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Sample records for cm12 microscope operating

  1. Robotic autopositioning of the operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenlander, Mark E; Chowdhry, Shakeel A; Merkl, Brandon; Hattendorf, Guido M; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2014-06-01

    Use of the operating microscope has become pervasive since its introduction to the neurosurgical world. Neuronavigation fused with the operating microscope has allowed accurate correlation of the focal point of the microscope and its location on the downloaded imaging study. However, the robotic ability of the Pentero microscope has not been utilized to orient the angle of the microscope or to change its focal length to hone in on a predefined target. To report a novel technology that allows automatic positioning of the operating microscope onto a set target and utilization of a planned trajectory, either determined with the StealthStation S7 by using preoperative imaging or intraoperatively with the microscope. By utilizing the current motorized capabilities of the Zeiss OPMI Pentero microscope, a robotic autopositioning feature was developed in collaboration with Surgical Technologies, Medtronic, Inc. (StealthStation S7). The system is currently being tested at the Barrow Neurological Institute. Three options were developed for automatically positioning the microscope: AutoLock Current Point, Align Parallel to Plan, and Point to Plan Target. These options allow the microscope to pivot around the lesion, hover in a set plane parallel to the determined trajectory, or rotate and point to a set target point, respectively. Integration of automatic microscope positioning into the operative workflow has potential to increase operative efficacy and safety. This technology is best suited for precise trajectories and entry points into deep-seated lesions.

  2. Understanding and caring for an operating microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An operating or surgical microscope is an optical instrument that provides the surgeon with a stereoscopic, high quality magnified and illuminated image of the small structures in the surgical area.

  3. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friets, E.M.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Hatch, J.F.; Roberts, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given

  4. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friets, E M; Strohbehn, J W; Hatch, J F; Roberts, D W

    1989-06-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given.

  5. Evaluation of a completely robotized neurosurgical operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Finke, Markus; Schweikard, Achim; Giese, Alf

    2013-01-01

    Operating microscopes are essential for most neurosurgical procedures. Modern robot-assisted controls offer new possibilities, combining the advantages of conventional and automated systems. We evaluated the prototype of a completely robotized operating microscope with an integrated optical coherence tomography module. A standard operating microscope was fitted with motors and control instruments, with the manual control mode and balance preserved. In the robot mode, the microscope was steered by a remote control that could be fixed to a surgical instrument. External encoders and accelerometers tracked microscope movements. The microscope was additionally fitted with an optical coherence tomography-scanning module. The robotized microscope was tested on model systems. It could be freely positioned, without forcing the surgeon to take the hands from the instruments or avert the eyes from the oculars. Positioning error was about 1 mm, and vibration faded in 1 second. Tracking of microscope movements, combined with an autofocus function, allowed determination of the focus position within the 3-dimensional space. This constituted a second loop of navigation independent from conventional infrared reflector-based techniques. In the robot mode, automated optical coherence tomography scanning of large surface areas was feasible. The prototype of a robotized optical coherence tomography-integrated operating microscope combines the advantages of a conventional manually controlled operating microscope with a remote-controlled positioning aid and a self-navigating microscope system that performs automated positioning tasks such as surface scans. This demonstrates that, in the future, operating microscopes may be used to acquire intraoperative spatial data, volume changes, and structural data of brain or brain tumor tissue.

  6. Auricular burns associated with operating microscope use during otologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latuska, Richard F; Carlson, Matthew L; Neff, Brian A; Driscoll, Colin L; Wanna, George B; Haynes, David S

    2014-02-01

    To raise awareness of the potential hazard of auricular burns associated with operating microscope use during otologic surgery. Retrospective case series and summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse event reports pertaining to microscope related auricular thermal injuries. All patients who sustained auricular burns while using the operating microscope during otologic surgery at 2 tertiary academic referral centers. Surgical procedure, microscope model, intensity of illumination, length of procedure, focal length, location and severity of burn, and patient outcome. A total of 4 microscope-related auricular thermal injuries were identified from the authors' institutions. Additionally, 82 unique cases of soft tissue burns associated with the use of an operative microscope have been voluntarily reported to the FDA since 2004. A disproportionately large percent (∼ 30%) of these occurred within the field of otology, the majority of which were during tympanoplasty or tympanomastoidectomy procedures at focal length distances of 300 mm or less with xenon light source microscopes. Simultaneous advancements in light delivery technologies and lens optics have continued to improve the efficiency of the operating microscope; however, these improvements also increase the potential for thermal injuries. Although rare, a review of the FDA MAUDE database suggests that microscope-related soft tissue burns occur more frequently in otology than any other surgical specialty. A variety of factors may help explain this finding, including the unique anatomy of the external ear with thin skin and limited underlying adipose tissue. Preventative measures should be taken to decrease the risk of thermal injuries including use of the lowest comfortable light intensity, adjusting the aperture width to match the operative field, frequent wound irrigation, and covering exposed portions of the pinna

  7. Effect of operating microscope light on brain temperature during craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, Parthasarathi; Menon, Girish G; Suneel, Puthuvassery R

    2013-07-01

    Operating microscopes used during neurosurgery are fitted with xenon light. Burn injuries have been reported because of xenon microscope lighting as the intensity of xenon light is 300 W. We designed this study to find out if the light of operating microscope causes an increase in temperature of the brain tissue, which is exposed underneath. Twenty-one adult patients scheduled for elective craniotomies were enrolled. Distal esophageal temperature (T Eso), brain temperature under the microscope light (T Brain), and brain temperature under dura mater (T Dura) were measured continuously at 15-minute intervals during microscope use. The irrigation fluid temperature, room temperature, intensity of the microscope light, and the distance of the microscope from the brain surface were kept constant. The average age of the patients was 44±15 years (18 males and 3 females). The mean duration of microscope use was 140±39 minutes. There were no significant changes in T Brain and T Dura and T Eso over time. T Dura was significantly lower than T Brain both at time 0 and 60 minutes but not at 90 minutes. T Brain was significantly lower than T Eso both at time 0 and 60 minutes but not at 90 minutes. The T Dura remained significantly lower than T Eso at 0, 60, and 90 minutes. Our study shows that there is no significant rise in brain temperature under xenon microscope light up to 120 minutes duration, at intensity of 60% to 70%, from a distance of 20 to 25 cm from the brain surface.

  8. Incidence, risk factors, and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwarg, S.G.; Linstone, F.A.; Daniels, S.A.; Isenberg, S.J.; Hanscom, T.A.; Geoghegan, M.; Straatsma, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    A review of 135 consecutive cataract operations identified ten cases (7.4%) of operating microscope light retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopically, these light retinopathy lesions appeared as a focal pigment epithelial change with varying degrees of pigment clumping in the center. Fluorescein angiography accentuated the lesion by demonstrating a sharply demarcated transmission defect, occasionally with multiple satellite lesions. The shape of the lesion matched the shape of the illuminating source of the particular operating microscope used during the surgery. The most significant risk factor associated with the production of these light retinopathy lesions was prolonged operating time. Mean total operating time for the ten patients with light retinopathy was 51 minutes longer than for those without (P less than .0001). Other significant associated factors were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P less than .03), younger age (P less than .05), and the use of hydrochlorothiazide (P less than .04)

  9. Intra-operative application of optical coherence tomography with an operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, T; Lankenau, E; Hüttmann, G; Pau, H W

    2009-09-01

    To introduce the use of optical coherence tomography with an operating microscope for intra-operative evaluation of the human larynx. A specially equipped operating microscope with integrated spectral domain optical coherence tomography apparatus was used during microlaryngoscopy. Technical improvements in optical coherence tomography equipment (e.g. pilot beam, variable focal distance, improved image quality and integration into an operating microscope) have enabled greater sensitivity and imaging speed and a non-contact approach. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography now enables a better correlation between optical coherence tomography images and histological findings. With this new technology, the precision of biopsy can be improved during microlaryngoscopy. Use of this new optical coherence tomography technology, integrated into an operating microscope, enables the surgeon to define the biopsy site location and resection plane precisely, while the optical zoom of the operating microscope can be used over the complete range.

  10. Operation of a scanning near field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Faulkner, T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1992-01-01

    Images obtained with a scanning near field optical microscope (SNOM) operating in reflection are presented. We have obtained the first results with a SiN tip as optical probe. The instrument is simultaneously operated as a scanning force microscope (SFM). Moreover, the instrument incorporates an

  11. Influence of operating microscope in the sealing of cervical perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bruna Schwingel; Zaccara, Ivana Maria; Reis Só, Marcus Vinícius; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    2016-01-01

    Accidental root canal perforations are among the main complications of endodontic treatment. This study evaluated the influence of operating microscope (OM) in the marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Angelus(®)) and glass ionomer (Vitremer) inserted into cervical perforations. Perforations were made in the cervical third of the buccal wall of the root canal in mandibular incisors. Next, the teeth were divided into four groups (N = 10): MG - MTA without OM; VG - Vitremer without OM; MOMG - MTA with OM; VOMG - Vitremer with OM. The perforations were sealed according to the group and the teeth were prepared for analysis by confocal laser scanning microscope. Images of perforation region (1,024×) were made and the gap presented by the materials was measured using the Image J program. LEXT OLS4100 three dimensional (3D) measuring laser microscope measured the volumetric misfit. Data of gap were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests compared the volumetric misfits. The results showed lower volume and gap in the interface dentin/material in VOMG compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). The use of OM improved the quality of cervical perforations sealed with Vitremer, being indicated in clinical situations of iatrogenic cervical perforations.

  12. Remote control scanning electron microscope with Web operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, A.; Hirahara, O.; Date, M.; Lozbin, V.; Tsuchida, T.; Sugano, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Recently, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and the other observation instruments are coming to use a LAN (Local Area Network) to save the image in the database. We developed a remote control system in which SEM image and Control interface is indicated on the WEB Browser. In this system, SEM can be controlled by an external (client) PC installed in a general WEB Browser (Internet Explorer). Accordingly, operation interface can be indicated on the WEB browser. A JSM-6700F is connected to a LAN, and so a client PC can control the microscope. The JSM-6700F has two lines to the LAN for image transfer and communication with the SEM control. In order to transfer the image, the image size squeezes from 1280 x 1024-pixels (SEM image size) to 640x480-pixels for quick transfer. The image signal (640 x 480-pixels) is connected to the video server only, and then the image transfers to the client PC via LAN. The SEM control communicates with client PC for external command. On the other hand, the SEM control interface and the image are indicated on WEB Browser (Internet explorer). The SEM control interface is composed of the SEM image area and the SEM control part. The SEM image indicates the 640x480-pixels live image. This live image is being used as a high resolution live image transfer in the image transfer technology which a network is used for at present. If it is LAN beyond 10 base, this indication of an image can be transferred fully. When it is connected in the small line of the capacity, the refresh speed of the image becomes slow because of image data doesn't finish transferring it. In such a case, image size can be changed smaller by the LAN conditions. When a high quality image is necessary, the image of 1280 x 1024-pixels is saved on a SEM (server) side by choosing the image save button. At the same time, the file kept in SEM (server) is transferred to the client PC automatically, so that we can display a high quality image on the client PC side. The

  13. Influence of stereoscopic vision on task performance with an operating microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Wanders, Wouter; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    PURPOSE: To determine the extent to which stereoscopic depth perception influences the performance of tasks executed under an operating microscope. SETTING: Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Medical

  14. Real-time image processing and control interface for remote operation of a microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hesong; Wilder, Joseph

    1999-08-01

    A real-time image processing and control interface for remote operation of a microscope is presented in this paper. The system has achieved real-time color image display for 640 X 480 pixel images. Multi-resolution image representation can be provided for efficient transmission through the network. Through the control interface the computer can communicate with the programmable microscope via the RS232 serial ports. By choosing one of three scanning patterns, a sequence of images can be saved as BMP or PGM files to record information on an entire microscope slide. The system will be used by medical and graduate students at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for distance learning. It can be used in many network-based telepathology applications.

  15. Spine surgeon's kinematics during discectomy, part II: operating table height and visualization methods, including microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2014-05-01

    Surgeon spine angle during surgery was studied ergonomically and the kinematics of the surgeon's spine was related with musculoskeletal fatigue and pain. Spine angles varied depending on operation table height and visualization method, and in a previous paper we showed that the use of a loupe and a table height at the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum are optimal for reducing musculoskeletal loading. However, no studies have previously included a microscope as a possible visualization method. The objective of this study is to assess differences in surgeon spine angles depending on operating table height and visualization method, including microscope. We enrolled 18 experienced spine surgeons for this study, who each performed a discectomy using a spine surgery simulator. Three different methods were used to visualize the surgical field (naked eye, loupe, microscope) and three different operating table heights (anterior superior iliac spine, umbilicus, the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum) were studied. Whole spine angles were compared for three different views during the discectomy simulation: midline, ipsilateral, and contralateral. A 16-camera optoelectronic motion analysis system was used, and 16 markers were placed from the head to the pelvis. Lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis, and occipital angle were compared between the different operating table heights and visualization methods as well as a natural standing position. Whole spine angles differed significantly depending on visualization method. All parameters were closer to natural standing values when discectomy was performed with a microscope, and there were no differences between the naked eye and the loupe. Whole spine angles were also found to differ from the natural standing position depending on operating table height, and became closer to natural standing position values as the operating table height increased, independent of the visualization method

  16. Virtual tape measure for the operating microscope: system specifications and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M Y; Drake, J M; Milgram, P

    2000-01-01

    The Virtual Tape Measure for the Operating Microscope (VTMOM) was created to assist surgeons in making accurate 3D measurements of anatomical structures seen in the surgical field under the operating microscope. The VTMOM employs augmented reality techniques by combining stereoscopic video images with stereoscopic computer graphics, and functions by relying on an operator's ability to align a 3D graphic pointer, which serves as the end-point of the virtual tape measure, with designated locations on the anatomical structure being measured. The VTMOM was evaluated for its baseline and application performances as well as its application efficacy. Baseline performance was determined by measuring the mean error (bias) and standard deviation of error (imprecision) in measurements of non-anatomical objects. Application performance was determined by comparing the error in measuring the dimensions of aneurysm models with and without the VTMOM. Application efficacy was determined by comparing the error in selecting the appropriate aneurysm clip size with and without the VTMOM. Baseline performance indicated a bias of 0.3 mm and an imprecision of 0.6 mm. Application bias was 3.8 mm and imprecision was 2.8 mm for aneurysm diameter. The VTMOM did not improve aneurysm clip size selection accuracy. The VTMOM is a potentially accurate tool for use under the operating microscope. However, its performance when measuring anatomical objects is highly dependent on complex visual features of the object surfaces. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Application of neuronavigator coupled with an operative microscope and electrocorticography in epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Der-Yang; Lee, Wuen-Yen; Lee, Han-Chung; Chen, Chun-Chung; Tso, Meilan

    2005-11-01

    Application of neuronavigator coupled with an operative microscope and electrocorticography (ECoG) is a new trial for epilepsy surgery for achieving better seizure outcome and better efficiency for lesionectomy. We used a neuronavigator coupled with a microscope to delineate the magnetic resonance image-detected lesion for lesionectomy and used ECoG for evaluation of the epileptogenic foci. There were 46 patients with medically intractable partial seizures who underwent craniotomy for epilepsy surgery. Half of the patients had lesions at the temporal lobe and another half at the extratemporal lobe. Sixty-one percent of the patients were seizure-free (grade I) and 22% were nearly seizure-free (grade II). Overall, 83% of the patients had satisfactory seizure control. Complete lesion removal was successful in 37 patients (80%). For lesions with requiring complete removal, neuronavigator coupled with a microscope was 95% effective for lesionectomy. Class A of postresection ECoG had a higher rate of seizure-free outcome (92%) (P neuronavigator and ECoG (additional cortical resection) is usually necessary for temporal lobe lesions. All patients with cavernous hemangioma were seizure-free. The complication rate in our study was 8.7%. Neuronavigator coupled with a microscope provides efficacy and safety to complete lesionectomy, which is a key point of seizure outcome. Intraoperative ECoG is valuable for evaluating the epileptogenic foci for epilepsy surgery especially for lesions at the temporal lobe.

  18. Use of an operating microscope during spine surgery is associated with minor increases in operating room times and no increased risk of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basques, Bryce A; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Bohl, Daniel D; Yacob, Alem; Toy, Jason O; Varthi, Arya G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-10-15

    Retrospective database review. To evaluate whether microscope use during spine procedures is associated with increased operating room times or increased risk of infection. Operating microscopes are commonly used in spine procedures. It is debated whether the use of an operating microscope increases operating room time or confers increased risk of infection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, which includes data from more than 370 participating hospitals, was used to identify patients undergoing elective spinal procedures with and without the use of an operating microscope for the years 2011 and 2012. Bivariate and multivariate linear regressions were used to test the association between microscope use and operating room times. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were similarly conducted to test the association between microscope use and infection occurrence within 30 days of surgery. A total of 23,670 elective spine procedures were identified, of which 2226 (9.4%) used an operating microscope. The average patient age was 55.1±14.4 years. The average operative time (incision to closure) was 125.7±82.0 minutes.Microscope use was associated with minor increases in preoperative room time (+2.9 min, P=0.013), operative time (+13.2 min, Pmicroscope and nonmicroscope groups for occurrence of any infection, superficial surgical site infection, deep surgical site infection, organ space infection, or sepsis/septic shock, regardless of surgery type. We did not find operating room times or infection risk to be significant deterrents for use of an operating microscope during spine surgery. 3.

  19. Persistent and automatic intraoperative 3D digitization of surfaces under dynamic magnifications of an operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankur N; Miga, Michael I; Pheiffer, Thomas S; Chambless, Lola B; Thompson, Reid C; Dawant, Benoit M

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges impeding advancement in image-guided surgical (IGS) systems is the soft-tissue deformation during surgical procedures. These deformations reduce the utility of the patient's preoperative images and may produce inaccuracies in the application of preoperative surgical plans. Solutions to compensate for the tissue deformations include the acquisition of intraoperative tomographic images of the whole organ for direct displacement measurement and techniques that combines intraoperative organ surface measurements with computational biomechanical models to predict subsurface displacements. The later solution has the advantage of being less expensive and amenable to surgical workflow. Several modalities such as textured laser scanners, conoscopic holography, and stereo-pair cameras have been proposed for the intraoperative 3D estimation of organ surfaces to drive patient-specific biomechanical models for the intraoperative update of preoperative images. Though each modality has its respective advantages and disadvantages, stereo-pair camera approaches used within a standard operating microscope is the focus of this article. A new method that permits the automatic and near real-time estimation of 3D surfaces (at 1 Hz) under varying magnifications of the operating microscope is proposed. This method has been evaluated on a CAD phantom object and on full-length neurosurgery video sequences (∼1 h) acquired intraoperatively by the proposed stereovision system. To the best of our knowledge, this type of validation study on full-length brain tumor surgery videos has not been done before. The method for estimating the unknown magnification factor of the operating microscope achieves accuracy within 0.02 of the theoretical value on a CAD phantom and within 0.06 on 4 clinical videos of the entire brain tumor surgery. When compared to a laser range scanner, the proposed method for reconstructing 3D surfaces intraoperatively achieves root mean square

  20. Persistent and automatic intraoperative 3D digitization of surfaces under dynamic magnifications of an operating microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankur N.; Miga, Michael I.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Chambless, Lola B.; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges impeding advancement in image-guided surgical (IGS) systems is the soft-tissue deformation during surgical procedures. These deformations reduce the utility of the patient’s preoperative images and may produce inaccuracies in the application of preoperative surgical plans. Solutions to compensate for the tissue deformations include the acquisition of intraoperative tomographic images of the whole organ for direct displacement measurement and techniques that combines intraoperative organ surface measurements with computational biomechanical models to predict subsurface displacements. The later solution has the advantage of being less expensive and amenable to surgical workflow. Several modalities such as textured laser scanners, conoscopic holography, and stereo-pair cameras have been proposed for the intraoperative 3D estimation of organ surfaces to drive patient-specific biomechanical models for the intraoperative update of preoperative images. Though each modality has its respective advantages and disadvantages, stereo-pair camera approaches used within a standard operating microscope is the focus of this article. A new method that permits the automatic and near real-time estimation of 3D surfaces (at 1Hz) under varying magnifications of the operating microscope is proposed. This method has been evaluated on a CAD phantom object and on full-length neurosurgery video sequences (~1 hour) acquired intraoperatively by the proposed stereovision system. To the best of our knowledge, this type of validation study on full-length brain tumor surgery videos has not been done before. The method for estimating the unknown magnification factor of the operating microscope achieves accuracy within 0.02 of the theoretical value on a CAD phantom and within 0.06 on 4 clinical videos of the entire brain tumor surgery. When compared to a laser range scanner, the proposed method for reconstructing 3D surfaces intraoperatively achieves root mean square

  1. Microdose fluorescence imaging of ABY-029 on an operating microscope adapted by custom illumination and imaging modules

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Dsouza, Alisha V.; Marra, Kayla; Pogue, Brian W.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence guided surgery has the potential to positively impact surgical oncology; current operating microscopes and stand-alone imaging systems are too insensitive or too cumbersome to maximally take advantage of new tumor-specific agents developed through the microdose pathway. To this end, a custom-built illumination and imaging module enabling picomolar-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence imaging on a commercial operating microscope is described. The limits of detection and system spe...

  2. Microdose fluorescence imaging of ABY-029 on an operating microscope adapted by custom illumination and imaging modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan T; Dsouza, Alisha V; Marra, Kayla; Pogue, Brian W; Roberts, David W; Paulsen, Keith D

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescence guided surgery has the potential to positively impact surgical oncology; current operating microscopes and stand-alone imaging systems are too insensitive or too cumbersome to maximally take advantage of new tumor-specific agents developed through the microdose pathway. To this end, a custom-built illumination and imaging module enabling picomolar-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence imaging on a commercial operating microscope is described. The limits of detection and system specifications are characterized, and in vivo efficacy of the system in detecting ABY-029 is evaluated in a rat orthotopic glioma model following microdose injections, showing the suitability of the device for microdose phase 0 clinical trials.

  3. Four canals in the mesial root of a mandibular first molar. A case report under the operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakiotis, Evangelos G; Tzanetakis, Giorgos N

    2007-08-01

    In this era of microscope-assisted endodontics, finding variations in root canal system anatomy is not uncommon. Operating microscopes combined with careful clinical examination and radiographic interpretation can aid the clinician to successfully treat cases with such internal anatomy. The understanding of this view enables the possible location of additional canals in any tooth requiring endodontic treatment. The present clinical article demonstrates a rare anatomical complexity in the mesial root of a mandibular first molar. Four independent root canal orifices were found in this root by clinical detection with the aid of a dental operating microscope. This case shows that additional canals can be located in any root undergoing endodontic treatment and clinicians should always be aware of aberrant internal anatomy.

  4. Motorization of a surgical microscope for intra-operative navigation and intuitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, M; Schweikard, A

    2010-09-01

    During surgical procedures, various medical systems, e.g. microscope or C-arm, are used. Their precise and repeatable manual positioning can be very cumbersome and interrupts the surgeon's work flow. Robotized systems can assist the surgeon but they require suitable kinematics and control. However, positioning must be fast, flexible and intuitive. We describe a fully motorized surgical microscope. Hardware components as well as implemented applications are specified. The kinematic equations are described and a novel control concept is proposed. Our microscope combines fast manual handling with accurate, automatic positioning. Intuitive control is provided by a small remote control mounted to one of the surgical instruments. Positioning accuracy and repeatability are system assists the surgeon, so that he can position the microscope precisely and repeatedly without interrupting the clinical workflow. The combination of manual und automatic control guarantees fast and flexible positioning during surgical procedures. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Microsurgical Clipping of an Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Using a Novel Robotic Visualization Tool in Lieu of the Binocular Operating Microscope: Operative Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Daniel R; Reinard, Kevin A; Ajayi, Olaide O; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2018-01-01

    The binocular operating microscope has been the visualization instrument of choice for microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms for many decades. To discuss recent technological advances that have provided novel visualization tools, which may prove to be superior to the binocular operating microscope in many regards. We present an operative video and our operative experience with the BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) during the microsurgical clipping of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, the use of this device for the microsurgical clipping of an intracranial aneurysm has never been described in the literature. The BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) is a surgical exoscope which avoids many of the ergonomic constraints of the binocular operating microscope, but is associated with a steep learning curve. The BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) is a maneuverable surgical exoscope that is positioned with a directional aiming device and a surgeon-controlled foot pedal. While utilizing this device comes with a steep learning curve typical of any new technology, the BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) has several advantages over the conventional surgical microscope, which include a relatively unobstructed surgical field, provision of high-definition images, and visualization of difficult angles/trajectories. This device can easily be utilized as a visualization tool for a variety of cranial and spinal procedures in lieu of the binocular operating microscope. We anticipate that this technology will soon become an integral part of the neurosurgeon's armamentarium. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  6. The acceptance of dental operating microscope among advance education specialty programs in endodontics in the middle east

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Alrejaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To present the current situation of dental operating microscopy (DOM training in the available Advance Specialty Education Programs in Endodontics in Arab Middle-Eastern countries. Materials and Methods: A web-based survey was sent to the electronic mail address of Advance Specialty Education programs of 15 Arab and middle east countries. The questions were limited to those who have an advanced specialty education program in Endodontics at their University if they are using an operating microscope? Results: Out of 15 countries, only 4 countries have microscopic technology in their Advance Education Programs in Endodontics. Conclusion: Few Arab Middle-Eastern countries have DOM in their advance education programs in endodontics. The highest authority in advancing endodontic education in the Arab Middle-East should consider in the near future the importance of this technology as standard care in teaching advance endodontics. An advance workshops should be organized regularly to provide enough knowledge about this standard educational technology.

  7. Real-time Optical Coherence Tomography Incorporated in the Operating Microscope during Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutlak, Mohammed A; Aloniazan, Turki; May, William

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old male presented with reduced vision due to senile cataract. The patient consented to undergo real-time intraoperative anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) during phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Images were captured at various points during the surgery. The use of AS-OCT incorporated into the surgical microscope was evaluated as an adjunct to cataract surgery. We were able to successfully evaluate, in real-time, wound architecture, the attachment of Descemet's membrane, the posterior capsule, and IOL position. Real-time AS-OCT can be used to proactively address potential complications and verify IOL placement intraoperatively.

  8. A new Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope at the ALS for operation up to 2500eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcoyne, David; Ade, Harald; Attwood, David; Hitchcock, Adam; McKean, Pat; Mitchell, Gary; Monteiro, Paulo; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-01

    We report on the design and construction of a higher energy Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope on a new bend magnet beam line at the Advanced Light Source. Previously we have operated such an instrument on a bend magnet for C, N and O 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The new instrument will have similar performance at higher energies up to and including the S 1s edge at 2472eV. A new microscope configuration is planned. A more open geometry will allow a fluorescence detector to count emitted photons from the front surface of the sample. There will be a capability for zone plate scanning in addition to the more conventional sample scanning mode. This will add the capability for imaging a massive sample at high resolution over a limited field of view, so that heavy reaction cells may be used to study processes in-situ, exploiting the longer photon attenuation length and the longer zone plate working distances available at higher photon energy. The energy range will extend down to include the C1s edge at 300eV, to allow high energy NEXAFS microscopic studies to correlate with the imaging of organics in the same sample region of interest.

  9. The one nucleon transfer operator in the microscopic IBM without NOA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barea, J.; Alonso, C.E.; Arias, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The mapping of the single fermion creation operator (c i † ) onto the Interacting Boson–Fermion space (IBFM) is revisited within the Generalized Seniority scheme. In the original work the Number Operator Approximation (NOA) was used. Here the exact evaluation of the relevant terms using exact values for the fermion matrix elements in the Generalized Seniority scheme is worked out. This provides a new, improved, single particle transfer operator to be used in IBFM

  10. The one nucleon transfer operator in the microscopic IBM without NOA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, 4070386 Chile (Chile); Alonso, C.E.; Arias, J.M. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-10-07

    The mapping of the single fermion creation operator (c{sub i}{sup †}) onto the Interacting Boson–Fermion space (IBFM) is revisited within the Generalized Seniority scheme. In the original work the Number Operator Approximation (NOA) was used. Here the exact evaluation of the relevant terms using exact values for the fermion matrix elements in the Generalized Seniority scheme is worked out. This provides a new, improved, single particle transfer operator to be used in IBFM.

  11. Unified treatment of microscopic boundary conditions and efficient algorithms for estimating tangent operators of the homogenized behavior in the computational homogenization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Dung; Wu, Ling; Noels, Ludovic

    2017-03-01

    This work provides a unified treatment of arbitrary kinds of microscopic boundary conditions usually considered in the multi-scale computational homogenization method for nonlinear multi-physics problems. An efficient procedure is developed to enforce the multi-point linear constraints arising from the microscopic boundary condition either by the direct constraint elimination or by the Lagrange multiplier elimination methods. The macroscopic tangent operators are computed in an efficient way from a multiple right hand sides linear system whose left hand side matrix is the stiffness matrix of the microscopic linearized system at the converged solution. The number of vectors at the right hand side is equal to the number of the macroscopic kinematic variables used to formulate the microscopic boundary condition. As the resolution of the microscopic linearized system often follows a direct factorization procedure, the computation of the macroscopic tangent operators is then performed using this factorized matrix at a reduced computational time.

  12. Comparison of surgical outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: does the intra-operative use of a microscope improve surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine; Reiser, Elizabeth; Ziegler, Cole; Freischlag, Kyle; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess and compare the complications profile as well as long-term clinical outcomes between patients undergoing an Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) procedure with and without the use of an intra-operative microscope. One hundred and forty adult patients (non-microscope cohort: 81; microscope cohort: 59) undergoing ACDF at a major academic medical center were included in this study. Enrollment criteria included available demographic, surgical and clinical outcome data. All patients had prospectively collected patient-reported outcomes measures and a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients completed the neck disability index (NDI), short-form 12 (SF-12) and visual analog pain scale (VAS) before surgery, then at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Clinical outcomes and complication rates were compared between both patient cohorts. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. The mean ± standard deviation duration of surgery was longer in the microscope cohort (microscope: 169±34 minutes vs. non-microscope: 98±42 minutes, Pmicroscope and non-microscope cohorts demonstrated similar improvement from base line in NDI (microscope: 13.52±25.77 vs. non-microscope: 19.51±27.47, Pmicroscope: 4.15±26.39 vs. non-microscope: 11.98±22.96, Pmicroscope: 9.47±32.38 vs. non-microscope: 16.19±30.44, Pmicroscope: 2.22±4.00 vs. non-microscope: 3.69±3.61, Pmicroscope does not improve overall surgery-related outcomes, nor does it lead to superior long-term outcomes in pain and functional disability, 2 years after index surgery.

  13. Modification of a scanning electron microscope for remote operation in a hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.R.; Watson, H.E.; Smidt, F.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of broken fracture specimens is an essential part of the characterization of the failure mode of fracture toughness of specimens. The large specimen mass required for such examinations dictates the use of a shielded facility for performing such examinations on irradiated specimens. This report describes the modification of a commercial SEM for remote operation in a hot cell. The facility is used to examine specimens from several Navy and DOE-sponsored programs conducted at NRL which require the examination of radioactive materials

  14. Inverted Nipple Correction with Selective Dissection of Lactiferous Ducts Using an Operative Microscope and a Traction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Yoshihiro; Itsukage, Sizu; Morita, Daiki; Numajiri, Toshiaki

    2017-10-01

    An inverted nipple is a common congenital condition in young women that may cause breastfeeding difficulty, psychological distress, repeated inflammation, and loss of sensation. Various surgical techniques have been reported for correction of inverted nipples, and all have advantages and disadvantages. Here, we report a new technique for correction of an inverted nipple using an operative microscope and traction that results in low recurrence and preserves lactation function and sensation. Between January 2010 and January 2013, we treated eight inverted nipples in seven patients with selective lactiferous duct dissection using an operative microscope. An opposite Z-plasty was added at the junction of the nipple and areola. Postoperatively, traction was applied through an apparatus made from a rubber gasket attached to a sterile syringe. Patients were followed up for 15-48 months. Adequate projection was achieved in all patients, and there was no wound dehiscence or complications such as infection. Three patients had successful pregnancies and subsequent breastfeeding that was not adversely affected by the treatment. There was no loss of sensation in any patient during the postoperative period. Our technique for treating an inverted nipple is effective and preserves lactation function and nipple sensation. The method maintains traction for a longer period, which we believe increases the success rate of the surgery for correction of severely inverted nipples. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  15. Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Operating Room in Young Children With Retinal Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Viehland, Christian; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Vajzovic, Lejla; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2017-05-01

    Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained traction as an important adjunct for clinical decision making during vitreoretinal surgery, and OCT angiography (OCTA) has provided novel insights in clinical evaluation of retinal diseases. To date, these two technologies have not been applied in combination to evaluate retinal vascular disease in the operating suite. To conduct microscope-integrated, swept-source OCTA (MIOCTA) in children with retinal vascular disease. In this case report analysis, OCT imaging in pediatric patients, MIOCTA images were obtained during examination under anesthesia from a young boy with a history of idiopathic vitreous hemorrhage and a female infant with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Side-by-side comparison of research MIOCT angiograms and clinically indicated fluorescein angiograms. In 2 young children with retinal vascular disease, the MIOCTA images showed more detailed vascular patterns than were visible on the fluorescein angiograms although within a more posterior field of view. The MIOCTA system allowed visualization of small pathological retinal vessels in the retinal periphery that were obscured in the fluorescein angiograms by fluorescein staining from underlying, preexisting laser scars. This is the first report to date of the use of MIOCTA in the operating room for young children with retinal vascular disease. Further optimization of this system may allow noninvasive detailed evaluation of retinal vasculature during surgical procedures and in patients who could not cooperate with in-office examinations.

  16. A 10 mK scanning tunneling microscope operating in ultra high vacuum and high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Enders, Axel; Stiepany, Wolfgang; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    We present design and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that operates at temperatures down to 10 mK providing ultimate energy resolution on the atomic scale. The STM is attached to a dilution refrigerator with direct access to an ultra high vacuum chamber allowing in situ sample preparation. High magnetic fields of up to 14 T perpendicular and up to 0.5 T parallel to the sample surface can be applied. Temperature sensors mounted directly at the tip and sample position verified the base temperature within a small error margin. Using a superconducting Al tip and a metallic Cu(111) sample, we determined an effective temperature of 38 ± 1 mK from the thermal broadening observed in the tunneling spectra. This results in an upper limit for the energy resolution of ΔE = 3.5 kBT = 11.4 ± 0.3 μeV. The stability between tip and sample is 4 pm at a temperature of 15 mK as demonstrated by topography measurements on a Cu(111) surface.

  17. Design and operation of an inexpensive far-field laser scanning microscope suitable for use in an undergraduate laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Arthur; Hawk, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Scanning microscope applications span the science disciplines yet their costs limit their use at educational institutions. The basic concepts of scanning microscopy are simple. The microscope probe - whether it produces a photon, electron or ion beam - moves relative to the surface of the sample object. The beam interacts with the sample to produce a detected signal that depends on the desired property to be measured at the probe location on the sample. The microscope transforms the signal for output in a form desired by the user. Undergraduate students can easily construct a far-field laser scanning microscope that illustrates each of these principles from parts available at local electronics and hardware stores and use the microscope to explore properties of devices such as light dependent resistors and biological samples such as leaves. Students can record, analyze and interpret results using a computer and free software.

  18. Effect of the video output of the dental operating microscope on anxiety levels in a pediatric population during restorative procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Sayed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adapting a child to the alien settings of a dental operatory is a major challenge to the dentist. Fear of the unknown and preconceived notions of dental pain causes anxiety in the pediatric patient. This often leads to disruptive and uncooperative behavior in the dental operatory. Many methods of behavior management have been described, of which the Tell-Show-Do (TSD is an established and time-tested technique of behavior management. Aim: To determine if a live visual output of the dental operating microscope (DOM could be used as an adjunct to the TSD technique, to involve the child more completely in the procedure and reduce the fear of the unknown. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, crossover, and cross-sectional clinical trial. Data were obtained from two visits. 90 children having carious lesions on both lower first molars, in the 7-9 years age group were selected and divided randomly into two groups. Restorative procedures were performed on one tooth per visit, with visits 1 week apart. Live display of the procedure was shown to the patient using video output of the DOM displayed on a 72 inch LCD monitor, angled for best visibility of the child. Anxiety levels were evaluated using Venhams picture selection test and pulse oximetry. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the anxiety scores obtained from the two groups. Results: The results showed there was a decrease in the anxiety from the first visit to the second visit. (P = 0.05 for Group A and P = 0.003 for Group B. The patients preferred the visit in which the DOM was used. The operator reported an increased patient compliance and reduced patient movement in the visits in which the DOM was used. Conclusion: There is a reduction in anxiety from the first visit to the second visit for restorative treatment when the DOM is used.

  19. Effect of the video output of the dental operating microscope on anxiety levels in a pediatric population during restorative procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Abrar; Ranna, Vinisha; Padawe, Dimple; Takate, Vilas

    2016-01-01

    Adapting a child to the alien settings of a dental operatory is a major challenge to the dentist. Fear of the unknown and preconceived notions of dental pain causes anxiety in the pediatric patient. This often leads to disruptive and uncooperative behavior in the dental operatory. Many methods of behavior management have been described, of which the Tell-Show-Do (TSD) is an established and time-tested technique of behavior management. To determine if a live visual output of the dental operating microscope (DOM) could be used as an adjunct to the TSD technique, to involve the child more completely in the procedure and reduce the fear of the unknown. The study was a randomized, controlled, crossover, and cross-sectional clinical trial. Data were obtained from two visits. 90 children having carious lesions on both lower first molars, in the 7-9 years age group were selected and divided randomly into two groups. Restorative procedures were performed on one tooth per visit, with visits 1 week apart. Live display of the procedure was shown to the patient using video output of the DOM displayed on a 72 inch LCD monitor, angled for best visibility of the child. Anxiety levels were evaluated using Venhams picture selection test and pulse oximetry. Student's t-test was used to compare the anxiety scores obtained from the two groups. The results showed there was a decrease in the anxiety from the first visit to the second visit. (P = 0.05 for Group A and P = 0.003 for Group B). The patients preferred the visit in which the DOM was used. The operator reported an increased patient compliance and reduced patient movement in the visits in which the DOM was used. There is a reduction in anxiety from the first visit to the second visit for restorative treatment when the DOM is used.

  20. A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Andreas V; Houel, Julien; Brunner, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D; Warburton, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Optically active quantum dots, for instance self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, are potentially excellent single photon sources. The fidelity of the single photons is much improved using resonant rather than non-resonant excitation. With resonant excitation, the challenge is to distinguish between resonance fluorescence and scattered laser light. We have met this challenge by creating a polarization-based dark-field microscope to measure the resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot at low temperature. We achieve a suppression of the scattered laser exceeding a factor of 10(7) and background-free detection of resonance fluorescence. The same optical setup operates over the entire quantum dot emission range (920-980 nm) and also in high magnetic fields. The major development is the outstanding long-term stability: once the dark-field point has been established, the microscope operates for days without alignment. The mechanical and optical designs of the microscope are presented, as well as exemplary resonance fluorescence spectroscopy results on individual quantum dots to underline the microscope's excellent performance.

  1. A dark-field microscope for background-free detection of resonance fluorescence from single semiconductor quantum dots operating in a set-and-forget mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlmann, Andreas V.; Houel, Julien; Warburton, Richard J.; Brunner, Daniel; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D.

    2013-01-01

    Optically active quantum dots, for instance self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, are potentially excellent single photon sources. The fidelity of the single photons is much improved using resonant rather than non-resonant excitation. With resonant excitation, the challenge is to distinguish between resonance fluorescence and scattered laser light. We have met this challenge by creating a polarization-based dark-field microscope to measure the resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot at low temperature. We achieve a suppression of the scattered laser exceeding a factor of 10 7 and background-free detection of resonance fluorescence. The same optical setup operates over the entire quantum dot emission range (920–980 nm) and also in high magnetic fields. The major development is the outstanding long-term stability: once the dark-field point has been established, the microscope operates for days without alignment. The mechanical and optical designs of the microscope are presented, as well as exemplary resonance fluorescence spectroscopy results on individual quantum dots to underline the microscope's excellent performance

  2. Initial experience with a robotically operated video optical telescopic-microscope in cranial neurosurgery: feasibility, safety, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Lior; Chakravarthi, Srikant S; Monroy-Sosa, Alejandro; Celix, Juanita M; Kojis, Nathaniel; Singh, Maharaj; Jennings, Jonathan; Fukui, Melanie B; Rovin, Richard A; Kassam, Amin B

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The move toward better, more effective optical visualization in the field of neurosurgery has been a focus of technological innovation. In this study, the authors' objectives are to describe the feasibility and safety of a new robotic optical platform, namely, the robotically operated video optical telescopic-microscope (ROVOT-m), in cranial microsurgical applications. METHODS A prospective database comprising patients who underwent a cranial procedure between April 2015 and September 2016 was queried, and the first 200 patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected as the cohort for a retrospective chart review. Only adults who underwent microsurgical procedures in which the ROVOT-m was used were considered for the study. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were retrieved from electronic medical records. The authors address the feasibility and safety of the ROVOT-m by studying various intraoperative variables and by reporting perioperative morbidity and mortality, respectively. To assess the learning curve, cranial procedures were categorized into 6 progressively increasing complexity groups. The main categories of pathology were I) intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs); II) intraaxial tumors involving noneloquent regions or noncomplex extraaxial tumors; III) intraaxial tumors involving eloquent regions; IV) skull base pathologies; V) intraventricular lesions; and VI) cerebrovascular lesions. In addition, the entire cohort was evenly divided into early and late cohorts. RESULTS The patient cohort comprised 104 female (52%) and 96 male (48%) patients with a mean age of 56.7 years. The most common pathological entities encountered were neoplastic lesions (153, 76.5%), followed by ICH (20, 10%). The distribution of cases by complexity categories was 11.5%, 36.5%, 22%, 20%, 3.5%, and 6.5% for Categories I, II, II, IV, V, and VI, respectively. In all 200 cases, the surgical goal was achieved without the need for intraoperative conversion

  3. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  4. Analysis of C-shaped canal systems in mandibular second molars using surgical operating microscope and cone beam computed tomography: A clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sanjay; Yadav, Seema; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2014-05-01

    The study was aimed to acquire better understanding of C-shaped canal systems in mandibular second molar teeth through a clinical approach using sophisticated techniques such as surgical operating microscope and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 42 extracted mandibular second molar teeth with fused roots and longitudinal grooves were collected randomly from native Indian population. Pulp chamber floors of all specimens were examined under surgical operating microscope and classified into four types (Min's method). Subsequently, samples were subjected to CBCT scan after insertion of K-files size #10 or 15 into each canal orifice and evaluated using the cross-sectional and 3-dimensional images in consultation with dental radiologist so as to obtain more accurate results. Minimum distance between the external root surface on the groove and initial file placed in the canal was also measured at different levels and statistically analyzed. Out of 42 teeth, maximum number of samples (15) belonged to Type-II category. A total of 100 files were inserted in 86 orifices of various types of specimens. Evaluation of the CBCT scan images of the teeth revealed that a total of 21 canals were missing completely or partially at different levels. The mean values for the minimum thickness were highest at coronal followed by middle and apical third levels in all the categories. Lowest values were obtained for teeth with Type-III category at all three levels. The present study revealed anatomical variations of C-shaped canal system in mandibular second molars. The prognosis of such complex canal anatomies can be improved by simultaneous employment of modern techniques such as surgical operating microscope and CBCT.

  5. Microscopic Polyangiitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, specifically the feet, lower legs and, in bed-ridden patients, the buttocks. The skin findings of cutaneous ... that are in contact with the lungs’ microscopic air sacs – the condition may quickly pose a threat ...

  6. A fully automated calibration method for an optical see-through head-mounted operating microscope with variable zoom and focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Ede, Christopher; Hummel, Johann; Wanschitz, Felix; Ewers, Rolf; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2005-11-01

    Ever since the development of the first applications in image-guided therapy (IGT), the use of head-mounted displays (HMDs) was considered an important extension of existing IGT technologies. Several approaches to utilizing HMDs and modified medical devices for augmented reality (AR) visualization were implemented. These approaches include video-see through systems, semitransparent mirrors, modified endoscopes, and modified operating microscopes. Common to all these devices is the fact that a precise calibration between the display and three-dimensional coordinates in the patient's frame of reference is compulsory. In optical see-through devices based on complex optical systems such as operating microscopes or operating binoculars-as in the case of the system presented in this paper-this procedure can become increasingly difficult since precise camera calibration for every focus and zoom position is required. We present a method for fully automatic calibration of the operating binocular Varioscope M5 AR for the full range of zoom and focus settings available. Our method uses a special calibration pattern, a linear guide driven by a stepping motor, and special calibration software. The overlay error in the calibration plane was found to be 0.14-0.91 mm, which is less than 1% of the field of view. Using the motorized calibration rig as presented in the paper, we were also able to assess the dynamic latency when viewing augmentation graphics on a mobile target; spatial displacement due to latency was found to be in the range of 1.1-2.8 mm maximum, the disparity between the true object and its computed overlay represented latency of 0.1 s. We conclude that the automatic calibration method presented in this paper is sufficient in terms of accuracy and time requirements for standard uses of optical see-through systems in a clinical environment.

  7. Martian Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

  8. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope operating at 30 mK and in a vector magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Allwörden, Henning; Eich, Andreas; Knol, Elze J; Hermenau, Jan; Sonntag, Andreas; Gerritsen, Jan W; Wegner, Daniel; Khajetoorians, Alexander A

    2018-03-01

    We describe the design and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that operates at a base temperature of 30 mK in a vector magnetic field. The cryogenics is based on an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) top-loading wet dilution refrigerator that contains a vector magnet allowing for fields up to 9 T perpendicular and 4 T parallel to the sample. The STM is placed in a multi-chamber UHV system, which allows in situ preparation and exchange of samples and tips. The entire system rests on a 150-ton concrete block suspended by pneumatic isolators, which is housed in an acoustically isolated and electromagnetically shielded laboratory optimized for extremely low noise scanning probe measurements. We demonstrate the overall performance by illustrating atomic resolution and quasiparticle interference imaging and detail the vibrational noise of both the laboratory and microscope. We also determine the electron temperature via measurement of the superconducting gap of Re(0001) and illustrate magnetic field-dependent measurements of the spin excitations of individual Fe atoms on Pt(111). Finally, we demonstrate spin resolution by imaging the magnetic structure of the Fe double layer on W(110).

  9. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope operating at 30 mK and in a vector magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Allwörden, Henning; Eich, Andreas; Knol, Elze J.; Hermenau, Jan; Sonntag, Andreas; Gerritsen, Jan W.; Wegner, Daniel; Khajetoorians, Alexander A.

    2018-03-01

    We describe the design and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that operates at a base temperature of 30 mK in a vector magnetic field. The cryogenics is based on an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) top-loading wet dilution refrigerator that contains a vector magnet allowing for fields up to 9 T perpendicular and 4 T parallel to the sample. The STM is placed in a multi-chamber UHV system, which allows in situ preparation and exchange of samples and tips. The entire system rests on a 150-ton concrete block suspended by pneumatic isolators, which is housed in an acoustically isolated and electromagnetically shielded laboratory optimized for extremely low noise scanning probe measurements. We demonstrate the overall performance by illustrating atomic resolution and quasiparticle interference imaging and detail the vibrational noise of both the laboratory and microscope. We also determine the electron temperature via measurement of the superconducting gap of Re(0001) and illustrate magnetic field-dependent measurements of the spin excitations of individual Fe atoms on Pt(111). Finally, we demonstrate spin resolution by imaging the magnetic structure of the Fe double layer on W(110).

  10. An ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope operating at sub-Kelvin temperatures and high magnetic fields for spin-resolved measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, C.; Baumann, D.; Hänke, T.; Scheffler, M.; Kühne, T.; Kaiser, M.; Voigtländer, R.; Lindackers, D.; Büchner, B.; Hess, C.

    2018-06-01

    We present the construction and performance of an ultra-low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM), working in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions and in high magnetic fields up to 9 T. The cryogenic environment of the STM is generated by a single-shot 3He magnet cryostat in combination with a 4He dewar system. At a base temperature (300 mK), the cryostat has an operation time of approximately 80 h. The special design of the microscope allows the transfer of the STM head from the cryostat to a UHV chamber system, where samples and STM tips can be easily exchanged. The UHV chambers are equipped with specific surface science treatment tools for the functionalization of samples and tips, including high-temperature treatments and thin film deposition. This, in particular, enables spin-resolved tunneling measurements. We present test measurements using well-known samples and tips based on superconductors and metallic materials such as LiFeAs, Nb, Fe, and W. The measurements demonstrate the outstanding performance of the STM with high spatial and energy resolution as well as the spin-resolved capability.

  11. Photon scanning tunneling microscope in combination with a force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Tack, R.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1994-01-01

    The simultaneous operation of a photon scanning tunneling microscope with an atomic force microscope is presented. The use of standard atomic force silicon nitride cantilevers as near-field optical probes offers the possibility to combine the two methods. Vertical forces and torsion are detected

  12. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  13. 18/20 T high magnetic field scanning tunneling microscope with fully low voltage operability, high current resolution, and large scale searching ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanfeng; Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-04-01

    We present a home-built 18/20 T high magnetic field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) featuring fully low voltage (lower than ±15 V) operability in low temperatures, large scale searching ability, and 20 fA high current resolution (measured by using a 100 GOhm dummy resistor to replace the tip-sample junction) with a bandwidth of 3.03 kHz. To accomplish low voltage operation which is important in achieving high precision, low noise, and low interference with the strong magnetic field, the coarse approach is implemented with an inertial slider driven by the lateral bending of a piezoelectric scanner tube (PST) whose inner electrode is axially split into two for enhanced bending per volt. The PST can also drive the same sliding piece to inertial slide in the other bending direction (along the sample surface) of the PST, which realizes the large area searching ability. The STM head is housed in a three segment tubular chamber, which is detachable near the STM head for the convenience of sample and tip changes. Atomic resolution images of a graphite sample taken under 17.6 T and 18.0001 T are presented to show its performance. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  14. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  16. Variable temperature superconducting microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Yeh, W. J.

    2000-03-01

    We have developed and tested a promising type of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope, which can be used to detect vortex motion and can operate in magnetic fields over a large temperature range. The system utilizes a single-loop coupling transformer, consisting of a patterned high Tc superconducting thin film. At one end of the transformer, a 20 μm diam detecting loop is placed close to the sample. At the other end, a large loop is coupled to a NbTi coil, which is connected to a low Tc SQUID sensor. Transformers in a variety of sizes have been tested and calibrated. The results show that the system is capable of detecting the motion of a single vortex. We have used the microscope to study the behavior of moving vortices at various positions in a YBa2Cu3O7 thin film bridge.

  17. Neuromorphic Data Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegle, John H.; Suppona, Roger A.; Aimone, James Bradley; James, Conrad D.; Follett, David R.; Townsend, Duncan C.M.; Follett, Pamela L.; Karpman, Gabe D.

    2017-08-01

    In 2016, Lewis Rhodes Labs, (LRL), shipped the first commercially viable Neuromorphic Processing Unit, (NPU), branded as a Neuromorphic Data Microscope (NDM). This product leverages architectural mechanisms derived from the sensory cortex of the human brain to efficiently implement pattern matching. LRL and Sandia National Labs have optimized this product for streaming analytics, and demonstrated a 1,000x power per operation reduction in an FPGA format. When reduced to an ASIC, the efficiency will improve to 1,000,000x. Additionally, the neuromorphic nature of the device gives it powerful computational attributes that are counterintuitive to those schooled in traditional von Neumann architectures. The Neuromorphic Data Microscope is the first of a broad class of brain-inspired, time domain processors that will profoundly alter the functionality and economics of data processing.

  18. Mobile microscope complex GIB-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, A.V.; Gorbachev, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    To study microstructure in operating pipelines of power units a mobile microscope system is developed and successfully used. The system includes a portable microscope, a monitor, power supply and a portable computer. The monitor is used for surveying images from a video camera mounted on the microscope. The magnification on visual examination constitutes x 100 and x 500. Diameters of pipelines examined should not be less than 130 mm. Surface preparation for microstructural studies includes routine mechanical rough grinding and polishing with subsequent etching [ru

  19. The deuteron microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Congshan; Zhang Jingshang; Shen Qingbiao

    1991-01-01

    The two particle Green's function is introduced. When the direct interaction between two nucleons is neglected, the first and second order mass operators of two particles are the sum of those for each particle. The nucleon microscopic optical potential is calculated by applying nuclear matter approximation and effective Skyrme interaction. Then the deuteron microscopic optical potential (DMOP) is calculated by using fold formula. For improvement of the theory, the two particle polarization diagram contribution to the imaginary part of the deuteron microscopic optical potential is studied

  20. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope operating at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S; Zhou, B B; Drozdov, I K; Seo, J; Urban, L; Gyenis, A; Kingsley, S C J; Jones, H; Yazdani, A

    2013-10-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope capable of taking maps of the tunneling density of states with sub-atomic spatial resolution at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high (14 T) magnetic fields. The fully ultra-high vacuum system features visual access to a two-sample microscope stage at the end of a bottom-loading dilution refrigerator, which facilitates the transfer of in situ prepared tips and samples. The two-sample stage enables location of the best area of the sample under study and extends the experiment lifetime. The successful thermal anchoring of the microscope, described in detail, is confirmed through a base temperature reading of 20 mK, along with a measured electron temperature of 250 mK. Atomically resolved images, along with complementary vibration measurements, are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the vibration isolation scheme in this instrument. Finally, we demonstrate that the microscope is capable of the same level of performance as typical machines with more modest refrigeration by measuring spectroscopic maps at base temperature both at zero field and in an applied magnetic field.

  1. Wolter x-ray microscope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerassimenko, M.

    1986-06-01

    A 22 x Wolter microscope was calibrated after several months of operation in the Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion program. Placing a point x-ray source at the microscope focus, I recorded the image plane spectrum, as well as the direct spectrum, and from the ratio of these two spectra derived an accurate estimate of the microscope solid angle in the 1 to 4 keV range. The solid angle was also calculated using the microscope geometry and composition. Comparison of this calculated value with the solid angle that was actually measured suggests contamination of the microscope surface

  2. Wolter x-ray microscope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerassimenko, M.

    1986-01-01

    A 22 x Wolter microscope was calibrated after several months of operation in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion program. Placing a point x-ray source at the microscope focus, I recorded the image plane spectrum, as well as the direct spectrum, and from the ratio of these two spectra derived an accurate estimate of the microscope solid angle in the 1-4 keV range. The solid angle was also calculated using the microscope geometry and composition. Comparison of this calculated value with the solid angle that was actually measured suggests contamination of the microscope surface

  3. Fluorescence Behavior and Dural Infiltration of Meningioma Analyzed by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Based Fluorescence: Operating Microscope Versus Mini-Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipps, Johannes; Beseoglu, Kerim; Kamp, Marcel; Fischer, Igor; Felsberg, Joerg; Neumann, Lisa M; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Cornelius, Jan F

    2017-12-01

    To compare fluorescence intensity of tumor specimens, as measured by a fluorescence-guided surgery microscope and a spectrometer, to evaluate tumor infiltration of dura mater around meningiomas with help of these 2 different 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-based fluorescence tools, and to correlate fluorescence intensity with histopathologic data. In a clinical series, meningiomas were resected by 5-ALA fluorescence-guided surgery. Fluorescence intensity was semiquantitatively rated by the surgeon at predefined points. Biopsies were harvested and fluorescence intensity measured by a spectrometer and histopathologically analyzed. Sampling was realized at the level of the dura in a centrifugal direction. A total of 104 biopsies (n = 13 tumors) were analyzed. Specificity and sensitivity of the microscope were 0.96 and 0.53 and of the spectrometer 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Fluorescence intensity as measured by the spectrometer was correlated to histologically confirmed tumor burden. In a centrifugal direction, tumor burden and fluorescence intensity continuously decreased (along the dural tail). Below a threshold value of 639 arbitrary units no tumor was histologically detectable. At the level of the dura the spectrometer was highly sensitive for detection of meningioma cells. The surgical microscope showed false negative results and missed residual tumor cells in more than one half of the cases. The complementary use of both fluorescence tools may improve resection quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Small-size low-temperature scanning tunnel microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'tfeder, I.B.; Khajkin, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A small-size scanning tunnel microscope, designed for operation in transport helium-filled Dewar flasks is described. The microscope design contains a device moving the pin to the tested sample surface and a piezoelectric fine positioning device. High vibration protection of the microscope is provided by its suspension using silk threads. The small-size scanning tunnel microscope provides for atomic resolution

  5. Transmission positron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Kogure, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Miyoshi; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshiie, Toshimasa; Oshima, Ryuichiro; Matsuya, Miyuki

    2006-01-01

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons

  6. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  7. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  8. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  9. Microscopic collective models of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Rezsoe

    1985-01-01

    Microscopic Rosensteel-Rowe theory of the nuclear collective motion is described. The theoretical insufficiency of the usual microscopic establishment of the collective model is pointed. The new model treating exactly the degrees of freedom separates the coordinates describing the collective motion and the internal coordinates by a consistent way. Group theoretical methods analyzing the symmetry properties of the total Hamiltonian are used defining the collective subspaces transforming as irreducible representations of the group formed by the collective operators. Recent calculations show that although the results of the usual collective model are approximately correct and similar to those of the new microscopic collective model, the underlying philosophy of the old model is essentially erroneous. (D.Gy.)

  10. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  11. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    sensitivity to a total mass required for detection by 4 orders of magnitude. We detail the design and operation principles of the anisotropic contrast optical microscope, and we present further applications to the detection of nanoparticles, to novel approaches for imaging chromatography and to new contrast modalities for observations on living cells.

  12. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  13. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  14. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  15. The Homemade Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Roger C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Directions for the building of a pocket microscope that will make visible the details of insect structure and living bacteria are described. Background information on the history of microscopes and lenses is provided. The procedures for producing various types of lenses are included. (KR)

  16. Mailing microscope slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many insects feed agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants and cause millions of dollars of damage annually. Identification for some of these require the preparation of a microscope slide for examination. There are times when a microscope slide may need to be sent away to a speci...

  17. IMIS: An intelligence microscope imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Michael; Hunter, Norwood; Taylor, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Until recently microscope users in space relied on traditional microscopy techniques that required manual operation of the microscope and recording of observations in the form of written notes, drawings, or photographs. This method was time consuming and required the return of film and drawings from space for analysis. No real-time data analysis was possible. Advances in digital and video technologies along with recent developments in article intelligence will allow future space microscopists to have a choice of three additional modes of microscopy: remote coaching, remote control, and automation. Remote coaching requires manual operations of the microscope with instructions given by two-way audio/video transmission during critical phases of the experiment. When using the remote mode of microscopy, the Principal Investigator controls the microscope from the ground. The automated mode employs artificial intelligence to control microscope functions and is the only mode that can be operated in the other three modes as well. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the four modes of of microscopy and how the IMIS, a proposed intelligent microscope imaging system, can be used as a model for developing and testing concepts, operating procedures, and equipment design of specifications required to provide a comprehensive microscopy/imaging capability onboard Space Station Freedom.

  18. Scanning Microscopes Using X Rays and Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2003-01-01

    Scanning microscopes that would be based on microchannel filters and advanced electronic image sensors and that utilize x-ray illumination have been proposed. Because the finest resolution attainable in a microscope is determined by the wavelength of the illumination, the xray illumination in the proposed microscopes would make it possible, in principle, to achieve resolutions of the order of nanometers about a thousand times as fine as the resolution of a visible-light microscope. Heretofore, it has been necessary to use scanning electron microscopes to obtain such fine resolution. In comparison with scanning electron microscopes, the proposed microscopes would likely be smaller, less massive, and less expensive. Moreover, unlike in scanning electron microscopes, it would not be necessary to place specimens under vacuum. The proposed microscopes are closely related to the ones described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles; namely, Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43; and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 2002) page 6a. In all of these microscopes, the basic principle of design and operation is the same: The focusing optics of a conventional visible-light microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. A microchannel plate containing parallel, microscopic-cross-section holes much longer than they are wide is placed between a specimen and an image sensor, which is typically the CCD. The microchannel plate must be made of a material that absorbs the illuminating radiation reflected or scattered from the specimen. The microchannels must be positioned and dimensioned so that each one is registered with a pixel on the image sensor. Because most of the radiation incident on the microchannel walls becomes absorbed, the radiation that reaches the

  19. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  20. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained...... of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions obtained...... for the macroscopic polariton model by Hopfield. It is seen that standing photon and exciton waves must be included in an exact microscopic polariton model. However, it is concluded that for practical purposes, only the propagating waves are of importance and the simple microscopic polariton wave function derived...

  1. Microscopic Theory of Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the microscopic method has been applied to the notoriously difficult problem of nuclear fission with unprecedented success. In this paper, we discuss some of the achievements and promise of the microscopic method, as embodied in the Hartree-Fock method using the Gogny finite-range effective interaction, and beyond-mean-field extensions to the theory. The nascent program to describe induced fission observables using this approach at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented

  2. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  3. Duties to Extraterrestrial Microscopic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    Formulating a normative axiology for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms, should they ever be found, requires an extension of environmental ethics to beyond the Earth. Using an ethical framework for the treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms, this paper elaborates a similar ethic for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms. An ethic of `teloempathy' allows for the moral considerability of any organism that has `interests', based on rudimentary qualities of conativism, and therefore allows for an identical treatment of all life, related or not related to life on Earth. Although, according to this ethic, individual extraterrestrial microscopic organisms have a good of their own and even `rights', at this level the ethic can only be theoretical, allowing for the inevitable destruction of many individual organisms during the course of human exploratory missions, similarly to the daily destruction of microbes by humans on Earth. A holistic teloempathy, an operative ethic, not only provides a framework for human exploration, but it also has important implications for planetary protection and proposals to implement planetary-scale atmospheric alterations on other bodies. Even prior to the discovery of extraterrestrial life, or the discovery of a complete absence of such life, this exercise yields important insights into the moral philosophy that guides our treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms.

  4. [Remote Slit Lamp Microscope Consultation System Based on Web].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfa; Zhuo, Yong; Liu, Zuguo; Chen, Yanping

    2015-11-01

    To realize the remote operation of the slit lamp microscope for department of ophthalmology consultation, and visual display the real-time status of remote slit lamp microscope, a remote slit lamp microscope consultation system based on B/S structure is designed and implemented. Through framing the slit lamp microscope on the website system, the realtime acquisition and transmission of remote control and image data is realized. The three dimensional model of the slit lamp microscope is established and rendered on the web by using WebGL technology. The practical application results can well show the real-time interactive of the remote consultation system.

  5. Electron microscope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-01-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations

  6. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  7. The Digital Microscope and Its Image Processing Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyu Supardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many institutions, including high schools, own a large number of analog or ordinary microscopes. These microscopes are used to observe small objects. Unfortunately, object observations on the ordinary microscope require precision and visual acuity of the user. This paper discusses the development of a high-resolution digital microscope from an analog microscope, including the image processing utility, which allows the digital microscope users to capture, store and process the digital images of the object being observed. The proposed microscope is constructed from hardware components that can be easily found in Indonesia. The image processing software is capable of performing brightness adjustment, contrast enhancement, histogram equalization, scaling and cropping. The proposed digital microscope has a maximum magnification of 1600x, and image resolution can be varied from 320x240 pixels up to 2592x1944 pixels. The microscope was tested with various objects with a variety of magnification, and image processing was carried out on the image of the object. The results showed that the digital microscope and its image processing system were capable of enhancing the observed object and other operations in accordance with the user need. The digital microscope has eliminated the need for direct observation by human eye as with the traditional microscope.

  8. Microscope on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  9. The scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvan, F.

    1986-01-01

    A newly conceived microscope, based on a pure quantum phenomenon, is an ideal tool to study atom by atom the topography and properties of surfaces. Applications are presented: surface ''reconstruction'' of silicon, lamellar compound study, etc... Spectroscopy by tunnel effect will bring important information on electronic properties; it is presented with an application on silicon [fr

  10. Scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The principle underlying the design of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the design and functioning of SEM are described. Its applications in the areas of microcircuitry and materials science are outlined. The development of SEM in India is reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  11. Study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.J.; Pancarobo, M.; Denisenko, N.; Aguilar, M.; Rejon, V.; Pena, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics is made. The knowledge of its behaviour allows us to determine accurately the region where the unstable operation could effect the measurements, and also to set the optimal working parameters. Each feedback circuitry compound is discussed as well as their mutual interaction. Different working conditions analysis and results are presented. (Author) 12 refs

  12. Microscopic dynamical Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e.; Impens, François; Neto, Paulo A. Maia

    2018-03-01

    We consider an atom in its ground state undergoing a nonrelativistic oscillation in free space. The interaction with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum leads to two effects to leading order in perturbation theory. When the mechanical frequency is larger than the atomic transition frequency, the dominant effect is the motion-induced transition to an excited state with the emission of a photon carrying the excess energy. We compute the angular distribution of emitted photons and the excitation rate. On the other hand, when the mechanical frequency is smaller than the transition frequency, the leading-order effect is the parametric emission of photon pairs, which constitutes the microscopic counterpart of the dynamical Casimir effect. We discuss the properties of the microscopic dynamical Casimir effect and build a connection with the photon production by an oscillating macroscopic metallic mirror.

  13. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-07

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  14. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  15. A compact scanning soft X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trail, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Soft x-ray microscopes operating at wavelengths between 2.3 nm and 4.4 nm are capable of imaging wet biological cells with a resolution many times that of a visible light microscope. Several such soft x-ray microscopes have been constructed. However, with the exception of contact microscopes, all use synchrotrons as the source of soft x-ray radiation and Fresnel zone plates as the focusing optics. These synchrotron based microscopes are very successful but have the disadvantage of limited access. This dissertation reviews the construction and performance of a compact scanning soft x-ray microscope whose size and accessibility is comparable to that of an electron microscope. The microscope uses a high-brightness laser-produced plasma as the soft x-ray source and normal incidence multilayer-coated mirrors in a Schwarzschild configuration as the focusing optics. The microscope operates at a wavelength of 14 nm, has a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm, and has a soft x-ray photon flux through the focus of 10 4 -10 5 s -1 when operated with only 170 mW of average laser power. The complete system, including the laser, fits on a single 4' x 8' optical table. The significant components of the compact microscope are the laser-produced plasma (LPP) source, the multilayer coatings, and the Schwarzschild objective. These components are reviewed, both with regard to their particular use in the current microscope and with regard to extending the microscope performance to higher resolution, higher speed, and operation at shorter wavelengths. Measurements of soft x-ray emission and debris emission from our present LPP source are presented and considerations given for an optimal LPP source. The LPP source was also used as a broadband soft x-ray source for measurement of normal incidence multilayer mirror reflectance in the 10-25 nm spectral region

  16. Virtual pinhole confocal microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group; Peterson, B. [SciLearn Inc. (United States); Kesteron, J. [VayTech Inc. (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

  17. Thimble microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Rubinstein, Jaden; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Kong, Gary; Lee, W. M.

    2016-12-01

    Wearable computing devices, e.g. Google Glass, Smart watch, embodies the new human design frontier, where technology interfaces seamlessly with human gestures. During examination of any subject in the field (clinic, surgery, agriculture, field survey, water collection), our sensory peripherals (touch and vision) often go hand-in-hand. The sensitivity and maneuverability of the human fingers are guided with tight distribution of biological nerve cells, which perform fine motor manipulation over a range of complex surfaces that is often out of sight. Our sight (or naked vision), on the other hand, is generally restricted to line of sight that is ill-suited to view around corner. Hence, conventional imaging methods are often resort to complex light guide designs (periscope, endoscopes etc) to navigate over obstructed surfaces. Using modular design strategies, we constructed a prototype miniature microscope system that is incorporated onto a wearable fixture (thimble). This unique platform allows users to maneuver around a sample and take high resolution microscopic images. In this paper, we provide an exposition of methods to achieve a thimble microscopy; microscope lens fabrication, thimble design, integration of miniature camera and liquid crystal display.

  18. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  19. Microscopical advances in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, B

    2004-01-01

    In a series of papers carried out by this laboratory it was demonstrated that the quality of sterile males sperm, assessed submicroscopically and mathematically, is closely correlated with the success of the various procedures of assisted reproduction. If we attempt to select hypothetically optimal spermatozoa destined to the ICSI by light inverted microscopy, a considerable amount of ultrastructural information is lost and our selection is merely based on the motility. In this study we apply polarization microscopy to the ICSI technique, introducing polarizing and analyzing lenses in an inverted microscope model, operating in a transparent container. The retardation of the birefringence in the various organelles is evaluated by compensators, and the images are transmitted to a video system, and stored in a computer. Spermatozoa are maintained alive and perfectly motile in this polarizing inverted microscope, and the character of the birefringence is the same as in fixed and sectioned biological material examined by polarization microscopy. The birefringence of the sperm structures allows a sperm analysis closer to TEM than to phase contrast light microscopy analysis.

  20. An innovative approach in microscopic endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Jyotika; Mittal, Shifali

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the dental operating microscope was a turning point in the history of dentistry. It triggered a rapid transition from the conventional world of macro-dentistry to the precise, detailed world of micro-dentistry. However, working at these higher-power magnifications brings the clinician into the realm where even slight hand movements are disruptive. Physiologic hand tremor is a problem resulting in difficulty in mouth mirror placement. Hence, in this paper, a new instrument was designed to overcome the drawback of hand tremors during microscopic endodontics. PMID:24944459

  1. Compact, single-tube scanning tunneling microscope with thermoelectric cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbins, Matthew M; Agostino, Christopher J; Michel, Jolai D; Gans, Ashley R; Kandel, S Alex

    2013-10-01

    We have designed and built a scanning tunneling microscope with a compact inertial-approach mechanism that fits inside the piezoelectric scanner tube. Rigid construction allows the microscope to be operated without the use of external vibration isolators or acoustic enclosures. Thermoelectric cooling and a water-ice bath are used to increase temperature stability when scanning under ambient conditions.

  2. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  3. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  4. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  5. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  6. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  7. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  8. Microscopic Theory of Transconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Jauho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of momentum transfer between two closely spaced mesoscopic electronic systems, which couple via Coulomb interaction but where tunneling is inhibited, have proven to be a fruitful method of extracting information about interactions in mesoscopic systems. We report a fully microscopic theory for transconductivity σ12, or, equivalently, momentum transfer rate between the system constituents. Our main formal result expresses the transconductivity in terms of two fluctuation diagrams, which are topologically related, but not equivalent to, the Azlamazov-Larkin and Maki-Thompson diagrams known for superconductivity. In the present paper the magnetic field dependence of σ12 is discussed, and we find that σ12(B is strongly enhanced over its zero field value, and it displays strong features, which can be understood in terms of a competition between density-of-states and screening effects.

  9. Microscopic entropy and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, E.; Ordonets, G.; Petroskij, T.; Prigozhin, I.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained a microscopic expression for entropy in terms of H function based on nonunitary Λ transformation which leads from the time evolution as a unitary group to a Markovian dynamics and unifies the reversible and irreversible aspects of quantum mechanics. This requires a new representation outside the Hilbert space. In terms of H, we show the entropy production and the entropy flow during the emission and absorption of radiation by an atom. Analyzing the time inversion experiment, we emphasize the importance of pre- and postcollisional correlations, which break the symmetry between incoming and outgoing waves. We consider the angle dependence of the H function in a three-dimensional situation. A model including virtual transitions is discussed in a subsequent paper

  10. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-01-01

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect

  11. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  13. Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides the capability to examine surfaces microscopically with high resolution (5 nanometers), perform micro chemical analyses of these surfaces, and...

  14. Experimental demonstration of microscopic process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, R.D.; Hurrell, S.J.; Wachter, J.W.; Hebble, T.L.; Crawford, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    Microscopic process monitoring (MPM) is a material control strategy designed to use standard process control data to provide expanded safeguards protection of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The MPM methodology identifies process events by recognizing significant patterns of changes in on-line measurements. The goals of MPM are to detect diversions of nuclear material and to provide information on process status useful to other facility safeguards operations

  15. The new Isidore microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouille, O.; Viard, J.; Menard, M.; Allegre, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the refurbishment of LECI hot laboratory in Saclay, it was decided to renew one of the two metallography lines of the building. This line is located at one end of the Isidore line of lead-shielded hot cells. The work started by the cleaning of 5 aout of 9 cells in Isidore line. Two were 2 m x 1.5 m cells, whereas the 3 others were smaller. Decontamination was difficult in both larger cells, because a lot of metallographic preparation had been performed there and because the cleaning of the lower parts of the cell, below the working area, was uneasy by remote manipulators. The refurbishment of the cells included: - Changing the windows, because old windows were made of glass panels sperated by oil, which is now prohibited by safety requirements. - Putting of a new pair of manipulators on one large cell, and adding bootings on manipulators on one large cell, and adding bootings on manipulators on both large cells. - Changing all the ventilation systems in these cells (new types of filters, new air-ducts), - Modifying and changing metallic pieces constituting the working are inside the cell - Increasing the hight of the small cells in order to add a manipulator for charging the sample on microscope or on hardness machine. - Simplifying the electrical wiring in order to decrease the fire risk in the hot cell line. - Add a better fire protection between the working area and the transfer area, i. e. between the front and the rear part of the cells. The scientific equipments fot these cells are: An Olympus microscope, modified by Optique Peter (company based in Lyons), equipped with a motorised sample holder (100 x 200 mm), maximum size of sample: O. D.=100 mm, 6 magnifications: x 12.5, x50, x100, x200, x500 and x1000, two microhardness positions: Vickers and Knoop. Polaroid image and digital camera with SIS image analysis system. A new periscope manufactured by Optique Peter. magnification x2 and x9, digital image and SIS system, and old periscope

  16. Scanning differential polarization microscope: Its use to image linear and circular differential scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickols, W.; Maestre, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A differential polarization microscope that couples the sensitivity of single-beam measurement of circular dichroism and circular differential scattering with the simultaneous measurement of linear dichroism and linear differential scattering has been developed. The microscope uses a scanning microscope stage and single-point illumination to give the very shallow depth of field found in confocal microscopy. This microscope can operate in the confocal mode as well as in the near confocal condition that can allow one to program the coherence and spatial resolution of the microscope. This microscope has been used to study the change in the structure of chromatin during the development of sperm in Drosophila

  17. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  18. Digital management of an electron microscope unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elea, N.; Dickson, M.; Munroe, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electron microscope units, especially those such as ours, which operate as a central infrastructural facility are increasingly asked to provide more service, over more instruments with decreasing, or limited, financial resources. We believe that staff time is best used performing electron microscopy, assisting users and maintaining instrumentation rather than in the pursuit of red tape. One solution to this problem has been the creation of a control system which performs all routine acts of data management, such as the archiving and accessing of digital data, providing access to bookings, and most importantly in the era of user pays services, logging time and billing users. The system we have created, developed and expanded allows the users themselves to access our server through any web-browser and make their own bookings or access and manipulate their data. Users themselves must log on to a microscope through swipecard readers before it can be used and log-off after use. Their time is logged precisely and an exquisitely fair user pays systems can be operated by transferring logged usage time to spreadsheets to calculate charges. Furthermore, this system acts as a method of user authentication and can be used to bar incompetent or unauthorised users. The system has recently been upgraded to increase its utility to include sensors that monitor the electron microscope operating environment, such as magnetic field, room temperature, water flow etc, so that if these parameters depart significantly from optimum levels electron microscope unit staff may be alerted. In this presentation the structure of our system will be described and the advantages and disadvantages of such a system will be discussed. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  19. Theory of a Quantum Scanning Microscope for Cold Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Laflamme, C; Vasilyev, D V; Baranov, M A; Zoller, P

    2018-03-30

    We propose and analyze a scanning microscope to monitor "live" the quantum dynamics of cold atoms in a cavity QED setup. The microscope measures the atomic density with subwavelength resolution via dispersive couplings to a cavity and homodyne detection within the framework of continuous measurement theory. We analyze two modes of operation. First, for a fixed focal point the microscope records the wave packet dynamics of atoms with time resolution set by the cavity lifetime. Second, a spatial scan of the microscope acts to map out the spatial density of stationary quantum states. Remarkably, in the latter case, for a good cavity limit, the microscope becomes an effective quantum nondemolition device, such that the spatial distribution of motional eigenstates can be measured backaction free in single scans, as an emergent quantum nondemolition measurement.

  20. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope... Devices § 884.6190 Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are...

  1. Integration of a high-NA light microscope in a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonnevylle, A C; Van Tol, R F C; Liv, N; Narvaez, A C; Effting, A P J; Kruit, P; Hoogenboom, J P

    2013-10-01

    We present an integrated light-electron microscope in which an inverted high-NA objective lens is positioned inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM objective lens and the light objective lens have a common axis and focal plane, allowing high-resolution optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on the same area of a sample simultaneously. Components for light illumination and detection can be mounted outside the vacuum, enabling flexibility in the construction of the light microscope. The light objective lens can be positioned underneath the SEM objective lens during operation for sub-10 μm alignment of the fields of view of the light and electron microscopes. We demonstrate in situ epifluorescence microscopy in the SEM with a numerical aperture of 1.4 using vacuum-compatible immersion oil. For a 40-nm-diameter fluorescent polymer nanoparticle, an intensity profile with a FWHM of 380 nm is measured whereas the SEM performance is uncompromised. The integrated instrument may offer new possibilities for correlative light and electron microscopy in the life sciences as well as in physics and chemistry. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal

  3. Free and open-source automated 3-D microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Bas; Petersen, Emily E; Hunt, Emily J; Pearce, Joshua M

    2016-11-01

    Open-source technology not only has facilitated the expansion of the greater research community, but by lowering costs it has encouraged innovation and customizable design. The field of automated microscopy has continued to be a challenge in accessibility due the expense and inflexible, noninterchangeable stages. This paper presents a low-cost, open-source microscope 3-D stage. A RepRap 3-D printer was converted to an optical microscope equipped with a customized, 3-D printed holder for a USB microscope. Precision measurements were determined to have an average error of 10 μm at the maximum speed and 27 μm at the minimum recorded speed. Accuracy tests yielded an error of 0.15%. The machine is a true 3-D stage and thus able to operate with USB microscopes or conventional desktop microscopes. It is larger than all commercial alternatives, and is thus capable of high-depth images over unprecedented areas and complex geometries. The repeatability is below 2-D microscope stages, but testing shows that it is adequate for the majority of scientific applications. The open-source microscope stage costs less than 3-9% of the closest proprietary commercial stages. This extreme affordability vastly improves accessibility for 3-D microscopy throughout the world. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Design and development of compact multiphoton microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehravar, SeyedSoroush

    A compact multi-photon microscope (MPM) was designed and developed with the use of low-cost mode-locked fiber lasers operating at 1040nm and 1560nm. The MPM was assembled in-house and the system aberration was investigated using the optical design software: Zemax. A novel characterization methodology based on 'nonlinear knife-edge' technique was also introduced to measure the axial, lateral resolution, and the field curvature of the multi-photon microscope's image plane. The field curvature was then post-corrected using data processing in MATLAB. A customized laser scanning software based on LabVIEW was developed for data acquisition, image display and controlling peripheral electronics. Finally, different modalities of multi-photon excitation such as second- and third harmonic generation, two- and three-photon fluorescence were utilized to study a wide variety of samples from cancerous cells to 2D-layered materials.

  5. Atomic force microscope with integrated optical microscope for biological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Since atomic force microscopy (AFM) is capable of imaging nonconducting surfaces, the technique holds great promises for high‐resolution imaging of biological specimens. A disadvantage of most AFMs is the fact that the relatively large sample surface has to be scanned multiple times to pinpoint a specific biological object of interest. Here an AFM is presented which has an incorporated inverted optical microscope. The optical image from the optical microscope is not obscured by the cantilever...

  6. Microscopic Procedures for Plant Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braselton, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes laboratory techniques designed to familiarize students with meiosis and how microscopic preparations of meiosis are made. These techniques require the use of fresh or fixed flowers. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

  7. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM). In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  8. Microscopic modelling of doped manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, Alexander; Fehske, Holger

    2004-01-01

    Colossal magneto-resistance manganites are characterized by a complex interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. Formulating microscopic models for these compounds aims at meeting two conflicting objectives: sufficient simplification without excessive restrictions on the phase space. We give a detailed introduction to the electronic structure of manganites and derive a microscopic model for their low-energy physics. Focusing on short-range electron-lattice and spin-orbital correlations we supplement the modelling with numerical simulations

  9. Microscopic approach to nuclear anharmonicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi

    1985-01-01

    Present status of microscopic study of nuclear anharmonicity phenomena is reviewed from the viewpoint of the time-dependent Hartree-Bogoliubov approach. Both classical- and quantum-mechanical aspects of this approach are discussed. The Bohr-Mottelson-type collective Hamiltonian for anharmonic gamma vibrations is microscopically derived by means of the self-consistent-collective-coordinate method, and applied to the problem of two-phonon states of 168 Er. (orig.)

  10. Deuteron microscopic optical model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hairui; Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Xu Yongli

    2010-01-01

    A deuteron microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear-matter approximation and local-density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The microscopic optical model potential is used to calculate the deuteron reaction cross sections and the elastic scattering angular distributions for some target nuclei in the mass range 6≤A≤208 with incident deuteron energies up to 200 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data.

  11. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  12. STM-SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Tadayuki; Tachiki, Minoru; Itozaki, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a STM-SQUID probe microscope. A high T C SQUID probe microscope was combined with a scanning tunneling microscope for investigation of samples at room temperature in air. A high permeability probe needle was used as a magnetic flux guide to improve the spatial resolution. The probe with tip radius of less than 100 nm was prepared by microelectropolishing. The probe was also used as a scanning tunneling microscope tip. Topography of the sample surface could be measured by the scanning tunneling microscope with high spatial resolution prior to observation by SQUID microscopy. The SQUID probe microscope image could be observed while keeping the distance from the sample surface to the probe tip constant. We observed a topographic image and a magnetic image of Ni fine pattern and also a magnetically recorded hard disk. Furthermore we have investigated a sample vibration method of the static magnetic field emanating from a sample with the aim of achieving a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio

  13. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope for correlative microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ian E G; Dennison, Clare L; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo; Sato, Chikara; Yarwood, Andrew; O'Toole, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The JEOL ClairScope is the first truly correlative scanning electron and optical microscope. An inverted scanning electron microscope (SEM) column allows electron images of wet samples to be obtained in ambient conditions in a biological culture dish, via a silicon nitride film window in the base. A standard inverted optical microscope positioned above the dish holder can be used to take reflected light and epifluorescence images of the same sample, under atmospheric conditions that permit biochemical modifications. For SEM, the open dish allows successive staining operations to be performed without moving the holder. The standard optical color camera used for fluorescence imaging can be exchanged for a high-sensitivity monochrome camera to detect low-intensity fluorescence signals, and also cathodoluminescence emission from nanophosphor particles. If these particles are applied to the sample at a suitable density, they can greatly assist the task of perfecting the correlation between the optical and electron images. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Electron microscope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1990-01-01

    Our laboratory has made significant progress this year in devising improved electron-optical systems, in studying invertebrate hemoglobins with the STEM, and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. Our goal in electron optics is to improve resolution by producing spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients with signs opposite those of magnetic lenses. We have progressed toward this goal through calculations that explore the addition of electrodes to electron mirrors to reduce these two geometric aberrations and by devising a beam separation system that won't introduce asymmetrical aberrations. Some promising new designs of magnetic lenses for SEM applications have also been investigated. We have continued our exploration of the quaternary structure of the invertebrate hemoglobins and are now among the top laboratories in this area of expertise. In addition, we have overcome many of our electronic difficulties on the sub-angstrom STEM and have made significant progress toward achieving an operational system. The addition of an IBM RISC-6000 workstation to our lab has significantly increased our image processing capabilities

  15. A microscopic derivation of stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimitsu, Toshihico

    1996-01-01

    With the help of the formulation of Non-Equilibrium Thermo Field Dynamics, a unified canonical operator formalism is constructed for the quantum stochastic differential equations. In the course of its construction, it is found that there are at least two formulations, i.e. one is non-hermitian and the other is hermitian. Having settled which framework should be satisfied by the quantum stochastic differential equations, a microscopic derivation is performed for these stochastic differential equations by extending the projector methods. This investigation may open a new field for quantum systems in order to understand the deeper meaning of dissipation

  16. A quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope for electrical property measurements of microscopic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kubo, Osamu; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Aono, Masakazu; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2011-01-01

    Four-terminal electrical measurement is realized on a microscopic structure in air, without a lithographic process, using a home-built quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope (QSPFM). The QSPFM has four probes whose positions are individually controlled by obtaining images of a sample in the manner of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and uses the probes as contacting electrodes for electrical measurements. A specially arranged tuning fork probe (TFP) is used as a self-detection force sensor to operate each probe in a frequency modulation AFM mode, resulting in simultaneous imaging of the same microscopic feature on an insulator using the four TFPs. Four-terminal electrical measurement is then demonstrated in air by placing each probe electrode in contact with a graphene flake exfoliated on a silicon dioxide film, and the sheet resistance of the flake is measured by the van der Pauw method. The present work shows that the QSPFM has the potential to measure the intrinsic electrical properties of a wide range of microscopic materials in situ without electrode fabrication.

  17. Axiomatic electrodynamics and microscopic mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1981-04-01

    A new approach to theoretical physics, along with the basic formulation of a new MICROSCOPIC MECHANICS for the motion of small charged particles is described in this set of lecture notes. Starting with the classical (Newtonian) mechanics and classical fields, the important but well known properties of Classical Electromagnetic field are discussed up to section 4. The next nection describes the usual radiation damping theory and its difficulties. It is argued that the usual treatment of radiation damping is not valid for small space and time intervals and the true description of motion requires a new type of mechanics - the MICROSCOPIC MECHANICS: Section 6 and 7 are devoted to showing that not only the new microscopic mechanics goes over to Newtonian mechanics in the proper limit, but also it is closely connected with Quantum Mechanics. All the known results of the Schroedinger theory can be reproduced by microscopic mechanics which also gives a clear physical picture. It removes Einstein's famous objections against Quantum Theory and provides a clear distinction between classical and Quantum behavior. Seven Axioms (three on Classical Mechanics, two for Maxwell's theory, one for Relativity and a new Axiom on Radiation damping) are shown to combine Classical Mechanics, Maxwellian Electrodynamics, Relativity and Schroedinger's Quantum Theory within a single theoretical framework under Microscopic Mechanics which awaits further development at the present time. (orig.)

  18. Microscope and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

  19. Novel scanning probe microscope instrumentation with applications in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphry, M.J.

    2000-10-01

    A versatile scanning probe microscope controller has been constructed. Its suitability for the control of a range of different scanning probe microscope heads has been demonstrated. These include an ultra high vacuum scanning tunnelling microscope, with which atomic resolution images of Si surfaces was obtained, a custom-built atomic force microscope, and a custom-built photon emission scanning tunnelling microscope. The controller has been designed specifically to facilitate data acquisition during molecular manipulation experiments. Using the controller, the fullerene molecule C 60 has been successfully manipulated on Si(100)-2x1 surfaces and detailed data has been acquired during the manipulation process. Evidence for two distinct modes of manipulation have been observed. A repulsive mode with success rates up to 90% was found to occur with tunnel gap impedances below 2GΩ, while between 2GΩ and 8GΩ attractive manipulation events were observed, with a maximum success rate of ∼8%. It was also found that the step size between feedback updates had a significant effect on tip stability, and that dwell time of the STM tip at each data point had a critical effect on manipulation probability. A multi-function scanning probe microscope head has been developed capable of operation as a scanning tunnelling microscope and an atomic force microscope in vacuum and a magnetic field of 7T. The custom-built controller also presented here was used to control the head. A three-axis inertial sliding motor was developed for the head, capable of reproducible step sizes of <1000A. In addition, an optical fibre interferometer was constructed with a sensitivity of 0.2A/√Hz. Preliminary development of a magnetic resonance force microscope mode has also been performed, with initial results showing such a system to be feasible. (author)

  20. Atomic force microscope featuring an integrated optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to image the surface of both conductors and nonconductors. Biological specimens constitute a large group of nonconductors. A disadvantage of most AFM's is the fact that relatively large areas of the sample surface have to be scanned to pinpoint a biological

  1. Compact scanning tunneling microscope for spin polarization measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Heon; de Lozanne, Alex

    2012-10-01

    We present a design for a scanning tunneling microscope that operates in ultrahigh vacuum down to liquid helium temperatures in magnetic fields up to 8 T. The main design philosophy is to keep everything compact in order to minimize the consumption of cryogens for initial cool-down and for extended operation. In order to achieve this, new ideas were implemented in the design of the microscope body, dewars, vacuum chamber, manipulators, support frame, and vibration isolation. After a brief description of these designs, the results of initial tests are presented.

  2. Use of a scanning electron microscope for examining radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, Yves; Prouve, Michel.

    1981-05-01

    The LAMA laboratory of the Grenoble Nuclear Research Center participates in studies carried out by research teams on fuels. Post-irradiation studies are performed on irradiated pins for research and development and safety programs. A scanning electron microscope was acquired for this purpose. This microscope had to fulfill certain criteria: it had to be sufficiently compact for it to be housed in a lead enclosure; it had to be capable of being adapted to operate with remote handling control. The modifications made to this microscope are briefly described together with the ancillary equipment of the cell. In parallel with these operations, an interconnection was realized enabling materials to be transferred between the various sampling and sample preparation cells and the microscope cell with a small transfer cask. After two years operating experience the microscope performance has been assessed satisfactory. The specific radioactivity of the samples themselves cannot be incriminated as the only cause of loss in resolution at magnifications greater than x 10,000 [fr

  3. A variable-temperature nanostencil compatible with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steurer, Wolfram; Gross, Leo; Schlittler, Reto R.; Meyer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    We describe a nanostencil lithography tool capable of operating at variable temperatures down to 30 K. The setup is compatible with a combined low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope located within the same ultra-high-vacuum apparatus. The lateral movement capability of the mask allows the patterning of complex structures. To demonstrate operational functionality of the tool and estimate temperature drift and blurring, we fabricated LiF and NaCl nanostructures on Cu(111) at 77 K

  4. A variable-temperature nanostencil compatible with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steurer, Wolfram, E-mail: wst@zurich.ibm.com; Gross, Leo; Schlittler, Reto R.; Meyer, Gerhard [IBM Research-Zurich, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    We describe a nanostencil lithography tool capable of operating at variable temperatures down to 30 K. The setup is compatible with a combined low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope located within the same ultra-high-vacuum apparatus. The lateral movement capability of the mask allows the patterning of complex structures. To demonstrate operational functionality of the tool and estimate temperature drift and blurring, we fabricated LiF and NaCl nanostructures on Cu(111) at 77 K.

  5. A variable-temperature nanostencil compatible with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Wolfram; Gross, Leo; Schlittler, Reto R; Meyer, Gerhard

    2014-02-01

    We describe a nanostencil lithography tool capable of operating at variable temperatures down to 30 K. The setup is compatible with a combined low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope located within the same ultra-high-vacuum apparatus. The lateral movement capability of the mask allows the patterning of complex structures. To demonstrate operational functionality of the tool and estimate temperature drift and blurring, we fabricated LiF and NaCl nanostructures on Cu(111) at 77 K.

  6. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  7. Microscopic description of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatov, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The genealogical series method has been extended to the continuous spectrum of the many-body systems. New nonlinear integral equations have been formulated to perform the microscopical description of the nuclear reactions with arbitrary number of particles. The way to solve them numerically is demonstrated

  8. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  9. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  10. Probe-Hole Field Emission Microscope System Controlled by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunming; Zeng, Haishan

    1991-09-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope system, controlled by an Apple II computer, has been developed and operated successfully for measuring the work function of a single crystal plane. The work functions on the clean W(100) and W(111) planes are measured to be 4.67 eV and 4.45 eV, respectively.

  11. Fabrication of metallic nanowires with a scanning tunnelling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, N.; Kramer, N.; Birk, H.; Jorritsma, J.; Schönenberger, C.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure to pattern thin metal films on a nanometer scale with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating in air is reported. A 30 nm film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a‐Si:H) is deposited on a 10 nm film of TaIr. Applying a negative voltage between the STM tip and the a‐Si:H film

  12. Differential magnetic force microscope imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zuobin; Liu, Jinyun; Hou, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging based on a two-pass scanning procedure to extract differential magnetic forces and eliminate or significantly reduce background forces with reversed tip magnetization. In the work, the difference of two scanned images with reversed tip magnetization was used to express the local magnetic forces. The magnetic sample was first scanned with a low lift distance between the MFM tip and the sample surface, and the magnetization direction of the probe was then changed after the first scan to perform the second scan. The differential magnetic force image was obtained through the subtraction of the two images from the two scans. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging is able to reduce the effect of background or environment interference forces, and offers an improved image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscope/microscope based on a widely tunable laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementjev, A.; Gulbinas, V.; Serbenta, A.; Kaucikas, M.; Niaura, G.

    2010-03-01

    We present a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope based on a robust and simple laser source. A picosecond laser operating in a cavity dumping regime at the 1 MHz repetition rate was used to pump a traveling wave optical parametric generator, which serves as a two-color excitation light source for the CARS microscope. We demonstrate the ability of the presented CARS microscope to measure CARS spectra and images by using several detection schemes.

  14. Analysis of disruptive events and precarious situations caused by interaction with neurosurgical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivazi, Shahram; Afkari, Hoorieh; Bednarik, Roman; Leinonen, Ville; Tukiainen, Markku; Jääskeläinen, Juha E

    2015-07-01

    Developments in micro-neurosurgical microscopes have improved operating precision and ensured the quality of outcomes. Using the stereoscopic magnified view, however, necessitates frequent manual adjustments to the microscope during an operation. This article reports on an investigation of the interaction details concerning a state-of-the-art micro-neurosurgical microscope. The video data from detailed observations of neurosurgeons' interaction patterns with the microscope were analysed to examine disruptive events caused by adjusting the microscope. The primary findings show that interruptions caused by adjusting the microscope handgrips and mouth switch prolong the surgery time up to 10%. Surgeons, we observed, avoid interaction with the microscope's controls, settings, and configurations by working at the edge of the view, operating on a non-focused view, and assuming unergonomic body postures. The lack of an automatic method for adjusting the microscope is a major problem that causes interruptions during micro-neurosurgery. From this understanding of disruptive events, we discuss the opportunities and limitations of interactive technologies that aim to reduce the frequency or shorten the duration of interruptions caused by microscope adjustment.

  15. A microscope for mapping-out in the atomic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The lastest development of the tunnel microscope is described, which enables the structure of individual atoms on various surfaces (gold, silicon, graphite) to be made visible in the sense of a topological profile of the surface. The technical features and operation of the microscope are described in detail. The use of 3 piezo-electric elements for vertical and horizontal positioning of the sensor tip gives an accuracy sufficient to exhibit the electron cloud forming the outer boundary of each atom. Images of gold, silicon, oxygen and carbon atoms have been produced and show structures previously unknown. Revolutionary spin-offs can be expected in various disciplines. (L.M.W.)

  16. Literature survey on microscopic friction modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand contact and friction conditions, experimental and theoretical studies have been performed in order to take microscopic dependencies into account. Friction is developed on microscopic level by adhesion between contacting asperities, the ploughing effect between asperities and the

  17. New design of a variable-temperature ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Rettenberger, A.; Boneberg, J.; Leiderer, P.

    1998-01-01

    We present the design of a variable-temperature ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope which can be operated between 20 and 400 K. The microscope is mounted directly onto the heat exchanger of a He continuous flow cryostat without vibration isolation inside the UHV chamber. The coarse

  18. [Formulation of guidelines for microscopic endodontics suitable for the situation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, J Q

    2016-08-01

    In order to promote the use of dental operating microscope in endodontics, Society of Cariology and Endodontology of Chinese Stomatological Association formulated these guidelines, after extensive consultation with related authorities and careful reference to the available published materials and literatures. It is hoped that these guidelines will be useful for dental practitioners embarking on microscopic endodontics.

  19. Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport in microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizo, P. J.; Pugzlys, A.; Liu, J.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; van der Wal, C. H.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Pugžlys, A.

    2008-01-01

    A compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for operation in the small volume of high-field magnets is described. It is suited for measurements both in Voigt and Faraday configurations. Coupled with a pulsed laser source, the microscope is used to measure the time-resolved Kerr rotation response of

  20. Near-field optical microscope using a silicon-nitride probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Tack, R.G.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1993-01-01

    Operation of an alternative near-field optical microscope is presented. The microscope uses a microfabricated silicon- nitride probe with integrated cantilever, as originally developed for force microscopy. The cantilever allows routine close contact near-field imaging o­n arbitrary surfaces without

  1. A Microscopic Optically Tracking Navigation System That Uses High-resolution 3D Computer Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Masanori; Saito, Toki; Kin, Taichi; Nakagawa, Daichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics (CG) are useful for preoperative planning of neurosurgical operations. However, application of 3D CG to intraoperative navigation is not widespread because existing commercial operative navigation systems do not show 3D CG in sufficient detail. We have developed a microscopic optically tracking navigation system that uses high-resolution 3D CG. This article presents the technical details of our microscopic optically tracking navigation system. Our navigation system consists of three components: the operative microscope, registration, and the image display system. An optical tracker was attached to the microscope to monitor the position and attitude of the microscope in real time; point-pair registration was used to register the operation room coordinate system, and the image coordinate system; and the image display system showed the 3D CG image in the field-of-view of the microscope. Ten neurosurgeons (seven males, two females; mean age 32.9 years) participated in an experiment to assess the accuracy of this system using a phantom model. Accuracy of our system was compared with the commercial system. The 3D CG provided by the navigation system coincided well with the operative scene under the microscope. Target registration error for our system was 2.9 ± 1.9 mm. Our navigation system provides a clear image of the operation position and the surrounding structures. Systems like this may reduce intraoperative complications.

  2. Soft control of scanning probe microscope with high flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenghui; Guo, Yuzheng; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhu, Xing

    2007-01-01

    Most commercial scanning probe microscopes have multiple embedded digital microprocessors and utilize complex software for system control, which is not easily obtained or modified by researchers wishing to perform novel and special applications. In this paper, we present a simple and flexible control solution that just depends on software running on a single-processor personal computer with real-time Linux operating system to carry out all the control tasks including negative feedback, tip moving, data processing and user interface. In this way, we fully exploit the potential of a personal computer in calculating and programming, enabling us to manipulate the scanning probe as required without any special digital control circuits and related technical know-how. This solution has been successfully applied to a homemade ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope and a multiprobe scanning tunneling microscope.

  3. A mini-microscope for in situ monitoring of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bok; Koo, Kyo-in; Bae, Hojae; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hamilton, Geraldine A; Bahinski, Anthony; Kim, Sun Min; Ingber, Donald E; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-10-21

    A mini-microscope was developed for in situ monitoring of cells by modifying off-the-shelf components of a commercial webcam. The mini-microscope consists of a CMOS imaging module, a small plastic lens and a white LED illumination source. The CMOS imaging module was connected to a laptop computer through a USB port for image acquisition and analysis. Due to its compact size, 8 × 10 × 9 cm, the present microscope is portable and can easily fit inside a conventional incubator, and enables real-time monitoring of cellular behaviour. Moreover, the mini-microscope can be used for imaging cells in conventional cell culture flasks, such as Petri dishes and multi-well plates. To demonstrate the operation of the mini-microscope, we monitored the cellular migration of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts in a scratch assay in medium containing three different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (5, 10, and 20%) and demonstrated differential responses depending on serum levels. In addition, we seeded embryonic stem cells inside poly(ethylene glycol) microwells and monitored the formation of stem cell aggregates in real time using the mini-microscope. Furthermore, we also combined a lab-on-a-chip microfluidic device for microdroplet generation and analysis with the mini-microscope and observed the formation of droplets under different flow conditions. Given its cost effectiveness, robust imaging and portability, the presented platform may be useful for a range of applications for real-time cellular imaging using lab-on-a-chip devices at low cost.

  4. Microscopic nuclear dissipation. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannouleas, C.; Dworzecka, M.; Griffin, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have formulated a microscopic, nonperturbative, time reversible model which exhibits a dissipative decay of collective motion for times short compared to the system's Poincare time. The model assumes an RPA approximate description of the initial collective state within a restricted subspace, then traces its time evolution when an additional subspace is coupled to the restricted subspace by certain simplified matrix elements. It invokes no statistical assumptions. The damping of the collective motion occurs via real transitions from the collective state to other more complicated nuclear states of the same energy. It corresponds therefore to the so called 'one-body' long mean free path limit of nuclear dissipation when the collective state describes a surface vibration. When the simplest RPA approximation is used, this process associates the dissipation with the escape width for direct particle emission to the continuum. When the more detailed second RPA is used, it associates the dissipation with the spreading width for transitions to the 2p-2h components of the nuclear compound states as well. The energy loss rate for sharp n-phonon initial states is proportional to the total collective energy, unlike the dissipation of a classical damped oscillator, where it is proportional to the kinetic energy only. However, for coherent, multi-phonon wave packets, which explicitly describe the time-dependent oscillations of the mean field, dissipation proportional only to the kinetic energy is obtained. Canonical coordinates for the collective degree of freedom are explicitly introduced and a nonlinear frictional hamiltonian to describe such systems is specified by the requirement that it yield the same time dependence for the collective motion as the microscopic model. Thus, for the first time a descriptive nonlinear hamiltonian is derived explicitly from the underlying microscopic model of a nuclear system. (orig.)

  5. Microscopically Based Nuclear Energy Functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    A major goal of the SciDAC project 'Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional' is to develop next-generation nuclear energy density functionals that give controlled extrapolations away from stability with improved performance across the mass table. One strategy is to identify missing physics in phenomenological Skyrme functionals based on our understanding of the underlying internucleon interactions and microscopic many-body theory. In this contribution, I describe ongoing efforts to use the density matrix expansion of Negele and Vautherin to incorporate missing finite-range effects from the underlying two- and three-nucleon interactions into phenomenological Skyrme functionals.

  6. Microscopic structure for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The microscopic structure for light nuclei e.g. 4 He, 7 Li and 8 Be is considered in the frame work of the generator coordinate method (GCM). The physical interpretation of our GCM is also discussed. The GC amplitudes are used to calculate the various properties like charge and magnetic RMS radii, form factors, electromagnetic moments, astrophysical S-factor, Bremsstrahlung weighted cross sections, relative wavefunctions and vertex functions etc. All the calculated quantities agree well with the values determined experimentally. (author). 30 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Installation of the MAXIMUM microscope at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, W.; Perera, R.C.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1995-10-01

    The MAXIMUM scanning x-ray microscope, developed at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison was implemented on the Advanced Light Source in August of 1995. The microscope's initial operation at SRC successfully demonstrated the use of multilayer coated Schwarzschild objective for focusing 130 eV x-rays to a spot size of better than 0.1 micron with an electron energy resolution of 250meV. The performance of the microscope was severely limited, because of the relatively low brightness of SRC, which limits the available flux at the focus of the microscope. The high brightness of the ALS is expected to increase the usable flux at the sample by a factor of 1,000. The authors will report on the installation of the microscope on bending magnet beamline 6.3.2 at the ALS and the initial measurement of optical performance on the new source, and preliminary experiments with surface chemistry of HF etched Si will be described

  8. Visualizing 3-D microscopic specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Per-Ola; Majlof, Lars L.

    1992-06-01

    The confocal microscope can be used in a vast number of fields and applications to gather more information than is possible with a regular light microscope, in particular about depth. Compared to other three-dimensional imaging devices such as CAT, NMR, and PET, the variations of the objects studied are larger and not known from macroscopic dissections. It is therefore important to have several complementary ways of displaying the gathered information. We present a system where the user can choose display techniques such as extended focus, depth coding, solid surface modeling, maximum intensity and other techniques, some of which may be combined. A graphical user interface provides easy and direct control of all input parameters. Motion and stereo are available options. Many three- dimensional imaging devices give recordings where one dimension has different resolution and sampling than the other two which requires interpolation to obtain correct geometry. We have evaluated algorithms with interpolation in object space and in projection space. There are many ways to simplify the geometrical transformations to gain performance. We present results of some ways to simplify the calculations.

  9. Metrological large range scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gaoliang; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Xu Min; Hasche, Klaus; Wilkening, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We describe a metrological large range scanning probe microscope (LR-SPM) with an Abbe error free design and direct interferometric position measurement capability, aimed at versatile traceable topographic measurements that require nanometer accuracy. A dual-stage positioning system was designed to achieve both a large measurement range and a high measurement speed. This dual-stage system consists of a commercially available stage, referred to as nanomeasuring machine (NMM), with a motion range of 25 mmx25 mmx5 mm along x, y, and z axes, and a compact z-axis piezoelectric positioning stage (compact z stage) with an extension range of 2 μm. The metrological LR-SPM described here senses the surface using a stationary fixed scanning force microscope (SFM) head working in contact mode. During operation, lateral scanning of the sample is performed solely by the NMM. Whereas the z motion, controlled by the SFM signal, is carried out by a combination of the NMM and the compact z stage. In this case the compact z stage, with its high mechanical resonance frequency (greater than 20 kHz), is responsible for the rapid motion while the NMM simultaneously makes slower movements over a larger motion range. To reduce the Abbe offset to a minimum the SFM tip is located at the intersection of three interferometer measurement beams orientated in x, y, and z directions. To improve real time performance two high-end digital signal processing (DSP) systems are used for NMM positioning and SFM servocontrol. Comprehensive DSP firmware and Windows XP-based software are implemented, providing a flexible and user-friendly interface. The instrument is able to perform large area imaging or profile scanning directly without stitching small scanned images. Several measurements on different samples such as flatness standards, nanostep height standards, roughness standards as well as sharp nanoedge samples and 1D gratings demonstrate the outstanding metrological capabilities of the instrument

  10. A Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Benjamin

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity, high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented DC-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (2 um), or 6 nT / Hz1 / 2 per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly one-hundred points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT / Hz1 / 2 each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner would measure these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly two orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10- 6 Phi0 / Hz1 / 2) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are for the first time carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns and done so using samples that may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge transport images at temperatures from room to \\x9D4K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  11. Cleft Lip and Palate Repair Using a Surgical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Motoi; Watanabe, Azusa; Watanabe, Shoji; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Ogishima, Shinya

    2017-11-01

    Cleft lip and palate repair requires a deep and small surgical field and is usually performed by surgeons wearing surgical loupes. Surgeons with loupes can obtain a wider surgical view, although headlights are required for the deepest procedures. Surgical microscopes offer comfort and a clear and magnification-adjustable surgical site that can be shared with the whole team, including observers, and easily recorded to further the education of junior surgeons. Magnification adjustments are convenient for precise procedures such as muscle dissection of the soft palate. We performed a comparative investigation of 18 cleft operations that utilized either surgical loupes or microscopy. Paper-based questionnaires were completed by staff nurses to evaluate what went well and what could be improved in each procedure. The operating time, complication rate, and scores of the questionnaire responses were statistically analyzed. The operating time when microscopy was used was not significantly longer than when surgical loupes were utilized. The surgical field was clearly shared with surgical assistants, nurses, anesthesiologists, and students via microscope-linked monitors. Passing surgical equipment was easier when sharing the surgical view, and preoperative microscope preparation did not interfere with the duties of the staff nurses. Surgical microscopy was demonstrated to be useful during cleft operations.

  12. Choice of operating voltage for a transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerton, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    An accelerating voltage of 100–300 kV remains a good choice for the majority of TEM or STEM specimens, avoiding the expense of high-voltage microscopy but providing the possibility of atomic resolution even in the absence of lens-aberration correction. For specimens thicker than a few tens of nm, the image intensity and scattering contrast are likely to be higher than at lower voltage, as is the visibility of ionization edges below 1000 eV (as required for EELS elemental analysis). In thick (>100 nm) specimens, higher voltage ensures less beam broadening and better spatial resolution for STEM imaging and EDX spectroscopy. Low-voltage (e.g. 30 kV) TEM or STEM is attractive for a very thin (e.g. 10 nm) specimen, as it provides higher scattering contrast and fewer problems for valence-excitation EELS. Specimens that are immune to radiolysis suffer knock-on damage at high current densities, and this form of radiation damage can be reduced or avoided by choosing a low accelerating voltage. Low-voltage STEM with an aberration-corrected objective lens (together with a high-angle dark-field detector and/or EELS) offers atomic resolution and elemental identification from very thin specimens. Conventional TEM can provide atomic resolution in low-voltage phase-contrast images but requires correction of chromatic aberration and preferably an electron-beam monochromator. Many non-conducting (e.g. organic) specimens damage easily by radiolysis and radiation damage then determines the TEM image resolution. For bright-field scattering contrast, low kV can provide slightly better dose-limited resolution if the specimen is very thin (a few nm) but considerably better resolution is possible from a thicker specimen, for which higher kV is required. Use of a phase plate in a conventional TEM offers the most dose-efficient way of achieving atomic resolution from beam-sensitive specimens. - Highlights: • 100–300 kV accelerating voltage is suitable for TEM specimens of typical thickness. • Lower voltage is preferable for thin specimens not damaged by radiolysis. • For very thin specimens, scattering contrast (but not phase contrast) is better at low voltage. • For thick specimens, higher voltage provides better resolution for STEM and EDX analysis. • For EELS elemental analysis, higher accelerating voltage is generally preferable

  13. Parotid tumours: clinical and oncologic outcomes after microscope-assisted parotidectomy with intraoperative nerve monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Carta, F.; N., Chuchueva; C., Gerosa; S., Sionis; R.A., Caria; R., Puxeddu

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunctions can be observed after parotidectomy for benign and malignant lesions. Intraoperative nerve monitoring is a recognised tool for the preservation of the nerve, while the efficacy of the operative microscope has been rarely stated. The authors report their experience on 198 consecutive parotidectomies performed on 196 patients with the aid of the operative microscope and intraoperative nerve monitoring. 145 parotidectomies were performed ...

  14. Design of a transmission electron positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Inoue, M.; Kogure, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshii, T.; Kurihara, T.; Tsuno, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the plans and design of positron-electron microscopes being built at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan. A used electron microscope is altered. The kinetic energies of positrons produced by accelerators or by nuclear decays are not a unique value but show a spread over in a wide range. Positron beam is guided to a transmission electron microscope (JEM100SX). Positrons are moderated by a tungsten foil, are accelerated and are focused on a nickel sheet. The monochromatic focused beam is injected into an electron microscope. The focusing and aberration of positrons are the same as electrons in a magnetic system which are used in commercial electron microscopes. Imaging plates are used to record positron images for the transmission electron microscope. (author)

  15. Foldscope: origami-based paper microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S Cybulski

    Full Text Available Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact design. Structural loops in folded paper provide kinematic constraints as a means for passive self-alignment. This light, rugged instrument can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities, thus serving wide-ranging applications for cost-effective, portable microscopes in science and education.

  16. Microscopic description of magnetized plasma: quasiparticle concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is developed systematically, from first principles, within the context of microscopic description of magnetized plasma. It is argued that the zeroth velocity-gyroangle harmonic of the microscopic particle distribution function under the gyrokinetic change of variables can be taken as a microscopic quasi-particle density in a reduced phase space. The nature of quasiparticles is discussed and equations of their motion are derived within both exact and reduced microscopic descriptions. The reduced one employs explicitly the separation of interesting time scales. (orig.)

  17. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  18. Comparison of Microscopic Drivers' Probabilistic Lane-changing Models With Real Traffic Microscopic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Sadat Hoseini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties of microscopic-level simulation models to accurately reproduce real traffic phenomena stem not only from the complexity of calibration and validation operations, but also from the structural inadequacies of the sub-models themselves. Both of these drawbacks originate from the scant information available on real phenomena because of the difficulty in gathering accurate field data. This paper studies the traffic behaviour of individual drivers utilizing vehicle trajectory data extracted from digital images collected from freeways in Iran. These data are used to evaluate the four proposed microscopic traffic models. One of the models is based on the traffic regulations in Iran and the three others are probabilistic models that use a decision factor for calculating the probability of choosing a position on the freeway by a driver. The decision factors for three probabilistic models are increasing speed, decreasing risk of collision, and increasing speed combined with decreasing risk of collision. The models are simulated by a cellular automata simulator and compared with the real data. It is shown that the model based on driving regulations is not valid, but that other models appear useful for predicting the driver’s behaviour on freeway segments in Iran during noncongested conditions.

  19. A compact combined ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunnelling microscope (UHV STM) and near-field optical microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley, R A J; Hayton, J A; Cavill, S; Ma, Jin; Beton, P H; Moriarty, P

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a hybrid scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM)–scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) instrument which operates under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. Indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated fibre-optic tips capable of high quality STM imaging and tunnelling spectroscopy are fabricated using a simple and reliable method which foregoes the electroless plating strategy previously employed by other groups. The fabrication process is reproducible, producing robust tips which may be exchanged under UHV conditions. We show that controlled contact with metal surfaces considerably enhances the STM imaging capabilities of fibre-optic tips. Light collection (from the cleaved back face of the ITO-coated fibre-optic tip) and optical alignment are facilitated by a simple two-lens arrangement where the in-vacuum collimation/collection lens may be adjusted using a slip-stick motor. A second in-air lens focuses the light (which emerges from the UHV system as a parallel beam) onto a cooled CCD spectrograph or photomultiplier tube. The application of the instrument to combined optical and electronic spectroscopy of Au and GaAs surfaces is discussed

  20. A microscope for Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on a novel quantum gas microscope to investigate many-body systems of fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Single-site resolved imaging of ultracold lattice gases has enabled powerful studies of bosonic quantum many-body systems. The extension of this capability to Fermi gases offers new prospects to studying complex phenomena of strongly correlated systems, for which numerical simulations are often out of reach. Using standard techniques of laser cooling, optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li are prepared and loaded into a large-scale 2D optical lattice of flexible geometry. The atomic distribution is frozen using a second, short-scaled lattice, where we perform Raman sideband cooling to induce fluorescence on each atom while maintaining its position. Together with high-resolution imaging, the fluorescence signals allow for reconstructing the initial atom distribution with single-site sensitivity and high fidelity. Magnetically driven evaporative cooling in the plane allows for producing degenerate Fermi gases with almost unity filling in the initial lattice, allowing for the first microscopic studies of ultracold gases with clear signatures of Fermi statistics. By preparing an ensemble of spin-polarised Fermi gases, we detect a flattening of the density profile towards the centre of the cloud, which is a characteristic of a band-insulating state. In one set of experiments, we demonstrate that losses of atom pairs on a single lattice site due to light-assisted collisions are circumvented. The oversampling of the second lattice allows for deterministic separation of the atom pairs into different sites. Compressing a high-density sample in a trap before loading into the lattice leads to many double occupancies of atoms populating different bands, which we can image with no evidence for pairwise losses. We therefore gain direct access to the true number statistics on each lattice site. Using this feature, we can

  1. Hamiltonian mechanics limits microscopic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, James; Gilz, Lukas; Thesing, Eike

    2015-05-01

    We propose a definition of fully microscopic engines (micro-engines) in terms of pure mechanics, without reference to thermodynamics, equilibrium, or cycles imposed by external control, and without invoking ergodic theory. This definition is pragmatically based on the observation that what makes engines useful is energy transport across a large ratio of dynamical time scales. We then prove that classical and quantum mechanics set non-trivial limits-of different kinds-on how much of the energy that a micro-engine extracts from its fuel can be converted into work. Our results are not merely formal; they imply manageable design constraints on micro-engines. They also suggest the novel possibility that thermodynamics does not emerge from mechanics in macroscopic regimes, but rather represents the macroscopic limit of a generalized theory, valid on all scales, which governs the important phenomenon of energy transport across large time scale ratios. We propose experimental realizations of the dynamical mechanisms we identify, with trapped ions and in Bose-Einstein condensates (``motorized bright solitons'').

  2. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential. PMID:27649932

  3. Mice embryology: a microscopic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Maria Letícia Baptista; Lessa, Thais Borges; Russo, Fabiele Baldino; Fernandes, Renata Avancini; Kfoury, José Roberto; Braga, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we studied the embryology of mice of 12, 14, and 18 days of gestation by gross observation, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Grossly, the embryos of 12 days were observed in C-shaped region of the brain, eye pigmentation of the retina, first, second, and third pharyngeal arches gill pit nasal region on the fourth ventricle brain, cervical curvature, heart, liver, limb bud thoracic, spinal cord, tail, umbilical cord, and place of the mesonephric ridge. Microscopically, the liver, cardiovascular system and spinal cord were observed. In the embryo of 14 days, we observed structures that make up the liver and heart. At 18 days of gestation fetuses, it was noted the presence of eyes, mouth, and nose in the cephalic region, chest and pelvic region with the presence of well-developed limbs, umbilical cord, and placenta. Scanning electron microscopy in 18 days of gestation fetuses evidenced head, eyes closed eyelids, nose, vibrissae, forelimb, heart, lung, kidney, liver, small bowel, diaphragm, and part of the spine. The results obtained in this work describe the internal and external morphology of mice, provided by an integration of techniques and review of the morphological knowledge of the embryonic development of this species, as this animal is of great importance to scientific studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10 −7 T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K

  5. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  6. A transmission positron microscope and a scanning positron microscope being built at KEK, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, M.; Inoue, M.; Kogure, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Yagishita, A.; Shidara, T.; Nakahara, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the plans of positron microscopes being built at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan improving used electron microscopes. The kinetic energies of positron produced by accelerators or by nuclear decays have not a unique value but show a spread over in a wide range. Positron beam will be guided near electron microscopes, a transmission electron microscope (JEM100S) and a scanning electron microscope (JSM25S). Positrons are slowed down by a tungsten foil, accelerated and focused on a nickel sheet. The monochromatic focused beam will be injected into an electron microscope. The focusing of positrons and electrons is achieved by magnetic system of the electron microscopes. Imaging plates are used to record positron images for the transmission electron microscope. (orig.)

  7. A microscopic model of triangular arbitrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yukihiro; Hatano, Naomichi

    2006-11-01

    We introduce a microscopic model which describes the dynamics of each dealer in multiple foreign exchange markets, taking account of the triangular arbitrage transaction. The model reproduces the interaction among the markets well. We explore the relation between the parameters of the present microscopic model and the spring constant of a macroscopic model that we proposed previously.

  8. Quantum theory and microscopic mechanics. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1984-08-01

    The need for theoretical descriptions and experimental observations on 'small' individual systems is emphasized. It is shown that the mathematical basis for microscopic mechanics is very simple in one dimension. The square well problem is discussed to clarify general points about stationary states and the continuity of (p'/p) across potential boundaries in the applications of microscopic mechanics. (author)

  9. Electron Microscope Center Opens at Berkeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1981-01-01

    A 1.5-MeV High Voltage Electron Microscope has been installed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which will help materials scientists and biologists study samples in more true-to-life situations. A 1-MeV Atomic Resolution Microscope will be installed at the same location in two years which will allow scientists to distinguish atoms. (DS)

  10. Cathodoluminescence in the scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kociak, M., E-mail: mathieu.kociak@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Université Paris-SudParis-Sud, CNRS-UMR 8502, Orsay 91405 (France); Zagonel, L.F. [“Gleb Wataghin” Institute of Physics University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) is a powerful tool for the investigation of optical properties of materials. In recent years, its combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has demonstrated great success in unveiling new physics in the field of plasmonics and quantum emitters. Most of these results were not imaginable even twenty years ago, due to conceptual and technical limitations. The purpose of this review is to present the recent advances that broke these limitations, and the new possibilities offered by the modern STEM-CL technique. We first introduce the different STEM-CL operating modes and the technical specificities in STEM-CL instrumentation. Two main classes of optical excitations, namely the coherent one (typically plasmons) and the incoherent one (typically light emission from quantum emitters) are investigated with STEM-CL. For these two main classes, we describe both the physics of light production under electron beam irradiation and the physical basis for interpreting STEM-CL experiments. We then compare STEM-CL with its better known sister techniques: scanning electron microscope CL, photoluminescence, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. We finish by comprehensively reviewing recent STEM-CL applications. - Highlights: • Reviews the field of STEM-CL. • Introduces the technical requirements and challenges for STEM-CL. • Introduces the different types of excitations probed by STEM-CL. • Gives comprehensive overview of the last fifteenth years in the field.

  11. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  12. MIDAS: Lessons learned from the first spaceborne atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mark Stephen; Arends, Herman; Butler, Bart; Gavira, Jose; Jeszenszky, Harald; Mannel, Thurid; Romstedt, Jens; Schmied, Roland; Torkar, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System (MIDAS) atomic force microscope (AFM) onboard the Rosetta orbiter was the first such instrument launched into space in 2004. Designed only a few years after the technique was invented, MIDAS is currently orbiting comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko and producing the highest resolution 3D images of cometary dust ever made in situ. After more than a year of continuous operation much experience has been gained with this novel instrument. Coupled with operations of the Flight Spare and advances in terrestrial AFM a set of "lessons learned" has been produced, cumulating in recommendations for future spaceborne atomic force microscopes. The majority of the design could be reused as-is, or with incremental upgrades to include more modern components (e.g. the processor). Key additional recommendations are to incorporate an optical microscope to aid the search for particles and image registration, to include a variety of cantilevers (with different spring constants) and a variety of tip geometries.

  13. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  14. Comparative study of image contrast in scanning electron microscope and helium ion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R; Chen, Y; Zhang, H; Zhou, Y; Fox, D; Maguire, P; Wang, J J; Rodenburg, C

    2017-12-01

    Images of Ga + -implanted amorphous silicon layers in a 110 n-type silicon substrate have been collected by a range of detectors in a scanning electron microscope and a helium ion microscope. The effects of the implantation dose and imaging parameters (beam energy, dwell time, etc.) on the image contrast were investigated. We demonstrate a similar relationship for both the helium ion microscope Everhart-Thornley and scanning electron microscope Inlens detectors between the contrast of the images and the Ga + density and imaging parameters. These results also show that dynamic charging effects have a significant impact on the quantification of the helium ion microscope and scanning electron microscope contrast. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Development and applications of the positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Progress on the positron microscope during the past year has been steady, and we currently project that initial microscope images can be collected during mid to late summer of 1992. Work during the year has mainly been divided among four areas of effort: hardware construction; power supply and control system development; radioactive source fabrication; and planning of initial experimental projects. Details of progress in these areas will be given below. An initial optical design of the microscope was completed during 1990, but during the past year, significant improvements have been made to this design, and several limiting cases of microscope performance have been evaluated. The results of these evaluations have been extremely encouraging, giving us strong indications that the optical performance of the microscope will be better than originally anticipated. In particular, we should be able to explore ultimate performance capabilities of positron microscopy using our currently planned optical system, with improvements only in the image detector system, and the positron-source/moderator configuration. We should be able to study imaging reemission microscopy with resolutions approaching 10 Angstrom and be able to produce beam spots for rastered microscope work with diameters below the 1000 Angstrom diffusion limit. Because of these exciting new possibilities, we have decided to upgrade several microscope subsystems to levels consistent with ultimate performance earlier in our construction schedule than we had previously intended. In particular, alignment facilities in the optical system, vibration isolation, and power supply and control system flexibility have all been upgraded in their design over the past year

  16. Highly charged ion based time-of-flight emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Barnes, Alan V.; Magee, Ed; Newman, Mike; Schenkel, Thomas; McDonald, Joseph W.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2000-01-01

    An emission microscope using highly charged ions as the excitation source has been designed, constructed, and operated. A novel ''acorn'' objective lens has been used to simultaneously image electron and secondary ion emission. A resistive anode-position sensitive detector is used to determine the x-y position and time of arrival of the secondary events at the microscope image plane. Contrast in the image can be based on the intensity of the electron emission and/or the presence of particular secondary ions. Spatial resolution of better than 1 μm and mass resolution m/Δm of better than 400 were demonstrated. Background rejection from uncorrelated events of greater than an order of magnitude is also achieved. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. The impact of loupes and microscopes on vision in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, P; Neuhaus, K W; Lussi, A

    2014-05-01

    To report on an intraradicular visual test in a simulated clinical setting under different optical conditions. Miniaturized visual tests with E-optotypes (bar distance from 0.01 to 0.05 mm) were fixed inside the root canal system of an extracted maxillary molar at different locations: at the orifice, a depth of 5 mm and the apex. The tooth was mounted in a phantom head for a simulated clinical setting. Unaided vision was compared with Galilean loupes (2.5× magnification) with integrated light source and an operating microscope (6× magnification). The influence of the dentists' age within two groups was evaluated: endodontic instruments. Dentists over 40 years of age were dependent on the microscope to inspect the root canal system. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Optimal indolence: a normative microscopic approach to work and leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyogi, Ritwik K.; Breton, Yannick-Andre; Solomon, Rebecca B.; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter; Dayan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Dividing limited time between work and leisure when both have their attractions is a common everyday decision. We provide a normative control-theoretic treatment of this decision that bridges economic and psychological accounts. We show how our framework applies to free-operant behavioural experiments in which subjects are required to work (depressing a lever) for sufficient total time (called the price) to receive a reward. When the microscopic benefit-of-leisure increases nonlinearly with duration, the model generates behaviour that qualitatively matches various microfeatures of subjects’ choices, including the distribution of leisure bout durations as a function of the pay-off. We relate our model to traditional accounts by deriving macroscopic, molar, quantities from microscopic choices. PMID:24284898

  19. First images from the Stanford tabletop scanning soft x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trail, J.A.; Byer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have constructed a scanning soft x-ray microscope which uses a laser-produced plasma as the soft x-ray source and normal incidence multilayer coated mirrors in a Schwarzschild configuration as the focusing optics. The microscope operates at a wavelength of 140 angstrom, has a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm, and has a soft x-ray photon flux through the focus of 10 4 s -1 when operated with only 170 mW of average laser power. The microscope is compact; the complete system, including the laser, fits on a single optical table. In this paper they describe the microscope and present images of metallic microstructures

  20. Towards vortex imaging with scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Dan T.

    1994-02-01

    A low temperature, Besocke beetle type scanning tunneling microscope, with a scan range of 10 by 10 microns was built. The scanning tunneling microscope was calibrates for various temperatures and tested on several samples. Gold monolayers evaporated at 400 deg C were resolved and their dynamic behavior observed. Atomic resolution images of graphite were obtained. The scanning tunneling microscope was designed for future applications of vortex imaging in superconductors. The special design considerations for this application are discussed and the physics underlying it reviewed. (author)

  1. Confocal scanning microscope for nuclear photoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; Soroko, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the confocal scanning microscope to the objects in the nuclear photoemulsion is described. An array of 27 microtomograms of single silver grain is shown. The cross sections of the same particle track of diameter 1 μm, detected by means of the confocal scanning microscope with open and annular apertures, are presented. It was shown that the confocal scanning microscope opens indeed new opportunities for the nuclear photoemulsion technique to get previously inaccessible information for physics of the short-living particles

  2. Scanning electron microscope - some aspects of the instrument and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatte, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    Development of the science of microscopy leading to three different types of microscopes - the optical, the conventional transmission electron microscope (CTEM) and the scanning electron microscope(SEM) has been discussed. Special advantages of the SEM in the solution of problems in industrial laboratories are mentioned. A brief reference to the latest instruments announced by Siemens AG shows the modern trends in the technique. A close similarity in image building between SEM and television is indicated. Operational anatomy of the SEM is reviewed. (author)

  3. Response function and optimum configuration of semiconductor backscattered-electron detectors for scanning electron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, E. I.; Orlikovskiy, N. A.; Ivanova, E. S.

    2012-01-01

    A new highly efficient design for semiconductor detectors of intermediate-energy electrons (1–50 keV) for application in scanning electron microscopes is proposed. Calculations of the response function of advanced detectors and control experiments show that the efficiency of the developed devices increases on average twofold, which is a significant positive factor in the operation of modern electron microscopes in the mode of low currents and at low primary electron energies.

  4. phytochemical and microscopical evaluation of desmodium velutinum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... and observed under the compound microscope for the presence of cell inclusions such as cellulose, starch, oil ... opportunity of providing useful medicinal compounds. (Gill, 1992). ..... Medical Properties of African. Plants of.

  5. A pragmatic guide to multiphoton microscope design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael D.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Bartels, Randy A.; Squier, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged as a ubiquitous tool for studying microscopic structure and function across a broad range of disciplines. As such, the intent of this paper is to present a comprehensive resource for the construction and performance evaluation of a multiphoton microscope that will be understandable to the broad range of scientific fields that presently exploit, or wish to begin exploiting, this powerful technology. With this in mind, we have developed a guide to aid in the design of a multiphoton microscope. We discuss source selection, optical management of dispersion, image-relay systems with scan optics, objective-lens selection, single-element light-collection theory, photon-counting detection, image rendering, and finally, an illustrated guide for building an example microscope. PMID:27182429

  6. Multi-compartment microscopic diffusion imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kaden, Enrico; Kelm, Nathaniel D.; Carson, Robert P.; Does, Mark D.; Alexander, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-compartment model for microscopic diffusion anisotropy imaging. The aim is to estimate microscopic features specific to the intra- and extra-neurite compartments in nervous tissue unconfounded by the effects of fibre crossings and orientation dispersion, which are ubiquitous in the brain. The proposed MRI method is based on the Spherical Mean Technique (SMT), which factors out the neurite orientation distribution and thus provides direct estimates of the microsco...

  7. Microscopic and macroscopic models for pedestrian crowds

    OpenAIRE

    Makmul, Juntima

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with microscopic and macroscopic models for pedes- trian crowds. In the first chapter, we consider pedestrians exit choices and model human behaviour in an evacuation process. Two microscopic models, discrete and continuous, are studied in this chapter. The former is a cellular automaton model and the latter is a social force model. Different numerical test cases are investigated and their results are compared. In chapter 2, a hierarchy of models for...

  8. Transcanal microscope-assisted endoscopic myringoplasty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migirov, Lela; Wolf, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Myringoplasty can be technically difficult in the pediatric patients due to the narrowness of the external auditory canal and the generally small size of the ear. Moreover, temporalis fascia grafts and myringoplasties for anterior perforations are more likely to fail in children. Surgical management of anterior perforations requires total exposure of the anterior angle however a microscope may fail to provide a view of the anterior edge in most of perforations. Recently, different endoscopes are used in the performance of ear surgery in general and myringoplasty in particular. Current study aimed to investigate the outcome of transcanal microscope-assisted endoscopic myringoplasty in homogenous group of children. The medical records of 22 children were retrospectively reviewed for age, perforation size and location, surgical and audiological findings, and outcome. All myringoplasties were performed by first author with a chondro-perichondrial graft that has been harvested from the tragus and placed medial to the tympanic membrane remnants, utilizing the underlay technique and 14-mm length, 3-mm diameter, 0° and 30° endoscopes. A microscope was occasionally used for removal of the sclerotic plaques and releasing adhesions surrounding the ossicles when bimanual manipulations were needed. Surgical success was defined as a tympanic membrane with no perforation, retraction, or graft lateralization for at least 18 months following surgery. Thirteen large-, 8 medium- and 1 small-sized perforations (defined as 75, 50 or 25%, respectively, of the tympanic membrane area), of which 14 were anterior, 2 central and 6 posterior marginal, were repaired. The edges of the defect could not be visualized under a microscope due to bone overhanging or a curved or narrow EAC in 8 anterior perforations. Intact tympanic membranes and dry ears were achieved in all operated children. The audiometric air conduction level (average of 0.5-3 kHz) for the entire cohort ranged between 10-51.3 d

  9. An Assemblable, Multi-Angle Fluorescence and Ellipsometric Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Victoria; Rizzo, John

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a multi-functional microscope for research laboratories that have significant cost and space limitations. The microscope pivots around the sample, operating in upright, inverted, side-on and oblique geometries. At these geometries it is able to perform bright-field, fluorescence and qualitative ellipsometric imaging. It is the first single instrument in the literature to be able to perform all of these functionalities. The system can be assembled by two undergraduate students from a provided manual in less than a day, from off-the-shelf and 3D printed components, which together cost approximately $16k at 2016 market prices. We include a highly specified assembly manual, a summary of design methodologies, and all associated 3D-printing files in hopes that the utility of the design outlives the current component market. This open design approach prepares readers to customize the instrument to specific needs and applications. We also discuss how to select household LEDs as low-cost light sources for fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate the utility of the microscope in varied geometries and functionalities, with particular emphasis on studying hydrated, solid-supported lipid films and wet biological samples. PMID:27907008

  10. An Assemblable, Multi-Angle Fluorescence and Ellipsometric Microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Nguyen

    Full Text Available We introduce a multi-functional microscope for research laboratories that have significant cost and space limitations. The microscope pivots around the sample, operating in upright, inverted, side-on and oblique geometries. At these geometries it is able to perform bright-field, fluorescence and qualitative ellipsometric imaging. It is the first single instrument in the literature to be able to perform all of these functionalities. The system can be assembled by two undergraduate students from a provided manual in less than a day, from off-the-shelf and 3D printed components, which together cost approximately $16k at 2016 market prices. We include a highly specified assembly manual, a summary of design methodologies, and all associated 3D-printing files in hopes that the utility of the design outlives the current component market. This open design approach prepares readers to customize the instrument to specific needs and applications. We also discuss how to select household LEDs as low-cost light sources for fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate the utility of the microscope in varied geometries and functionalities, with particular emphasis on studying hydrated, solid-supported lipid films and wet biological samples.

  11. Microscopic examination of crack growth in a pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isacsson, M.; Narstroem, T. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    A fairly systematic microscopic study concerning ductile and ductile-brittle crack growth in the A508B pressure vessel steel has been performed. The main method of investigation was to subject fracture mechanics specimens (sub-sized three point bend specimens) to predetermined load levels corresponding to different amounts of ductile crack extension. The specimens were then cut perpendicularly to the plane of the crack and the area in front of the crack was examined in a SEM. The object of these examinations was to determine if newly encountered computational results could be correlated to crack extension characteristics and to study whether the mechanism of ductile growth was of the void growth type or of the fast shear mechanism. This is important for further numerical modelling of the process. Both the original material and a specially heat treated piece were investigated. The heat treatment was performed in order to raise the transition temperature to about 60 deg C with the object to provide a more convenient testing situation. Charpy V tests were performed for the specially heat treated material to obtain the temperature dependence of the toughness. This was also studied by performing fracture toughness determination on the same type of specimens as were used for the microscopic study. The heat treatment used fulfilled the above purpose and the microscopic studies provide a good understanding of the micro mechanisms operating in the ductile fracture process for this material. 19 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs.

  12. Microscopic examination of crack growth in a pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isacsson, M.; Narstroem, T.

    1997-01-01

    A fairly systematic microscopic study concerning ductile and ductile-brittle crack growth in the A508B pressure vessel steel has been performed. The main method of investigation was to subject fracture mechanics specimens (sub-sized three point bend specimens) to predetermined load levels corresponding to different amounts of ductile crack extension. The specimens were then cut perpendicularly to the plane of the crack and the area in front of the crack was examined in a SEM. The object of these examinations was to determine if newly encountered computational results could be correlated to crack extension characteristics and to study whether the mechanism of ductile growth was of the void growth type or of the fast shear mechanism. This is important for further numerical modelling of the process. Both the original material and a specially heat treated piece were investigated. The heat treatment was performed in order to raise the transition temperature to about 60 deg C with the object to provide a more convenient testing situation. Charpy V tests were performed for the specially heat treated material to obtain the temperature dependence of the toughness. This was also studied by performing fracture toughness determination on the same type of specimens as were used for the microscopic study. The heat treatment used fulfilled the above purpose and the microscopic studies provide a good understanding of the micro mechanisms operating in the ductile fracture process for this material

  13. Designs for a quantum electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruit, P; Hobbs, R G; Kim, C-S; Yang, Y; Manfrinato, V R; Hammer, J; Thomas, S; Weber, P; Klopfer, B; Kohstall, C; Juffmann, T; Kasevich, M A; Hommelhoff, P; Berggren, K K

    2016-05-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or "quantum electron microscope". A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microscopic analysis of Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sida; Zhou, Zongyan; Zou, Ruiping; Pinson, David; Yu, Aibing

    2013-06-01

    Hoppers are widely used in process industries. With such widespread application, difficulties in achieving desired operational behaviors have led to extensive experimental and mathematical studies in the past decades. Particularly, the discrete element method has become one of the most important simulation tools for design and analysis. So far, most studies are on spherical particles for computational convenience. In this work, ellipsoidal particles are used as they can represent a large variation of particle shapes. Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles is presented highlighting the effect of particle shape on the microscopic properties.

  15. Nanoscale X-Ray Microscopic Imaging of Mammalian Mineralized Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Joy C.; Almeida, Eduardo; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Lee, Chialing; Liu, Yijin; Chen, Jie; Meirer, Florian; Feser, Michael; Gelb, Jeff; Rudati, Juana; Tkachuk, Andrei; Yun, Wenbing; Pianetta, Piero

    2010-01-01

    A novel hard transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light-source operating from 5 to 15 keV X-ray energy with 14 to 30 µm2 field of view has been used for high-resolution (30–40 nm) imaging and density quantification of mineralized tissue. TXM is uniquely suited for imaging of internal cellular structures and networks in mammalian mineralized tissues using relatively thick (50 µm), untreated samples that preserve tissue micro- and nanostructure. To test this...

  16. Microscopic IBM-1 description of collective states in 128Ce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhajlov V. M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopical quasiparticle theory is developed to calculate the IBM-1 parameters entering the Hamiltonian and E2–operator. The theory takes into account the impact of noncollective phonons and predicts alterations of the superconducting properties along the excitation spectrum, whereas the most collective phonon (the image of the IBM d-boson is practically invariable. Calculations of the energy spectrum and probabilities of E2–transitions (without effective nucleon charges were performed for 128Ce. The results obtained are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  17. Characterization of quantum well structures using a photocathode electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael G.; Scott, Craig J.

    1989-01-01

    Present day integrated circuits pose a challenge to conventional electronic and mechanical test methods. Feature sizes in the submicron and nanometric regime require radical approaches in order to facilitate electrical contact to circuits and devices being tested. In addition, microwave operating frequencies require careful attention to distributed effects when considering the electrical signal paths within and external to the device under test. An alternative testing approach which combines the best of electrical and optical time domain testing is presented, namely photocathode electron microscope quantitative voltage contrast (PEMQVC).

  18. Software for imaging phase-shift interference microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovski, I.; França, R. S.; Couceiro, I. B.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years absolute interference microscope was created at National Metrology Institute of Brazil (INMETRO). The instrument by principle of operation is imaging phase-shifting interferometer (PSI) equipped with two stabilized lasers of different colour as traceable reference wavelength sources. We report here some progress in development of the software for this instrument. The status of undergoing internal validation and verification of the software is also reported. In contrast with standard PSI method, different methodology of phase evaluation is applied. Therefore, instrument specific procedures for software validation and verification are adapted and discussed.

  19. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes routinely used in the synchrotron community.

  20. Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kunal K.; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Ziv, Yaniv; Gamal, Abbas El; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals towards relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular-level imaging across ∼0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. PMID:21909102

  1. The optics of microscope image formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David E

    2013-01-01

    Although geometric optics gives a good understanding of how the microscope works, it fails in one critical area, which is explaining the origin of microscope resolution. To accomplish this, one must consider the microscope from the viewpoint of physical optics. This chapter describes the theory of the microscope-relating resolution to the highest spatial frequency that a microscope can collect. The chapter illustrates how Huygens' principle or construction can be used to explain the propagation of a plane wave. It is shown that this limit increases with increasing numerical aperture (NA). As a corollary to this, resolution increases with decreasing wavelength because of how NA depends on wavelength. The resolution is higher for blue light than red light. Resolution is dependent on contrast, and the higher the contrast, the higher the resolution. This last point relates to issues of signal-to-noise and dynamic range. The use of video and new digital cameras has necessitated redefining classical limits such as those of Rayleigh's criterion. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 3D-Mössbauer spectroscopic microscope for mc-Si solar cell evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Y., E-mail: y-ino@ob.sist.ac.jp; Soejima, H.; Hayakawa, K.; Yukihira, K.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, H.; Watanabe, T. [Shizuoka Institute of Science and Technology (Japan); Ogai, K.; Moriguchi, K.; Harada, Y. [APCO. Ltd. (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Shizuoka Institute of Science and Technology (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    A 3D-Mössbauer Spectroscopic Microscope is developed to evaluate Fe impurities in multi-crystalline Si solar cells, which combines the Mössbauer spectroscopic microscope with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an electron beam induced current (EBIC), an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and an electron energy analyzer (HV-CSA). In addition, a new moving-coil-actuator with a liner encoder of 100 nm-resolution is incorporated for the operations with both a constant velocity and a constant acceleration mode successfully with the same precision as that obtained by the conventional transducers. Furthermore, a new multi-capillary X-ray lens is designed to achieve a γ-ray spot size less than 100 μm in diameter. The new microscope provides us to investigate the space correlation between Fe impurities and the lattice defects such as grain boundaries in multi-crystalline Si solar cells.

  3. Spherical aberration correction in a scanning transmission electron microscope using a sculpted thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, Roy; Remez, Roei; Lu, Peng-Han; Jin, Lei; Lereah, Yossi; Tavabi, Amir H; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Arie, Ady

    2018-06-01

    Nearly eighty years ago, Scherzer showed that rotationally symmetric, charge-free, static electron lenses are limited by an unavoidable, positive spherical aberration. Following a long struggle, a major breakthrough in the spatial resolution of electron microscopes was reached two decades ago by abandoning the first of these conditions, with the successful development of multipole aberration correctors. Here, we use a refractive silicon nitride thin film to tackle the second of Scherzer's constraints and demonstrate an alternative method for correcting spherical aberration in a scanning transmission electron microscope. We reveal features in Si and Cu samples that cannot be resolved in an uncorrected microscope. Our thin film corrector can be implemented as an immediate low cost upgrade to existing electron microscopes without re-engineering of the electron column or complicated operation protocols and can be extended to the correction of additional aberrations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of the parameters of a microscopic object from a complex response of a differential microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, D V; Egorov, Alexander A; Zolotov, Evgenii M; Svidzinsky, K K

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the amplitude and phase of a complex response of a heterodyne differential microscope was used to demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of determination of the parameters of a composite microscopic object representing a combination of a step with a groove. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  5. On the microscopic foundation of scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, T.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to give a contribution to the microscopic foundation of scattering theory, i. e. to show, how the asymptotic formalism of scattering theory with objects like the S-matrix as well the initial and final asymptotics ψ in and ψ out can be derived from a microscopic description of the basic system. First the final statistics from a N-particle system through farly distant surfaces is derived. Thereafter we confine us to the 1-particle scattering and apply the final statistics in order to derive the scattering cross section from a microscopical description of the scattering situation. The basing dynamics are Bohm's mechanics, a theory on the motion of point particles, which reproduces all results of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics

  6. Microscopic hydrodynamics study with nuclear track membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilun Guo; Yuhua Zhao; Yulan Wang; Hiuhong Hao; Brandt, R.; Vater, P.

    1988-01-01

    Microscopic hydrodynamics has been studied using different liquids and nuclear track membranes with pores perpendicularly piercing through them. The flow rate of water and alcohol has been studied with polycarbonate track membranes with pore diameters 1.48 micrometres and 1.08 micrometres. It has been shown that the flow rate both for water and alcohol on a microscopic scale can be determined by the Poiseuille law which characterizes macroscopic laminar flow. The Reynolds number used in macroscopic fluid flow has been calculated from the flow rate and parameters of the liquids and the geometry of the pores. It has been shown that this Reynolds number can also be used to characterize microscopic flow. Based on the above results, the filtration capacity (or limit) of polycarbonate track microfilters for water had been calculated. Some possible limits on the application of the calculation are pointed out and discussed. (author)

  7. Smartphone Magnification Attachment: Microscope or Magnifying Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergemöller, Timo; Laumann, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Today smartphones and tablets do not merely pervade our daily life, but also play a major role in STEM education in general, and in experimental investigations in particular. Enabling teachers and students to make use of these new techniques in physics lessons requires supplying capable and affordable applications. Our article presents the improvement of a low-cost technique turning smartphones into powerful magnifying glasses or microscopes. Adding only a 3D-printed clip attached to the smartphone's camera and inserting a small glass bead in this clip enables smartphones to take pictures with up to 780x magnification (see Fig. 1). In addition, the construction of the smartphone attachments helps to explain and examine the differences between magnifying glasses and microscopes, and shows that the widespread term "smartphone microscope" for this technique is inaccurate from a physics educational perspective.

  8. Handy Microscopic Close-Range Videogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, F.; Ebadi, H.

    2017-09-01

    The modeling of small-scale objects is used in different applications such as medicine, industry, and cultural heritage. The capability of modeling small-scale objects using imaging with the help of hand USB digital microscopes and use of videogrammetry techniques has been implemented and evaluated in this paper. Use of this equipment and convergent imaging of the environment for modeling, provides an appropriate set of images for generation of three-dimensional models. The results of the measurements made with the help of a microscope micrometer calibration ruler have demonstrated that self-calibration of a hand camera-microscope set can help obtain a three-dimensional detail extraction precision of about 0.1 millimeters on small-scale environments.

  9. Environmental TEM in an Aberration Corrected Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    ‐resolution imaging. A gaseous atmosphere in the pole‐piece gap of the objective lens of the microscope alters both the incoming electron wave prior to interaction with the sample and the outgoing wave below the sample. Whereas conventional TEM samples are usually thin (below 10‐20 nm), the gas in the environmental...... the microscope column. The effects of gas on the electron wave in the objective lens are not well understood and needs further attention. Imaging samples with a simple geometry, such as gold particles on a flat graphene substrate and analyzing the variations in contrast, provides a means for understanding...... results from imaging in various elemental as well as di‐molecular gases and their effect on imaging and spectroscopy in the environmental transmission electron microscope....

  10. Image processing for HTS SQUID probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Koetitz, R.; Itozaki, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawabe, U.

    2005-01-01

    An HTS SQUID probe microscope has been developed using a high-permeability needle to enable high spatial resolution measurement of samples in air even at room temperature. Image processing techniques have also been developed to improve the magnetic field images obtained from the microscope. Artifacts in the data occur due to electromagnetic interference from electric power lines, line drift and flux trapping. The electromagnetic interference could successfully be removed by eliminating the noise peaks from the power spectrum of fast Fourier transforms of line scans of the image. The drift between lines was removed by interpolating the mean field value of each scan line. Artifacts in line scans occurring due to flux trapping or unexpected noise were removed by the detection of a sharp drift and interpolation using the line data of neighboring lines. Highly detailed magnetic field images were obtained from the HTS SQUID probe microscope by the application of these image processing techniques

  11. Neutron relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qing-biao; Feng Da-chun; Zhuo Yi-zhong

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, both the phenomenological and microscopic neutron relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies E n =20--1000 MeV has been obtained through an automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical potential (RMOP) is studied by utilizing the effective Lagrangian based on the popular Walecka model. Through comparison between the theoretical results and experimental data we shed some insight into both the RMOP and RPOP. Further improvement concerning how to combine the phenomenological potential with the microscopic one in order to reduce the number of free parameters appearing in the RPOP is suggested

  12. Microscopic saw mark analysis: an empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Peters, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic saw mark analysis is a well published and generally accepted qualitative analytical method. However, little research has focused on identifying and mitigating potential sources of error associated with the method. The presented study proposes the use of classification trees and random forest classifiers as an optimal, statistically sound approach to mitigate the potential for error of variability and outcome error in microscopic saw mark analysis. The statistical model was applied to 58 experimental saw marks created with four types of saws. The saw marks were made in fresh human femurs obtained through anatomical gift and were analyzed using a Keyence digital microscope. The statistical approach weighed the variables based on discriminatory value and produced decision trees with an associated outcome error rate of 8.62-17.82%. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Development of an ultrasound microscope combined with optical microscope for multiparametric characterization of a single cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mototaka; Shikama, Joe; Yoshida, Koki; Nagaoka, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-09-01

    Biomechanics of the cell has been gathering much attention because it affects the pathological status in atherosclerosis and cancer. In the present study, an ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope for characterization of a single cell with multiple ultrasound parameters was developed. The central frequency of the transducer was 375 MHz and the scan area was 80 × 80 μm with up to 200 × 200 sampling points. An inverted optical microscope was incorporated in the design of the system, allowing for simultaneous optical observations of cultured cells. Two-dimensional mapping of multiple ultrasound parameters, such as sound speed, attenuation, and acoustic impedance, as well as the thickness, density, and bulk modulus of specimen/cell under investigation, etc., was realized by the system. Sound speed and thickness of a 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell were successfully obtained by the system. The ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope further enhances our understanding of cellular biomechanics.

  14. Expectations for neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, M.

    1993-01-01

    Neutrons have been used as microscopic probes to study structural and dynamical properties of various materials. In this paper I shall give a comparative study of the neutron research in the condensed matter physics with other typical microscopic methods such as X-rays, laser optics, magnetic resonances, Moessbauer effect and μSR. It is emphasized that the neutron study will extensively be important in future beyond the condensed matter physics. Chemistry, biology, earth sciences, material engineerings and medical sciences will become new frontiers for neutron study. (author)

  15. Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the detai......We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...

  16. Scanning microscopic four-point conductivity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Bøggild, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating microscopic four-point probes is presented. The method uses silicon-based microfabrication technology involving only two patterning steps. The last step in the fabrication process is an unmasked deposition of the conducting probe material, and it is thus possible to select...... the conducting material either for a silicon wafer or a single probe unit. Using shadow masking photolithography an electrode spacing (pitch) down to 1.1 mum was obtained, with cantilever separation down to 200 run. Characterisation measurements have shown the microscopic probes to be mechanically very flexible...

  17. Science 101: How Does an Electron Microscope Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, electron microscopes are not used to look at electrons. They are used to look for structure in things that are too small to observe with an optical microscope, or to obtain images that are magnified much more than is obtainable with an optical microscope. To understand how electron microscopes work, it will help to go…

  18. Microscopic nuclear structure with sub-nucleonic degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, P.U.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews microscopic theories of nuclear structure. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons only; microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons, isobars and mesons; and microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons, mesons and dibaryons. (U.K.)

  19. Microscopic description of rotational spectra including band-mixing. 1. Formulation in a microscopic basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brut, F.; Jang, S.

    1982-05-01

    Within the framework of the projection theory of collective motion, a microscopic description of the rotational energy with band-mixing is formulated using a method based on an inverse power perturbation expansion in a quantity related to the expectation value of the operator Jsub(y)sup(2). The reliability of the present formulation is discussed in relation to the difference between the individual wave functions obtained from the variational equations which are established before and after projection. In addition to the various familiar quantities which appear in the phenomenological energy formula, such as the moment of inertia parameter, the decoupling factor and the band-mixing matrix element for ΔK=1, other unfamiliar quantities having the factors with peculiar phases, (-1)sup(J+1)J(J+1), (-1)sup(J+3/2)(J-1/2)(J+1/2)(J+3/2), (-1)sup(J+1/2)(J+1/2)J(J+1), (-1)sup(J)J(J+1)(J-1)(J+2) and [J(J+1)] 2 are obtained. The band-mixing term for ΔK=2 is also new. All these quantities are expressed in terms of two-body interactions and expectation values of the operator Jsub(y)sup(m), where m is an integer, within the framework of particle-hole formalism. The difference between the moment of inertia of an even-even and a neighboring even-odd nucleus, as well as the effect of band-mixing on the moment of inertia are studied. All results are put into the forms so as to facilitate comparisons with the corresponding phenomenological terms and also for further application

  20. Microscopic Electron Variations Measured Simultaneously By The Cluster Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, A. M.; Carozzi, T. D.; Gough, M. P.; Beloff, N.

    Data is used from the Particle Correlator experiments running on each of the four Cluster spacecraft so as to determine common microscopic behaviour in the elec- tron population observed over the macroscopic Cluster separations. The Cluster par- ticle correlator experiments operate by forming on board Auto Correlation Functions (ACFs) generated from short time series of electron counts obtained, as a function of electron energy, from the PEACE HEEA sensor. The information on the microscopic variation of the electron flux covers the frequency range DC up to 41 kHz (encom- passing typical electron plasma frequencies and electron gyro frequencies and their harmonics), the electron energy range is that covered by the PEACE HEEA sensor (within the range 1 eV to 26 keV). Results are presented of coherent electron struc- tures observed simultaneously by the four spacecraft in the differing plasma interac- tion regions and boundaries encountered by Cluster. As an aid to understanding the plasma interactions, use is made of numerical simulations which model both the un- derlying statistical properties of the electrons and also the manner in which particle correlator experiments operate.

  1. Optical Analysis of an Ultra-High resolution Two-Mirror Soft X-Ray Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, Cheng; Hoover, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    This work has summarized for a Schwarzschild microscope some relationships between numerical aperture (NA), magnification, diameter of the primary mirror, radius of curvature of the secondary mirror, and the total length of the microscope. To achieve resolutions better than a spherical Schwarzschild microscope of 3.3 Lambda for a perfectly aligned and fabricated system. it is necessary to use aspherical surfaces to control higher-order aberrations. For an NA of 0.35, the aspherical Head microscope provides diffraction limited resolution of 1.4 Lambda where the aspherical surfaces differ from the best fit spherical surface by approximately 1 micrometer. However, the angle of incidence varies significantly over the primary and the secondary mirrors, which will require graded multilayer coatings to operate near peak reflectivities. For higher numerical apertures, the variation of the angle of incidence over the secondary mirror surface becomes a serious problem which must be solved before multilayer coatings can be used for this application. Tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has shown that water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance for operations with 130 A radiation. Surface contour errors have been shown to have a significant impact on the MTF and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror.

  2. Significance of microscopic extention from 1162 esophageal carcinoma specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Zhu Shuchai; Han Chun; Zhang Xin; Xiao Aiqin; Ma Guoxin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the subclinical microscopic tumor extention along the long axis in 1162 specimens of esophageal carcinoma so as to help define the clinical target volume(CTV) according to the degree of microscopic extention(ME) for radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. Methods: 1162 resected esophageal carcinoma specimens originally located in the neck and thorax were studied with special reference to the correlation between upper and lower resection length from the tumor and positive microscopic margin. Another 52 resected esophageal carcinoma specimens were made into pathological giant sections: the actual resection length of upper and para-esophageal normal tissues was compared with that of the lower nor- mal tissues from the tumor, there by, the ratio of shrinkage was obtained and compared. Results: After fixation, microscopic positive margin ratio of the upper resection border in length ≤0.5 cm group was higher than that in length > 0.5 cm group (16.4% vs 4.1%, P=0.000). Microscopic positive margin ratio of the lower resection border in length ≤1.5 cm group was higher than that in length > 1.5 cm group( 8.1% vs 0.4%, P = 0.000). This showed that the positive margin ratio of the upper border was higher than that of the lower border in resection length > 1.5 cm group(3.5% vs 0.4%, P=0. 000). The actual length of upper and lower normal esophageal tissue after having been made into pathological giant sections in 52 patients, was 30% ± 14% and 44% ± 19% of that measured in the operation. Conclusions: Considering the shrinkage of the normal esophagus during fixation, a CTV margin of 2.0 cm along the upper long axis and 3.5 cm along the lower long axis should be chosen for radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma, according to the ratio of shrinkage. Ascending invasion proportion is higher than the descending invasion in that tumor. (authors)

  3. Permanent magnet finger-size scanning electron microscope columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelliyan, K., E-mail: elenk@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-07-21

    This paper presents permanent magnet scanning electron microscope (SEM) designs for both tungsten and field emission guns. Each column makes use of permanent magnet technology and operates at a fixed primary beam voltage. A prototype column operating at a beam voltage of 15 kV was made and tested inside the specimen chamber of a conventional SEM. A small electrostatic stigmator unit and dedicated scanning coils were integrated into the column. The scan coils were wound directly around the objective lens iron core in order to reduce its size. Preliminary experimental images of a test grid specimen were obtained through the prototype finger-size column, demonstrating that it is in principle feasible.

  4. Permanent magnet finger-size scanning electron microscope columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelliyan, K.; Khursheed, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents permanent magnet scanning electron microscope (SEM) designs for both tungsten and field emission guns. Each column makes use of permanent magnet technology and operates at a fixed primary beam voltage. A prototype column operating at a beam voltage of 15 kV was made and tested inside the specimen chamber of a conventional SEM. A small electrostatic stigmator unit and dedicated scanning coils were integrated into the column. The scan coils were wound directly around the objective lens iron core in order to reduce its size. Preliminary experimental images of a test grid specimen were obtained through the prototype finger-size column, demonstrating that it is in principle feasible.

  5. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  6. Microscopic polyangeitis, report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagon, Patricia; Suarez, Martha Lucia

    1998-01-01

    Polyarteritis or microscopic polyangeitis is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis associated with the lung-kidney syndrome. It presents with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with multisystem involvement. A case is presented of a 50 years old male with its clinical and imaging findings

  7. MACROSCOPICAL AND MICROSCOPICAL STUDIES ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpinia crista leaves are bipinnate of about six pairs with alternate leaflets while the stem us fibrous, cylindrical hollow and prickly. Microscopical examination revealed the presence of strained cuticle, straight-walled epidermal cells, paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichomes, fibres, prisms as well as cluster of ...

  8. Microscopic Cluster Theory for Exotic Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaselli, M; Kuehl, T; Ursescu, D; Fritzsche, S

    2006-01-01

    For a better understanding of the dynamics of complex exotic nuclei it is of crucial importance to develop a practical microscopic theory easy to be applied to a wide range of masses. In this paper we propose to calculate the structure of neutron-rich nuclei within a dynamic model based on the EoM theory

  9. Microscopic Description of Le Chatelier's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    A simple approach that "demystifies" Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) and simulates students to think about fundamental physical background behind the well-known principles is presented. The approach uses microscopic descriptors of matter like energy levels and populations and does not require any assumption about the fixed amount of substance being…

  10. Remote Controlling and Monitoring of Microscopic Slides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, G.; Qadri, M.T.; Daraz, U.

    2016-01-01

    Remotely controlled microscopic slide was designed using especial Graphical User Interface (GUI) which interfaces the user at remote location with the real microscope using site and the user can easily view and control the slide present on the microscope's stage. Precise motors have been used to allow the movement in all the three dimensions required by a pathologist. The pathologist can easily access these slides from any remote location and so the physical presence of the pathologist is now made easy. This invention would increase the health care efficiency by reducing the time and cost of diagnosis, making it very easy to get the expert's opinion and supporting the pathologist to relocate himself for his work. The microscope is controlled with computer with an attractive Graphical User Interface (GUI), through which a pathologist can easily monitor, control and record the image of the slide. The pathologist can now do his work regardless of his location, time, cost and physically presence of lab equipment. The technology will help the specialist in viewing the patients slide from any location in the world. He would be able to monitor and control the stage. This will also help the pathological laboratories in getting opinion from senior pathologist who are present at any far location in the world. This system also reduces the life risks of the patients. (author)

  11. The Titan Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Jinschek, Jörg R.

    2009-01-01

    University of Denmark (DTU) provides a unique combination of techniques for studying materials of interest to the catalytic as well as the electronics and other communities [5]. DTU’s ETEM is based on the FEI Titan platform providing ultrahigh microscope stability pushing the imaging resolution into the sub...

  12. Mesooptical microscope as a tomographical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that there are at least four regions which are common for the mesooptical microscopes, on the one hand, and for the reconstructed tomography, on the other hand. The following characteristics of the mesooptical microscope show the tomographical properties: the structure of the output data concerning the orientation and the position in space of the straight-line objects going at small angles with the perpendicular to the given tomographic plane, the behaviour of the two-dimensional fourier-transform of the straight-line object in the course of the rotation of this object with respect to the specified axis in space, the scanning algorithm of the nuclear emulsion volume by the fence-like illuminated region in the mesooptical microscope for searching for particle tracks going parallel to the optical axis of the microscope, and, finally, the fact that the mesooptical images of the straight-line particle tracks with a common vertex in the nuclear emulsion lie on the sinogram. 12 refs.; 16 figs

  13. Exploring the environmental transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob B.; Cavalca, Filippo; Damsgaard, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    of the opportunities that the environmental TEM (ETEM) offers when combined with other in situ techniques will be explored, directly in the microscope, by combining electron-based and photon-based techniques and phenomena. In addition, application of adjacent setups using sophisticated transfer methods...

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Dellby, Niklas; Aoki, Toshihiro; Carpenter, R W; Rez, Peter; Soignard, Emmanuel; Zhu, Jiangtao; Batson, Philip E; Lagos, Maureen J; Egerton, Ray F; Crozier, Peter A

    2014-10-09

    Vibrational spectroscopies using infrared radiation, Raman scattering, neutrons, low-energy electrons and inelastic electron tunnelling are powerful techniques that can analyse bonding arrangements, identify chemical compounds and probe many other important properties of materials. The spatial resolution of these spectroscopies is typically one micrometre or more, although it can reach a few tens of nanometres or even a few ångströms when enhanced by the presence of a sharp metallic tip. If vibrational spectroscopy could be combined with the spatial resolution and flexibility of the transmission electron microscope, it would open up the study of vibrational modes in many different types of nanostructures. Unfortunately, the energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy performed in the electron microscope has until now been too poor to allow such a combination. Recent developments that have improved the attainable energy resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope to around ten millielectronvolts now allow vibrational spectroscopy to be carried out in the electron microscope. Here we describe the innovations responsible for the progress, and present examples of applications in inorganic and organic materials, including the detection of hydrogen. We also demonstrate that the vibrational signal has both high- and low-spatial-resolution components, that the first component can be used to map vibrational features at nanometre-level resolution, and that the second component can be used for analysis carried out with the beam positioned just outside the sample--that is, for 'aloof' spectroscopy that largely avoids radiation damage.

  15. Microscopic approaches to quantum nonequilibriumthermodynamics and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-09

    perspective on quantum thermalization for Science [8]. Wrote a joint experiment- theory paper on studying connections between quantum and classical chaos in...on the random matrix theory (eigenstate thermalization) and macroscopic phenomena (both equilibrium and non-equilibrium). Understanding thermodynamics...information. Specific questions to be addressed: connections of microscopic description of quantum chaotic systems based on the random matrix theory

  16. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges...

  17. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  18. Construction of a four tip scanning tunneling microscope/scanning electron microscope combination and conductivity measurements of silicide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    In this work the combination of a four-tip scanning tunneling microscope with a scanning electron microscope is presented. By means of this apparatus it is possible to perform the conductivity measurements on the in-situ prepared nanostructures in ultra-high vacuum. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), it becomes possible to position the tunneling tips of the four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM), so that an arrangement for a four-point probe measurement on nanostructures can be obtained. The STM head was built according to the novel coaxial Beetle concept. This concept allows on the one hand, a very compact arrangement of the components of the STM and on the other hand, the new-built STM head has a good mechanical stability, in order to achieve atomic resolution with all four STM units. The atomic resolution of the STM units was confirmed by scanning a Si(111)-7 x 7 surface. The thermal drift during the STM operation, as well as the resonant frequencies of the mechanical structure of the STM head, were determined. The scanning electron microscope allows the precise and safe navigation of the tunneling tips on the sample surface. Multi tip spectroscopy with up to four STM units can be performed synchronously. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new-built apparatus the conductivity measurements were carried out on metallic yttrium silicide nanowires. The nanowires were prepared by the in-situ deposition of yttrium on a heated Si(110) sample surface. Current-voltage curves were recorded on the nanowires and on the wetting layer in-between. The curves indicate an existence of the Schottky barrier between the yttrium silicide nanowires and the silicon bulk. By means of the two-tip measurements with a gate, the insulating property of the Schottky barrier has been confirmed. Using this Schottky barrier, it is possible to limit the current to the nanowire and to prevent it from flowing through the silicon bulk. A four-tip resistance measurement

  19. Sum rules for the ed - NN scattering reactions and microscopic potential field-theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machivariani, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    The connections between the equal-time commutators of nucleon and photon field-operators and relativistic potential approach of ed - NN scattering equations is established. Namely, it is demonstrated that: 1) equal-time commutator between nucleon field operators generated completeness condition for NN interaction functions, 2) the off-mass shell contributions in γd - NN exchange currents or in microscopic NN potential are determined by equal time commutator between nucleon field operator and photon or nucleon source operators, and 3) equal-time commutators between source operators produce sum rules for same vertex functions and effective potentials [ru

  20. A high-resolution mini-microscope system for wireless real-time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongjie; Boddeda, Akash; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Menard, Frederic; Kim, Keekyoung

    2017-09-04

    Compact, cost-effective and high-performance microscope that enables the real-time imaging of cells and lab-on-a-chip devices is highly demanded for cell biology and biomedical engineering. This paper aims to present the design and application of an inexpensive wireless mini-microscope with resolution up to 2592 × 1944 pixels and speed up to 90 fps. The mini-microscope system was built on a commercial embedded system (Raspberry Pi). We modified a camera module and adopted an inverse dual lens system to obtain the clear field of view and appropriate magnification for tens of micrometer objects. The system was capable of capturing time-lapse images and transferring image data wirelessly. The entire system can be operated wirelessly and cordlessly in a conventional cell culturing incubator. The developed mini-microscope was used to monitor the attachment and proliferation of NIH-3T3 and HEK 293 cells inside an incubator for 50 hours. In addition, the mini-microscope was used to monitor a droplet generation process in a microfluidic device. The high-quality images captured by the mini-microscope enabled us an automated analysis of experimental parameters. The successful applications prove the great potential of the developed mini-microscope for monitoring various biological samples and microfluidic devices. This paper presents the design of a high resolution mini-microscope system that enables the wireless real-time imaging of cells inside the incubator. This system has been verified to be a useful tool to obtain high-quality images and videos for the automated quantitative analysis of biological samples and lab-on-a-chip devices in the long term.

  1. Designs for a quantum electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruit, P.; Hobbs, R.G.; Kim, C-S.; Yang, Y.; Manfrinato, V.R.; Hammer, J.; Thomas, S.; Weber, P.; Klopfer, B.; Kohstall, C.; Juffmann, T.; Kasevich, M.A.; Hommelhoff, P.; Berggren, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This ‘quantum weirdness’ could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or “quantum electron microscope”. A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. - Highlights: • Quantum electron microscopy has the potential of reducing radiation damage. • QEM requires a fraction of the electron wave to pass through the sample

  2. Designs for a quantum electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruit, P., E-mail: p.kruit@tudelft.nl [Department of Imaging Physics, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Hobbs, R.G.; Kim, C-S.; Yang, Y.; Manfrinato, V.R. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hammer, J.; Thomas, S.; Weber, P. [Department of Physics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstrasse 1, d-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Klopfer, B.; Kohstall, C.; Juffmann, T.; Kasevich, M.A. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hommelhoff, P. [Department of Physics, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstrasse 1, d-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Berggren, K.K. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This ‘quantum weirdness’ could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or “quantum electron microscope”. A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. - Highlights: • Quantum electron microscopy has the potential of reducing radiation damage. • QEM requires a fraction of the electron wave to pass through the sample

  3. Microscopic methods for the interactions between complex nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyomi; Tamagaki, Ryozo; Saito, Sakae; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Tohsaki-Suzuki, Akihiro.

    1978-01-01

    Microscopic study on composite-particle interaction performed in Japan is described in this paper. In chapter 1, brief historical description of the study is presented. In chapter 2, the theory of resonating group method (RGM) for describing microscopically the interaction between nuclei (clusters) is reviewed, and formulation on the description is presented. It is shown that the generator coordinate method (GCM) is a useful one for the description of interaction between shell model clusters, and that the kernels in the RGM are easily obtained from those of the GCM. The inter-cluster interaction can be well described by the orthogonality condition model (OCM). In chapter 3, the calculational procedures for the kernels of GCN, RGM and OCM and some properties related to their calculation are discussed. The GCM kernels for various types of systems are treated. The RGM kernels are evaluated by the integral transformation of GCM kernels. The problems related to the RGM norm kernel (RGM-NK) are discussed. The projection operator onto the Pauli-allowed state in OCM is obtained directly from the solution of the eigenvalue problem of RGM-NK. In chapter 4, the exchange kernels due to the antisymmetrization are derived in analytical way with the symbolical use of computer memory by taking the α + O 16 system as a typical example. New algorisms for deriving analytically the generator coordinate kernel (GCM kernel) are presented. In chapter 5, precise generalization of the Kohn-Hulthen-Kato variational method for scattering matrix is made for the purpose of microscopic study of reactions between complex nuclei with many channels coupled. (Kato, T.)

  4. Feasibility of Telementoring for Microneurosurgical Procedures Using a Microscope: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Bryan M; Tackla, Ryan D; Gupte, Akshay; Darrow, David; Sorenson, Jeffery; Zuccarello, Mario; Grande, Andrew W

    2017-03-01

    Our pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of our telementoring-telescripting model to facilitate seamless communication between surgeons while the operating surgeon is using a microscope. As a first proof of concept, 4 students identified 20 anatomic landmarks on a dry human skull with or without telementoring guidance. To assess the ability to communicate operative information, a senior neurosurgery resident evaluated the student's ability and timing to complete a stepwise craniotomy on a cadaveric head, with and without telementoring guidance; a second portion included exposure of the anterior circulation. The mentor was able to annotate directly onto the operator's visual field, which was visible to the operator without looking away from the binocular view. The students showed that they were familiar with half (50% ± 10%) of the structures for identification and none was familiar with the steps to complete a craniotomy before using our system. With the guidance of a remote surgeon projected into the visual field of the microscope, the students were able to correctly identify 100% of the structures and complete a craniotomy. Our system also proved effective in guiding a more experienced neurosurgery resident through complex operative steps associated with exposure of the anterior circulation. Our pilot study showed a platform feasible in providing effective operative direction to inexperienced operators while operating using a microscope. A remote mentor was able to view the visual field of the microscope, annotate on the visual stream, and have the annotated stream appear in the binocular view for the operating mentee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Virtual reality microscope versus conventional microscope regarding time to diagnosis: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Rebecca; Ruddle, Roy A; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Thomas, Rhys G; Quirke, Phil; Treanor, Darren

    2013-01-01

      To create and evaluate a virtual reality (VR) microscope that is as efficient as the conventional microscope, seeking to support the introduction of digital slides into routine practice.   A VR microscope was designed and implemented by combining ultra-high-resolution displays with VR technology, techniques for fast interaction, and high usability. It was evaluated using a mixed factorial experimental design with technology and task as within-participant variables and grade of histopathologist as a between-participant variable. Time to diagnosis was similar for the conventional and VR microscopes. However, there was a significant difference in the mean magnification used between the two technologies, with participants working at a higher level of magnification on the VR microscope.   The results suggest that, with the right technology, efficient use of digital pathology for routine practice is a realistic possibility. Further work is required to explore what magnification is required on the VR microscope for histopathologists to identify diagnostic features, and the effect on this of the digital slide production process. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  6. First application experiments with the Stockholm compact soft x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertilson, M; Hofsten, O von; Lindblom, M; Holmberg, A; Takman, P; Vogt, U; Hertz, H; Thieme, J

    2009-01-01

    Most soft x-ray microscopes operating in the water window (λ = 2.3 - 4.4 nm) rely on synchrotron radiation sources. In the future we believe scientists will use soft x-ray microscopes as one imaging tool among others in their own laboratory. For this purpose we have developed a full field soft x-ray microscope with a laser-plasma source compact enough to fit on an optical table. In this contribution we describe the current status of this microscope now featuring stable operation at λ = 3.37 nm or λ 2.48 nm. In-house fabricated single element zone plates offering the possibility to perform phase contrast imaging have been implemented. We also report on the first application experiments for compact soft x-ray microscopy, including results from studies of clay minerals and colloids existing in nature and results from phase optics experiments. Planned upgrades of the microscope include increasing the source brightness, implementing more efficient condenser optics, and installing a cryo sample stage for tomography. These improvements will open up for further applications, especially in the field of biological imaging.

  7. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S.; Kuo, Anthony N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes. PMID:27231616

  8. Novel microscope-integrated stereoscopic heads-up display for intrasurgical optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liangbo; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Waterman, Gar; Hahn, Paul S; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    Intra-operative optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires a display technology which allows surgeons to visualize OCT data without disrupting surgery. Previous research and commercial intrasurgical OCT systems have integrated heads-up display (HUD) systems into surgical microscopes to provide monoscopic viewing of OCT data through one microscope ocular. To take full advantage of our previously reported real-time volumetric microscope-integrated OCT (4D MIOCT) system, we describe a stereoscopic HUD which projects a stereo pair of OCT volume renderings into both oculars simultaneously. The stereoscopic HUD uses a novel optical design employing spatial multiplexing to project dual OCT volume renderings utilizing a single micro-display. The optical performance of the surgical microscope with the HUD was quantitatively characterized and the addition of the HUD was found not to substantially effect the resolution, field of view, or pincushion distortion of the operating microscope. In a pilot depth perception subject study, five ophthalmic surgeons completed a pre-set dexterity task with 50.0% (SD = 37.3%) higher success rate and in 35.0% (SD = 24.8%) less time on average with stereoscopic OCT vision compared to monoscopic OCT vision. Preliminary experience using the HUD in 40 vitreo-retinal human surgeries by five ophthalmic surgeons is reported, in which all surgeons reported that the HUD did not alter their normal view of surgery and that live surgical maneuvers were readily visible in displayed stereoscopic OCT volumes.

  9. Current status of the Scanning X-ray Microscope at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Ray; Kaulich, Burkhard; Salome, Murielle; Susini, Jean

    2000-01-01

    A short description of the Scanning X-ray Microscope of the ESRF ID21 X-ray microscopy beamline is given and the consequences of the relatively wide operating energy range discussed. The current capabilities of the instrument are demonstrated through images and spectra recorded from a variety of pilot experiments, including X-ray fluorescence imaging, microdiffraction and XANES measurements

  10. A simple, ultrahigh vacuum compatible scanning tunneling microscope for use at variable temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Kloos, Ch.; Leiderer, P.; Moller, R.

    1996-01-01

    We present the construction of a very compact scanning tunneling microscope (STM) which can be operated at temperatures between 4 and 350 K. The tip and a tiny tip holder are the only movable parts, whereas the sample and the piezoscanner are rigidly attached to the body of the STM. This leads to an

  11. The Scanning Theremin Microscope: A Model Scanning Probe Instrument for Hands-On Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quardokus, Rebecca C.; Wasio, Natalie A.; Kandel, S. Alex

    2014-01-01

    A model scanning probe microscope, designed using similar principles of operation to research instruments, is described. Proximity sensing is done using a capacitance probe, and a mechanical linkage is used to scan this probe across surfaces. The signal is transduced as an audio tone using a heterodyne detection circuit analogous to that used in…

  12. Portable smartphone based quantitative phase microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin; Tian, Xiaolin; Yu, Wei; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Zhilong; Liu, Fei; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2018-01-01

    To realize portable device with high contrast imaging capability, we designed a quantitative phase microscope using transport of intensity equation method based on a smartphone. The whole system employs an objective and an eyepiece as imaging system and a cost-effective LED as illumination source. A 3-D printed cradle is used to align these components. Images of different focal planes are captured by manual focusing, followed by calculation of sample phase via a self-developed Android application. To validate its accuracy, we first tested the device by measuring a random phase plate with known phases, and then red blood cell smear, Pap smear, broad bean epidermis sections and monocot root were also measured to show its performance. Owing to its advantages as accuracy, high-contrast, cost-effective and portability, the portable smartphone based quantitative phase microscope is a promising tool which can be future adopted in remote healthcare and medical diagnosis.

  13. Electron microscopic radioautography of the cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkisov, D.S.; Pal'tsyn, A.A.; Vtyurin, B.V.

    1980-01-01

    This monograph is the first one in the world literature that gives th generalised experience in application of the up-to-date method of structural and functional analysis, i.e. of electron-microscopic autography to study the dynamics of intracellular processes under normal conditions as well as under some pathogenic effects. Given herein are the data on synthesis of DNA and RNA in various structures of the nucleus, particularly in nucleoli, the regularities of the synthesis processes in the organellae of the same name are discussed; illustrated are the possibilities of structure analysis of biosynthesis intensity variations in the nucleus and cytoplasma in cells of liver miocardium, granulation tissue at different stages of morphological process; the results of electron-microscopic radioautography application in study of clinical biopsy material are given and the data obtained are discussed in the light of general pathology problems

  14. Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2016-04-20

    This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.

  15. Isotope analysis in the transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Toma; Hofer, Christoph; Argentero, Giacomo; Leuthner, Gregor T; Pennycook, Timothy J; Mangler, Clemens; Meyer, Jannik C; Kotakoski, Jani

    2016-10-10

    The Ångström-sized probe of the scanning transmission electron microscope can visualize and collect spectra from single atoms. This can unambiguously resolve the chemical structure of materials, but not their isotopic composition. Here we differentiate between two isotopes of the same element by quantifying how likely the energetic imaging electrons are to eject atoms. First, we measure the displacement probability in graphene grown from either 12 C or 13 C and describe the process using a quantum mechanical model of lattice vibrations coupled with density functional theory simulations. We then test our spatial resolution in a mixed sample by ejecting individual atoms from nanoscale areas spanning an interface region that is far from atomically sharp, mapping the isotope concentration with a precision better than 20%. Although we use a scanning instrument, our method may be applicable to any atomic resolution transmission electron microscope and to other low-dimensional materials.

  16. Development of a transmission positron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuya, M., E-mail: matsuya@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino, 3-Chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Jinno, S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chiba University, Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, Chiba 263-8552 (Japan); Ootsuka, T.; Inoue, M. [JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino, 3-Chome, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Kurihara, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Doyama, M.; Inoue, M. [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0913 (Japan); Fujinami, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chiba University, Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, Chiba 263-8552 (Japan)

    2011-07-21

    A practical transmission positron microscope (TPM) JEM-1011B has been developed to survey differences in the interaction of positron and electron beams with materials, and is installed in the Slow Positron Facility of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The TPM can share positron and electron beams, and can also be used as a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Positron transmission images up to magnification 10,000x (resolution: 50 nm) and positron diffraction patterns up to 044 family were successfully obtained by the TPM comparing them with those of electrons. The differences in material transmittances for both beams have been measured, and can be explained by the calculated results of the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE-2008.

  17. EXTRACELLULAR CELLULOLYTIC COMPLEXES PRODUCTION BY MICROSCOPIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Syrchin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to screen and to study the effect of inducers on the synthesis of the cellulolytic enzyme complexes by microscopic fungi. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities were determined by reducing sugar with DNS reagent, and β-glucosidase activity by pNPG hydrolysis. The enzyme preparations were obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Among 32 studied strains of microscopic fungi 14 produced cellulo- and xylanolytic enzyme complexes. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 demonstrated the highest levels of all studied enzyme activities. Enzyme preparations with high endo-, exoglucanase, xylanase and β-glucosidase activities were obtained from these strains. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 were active producers of cellulase enzyme complexes during growth on natural substrates. It was shown that inductors of cellulolytic enzymes in Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 differed from the ones in Trichoderma reesei.

  18. Polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Chien; Lyu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-C.

    2001-01-01

    A polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope, which combines a polarized optical heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a differential amplifier to scan the topographic image of a surface, is proposed. In the experiment the differential amplifier, which acts as a PM-AM converter, in the experiment, converting phase modulation (PM) into amplitude modulation (AM). Then a novel, to our knowledge, phase demodulator was proposed and implemented for the differential-phase laser scanning microscope. An optical grating (1800 lp/mm) was imaged. The lateral and the depth resolutions of the imaging system were 0.5 μm and 1 nm, respectively. The detection accuracy, which was limited by the reflectivity variation of the test surface, is discussed

  19. Development of Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscope Capability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Kimberlee Chiyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Talin, Albert Alec [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michael, Joseph R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Modern semiconductor devices rely on the transport of minority charge carriers. Direct examination of minority carrier lifetimes in real devices with nanometer-scale features requires a measurement method with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolutions. Achieving nanometer spatial resolutions at sub-nanosecond temporal resolution is possible with pump-probe methods that utilize electrons as probes. Recently, a stroboscopic scanning electron microscope was developed at Caltech, and used to study carrier transport across a Si p-n junction [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] . In this report, we detail our development of a prototype scanning ultrafast electron microscope system at Sandia National Laboratories based on the original Caltech design. This effort represents Sandia's first exploration into ultrafast electron microscopy.

  20. Triple Giant Resonance Excitations: A Microscopic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, E.G.; Andres, M.V.; Catara, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Fallot, M.; Scarpaci, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present, for the first time, microscopic calculations of inelastic cross sections of the triple excitation of giant resonances induced by heavy ion probes. We start from a microscopic approach based on RPA. The mixing of three-phonon states among themselves and with two- and one-phonon states is considered within a boson expansion with Pauli corrections. In this way we go beyond the standard harmonic approximations and get anharmonic excitation spectra. At the same time we also introduce non-linearities in the external field. The calculations are done by solving semiclassical coupled channel equations, the channels being superpositions of one-, two- and three-phonon states. Previous calculations for the Double Giant Resonance excitation show good agreement with experimental cross sections. The inclusion of the three phonon components confirms the previous results for the DGR and produces a strong increase in the Triple GR energy region

  1. Realistic microscopic level densities for spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear level densities play an important role in nuclear reactions such as the formation of the compound nucleus. We develop a microscopic calculation of the level density based on a combinatorial evaluation from a realistic single-particle level scheme. This calculation makes use of a fast Monte Carlo algorithm allowing us to consider large shell model spaces which could not be treated previously in combinatorial approaches. Since our model relies on a microscopic basis, it can be applied to exotic nuclei with more confidence than the commonly used semiphenomenological formuals. An exhaustive comparison of our predicted neutron s-wave resonance spacings with experimental data for a wide range of nuclei is presented

  2. The clinical microscope and direct composite veneer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pascotto, Renata C; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the advantages and limitations related to the use of a clinical microscope in restorative dentistry, and it demonstrates the aid of magnification during preparation and restoration of a direct composite veneer. Good illumination and visibility is important to adequately viewin...... the adjacent dental tissues so that the resin composite buildup can mimic natural teeth. The reproduction of details results in a naturally esthetic direct veneer....

  3. Theoretical approach to the scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, C.

    1990-01-01

    Within a one-electron approach, based on a Green's-function formalism, a nonperturbative expression for the tunneling current is obtained and used to discuss which spectroscopic information may be deduced from a scanning-tunneling-microscope experiment. It is shown up to which limits the voltage dependence of the tunneling current reproduces the local density of states at the surface, and how the reflection coefficients of the electronic waves at the surface may modify it

  4. Active Mask Segmentation of Fluorescence Microscope Images

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C.; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D.; Kovačević, Jelena

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the “contour” to that of “inside and outside”, or, masks, allowing for easy mul...

  5. Microscopic foundation of the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Akito

    1994-01-01

    A microscopic foundation of the interacting boson model is described. The importance of monopole and quadrupole pairs of nucleons is emphasized. Those pairs are mapped onto the s and d bosons. It is shown that this mapping provides a good approximation in vibrational and transitional nuclei. In appendix, it is shown that the monopole pair of electrons plays possibly an important role in metal clusters. (orig.)

  6. Microscopic theory of particle-vibration coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colo, Gianluca; Bortignon, Pier Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sez. di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sagawa, Hiroyuki [Center for Mathematics and Physics, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8560 (Japan); Moghrabi, Kassem; Grasso, Marcella; Giai, Nguyen Van, E-mail: colo@mi.infn.it [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2011-09-16

    Some recent microscopic implementations of the particle-vibration coupling (PVC) theory for atomic nuclei are briefly reviewed. Within the nonrelativistic framework, the results seem to point to the necessity of fitting new effective interactions that can work beyond mean field. In keeping with this, the divergences which arise must be cured. A method is proposed, and the future perspectives that are opened are addressed.

  7. Microscopic theory of particle-vibration coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colo, Gianluca; Bortignon, Pier Francesco; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Moghrabi, Kassem; Grasso, Marcella; Giai, Nguyen Van

    2011-01-01

    Some recent microscopic implementations of the particle-vibration coupling (PVC) theory for atomic nuclei are briefly reviewed. Within the nonrelativistic framework, the results seem to point to the necessity of fitting new effective interactions that can work beyond mean field. In keeping with this, the divergences which arise must be cured. A method is proposed, and the future perspectives that are opened are addressed.

  8. The Mathematical Microscope - Making the inaccessible accessible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2011-01-01

      In this chapter we introduce a new term, the "Mathematical Microscope", as a method of using mathematics in accessing information about reality when this information is otherwise inaccessible. Furthermore, we discuss how models and experiments are related: none of which are important without th...... of mathematical modeling is discussed for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, depression, cardiovascular diseases and the interactions between the combinations of these, the so-called gray triangle in the metabolic syndrome....

  9. Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickols, W.; Tinoco, I.; Katz, J.E.; Maestre, M.F.; Bustamante, C.

    1985-01-01

    A differential polarization microscope forms two images: one of the transmitted intensity and the other due to the change in intensity between images formed when different polarizations of light are used. The interpretation of these images for linear dichroism and circular dichroism are described. The design constraints on the data acquisition systems and the polarization modulation are described. The advantage of imaging several biological systems which contain optically anisotropic structures are described

  10. On microscopic structure of the QCD vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, D. G.; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Kim, Youngman; Tsukioka, Takuya; Zhang, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    We propose a new class of regular stationary axially symmetric solutions in a pure QCD which correspond to monopole-antimonopole pairs at macroscopic scale. The solutions represent vacuum field configurations which are locally stable against quantum gluon fluctuations in any small space-time vicinity. This implies that the monopole-antimonopole pair can serve as a structural element in microscopic description of QCD vacuum formation.

  11. Atomic Force Microscope for Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, W. T.; Hecht, M. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Akiyama, T.; Gautsch, S.; deRooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Niedermann, Ph.; Howald, L.; Mueller, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed, built, and tested an atomic force microscope (AFM) for extraterrestrial applications incorporating a micromachined tip array to allow for probe replacement. It is part of a microscopy station originally intended for NASA's 2001 Mars lander to identify the size, distribution, and shape of Martian dust and soil particles. As well as imaging topographically down to nanometer resolution, this instrument can be used to reveal chemical information and perform infrared and Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution.

  12. Microscopic optical potential at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki, A.

    1979-01-01

    The problems concerning a microscopic optical model for the elastic nuclear collisions at medium energies are discussed. We describe the method for constructing the optical potential which makes use of the particular properties of quantum scattering in the eikonal limit. The resulting potential is expressed in terms of the nuclear wave functions and the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes. This potential has a dynamic character since by including the effects of multiple scattering it allows for the possibility of intermediate excitations of the projectile and target nuclei. The use of the potential in the exact wave equation accounts for the most important mechanisms present in the collisions between composite particles. The microscopic optical model was successfully applied in the analysis of elastic scattering of protons and α-particles on atomic nuclei in the energy range of 300-1000 MeV/nucleon. The dynamic optical potential in this case represents a considerable improvement over the eikonal Glauber model and the static optical potential of Watson. The possibilities to extend the microscopic description of the proton-nucleus interaction by considering the spin dependence of the elementary amplitude and the Majorana exchange effects were investigated. (author)

  13. First Sample Delivery to Mars Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Robotic Arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander has just delivered the first sample of dug-up soil to the spacecraft's microscope station in this image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager during the mission's Sol 17 (June 12), or 17th Martian day after landing. The scoop is positioned above the box containing key parts of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA, instrument suite. It has sprinkled a small amount of soil into a notch in the MECA box where the microscope's sample wheel is exposed. The wheel turns to present sample particles on various substrates to the Optical Microscope for viewing. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) wide. The top of the MECA box is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) wide. This image has been lightened to make details more visible. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Note: long-range scanning tunneling microscope for the study of nanostructures on insulating substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J; Rodrigo, José G; Island, Joshua; Burzuri, Enrique; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; van der Zant, Herre S J; Agraït, Nicolás

    2014-02-01

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful tool for studying the electronic properties at the atomic level, however, it is of relatively small scanning range and the fact that it can only operate on conducting samples prevents its application to study heterogeneous samples consisting of conducting and insulating regions. Here we present a long-range scanning tunneling microscope capable of detecting conducting micro and nanostructures on insulating substrates using a technique based on the capacitance between the tip and the sample and performing STM studies.

  15. Note: Long-range scanning tunneling microscope for the study of nanostructures on insulating substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J., E-mail: aday.molina@uam.es [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, José G.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Island, Joshua; Burzuri, Enrique; Zant, Herre S. J. van der [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Agraït, Nicolás [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia IMDEA-Nanociencia, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful tool for studying the electronic properties at the atomic level, however, it is of relatively small scanning range and the fact that it can only operate on conducting samples prevents its application to study heterogeneous samples consisting of conducting and insulating regions. Here we present a long-range scanning tunneling microscope capable of detecting conducting micro and nanostructures on insulating substrates using a technique based on the capacitance between the tip and the sample and performing STM studies.

  16. A novel cryogenic scanning laser microscope tested on Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Mygind, Jesper

    1995-01-01

    to a very localized heating induced by irradiation with 675 nm wavelength light from a semiconductor laser. The hot spot is moved by a specially designed piezoelectric scanner sweeping the tip of a single-mode optical fiber a few µm above the circuit. Depending on the scanner design the scanning area can...... be as large as 50×500 µm2 at 4.2 K. The microscope can be operated in the temperature range 2–300 K using a standard temperature controller. The central microscope body is mounted inside the vacuum can of a dip-stick-type cryoprobe. A damped spring system is used to reduce interference from extraneous...

  17. In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Nicholas A.; Magel, Gregory A.; Hartfield, Cheryl D.; Moore, Thomas M.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Rack, Philip D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Omniprobe, Inc., an Oxford Instruments Company, 10410 Miller Rd., Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States); Omniprobe, Inc., an Oxford Instruments Company, 10410 Miller Rd., Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {mu}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

  18. A combined scanning tunneling microscope-atomic layer deposition tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, James F; Van Stockum, Philip B; Iwadate, Hitoshi; Prinz, Fritz B

    2011-12-01

    We have built a combined scanning tunneling microscope-atomic layer deposition (STM-ALD) tool that performs in situ imaging of deposition. It operates from room temperature up to 200 °C, and at pressures from 1 × 10(-6) Torr to 1 × 10(-2) Torr. The STM-ALD system has a complete passive vibration isolation system that counteracts both seismic and acoustic excitations. The instrument can be used as an observation tool to monitor the initial growth phases of ALD in situ, as well as a nanofabrication tool by applying an electric field with the tip to laterally pattern deposition. In this paper, we describe the design of the tool and demonstrate its capability for atomic resolution STM imaging, atomic layer deposition, and the combination of the two techniques for in situ characterization of deposition.

  19. Light Microscopy Module: International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Meyer, William V.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Abbott-Hearn, Amber; Atherton, Arthur; Beltram, Alexander; Bodzioney, Christopher; Brinkman, John; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began hardware operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2016, if all goes as planned, three experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Heated base-2 (ACE-H2) and [2] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Temperature control (ACE-T1). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al. and [2] from Chungnam National University, Daejeon, S. Korea: Chang-Soo Lee, et al.

  20. A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickworth, L. A., E-mail: pickworth1@llnl.gov; McCarville, T.; Decker, T.; Pardini, T.; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Izumi, N.; Mirkarimi, P.; Pivovaroff, M.; Smalyuk, V.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Current pinhole x ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is limited in resolution and signal throughput to the detector for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications, due to the viable range of pinhole sizes (10–25 μm) that can be deployed. A higher resolution and throughput diagnostic is in development using a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope system (KBM). The system will achieve <9 μm resolution over a 300 μm field of view with a multilayer coating operating at 10.2 keV. Presented here are the first images from the uncoated NIF KBM configuration demonstrating high resolution has been achieved across the full 300 μm field of view.

  1. Scanning tunneling microscope with two-dimensional translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J; Ng, K-W

    2011-01-01

    Since the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), it has been a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of materials. Typically STM designs capable of obtaining resolution on the atomic scale are limited to a small area which can be probed. We have built an STM capable of coarse motion in two dimensions, the z- and x-directions which are, respectively, parallel and perpendicular to the tip. This allows us to image samples with very high resolution at sites separated by macroscopic distances. This device is a single unit with a compact design making it very stable. It can operate in either a horizontal or vertical configuration and at cryogenic temperatures.

  2. A Microscopic Quantal Model for Nuclear Collective Rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulshani, P.

    2007-01-01

    A microscopic, quantal model to describe nuclear collective rotation in two dimensions is derived from the many-nucleon Schrodinger equation. The Schrodinger equation is transformed to a body-fixed frame to decompose the Hamiltonian into a sum of intrinsic and rotational components plus a Coriolis-centrifugal coupling term. This Hamiltonian (H) is expressed in terms of space-fixed-frame particle coordinates and momenta by using commutator of H with a rotation angle. A unified-rotational-model type wavefunction is used to obtain an intrinsic Schrodinger equation in terms of angular momentum quantum number and two-body operators. A Hartree-Fock mean-field representation of this equation is then obtained and, by means of a unitary transformation, is reduced to a form resembling that of the conventional semi-classical cranking model when exchange terms and intrinsic spurious collective excitation are ignored

  3. Resolution Enhancement of Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope Using Transverse Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, D. S.; Park, J. S.; Kim, Y. H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Science the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM image in the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode

  4. Occupational concerns associated with regular use of microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Jain; Pushparaja Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Microscope work can be strenuous both to the visual system and the musculoskeletal system. Lack of awareness or indifference towards health issues may result in microscope users becoming victim to many occupational hazards. Our objective was to understand the occupational problems associated with regular use of microscope, awareness regarding the hazards, attitude and practice of microscope users towards the problems and preventive strategies. Material and Methods: A questionnaire...

  5. Development of a scanning transmission x-ray microscope for the beamline P04 at PETRA III DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, Konstantin; Ewald, Johannes; Nisius, Thomas; Wilhein, Thomas; Lühl, Lars; Malzer, Wolfgang; Kanngießer, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    We present a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) built on top of our existing modular platform for high resolution imaging experiments. This platform consists of up to three separate vacuum chambers and custom designed piezo stages. These piezo stages are able to move precisely in x-, y- and z-direction, this makes it possible to adjust the components for different imaging modes. During recent experiments the endstation was operated mainly as a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) [1, 2

  6. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  7. Evaluating EUV mask pattern imaging with two EUV microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Takase, Kei; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Han, Hakseung; Barty, Anton; Kinoshita, Hiroo; Hamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Aerial image measurement plays a key role in the development of patterned reticles for each generation of lithography. Studying the field transmitted (reflected) from EUV masks provides detailed information about potential disruptions caused by mask defects, and the performance of defect repair strategies, without the complications of photoresist imaging. Furthermore, by measuring the continuously varying intensity distribution instead of a thresholded, binary resist image, aerial image measurement can be used as feedback to improve mask and lithography system modeling methods. Interest in EUV, at-wavelength, aerial image measurement lead to the creation of several research tools worldwide. These tools are used in advanced mask development work, and in the evaluation of the need for commercial at-wavelength inspection tools. They describe performance measurements of two such tools, inspecting the same EUV mask in a series of benchmarking tests that includes brightfield and darkfield patterns. One tool is the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) operating on a bending magnet beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. The AIT features an EUV Fresnel zoneplate microscope that emulates the numerical aperture of a 0.25-NA stepper, and projects the aerial image directly onto a CCD camera, with 700x magnification. The second tool is an EUV microscope (EUVM) operating at the NewSUBARU synchrotron in Hyogo, Japan. The NewSUBARU tool projects the aerial image using a reflective, 30x Schwarzschild objective lens, followed by a 10-200x x-ray zooming tube. The illumination conditions and the imaging etendue are different for the two tools. The benchmarking measurements were used to determine many imaging and performance properties of the tools, including resolution, modulation transfer function (MTF), aberration magnitude, aberration field-dependence (including focal-plane tilt), illumination uniformity, line-edge roughness, and flare

  8. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of microscopes... light. (3) Inverted stage microscopes, which permit examination of tissue cultures or other biological... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864...

  9. Chromosome structure investigated with the atomic force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, B.G.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.; van der Werf, Kees; van Hulst, N.F.; van Oort, G.; van Oort, Geeske; Greve, Jan; Manne, Srinivas

    1992-01-01

    We have developed an atomic force microscope (AFM) with an integrated optical microscope. The optical microscope consists of an inverted epi-illumination system that yields images in reflection or fluorescence of the sample. With this system it is possible to quickly locate an object of interest. A

  10. Microscopic reversibility and the information contained in the composition vector

    CERN Document Server

    Luetich, J J

    2001-01-01

    The microscopic level of observation is the level where every (hypothetical) transformation is reversible. As during reversible processes no composition information is generated by the system, when transforming composition variables, microscopic reversibility is the other side of the coin. This paper is the fourth member of a tetralogy conceived to give insight into the concept of microscopic reversibility.

  11. Occupational concerns associated with regular use of microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Jain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Microscope work can be strenuous both to the visual system and the musculoskeletal system. Lack of awareness or indifference towards health issues may result in microscope users becoming victim to many occupational hazards. Our objective was to understand the occupational problems associated with regular use of microscope, awareness regarding the hazards, attitude and practice of microscope users towards the problems and preventive strategies. Material and Methods: A questionnaire based survey done on 50 professionals and technicians who used microscope regularly in pathology, microbiology, hematology and cytology laboratories. Results: Sixty two percent of subjects declared that they were suffering from musculoskeletal problems, most common locations being neck and back. Maximum prevalence of musculoskeletal problems was noted in those using microscope for 11–15 years and for more than 30 h/week. Sixty two percent of subjects were aware of workplace ergonomics. Fifty six percent of microscope users took regular short breaks for stretching exercises and 58% took visual breaks every 15–30 min in between microscope use sessions. As many as 94% subjects reported some form of visual problem. Fourty four percent of microscope users felt stressed with long working hours on microscope. Conclusions: The most common occupational concerns of microscope users were musculoskeletal problems of neck and back regions, eye fatigue, aggravation of ametropia, headache, stress due to long working hours and anxiety during or after microscope use. There is an immediate need for increasing awareness about the various occupational hazards and their irreversible effects to prevent them.

  12. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered device...

  13. Occupational concerns associated with regular use of microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Garima; Shetty, Pushparaja

    2014-08-01

    Microscope work can be strenuous both to the visual system and the musculoskeletal system. Lack of awareness or indifference towards health issues may result in microscope users becoming victim to many occupational hazards. Our objective was to understand the occupational problems associated with regular use of microscope, awareness regarding the hazards, attitude and practice of microscope users towards the problems and preventive strategies. a questionnaire based survey done on 50 professionals and technicians who used microscope regularly in pathology, microbiology, hematology and cytology laboratories. Sixty two percent of subjects declared that they were suffering from musculoskeletal problems, most common locations being neck and back. Maximum prevalence of musculoskeletal problems was noted in those using microscope for 11-15 years and for more than 30 h/week. Sixty two percent of subjects were aware of workplace ergonomics. Fifty six percent of microscope users took regular short breaks for stretching exercises and 58% took visual breaks every 15-30 min in between microscope use sessions. As many as 94% subjects reported some form of visual problem. Fourty four percent of microscope users felt stressed with long working hours on microscope. The most common occupational concerns of microscope users were musculoskeletal problems of neck and back regions, eye fatigue, aggravation of ametropia, headache, stress due to long working hours and anxiety during or after microscope use. There is an immediate need for increasing awareness about the various occupational hazards and their irreversible effects to prevent them.

  14. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as…

  15. Improved Scanners for Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye

    2009-01-01

    Improved scanners to be incorporated into hyperspectral microscope-based imaging systems have been invented. Heretofore, in microscopic imaging, including spectral imaging, it has been customary to either move the specimen relative to the optical assembly that includes the microscope or else move the entire assembly relative to the specimen. It becomes extremely difficult to control such scanning when submicron translation increments are required, because the high magnification of the microscope enlarges all movements in the specimen image on the focal plane. To overcome this difficulty, in a system based on this invention, no attempt would be made to move either the specimen or the optical assembly. Instead, an objective lens would be moved within the assembly so as to cause translation of the image at the focal plane: the effect would be equivalent to scanning in the focal plane. The upper part of the figure depicts a generic proposed microscope-based hyperspectral imaging system incorporating the invention. The optical assembly of this system would include an objective lens (normally, a microscope objective lens) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The objective lens would be mounted on a servomotor-driven translation stage, which would be capable of moving the lens in precisely controlled increments, relative to the camera, parallel to the focal-plane scan axis. The output of the CCD camera would be digitized and fed to a frame grabber in a computer. The computer would store the frame-grabber output for subsequent viewing and/or processing of images. The computer would contain a position-control interface board, through which it would control the servomotor. There are several versions of the invention. An essential feature common to all versions is that the stationary optical subassembly containing the camera would also contain a spatial window, at the focal plane of the objective lens, that would pass only a selected portion of the image. In one version

  16. A mini-microscope for in situ monitoring of cells†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bok; Koo, Kyo-in; Bae, Hojae; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Hamilton, Geraldine A.; Bahinski, Anthony; Kim, Sun Min; Ingber, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    A mini-microscope was developed for in situ monitoring of cells by modifying off-the-shelf components of a commercial webcam. The mini-microscope consists of a CMOS imaging module, a small plastic lens and a white LED illumination source. The CMOS imaging module was connected to a laptop computer through a USB port for image acquisition and analysis. Due to its compact size, 8 × 10 × 9 cm, the present microscope is portable and can easily fit inside a conventional incubator, and enables real-time monitoring of cellular behaviour. Moreover, the mini-microscope can be used for imaging cells in conventional cell culture flasks, such as Petri dishes and multi-well plates. To demonstrate the operation of the mini-microscope, we monitored the cellular migration of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts in a scratch assay in medium containing three different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (5, 10, and 20%) and demonstrated differential responses depending on serum levels. In addition, we seeded embryonic stem cells inside poly(ethylene glycol) microwells and monitored the formation of stem cell aggregates in real time using the mini-microscope. Furthermore, we also combined a lab-on-a-chip microfluidic device for microdroplet generation and analysis with the mini-microscope and observed the formation of droplets under different flow conditions. Given its cost effectiveness, robust imaging and portability, the presented platform may be useful for a range of applications for real-time cellular imaging using lab-on-a-chip devices at low cost. PMID:22911426

  17. Clinical and pathological aspects of microscopic thymoma with myasthenia gravis and review of published reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Higuchi, Mitsunori; Owada, Yuki; Inoue, Takuya; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Yamaura, Takumi; Muto, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Microscopic thymomas, defined as epithelial proliferations smaller than 1 mm in diameter, characteristically occur in patients with myasthenia gravis without macroscopic thymic epithelial tumors. However, some clinical and pathological aspects of this entity are still unclear. This retrospective study includes five consecutive patients who had undergone extended thymectomy for myasthenia gravis at our institution from April 2007 to March 2016 and in whom microscopic thymomas were diagnosed by histopathological examination of the resected specimens. During the same period, we performed 32 extended transsternal thymothymectomies/thymectomies in patients with myasthenia gravis, including the above five cases. We here review 18 cases of microscopic thymoma, including our five cases and 13 previously reported cases. The incidence of previously undiagnosed microscopic thymoma in patients undergoing thymectomy for myasthenia gravis in our institution is 15.2%. Serum preoperative anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (anti-AchR Ab) titers were abnormally high in all of our five cases h (74.4±53.3 nmol/L) and decreased significantly after surgery (11.7±13.5 nmol/L, P=0.037). We divided our cases into the following three groups: microscopic thymoma group (Group M), thymoma group (Group T) and non-thymic tumor group (Group N). The mean preoperative anti-AchR Ab titers of these groups were 74.4, 26.5, and 368 nmol/L, respectively. All these values decreased postoperatively. The mean anti-AchR Ab titer was significantly higher in Group M than in Group T (P=0.034). All five cases in Group M were found by post-operative pathological examination to have multifocal type A thymomas. Microscopic thymomas tend to be multifocal type A thymomas. Anti-AchR Ab titers decreased significantly in all groups. It is very important to both perform complete extended thymectomies in patients with myasthenia gravis and pathological examination of thin slices of thymic tissue to maximize detection

  18. Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D.; Switz, Neil A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone–based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications. PMID:24824072

  19. [Microscopic soil fungi - bioindicators organisms contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donerian, L G; Vodianova, M A; Tarasova, Zh E

    In the paper there are considered methodological issues for the evaluation of soil biota in terms of oil pollution. Experimental studies have shown that under the exposure of a various levels of oil pollution meeting certain gradations of the state and optimal alteration in microbocenosis in sod-podzolic soils, there is occurred a transformation of structure of the complex of micromycetes and the accumulation of toxic species, hardly typical for podzolic soils - primarily represantatives of the genus Aspergillus (A.niger and A. versicolor), Paecilomyces (P.variotii Bainer), Trichoderma (T.hamatum), the genus of phytopathogens Fusarium (F.oxysporum), dermatophytes of genus Sporothrix (S. schenckii) and dark-colored melanin containing fungi of Dematiaceae family. Besides that there are presented data on the study of microbiocenosis of the urban soil, the urban soil differed from the zone soil, but shaped in similar landscape and climatic conditions, and therefore having a tendency to a similar response from the side of microorganisms inhabiting the soil. Isolated complex of soil microscopic fungi is described by many authors as a complex, characteristic for soils of megalopolises. This allowed authors of this work to suggest that in urban soils the gain in the occurrence of pathogenic species micromycetes also increases against a background of chronic, continuously renewed inflow of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources of pollution. Because changes in the species composition of micromycetes occurred in accordance with the increasing load of oil, so far as microscopic soil fungi can be recommended as a bioindicator organisms for oil. In the article there is also provided information about the distinctive features of modern DNA identification method of soil microscopic fungi and accepted in our country methodology of isolation of micromycetes with the use of a nutrient Czapek medium.

  20. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  1. Development of confocal laser microscope system for examination of microscopic characteristics of radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, D.; Ishii, T.; Sato, F.; Kato, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Iida, T.

    2011-01-01

    A confocal laser microscope system was developed for the measurement of radiophotoluminescence (RPL) photons emitted from a minute alpha-ray-irradiated area in an RPL glass dosemeter. The system was composed mainly of an inverted-type microscope, an ultraviolet laser, an XY movable stage and photon-counting circuits. The photon-counting circuits were effective in the reduction of the background noise level in the measurement of RPL photons. The performance of this microscope system was examined by the observation of standard RPL glass samples irradiated using 241 Am alpha rays. The spatial resolution of this system was ∼3 μm, and with regard to the sensitivity of this system, a hit of more than four to five alpha rays in unit area produced enough amount of RPL photons to construct the image. (authors)

  2. Development of confocal laser microscope system for examination of microscopic characteristics of radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Daisuke; Ishii, Tetsuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    A confocal laser microscope system was developed for the measurement of radiophotoluminescence (RPL) photons emitted from a minute alpha-ray-irradiated area in an RPL glass dosemeter. The system was composed mainly of an inverted-type microscope, an ultraviolet laser, an XY movable stage and photon-counting circuits. The photon-counting circuits were effective in the reduction of the background noise level in the measurement of RPL photons. The performance of this microscope system was examined by the observation of standard RPL glass samples irradiated using (241)Am alpha rays. The spatial resolution of this system was ∼ 3 μm, and with regard to the sensitivity of this system, a hit of more than four to five alpha rays in unit area produced enough amount of RPL photons to construct the image.

  3. Indigenous development of scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambastha, K.P.; Chaudhari, Y.V.; Pal, Suvadip; Tikaria, Amit; Pious, Lizy; Dubey, B.P.; Chadda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a precision instrument and plays very important role in scientific studies. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has taken up the job of development of SEM indigenously. Standard and commercially available components like computer, high voltage power supply, detectors etc. shall be procured from market. Focusing and scanning coils, vacuum chamber, specimen stage, control hardware and software etc. shall be developed at BARC with the help of Indian industry. Procurement, design and fabrication of various parts of SEM are in progress. (author)

  4. French contributions to electron microscopic radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droz, B.

    1994-01-01

    The radio autographic contributions carried out by electron microscopists took a part to improve the methodology and to extend applications to major biological problems. As underlined by CP Leblonc radioautography has clarified the importance of renewing systems; one may truly say that radioautography has introduced the time dimension in histology. The sites of biosynthesis of different substances have been located on the sub cellar scale, and it is now possible to analyse the molecular migrations within cells. The development of in situ hybridization and of receptors binding sites at the ultrastructural level has enlarged the application field of electron microscope radioautography. 64 refs., 2 figs

  5. Microscopic optoelectronic defectoscopy of solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallaeva D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Scanning probe microscopes are powerful tool for micro- or nanoscale diagnostics of defects in crystalline silicon solar cells. Solar cell is a large p-n junction semiconductor device. Its quality is strongly damaged by the presence of defects. If the cell works under low reverse-biased voltage, defects emit a light in visible range. The suggested method combines three different measurements: electric noise measurement, local topography and near-field optical beam induced current and thus provides more complex information. To prove its feasibility, we have selected one defect (truncated pyramid in the sample, which emitted light under low reverse-biased voltage.

  6. Scanning Tunneling Microscope For Use In Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Phillip B.

    1993-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope with subangstrom resolution developed to study surface structures. Although instrument used in air, designed especially for use in vacuum. Scanning head is assembly of small, mostly rigid components made of low-outgassing materials. Includes coarse-positioning mechanical-translation stage, on which specimen mounted by use of standard mounting stub. Tunneling tip mounted on piezoelectric fine-positioning tube. Application of suitable voltages to electrodes on piezoelectric tube controls scan of tunneling tip across surface of specimen. Electronic subsystem generates scanning voltages and collects data.

  7. Electron microscope studies on nuclear track filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roell, I.; Siegmon, W.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear track filters became more and more important in various fields of application. The filtration process can be described by a set of suitable parameters. For some applications it may be necessary to know the structure of the surface and the pores themselves. In most cases the etching process yields surfaces and pore geometries that are quite different from ideal planes and cylinders. In the presented work the production of different filter types will be described. The resulting surfaces and pore structures have been investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope. (author)

  8. Disorder-induced microscopic magnetic memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, M.S.; Buechler, C.R.; Sorensen, L.B.; Turner, J.J.; Kevan, S.D.; Jagla, E.A.; Deutsch, J.M.; Mai, T.; Narayan, O.; Davies, J.E.; Liu, K.; Dunn, J. Hunter; Chesnel, K.M.; Kortright, J.B.; Hellwig, O.; Fullerton, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Using coherent x-ray speckle metrology, we have measured the influence of disorder on major loop return point memory (RPM) and complementary point memory (CPM) for a series of perpendicular anisotropy Co/Pt multilayer films. In the low disorder limit, the domain structures show no memory with field cycling - no RPM and no CPM. With increasing disorder, we observe the onset and the saturation of both the RPM and the CPM. These results provide the first direct ensemble-sensitive experimental study of the effects of varying disorder on microscopic magnetic memory and are compared against the predictions of existing theories

  9. Transmission electron microscope studies of extraterrestrial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    1995-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selected-area electron diffraction patterns are shown. Transmission Electron Microscope specimens of lunar soil were prepared using two methods: ion-milling and ultramicrotomy. A combination of high resolution TEM imaging and electron diffraction is used to characterize the opaque assemblages. The opaque assemblages analyzed in this study are dominated by ilmenite with lesser rutile and spinel exsolutions, and traces of Fe metal.

  10. Transmission Electron Microscope Measures Lattice Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William T.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent-beam microdiffraction (CBM) in thermionic-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) is technique for measuring lattice parameters of nanometer-sized specimens of crystalline materials. Lattice parameters determined by use of CBM accurate to within few parts in thousand. Technique developed especially for use in quantifying lattice parameters, and thus strains, in epitaxial mismatched-crystal-lattice multilayer structures in multiple-quantum-well and other advanced semiconductor electronic devices. Ability to determine strains in indivdual layers contributes to understanding of novel electronic behaviors of devices.

  11. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W [Livermore, CA

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  12. Collective effects in microscopic transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    We give a reminder on the major inputs of microscopic hadronic transport models and on the physics aims when describing various aspects of relativistic heavy ion collisions at SPS energies. We then first stress that the situation of particle ratios being reproduced by a statistical description does not necessarily mean a clear hint for the existence of a fully isotropic momentum distribution at hydrochemical freeze-out. Second, a short discussion on the status of strangeness production is given. Third we demonstrate the importance of a new collective mechanism for producing (strange) antibaryons within a hardonic description, which guarantees sufficiently fast chemical equilibration

  13. DHM (Digital Holography Microscope) for imaging cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Yves; Cuche, Etienne; Colomb, Tristan; Depeursinge, Christian; Rappaz, Benjamin; Marquet, Pierre; Magistretti, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Light interaction with a sample modifies both intensity and phase of the illuminating wave. Any available supports for image recording are only sensitive to intensity, but Denis Gabor [P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. Magistretti, et. al. Digital Holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging, Optics Letters, 30, 5, pp 291-93 (2005)] invented in 1948 a way to encode the phase as an intensity variation: the h ologram . Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) [D. Gabor, A new microscopic principle, Nature, 1948] implements digitally this powerful hologram. Characterization of various pollen grains and of morphology changes of neurones associated with hypotonic shock demonstrates the potential of DHM for imaging cells

  14. Possibilities and prospects of investigation of irradiated structural and fuel materials using scanning electron microscope PHILLIPS XL 30 ESEM-TMP installed in the hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanov, V. N.; Novoselov, A.E.; Kuzmin, S.V.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2005-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope Philips XL 30 ESEM - TMP with X-ray microanalysis system INCA has been installed at SSC RF RIAR. The microscope is placed in the hot cell. Monitoring and control system is installed in the operator's room. Irradiated specimens are supplied to the hot cell through the transport terminal and installed into the microscope by manipulators. Direct contact of the personnel with radioactive materials is impossible. In addition it is developed the system of remote placement of the irradiated specimens into the specimen chamber of microscope. The system includes a stage with three seats, holders for different types of specimens and equipment for their remote loading in the holders. (Author)

  15. Scanning tunnel microscope with large vision field compatible with a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, A.P.; Stepanyan, G.A.; Khajkin, M.S.; Ehdel'man, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    A scanning tunnel microscope (STM) with the 20μm vision field and 1nm resolution, designed to be compatible with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), is described. The sample scanning area is chosen within the 3x10mm limits with a 0.1-1μm step. The STM needle is moved automatically toward the sample surface from the maximum distance of 10mm until the tunneling current appears. Bimorphous elements of the KP-1 piezocorrector are used in the STM design. The device is installed on a table of SEM object holders

  16. Another look through Heisenberg’s microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughn, Stephen; Reginatto, Marcel

    2018-05-01

    Heisenberg introduced his famous uncertainty relations in a seminal 1927 paper entitled The Physical Content of Quantum Kinematics and Mechanics. He motivated his arguments with a gedanken experiment, a gamma ray microscope to measure the position of a particle. A primary result was that, due to the quantum nature of light, there is an inherent uncertainty in the determinations of the particle’s position and momentum dictated by an indeterminacy relation, δ qδ p∼ h. Heisenberg offered this demonstration as ‘a direct physical interpretation of the [quantum mechanical] equation {{pq}}-{{qp}}=-{{i}}{\\hslash }’ but considered the indeterminacy relation to be much more than this. He also argued that it implies limitations on the very meanings of position and momentum and emphasised that these limitations are the source of the statistical character of quantum mechanics. In addition, Heisenberg hoped but was unable to demonstrate that the laws of quantum mechanics could be derived directly from the uncertainty relation. In this paper, we revisit Heisenberg’s microscope and argue that the Schrödinger equation for a free particle does indeed follow from the indeterminacy relation together with reasonable statistical assumptions.

  17. Microscopic calculation of the 4He system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a consistent, microscopic calculation of the bound and scattering states in the 4 He system employing a realistic nucleon-nucleon potential in the framework of the resonating group model (RGM). We present for comparison with these microscopic RGM calculations the results from a charge-independent, Coulomb-corrected R-matrix analysis of all types of data for reactions in the A=4 system. Comparisons are made between the phase shifts, and with a selection of measurements from each reaction, as well as between the resonance spectra obtained from both calculations. In general, the comparisons are favorable, but distinct differences are observed between the RGM calculations and some of the polarisation data. The partial-wave decomposition of the experimental data produced by the R-matrix analysis shows that these differences can be attributed to just a few S-matrix elements, for which inadequate tensor-force strength in the N-N interaction used appears to be responsible. (orig.)

  18. Electron microscope autoradiography of isolated DNA molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delain, Etienne; Bouteille, Michel

    1980-01-01

    Autoradiographs of 3 H-thymidine-labelled DNA molecules were observed with an electron microscope. After ten months of exposure significant labelling was obtained with tritiated T7 DNA molecules which had a specific activity of 630,000 cpm/μg. Although isolated DNA molecules were not stretched out to such an extent that they could be rigorously compared to straight 'hot lines', the resolution was estimated and found to be similar to that obtained by autoradiography on thin plastic sections. The H.D. value was of the order of 1600A. From the known specific activity of the macromolecules, it was possible to compare the expected number of disintegrations from the samples to the number of grains obtained on the autoradiograms. This enabled us to calculate 1/ The absolute autoradiographic efficiency and 2/ The per cent ratio of thymidine residues labelled with tritium. These results throw some light on the resolution and sensitivity of electron microscope autoradiography of shadowed isolated macromolecules as compared to thin plastic sections

  19. Microscopic models for bridging electrostatics and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, L.; DeAmbrosis, A.; Mascheretti, P.

    2007-03-01

    A teaching sequence based on the use of microscopic models to link electrostatic phenomena with direct currents is presented. The sequence, devised for high school students, was designed after initial work carried out with student teachers attending a school of specialization for teaching physics at high school, at the University of Pavia. The results obtained with them are briefly presented, because they directed our steps for the development of the teaching sequence. For both the design of the experiments and their interpretation, we drew inspiration from the original works of Alessandro Volta; in addition, a structural model based on the particular role of electrons as elementary charges both in electrostatic phenomena and in currents was proposed. The teaching sequence starts from experiments on charging objects by rubbing and by induction, and engages students in constructing microscopic models to interpret their observations. By using these models and by closely examining the ideas of tension and capacitance, the students acknowledge that a charging (or discharging) process is due to the motion of electrons that, albeit for short time intervals, represent a current. Finally, they are made to see that the same happens in transients of direct current circuits.

  20. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  1. Statistical mechanics of microscopically thin thermalized shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej

    Recent explosion in fabrication of microscopically thin free standing structures made from graphene and other two-dimensional materials has led to a renewed interest in the mechanics of such structures in presence of thermal fluctuations. Since late 1980s it has been known that for flat solid sheets thermal fluctuations effectively increase the bending rigidity and reduce the bulk and shear moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. However, much is still unknown about the mechanics of thermalized flat sheets of complex geometries and about the mechanics of thermalized shells with non-zero background curvature. In this talk I will present recent development in the mechanics of thermalized ribbons, spherical shells and cylindrical tubes. Long ribbons are found to behave like hybrids between flat sheets with renormalized elastic constants and semi-flexible polymers, and these results can be used to predict the mechanics of graphene kirigami structures. Contrary to the anticipated behavior for ribbons, the non-zero background curvature of shells leads to remarkable novel phenomena. In shells, thermal fluctuations effectively generate negative surface tension, which can significantly reduce the critical buckling pressure for spherical shells and the critical axial load for cylindrical tubes. For large shells this thermally generated load becomes big enough to spontaneously crush spherical shells and cylindrical tubes even in the absence of external loads. I will comment on the relevance for crushing of microscopic shells (viral capsids, bacteria, microcapsules) due to osmotic shocks and for crushing of nanotubes.

  2. A LEGO Mindstorms Brewster angle microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, Jonathan; Nguyen, Vincent; Wallum, Alison; Benz, Nicholas; Hamlin, Matthew; Pilgram, Jessica; Vanderpoel, Hunter; Lau, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    A Brewster Angle Microscope (BAM) built from a LEGO Mindstorms kit, additional LEGO bricks, and several standard optics components, is described. The BAM was built as part of an undergraduate senior project and was designed, calibrated, and used to image phospholipid, cholesterol, soap, and oil films on the surface of water. A BAM uses p-polarized laser light reflected off a surface at the Brewster angle, which ideally yields zero reflectivity. When a film of different refractive index is added to the surface a small amount of light is reflected, which can be imaged in a microscope camera. Films of only one molecule (approximately 1 nm) thick, a monolayer, can be observed easily in the BAM. The BAM was used in a junior-level Physical Chemistry class to observe phase transitions of a monolayer and the collapse of a monolayer deposited on the water surface in a Langmuir trough. Using a photometric calculation, students observed a change in thickness of a monolayer during a phase transition of 7 Å, which was accurate to within 1 Å of the value determined by more advanced methods. As supplementary material, we provide a detailed manual on how to build the BAM, software to control the BAM and camera, and image processing software.

  3. Minimal exposure technique in the Cambridge University 600kV high resolution electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, J.R.; Cleaver, J.R.A.; Smith, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation damage due to the incident electron beam imposes a fundamental limitation on the information obtainable by electron microscopy about organic materials; it is desirable therefore that exposure of the specimen to the electron beam should be restricted to the actual period during which the image is being recorded. A description is given of methods employed in the observation of the organic aromatic hydrocarbons quaterrylene, ovalene and coronene with the Cambridge University 600kV high resolution electron microscope (HREM). In particular, the condenser-objective mode of operation of this microscope lends itself to the use of an area-defining aperture below the second condenser lens conjugate with the specimen. Furthermore, operation at the higher accelerating voltage of this instrument could be anticipated to reduce the rate of damage, depending on the dominant beam-specimen interaction, whilst the increased width of the first broad band of the contrast transfer function of this microscope at the optimum defocus may overcome the reported resolution limitation of current 100kV microscopes for the observation of related materials. (author)

  4. Safety of Microsurgery Under Loupes Versus Microscope: A Head-to-Head Comparison of 2 Surgeons With Similar Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehanire, Tosan; Singhal, Dhruv; Mast, Bruce; Leyngold, Mark

    2018-01-24

    Microsurgery is performed using either the operating microscope or loupe magnification. Use of the operating microscope is considered the "criterion standard"; however, loupes are emerging as a safe and reliable technique to perform microsurgery. The purpose of this study was to analyze the safety of microsurgery under loupe magnification compared with the microscope. Previous studies discussing the safety of loupe magnification during microsurgery have been published; however, this is the first study to compare free flap outcomes from 2 surgeons at the same institution, each using their respective technique. The outcomes were compared by retrospective chart review of 116 patients, and 148 microvascular free tissue transfers were performed between January 1, 2013, and July 15, 2016, by 2 surgeons (D.S.) and (M.L.). Patients' demographics, free flap failure rate, and other surgical complications were analyzed. Statistical significance was determined by unpaired t test, and χ analysis was used to determine statistical significance in proportions between groups. Thirty-eight percent of flaps were performed under ×3.5 loupe magnification and 62% under the operating microscope. Most free flaps used were deep inferior epigastric perforator or muscle sparing transverse rectus abdominis flaps (52%) for breast reconstruction, remainder of free flaps included ALT, radial forearm, and latissimus dorsi for a variety of reconstructive applications. There was no significant difference between the loupes and microscope groups in intraoperative anastomotic revision rate (27% vs 17%), postoperative arterial or venous thrombosis (4.4% vs 2.6%, 5.4% vs 2.2%), flap loss (3.6% vs 2.2%), or median length of stay (6 days vs 6.5 days). The loupe magnification group had statistically significant shorter setup time (20 minutes, P microscope. This is the first study to demonstrate these findings with 2 microsurgeons both in their first 3 years in practice, with similar training and

  5. Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Sarsour, H.N.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources

  6. Atomic physics with the scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleber, M.; Bracher, C.; Riza, M.

    1999-01-01

    Backscattering of atomic beams above a given surface yields information similar to the one obtained from scanning the same surface with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM): In both cases the experimentally accessible quantity is the local density of states (LDOS) n(r,E) of the surface. For the case of backscattering, the LDOS at the turning point of the atom is an important ingredient of the potential between atom and surface. In experiments performed with an STM, the LDOS at the apex of an atomically sharp tip can be determined directly. Probing surfaces locally by an STM allows for the study of basic phenomena in atomic physics, with tunneling of electrons in three dimensions being a central issue

  7. Microscopic theory of ultrafast spin linear reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G P, E-mail: gpzhang@indstate.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)

    2011-05-25

    A recent experiment (Vahaplar et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 117201) showed that a single femtosecond laser can reverse the spin direction without spin precession, or spin linear reversal (SLR), but its microscopic theory has been missing. Here we show that SLR does not occur naturally. Two generic spin models, the Heisenberg and Hubbard models, are employed to describe magnetic insulators and metals, respectively. We find analytically that the spin change is always accompanied by a simultaneous excitation of at least two spin components. The only model that has prospects for SLR is the Stoner single-electron band model. However, under the influence of the laser field, the orbital angular momenta are excited and are coupled to each other. If a circularly polarized light is used, then all three components of the orbital angular momenta are excited, and so are their spins. The generic spin commutation relation further reveals that if SLR exists, it must involve a complicated multiple state excitation.

  8. Microscopic theory of nuclear fission: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunck, N.; Robledo, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    spontaneous fission half-lives from multi-dimensional quantum tunnelling probabilities (For the sake of completeness, other approaches to tunnelling based on functional integrals are also briefly discussed, although there are very few applications.) It is also an important component of some of the time-dependent methods that have been used in fission studies. Concerning the latter, both the semi-classical approaches to time-dependent nuclear dynamics and more microscopic theories involving explicit quantum-many-body methods are presented. One of the hallmarks of the microscopic theory of fission is the tremendous amount of computing needed for practical applications. In particular, the successful implementation of the theories presented in this article requires a very precise numerical resolution of the HFB equations for large values of the collective variables. This aspect is often overlooked, and several sections are devoted to discussing the resolution of the HFB equations, especially in the context of very deformed nuclear shapes. In particular, the numerical precision and iterative methods employed to obtain the HFB solution are documented in detail. Finally, a selection of the most recent and representative results obtained for both spontaneous and induced fission is presented, with the goal of emphasizing the coherence of the microscopic approaches employed. Although impressive progress has been achieved over the last two decades to understand fission microscopically, much work remains to be done. Several possible lines of research are outlined in the conclusion.

  9. Active mask segmentation of fluorescence microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D; Kovacević, Jelena

    2009-08-01

    We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the "contour" to that of "inside and outside," or masks, allowing for easy multidimensional segmentation. It adapts to the topology of the image through the use of multiple masks. The algorithm is almost invariant under initialization, allowing for random initialization, and uses a few easily tunable parameters. Experiments show that the active mask algorithm matches the ground truth well and outperforms the algorithm widely used in fluorescence microscopy, seeded watershed, both qualitatively, as well as quantitatively.

  10. System modelling of a lateral force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, Guillaume; Lu, Cheng; Kiet Tieu, A

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively analyse lateral force microscope measurements one needs to develop a model able to relate the photodiode signal to the force acting on the tip apex. In this paper we focus on the modelling of the interaction between the cantilever and the optical chain. The laser beam is discretized by a set of rays which propagates in the system. The analytical equation of a single ray's position on the optical sensor is presented as a function of the reflection's state on top of the cantilever. We use a finite element analysis on the cantilever to connect the optical model with the force acting on the tip apex. A first-order approximation of the constitutive equations are derived along with a definition of the system's crosstalk. Finally, the model is used to analytically simulate the 'wedge method' in the presence of crosstalk in 2D. The analysis shows how the torsion loop and torsion offset signals are affected by the crosstalk.

  11. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, I.-H.; Lee, T.-H.; Yin, G.-C.; Wei, D.-H.; Juang, J.-M.; Dann, T.-E.; Klauser, R.; Chuang, T. J.; Chen, C. T.; Tsang, K.-L.

    2001-07-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  12. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, I.-H.; Lee, T.-H.; Yin, G.-C.; Wei, D.-H.; Juang, J.-M.; Dann, T.-E.; Klauser, R.; Chuang, T.J.; Chen, C.T.; Tsang, K.-L.

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed

  13. The Scanning TMR Microscope for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal N. Vyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR scanning microscopeset-up capable of quantitatively imaging the magnetic stray field patterns of micron-sizedelements in 3D. By incorporating an Anderson loop measurement circuit for impedancematching, we are able to detect magnetoresistance changes of as little as 0.006%/Oe. By 3Drastering a mounted TMR sensor over our magnetic barcodes, we are able to characterisethe complex domain structures by displaying the real component, the amplitude and thephase of the sensor’s impedance. The modular design, incorporating a TMR sensor withan optical microscope, renders this set-up a versatile platform for studying and imagingimmobilised magnetic carriers and barcodes currently employed in biosensor platforms,magnetotactic bacteria and other complex magnetic domain structures of micron-sizedentities. The quantitative nature of the instrument and its ability to produce vector maps ofmagnetic stray fields has the potential to provide significant advantages over other commonlyused scanning magnetometry techniques.

  14. Quantum liquids in confinement the microscopic view

    CERN Document Server

    Krotscheck, Eckhard S; Rimnac, A; Zillich, R

    2003-01-01

    We discuss, on a microscopic level, the effects of confinement on structural as well as dynamic properties of quantum liquids. The most evident structural consequences of confinement are layer structures found in liquid films, and free surfaces appearing in liquid drops and slabs. These structural properties have immediate consequences: new types of excitation such as surface phonons, layer phonons, layer rotons, and standing waves can appear and are potentially observable in neutron scattering spectra as well as in thermodynamic properties. Atom scattering experiments provide further insights into structural properties. Methods have been developed to describe elastic and inelastic atom scattering as well as transport currents. The theory has been applied to examine scattering processes of sup 4 He and sup 3 He atoms impinging on sup 4 He clusters, as well as sup 4 He scattering off sup 4 He films and slabs.

  15. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, I H; Yin, G C; Wei, D H; Juang, J M; Dann, T E; Klauser, R; Chuang, T J; Chen, C T; Tsang, K L

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  16. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  17. Electron spin resonance scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yang; Li Jianmei; Lu Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    It is highly expected that the future informatics will be based on the spins of individual electrons. The development of elementary information unit will eventually leads to novel single-molecule or single-atom devices based on electron spins; the quantum computer in the future can be constructed with single electron spins as the basic quantum bits. However, it is still a great challenge in detection and manipulation of a single electron spin, as well as its coherence and entanglement. As an ideal experimental tool for such tasks, the development of electron spin resonance scanning tunneling microscope (ESR-STM) has attracted great attention for decades. This paper briefly introduces the basic concept of ESR-STM. The development history of this instrument and recent progresses are reviewed. The underlying mechanism is explored and summarized. The challenges and possible solutions are discussed. Finally, the prospect of future direction and applications are presented. (authors)

  18. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  19. Fiber coupled ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1997-01-01

    We report on a scanning tunneling microscope with a photoconductive gate in the tunneling current circuit. The tunneling tip is attached to a coplanar transmission line with an integrated photoconductive switch. The switch is illuminated through a fiber which is rigidly attached to the switch...... waveguide. The measurements show that the probe works as a transient voltage detector in contact and a capacitively coupled transient field detector in tunneling mode. We do not measure the transient voltage change in the ohmic tunneling current. In this sense, the spatial resolution for propagating...... substrate. By using a firmly attached fiber we achieve an excellent reproducibility and unconstrained positioning of the tip. We observe a transient signal with 2.9 ps pulse width in tunneling mode and 5 ps in contact mode. The instrument is applied to investigating the mode structure on a coplanar...

  20. Microscopic theory of one-body dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, S.E.; Randrup, J.; Hatch, R.; Kolomietz, V.

    1977-01-01

    A microscopic theory is developed for nuclear collective motion in the limit of a long nuclear mean-free path. Linear response techniques are applied to an independent particle model and expressions for the collective kinetic energy and rate of energy dissipation are obtained. For leptodermous systems, these quantities are characterized by mass and dissipation kernels coupling the velocities at different points on the nuclear surface. In a classical treatment, the kernels are given in terms of nucleon trajectories within the nuclear shape. In a quantal treatment, the dissipation kernel is related to the nuclear Green function. The spatial and thermal properties of the kernels are investigated. Corrections for the diffuseness of the potential and shell effects are also discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Wide-range tunable magnetic lens for tabletop electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    A tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes permanent magnets as condenser lenses to minimize its size, but this sacrifices the tunability of condenser lenses such that a tabletop system can only be operated with a fixed accelerating voltage. In contrast, the traditional condenser lens utilizes an electromagnetic coil to adjust the optical properties, but the size of the electromagnetic lens is inevitably larger. Here, we propose a tunable condenser lens for a tabletop SEM that uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnetic coils. The overall dimensions of the newly designed lens are the same as the original permanent magnet lens, but the new lens allows the tabletop SEM to be operated at different accelerating voltages between 1 kV and 15 kV. - Highlights: • A compact condenser lens combines both permanent magnet and coils. • A tunable lens is designed to keep the same focal point for voltage 1 to 15 kV. • A miniature tunable lens which can directly fit into tabletop SEM.

  2. Microscopic description of inelastic proton scattering from 88Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouw, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    A microscopic description of the 88 Sr(p,p') reaction at 25 and 31 MeV, 200 MeV and 65 MeV is given. In the analysis several excited states are considered. For the nuclear structure of these states wave functions calculated from a one broken-pair model in a 4hw model space are used which give in general a good description of the shape of the transition charge and current densities as measured in (e,e') scattering. Also a macroscopic analysis has been made of some collective transitions. For 24, 31 and 65 MeV the effective HJ and the JLM interaction were employed, the effective Paris interaction was used at 200 MeV and the M3YP interaction at 65 MeV. At 65 and 200 MeV some calibration factors were needed. It is shown that the nonlocality of the distortion potential is closely related to the nonlocality of the transition potential. The influence of a spin-orbit potential and nonlocality in the single-particle potential on the electromagnetic current operator is discussed. In an impulse approximation of the electromagnetic coupling the presence of these terms would lead to violation of charge conservation. Starting from a Lagrangian formulation a current operator is derived that conserves explicitly electric charge. (Auth.)

  3. Wide-range tunable magnetic lens for tabletop electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Fu-Rong, E-mail: fchen1@me.com

    2016-12-15

    A tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes permanent magnets as condenser lenses to minimize its size, but this sacrifices the tunability of condenser lenses such that a tabletop system can only be operated with a fixed accelerating voltage. In contrast, the traditional condenser lens utilizes an electromagnetic coil to adjust the optical properties, but the size of the electromagnetic lens is inevitably larger. Here, we propose a tunable condenser lens for a tabletop SEM that uses a combination of permanent magnets and electromagnetic coils. The overall dimensions of the newly designed lens are the same as the original permanent magnet lens, but the new lens allows the tabletop SEM to be operated at different accelerating voltages between 1 kV and 15 kV. - Highlights: • A compact condenser lens combines both permanent magnet and coils. • A tunable lens is designed to keep the same focal point for voltage 1 to 15 kV. • A miniature tunable lens which can directly fit into tabletop SEM.

  4. Microscopic Perspective on Photovoltaic Reciprocity in Ultrathin Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs; Rau, Uwe

    2017-06-16

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions. Its derivation is based on detailed balance relations between local absorption and emission rates in optically isotropic media with nondegenerate quasiequilibrium carrier distributions. In many cases, the dependence of density and spatial variation of electronic and optical device states on the point of operation is modest and the reciprocity relation holds. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices exploiting confined modes, however, the underlying assumptions are no longer justifiable. In the case of ultrathin absorber solar cells, the modification of the electronic structure with applied bias is significant due to the large variation of the built-in field. Straightforward use of the external quantum efficiency as measured at short circuit conditions in the photovoltaic reciprocity theory thus fails to reproduce the electroluminescence spectrum at large forward bias voltage. This failure is demonstrated here by numerical simulation of both spectral quantities at normal incidence and emission for an ultrathin GaAs p-i-n solar cell using an advanced quantum kinetic formalism based on nonequilibrium Green's functions of coupled photons and charge carriers. While coinciding with the semiclassical relations under the conditions of their validity, the theory provides a consistent microscopic relationship between absorption, emission, and charge carrier transport in photovoltaic devices at arbitrary operating conditions and for any shape of optical and electronic density of states.

  5. Endoscopic vs. microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersen, Leonie H A; Biermasz, Nienke R; van Furth, Wouter R; de Vries, Friso; Verstegen, Marco J T; Dekkers, Olaf M; Pereira, Alberto M

    2018-05-16

    Systematic review and meta-analysis comparing endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing's disease regarding surgical outcomes (remission, recurrence, and mortality) and complication rates. To stratify the results by tumor size. Nine electronic databases were searched in February 2017 to identify potentially relevant articles. Cohort studies assessing surgical outcomes or complication rates after endoscopic or microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing's disease were eligible. Pooled proportions were reported including 95% confidence intervals. We included 97 articles with 6695 patients in total (5711 microscopically and 984 endoscopically operated). Overall, remission was achieved in 5177 patients (80%), with no clear difference between both techniques. Recurrence was around 10% and short term mortality surgery (12.9 vs. 4.0%), whereas transient diabetes insipidus occurred less often (11.3 vs. 21.7%). For microadenomas, results were comparable between both techniques. For macroadenomas, the percentage of patients in remission was higher after endoscopic surgery (76.3 vs. 59.9%), and the percentage recurrence lower after endoscopic surgery (1.5 vs. 17.0%). Endoscopic surgery for patients with Cushing's disease reaches comparable results for microadenomas, and probably better results for macroadenomas than microscopic surgery. This is present despite the presumed learning curve of the newer endoscopic technique, although confounding cannot be excluded. Based on this study, endoscopic surgery may thus be considered the current standard of care. Microscopic surgery can be used based on neurosurgeon's preference. Endocrinologists and neurosurgeons in pituitary centers performing the microscopic technique should at least consider referring Cushing's disease patients with a macroadenoma.

  6. Multiple-scanning-probe tunneling microscope with nanoscale positional recognition function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Laurent, Olivier; Komatsubara, Takashi; Machida, Shinichi; Aono, Masakazu; Obori, Kenichi; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2010-07-01

    Over the past decade, multiple-scanning-probe microscope systems with independently controlled probes have been developed for nanoscale electrical measurements. We developed a quadruple-scanning-probe tunneling microscope (QSPTM) that can determine and control the probe position through scanning-probe imaging. The difficulty of operating multiple probes with submicrometer precision drastically increases with the number of probes. To solve problems such as determining the relative positions of the probes and avoiding of contact between the probes, we adopted sample-scanning methods to obtain four images simultaneously and developed an original control system for QSPTM operation with a function of automatic positional recognition. These improvements make the QSPTM a more practical and useful instrument since four images can now be reliably produced, and consequently the positioning of the four probes becomes easier owing to the reduced chance of accidental contact between the probes.

  7. Variable-temperature independently driven four-tip scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobara, Rei; Nagamura, Naoka; Hasegawa, Shuji; Matsuda, Iwao; Yamamoto, Yuko; Miyatake, Yutaka; Nagamura, Toshihiko

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) variable-temperature four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM), operating from room temperature down to 7 K, combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Four STM tips are mechanically and electrically independent and capable of positioning in arbitrary configurations in nanometer precision. An integrated controller system for both of the multitip STM and SEM with a single computer has also been developed, which enables the four tips to operate either for STM imaging independently and for four-point probe (4PP) conductivity measurements cooperatively. Atomic-resolution STM images of graphite were obtained simultaneously by the four tips. Conductivity measurements by 4PP method were also performed at various temperatures with the four tips in square arrangement with direct contact to the sample surface

  8. Possible Laminographic and Tomosynthesis Applications for Wolter Microscope Scan Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneberk, D; Jackson, J; Martz, H

    2004-01-01

    The Wolter microscope includes a number of attractive features for x-ray imaging, and possible connections to laminographic and tomosynthesis 3D object recovery algorithms. This type of instrument employs x-ray optics to sift out single energy x-rays from a broader spectral energy source, and direct those x-rays to a ''focus plane'' similar to the operation of a optical microscope (see Figure 1 for schematic of a Wolter instrument). Unlike optical microscopes the 3D object can be thick in the direction of the x-rays and in this case more of the intensity of the image is affected by the out-of-focus planes, since the ray-paths span the entire depth of the object. It is clear that the ''in-focus'' plane of a Wolter contain more 3D information than a simple ''point-projection'' radiograph. However, it is not clear just how the impact of the out-of-focus planes obscures or distorts features of interest for the in-focus planes. Further, it is not clear just how object positioning can be combined with multiple acquisitions to enable recovery of other planes within the object function or the entire object function. Of particular interest here are Wolter microscopes configured for mesoscale objects (mm extent with um features). Laminographic and tomosynthesis scanning methods can be strategic for this type of inspection instrument. First, photon output for inspection purposes can be meager in this type of ''small field of view'' system. With laboratory x-ray sources a single image can require up to 10 minutes to accumulate adequate signal. Techniques that can obtain 3D object information from small numbers of views, rotational or translational, are consequently at a premium. Laminographic and tomosynthesis scanning methods require relatively small numbers of views (2-30). Secondly, the Wolter microscope scan geometry in a single view is a fit with the type of source-detector geometry achieved through source-object-detector re-positioning in laminographic and tomosynthesis

  9. X-ray microscope with a Wolter mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao

    2003-01-01

    A Wolter mirror as an objective of an X-ray microscope is described. In comparison with other optical elements, a Wolter mirror has several advantages, such as a large numerical aperture and no chromatic aberration. Recent developments of fabrication process enabled us to make a Wolter mirror objective for X-rays. The fabrication process and the applications to a soft X-ray microscope and an X-ray fluorescence microscope are described. (author)

  10. Microscopic cross-section measurements by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila L, J.

    1987-08-01

    Microscopic cross sections measured by thermal neutron activation using RP-0 reactor at the Peruvian Nuclear Energy Institute. The method consists in measuring microscopic cross section ratios through activated samples, requiring being corrected in thermal and epithermal energetic range by Westcott formalism. Furthermore, the comptage ratios measured for each photopeak to its decay fraction should be normalized from interrelation between both processes above, activation microscopic cross sections are obtained

  11. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar

    2016-10-11

    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as how the morphological features of the crystals dictates how the dissolution process proceeds, and how materials can be purified by re-crystallization techniques.

  12. Microscopic Investigation of Materials Limitations of Superconducting RF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anlage, Steven [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Our overall goal is to contribute to the understanding of defects that limit the high accelerating gradient performance of Nb SRF cavities. Our approach is to develop a microscopic connection between materials defects and SRF performance. We developed a near-field microwave microscope to establish this connection. The microscope is based on magnetic hard drive write heads, which are designed to create very strong rf magnetic fields in very small volumes on a surface.

  13. Adaptive optical microscope for brain imaging in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai

    2017-04-01

    The optical heterogeneity of biological tissue imposes a major limitation to acquire detailed structural and functional information deep in the biological specimens using conventional microscopes. To restore optimal imaging performance, we developed an adaptive optical microscope based on direct wavefront sensing technique. This microscope can reliably measure and correct biological samples induced aberration. We demonstrated its performance and application in structural and functional brain imaging in various animal models, including fruit fly, zebrafish and mouse.

  14. Microscopic studies of RIB target materials and ion induced nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, Prasanta; Bhattacharya, Shampa; Roy, Tapatee Kundu; Bhowmick, Debasis; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2010-01-01

    The invention of electron microscope and scanning probe microscope has empowered us to visualize the tiny world that has explored many fundamental laws of natures. Further technological advancements have made these tools capable to probe micron size structures to individual atom. These microscopes are used to image and study micron size fibers or grain structures used for high yield radioactive products, to few nanometer size ripple, dot and hole structures produced by ion irradiation. Electron Microscope has also been used to characterize the ion beam synthesized dilute magnetic systems

  15. Quantitative methods for the analysis of electron microscope images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skands, Peter Ulrik Vallø

    1996-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is an general introduction to quantitative methods for the analysis of digital microscope images. The images presented are primarily been acquired from Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) and interfermeter microscopes (IFM). The topic is approached though several examples...... foundation of the thesis fall in the areas of: 1) Mathematical Morphology; 2) Distance transforms and applications; and 3) Fractal geometry. Image analysis opens in general the possibility of a quantitative and statistical well founded measurement of digital microscope images. Herein lies also the conditions...

  16. Electronic zooming TV readout system for an x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, K.; Matsumura, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Hirai, N.; Sugiyama, M.; Kihara, H.; Watanabe, N.; Shimanuki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic zooming TV readout system using the X-ray zooming tube has been developed for purposes of real-time readout of very high resolution X-ray image, e.g. the output image from an X-ray microscope. The system limiting resolution is 0.2∼0.3 μm and it is easy to operate in practical applications

  17. Facilities for in situ ion beam studies in transmission electron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.W.; Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H.

    1993-08-01

    Interfacing an ion accelerator to a transmission electron microscope (TEM) allows the analytical functions of TEM imaging and electron diffraction from very small regions to be employed during ion-irradiation effects studies. At present there are ten such installations in Japan, one in France and one in the USA. General specifications of facilities which are operational in 1993 are summarized, and additional facilities which are planned or being proposed are briefly described

  18. Development of nanomanipulator using a high-speed atomic force microscope coupled with a haptic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, F.; Ohashi, Y.; Ishisaki, I.; Picco, L.M.; Ushiki, T.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has been widely used for surface fabrication and manipulation. However, nanomanipulation using a conventional AFM is inefficient because of the sequential nature of the scan-manipulation scan cycle, which makes it difficult for the operator to observe the region of interest and perform the manipulation simultaneously. In this paper, a nanomanipulation technique using a high-speed atomic force microscope (HS-AFM) is described. During manipulation using the AFM probe, the operation is periodically interrupted for a fraction of a second for high-speed imaging that allows the topographical image of the manipulated surface to be periodically updated. With the use of high-speed imaging, the interrupting time for imaging can be greatly reduced, and as a result, the operator almost does not notice the blink time of the interruption for imaging during the manipulation. This creates a more intuitive interface with greater feedback and finesse to the operator. Nanofabrication under real-time monitoring was performed to demonstrate the utility of this arrangement for real-time nanomanipulation of sample surfaces under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the HS-AFM is coupled with a haptic device for the human interface, enabling the operator to move the HS-AFM probe to any position on the surface while feeling the response from the surface during the manipulation. - Highlights: • A nanomanipulater based on a high-speed atomic force microscope was developped. • High-speed imaging provides a valuable feedback during the manipulation operation. • Operator can feel the response from the surface via a haptic device during manipulation. • Nanofabrications under real-time monitoring were successfully performed

  19. Using a university characterization facility to educate the public about microscopes: light microscopes to SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Nancy; Henderson, Walter

    2015-10-01

    The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN)1is an integrated partnership of 14 universities across the US funded by NSF to support nanoscale researchers. The NNIN education office is located at the Institute of Electronics and Nanotechnology at the Georgia Institute of Technology. At Georgia Tech we offer programs that integrate the facility and its resources to educate the public about nanotechnology. One event that has proved highly successful involves using microscopes in our characterization suite to educate a diverse audience about a variety of imaging instruments. As part of the annual Atlanta Science Festival (ATLSF)2 we provided an event entitled: "What's all the Buzz about Nanotechnology?" which was open to the public and advertised through a variety of methods by the ATLSF. During the event, we provided hands-on demos, cleanroom tours, and activities with three of our microscopes in our recently opened Imaging and Characterization Facility: 1. Keyence VHX-600 Digital Microscope; 2. Hitachi SU823 FE-SEM; and 3. Hitachi TM 3000. During the two hour event we had approximately 150 visitors including many families with school-aged children. Visitors were invited to bring a sample for scanning with the TM-3000. This paper will discuss how to do such an event, lessons learned, and visitor survey results.

  20. Electron sputtering in the analytical electron microscope: Calculations and experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaluzec, N.J.; Mansfield, J.F.

    1987-03-01

    The environment of the electron microscope is particularly severe when one considers the energy deposited in a specimen during typical experimental conditions. Conventional imaging experiments tend to employ electron current densities ranging from ∼0.1 to 1 A/cm 2 while during microanalysis conditions probe current densities can range from 10 to values as high as 10 5 A/cm 2 . At 100 kV this corresponds to power densities from 100 Kilowatts/cm 2 to 10 4 Megawatts/cm 2 . These energy deposition rates can result in electron irradiation damage which can substantially alter the structure and composition of a specimen through either ionization damage in organics or by displacement damage in inorganics and/or combinations thereof. For the most part materials scientists operating an analytical electron microscope (AEM) in the 100 to 200 kV regime studying metallic and/or ceramic specimens have been spared the need to consider either of these effects as their specimens have tended to be sufficiently resilient. However, the advent of the new medium voltage microscopes operating in the 300 to 400 kV regime with high brightness guns and clean or ultrahigh vacuum systems has necessitated a reevaluation of the effects of higher voltage operation in light of the destructive nature of the electron beam particularly under microanalysis conditions

  1. Parotid tumours: clinical and oncologic outcomes after microscope-assisted parotidectomy with intraoperative nerve monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, F; Chuchueva, N; Gerosa, C; Sionis, S; Caria, R A; Puxeddu, R

    2017-10-01

    Temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunctions can be observed after parotidectomy for benign and malignant lesions. Intraoperative nerve monitoring is a recognised tool for the preservation of the nerve, while the efficacy of the operative microscope has been rarely stated. The authors report their experience on 198 consecutive parotidectomies performed on 196 patients with the aid of the operative microscope and intraoperative nerve monitoring. 145 parotidectomies were performed for benign lesions and 53 for malignancies. Thirteen patients treated for benign tumours experienced temporary (11 cases) or permanent facial palsy (2 cases, both of House-Brackmann grade II). Ten patients with malignant tumour presented with preoperative facial nerve weakness that did not improve after treatment. Five and 6 patients with malignant lesion without preoperative facial nerve deficit experienced postoperative temporary and permanent weakness respectively (the sacrifice of a branch of the nerve was decided intraoperatively in 2 cases). Long-term facial nerve weakness after parotidectomy for lesions not directly involving or originating from the facial nerve (n = 185) was 2.7%. Patients treated for benign tumours of the extra facial portion of the gland without inflammatory behaviour (n = 91) had 4.4% facial nerve temporary weakness rate and no permanent palsy. The combined use of the operative microscope and intraoperative nerve monitoring seems to guarantee facial nerve preservation during parotidectomy. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  2. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita: clinical manifestations, microscopic findings, and surgical periodontal therapy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, S S; Celenligil-Nazliel, H; Karaduman, A; Usubütün, A; Ertoy, D; Ayhan, A; Ruacan, S

    2001-04-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an uncommon, acquired, chronic subepidermal bullous disease. This report describes a case of EBA with gingival involvement. A 43-year-old woman with EBA was referred to our clinic for periodontal therapy because of gingival tenderness and bleeding. She has been on cyclosporin A therapy for the last 2 years. Clinical findings were analyzed. Anterior gingivectomy operations were performed in 2 stages. The samples obtained during the surgery were examined using histopathologic, immunohistologic, and electronmicroscopic methods. Long-term effects of the surgical periodontal treatment on gingiva were evaluated both clinically and microscopically. The dentition displayed minimal enamel hypoplasia. Decayed, missing, and filled surfaces score was found to be elevated. Periodontal examination showed generalized diffuse gingival inflammation and gingival enlargement localized mainly to the anterior region. Nikolsky's sign was positive. However, wound healing was uneventful after the operations. Microscopic findings were similar to those obtained from the skin. Twenty-one months after the operations, Nikolsky's sign was negative and no remarkable gingival inflammation was noted. Microscopic examination revealed that the blisters were fewer in number and smaller in size. These results indicate that gingival tissues may also be involved in EBA. Uneventful wound healing after periodontal surgery in this case suggests that periodontal surgery can be performed in patients with EBA. Moreover, both our clinical and histopathologic findings imply that gingivectomy proves useful in maintaining gingival integrity in these patients. Our data may also suggest that the patients with EBA are highly likely to develop dental caries.

  3. Mechanism of diarrhea in microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protic, Marijana; Jojic, Njegica; Bojic, Daniela; Milutinovic, Svetlana; Necic, Dusanka; Bojic, Bozidar; Svorcan, Petar; Krstic, Miodrag; Popovic, Obren

    2005-09-21

    To search the pathophysiological mechanism of diarrhea based on daily stool weights, fecal electrolytes, osmotic gap and pH. Seventy-six patients were included: 51 with microscopic colitis (MC) (40 with lymphocytic colitis (LC); 11 with collagenous colitis (CC)); 7 with MC without diarrhea and 18 as a control group (CG). They collected stool for 3 d. Sodium and potassium concentration were determined by flame photometry and chloride concentration by titration method of Schales. Fecal osmotic gap was calculated from the difference of osmolarity of fecal fluid and double sum of sodium and potassium concentration. Fecal fluid sodium concentration was significantly increased in LC 58.11+/-5.38 mmol/L (Pdiarrhea compared to fecal osmotic gap. Seven (13.3%) patients had osmotic diarrhea. Diarrhea in MC mostly belongs to the secretory type. The major pathophysiological mechanism in LC could be explained by a decrease of active sodium absorption. In CC, decreased Cl/HCO3 exchange rate and increased chloride secretion are coexistent pathways.

  4. Microscopic activity patterns in the naming game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The models of statistical physics used to study collective phenomena in some interdisciplinary contexts, such as social dynamics and opinion spreading, do not consider the effects of the memory on individual decision processes. In contrast, in the naming game, a recently proposed model of language formation, each agent chooses a particular state, or opinion, by means of a memory-based negotiation process, during which a variable number of states is collected and kept in memory. In this perspective, the statistical features of the number of states collected by the agents become a relevant quantity to understand the dynamics of the model, and the influence of topological properties on memory-based models. By means of a master equation approach, we analyse the internal agent dynamics of the naming game in populations embedded on networks, finding that it strongly depends on very general topological properties of the system (e.g. average and fluctuations of the degree). However, the influence of topological properties on the microscopic individual dynamics is a general phenomenon that should characterize all those social interactions that can be modelled by memory-based negotiation processes

  5. Microscopic aspects of the Interacting Boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A review is presented of the concept of using boson descriptions of many-fermion systems, and the IBM is introduced in a historical context. Next, the use of the IBM-2 as a phenomenological tool is investigated. The model is applied to the even zinc isotopes and the model is found to give a reasonable description of the experimental data. In the phenomenological calculations, the parameters of the IBM-2 Hamiltonian are adjusted until good agreement is obtained with the experimental data. To put the theoretical basis of the IBM-2 on firm ground, it is important to be able to calculate these parameters microscopically. A framework is developed in which such calculations can be performed for non-deformed nuclei. Results are presented for the mercury isotopes and discussed in detail. The calculated parameter values agree for the most part with the values obtained by phenomenological fit but with some exceptions. Similar calculations are performed for the platinum isotopes. The results for these isotopes are then related to the concept of F-spin multiplets. When the Surface Delta Interaction (SDI) is used, several simplifications can be made in the IBM. In certain schematic situations, the parameters of the IBM-2 Hamiltonian can be related directly to the strength of the SDI. Several interesting results are obtained whose full implication will be investigated in the future.

  6. Microscopic aspects of the Interacting Boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A review is presented of the concept of using boson descriptions of many-fermion systems, and the IBM is introduced in a historical context. Next, the use of the IBM-2 as a phenomenological tool is investigated. The model is applied to the even zinc isotopes and the model is found to give a reasonable description of the experimental data. In the phenomenological calculations, the parameters of the IBM-2 Hamiltonian are adjusted until good agreement is obtained with the experimental data. To put the theoretical basis of the IBM-2 on firm ground, it is important to be able to calculate these parameters microscopically. A framework is developed in which such calculations can be performed for non-deformed nuclei. Results are presented for the mercury isotopes and discussed in detail. The calculated parameter values agree for the most part with the values obtained by phenomenological fit but with some exceptions. Similar calculations are performed for the platinum isotopes. The results for these isotopes are then related to the concept of F-spin multiplets. When the Surface Delta Interaction (SDI) is used, several simplifications can be made in the IBM. In certain schematic situations, the parameters of the IBM-2 Hamiltonian can be related directly to the strength of the SDI. Several interesting results are obtained whose full implication will be investigated in the future

  7. Microscopic modeling of the Raman diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisti, D.; Morice, O.; Gremillet, L.; Strozzi, D.

    2010-01-01

    In the typical conditions of density and electronic temperature of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ), a quantitative assessment of the Raman reflectivity requires an accurate calculation of the non-linear movement of each electron submitted to the waves propagating in the plasma. The interaction of a laser beam with a plasma generates an electronic wave shifted in frequency (that can be back-scattered) and an electron plasma wave (OPE). The OPE can give to the electrons a strongly non-linear movement by trapping them in a potential well. This non-linearity of microscopic origin has an impact on the plasma electronic density. We have succeeded in computing this plasma electronic density in a very accurate way by combining the principles of a perturbative approach with those of an adiabatic theory. Results show that the Raman diffusion can grow on temperature and density ranges more important than expected. We have predicted the threshold and the behavior of the Raman diffusion above this threshold as accurately as we had done it with a Vlasov code but by being 10000 times more rapid. (A.C.)

  8. Soft x-ray spectro microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campuzano, J.C.; Jennings, G.; Beaulaigue, L.; Rodricks, B.G.; Brizard, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of an x-ray photoelectron microscope that provides spatial as well as chemical information on the nature of the sample. Photons from the Aladdin Synchrotron at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Stoughton, WI are monochromatized by an extended-range Grasshopper monochromator covering the range 40 to 1500 eV with energy resolution varying between 10 and 200 MeV. The monochromatized radiation generates photoelectrons in the sample, which are energy-analyzed with a resolving power E|ΔE > 5 x 10 4 and imaged by a multichannel plate array. The visible image is transferred to a computer by a virtual-phase charge-coupled device camera with a dynamic range of 4096:1. Preliminary coarse measurements indicate a spatial resolution of the instrument of better than 1μm, although a limit of 600 Angstrom is possible. The instrument provides chemical shift-resolved images of low-lying core levels in a variety of samples

  9. Microscopic thermal characterization of HTR particle layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochais, D.; Le Meur, G.; Basini, V.; Domingues, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents thermal diffusivity measurements of HTR fuel particle pyrolytic carbon layers at room temperature. The photoreflectance microscopy (PM) technique is used to characterize particle layers at a microscopic scale. Nevertheless, buffer layer needs a particular analysis due to its porous structure. Indeed, measurements by PM on this material only permit to obtain the thermal diffusivity of the solid skeleton, whose homogeneous zones surface does not exceed 100 μm 2 . These characteristics make, on the one hand, delicate the use of PM, and on the other hand, require the use of a numerical homogenization technique. This model takes into account the properties of gas confined in the pores, to simulate the conduction heat flux traveling through the layer in relation with its microstructure and to estimate an effective thermal conductivity of the entire layer. This approach is validated by infrared microscopy measurement of the effective thermal diffusivity of the especially elaborated thicker buffer layer. Last, the first tests to characterize the silicon carbide layer are presented

  10. Microscopic thermodynamics with levitated nanoparticles (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseler, Jan; Jain, Vijay; Moritz, Clemens; Dellago, Christoph; Quidant, Romain; Novotny, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Micsospheres trapped in liquid by so called optical tweezers have been established as useful tools to study microscopic thermodynamics. Since the sphere is in direct contact with the liquid, it is strongly coupled to the thermal bath and its dynamics is dominated by thermal fluctuations. In contrast, here we use an optically trapped nanoparticle in vacuum to study fluctuations of a system that is coupled only weakly to the thermal bath. The weak coupling allows us to resolve the ballistic dynamics and to control its motion via modulation of the trapping beam, thereby preparing it in a highly non-thermal state. We develop a theory for the effective Hamiltonian that describes the system dynamics in this state and show that all the relevant parameters can be controlled in situ. This tunability allows us to study classical fluctuation theorems for different effective Hamiltonians and for varying coupling to the thermal bath ranging over several orders of magnitude. The ultimate goal, however, is to completely suppress the effect of the thermal bath and to prepare the levitated nanoparticle in a quantum mechanical state. Our most recent result indicate that this regime is now within reach.

  11. Guideline of guidelines: asymptomatic microscopic haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Brian J; Bass, Edward J; Mostafid, Hugh; Boorjian, Stephen A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to review major organizational guidelines on the evaluation and management of asymptomatic microscopic haematuria (AMH). We reviewed the haematuria guidelines from: the American Urological Association; the consensus statement by the Canadian Urological Association, Canadian Urologic Oncology Group and Bladder Cancer Canada; the American College of Physicians; the Joint Consensus Statement of the Renal Association and British Association of Urological Surgeons; and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. All guidelines reviewed recommend evaluation for AMH in the absence of potential benign aetiologies, with the evaluation including cystoscopy and upper urinary tract imaging. Existing guidelines vary in their definition of AMH (role of urine dipstick vs urine microscopy), the age threshold for recommending evaluation, and the optimal imaging method (computed tomography vs ultrasonography). Of the reviewed guidelines, none recommended the use of urine cytology or urine markers during the initial AMH evaluation. Patients should have ongoing follow-up after a negative initial AMH evaluation. Significant variation exists among current guidelines for AMH with respect to who should be evaluated and in what manner. Given the patient and health system implications of balancing appropriately focused and effective diagnostic evaluation, AMH represents a valuable future research opportunity. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nitrogen implantation with a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S; Raatz, N; Jankuhn, St; John, R; Meijer, J

    2018-01-08

    Established techniques for ion implantation rely on technically advanced and costly machines like particle accelerators that only few research groups possess. We report here about a new and surprisingly simple ion implantation method that is based upon a widespread laboratory instrument: The scanning electron microscope. We show that it can be utilized to ionize atoms and molecules from the restgas by collisions with electrons of the beam and subsequently accelerate and implant them into an insulating sample by the effect of a potential building up at the sample surface. Our method is demonstrated by the implantation of nitrogen ions into diamond and their subsequent conversion to nitrogen vacancy centres which can be easily measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy. To provide evidence that the observed centres are truly generated in the way we describe, we supplied a 98% isotopically enriched 15 N gas to the chamber, whose natural abundance is very low. By employing the method of optically detected magnetic resonance, we were thus able to verify that the investigated centres are actually created from the 15 N isotopes. We also show that this method is compatible with lithography techniques using e-beam resist, as demonstrated by the implantation of lines using PMMA.

  13. [Relationships between microscope structure and thermodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.S.; Lee, L.L.; Cochran, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper exhibits on the molecular level, the relationships between the microscopic structure and thermodynamic properties of dilute supercritical solutions by application of the integral equation theories for molecular distribution functions. To solve the integral equations, the authors use Baxter's Wiener-Hopf factorization of the Ornstein-Zernike equations and then apply this method to binary Lennard-Jones mixtures. A number of closure relations have been used: such as the Percus-Yevick (PY), the reference hypernetted chain (RHNC), the hybrid mean spherical approximation (HMSA), and the reference interaction-site (RISM) methods. The authors examine the microstructures of several important classes of supercritical mixtures, including the usual attractive-type and the less known repulsive-type solutions. The clustering of solvent molecules for solvent-solute structures in the attractive mixtures and, correspondingly, the solvent cavitation in the repulsive mixtures are clearly demonstrated. These are shown to be responsible for the large negative growth of the solute partial molar volumes in the attractive case and the positive growth in the repulsive case

  14. Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G

    2009-01-01

    The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r≥1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values. (letters and comments)

  15. Microscopic Holography for flow over rough plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Siddharth; Hong, Jiarong; Lu, Yuan; Katz, Joseph

    2008-11-01

    Our objective is to measure the near wall flow structures in a turbulent channel flow over a rough wall. In-line microscopic holographic PIV can resolve the 3-D flow field in a small sample volume, but recording holograms through a rough surface is a challenge. To solve this problem, we match the refractive indices of the fluid with that of the wall. Proof of concept tests involve an acrylic plate containing uniformly distributed, closely packed 0.45mm high pyramids with slope angle of 22^^o located within a concentrated sodium iodide solution. Holograms recorded by a 4864 x 3248 pixel digital camera at 10X magnification provide a field of view of 3.47mm x 2.32mm and pixel resolution of 0.714 μm. Due to index matching, reconstructed seed particles can be clearly seen over the entire volume, with only faint traces with the rough wall that can be removed. Planned experiments will be performed in a 20 x 5 cm rectangular channel with the top and bottom plates having the same roughness as the sample plate.

  16. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  17. Helium leak testing of scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Anis; Tripathi, S.K.; Mukherjee, D.

    2015-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is a specialized electron-optical device which is used for imaging of miniscule features on topography of material specimens. Conventional SEMs used finely focused high energy (about 30 KeV) electron beam probes of diameter of about 10nm for imaging of solid conducting specimens. Vacuum of the order of 10"-"5 Torr is prerequisite for conventional Tungsten filament type SEMs. One such SEM was received from one of our laboratory in BARC with a major leak owing to persisting poor vacuum condition despite continuous pumping for several hours. He-Leak Detection of the SEM was carried out at AFD using vacuum spray Technique and various potential leak joints numbering more than fifty were helium leak tested. The major leak was detected in the TMP damper bellow. The part was later replaced and the repeat helium leak testing of the system was carried out using vacuum spray technique. The vacuum in SEM is achieved is better than 10"-"5 torr and system is now working satisfactorily. (author)

  18. Shear viscosity coefficient from microscopic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muronga, Azwinndini

    2004-01-01

    The transport coefficient of shear viscosity is studied for a hadron matter through microscopic transport model, the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD), using the Green-Kubo formulas. Molecular-dynamical simulations are performed for a system of light mesons in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from an initial state composed of π,η,ω,ρ,φ with a uniform phase-space distribution, the evolution takes place through elastic collisions, production, and annihilation. The system approaches a stationary state of mesons and their resonances, which is characterized by common temperature. After equilibration, thermodynamic quantities such as the energy density, particle density, and pressure are calculated. From such an equilibrated state the shear viscosity coefficient is calculated from the fluctuations of stress tensor around equilibrium using Green-Kubo relations. We do our simulations here at zero net baryon density so that the equilibration times depend on the energy density. We do not include hadron strings as degrees of freedom so as to maintain detailed balance. Hence we do not get the saturation of temperature but this leads to longer equilibration times

  19. Assessment of a liquid lens enabled in vivo optical coherence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Supraja; Meemon, Panomsak; Lee, Kye-Sung; Kuhn, William P; Thompson, Kevin P; Rolland, Jannick P

    2010-06-01

    The optical aberrations induced by imaging through skin can be predicted using formulas for Seidel aberrations of a plane-parallel plate. Knowledge of these aberrations helps to guide the choice of numerical aperture (NA) of the optics we can use in an implementation of Gabor domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM), where the focus is the only aberration adjustment made through depth. On this basis, a custom-designed, liquid-lens enabled dynamic focusing optical coherence microscope operating at 0.2 NA is analyzed and validated experimentally. As part of the analysis, we show that the full width at half-maximum metric, as a characteristic descriptor for the point spread function, while commonly used, is not a useful metric for quantifying resolution in non-diffraction-limited systems. Modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements quantify that the liquid lens performance is as predicted by design, even when accounting for the effect of gravity. MTF measurements in a skinlike scattering medium also quantify the performance of the microscope in its potential applications. To guide the fusion of images across the various focus positions of the microscope, as required in GD-OCM, we present depth of focus measurements that can be used to determine the effective number of focusing zones required for a given goal resolution. Subcellular resolution in an onion sample, and high-definition in vivo imaging in human skin are demonstrated with the custom-designed and built microscope.

  20. Perforation and bacterial contamination of microscope covers in lumbar spinal decompressive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoff, Georg; Spirig, José; Klasen, Jürgen; Kuster, Stefan P; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Sax, Hugo; Min, Kan

    2014-01-01

    To determine the integrity of microscope covers and bacterial contamination at the end of lumbar spinal decompressive surgery. A prospective study of 25 consecutive lumbar spinal decompressions with the use of a surgical microscope was performed. For detection of perforations, the microscope covers were filled with water at the end of surgery and the presence of water leakage in 3 zones (objective, ocular and control panel) was examined. For detection of bacterial contamination, swabs were taken from the covers at the same locations before and after surgery. Among the 25 covers, 1 (4%) perforation was observed and no association between perforation and bacterial contamination was seen; 3 (4%) of 75 smears from the 25 covers showed post-operative bacterial contamination, i.e. 2 in the ocular zone and 1 in the optical zone, without a cover perforation. The incidence of microscope cover perforation was very low and was not shown to be associated with bacterial contamination. External sources of bacterial contamination seem to outweigh the problem of contamination due to failure of cover integrity. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Students' Conceptions about the Sub-Microscopic Approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    The main objective of this study was to test chemistry students' competence, throughout the ... liquids, solids, solutions); the changes in the nature, arrangement and ... Sub-microscopic particles, sub-microscopic approach, properties of matter, explanations in chemistry. .... (e) Intramolecular bonds within the H2O molecules.

  2. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, András; Smith, Donald F; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-30

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source was combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The system's mass spectral and imaging performance is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. The high secondary ion yield (with respect to 'traditional' monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion source and the increased sensitivity of the high voltage detector setup improve microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The analysis time and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved compared with other microscope mode imaging systems, all at high spatial resolution. We have demonstrated the unique capabilities of a C60 ion microscope with a Timepix detector for high spatial resolution microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Measurement of the Resolution of the Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlt, C.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines procedures demonstrating that the aperture of a microscope objective limits resolving power and then, by using ancillary measurements made with a calibrated graticule in the microscope eyepiece, that the experimentally determined value for the maximum resolving power of a given objective is close to the value predicted by theory. (JN)

  4. A General Microscopic Traffic Model Yielding Dissipative Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Caputo, Jean Guy; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2018-01-01

    We consider a general microscopic traffic model with a delay. An algebraic traffic function reduces the equation to the Aw-Rascle microscopic model while a sigmoid function gives the standard “follow the leader”. For zero delay we prove that the homogeneous solution is globally stable...

  5. Isospin-dependent term in the relativistic microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Jian; Ma Zhongyu; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2005-01-01

    The isospin-dependence of the relativistic microscopic optical potential is investigated in the Dirac Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. The isospin part of the microscopic optical potential is emphasized. A local density approximation is adopted for finite nuclei. Taking 208 Pb as example, the difference between proton and neutron optical potentials is studied and compared with the phenomenological Lane Model potential. (authors)

  6. Remote Histology Learning from Static versus Dynamic Microscopic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Histology is the study of microscopic structures in normal tissue sections. Curriculum redesign in medicine has led to a decrease in the use of optical microscopes during practical classes. Other imaging solutions have been implemented to facilitate remote learning. With advancements in imaging technologies, learning material can now be digitized.…

  7. Indirect identification and compensation of lateral scanner resonances in atomic force microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D J; Youcef-Toumi, K; Fantner, G E

    2011-01-01

    Improving the imaging speed of atomic force microscopy (AFM) requires accurate nanopositioning at high speeds. However, high speed operation excites resonances in the AFM's mechanical scanner that can distort the image, and therefore typical users of commercial AFMs elect to operate microscopes at speeds below which scanner resonances are observed. Although traditional robust feedforward controllers and input shaping have proven effective at minimizing the influence of scanner distortions, the lack of direct measurement and use of model-based controllers have required disassembling the microscope to access lateral scanner motion with external sensors in order to perform a full system identification experiment, which places excessive demands on routine microscope operators. Further, since the lightly damped instrument dynamics often change from experiment to experiment, model-based controllers designed from offline system identification experiments must trade off high speed performance for robustness to modeling errors. This work represents a new way to automatically characterize the lateral scanner dynamics without addition of lateral sensors, and shape the commanded input signals in such a way that disturbing dynamics are not excited. Scanner coupling between the lateral and out-of-plane directions is exploited and used to build a minimal model of the scanner that is also sufficient to describe the nature of the distorting resonances. This model informs the design of an online input shaper used to suppress spectral components of the high speed command signals. The method presented is distinct from alternative approaches in that neither an information-complete system identification experiment nor microscope modification are required. Because the system identification is performed online immediately before imaging, no tradeoff of performance is required. This approach has enabled an increase in the scan rates of unmodified commercial AFMs from 1-4 lines s -1 to over

  8. A scanning tunneling microscope for a dilution refrigerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marz, M; Goll, G; Löhneysen, H v

    2010-04-01

    We present the main features of a home-built scanning tunneling microscope that has been attached to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator. It allows scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements down to the base temperature of the cryostat, T approximately 30 mK, and in applied magnetic fields up to 13 T. The topography of both highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and the dichalcogenide superconductor NbSe(2) has been imaged with atomic resolution down to T approximately 50 mK as determined from a resistance thermometer adjacent to the sample. As a test for a successful operation in magnetic fields, the flux-line lattice of superconducting NbSe(2) in low magnetic fields has been studied. The lattice constant of the Abrikosov lattice shows the expected field dependence proportional to 1/square root of B and measurements in the scanning tunneling spectroscopy mode clearly show the superconductive density of states with Andreev bound states in the vortex core.

  9. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves.

  10. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  11. CCDiode: an optimal detector for laser confocal microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawley, James B.; Blouke, Morley M.; Janesick, James R.

    1996-04-01

    The laser confocal microscope (LCM) is now an established research tool in biology and materials science. In biological applications, it is usually employed to detect the location of fluorescent market molecules and, under these conditions, signal levels from bright areas are often digitizer. To maintain the desired +/- 3 e noise level at the relatively high data rate of 1 MHz, our new device utilizes 64 separate readout amplifier/digitizer systems, operating in sequence. The resulting detector is more compact, efficient and reliable than the PMT it replaces but as its sensitive area is smaller than that of a PMT, it will require auxiliary optics when used with any LCM having a large (mm) pinhole. As the signal light is parallel, a simple lens mounted axially and with the CCDiode at its focus would suffice. Future versions may use 3 X 3 or 5 X 5 arrays of sensors to `track' the confocal spot as it is deflected by inhomogeneities of the specimen, change its effective size or shape or detect system misalignment.

  12. Simulation and Characterization of a Miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Jerman, Gregory A.; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Abbott, Terry O.; Sampson, Allen R.

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (mSEM) for in-situ lunar investigations is being developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center with colleagues from the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), Advanced Research Systems (ARS), the University of Tennessee in Knoxville (UTK) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU). This effort focuses on the characterization of individual components of the mSEM and simulation of the complete system. SEMs can provide information on the size, shape, morphology and chemical composition of lunar regolith. Understanding these basic properties will allow us to better estimate the challenges associated with In-Situ Resource Utilization and to improve our basic science knowledge of the lunar surface (either precluding the need for sample return or allowing differentiation of unique samples to be returned to Earth.) The main components of the mSEM prototype includes: a cold field emission electron gun (CFEG), focusing lens, deflection/scanning system and backscatter electron detector. Of these, the electron gun development is of particular importance as it dictates much of the design of the remaining components. A CFEG was chosen for use with the lunar mSEM as its emission does not depend on heating of the tungsten emitter (lower power), it offers a long operation lifetime, is orders of magnitude brighter than tungsten hairpin guns, has a small source size and exhibits low beam energy spread.

  13. Development of spin-polarized transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, M; Saitoh, K; Tanaka, N; Takeda, Y; Ujihara, T; Asano, H; Nakanishi, T

    2011-01-01

    In order to study spin related phenomena in nano-size materials, spin-polarized electron source (PES) has been employed for the incident beam in transmission electron microscope (TEM). The PES has been designed and constructed with optimizing for spin-polarized TEM. The illuminating system of TEM is also designed to focus the spin-polarized electron beam emitted from a semiconductor photocathode with a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface. The beam energy is set to below 40 keV which is lower energy type as a TEM, because the spin interaction with condensed matters is very small corresponding with a Coulomb interaction. The polarized electron gun has realized in an extra high vacuum (XHV) condition and high field gradient of 4 MV/m on a surface of photocathode. Furthermore, it demonstrated that 40-keV polarized electron beam was operated with a sub-milli second pulse mode by using the backside excitation type photocathode. This high performance PES will make it possible to observe dynamically a magnetic field images with high contrast and highspeed temporal imaging in TEM.

  14. [Microscopic investigation of vessel wall after endovascular catheter atherectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankov, V N; Khovalkin, R G; Chekmareva, I A; Kalinin, D V; Filippova, E M

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular target catheter atherectomy (ETCA) - method of artery patency allowing to obtain occlusion substrate. Given the high destructive effect of atherectome's elements on tissue the objective was determination possibility of histological and electron microscopic investigation of this substrate after atherectomy. The research included 8 patients who underwent ETCA of legs arteries. It was observed substrate removal from broken stent in 1 case. 2 of 8 patients had diabetes. Obtained substrate was available for histological and electron microscopic investigation. Atherosclerosis was confirmed in all cases. It was not observed substrate significant morphological changes in patients with presence or absence of diabetes. Microscopic investigation of substrate from broken stent shows pronounced development of granulation tissue that was regarded as special form of reparative regeneration. Finding internal elastic membrane during microscopic investigation in some cases proves radical intervention. The authors consider that microscopic investigation of substrate after ETCA may be used for diagnosis verification, thorough analysis of morphological changes in lesion area and radicalism of atherectomy.

  15. A high resolution ion microscope for cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, Markus; Schefzyk, Hannah; Fortágh, József; Günther, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We report on an ion-optical system that serves as a microscope for ultracold ground state and Rydberg atoms. The system is designed to achieve a magnification of up to 1000 and a spatial resolution in the 100 nm range, thereby surpassing many standard imaging techniques for cold atoms. The microscope consists of four electrostatic lenses and a microchannel plate in conjunction with a delay line detector in order to achieve single particle sensitivity with high temporal and spatial resolution. We describe the design process of the microscope including ion-optical simulations of the imaging system and characterize aberrations and the resolution limit. Furthermore, we present the experimental realization of the microscope in a cold atom setup and investigate its performance by patterned ionization with a structure size down to 2.7 μ m. The microscope meets the requirements for studying various many-body effects, ranging from correlations in cold quantum gases up to Rydberg molecule formation. (paper)

  16. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, O.L. [Nion Co., 1102 8th Street, Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States)], E-mail: krivanek.ondrej@gmail.com; Corbin, G.J.; Dellby, N.; Elston, B.F.; Keyse, R.J.; Murfitt, M.F.; Own, C.S.; Szilagyi, Z.S.; Woodruff, J.W. [Nion Co., 1102 8th Street, Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Improved resolution made possible by aberration correction has greatly increased the demands on the performance of all parts of high-end electron microscopes. In order to meet these demands, we have designed and built an entirely new scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The microscope includes a flexible illumination system that allows the properties of its probe to be changed on-the-fly, a third-generation aberration corrector which corrects all geometric aberrations up to fifth order, an ultra-responsive yet stable five-axis sample stage, and a flexible configuration of optimized detectors. The microscope features many innovations, such as a modular column assembled from building blocks that can be stacked in almost any order, in situ storage and cleaning facilities for up to five samples, computer-controlled loading of samples into the column, and self-diagnosing electronics. The microscope construction is described, and examples of its capabilities are shown.

  17. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, O.L.; Corbin, G.J.; Dellby, N.; Elston, B.F.; Keyse, R.J.; Murfitt, M.F.; Own, C.S.; Szilagyi, Z.S.; Woodruff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Improved resolution made possible by aberration correction has greatly increased the demands on the performance of all parts of high-end electron microscopes. In order to meet these demands, we have designed and built an entirely new scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The microscope includes a flexible illumination system that allows the properties of its probe to be changed on-the-fly, a third-generation aberration corrector which corrects all geometric aberrations up to fifth order, an ultra-responsive yet stable five-axis sample stage, and a flexible configuration of optimized detectors. The microscope features many innovations, such as a modular column assembled from building blocks that can be stacked in almost any order, in situ storage and cleaning facilities for up to five samples, computer-controlled loading of samples into the column, and self-diagnosing electronics. The microscope construction is described, and examples of its capabilities are shown

  18. Microscopic Characterization of Scalable Coherent Rydberg Superatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Zeiher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Strong interactions can amplify quantum effects such that they become important on macroscopic scales. Controlling these coherently on a single-particle level is essential for the tailored preparation of strongly correlated quantum systems and opens up new prospects for quantum technologies. Rydberg atoms offer such strong interactions, which lead to extreme nonlinearities in laser-coupled atomic ensembles. As a result, multiple excitation of a micrometer-sized cloud can be blocked while the light-matter coupling becomes collectively enhanced. The resulting two-level system, often called a “superatom,” is a valuable resource for quantum information, providing a collective qubit. Here, we report on the preparation of 2 orders of magnitude scalable superatoms utilizing the large interaction strength provided by Rydberg atoms combined with precise control of an ensemble of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. The latter is achieved with sub-shot-noise precision by local manipulation of a two-dimensional Mott insulator. We microscopically confirm the superatom picture by in situ detection of the Rydberg excitations and observe the characteristic square-root scaling of the optical coupling with the number of atoms. Enabled by the full control over the atomic sample, including the motional degrees of freedom, we infer the overlap of the produced many-body state with a W state from the observed Rabi oscillations and deduce the presence of entanglement. Finally, we investigate the breakdown of the superatom picture when two Rydberg excitations are present in the system, which leads to dephasing and a loss of coherence.

  19. Electron microscope study of irradiated beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisson, A.A.

    1965-06-01

    The beryllium oxide is studied first by fractography, before and after irradiation, using sintered samples. The fractures are examined under different aspects. The higher density sintered samples, with transgranular fractures are the most interesting for a microscopic study. It is possible to mark the difference between the 'pores' left by the sintering process and the 'bubbles' of gases that can be produced by former thermal treatments. After irradiation, the grain boundaries are very much weakened. By annealing, it is possible to observe the evolution of the gases produced by the reaction (n, 2n) and (n. α) and gathered on the grain boundaries. The irradiated beryllium oxide is afterwards studied by transmission. For that, a simple method has been used: little chips of the crushed material are examined. Clusters of point defects produced by neutrons are thus detected in crystals irradiated at the three following doses: 6 x 10 19 , 9 x 10 19 and 2 x 10 20 n f cm -2 at a temperature below 100 deg. C. For the irradiation at 6 x 10 19 n f cm -2 , the defects are merely visible, but at 2 x l0 20 n f cm -2 the crystals an crowded with clusters and the Kikuchi lines have disappeared from the micro-diffraction diagrams. The evolution of the clusters into dislocation loops is studied by a series of annealings. The activation energy (0,37 eV) calculated from the annealing curves suggests that it must be interstitials that condense into dislocation loops. Samples irradiated at high temperatures (650, 900 and 1100 deg. C) are also studied. In those specimens the size of the loops is not the same as the equilibrium size obtained after out of pile annealing at the same temperature. Those former loops are more specifically studied and their Burgers vector is determined by micro-diffraction. (author) [fr

  20. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  1. Supersonic Localized Excitations Mediate Microscopic Dynamic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, H. O.; Griffith, W. A.; Pec, M.

    2017-12-01

    A moving rupture front activates a fault patch by increasing stress above a threshold strength level. Subsequent failure yields fast slip which releases stored energy in the rock. A fraction of the released energy is radiated as seismic waves carrying information about the earthquake source. While this simplified model is widely accepted, the detailed evolution from the onset of dynamic failure to eventual re-equilibration is still poorly understood. To study dynamic failure of brittle solids we indented thin sheets of single mineral crystals and recorded the emitted ultrasound signals (high frequency analogues to seismic waves) using an array of 8 to 16 ultrasound probes. The simple geometry of the experiments allows us to unravel details of dynamic stress history of the laboratory earthquake sources. A universal pattern of failure is observed. First, stress increases over a short time period (1 - 2 µs), followed by rapid weakening (≈ 15 µs). Rapid weakening is followed by two distinct relaxation phases: a temporary quasi-steady state phase (10 µs) followed by a long-term relaxation phase (> 50 µs). We demonstrate that the dynamic stress history during failure is governed by formation and interaction of local non-dispersive excitations, or solitons. The formation and annihilation of solitons mediates the microscopic fast weakening phase, during which extreme acceleration and collision of solitons lead to non-Newtonian behavior and Lorentz contraction, i.e. shortening of solitons' characteristic length. Interestingly, a soliton can propagate as fast as 37 km/s, much faster than the p-wave velocity, implying that a fraction of the energy transmits through soliton excitations. The quasi-steady state phase delays the long-term ageing of the damaged crystal, implying a potentially weaker material. Our results open new horizons for understanding the complexity of earthquake sources, and, more generally, non-equilibrium relaxation of many body systems.

  2. Shielded scanning electron microscope for radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, R.S.; Parsley, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    A small commercial SEM had been successfully shielded for examining radioactive materials transferred directly from a remote handling facility. Relatively minor mechanical modifications were required to achieve excellent operation. Two inches of steel provide adequate shielding for most samples encountered. However, samples reading 75 rad/hr γ have been examined by adding extra shielding in the form of tungsten sample holders and external lead shadow shields. Some degradation of secondary electron imaging was seen but was adequately compensated for by changing operating conditions

  3. Assessing microscope image focus quality with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samuel J; Berndl, Marc; Michael Ando, D; Barch, Mariya; Narayanaswamy, Arunachalam; Christiansen, Eric; Hoyer, Stephan; Roat, Chris; Hung, Jane; Rueden, Curtis T; Shankar, Asim; Finkbeiner, Steven; Nelson, Philip

    2018-03-15

    Large image datasets acquired on automated microscopes typically have some fraction of low quality, out-of-focus images, despite the use of hardware autofocus systems. Identification of these images using automated image analysis with high accuracy is important for obtaining a clean, unbiased image dataset. Complicating this task is the fact that image focus quality is only well-defined in foreground regions of images, and as a result, most previous approaches only enable a computation of the relative difference in quality between two or more images, rather than an absolute measure of quality. We present a deep neural network model capable of predicting an absolute measure of image focus on a single image in isolation, without any user-specified parameters. The model operates at the image-patch level, and also outputs a measure of prediction certainty, enabling interpretable predictions. The model was trained on only 384 in-focus Hoechst (nuclei) stain images of U2OS cells, which were synthetically defocused to one of 11 absolute defocus levels during training. The trained model can generalize on previously unseen real Hoechst stain images, identifying the absolute image focus to within one defocus level (approximately 3 pixel blur diameter difference) with 95% accuracy. On a simpler binary in/out-of-focus classification task, the trained model outperforms previous approaches on both Hoechst and Phalloidin (actin) stain images (F-scores of 0.89 and 0.86, respectively over 0.84 and 0.83), despite only having been presented Hoechst stain images during training. Lastly, we observe qualitatively that the model generalizes to two additional stains, Hoechst and Tubulin, of an unseen cell type (Human MCF-7) acquired on a different instrument. Our deep neural network enables classification of out-of-focus microscope images with both higher accuracy and greater precision than previous approaches via interpretable patch-level focus and certainty predictions. The use of

  4. Ultrafast superresolution fluorescence imaging with spinning disk confocal microscope optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    Most current superresolution (SR) microscope techniques surpass the diffraction limit at the expense of temporal resolution, compromising their applications to live-cell imaging. Here we describe a new SR fluorescence microscope based on confocal microscope optics, which we name the spinning disk superresolution microscope (SDSRM). Theoretically, the SDSRM is equivalent to a structured illumination microscope (SIM) and achieves a spatial resolution of 120 nm, double that of the diffraction limit of wide-field fluorescence microscopy. However, the SDSRM is 10 times faster than a conventional SIM because SR signals are recovered by optical demodulation through the stripe pattern of the disk. Therefore a single SR image requires only a single averaged image through the rotating disk. On the basis of this theory, we modified a commercial spinning disk confocal microscope. The improved resolution around 120 nm was confirmed with biological samples. The rapid dynamics of micro-tubules, mitochondria, lysosomes, and endosomes were observed with temporal resolutions of 30-100 frames/s. Because our method requires only small optical modifications, it will enable an easy upgrade from an existing spinning disk confocal to a SR microscope for live-cell imaging. © 2015 Hayashi and Okada. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. A variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscope capable of single-molecule vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipe, B.C.; Rezaei, M.A.; Ho, W.

    1999-01-01

    The design and performance of a variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is presented. The microscope operates from 8 to 350 K in ultrahigh vacuum. The thermally compensated STM is suspended by springs from the cold tip of a continuous flow cryostat and is completely surrounded by two radiation shields. The design allows for in situ dosing and irradiation of the sample as well as for the exchange of samples and STM tips. With the STM feedback loop off, the drift of the tip-sample spacing is approximately 0.001 Angstrom/min at 8 K. It is demonstrated that the STM is well-suited for the study of atomic-scale chemistry over a wide temperature range, for atomic-scale manipulation, and for single-molecule inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. A modular scanning tunneling microscope with an interchangeable elastic closed cell and external actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, Elias H.; Arnalds, Unnar B.; Olafsson, Sveinn

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a novel modular cell based scanning tunneling microscope with external piezoelectric actuators. A tip and a sample are contained in a closed interchangeable cell, consisting of a stiff top plate and a bottom part, fastened together by an elastic material. The bottom part, containing a scanning tip, is fastened to a base unit while the top plate, containing a sample, is capable of scanning motion by external piezoelectric actuators mounted in the same base unit. The actuators are pre-loaded by the deformation of the elastic material of the cell, giving an increased stability. This design is expected to simplify the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operation in difficult environments greatly by enclosing only the tip and sample in a small cell-module, which is pluggable to a scanning mechanism and other supportive functionalities. A frequency characterization and an image scan showing atomic resolution of highly oriented graphite in air, at room temperature, is presented

  7. A cryogenic scanning laser microscope for investigation of dynamical states in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Mygind, Jesper

    1995-01-01

    on measurements on different oscillator samples, performed with a novel Cryogenic Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM) having a spatial resolution of less than ±2.5 μm over a 500 μm×50 μm wide scanning area in the temperature range 2 K-300 K. Even though the dynamical states are extremely sensitive to external noise...... tunnel current is one of the most important internal junction parameters which together with the boundary conditions determine the dynamics, it is of vital importance to experimentally determine the current density throughout the entire junction with high spatial resolution. Here we report...... this microscope enables us to make stable in-situ measurements on operating Josephson junctions. Recent results are presented and discussed....

  8. Chiral condensate at nonzero chemical potential in the microscopic limit of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, J. C.; Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The chiral condensate in QCD at zero temperature does not depend on the quark chemical potential (up to one-third the nucleon mass), whereas the spectral density of the Dirac operator shows a strong dependence on the chemical potential. The cancellations which make this possible also occur on the microscopic scale, where they can be investigated by means of a random matrix model. We show that they can be understood in terms of orthogonality properties of orthogonal polynomials. In the strong non-Hermiticity limit they are related to integrability properties of the spectral density. As a by-product we find exact analytical expressions for the partially quenched chiral condensate in the microscopic domain at nonzero chemical potential.

  9. Mesooptical Fourier transform microscope - a new device for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, A.Ya.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bencze, Gy.L.; Farago, I.; Kisvaradi, A.; Molnar, L.; Soroko, L.M.; Vegh, J.

    1988-01-01

    A new device for high energy physics, Mesooptical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM), designed for observation of straight-line particle tracks in nuclear emulsion is described. The MFTM works without any mechanical or electronical depth scanning and can be considered as a selectively viewing eye. The computer controlled system containing MFTM as the main unit is given. This system can be used for fast search particle tracks and events produced by high energy neutrinos from accelerators. The results of the first experimental test of the computer controlled MFTM are presented. The performances of this system are described and discussed. It is shown that the angular resolution of the MFTM is 1 angular minute and the measurement time is equal to 30 ms. As all operations in the MFTM go without any depth scanning this new system works at least two orders of magnitude faster than any known system with a traditional optical microscope

  10. Development of an environmental high-voltage electron microscope for reaction science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobuo; Usukura, Jiro; Kusunoki, Michiko; Saito, Yahachi; Sasaki, Katuhiro; Tanji, Takayoshi; Muto, Shunsuke; Arai, Shigeo

    2013-02-01

    Environmental transmission electron microscopy and ultra-high resolution electron microscopic observation using aberration correctors have recently emerged as topics of great interest. The former method is an extension of the so-called in situ electron microscopy that has been performed since the 1970s. Current research in this area has been focusing on dynamic observation with atomic resolution under gaseous atmospheres and in liquids. Since 2007, Nagoya University has been developing a new 1-MV high voltage (scanning) transmission electron microscope that can be used to observe nanomaterials under conditions that include the presence of gases, liquids and illuminating lights, and it can be also used to perform mechanical operations to nanometre-sized areas as well as electron tomography and elemental analysis by electron energy loss spectroscopy. The new instrument has been used to image and analyse various types of samples including biological ones.

  11. On a new approach to the microscopic substantiation of the interacting boson model-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadjov, D.; Voronov, V.V.; Kyrchev, G.; Paar, V.

    1990-01-01

    An Lie algebraic approach to the microscopic foundation of interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1) is itemized, treating on an equal footing the SU(6) governed dynamics and the accompanying SU(6) constraints. The introduction of the collective random phase approximation phonon operators as preferred pairs with subsequent enforcement of the relevant SU(6) algebra has enabled: to identify the decoupled phonon subspace as carrier space of the totally symmetric irreducible representation of SU(6); to single out from a microscopic reference Hamiltonian the fragment with the ensuing IBM-1 sd-boson form. Using this approach, the IBM-1 parameters have been calculated for the sequence of even-even 64-70 Zn isotopes. 45 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  12. Microscopic properties of ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Hiroo; Imanishi, Akihito; Takeya, Jun; Inagaki, Kouji; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Fukui, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-09

    Electric double-layer transistors based on ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces have been extensively studied during the past decade because of their high carrier densities at low operation voltages. Microscopic structures and the dynamics of ionic liquids likely determine the device performance; however, knowledge of these is limited by a lack of appropriate experimental tools. In this study, we investigated ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces using molecular dynamics to reveal the microscopic properties of ionic liquids. The organic semiconductors include pentacene, rubrene, fullerene, and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). While ionic liquids close to the substrate always form the specific layered structures, the surface properties of organic semiconductors drastically alter the ionic dynamics. Ionic liquids at the fullerene interface behave as a two-dimensional ionic crystal because of the energy gain derived from the favorable electrostatic interaction on the corrugated periodic substrate.

  13. Microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography: A new surgical tool in vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadev, Chaitra; Dabir, Supriya; Vinekar, Anand; Shah, Urmil; Vaid, Tania; Yadav, Naresh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized imaging of ocular structures and various disease conditions. Though it has been used in the clinic for some decades, the OCT has only recently found its way into the operating theater. Early attempts at intraoperative OCT, hand-held and microscope mounted, have already improved our understanding of the surgical pathology and the role it might play in surgical decision-making. The microscope-integrated OCT now allows seamless, high-resolution, real-time imaging of surgical maneuvers from the incision to wound closure. Visualization of instruments and intraoperative tissue manipulation are possible with this in vivo modality and, therefore, help improve the outcome of surgery. In this article, we describe the advantages it offers during various vitreoretinal procedures.

  14. Construction of a high resolution microscope with conventional and holographic optical trapping capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Jacqualine; Hong, Weili; Mershon, Leslie; Vershinin, Michael

    2013-04-22

    High resolution microscope systems with optical traps allow for precise manipulation of various refractive objects, such as dielectric beads (1) or cellular organelles (2,3), as well as for high spatial and temporal resolution readout of their position relative to the center of the trap. The system described herein has one such "traditional" trap operating at 980 nm. It additionally provides a second optical trapping system that uses a commercially available holographic package to simultaneously create and manipulate complex trapping patterns in the field of view of the microscope (4,5) at a wavelength of 1,064 nm. The combination of the two systems allows for the manipulation of multiple refractive objects at the same time while simultaneously conducting high speed and high resolution measurements of motion and force production at nanometer and piconewton scale.

  15. Definitive diagnosis of early enamel and dentin cracks based on microscopic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J; Sheets, Cherilyn G; Paquette, Jacinthe M

    2003-01-01

    The diagnoses of cracked teeth and incomplete coronal fracture have historically been symptom based. The dental operating microscope at 16x magnification can fundamentally change a clinician's ability to diagnose such conditions. Clinicians have been observing cracks under extreme magnification for nearly a decade. Patterns have become clear that can lead to appropriate treatment prior to symptoms or to devastation to tooth structure. Conversely, many cracks are not structural and can lead to misdiagnosis and overtreatment. Methodic microscopic examination, an understanding of crack progression, and an appreciation of the types of cracks will guide a doctor to make appropriate decisions. Teeth can have structural cracks in various stages. To date, diagnosis and treatment are very often at end stage of crack development. This article gives new guidelines for recognition, visualization, classification, and treatment of cracked teeth based on the routine use of 16x magnification. The significance of enamel cracks as they relate to dentinal cracks is detailed.

  16. Meso-optical Fourier transform microscope - a new device for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astakhov, A.Ya.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bencze, G.L.; Farago, I.; Kisvaradi, A.; Molnar, L.; Soroko, L.M.; Vegh, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new device for high energy physics, the Meso-optical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM), designed for observation fo straight line particle tracks in nuclear research emulsion is described. The MFTM works without any mechanical or electronical depth scanning and can be considered as a selectivity viewing 'eye'. The computer controlled system containing MFTM as its main unit is given. This system can be used for a fast search for particle tracks and events produced by high energy neutrinos from particle accelerators. The results of the first experimental test of the computer controlled MFTM are presented. The performance of this system is described and discussed. It is shown that the angular resolution of the MFTM is 1 angular minute and the measurement time is equal to 30 ms per image. As all operations in the MFTM proceed without any depth scanning, this new evaluation system works at least two orders of magnitude faster than any known system with a traditional optical microscope. (orig.)

  17. IRRS: The CSN under the microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salome, M.

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the two weeks from January 28th to February 8th an international team of experts, appointed by the IAEA and led by Ulrich Schmocker from Switzerland, carried out a detailed study of the CSN. The objective of the IRRS mission, which was performed in response to a request from the Council itself, was to analyse the structure and operation of the Spanish regulatory body in order to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to suggest measures to improve its management. (Author)

  18. Development of superconducting cryo-electron microscope and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Masashi

    1988-01-01

    Recently, a superconducting cryo-electron microscope in which specimens are cooled to the liquid helium temperature (4.2 K) has been developed. The main components and functional features of this new microscope are reported together with application data on polyethylene, poly (4-methyl-1-pentene), valonia cellulose, rock salt, ice crystallites and ceramic superconductor. The resistance to electron radiation damage, of beam-sensitive specimens including polymers has been increased more than ten times. Thus, the microscope has made it possible to take high resolution images and to analyze the crystal-structure of micro-areas. (orig.) [de

  19. PC-based digital feedback control for scanning force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2002-01-01

    In the past, most digital feedback implementation for scanned-probe microscope were based on a digital signal processor (DSP). At present DSP plug-in card with the input-output interface module is still expensive compared to a fast pentium PC motherboard. For a magnetic force microscope (MFM) digital feedback has an advantage where the magnetic signal can be easily separated from the topographic signal. In this paper, a simple low-cost PC-based digital feedback and imaging system for Scanning Force Microscope (SFM) is presented. (Author)

  20. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  1. Development of the Atomic-Resolution Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gai, Pratibha L.; Boyes, Edward D.; Yoshida, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    The development of the novel atomic-resolution environmental transmission electron microscope (atomic-resolution ETEM) for directly probing dynamic gas–solid reactions in situ at the atomic level under controlled reaction conditions consisting of gas environment and elevated temperatures is descr......The development of the novel atomic-resolution environmental transmission electron microscope (atomic-resolution ETEM) for directly probing dynamic gas–solid reactions in situ at the atomic level under controlled reaction conditions consisting of gas environment and elevated temperatures...... is used to study steels, graphene, nanowires, etc. In this chapter, the experimental setup of the microscope column and its peripherals are described....

  2. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  3. Nanoscale Energy-Filtered Scanning Confocal Electron Microscopy Using a Double-Aberration-Corrected Transmission Electron Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Behan, Gavin; Kirkland, Angus I.; Nellist, Peter D.; Takeguchi, Masaki; Hashimoto, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Shimojo, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that a transmission electron microscope fitted with two spherical-aberration correctors can be operated as an energy-filtered scanning confocal electron microscope. A method for establishing this mode is described and initial results showing 3D chemical mapping with nanoscale sensitivity to height and thickness changes in a carbon film are presented. Importantly, uncorrected chromatic aberration does not limit the depth resolution of this technique and moreover performs an energy-filtering role, which is explained in terms of a combined depth and energy-loss response function.

  4. Calcium carbonate crystallisation at the microscopic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Phillip Stephen

    2001-01-01

    and chemistries, allowed the study of the role of the substrate on crystal induction. Crystal growth and induction time data were analysed in terms of transport versus surface-controlled mechanisms. Crystal induction was catalysed to a greater extent on higher energy surfaces. The effect of protonation of acidic and basic surfaces on crystal induction has also been investigated by electrochemical control. AFM was used to study cleaved calcite crystals before and after growth in a Kitano solution, followed by in-situ observation of crystal growth under a Kitano solution. This revealed the mechanism to be through the growth of islands. The combination of an AFM with an inverted optical microscope allowed the same measurements to be made on freshly grown, calcite microcrystals, with observation of a single growth spiral on each. The effect of a known growth inhibitor (maleic acid) was also investigated in-situ. This was found to change the morphology of the growth spiral on microcrystals in a manner consistent with preferential adsorption. (author)

  5. Holographic 3D tracking of microscopic tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael

    2015-01-01

    a plurality of dynamic coupling spots. In addition, we include our proprietary GPC Light Shaper before the diffractive setup to efficiently illuminate the rectangular shaped spatial light modulator by a Gaussian laser beam. The method is initially tested for a single WOW and we have experimentally...... structures. In this work we demonstrate the use of real-time diffractive techniques to create focal spots that can dynamically track and couple to the WOWs during operation in a volume. This is done by using a phase-only spatial light modulator to encode the needed diffractive phase patterns to generate...

  6. Microscopic analysis of bone microstructures with increasing age in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microscopic analysis of bone microstructures with increasing age in Malaysian females. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... death from skeletal remains is one of the main physical aspect in reconstruction demographic profiles.

  7. The compound microscope: optical tube length or parfocalization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J M; Comastri, S A

    2005-01-01

    In various well-known textbooks for undergraduate students of physics, the compound microscope is described as having a standardized 'optical tube length'. On the other hand, in order to fulfil the parfocalization condition required by the human visual system to understand the relation between what is viewed with and without the microscope, the distance between the object and its image through the objective must remain constant as objectives are interchanged. In this paper, we show that these two requirements are not compatible in microscopes containing a revolver with various objectives and that the 'optical tube length' (which differs from the mechanical tube length) cannot be standardized. Moreover, we consider the Deutsche Industrie Norm (DIN) and the Japanese Industry Standards (JIS) norms employed in the microscope industry for standardization of the object-to-intermediate image distance, the parfocal distance and the mechanical tube length

  8. Generic distortion model for metrology under optical microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingjian; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai; Chao, YuhJin; Miraldo, Pedro; Shi, Yusheng

    2018-04-01

    For metrology under optical microscopes, lens distortion is the dominant source of error. Previous distortion models and correction methods mostly rely on the assumption that parametric distortion models require a priori knowledge of the microscopes' lens systems. However, because of the numerous optical elements in a microscope, distortions can be hardly represented by a simple parametric model. In this paper, a generic distortion model considering both symmetric and asymmetric distortions is developed. Such a model is obtained by using radial basis functions (RBFs) to interpolate the radius and distortion values of symmetric distortions (image coordinates and distortion rays for asymmetric distortions). An accurate and easy to implement distortion correction method is presented. With the proposed approach, quantitative measurement with better accuracy can be achieved, such as in Digital Image Correlation for deformation measurement when used with an optical microscope. The proposed technique is verified by both synthetic and real data experiments.

  9. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of root canal surfaces prepared with three rotary endodontic systems: Lightspeed, ProTaper and EndoWave. ... fracture with LightSpeed (LS), ProTaper (PT) and EndoWave (Ew) rotary instruments.

  10. A Virtual Petrological Microscope for All Apollo 11 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillnger, C. T.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Quick, K.; Scott, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicaing many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described.

  11. A device for continuous microscopic examination of aquatic microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.

    The device consists of a sealed microscopic mount provided with an inlet for liquid medium and an outlet, permitting continuous flow of the liquid. It permits observation of development of marine microorganisms such as thraustochytrids for 3 d...

  12. The radial shapes of intermediate energy microscopic optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qingbiao; Wang Chang; Tian Ye; Zhuo Yizhong

    1984-01-01

    The radial shapes of intermediate energy proton microscopic optical potentials of 40 Ca are calculated with nuclear matter approach by Skyrme interactions. The calculated results show that the real central potential in central region of nucleus changes from attractive to repulsive when the energy of incident nucleon is above 150 MeV and appears apparently a 'wine-bottle-bottom' shape in the transition energy region (from 150 MeV to 300 MeV). This tendency is consistent with empirical optical potential obtained through fitting experiments and microscopic optical potential calculated with relativistic mean field theory as well as with the BHF theory. The calculated imaginary part of the microscopic optical potential changes from the dominant surface absorption into the volume absorption and its absolute value become larger as energy increases. The effects of Skyrme force parameters to the radial shape of the calculated microscopic optical potential are analysed in detail

  13. Spectroscopy of electron irradiated polymers in electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, S.H.; Salih, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    The damage induced by energetic electrons in the course of irradiation of polymers in a transmission electron microscope was investigated spectroscopically. Damage on the molecular level has been detected at very low exposure doses. These effects have been induced by electron doses less than that received by the specimen when it is situated at its usual place of the specimen stage in the electron microscope by a factor of 1,000. (author)

  14. Manipulation of magnetic Skyrmions with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, R.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a single magnetic Skyrmion in an atomic spin system under the influence of Scanning Tunneling Microscope is investigated by computer simulations solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Two possible scenarios are described: manipulation with aid of a spin-polarized tunneling current and by an electric field created by the scanning tunneling microscope. The dynamics during the creation and annihilation process is studied and the possibility to move single Skyrmions is showed.

  15. Utilizing social media and video games to control #DIY microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Leblanc-Latour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Open-source lab equipment is becoming more widespread with the popularization of fabrication tools such as 3D printers, laser cutters, CNC machines, open source microcontrollers and open source software. Although many pieces of common laboratory equipment have been developed, software control of these items is sometimes lacking. Specifically, control software that can be easily implemented and enable user-input and control over multiple platforms (PC, smartphone, web, etc.. The aim of this proof-of principle study was to develop and implement software for the control of a low-cost, 3D printed microscope. Here, we present two approaches which enable microscope control by exploiting the functionality of the social media platform Twitter or player actions inside of the videogame Minecraft. The microscope was constructed from a modified web-camera and implemented on a Raspberry Pi computer. Three aspects of microscope control were tested, including single image capture, focus control and time-lapse imaging. The Twitter embodiment enabled users to send ‘tweets’ directly to the microscope. Image data acquired by the microscope was then returned to the user through a Twitter reply and stored permanently on the photo-sharing platform Flickr, along with any relevant metadata. Local control of the microscope was also implemented by utilizing the video game Minecraft, in situations where Internet connectivity is not present or stable. A virtual laboratory was constructed inside the Minecraft world and player actions inside the laboratory were linked to specific microscope functions. Here, we present the methodology and results of these experiments and discuss possible limitations and future extensions of this work.

  16. Digital Position Encoding Of Galvanometer Scanner In A Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeborg, Anders

    1988-09-01

    An account is given of a realization of a feedback method to digitize the analog position signal from a moving iron galvanometer. It is employed in a confocal scanning laser microscope for generating digital images. The photometric sampling has to be closely coupled to the position of a mirror that scans a focused laser beam across a microscope specimen. Pictures with low geometric distortion are obtained up to the size 1024 x 1024 pixels.

  17. Fast neutron capture and the microscopic isovector optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, D.R.; Gupta, S.K.

    Neutron capture cross-sections are calculated with the direct-semidirect model employing the complex microscopic optical potential recently calculated by Jeukenne, Lejoune and Mahaux. The data for 89 Y, Ce and 208 Pb for Esub(n)=6-16 MeV agree well with the calculation for a twofold increase in the magnitude of the isovector part of the microscopic potential. (auth.)

  18. Tracking nanoparticles in an optical microscope using caustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Eann A; Whelan, Maurice P

    2008-01-01

    An elegant method is proposed and demonstrated for tracking the location and movement of nanoparticles in an optical microscope using the optical phenomenon of caustics. A simple and reversible adjustment to the microscope generates caustics several orders of magnitude larger than the particles. The method offers a simple and relatively inexpensive method for visualizing such phenomena as the formation of self-assembled monolayers and the interaction of nanoparticles with chemically functionalized surfaces

  19. Tracking nanoparticles in an optical microscope using caustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Eann A [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Whelan, Maurice P [Nanotechnology and Molecular Imaging Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission DG Joint Research Center, 21021 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)

    2008-03-12

    An elegant method is proposed and demonstrated for tracking the location and movement of nanoparticles in an optical microscope using the optical phenomenon of caustics. A simple and reversible adjustment to the microscope generates caustics several orders of magnitude larger than the particles. The method offers a simple and relatively inexpensive method for visualizing such phenomena as the formation of self-assembled monolayers and the interaction of nanoparticles with chemically functionalized surfaces.

  20. Examining the mechanical equilibrium of microscopic stresses in molecular simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sánchez, Alejandro; Vanegas, Juan Manuel; Arroyo Balaguer, Marino

    2015-01-01

    The microscopic stress field provides a unique connection between atomistic simulations and mechanics at the nanoscale. However, its definition remains ambiguous. Rather than a mere theoretical preoccupation, we show that this fact acutely manifests itself in local stress calculations of defective graphene, lipid bilayers, and fibrous proteins. We find that popular definitions of the microscopic stress violate the continuum statements of mechanical equilibrium, and we propose an unambiguous a...

  1. Biophysics and the microscopic theory of He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Ghassib, H.B.

    1985-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation and solitonic propagation have recently been shown to be intimately related in biosystems. From our previous demonstration of the existence of solitons in a dilute Bose gas we set out the basis for a full microscopic theory of He II. This is used to understand recent experiments in He II, which are in apparent contradiction. New experiments are suggested by the microscopic theory. (author)

  2. Ethnic Distribution of Microscopic Colitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kevin; Genta, Robert M; Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2015-11-01

    A large electronic database of histopathology reports was used to study the ethnic distribution of microscopic colitis in the United States. Miraca Life Sciences is a nation-wide pathology laboratory that receives biopsy specimens submitted by 1500 gastroenterologists distributed throughout the United States. In a case-control study, the prevalence of microscopic colitis in 4 ethnic groups (East Asians, Indians, Hispanics, and Jews) was compared with that of all other ethnic groups (composed of American Caucasians and African Americans), serving as reference group. A total of 11,706 patients with microscopic colitis were included in the analysis. In all ethnic groups alike, microscopic colitis was more common in women than men (78% versus 22%, odds ratio = 3.40, 95% confidence interval = 3.26-3.55). In all ethnic groups, the prevalence of microscopic colitis showed a continuous age-dependent rise. Hispanic patients with microscopic colitis were on average younger than the reference group (59.4 ± 16.2 years versus 64.2 ± 13.8 years, P variations of its occurrence among different ethnic groups. Such variations could point at differences in the exposure to environmental risk factors.

  3. A new computerized moving stage for optical microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatiboglu, Can Ulas; Akin, Serhat

    2004-06-01

    Measurements of microscope stage movements in the x and y directions are of importance for some stereological methods. Traditionally, the length of stage movements is measured with differing precision and accuracy using a suitable motorized stage, a microscope and software. Such equipment is generally expensive and not readily available in many laboratories. One other challenging problem is the adaptability to available microscope systems which weakens the possibility of the equipment to be used with any kind of light microscope. This paper describes a simple and cheap programmable moving stage that can be used with the available microscopes in the market. The movements of the stage are controlled by two servo-motors and a controller chip via a Java-based image processing software. With the developed motorized stage and a microscope equipped with a CCD camera, the software allows complete coverage of the specimens with minimum overlap, eliminating the optical strain associated with counting hundreds of images through an eyepiece, in a quick and precise fashion. The uses and the accuracy of the developed stage are demonstrated using thin sections obtained from a limestone core plug.

  4. Minimizing inter-microscope variability in dental microwear texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Ungar, Peter S.; Brown, Christopher A.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Schmidt, Christopher; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-06-01

    A common approach to dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) uses confocal profilometry in concert with scale-sensitive fractal analysis to help understand the diets of extinct mammals. One of the main benefits of DMTA over other methods is the repeatable, objective manner of data collection. This repeatability, however, is threatened by variation in results of DMTA of the same dental surfaces yielded by different microscopes. Here we compare DMTA data of five species of kangaroos measured on seven profilers of varying specifications. Comparison between microscopes confirms that inter-microscope differences are present, but we show that deployment of a number of automated treatments to remove measurement noise can help minimize inter-microscope differences. Applying these same treatments to a published hominin DMTA dataset shows that they alter some significant differences between dietary groups. Minimising microscope variability while maintaining interspecific dietary differences requires then that these factors are balanced in determining appropriate treatments. The process outlined here offers a solution for allowing comparison of data between microscopes, which is essential for ongoing DMTA research. In addition, the process undertaken, including considerations of other elements of DMTA protocols also promises to streamline methodology, remove measurement noise and in doing so, optimize recovery of a reliable dietary signature.

  5. Microscopic models of quantum-jump superoperators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, A.V.; Mizrahi, S.S.; Dodonov, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the quantum-jump operation in an open system and show that jump superoperators related to a system under measurement can be derived from the interaction of that system with a quantum measurement apparatus. We give two examples for the interaction of a monochromatic electromagnetic field in a cavity (the system) with two-level atoms and with a harmonic oscillator (representing two different kinds of detectors). We show that the derived quantum-jump superoperators have a 'nonlinear' form Jρ=γ diag[F(n)aρa † F(n)], where the concrete form of the function F(n) depends on assumptions made about the interaction between the system and detector. Under certain conditions the asymptotical power-law dependence F(n)=(n+1) -β is obtained. A continuous transition to the standard Srinivas-Davies form of the quantum-jump superoperator (corresponding to β=0) is shown

  6. Microscopic boson approach to nuclear collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchta, R.

    1989-01-01

    A quantum mechanical approach to the maximally decoupled nuclear collective motion is proposed. The essential idea is to transcribe the original shell-model Hamiltonian in terms of boson operators, then to isolate the collective one-boson eigenstates of the mapped Hamiltonian and to perform a canonical transformation which eliminates (up to the two-body terms) the coupling between the collective and noncollective bosons. Unphysical states arising due to the violtion of the Pauli principle in the boson space are identified and removed within a suitable approximation. The method is applied to study the low-lying collective states of nuclei which are successfully described by the exactly solvable multilevel pairing Hamiltonian (Sn, Ni, Pb). 75 refs.; 8 figs

  7. Microscopic appearance analysis of raw material used for the production of sintered UO2 by scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu feiming

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the microscopic appearance of UO 2 , U 3 O 8 , ADU and AUC powders used for the production of sintered UO 2 slug of nuclear fuel component of PWR. The characteristic analysis of the microscopic appearance observed by scanning electron microscope shows that the quality and finished product rate of sintered UO 2 depend on the appearance characteristic of the active Uo 2 powder, such as grade size and its distribution, spherulitized extent, surface condition and heap model etc.. The addition of U 3 O 8 to the UO 2 powder improves significantly the quality and the finished product rate. The mechanism of this effect is discussed on the basis of the microscopic appearance characteristic for two kinds of powder

  8. Visualization of atomic distances at the 1MV electron microscope: first results obtained on the Grenoble 1MV microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.

    1975-01-01

    Practical and theoretical conditions for obtaining high resolution lattice images are presented. The use of a high voltage electron microscope is particularly powerful to visualize distances smaller than 3A. A 2A resolution test on (200) gold planes has been carried out on the Grenoble 1MV microscope. It would be possible at this level to study the crystalline defects such as dislocations or grain boundaries [fr

  9. Ionic channels in Langmuir-Blodgett films imaged by a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomytkin, O V; Golubok, A O; Davydov, D N; Timofeev, V A; Vinogradova, S A; Tipisev SYa

    1991-01-01

    The molecular structure of channels formed by gramicidin A in a lipid membrane was imaged by a scanning tunneling microscope operating in air. The mono- and bimolecular films of lipid with gramicidin A were deposited onto a highly oriented pyrolitic graphite substrate by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. It has been shown that under high concentration gramicidin A molecules can form in lipid films a quasi-regular, densely packed structure. Single gramicidin A molecules were imaged for the first time as well. The cavity of 0.4 +/- 0.05 nm in halfwidth was found on the scanning tunneling microscopy image of the gramicidin A molecule. The results of direct observation obtained by means of scanning tunneling microscope are in good agreement with the known molecular model of gramicidin A. It was shown that gramicidin A molecules can exist in a lipid monolayer as individual molecules or combined into clusters. The results demonstrate that scanning tunneling microscope can be used for high spatial resolution study of ionic channel structure. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:1712239

  10. Overview of nanoscale NEXAFS performed with soft X-ray microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Guttmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, in material science nanoscale structures are becoming more and more important. Not only for the further miniaturization of semiconductor devices like carbon nanotube based transistors, but also for newly developed efficient energy storage devices, gas sensors or catalytic systems nanoscale and functionalized materials have to be analysed. Therefore, analytical tools like near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy has to be applied on single nanostructures. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopes (STXM as well as full-field transmission X-ray microscopes (TXM allow the required spatial resolution to study individual nanostructures. In the soft X-ray energy range only STXM was used so far for NEXAFS studies. Due to its unique setup, the TXM operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB at the electron storage ring BESSY II is the first one in the soft X-ray range which can be used for NEXAFS spectroscopy studies which will be shown in this review. Here we will give an overview of the different microscopes used for NEXAFS studies and describe their advantages and disadvantages for different samples.

  11. Overview of nanoscale NEXAFS performed with soft X-ray microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, Peter; Bittencourt, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Today, in material science nanoscale structures are becoming more and more important. Not only for the further miniaturization of semiconductor devices like carbon nanotube based transistors, but also for newly developed efficient energy storage devices, gas sensors or catalytic systems nanoscale and functionalized materials have to be analysed. Therefore, analytical tools like near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy has to be applied on single nanostructures. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopes (STXM) as well as full-field transmission X-ray microscopes (TXM) allow the required spatial resolution to study individual nanostructures. In the soft X-ray energy range only STXM was used so far for NEXAFS studies. Due to its unique setup, the TXM operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II is the first one in the soft X-ray range which can be used for NEXAFS spectroscopy studies which will be shown in this review. Here we will give an overview of the different microscopes used for NEXAFS studies and describe their advantages and disadvantages for different samples.

  12. Extended morphological processing: a practical method for automatic spot detection of biological markers from microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka; Baba, Norio; Morone, Nobuhiro

    2010-07-08

    A reliable extraction technique for resolving multiple spots in light or electron microscopic images is essential in investigations of the spatial distribution and dynamics of specific proteins inside cells and tissues. Currently, automatic spot extraction and characterization in complex microscopic images poses many challenges to conventional image processing methods. A new method to extract closely located, small target spots from biological images is proposed. This method starts with a simple but practical operation based on the extended morphological top-hat transformation to subtract an uneven background. The core of our novel approach is the following: first, the original image is rotated in an arbitrary direction and each rotated image is opened with a single straight line-segment structuring element. Second, the opened images are unified and then subtracted from the original image. To evaluate these procedures, model images of simulated spots with closely located targets were created and the efficacy of our method was compared to that of conventional morphological filtering methods. The results showed the better performance of our method. The spots of real microscope images can be quantified to confirm that the method is applicable in a given practice. Our method achieved effective spot extraction under various image conditions, including aggregated target spots, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and large variations in the background intensity. Furthermore, it has no restrictions with respect to the shape of the extracted spots. The features of our method allow its broad application in biological and biomedical image information analysis.

  13. The HVAC Challenges of Upgrading an Old Lab for High-end Light Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, R.; Martone, P.; Callahan, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Rochester Medical Center forms the centerpiece of the University of Rochester's health research, teaching, patient care, and community outreach missions. Within this large facility of over 5 million square feet, demolition and remodeling of existing spaces is a constant activity. With more than $145 million in federal research funding, lab space is frequently repurposed and renovated to support this work. The URMC Medical Center Facilities Organization supporting small to medium space renovations is constantly challenged and constrained by the existing mechanical infrastructure and budgets to deliver a renovated space that functions within the equipment environmental parameters. One recent project, sponsored by the URMC Shared Resources Laboratory, demonstrates these points. The URMC Light Microscopy Shared Resource Laboratory requested renovation of a 121 sq. ft. room in a 40 year old building which would enable placement of a laser capture microdissection microscope and a Pascal 5 laser scanning confocal microscope with the instruments separated by a blackout curtain. This poster discusses the engineering approach implemented to bring an older lab into the environmental specifications needed for the proper operation of the high-end light microscopes.

  14. A preliminary investigation: the impact of microscopic condenser on depth of field in cytogenetic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liqiang; Qiu, Yuchen; Li, Zheng; Li, Yuhua; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2013-02-01

    As one of the important components of optical microscopes, the condenser has a considerable impact on system performance, especially on the depth of field (DOF). DOF is a critical technical feature in cytogenetic imaging that may affect the efficiency and accuracy of clinical diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of microscopic condenser on DOF using a prototype of transmitted optical microscope, based on objective and subjective evaluations. After the description of the relationship between condenser and objective lens and the theoretical analysis of the condenser impact on system numerical aperture and DOF, a standard resolution pattern and several cytogenetic samples are adopted to assess the condenser impact on DOF, respectively. The experimental results of these objective and subjective evaluations are in agreement with the theoretical analysis and show that, under the specific intermediate range of condenser numerical aperture ( NAcond ), the DOF value decreases with the increase of NAcond . Although the above qualitative results are obtained under the experimental conditions with a specific prototype system, the methods presented in this preliminary investigation could offer useful guidelines for optimizing operational parameters in cytogenetic imaging.

  15. Wide-band acousto-optic deflectors for large field of view two-photon microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2012-04-01

    Acousto-optic deflector (AOD) is an attractive scanner for two-photon microscopy because it can provide fast and versatile laser scanning and does not involve any mechanical movements. However, due to the small scan range of available AOD, the field of view (FOV) of the AOD-based microscope is typically smaller than that of the conventional galvanometer-based microscope. Here, we developed a novel wide-band AOD to enlarge the scan angle. Considering the maximum acceptable acoustic attenuation in the acousto-optic crystal, relatively lower operating frequencies and moderate aperture were adopted. The custom AOD was able to provide 60 MHz 3-dB bandwidth and 80% peak diffraction efficiency at 840 nm wavelength. Based on a pair of such AOD, a large FOV two-photon microscope was built with a FOV up to 418.5 μm (40× objective). The spatiotemporal dispersion was compensated simultaneously with a single custom-made prism. By means of dynamic power modulation, the variation of laser intensity within the FOV was reduced below 5%. The lateral and axial resolution of the system were 0.58-2.12 μm and 2.17-3.07 μm, respectively. Pollen grain images acquired by this system were presented to demonstrate the imaging capability at different positions across the entire FOV. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  16. Tip Effect of the Tapping Mode of Atomic Force Microscope in Viscous Fluid Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hua-Ju; Shih, Po-Jen

    2015-07-28

    Atomic force microscope with applicable types of operation in a liquid environment is widely used to scan the contours of biological specimens. The contact mode of operation allows a tip to touch a specimen directly but sometimes it damages the specimen; thus, a tapping mode of operation may replace the contact mode. The tapping mode triggers the cantilever of the microscope approximately at resonance frequencies, and so the tip periodically knocks the specimen. It is well known that the cantilever induces extra liquid pressure that leads to drift in the resonance frequency. Studies have noted that the heights of protein surfaces measured via the tapping mode of an atomic force microscope are ~25% smaller than those measured by other methods. This discrepancy may be attributable to the induced superficial hydrodynamic pressure, which is worth investigating. In this paper, we introduce a semi-analytical method to analyze the pressure distribution of various tip geometries. According to our analysis, the maximum hydrodynamic pressure on the specimen caused by a cone-shaped tip is ~0.5 Pa, which can, for example, pre-deform a cell by several nanometers in compression before the tip taps it. Moreover, the pressure calculated on the surface of the specimen is 20 times larger than the pressure without considering the tip effect; these results have not been motioned in other papers. Dominating factors, such as surface heights of protein surface, mechanical stiffness of protein increasing with loading velocity, and radius of tip affecting the local pressure of specimen, are also addressed in this study.

  17. Analysis of the cause of failure in nonsurgical endodontic treatment by microscopic inspection during endodontic microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minju; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Woocheol; Kim, Euiseong

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the clinical causes of failure and the limitation of a previous endodontic treatment by an inspection of the root apex and resected root surface at 26× magnification during endodontic microsurgery. The data were collected from patients in the Department of Conservative Dentistry at the Dental College, Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea between March 2001 and January 2011. All root-filled cases with symptomatic or asymptomatic apical periodontitis were enrolled in this study. All surgical procedures were performed by using an operating microscope. The surface of the apical root to be resected or the resected root surface after methylene blue staining was examined during the surgical procedure and recorded carefully with 26× magnification to determine the state of the previous endodontic treatment by using an operating microscope. Among the 557 cases with periapical surgery, 493 teeth were included in this study. With the exclusion of unknown cases, the most common possible cause of failure was perceived leakage around the canal filling material (30.4%), followed by a missing canal (19.7%), underfilling (14.2%), anatomical complexity (8.7%), overfilling (3.0%), iatrogenic problems (2.8%), apical calculus (1.8%), and cracks (1.2%). The frequency of possible failure causes differed according to the tooth position (P < .001). An appreciation of the root canal anatomy by using an operating microscope in nonsurgical endodontic treatment can make the prognosis more predictable and favorable. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A method for fast automated microscope image stitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Deng, Zhen-Sheng; Fan, Qiu-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Image stitching is an important technology to produce a panorama or larger image by combining several images with overlapped areas. In many biomedical researches, image stitching is highly desirable to acquire a panoramic image which represents large areas of certain structures or whole sections, while retaining microscopic resolution. In this study, we develop a fast normal light microscope image stitching algorithm based on feature extraction. At first, an algorithm of scale-space reconstruction of speeded-up robust features (SURF) was proposed to extract features from the images to be stitched with a short time and higher repeatability. Then, the histogram equalization (HE) method was employed to preprocess the images to enhance their contrast for extracting more features. Thirdly, the rough overlapping zones of the images preprocessed were calculated by phase correlation, and the improved SURF was used to extract the image features in the rough overlapping areas. Fourthly, the features were corresponded by matching algorithm and the transformation parameters were estimated, then the images were blended seamlessly. Finally, this procedure was applied to stitch normal light microscope images to verify its validity. Our experimental results demonstrate that the improved SURF algorithm is very robust to viewpoint, illumination, blur, rotation and zoom of the images and our method is able to stitch microscope images automatically with high precision and high speed. Also, the method proposed in this paper is applicable to registration and stitching of common images as well as stitching the microscope images in the field of virtual microscope for the purpose of observing, exchanging, saving, and establishing a database of microscope images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopic imaging classification based on spatial-spectral features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lian; Yang, Xiukun; Zhong, Mingliang; Liu, Yao; Jing, Xiaojun; Yang, Qin

    2018-04-01

    The discrete fractional Brownian incremental random (DFBIR) field is used to describe the irregular, random, and highly complex shapes of natural objects such as coastlines and biological tissues, for which traditional Euclidean geometry cannot be used. In this paper, an anisotropic variable window (AVW) directional operator based on the DFBIR field model is proposed for extracting spatial characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopic imaging. Probabilistic principal component analysis first extracts spectral features, and then the spatial features of the proposed AVW directional operator are combined with the former to construct a spatial-spectral structure, which increases feature-related information and helps a support vector machine classifier to obtain more efficient distribution-related information. Compared to Haralick’s grey-level co-occurrence matrix, Gabor filters, and local binary patterns (e.g. uniform LBPs, rotation-invariant LBPs, uniform rotation-invariant LBPs), experiments on three FTIR spectroscopy microscopic imaging datasets show that the proposed AVW directional operator is more advantageous in terms of classification accuracy, particularly for low-dimensional spaces of spatial characteristics.

  20. Automatic analysis of digitized TV-images by a computer-driven optical microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, G.; Di Bartolomeo, A.; Grella, G.; Romano, G.

    1997-01-01

    New methods of image analysis and three-dimensional pattern recognition were developed in order to perform the automatic scan of nuclear emulsion pellicles. An optical microscope, with a motorized stage, was equipped with a CCD camera and an image digitizer, and interfaced to a personal computer. Selected software routines inspired the design of a dedicated hardware processor. Fast operation, high efficiency and accuracy were achieved. First applications to high-energy physics experiments are reported. Further improvements are in progress, based on a high-resolution fast CCD camera and on programmable digital signal processors. Applications to other research fields are envisaged. (orig.)

  1. Unveiling the Mysteries of Mars with a Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Doloboff, I. J.; Jerman, G.

    2017-01-01

    Development of a miniaturized scanning electron microscope that will utilize the martian atmosphere to dissipate charge during analysis continues. This instrument is expected to be used on a future rover or lander to answer fundamental Mars science questions. To identify the most important questions, a survey was taken at the 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC). From the gathered information initial topics were identified for a SEM on the martian surface. These priorities are identified and discussed below. Additionally, a concept of operations is provided with the goal of maximizing the science obtained with the minimum amount of communication with the instrument.

  2. An ultrafast electron microscope gun driven by two-photon photoemission from a nanotip cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bormann, Reiner; Strauch, Stefanie; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally and numerically investigate the performance of an advanced ultrafast electron source, based on two-photon photoemission from a tungsten needle cathode incorporated in an electron microscope gun geometry. Emission properties are characterized as a function of the electrostatic gun settings, and operating conditions leading to laser-triggered electron beams of very low emittance (below 20 nm mrad) are identified. The results highlight the excellent suitability of optically driven nano-cathodes for the further development of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy

  3. Microscopic calculations of elastic scattering between light nuclei based on a realistic nuclear interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohet-Eraly, Jeremy [F.R.S.-FNRS (Belgium); Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Baye, Daniel, E-mail: jdoheter@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: jmspar@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: dbaye@ulb.ac.be [Physique Nucleaire et Physique Quantique, CP229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-09-16

    The elastic phase shifts for the {alpha} + {alpha} and {alpha} + {sup 3}He collisions are calculated in a cluster approach by the Generator Coordinate Method coupled with the Microscopic R-matrix Method. Two interactions are derived from the realistic Argonne potentials AV8' and AV18 with the Unitary Correlation Operator Method. With a specific adjustment of correlations on the {alpha} + {alpha} collision, the phase shifts for the {alpha} + {alpha} and {alpha} + {sup 3}He collisions agree rather well with experimental data.

  4. A lab-on-phone instrument with varifocal microscope via a liquid-actuated aspheric lens (LAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Lai, Zheng-Hong; Kau, Li-Han; Huang, Hung-Jui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel concept of liquid-actuated aspheric lens (LAL) with a built-in aspheric polydimethylsiloxane lens (APL) to enable the design of compact optical systems with varifocal microscopic imaging. The varifocal lens module consists of a sandwiched structures such as 3d printed syringe pump functionally serves as liquid controller. Other key components include two acrylic cylinders, a rigid separator, a APL/membrane composite (APLMC) embedded PDMS membrane. In functional operation, the fluidic controller was driven to control the pressure difference and ALPMC deformation. The focal length can be changed through the pressure difference. This is achieved by the adjustment of volume change of injected liquid such that a widely tunable focal length. The proposed LAL can transform to 3 modes: microscopic mode (APLMC only), convex-concave mode and biconcave mode. It is noticeable that LAL in the operation of microscopic mode is tunable in focus via the actuation of APLMC (focal length is from 4.3 to 2.3 mm and magnification 50X) and can rival the images quality of commercial microscopes. A new lab-on-phone device is economically feasible and functionally versatile to offer a great potential in the point of care applications. PMID:28650971

  5. Efficacy of oral exfoliative cytology in diabetes mellitus patients: a light microscopic and confocal microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Deepika; Malathi, N; Reddy, B Thirupathi

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a global problem. By monitoring the health status of these individuals, diabetic complications can be prevented. We aimed to analyze alterations in the morphology and cytomorphometry of buccal epithelial cells of type 2 DM patients using oral exfoliative cytology technique and determine its importance in public health screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. The study was carried out in 100 type 2 DM patients and 30 healthy individuals. Smears were taken from the right buccal mucosa and stained by the Papanicolaou technique. Staining with Acridine orange was carried out to view qualitative changes with confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM-510 Meta). The cytomorphometry was evaluated using IMAGE PRO PLUS 5.5 software with Evolution LC camera. All findings were statistically analyzed. The results showed that with increase in fasting plasma glucose levels, there is significant increase in nuclear area, decrease in cytoplasmic area, and increase in nuclear cytoplasmic ratio (p inclusion, candida and keratinization. In the present study, we found significant alterations in the cytomorphometry and cytomorphology of buccal epithelial cells of type 2 DM patients. This study supports and extends the view that these cellular changes can alert the clinician to the possibility of diabetes and aid in monitoring of diabetes throughout the lifetime of the patient.

  6. Pre-microscope tunnelling — Inspiration or constraint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, D. G.

    1987-03-01

    Before the microscope burst upon the scene, tunnelling had established for itself a substantial niche in the repertoire of the solid state physicist. Over a period of 20 years it has contributed importantly to our understanding of many systems. It elucidated the superconducting state, first by a direct display of the energy gap then by providing detailed information on the phonon spectra and electron-phonon coupling strength in junction electrodes. Its use as a phonon spectrometer was subsequently extended to semiconductors and to the oxides of insulating barriers. Eventually the vibrational spectra of monolayer organic and inorganic adsorbates became amenable with rich scientific rewards. In a few cases electronic transitions have been observed. Plasmon excitation by tunnelling electrons led to insights on the electron loss function in metals at visible frequencies and provided along the way an intriguing light emitting device. With the advent of the microscope it is now appropriate to enquire how much of this experience can profitably be carried over to the new environment. Are we constrained just to repeat the experiments in a new configuration? Happily no. The microscope offers us topographical and spectroscopic information of a new order. One might next ask how great is the contact between the two disciplines? We explore this question and seek to establish where the pre-microscope experience can be helpful in inspiring our use of this marvellous new facility that we know as the scanning tunnelling microscope.

  7. Microscopic interplay of superconducting and magnetic order parameters in ferropnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeter, H.; Goltz, T.; Spehling, J.; Klauss, H.H. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Bendele, M.; Luetkens, H.; Khasanov, R.; Pascua, G.; Shermadini, Z.; Amato, A. [Laboratory for Muon-Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Aswartham, S.; Hamann-Borrero, J.E.; Kondrat, A.; Hess, C.; Wolter, A.; Wurmehl, S.; Behr, G.; Buechner, B. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden (Germany); Wiesenmayer, E.; Johrendt, D. [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Potts, H.; Banusch, B. [Swiss Nanoscience Institute, Universitaet Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    We present results of {mu}SR experiments of Ba{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} that show a large coupling of the superconducting and magnetic order parameters. This is unexpected in light of the phase separation in Ba{sub 1-x}K{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. However, in a {mu}SR study of Ba{sub 1-x}K{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} we unambiguously showed microscopic coexistence, even though there are many reports of phase separation in this system. In FeSe{sub 1-x} the interplay of phase separation and microscopic coexistence is also evident, here pressure can induce a change from microscopic coexistence to a combination of both. In light of the {mu}SR results it seems likely that phase separation and microscopic coexistence depend on the microscopic properties much more than on disorder.

  8. Diagnostic Yield of Microscopic Colitis in Open Access Endoscopy Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Derek; Miick, Ronald; Chang, Faye; Hillard, Robert; Choudhary, Abhishek; Ashraf, Imran; Bechtold, Matthew; Diaz-Arias, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    The diagnostic yield in open access endoscopy has been evaluated which generally support the effectiveness and efficiency of open access endoscopy. With a few exceptions, diagnostic yield studies have not been performed in open access endoscopy for more specific conditions. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the efficiency of open access endoscopy in the detection of microscopic colitis as compared to traditional referral via a gastroenterologist. A retrospective search of the pathology database at the University of Missouri for specimens from a local open access endoscopy center was conducted via SNOMED code using the terms: "microscopic", "lymphocytic", "collagenous", "spirochetosis", "focal active colitis", "melanosis coli" and "histopathologic" in the diagnosis line for the time period between January 1, 2004 and May 25, 2006. Specimens and colonoscopy reports were reviewed by a single pathologist. Of 266 consecutive patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopies, the number of patients with microscopic disease are as follows: Lymphocytic colitis (n = 12, 4.5%), collagenous colitis (n = 17, 6.4%), focal active colitis (n = 15, 5.6%), and spirochetosis (n = 2, 0.4%). The diagnostic yield of microscopic colitis in this study of an open access endoscopy center does not differ significantly from that seen in major medical centers. In terms of diagnostic yield, open access endoscopy appears to be as effective in diagnosing microscopic colitis.

  9. Field-portable pixel super-resolution colour microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Greenbaum

    Full Text Available Based on partially-coherent digital in-line holography, we report a field-portable microscope that can render lensfree colour images over a wide field-of-view of e.g., >20 mm(2. This computational holographic microscope weighs less than 145 grams with dimensions smaller than 17×6×5 cm, making it especially suitable for field settings and point-of-care use. In this lensfree imaging design, we merged a colorization algorithm with a source shifting based multi-height pixel super-resolution technique to mitigate 'rainbow' like colour artefacts that are typical in holographic imaging. This image processing scheme is based on transforming the colour components of an RGB image into YUV colour space, which separates colour information from brightness component of an image. The resolution of our super-resolution colour microscope was characterized using a USAF test chart to confirm sub-micron spatial resolution, even for reconstructions that employ multi-height phase recovery to handle dense and connected objects. To further demonstrate the performance of this colour microscope Papanicolaou (Pap smears were also successfully imaged. This field-portable and wide-field computational colour microscope could be useful for tele-medicine applications in resource poor settings.

  10. Master equations in the microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, M.; Sakata, F.; Marumori, T.; Zhuo, Y.

    1988-07-01

    In the first half of this paper, the authors describe briefly a recent theoretical approach where the mechanism of the large-amplitude dissipative collective motions can be investigated on the basis of the microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics. Namely, we derive the general coupled master equations which can disclose, in the framework of the TDHF theory, not only non-linear dynamics among the collective and the single-particle modes of motion but also microscopic dynamics responsible for the dissipative processes. In the latter half, the authors investigate, without relying on any statistical hypothesis, one possible microscopic origin which leads us to the transport equation of the Fokker-Planck type so that usefullness of the general framework is demonstrated. (author)

  11. Electron-microscopic autoradiography of tritiated testosterone in rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederik, P.M.; Molen, H.J. van der; Galjaard, H.; Klepper, D.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of a technique for autoradiography of diffusible substances has been further tested by analysing the localization of steroids in rats testes with the light- and electron-microscope. Testes of rats were perfused with tritiated testosterone (3 min) followed by 15-min perfusion with buffer containing a 100-fold excess of unlabelled testosterone. Tissue samples were frozen, freeze dried, fixed in osmium vapour and embedded in Epon. To exclude extraction of steroids, contact with water and other solvents was prevented during cutting of thin sections on an ultracryotome and further treatment for autoradiography. Light- and electron-microscopic observations indicated that the highest concentration of labelled testosterone was present within the basal parts of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm and in lipid inclusions of Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules. This is the first account of autoradiography of steroids at the electron-microscope level. (author)

  12. Microscopic imaging through turbid media Monte Carlo modeling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Min; Deng, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a systematic introduction to the principles of microscopic imaging through tissue-like turbid media in terms of Monte-Carlo simulation. It describes various gating mechanisms based on the physical differences between the unscattered and scattered photons and method for microscopic image reconstruction, using the concept of the effective point spread function. Imaging an object embedded in a turbid medium is a challenging problem in physics as well as in biophotonics. A turbid medium surrounding an object under inspection causes multiple scattering, which degrades the contrast, resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Biological tissues are typically turbid media. Microscopic imaging through a tissue-like turbid medium can provide higher resolution than transillumination imaging in which no objective is used. This book serves as a valuable reference for engineers and scientists working on microscopy of tissue turbid media.

  13. Microscopic oxygen imaging based on fluorescein bleaching efficiency measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beutler, Martin; Heisterkamp, Ines M.; Piltz, Bastian

    2014-01-01

    by a charge-coupled-device (ccd) camera mounted on a fluorescence microscope allowed a pixelwise estimation of the ratio function in a microscopic image. Use of a microsensor and oxygen-consuming bacteria in a sample chamber enabled the calibration of the system for quantification of absolute oxygen......Photobleaching of the fluorophore fluorescein in an aqueous solution is dependent on the oxygen concentration. Therefore, the time-dependent bleaching behavior can be used to measure of dissolved oxygen concentrations. The method can be combined with epi-fluorescence microscopy. The molecular...... states of the fluorophore can be expressed by a three-state energy model. This leads to a set of differential equations which describe the photobleaching behavior of fluorescein. The numerical solution of these equations shows that in a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope, the fluorescence...

  14. Apparatus and methods for controlling electron microscope stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duden, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    Methods and apparatus for generating an image of a specimen with a microscope (e.g., TEM) are disclosed. In one aspect, the microscope may generally include a beam generator, a stage, a detector, and an image generator. A plurality of crystal parameters, which describe a plurality of properties of a crystal sample, are received. In a display associated with the microscope, an interactive control sphere based at least in part on the received crystal parameters and that is rotatable by a user to different sphere orientations is presented. The sphere includes a plurality of stage coordinates that correspond to a plurality of positions of the stage and a plurality of crystallographic pole coordinates that correspond to a plurality of polar orientations of the crystal sample. Movement of the sphere causes movement of the stage, wherein the stage coordinates move in conjunction with the crystallographic coordinates represented by pole positions so as to show a relationship between stage positions and the pole positions.

  15. Dynamical fusion thresholds in macroscopic and microscopic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Sierk, A.J.; Nix, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Macroscopic and microscopic results demonstrating the existence of dynamical fusion thresholds are presented. For macroscopic theories, it is shown that the extra-push dynamics is sensitive to some details of the models used, e.g. the shape parametrization and the type of viscosity. The dependence of the effect upon the charge and angular momentum of the system is also studied. Calculated macroscopic results for mass-symmetric systems are compared to experimental mass-asymmetric results by use of a tentative scaling procedure, which takes into account both the entrance-channel and the saddle-point regions of configuration space. Two types of dynamical fusion thresholds occur in TDHF studies: (1) the microscopic analogue of the macroscopic extra push threshold, and (2) the relatively high energy at which the TDHF angular momentum window opens. Both of these microscopic thresholds are found to be very sensitive to the choice of the effective two-body interaction

  16. Epoxy replication for Wolter x-ray microscope fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priedhorsky, W.

    1981-01-01

    An epoxy replica of a test piece designed to simulate a Wolter x-ray microscope geometry showed no loss of x-ray reflectivity or resolution, compared to the original. The test piece was a diamond-turned cone with 1.5 0 half angle. A flat was fly-cut on one side, then super- and conventionally polished. The replica was separated at the 1.5 0 -draft angle, simulating a shallow angle Wolter microscope geometry. A test with 8.34 A x rays at 0.9 0 grazing angle showed a reflectivity of 67% for the replica flat surface, and 70% for the original. No spread of the reflected beam was observed with a 20-arc second wide test beam. This test verifies the epoxy replication technique for production of Wolter x-ray microscopes

  17. Laser speckle contrast imaging using light field microscope approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohui; Wang, Anting; Ma, Fenghua; Wang, Zi; Ming, Hai

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) system using light field (LF) microscope approach is proposed. As far as we known, it is first time to combine LSCI with LF. To verify this idea, a prototype consists of a modified LF microscope imaging system and an experimental device was built. A commercially used Lytro camera was modified for microscope imaging. Hollow glass tubes with different depth fixed in glass dish were used to simulate the vessels in brain and test the performance of the system. Compared with conventional LSCI, three new functions can be realized by using our system, which include refocusing, extending the depth of field (DOF) and gathering 3D information. Experiments show that the principle is feasible and the proposed system works well.

  18. Design considerations of a real-time clinical confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1991-06-01

    A real-time clinical confocal light microscope provides the ophthalmologist with a new tool for the observation of the cornea and the ocular lens. In addition, the ciliary body, the iris, and the sclera can be observed. The real-time light microscopic images have high contrast and resolution. The transverse resolution is about one half micron and the range resolution is one micron. The following observations were made with visible light: corneal epithelial cells, wing cells, basal cells, Bowman's membrane, nerve fibers, basal lamina, fibroblast nuclei, Descemet's membrane, endothelial cells. Observation of the in situ ocular lens showed lens capsule, lens epithelium, lens fibrils, the interior of lens fibrils. The applications of the confocal microscope include: eye banking, laser refractive surgery, observation of wound healing, observation of the iris, the sciera, the ciliary body, the ocular lens, and the intraocular lens. Digital image processing can produce three-dimensional reconstructions of the cornea and the ocular lens.

  19. Optical design of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Baozhong; Yi Shengzhen; Huang Shengling; Wang Zhanshan

    2008-01-01

    A new flux-resolution optical design method of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope (KB microscope) is proposed. In X-ray imaging diagnostics of inertial confinement fusion(ICF), spatial resolution and flux are always the key parameters. While the traditional optical design of KB microscope is to correct on-axis spherical aberration and astigmatic aberration, flux-resolution method is based on lateral aberration of full field and astigmatic aberration. Thus the spatial resolution related to field dimension and light flux can be estimated. By the expressions of spatial resolution and actual limits in ICF, rules of how to set original structure and optical design flow are summarized. An instance is presented and it shows that the design has met the original targets and overcome the shortcomings of image characterization in compressed core by traditional spherical aberration correction. (authors)

  20. Multispectral Video-Microscope Modified for Skin Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubins U.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial DinoLite AD413 digital microscope was modified for skin diagnostics purposes. The original LED ring (4 white and 4 ultraviolet light emitters of microscope was replaced by a custom-designed 16-LED ring module consisting of four LED groups (450, 545, 660 and 940 nm, and an onboard LED controller with USB hub was added. The video acquisition and LED switching are performed using custom-designed Matlab software which provides real-time spectral analysis of multi-spectral images and calculation of skin chromophore optical density. The developed multispectral video-microscope is mainly meant for diagnostics of skin malformations, e.g. skin cancerous lesions.