variantes para el CMEA FC, como una adecuada fiabilidad. Por consiguiente, se concluyó que el cuestionario es apto para medir los aspectos cognitivos (estrategias y motivacionales que intervienen en el aprendizaje.

  19. Radioactive waste management at WWER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report was prepared within the framework of the Technical Assistance Regional Project on Advice on Waste Management at WWER Type Reactors, which was initiated by the IAEA in 1991. The Regional Project is an integral part of the IAEA's activities directed towards improvement of the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants with WWER type reactors (Soviet designed PWRs). Forty-five WWER type units are currently in operation and twenty-five are under construction in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Hungary and the former USSR. The idea of regional collaboration between eastern European countries under the auspices of the IAEA was discussed for the first time during the last meeting of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) on spent fuel and radioactive waste management, held in Rez, Czechoslovakia, in October 1990. Since then, the CMEA and some of its former Member States have ceased to exist. However, there are many reasons for eastern European countries to continue their regional collaboration at a higher level. The USSR, the designer and supplier of WWER type reactors in eastern European countries, participated in the first phase of the project. The majority of WWER type reactors are situated in States of the former USSR (Russia and Ukraine). The main results of the first phase of the Regional Project are: (i) Re-establishment of communication channels among eastern European countries operating WWER type reactors by incorporating the IAEA's technical assistance; (ii) Identification of common waste management problems (administrative and technical) requiring resolution; (iii) Familiarization with radioactive waste management systems at nuclear power plants with WWER type reactors - Paks (Hungary), Loviisa (Finland), Jaslovske Bohunice (Czechoslovakia) and Novovoronezh (Russian Federation). Tabs

  20. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  1. Role and position of Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metke, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute carries out applied and experimental research of the operating states of nuclear power plants, of new methods of surveillance and diagnosis of technical equipment, it prepares training of personnel, carries out tests, engineering and technical consultancy and the research of automated control systems. The main research programme of the Institute is the rationalization of raising the safety and operating reliability of WWER nuclear power plants. The Institute is also concerned with quality assurance of selected equipment of nuclear power plants and assembly works, with radioactive waste disposal and the decommissioning of nuclear power plants as well as with the preparation and implementation of the nuclear power plant start-up. The Research Institute is developing various types of equipment, such as equipment for the decontamination of the primary part of the steam generator, a continuous analyzer of chloride levels in water, a gas monitoring instrument, etc. The prospects are listed of the Research Institute and its cooperation with other CMEA member countries. (M.D.)

  2. ISO standardization in nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, D. (Ustav pro Vyzkum, Vyrobu a Vyuziti Radioisotopu, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Cermak, O. (Urad pro Normalizaci a Mereni, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1984-10-01

    The activity is described of the technical commission ISO/TC 85 which is currently divided into 4 subcommissions (SC) and 24 working groups. SC 1 ''Terminology, definitions, units, abbreviations'' has one working group. The most important document of this SC is ISO 921-1972 (Dictionary of nuclear technology). SC 2 ''Radiation protection'' has 9 working groups and has processed standards in dosimetry. SC 3 ''Technology of power reactors'' has 6 working groups and its work is related to IAEA activities within the NUSS program. SC 4 ''Technology of nuclear fuels'' has 8 working groups. SC 4 has compiled the basic standards for sealed sources and methods of testing their tightness. The results of the work of this group have been reflected into the standardization work of CMEA. A list is given of published international standards within TC 85.

  3. Data bank for nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajicek, J.

    1978-01-01

    The current state of the project for building a Data Bank for Nuclear Science and Technology is described. The tasks of the bank will be to provide data for nuclear sciences and technology in Czechoslovakia. The data bank is being projected as an open system consisting of a number of subject sections and it is expected to be formed in cooperation with the other CMEA countries. Current work is focused on securing the system in a comprehensive manner, on the necessary hardware and software, on organization and personnel. An experimental data sample from 22 selected PWR type power plants has been forwarded for processing to the Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung in Leipzig using the EC 104O computer and the SOPS AIDOS program. The analysis of primary sources of the processed data showed that the data are, in fact, concentrated in a small number of specialist journals. It appears that the most favourable hardware and software solution of the project will be the use of the SIEMENS 7755 computer at the Central Institute for Scientific and Technical Information in Prague, using the SESAM and GOLEM retrieval systems. The data bank project is to be implemented after the year 1980. (Ha)

  4. Automation and mechanization of in-service inspection of selected equipment in FRG's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The procedures and equipment are described for the automation and mechanization of in-service inspection in nuclear power plants in the FRG, used by the KWU company. Checks of the pressure vessel are done by visual means using a colour tv camera, the method of eddy currents and the ultrasonic method. An analysis is made of the time schedule of ultrasonic inspections, and the central column manipulator is described which allows to check all internal regions of the pressure vessel. Attention is also devoted to other devices, e.g., those for prestressing shanks, cleaning shanks, cleaning thread apertures, etc. A combined probe using the ultrasonic method and the eddy current method serves the inspection of heat exchange tubes in the steam generator. For inspecting the primary circuit the KWU company uses devices for checking and working the inner surface of pipes. Briefly described are examples of using KWU equipment in nuclear power plants in CMEA countries. (Z.M.). 11 figs., 6 refs

  5. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  6. Economical evaluation of mineral reserves. Economicheskaya otsenka minerae'nykh resursov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astakhov, A S

    1981-01-01

    An approach to the evaluation of mineral resources is presented which takes into account a number of interrelated economical, technological and social aspects. The basic pattern of man and environment interaction in the process of mineral resources recovery is analyzed. Various approaches to classification of mineral resources are presented. Problems related to the development of a criterion and a system of factors characteristic for particular aspects of mineral resources management are discussed in detail. A dynamic approach to the economical evaluation of mineral reserves based on the form, magnitude, and the moment of time when the compensation of damage caused by the loss of resources in question becomes necessary, is presented. The influence of typical technical restrictions on the capacity of mining enterprises and the succession of the development of a field is discussed. Dynamic aspects of the evaluation of promising mineral reserves as a limited and nonreproducible natural resource is studied in detail. Actual methods and the state of current studies in the field of the economical evaluation of mineral deposits in the USSR, the CMEA countries and in capitalistic countries are presented.

  7. Motivation and emotional intelligence in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domínguez-Alonso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the motivational and emotional intelligence level of students in Obligatory Secondary Education, and the relationship between the two essential components of an individual's personality. It has worked from a quantitative methodology with a sample of 500 students from public secondary schools, using the questionnaire motivation and learning strategies (CMEA and Spanish version of the Trait goal-Mood Scale (TMMS-24. The results show a good motivational level in all factors with an adequate perception and understanding emotional regulation (intrinsic goals, tasks value, control beliefs, self-efficacy for performance anxiety and extrinsic goals, with an adequate perception, regulation and understanding emotional. In addition, they denote a positive and significant correlation of both, except in the factors that make emotional intelligence, and they are as follows: anxiety, understanding and regulation. In conclusion, both motivation and emotional intelligence are likely to be trained and improved in the field of education, with a capacity to put in place social skills and make the most of each adolescent.

  8. Development of the national nuclear programme and preparations for the introduction of nuclear power in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szili, G.; Erdoesi, N.; Varga, I.; Ocsai, M.; Szabo, B.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes Hungary's energy situation, energy policy and interest in nuclear energy; main targets of the medium-term (by 1990) and long-term (by 2000) nuclear power programme; and preparatory steps for the introduction of nuclear energy. A short technical description is given of the Paks Nuclear Power Station, and of the preparations for construction and erection of Hungary's first nuclear power plant. Fuel supply, basic technical safety aspects and social consequences arising from the plant's erection are discussed. The problems posed by the introduction of nuclear energy which will have to be solved by state administration are summarized. Earlier legislation on projects and works representing radiation danger are described, together with the responsibilities of the various state administrative bodies. Anticipated legal problems are discussed. The participation of Hungarian R and D and design resources in the joint nuclear power development efforts of the CMEA countries is explained and division of design and R and D tasks between various institutes is shown. (author)

  9. Peaceful uses of nuclear energy in GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzinger, W; Rau, A.; Ertel, G.; Schumann, M.

    1979-01-01

    History is stated of development of atomic energy utilization in GDR. Taking into consideration limited resources of fossile fuels in GDR, development of nuclear energetics industry is the most important task. Description is given of the history of development of nuclear energetics in GDR, as well as the program of further development of it. The list is given of programs of co-operative researches in the CMEA frameworks. Content is stated of main works in the field of improvement of different assemblies and systems of nuclear power plants, in particular, of elaboration of projects of water-water reactors of high power. Directions are stated of investigations in the field of rising realibility and economy of operation of nuclear power plants, ensuring safety of operation, radioactive wastes disposal. Directions are given of works on use of a research reactor with high neutron flux. List is given of directions of works in the field of production of isotopic output. List is cited of directions of investigations in the field of application of ionizing radiations in industry, agriculture, medicine, chemistry and biology. One of the main directions are stated of works in the field of applications of isotopes and development of the methods and norms of ensuring radiation safety [ru

  10. Application of tracer techniques and technical means in ferrous, non-ferrous and hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizhek, L.; Myshak, F.; Shtrba, J.

    1979-01-01

    Brief data are given about the results of joint investigations and developments of the problems of radioisotope methods and technical means application in ferrous and hydrometallurgy, obtained during the period of 1976-1977. Development of these problems was done in the frameworks of the plan of scientific and technical cooperation of the CMEA member-states and Yugoslavia. Results are given of the development of following themes: investigation of metallurgic processes by means of activation analysis; investidations of metallurgic processes by means of autoradiography and X-ray feuorescent analysis; control and automatization of metallurgic processes by means of radioisotope instruments; investigation of processes of melting of cast iron and steel as well as of processes of treatment of metals by means of the radioactive indicators method, activation analysis and radioisotope instruments; application of the radioisotope methods and technical means for investigation of processes of production of non-ferrous metals; application of the radioisotope methods for investigations of the hydrometallurgy processes [ru

  11. Sustainable energy developments in Europe and North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Europe and North America account for 70% of world energy consumption; 61% of which is fossil fuels. Energy trends and patterns in this region, if pursued, would have a large impact on region- and world-wide energy and ecosystems. This report addresses the issues of whether projected trends and supply structures would be 'sustainable' i.e. meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs; what adaptations are warranted; and what role could and should be played by regional energy and environmental co-operation: including through the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The report is divided into three parts. Part 1 studies the interrelationships between environmental and energy policies in Europe and North America until 2010 and beyond. Part II contains research notes on CO{sub 2} concentration and energy scenarios; investment requirements of the energy supply industries in the ERE region for 1980-2000; energy technologies for the first decades of the 21st century. Scope and conditions for enhancing energy efficiency in the ERE region; CO{sub 2} and climate variation and its impact on energy policy in the USSR and European CMEA countries; the role of new and renewable sources of energy; projected energy developments in the ERE region until 2010, and pollution: synopsis of various international studies on the sustainability of energy developments. Part III describes the energy program of the UN-ECE.

  12. The USSR long-term energy program in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, A.A.; Shamrayev, N.G.; Makarov, A.A.; Volfberg, D.B.; Pravednikov, N.K.

    1989-09-01

    Five years have passed since the adoption of the USSR Energy Program developed up to the end of the 20th century. The present report covers main results of this Program. Fuel production and extraction has grown up, substantial increases have been achieved in electricity production, improvements have been made in the energy balance structure and energy efficiency of public production. The arrears in oil and coal production which became apparent in the early 80s were caught up, and losses of associated petroleum gases were lowered. The actual production of natural gas has turned out to be higher as compared with the level stipulated in the Program. The Chernobyl accident has contributed to a certain limitation in the scale of growth of nuclear electricity production. Nevertheless, the nuclear power industry remains to be the most dynamically developing branch in electricity production. Of paramount importance in the USSR Energy Program is the role played by the progress of science and technology - the major means of raising efficiency of the fuel-and-energy complex and achieving the targets in the field of energy conservation. It is also planned to show the role of the USSR Energy Program in solving energy problems in CMEA member countries, in developing mutually beneficial international cooperation in the field of energy. 2 tabs

  13. Complex program of advance in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychev, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    A draft of the complex program of advance in science and technology of the CMEA member-countries is described in brief. The basis of the program includes five priority trends electronics development complex automatization, advanced development of nuclear energy, production of new materials and tecnologies of their production and processing, advanced developmen of biotechnologies. Development of nuclear energy will be based on WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type NPPs. Heat-only nuclear stations and power and heat nuclear stations will receive a large development effort, as well as sodium-cooled fast reactors of the BN type having 800 and 1600 MW capacity, high-temperature gas-cooled breeders of the BGR-300 type, gas-cooled reactors of the VG-400 type for high-temperature heat supply (500-1000 deg C). It is contemplated to design the TOKAMAK-15 research thermonuclear facility and a pilot thermonuclear reactor for power generation and plutonium production. The program also comprises works aimed at improving reliability and safety of the nuclear installations

  14. La riforma economica in Ungheria, 1968-82 . (The Hungarian economic reform, 1968-82

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. BALASSA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro inizia con una breve descrizione delle caratteristiche principali della riforma economica globale che è stata introdotta in Ungheria nel 1968 , prima di valutare la performance economica nel quadro della riforma e le tendenze verso ricentralizzazione . Gli effetti economici delle politiche applicate sono poi analizzati . Le ulteriori riforme del 1980-81 vengono poi valutati , seguiti dall' agricoltura e la "Second Economy" . L'autore conclude che l'Ungheria ha stabilito con successo un sistema economico che unisce il grande settore socialista , le cooperative e le attività private di piccole dimensioni in maniera flessibile , che forse spiega la disponibilità di una vasta gamma di beni di consumo e dei servizi  unico nella zona CMEAThe present work begins by briefly describing the principal features of the comprehensive economic reform that was introduced in Hungary in 1968, before assessing economic performance under the reform and tendencies towards recentralisation. The economic effects of the policies applied is then analysed. The further reforms of 1980-81 are then evaluated, followed by agriculture and the “Second Economy”. The author concludes that Hungary has successfully established an economic system which combines the large-scale socialist sector, co-operatives, and small-scale private activities in a flexible manner, possibly explaining the availability of a wide range of consumer goods and services that is unique in the CMEA area.JEL: P21

  15. Results of research and development for nuclear power plants with WWER-1000 type light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The conference met in three sessions: 1. Project designing and construction of nuclear power plants; 2. Materials, technologies and applied mechanics; 3. Physics, thermal physics and control. The proceedings contains 82 papers of which only two have not been inputted in INIS. The final resolutions of session 1 related to the reduction of capital costs for newly built units, processing of project documentation, the introduction of step motors manufactured in Czechoslovakia, in-service diagnostics of nuclear power plants, etc. The final recommendations of session 2 dealt with the centralization of the management of research into the reliability, safety and residual life of nuclear installations, with radiation stability of weld metals, repairs of nuclear power plants by patch welding, with welding in nuclear power plants and stress calculations using mathematical methods. Session 3 centred on questions of the safety, reliability and economy of nuclear power plant operation. It was recommended to make a comparison of the results of theoretical calculations with experiments, to concentrate on the automation of measurement, to extend international division of labour and cooperation of CMEA countries, to extend publishing activities in the field of thermal physics, etc. General recommendations were related to the conception of the construction of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia, the implementation of original scientific, research and development work, to the question of personnel for nuclear research, the experimental base of the Czechoslovak nuclear programme and to planning and management of technical development. (E.S.)

  16. New nuclear power plants in Europe 1984. Pt 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The atw report on new nuclear power plants in Europe contains both a survey of the Federal Republic of Germany, which was pubslished in the April 1984 issue, and an overview of the nuclear power plant situation in 26 European countries including the Soviet Union and six other CMEA countries. Also this year's review includes specific status reports, complete with technical information, about all nuclear generating units under construction, in the project and concrete planning phases. The fifteen nuclear power plants newly commissioned in Europe since last year's atw report was published are covered in a similar way. Moreover, introductory summaries describe the plants in operation in each country and their 1983 electricity generation. A general introduction provides an outlook on developments in Western and Eastern Europe. The total number of nuclear power plants now in operation and under construction in Europe is 300 units with an aggregate gross 219, 320 MWe. Of these, 185 units are located in Western Europe, 115 in Eastern Europe. The units currently in operation of this total are 180 with 103,978 MWe in sixteen European countries; of these, 126 units with 74,869 MWe are run in eleven West European countries, 54 units with an aggregate 29,109 MWe in five East European countries. Of the 120 nuclear generating units at present under construction with an aggregate 115,342 MWe in fifteen European countries, 59 units with 63,442 MWe are located in eight West European, 61 units with 51,900 MWe in seven East European countries. (orig./UA) [de

  17. International cooperation in advanced nuclear systems. An option for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dee, J.B.; Kupitz, J.; O'Hara, F.

    1986-10-01

    Long-term energy problems are shared by all countries through world trade, and only a global solution can alleviate the anticipated future energy supply shortages for all. The only non-polluting, technologically-proven future energy supply options are offered by advanced nuclear power systems that utilize uranium and thorium as fertile fuel materials. For this reason, every major country with a nuclear power industry has a development programme for fast breeder and/or advanced converter nuclear power reactors. In these programmes international ventures have become the rule rather that the exception. The development of special district heating reactor systems is progressing as a CMEA collaboration. In the field of fast breeder reactors such ventures include the SNR-300, the FBTF, the Superphenix, and also the commercialization programmes BN-800/1600 (COMECON) and the Superphenix-II (ARGO group). The basic objective of the IAEA is to enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity around the world. For those Member States with development programmes the Agency promotes status and planning, to share experience on prototype plant operation, and to cooperate in identifying critical development issues. For Member States without major programmes, the Agency compiles authoritative and objective world-wide plant data, publishes reports on world-wide development status, coordinates small exploratory research programmes and provides technical assistance through expert services and equipment procurement. By providing the only existing global forum for promoting East-West and North-South inter-communication these IAEA activities encourage cooperation between countries engaged in development and inform countries interested to know more about the role of advanced reactors for meeting their future energy needs, which will become today's energy needs in the not-too-distant future

  18. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.A.; Covarrubias, A.J.; Csik, B.J.; Fattah, A.; Woite, G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a companion to similar papers by OECD/NEA and CMEA and will summarize the nuclear power system plans of developing Member States most likely to have nuclear programmes before the year 2000. The information that is presented is derived from various sources such as the Agency 1974 study of the market for nuclear power in developing countries, the annual publication, ''Power Reactors in Member States - 1976 Edition'', various nuclear power planning studies carried out by the Agency during the period 1975 and 1976, direct correspondence with selected Member States and published information in the open literature. A preliminary survey of the prospects for nuclear power in Member States not belonging to the OECD or having centrally planned economies indicates that about 27 of these countries may have operating nuclear power plants by the end of the century. In the 1974 Edition of the ''Market Survey'' it was estimated that the installed nuclear capacity in these countries might reach 24 GW by 1980, 157 GW by 1190 and 490 GW by the year 2000. It now appears that these figures are too high for a number of reasons. These include 1) the diminished growth in electrical demand which has occurred in many Member States during the last several years, 2) the extremely high cost of nuclear plant construction which has placed financial burdens on countries with existing nuclear programmes, 3) the present lack of commercially available small and medium power reactors which many of the smaller Member States would need in order to expand their electric power systems and 4) the growing awareness of Member States that more attention should be paid to exploitation of indigenous energy sources such as hydroelectric power, coal and lignite

  19. World-wide information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The three international organizations, IAEA, FAO, and UNESCO, which jointly sponsored the Symposium, share an active interest and involvement in information systems development. The extent of their interest was explained by the Director General of the IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, when he opened the meeting on behalf of the three co-sponsors: UNESCO in conjunction with the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), took initiatives in 1966 which led to the establishment of its UNISIST programme. Its aims are to co-ordinate existing trends towards international co-operation in the collection, storage and dissemination of information and to act as a catalyst. Its ultimate goal is to establish 'a flexible and loosely connected network of information services based on voluntary co-operation'. A particular concern of UNISIST is to ensure co-ordination of the information activities of the United Nations organizations. The Symposium provided an opportunity for the science information community to assess the progress already made in creating links between diverse national, international, intergovernmental and non-governmental information systems and services. Papers were presented describing current developments in the national information systems of a number of countries, with special emphasis on how these developments were furthering harmonization of national information policies and facilitating interconnection with international systems. INIS and AGRIS figured prominently amongst the international systems discussed. In addition, proposals for two new international systems, to be known as DEVSIS and SPINIS, were outlined. The former will deal with development science information; the latter will cover the information on the administrative, scientific and legal aspects of science policy. There was also discussion of international co-operation in information handling within such international organizations as the CMEA, the Commission of the European Communities and

  20. Evaluación antimicrobiana de 4 productos derivados del ácido piroleñoso para su posible utilización como desinfectantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Concepción Rojas

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la efectividad antimicrobiana de 4 productos derivados del ácido piroleñoso (LQ 501-10, LQ 501-20, LQ 502-10 y LQ 502-20, según la metodología CAME. Los 4 productos tienen buena efectividad antimicrobiana a la concentración del 6 %. El estudio práctico en áreas quirúrgicas mostró una gran reducción de unidades formadoras de colonias después de la desinfección. En el estudio toxicológico se aprecia que los 4 productos son aptos para el uso propuesto. Se recomienda su utilización como desinfectantes de superficie (paredes, pisos, mesetas, etcétera, además pueden emplearse como limpiador. Los 4 productos formulados se pusieron en práctica y se incluyeron en el Registro de Productos Sanitarios.It is evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness of 4 products derived from the pyroligneous acid (LQ 501-10, LQ 501-20, LQ 502-10, and LQ 502-20, according to the CMEA methodology. The 4 products have a good antimicrobial efficiency at a concentration of 6 %. The practical study in surgical areas showed a great reduction of those units forming colonies after disinfection. According to the toxicological study, the 4 products are suited to their purposes. It is recommended their use as surface disinfectants (walls, floors, counters, etc.. They can also be used as cleaners. These four products were put into practice and included in the Register of Sanitary Products.

  1. The annual report for 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    Nuclear power: 1. The total installed nuclear power-generating capacity in the world increased by 13.77% during 1985, reaching 250 GW(e) by the end of the year. Nuclear power plants accounted for 15% of the world's electricity generation in 1985, at the end of which there were 374 nuclear power plants in operation; 32 new plants came on line during the year. 2. There was still no general upturn in the ordering of nuclear power plants, and construction work started on only six new plants. However, vigorous nuclear power programmes continued in a number of Member States - notably France, Japan and the East European Member States belonging to CMEA. At the same time, five developing countries (China, Egypt, the Republic of Korea, Turkey and Yugoslavia) issued bid invitations or were negotiating contracts for nuclear power plants. Two new plants came on line in developing countries, one in India and one in the Republic of Korea. 3. Last year was the first year since 1973 without any cancellations of nuclear power plant orders or suspensions of plant construction. 4. Three nuclear power plants (El-4 and Chinon-A2 in France and VAK Kahl in the Federal Republic of Germany) were permanently shut down at what was judged to be the end of their economically useful lifetimes. 5. In contrast with the uncertainties about the current nuclear power programmes in some countries, the development of advanced nuclear systems was highlighted in 1985 by three major events: by the start-up of the 1200 MW(e) Super Phenix in France; by the start-up of the THTR-300 prototype high-temperature reactor in the Federal Republic of Germany; and by the start-up of India's fast breeder test reactor. 6. The Agency's efforts to help strengthen nuclear power planning in developing Member States continued, through advisory missions, training courses and guidebooks. Issues relating to the financing of nuclear power programmes were discussed at a seminar where the participants concluded that the Agency

  2. Twenty years of the Nuclear Research Institute and its contribution to the development of nuclear power and technology in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havel, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the most important results of scientific research efforts of the Nuclear Research Institute (UJV) attained in the 20 years of the Institute's existence. In 1975 the proportion of the individual fields of research was as follows: reactor technology 37%, reactor materials 19%, nuclear fuel processing including waste processing 18%, ionizing radiation applications 16%, others 10%. In the field of reactor technology, orientation is evident to light-water and fast reactors (1975): light-water reactors 40%, fast reactors 44%, heavy-water reactors 16%. The most significant contribution of the Institute to the first Czechoslovak nuclear power plant A-1 in the past period included the construction of the TR-0 heavy-water critical assembly, the choice of suitable uranium alloys and their thermal and mechanical treatment for the A-1 fuel elements, corrosion and mechanical stability study of cladding materials and post-irradiation fuel study performed in the UJV hot chambers. Significant for the development of light-water reactors are mainly the study of water regimes of radiation-exposed circuits, the solution of primary circuit chemical problems, participation in the international research programme of the CMEA countries related to the ZR-6 (Budapest) critical assembly, and the study of Zr-based cladding materials. UJV is the main Czechoslovak study centre for the development of a fast reactor and its staff have written a number of programmes for the computation of such a reactor and its fuel cycle. Also available is a suitable experimental facility. The Institute also participates in the research of UO 2 -based ceramic fuel, and in the field of spent fuel and radioactive waste processing in the development of extraction processes and the application of fluoride technology. As for ionizing radiation applications, UJV has since 1960 been manufacturing radioactive preparations including, to a limited extent, radiopharmaceuticals. It is envisaged that

  3. Campylobacter jejuni type VI secretion system: roles in adaptation to deoxycholic acid, host cell adherence, invasion, and in vivo colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Gamazon, Eric R; Feng, Yan; Park, Danny S; Pang, Jassia; Botka, Georgina; Graffam, Michelle E; Ge, Zhongming; Fox, James G

    2012-01-01

    The recently identified type VI secretion system (T6SS) of proteobacteria has been shown to promote pathogenicity, competitive advantage over competing microorganisms, and adaptation to environmental perturbation. By detailed phenotypic characterization of loss-of-function mutants, in silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses, we provide evidence that the enteric pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses a functional T6SS and that the secretion system exerts pleiotropic effects on two crucial processes--survival in a bile salt, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and host cell adherence and invasion. The expression of T6SS during initial exposure to the upper range of physiological levels of DCA (0.075%-0.2%) was detrimental to C. jejuni proliferation, whereas down-regulation or inactivation of T6SS enabled C. jejuni to resist this effect. The C. jejuni multidrug efflux transporter gene, cmeA, was significantly up-regulated during the initial exposure to DCA in the wild type C. jejuni relative to the T6SS-deficient strains, suggesting that inhibition of proliferation is the consequence of T6SS-mediated DCA influx. A sequential modulation of the efflux transporter activity and the T6SS represents, in part, an adaptive mechanism for C. jejuni to overcome this inhibitory effect, thereby ensuring its survival. C. jejuni T6SS plays important roles in host cell adhesion and invasion as T6SS inactivation resulted in a reduction of adherence to and invasion of in vitro cell lines, while over-expression of a hemolysin co-regulated protein, which encodes a secreted T6SS component, greatly enhanced these processes. When inoculated into B6.129P2-IL-10(tm1Cgn) mice, the T6SS-deficient C. jejuni strains did not effectively establish persistent colonization, indicating that T6SS contributes to colonization in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate the importance of bacterial T6SS in host cell adhesion, invasion, colonization and, for the first time to our knowledge, adaptation to DCA

  4. Campylobacter jejuni type VI secretion system: roles in adaptation to deoxycholic acid, host cell adherence, invasion, and in vivo colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvin Lertpiriyapong

    Full Text Available The recently identified type VI secretion system (T6SS of proteobacteria has been shown to promote pathogenicity, competitive advantage over competing microorganisms, and adaptation to environmental perturbation. By detailed phenotypic characterization of loss-of-function mutants, in silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses, we provide evidence that the enteric pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses a functional T6SS and that the secretion system exerts pleiotropic effects on two crucial processes--survival in a bile salt, deoxycholic acid (DCA, and host cell adherence and invasion. The expression of T6SS during initial exposure to the upper range of physiological levels of DCA (0.075%-0.2% was detrimental to C. jejuni proliferation, whereas down-regulation or inactivation of T6SS enabled C. jejuni to resist this effect. The C. jejuni multidrug efflux transporter gene, cmeA, was significantly up-regulated during the initial exposure to DCA in the wild type C. jejuni relative to the T6SS-deficient strains, suggesting that inhibition of proliferation is the consequence of T6SS-mediated DCA influx. A sequential modulation of the efflux transporter activity and the T6SS represents, in part, an adaptive mechanism for C. jejuni to overcome this inhibitory effect, thereby ensuring its survival. C. jejuni T6SS plays important roles in host cell adhesion and invasion as T6SS inactivation resulted in a reduction of adherence to and invasion of in vitro cell lines, while over-expression of a hemolysin co-regulated protein, which encodes a secreted T6SS component, greatly enhanced these processes. When inoculated into B6.129P2-IL-10(tm1Cgn mice, the T6SS-deficient C. jejuni strains did not effectively establish persistent colonization, indicating that T6SS contributes to colonization in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate the importance of bacterial T6SS in host cell adhesion, invasion, colonization and, for the first time to our knowledge