WorldWideScience

Sample records for cm radio flux

  1. Comparison of nonflare solar soft x ray flux with 10.7-cm radio flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The similarities and differences of the nonflare solar 1- to 8-A X ray flux and the daily 10.7-cm Ottawa solar radio flux are examined. The radio flux is shown to be much less sensitive than the soft X ray flux on the average to the coronal emission of active regions located near or beyond the solar chromospheric limb relative to regions near the center of the solar disk. This is caused by the solar soft X ray emission's being optically thin while much of the 10.7-cm active region emission is from optical depths of tauapprox.1. The radio flux includes a large quiet sun flux which is emitted mostly from the tenuous chromosphere-corona transition region (Tapprox.10 4 --10 6 0 K) and partly from the cooler portions of the quiet corona Tapprox.1.5 x 10 6 0 K. Conversely, the solar soft X ray flux has a very small quiet sun component

  2. Changed Relation between Solar 10.7-cm Radio Flux and some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The time series of monthly average values of sunspot numbers SSN, 10.7 cm flux ... This radio emission comes from the higher part of the chromosphere and .... work elements on the solar surface on one hand and spots on the other hand ... size, their magnetic fields were less composite and characterized by the greater life-.

  3. INVISIBLE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. RADIO MORPHOLOGIES AND FIVE NEW H i 21 cm ABSORPTION LINE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sharma, Soniya [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2016-03-15

    This is the second paper directed toward finding new highly redshifted atomic and molecular absorption lines at radio frequencies. To this end, we selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper I. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and H i 21 cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.″5 and flux densities >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The 36 most compact sources were then observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, which is a detection rate of CSOs ∼three times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty-seven sources were observed for H i 21 cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only six detections (five definite and one tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra (i.e., any AGN emission is obscured) and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21 cm line in a radio frequency intereference (RFI)-free spectral “window” (i.e., the percentage of H i 21 cm absorption-line detections could be as high as ∼90% in this sample). It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude H i detections in similar sources (only 1 detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 13 of which have only photometric redshifts); that is, H i absorption may well be present but is masked by

  4. 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation Through Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Abreu, Renato Barbosa; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth was exam......This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth...

  5. The effects of variability on the number-flux-density relationship for radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the number-flux-density relationship for radio sources requires a population of sources whose properties evolve with cosmological epoch, at least in models where the redshifts are all taken to be cosmological. In particular, the surveys made at metre wavelengths show, for bright sources, a slope of the log N -log S curve which is steeper than the value -1.5 expected in a static, non-evolving Euclidean universe. Here, N is the number of radio sources brighter than flux density S. Expansion without evolution in conventional geometrical models predicts slopes flatter than -1.5. If the radio survey is carried out at higher frequencies (typically 2.7 or 5 GHz - 11 or 6 cm wavelength), the slope of the log N -log S curve is steeper than -1.5 but not so steep as the slopes found for the low-frequency surveys. Many of the sources found in high-frequency surveys have radio spectra with relatively higher flux-densities in the centimetre range; these sources are frequently variable at high frequencies, with time-scales from a month or two upwards. Some possible effects of the variations on the observed counts of radio sources are considered. (author)

  6. Comparison of VLBI radio core and X-ray flux densities of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.D.; Marscher, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory revealed that most quasars, selected in a variety of ways, are strong x-ray emitters. Radio bright quasars are statistically more luminous in the x-ray than their radio-quiet counterparts. It was also found that the 90 GHz to soft x-ray spectral index has a very small dispersion for sources selected by their strong millimeter emission. This implies a close relationship between compact radio flux density and x-ray emission. Strong correlations have been found between the arcsecond scale flux densities and soft x-ray fluxes. It is suggested that the correlation can be explained if the soft x-rays were produced by the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process within the compact radio emitting region. (author)

  7. Predicting radio fluxes of extrasolar planets (Griessmeier+, 2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griessmeier, J.M.; Zarka, P.; Spreeuw, H.

    2007-01-01

    Expected radio emission from presently known exoplanets. For each of the currently known exoplanets, we list its estimated magnetic moment, maximum radio emission frequency, plasma frequency in the ambient stellar wind, and radio fluxes according to three different models. (1 data file).

  8. Variability of fractal dimension of solar radio flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Hitaishi; Sharma, Som Kumar; Trivedi, Rupal; Vats, Hari Om

    2018-04-01

    In the present communication, the variation of the fractal dimension of solar radio flux is reported. Solar radio flux observations on a day to day basis at 410, 1415, 2695, 4995, and 8800 MHz are used in this study. The data were recorded at Learmonth Solar Observatory, Australia from 1988 to 2009 covering an epoch of two solar activity cycles (22 yr). The fractal dimension is calculated for the listed frequencies for this period. The fractal dimension, being a measure of randomness, represents variability of solar radio flux at shorter time-scales. The contour plot of fractal dimension on a grid of years versus radio frequency suggests high correlation with solar activity. Fractal dimension increases with increasing frequency suggests randomness increases towards the inner corona. This study also shows that the low frequency is more affected by solar activity (at low frequency fractal dimension difference between solar maximum and solar minimum is 0.42) whereas, the higher frequency is less affected by solar activity (here fractal dimension difference between solar maximum and solar minimum is 0.07). A good positive correlation is found between fractal dimension averaged over all frequencies and yearly averaged sunspot number (Pearson's coefficient is 0.87).

  9. A 6-cm deep sky survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomalont, E.B.; Kellermann, K.I.; Wall, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    In order to extend radio source counts to lower flux density, the authors have used the VLA to survey a small region of sky at 4.885 GHz (6 cm) to a limiting flux density of 50 μJy. Details of this deep survey are given in the paper by kellermann et al. (these proceedings). In addition, they have observed 10 other nearby fields to a limiting flux density of 350 μJy in order to provide better statistics on sources of intermediate flux density. (Auth.)

  10. Solar radio proxies for improved satellite orbit prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Philippe; Hecker, Louis; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Fèvre, Clémence Le; Bruinsma, Sean

    2017-12-01

    Specification and forecasting of solar drivers to thermosphere density models is critical for satellite orbit prediction and debris avoidance. Satellite operators routinely forecast orbits up to 30 days into the future. This requires forecasts of the drivers to these orbit prediction models such as the solar Extreme-UV (EUV) flux and geomagnetic activity. Most density models use the 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7 index) as a proxy for solar EUV. However, daily measurements at other centimetric wavelengths have also been performed by the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (Japan) since the 1950's, thereby offering prospects for improving orbit modeling. Here we present a pre-operational service at the Collecte Localisation Satellites company that collects these different observations in one single homogeneous dataset and provides a 30 days forecast on a daily basis. Interpolation and preprocessing algorithms were developed to fill in missing data and remove anomalous values. We compared various empirical time series prediction techniques and selected a multi-wavelength non-recursive analogue neural network. The prediction of the 30 cm flux, and to a lesser extent that of the 10.7 cm flux, performs better than NOAA's present prediction of the 10.7 cm flux, especially during periods of high solar activity. In addition, we find that the DTM-2013 density model (Drag Temperature Model) performs better with (past and predicted) values of the 30 cm radio flux than with the 10.7 flux.

  11. Solar radio proxies for improved satellite orbit prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specification and forecasting of solar drivers to thermosphere density models is critical for satellite orbit prediction and debris avoidance. Satellite operators routinely forecast orbits up to 30 days into the future. This requires forecasts of the drivers to these orbit prediction models such as the solar Extreme-UV (EUV flux and geomagnetic activity. Most density models use the 10.7 cm radio flux (F10.7 index as a proxy for solar EUV. However, daily measurements at other centimetric wavelengths have also been performed by the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (Japan since the 1950's, thereby offering prospects for improving orbit modeling. Here we present a pre-operational service at the Collecte Localisation Satellites company that collects these different observations in one single homogeneous dataset and provides a 30 days forecast on a daily basis. Interpolation and preprocessing algorithms were developed to fill in missing data and remove anomalous values. We compared various empirical time series prediction techniques and selected a multi-wavelength non-recursive analogue neural network. The prediction of the 30 cm flux, and to a lesser extent that of the 10.7 cm flux, performs better than NOAA's present prediction of the 10.7 cm flux, especially during periods of high solar activity. In addition, we find that the DTM-2013 density model (Drag Temperature Model performs better with (past and predicted values of the 30 cm radio flux than with the 10.7 flux.

  12. Identification of radio emission from the Io flux tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddle, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Many theories and observations suggest that Jovian decametric radio emission is generated in flux tubes that pass close to Io's orbit. However, comparison of theory and observation is hindered by lack of knowledge as to which specific flux tube is responsible for a particular emission. In this note, emission from the instantaneous Io flux tube is identified. This makes possible a mapping of emissions onto the causative flux tubes for a significant range of Jovian longitudes (240 0 --360 0 )

  13. Quantitative comparisons of type 3 radio burst intensity and fast electron flux at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Evans, L. G.; Lin, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    The flux of fast solar electrons and the intensity of the type 111 radio emission generated by these particles were compared at one AU. Two regimes were found in the generation of type 111 radiation: one where the radio intensity is linearly proportional to the electron flux, and another, which occurs above a threshold electron flux, where the radio intensity is approximately proportional to the 2.4 power of the electron flux. This threshold appears to reflect a transition to a different emission mechanism.

  14. Quantitative comparisons of type 3 radio burst intensity and fast electron flux at 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzenreiter, R.J.; Evans, L.G.; Lin, R.P.

    1975-09-01

    The flux of fast solar electrons and the intensity of the type-III radio emission generated by these particles were compared at one AU. Two regimes were found in the generation of type-III radiation: one, where the radio intensity is linearly proportional to the electron flux, and another, which occurs above a threshold electron flux, where the radio intensity is approximately proportional to the 2.4 power of the electron flux. This threshold appears to reflect a transition to a different emission mechanism

  15. Quantitative comparisons of type III radio burst intensity and fast electron flux at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Evans, L. G.; Lin, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    We compare the flux of fast solar electrons and the intensity of the type III radio emission generated by these particles at 1 AU. We find that there are two regimes in the generation of type III radiation: one where the radio intensity is linearly proportional to the electron flux, and the second regime, which occurs above a threshold electron flux, where the radio intensity is proportional to the approximately 2.4 power of the electron flux. This threshold appears to reflect a transition to a different emission mechanism.

  16. A VLA SURVEY FOR FAINT COMPACT RADIO SOURCES IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, Patrick D.; Eisner, Josh A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mann, Rita K. [National Research Council Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: psheehan@email.arizona.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 1.3, 3.6, and 6 cm continuum maps of compact radio sources in the Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC). We mosaicked 34 arcmin{sup 2} at 1.3 cm, 70 arcmin{sup 2} at 3.6 cm and 109 arcmin{sup 2} at 6 cm, containing 778 near-infrared detected young stellar objects and 190 Hubble Space Telescope -identified proplyds (with significant overlap between those characterizations). We detected radio emission from 175 compact radio sources in the ONC, including 26 sources that were detected for the first time at these wavelengths. For each detected source, we fitted a simple free–free and dust emission model to characterize the radio emission. We extrapolate the free–free emission spectrum model for each source to ALMA bands to illustrate how these measurements could be used to correctly measure protoplanetary disk dust masses from submillimeter flux measurements. Finally, we compare the fluxes measured in this survey with previously measured fluxes for our targets, as well as four separate epochs of 1.3 cm data, to search for and quantify the variability of our sources.

  17. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22: Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the dynamo theory method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  18. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22 - Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Using the 'dynamo theory' method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  19. Radio and infrared observations of (almost) one hundred non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Linda L.

    1987-01-01

    The 13 cm flux densities of 96 non-Seyfert Markarian galaxies were measured at Arecibo Observatory. Far infrared flux densities have been published for 78 of these galaxies in the IRAS catalog. The radio, infrared, and optical fluxes of these galaxies and of a magnitude limited sample of normal galaxies were compared to clarify the nature of the radio emission in Markarian galaxies. It was found that Markarian galaxies of a given apparent magnitude and Hubble type generally have radio fluxes several times higher that the fluxes typical of normal galaxies of the same magnitude and type. Remarkably, the ratio of radio flux to far infrared flux is nearly the same for most of these starburst galaxies and for normal spiral disks. However, the compact and peculiar Markarian galaxies consistently have about 60% more radio flux per unit infrared flux than the other Markarian galaxies and the normal spirals. It is not clear whether this difference reflects a difference in the evolution of the starbursts in these galaxies or whether there is excess radio emission of nonstellar origin.

  20. The relation between radio flux density and ionizing ultra-violet flux for HII regions and supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between the Parkes radio surveys (Filipović et al 1995 and Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV surveys (Smith et al. 1987 of the Large Magellanic Clouds (LMC. We have found 72 sources in common in the LMC which are known HII regions (52 and supernova remnants (SNRs (19. Some of these radio sources are associated with two or more UV stellar associations. A comparison of the radio flux densities and ionizing UV flux for HII regions shows a very good correlation, as expected from theory. Many of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs SNRs are embedded in HII regions, so there is also a relation between radio and UV which we attribute to the surrounding HII regions.

  1. EDGES and the Development of Absolute Calibration for Wideband Radio Receivers for 21cm Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Judd D.

    2018-06-01

    The ultra-violet light emitted by early stars, when the universe was less than 400 million years old, alters the excitation state of the 21cm hyperfine line of primordial neutral hydrogen gas that surrounds the stars. This causes the gas to absorb photons from the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Later, energy deposited into the gas by the ultra-violet and X-ray emission from these early stars and their remnants heats the gas and eventually ionizes it. These effects produce spectral features in the CMB observable today at frequencies redshifted to below 200 MHz. The 21cm signal is approximately 10,000 times fainter the foreground synchrotron emission from the Milky Way, leading to the requirement that any instrument designed to observe it must have a knowable response at the 0.01% level. Typical radio receivers used in astronomical measurements are accurate at the 1-10% level. Over the last decade, our team has investigated new radio receiver designs and accurate calibration strategies in the laboratory and in ground-based instruments to achieve the 0.01% performance goal. Building on these efforts, we recently reported evidence for detection of the redshifted 21cm signal as a decrease in the sky-averaged radio intensity observed by the Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature (EDGES). We found a flattened absorption profile in the measured radio spectrum centered at a frequency of 78 MHz with full width at half maximum of 19 MHz and an amplitude of 0.5 K. The frequency of the profile is roughly consistent with astrophysical models of early star formation. However, the amplitude of the observed profile is more than a factor of two greater than the largest standard predictions and suggests that the gas was either significantly colder than expected or the background radiation temperature was hotter than expected.

  2. ULTRA STEEP SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES IN THE LOCKMAN HOLE: SERVS IDENTIFICATIONS AND REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION AT THE FAINTEST RADIO FLUXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, J.; Bizzocchi, L.; Grossi, M.; Messias, H.; Fernandes, C. A. C. [Observatorio Astronomico de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal); Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Simpson, C. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Chapman, S.; Gonzalez-Solares, E. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jarvis, M. J. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Rottgering, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Oort Gebouw, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Norris, R. P. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Dunlop, J.; Best, P. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Pforr, J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Vaccari, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Padova, vicolo Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova (Italy); Seymour, N. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, UCL, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Huang, J.-S., E-mail: jafonso@oal.ul.pt [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2011-12-20

    Ultra steep spectrum (USS) radio sources have been successfully used to select powerful radio sources at high redshifts (z {approx}> 2). Typically restricted to large-sky surveys and relatively bright radio flux densities, it has gradually become possible to extend the USS search to sub-mJy levels, thanks to the recent appearance of sensitive low-frequency radio facilities. Here a first detailed analysis of the nature of the faintest USS sources is presented. By using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Very Large Array radio observations of the Lockman Hole at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz, a sample of 58 USS sources, with 610 MHz integrated fluxes above 100 {mu}Jy, is assembled. Deep infrared data at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m from the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS) are used to reliably identify counterparts for 48 (83%) of these sources, showing an average total magnitude of [3.6]{sub AB} = 19.8 mag. Spectroscopic redshifts for 14 USS sources, together with photometric redshift estimates, improved by the use of the deep SERVS data, for a further 19 objects, show redshifts ranging from z = 0.1 to z = 2.8, peaking at z {approx} 0.6 and tailing off at high redshifts. The remaining 25 USS sources, with no redshift estimate, include the faintest [3.6] magnitudes, with 10 sources undetected at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m (typically [3.6] {approx}> 22-23 mag from local measurements), which suggests the likely existence of higher redshifts among the sub-mJy USS population. The comparison with the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies models indicates that Fanaroff-Riley type I radio sources and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei may constitute the bulk of the faintest USS population, and raises the possibility that the high efficiency of the USS technique for the selection of high-redshift sources remains even at the sub-mJy level.

  3. Time monitoring of radio jets and magnetospheres in the nearby young stellar cluster R Coronae Australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Takami, Michihiro; Yan, Chi-Hung; Karr, Jennifer; Chou, Mei-Yin; Ho, Paul T.-P.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Costigan, Gráinne; Manara, Carlo Felice; Forbrich, Jan; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2014-01-01

    We report Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 8-10 GHz (λ = 3.0-3.7 cm) monitoring observations toward the young stellar object (YSO) cluster R Coronae Australis (R CrA), taken from 2012 March 15 to 2012 September 12. These observations were planned to measure the radio flux variabilities in timescales from 0.5 hr to several days, to tens of days, and up to ∼200 days. We found that among the YSOs detectable in individual epochs, in general, the most reddened objects in the Spitzer observations show the highest mean 3.5 cm Stokes I emission, and the lowest fractional variabilities on <200 day timescales. The brightest radio flux emitters in our observations are the two reddest sources IRS7W and IRS7E. In addition, by comparing our observations with observations taken from 1996 to 1998 and 2005, we found that the radio fluxes of these two sources have increased by a factor of ∼1.5. The mean 3.5 cm fluxes of the three Class I/II sources, IRSI, IRS2, and IRS6, appear to be correlated with their accretion rates derived by a previous near-infrared line survey. The weakly accreting Class I/II YSOs, or those in later evolutionary stages, present radio flux variability on <0.5 hr timescales. Some YSOs were detected only during occasional flaring events. The source R CrA went below our detection limit during a few fading events.

  4. Another look at AM Herculis - radio-astrometric campaign with the e-EVN at 6 cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawroński, M. P.; Goździewski, K.; Katarzyński, K.; Rycyk, G.

    2018-03-01

    We conducted radio-interferometric observations of the well-known binary cataclysmic system AM Herculis. This particular system is formed from a magnetic white dwarf (primary) and a red dwarf (secondary), and it is the prototype of so-called polars. Our observations were conducted with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in e-EVN mode at 5 GHz. We obtained six astrometric measurements spanning 1 yr, which make it possible to update the annual parallax for this system with the best precision to date (π = 11.29 ± 0.08 mas), which is equivalent to a distance of 88.6 ± 0.6 pc. The system was observed mostly in the quiescent phase (visual magnitude mv ˜ 15.3), when the radio emission was at the level of about 300 μJy. Our analysis suggests that the radio flux of AM Herculis is modulated with the orbital motion. Such specific properties of the radiation can be explained using an emission mechanism like the scenario proposed for V471 Tau and, in general, for RS CVn-type stars. In this scenario, the radio emission arises near the surface of the red dwarf, where the global magnetic field strength may reach a few kG. We argue that the quiescent radio emission distinguishes AM Herculis and AR Ursae Majoris (a second known persistent radio polar) from other polars, which are systems with a magnetized secondary star.

  5. Relation between gamma-ray emission, radio bursts, and proton fluxes from solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomichev, V.V.; Chertok, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Data on solar gamma-ray flares, including 24 flares with gamma-ray lines, recorded up to June 1982, are analyzed. It is shown that from the point of view of radio emission the differences between flares with and without gamma-ray lines has a purely quantitative character: the former are accompanied by the most intense microwave bursts. Meter type II bursts are not a distinctive feature of flares with gamma-ray lines. Pulsed flares, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma-ray lines, are not accompanied by significant proton fluxes at the earth. On the whole, contrary to the popular opinion in the literature, flares with gamma-ray lines do not display a deficit of proton flux in interplanetary space in comparison with similar flares without gamma-ray lines. The results of quantitative diagnostics of proton flares based on radio bursts are not at variance with the presence of flares without detectable gamma-ray emission in lines but with a pronounced increase in the proton flux at the earth. 23 references

  6. New 20-cm radio-continuum study of the small Magellanic cloud - part III: Compact Hii regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a new catalogue of 48 compact Hii regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC and a newly created deep 1420 MHz (λ=20 cm radio-continuum image of the N19 region located in the southwestern part of the SMC. The new images were created by merging 1420 MHz radiocontinuum archival data from the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The majority of these detected radio compact Hii regions have rather flat spectral indices which indicates, as expected, that the dominant emission mechanism is of thermal nature.

  7. An explanation of the radio flux mystery of HD 192163 and empirical models for WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugis, T.

    1982-01-01

    The radio flux value of the star HD 192163 (WN6) measured by Dickel et al. (1980) imposes strong restrictions on the possible mass outflow region models of this star. Dickel et al. (1980) and also Barlow et al. (1980) suggested that the wind terminal velocity has not been reached in the IR emission region. But when taking into account the line spectrum data, it appears that the wind velocity must be comparatively close to the star already nearly constant. So it is necessary to search for some other explanation. The author has found that at reasonable values of density, electron and core (star) temperatures it is possible that helium becomes neutral at a comparatively large distance from the star and then the radio flux is mainly due to the f-f radiation of H + and N + . In the case of such an ionization structure there are no restrictions on the outflow velocity being already constant close to the star. Therefore it is now possible to explain the radio and IR fluxes as well as the line spectrum data of HD 192163. (Auth.)

  8. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  9. RADIO DIAGNOSTICS OF ELECTRON ACCELERATION SITES DURING THE ERUPTION OF A FLUX ROPE IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T. [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Vilmer, Nicole, E-mail: eoin.carley@obspm.fr [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2016-12-10

    Electron acceleration in the solar corona is often associated with flares and the eruption of twisted magnetic structures known as flux ropes. However, the locations and mechanisms of such particle acceleration during the flare and eruption are still subject to much investigation. Observing the exact sites of particle acceleration can help confirm how the flare and eruption are initiated and how they evolve. Here we use the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to analyze a flare and erupting flux rope on 2014 April 18, while observations from the Nançay Radio Astronomy Facility allow us to diagnose the sites of electron acceleration during the eruption. Our analysis shows evidence of a pre-formed flux rope that slowly rises and becomes destabilized at the time of a C-class flare, plasma jet, and the escape of ≳75 keV electrons from the rope center into the corona. As the eruption proceeds, continued acceleration of electrons with energies of ∼5 keV occurs above the flux rope for a period over 5 minutes. At the flare peak, one site of electron acceleration is located close to the flare site, while another is driven by the erupting flux rope into the corona at speeds of up to 400 km s{sup −1}. Energetic electrons then fill the erupting volume, eventually allowing the flux rope legs to be clearly imaged from radio sources at 150–445 MHz. Following the analysis of Joshi et al. (2015), we conclude that the sites of energetic electrons are consistent with flux rope eruption via a tether cutting or flux cancellation scenario inside a magnetic fan-spine structure. In total, our radio observations allow us to better understand the evolution of a flux rope eruption and its associated electron acceleration sites, from eruption initiation to propagation into the corona.

  10. On the secular decrease of radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A at frequency 927 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyajkin, E.N.; Razin, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Relative measurements of the radio emission flux densities of the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and Taurus A were made at the frequency 927 MHz to investigate the secular decrease of their intensity. Experiments were fulfilled in October-December 1977 at the 10-meter radio telescope of the radioastronomical station Staraya Pustyn' (NIRFI). The radio galaxied of Cygnus A, Virgo A and Orion Nebula were taken as the comparison sources. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of absolute measurements carried out in October 1962 permits to state that during 15 years the radio emission flux density of Cassiopeia A decreased by (14.2+-0.6)% (the average annual decrease amounts to (0.95+-O.04)%) and the radio emission flux density of Taurus A decreased by (2.7+-0.1)% (the annual decrease is (0.18+-0.01)%)

  11. Fine structure of 25 extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittels, J.J.; Knight, C.A.; Shapiro, I.I.; Hinteregger, H.F.; Rogers, A.E.E.; Whitney, A.R.; Clark, T.A.; Hutton, L.K.; Marandino, G.E.; Neill, A.E.; Ronnang, B.G.; Rydbeck, O.E.H.; Klemperer, W.K.; Warnock, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    Between 1972 April and 1973 May, 25 extragalactic radio sources were observed interferometrically at 7.8 GHz(lambdaapprox. =3.8 cm) with five pairings of antennas. These sources exhibit a broad variety of fine structures from very simple to complex. Although the structure and the total power of some of these sources have remained unchanged within the sensitivity of our measurements during the year of observations, both the total flux and the correlated flux of others have undergone large changes in a few weeks

  12. The Dynamic Radio Sky: Future Directions at cm/m-Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Cordes, J.; Croft, S.; Lazio, J.; Lorimer, D.; McLaughlin, M.

    2009-01-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, recent discoveries from limited surveys and serendipitous discoveries indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenonmena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The current generation of new meter- and centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the MWA, LWA, PAPER, and ATA will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the SKA. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars.

  13. Fermi/LAT Observations of Swift/BAT Seyfert Galaxies: On the Contribution of Radio-Quiet Active Galactic Nuclei to the Extragalactic gamma-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R(sub X,BAT) where radio-loud objects have logR(sub X,BAT) > -4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be approx.2x10(exp -11) photons/sq cm/s, approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the gamma-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  14. A connection between the X-ray spectral branches and the radio brightness in GX17+2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penninx, Wim; Lewin, W.H.G.; Paradijs, J. van; Klis, M. van der

    1988-01-01

    GX17 + 2(4U 1813 - 14) is a bright X-ray binary in which matter is accreting on to a neutron star from a nearby companion. X-ray bursts are sometimes observed, as well as quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray flux. The frequencies of the quasiperiodic oscillations depend on the spectral state of the source, which manifests itself as three distinct spectral 'branches' in an X-ray colour-colour diagram. GX17 + 2 is also a variable radio source; there is no believable optical counterpart. We report here on simultaneous X-ray and radio observations which showed a connection between the spectral branches and the radio brightness. The 6-cm and 20-cm flux density increased by factors of 30±5 and 40± 10, respectively, as the X-ray state changed from the so-called 'flaring branch' to the 'horizontal branch'. (author)

  15. Flux density measurements of radio sources at 2.14 millimeter wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogdell, J.R.; Davis, J.H.; Ulrich, B.T.; Wills, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Flux densities of galactic and extragalactic sources, and planetary temperatures, have been measured at 2.14 mm wavelength (140 GHz). Results are presented for OJ 287; the galactic sources DR 21, W3, and Orion A; the extragalactic sources PKS 0106plus-or-minus01, 3C 84, 3C 120, BL Lac, 3C 216, 3C 273, 3C 279, and NGC 4151; and the Sun, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter. Also presented is the first measurement of the 2.14-mm temperature of Uranus. The spectra of some of these sources are discussed. The flux density scale was calibrated absolutely. The measurements were made with a new continuum receiver on the 4.88-m radio telescope of The University of Texas

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral properties of 441 radio pulsars (Jankowski+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, F.; van Straten, W.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Johnston, S.; Kerr, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present spectral parameters for 441 radio pulsars. These were obtained from observations centred at 728, 1382 and 3100MHz using the 10-50cm and the 20cm multibeam receiver at the Parkes radio telescope. In particular, we list the pulsar names (J2000), the calibrated, band-integrated flux densities at 728, 1382 and 3100MHz, the spectral classifications, the frequency ranges the spectral classifications were performed over, the spectral indices for pulsars with simple power-law spectra and the robust modulation indices at all three centre frequencies for pulsars of which we have at least six measurement epochs. The flux density uncertainties include scintillation and a systematic contribution, in addition to the statistical uncertainty. Upper limits are reported at the 3σ level and all other uncertainties at the 1σ level. (1 data file).

  17. Radio astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagnibeda, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The history of radio astronomical observations at the Astronomical Observatory of Leningrad State University is reviewed. Various facilities are described, and methods and instruments used are discussed. Some results are summarized for radio observations of the sun, including observations of local sources of solar radio emission, the absolute solar radio flux, and radio emission from filaments and prominences.

  18. A Radio Study of the Ultra-luminous FIR Galaxy NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1993-05-01

    A number of galaxies observed in the IRAS mission are noted to emit ~ 99% of their bolometric flux in the FIR, with FIR luminosities in excess of 10(11) Lsun. The interacting galaxy NGC 6240 has often been referred to as the ``proto-typical'' ultra-luminous (L_FIR >~ 10(12) Lsun) FIR galaxy. The origin of the FIR excess remains a disputed subject in the literature. New observations of NGC 6240 were taken with the VLA at 20cm in the B-configuration, and at 3.6cm in the A-configuration. No significant radio emission was detected from or near the possible ultra-massive ``dark core'' hypothesized by Bland-Hawthorn et. al. (1991); however, approximately 30% of Seyfert galaxies have 20 cm radio luminosities weaker than the upper limit derived from the radio maps. The non-thermal radio emission from luminous FIR galaxies is tightly correlated with the FIR emission. Previous radio observations of NGC 6240 revealed two compact, steep-spectrum nuclear sources, nearly coincident with the two nuclear sources seen in optical images. The 2 images from the new VLA observations and 5 images from previous VLA observations are used to identify the morphological and spectral features of the strong, compact components in the nuclear regions (~ 3 kpc) from the nucleus. Feasible explanations for the radio emission are discussed. The models that have been proposed in the literature for the FIR excess of NGC 6240 are evaluated for consistency with the observed radio emission.

  19. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  20. The NAP flux at mountain altitude 725 g cm-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, M.

    1977-01-01

    The energy spectrum of nuclear active particles (NAP) with energy ΣEsub(γ) greater than 3 TeV is obtained from an analysis of a thick emulsion chamber (140 cu of Pb) exposed on Mount Norikura at 2770 m above sea level and the vertical flux is estimated to be (1.4 +- 0.1) x 10 -10 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . Assuming that the energy spectrum and the zenith angle distribution of NAP are expressed by power functions proportional to Esup(-(γ + 1)) and cossup(n-2) theta respectively in differential form, the exponents γ and n are obtained as 2.3 +- 0.1 and 7.3 +- 0.5 respectively. The collision mean free path and the ratio of constituents of NAP are discussed. (author)

  1. FAINT RADIO-SOURCES WITH PEAKED SPECTRA .1. VLA OBSERVATIONS OF A NEW SAMPLE WITH INTERMEDIATE FLUX-DENSITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SNELLEN, IAG; ZHANG, M; SCHILIZZI, RT; ROTTGERING, HJA; DEBRUYN, AG; MILEY, GK

    We present 2 and 20 cm observations with the VLA of 25 candidate peaked spectrum radio sources. These data combined with those from earlier surveys have allowed us to construct radio spectra spanning a range of frequency from 0.3 to 15 GHz. Ten of the 25 sources are found to be variable with no

  2. FERMI/LAT OBSERVATIONS OF SWIFT/BAT SEYFERT GALAXIES: ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI TO THE EXTRAGALACTIC γ-RAY BACKGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Sambruna, Rita M.; Davis, David S.

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of 2.1 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data on 491 Seyfert galaxies detected by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Only the two nearest objects, NGC 1068 and NGC 4945, which were identified in the Fermi first year catalog, are detected. Using Swift/BAT and radio 20 cm fluxes, we define a new radio-loudness parameter R X,BAT where radio-loud objects have log R X,BAT > –4.7. Based on this parameter, only radio-loud sources are detected by Fermi/LAT. An upper limit to the flux of the undetected sources is derived to be ∼2 × 10 –11 photons cm –2 s –1 , approximately seven times lower than the observed flux of NGC 1068. Assuming a median redshift of 0.031, this implies an upper limit to the γ-ray (1-100 GeV) luminosity of ∼ 41 erg s –1 . In addition, we identified 120 new Fermi/LAT sources near the Swift/BAT Seyfert galaxies with significant Fermi/LAT detections. A majority of these objects do not have Swift/BAT counterparts, but their possible optical counterparts include blazars, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and quasars.

  3. Compact radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altschuler, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven compact radio sources were monitored between 1971 and 1974 with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory interferometer. Both flux density and polarization were measured at intervals of about one month at wavelengths of 3.7 and 11.1 cms. Forty-four sources showed definite variability in their total and/or polarized flux density. The variations in polarization were of a shorter time scale than the corresponding flux density variations. Some of the qualitative features of an expanding source model were observed. The data suggest that some form of injection of relativistic electrons is taking place. The absence of significant depolarization in the variable sources indicates that only a small fraction of the mass of the radio outburst is in the form of non-relativistic plasma. Some of the objects observed belong to the BL-Lacertal class. It is shown that this class is very inhomogeneous in its radio properties. For the violently variable BL-Lacertal type objects the spectrum, flux variations and polarization data strongly suggest that these are very young objects

  4. A FLUX SCALE FOR SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bowman, Judd [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki; Pober, Jonathan C. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, Chris L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, Dave H. E. [Radio Astronomy Lab., University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Klima, Pat [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Manley, Jason R.; Walbrugh, William P. [Square Kilometer Array, South Africa Project, Cape Town (South Africa); Stefan, Irina I. [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-20

    We present a catalog of spectral measurements covering a 100-200 MHz band for 32 sources, derived from observations with a 64 antenna deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) in South Africa. For transit telescopes such as PAPER, calibration of the primary beam is a difficult endeavor and errors in this calibration are a major source of error in the determination of source spectra. In order to decrease our reliance on an accurate beam calibration, we focus on calibrating sources in a narrow declination range from –46° to –40°. Since sources at similar declinations follow nearly identical paths through the primary beam, this restriction greatly reduces errors associated with beam calibration, yielding a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of derived source spectra. Extrapolating from higher frequency catalogs, we derive the flux scale using a Monte Carlo fit across multiple sources that includes uncertainty from both catalog and measurement errors. Fitting spectral models to catalog data and these new PAPER measurements, we derive new flux models for Pictor A and 31 other sources at nearby declinations; 90% are found to confirm and refine a power-law model for flux density. Of particular importance is the new Pictor A flux model, which is accurate to 1.4% and shows that between 100 MHz and 2 GHz, in contrast with previous models, the spectrum of Pictor A is consistent with a single power law given by a flux at 150 MHz of 382 ± 5.4 Jy and a spectral index of –0.76 ± 0.01. This accuracy represents an order of magnitude improvement over previous measurements in this band and is limited by the uncertainty in the catalog measurements used to estimate the absolute flux scale. The simplicity and improved accuracy of Pictor A's spectrum make it an excellent calibrator in a band important for experiments seeking to measure 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization.

  5. Upper limits of a cosmic infrared background flux as determined by X- and gamma-ray observations on M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Cambridge Univ.; Harwit, M.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1982-01-01

    Upper limits on the energy density of infrared photons in the radio lobe regions of M87 are derived using measurements of the X-ray and gamma-ray emission. The calculations are based on an inverse Compton scattering model initiated by radio-flux producing electrons. It is shown that the energy density of infrared photons in the radio lobe regions is similar than 2 eV cm -3 . (orig.)

  6. Radio continuum emission from winds, chromospheres, and coronae of cool giants and supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.A.; Linsky, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a sensitive VLA radio continuum survey at 6 cm of 39 of the nearest, single cool giants and supergiants with spectral types in the range G0--M5. We discuss our findings in the context of the various mechanisms that might be producing radio emission in these cool stars. We have definitely detected four K and M giants (α 1 Her, α Boo, rho Per, and μ Gem) and probably detected a fifth ( β UMi) at flux levels of 0.1--1.0 mJy. We believe that in all five of these cases the radio emission is thermal emission from cool stellar winds. We have made additional 2 cm observations of several stars, including the four stars definitely detected at 6 cm. We have derived spectral indices for α Boo, α 1 Her, and rho Per of 0.80, 0.84, and 0.95, respectively, that are close to the 0.6 value predicted by standard stellar wind models in the optically thick regime. An additional cool giant (α Tau) was detected only at 2 cm, implying a spectral index of > or =0.87. None of the coronal or hybrid-chromosphere giants observed were detected in this study, with the exception of α Aur, a 0.2 mJy radio source at 6 cm, which is in fact a widely separated, long-period (P/sub orb/approx.104/sup d/) RS CVn system containing two cool giant stars. In this case, we believe that the 6 cm radio emission is optically thin, thermal emission from the corona(e) of one or both of the components, since the radio-emission measure is consistent with that of the observed x-ray emission

  7. RADIO VARIABILITY IN SEYFERT NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of 8.4 GHz radio images of a sample of eleven, early-type Seyfert galaxies with previous observations reveals possible variation in the nuclear radio flux density in five of them over a seven year period. Four Seyferts (NGC 2110, NGC 3081, MCG -6-30-15, and NGC 5273) show a decline in their 8.4 GHz nuclear flux density between 1992 and 1999, while one (NGC 4117) shows an increase; the flux densities of the remaining six Seyferts (Mrk 607, NGC 1386, Mrk 620, NGC 3516, NGC 4968, and NGC 7465) have remained constant over this period. New images of MCG -5-23-16 are also presented. We find no correlation between radio variability and nuclear radio luminosity or Seyfert nuclear type, although the sample is small and dominated by type 2 Seyferts. Instead, a possible correlation between the presence of nuclear radio variability and the absence of hundred parsec-scale radio emission is seen, with four out of five marginally resolved or unresolved nuclei showing a change in nuclear flux density, while five out of six extended sources show no nuclear variability despite having unresolved nuclear sources. NGC 2110 is the only source in our sample with significant extended radio structure and strong nuclear variability (∼38% decline in nuclear flux density over seven years). The observed nuclear flux variability indicates significant changes are likely to have occurred in the structure of the nucleus on scales smaller than the VLA beam size (i.e., within the central ∼0.''1 (15 pc)), between the two epochs, possibly due to the appearance and fading of new components or shocks in the jet, consistent with previous detection of subparsec-scale nuclear structure in this Seyfert. Our results suggest that all Seyferts may exhibit variation in their nuclear radio flux density at 8.4 GHz, but that variability is more easily recognized in compact sources in which emission from the variable nucleus is not diluted by unresolved, constant flux density radio jet emission

  8. A polarized fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude

    OpenAIRE

    Petroff, E.; Kasliwal, M.; Ravi, V.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150215, with the Parkes radio telescope on 2015 February 15. The burst was detected in real time with a dispersion measure (DM) of 1105.6 ± 0.8 pc cm^(−3), a pulse duration of 2.8 ^(+1.2)_(−0.5)ms, and a measured peak flux density assuming that the burst was at beam centre of 0.7 ^(+0.2)_(−0.1) Jy. The FRB originated at a Galactic longitude and latitude of 24.66°, 5.28° and 25° away from the Galactic Center. The burst was found t...

  9. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Brown, Alexander; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out.

  10. The radio properties of infrared-faint radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Hales, C. A.; Seymour, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects that have flux densities of several mJy at 1.4 GHz, but that are invisible at 3.6 μm when using sensitive Spitzer observations with μJy sensitivities. Their nature is unclear and difficult to investigate since they are only visible in the radio. Aims: High-resolution radio images and comprehensive spectral coverage can yield constraints on the emission mechanisms of IFRS and can give hints to similarities with known objects. Methods: We imaged a sample of 17 IFRS at 4.8 GHz and 8.6 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to determine the structures on arcsecond scales. We added radio data from other observing projects and from the literature to obtain broad-band radio spectra. Results: We find that the sources in our sample are either resolved out at the higher frequencies or are compact at resolutions of a few arcsec, which implies that they are smaller than a typical galaxy. The spectra of IFRS are remarkably steep, with a median spectral index of -1.4 and a prominent lack of spectral indices larger than -0.7. We also find that, given the IR non-detections, the ratio of 1.4 GHz flux density to 3.6 μm flux density is very high, and this puts them into the same regime as high-redshift radio galaxies. Conclusions: The evidence that IFRS are predominantly high-redshift sources driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) is strong, even though not all IFRS may be caused by the same phenomenon. Compared to the rare and painstakingly collected high-redshift radio galaxies, IFRS appear to be much more abundant, but less luminous, AGN-driven galaxies at similar cosmological distances.

  11. The Isotropic Radio Background and Annihilating Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Belikov, Alexander V. [Institut d' Astrophysique (France); Jeltema, Tesla E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Linden, Tim [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Profumo, Stefano [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Observations by ARCADE-2 and other telescopes sensitive to low frequency radiation have revealed the presence of an isotropic radio background with a hard spectral index. The intensity of this observed background is found to exceed the flux predicted from astrophysical sources by a factor of approximately 5-6. In this article, we consider the possibility that annihilating dark matter particles provide the primary contribution to the observed isotropic radio background through the emission of synchrotron radiation from electron and positron annihilation products. For reasonable estimates of the magnetic fields present in clusters and galaxies, we find that dark matter could potentially account for the observed radio excess, but only if it annihilates mostly to electrons and/or muons, and only if it possesses a mass in the range of approximately 5-50 GeV. For such models, the annihilation cross section required to normalize the synchrotron signal to the observed excess is sigma v ~ (0.4-30) x 10^-26 cm^3/s, similar to the value predicted for a simple thermal relic (sigma v ~ 3 x 10^-26 cm^3/s). We find that in any scenario in which dark matter annihilations are responsible for the observed excess radio emission, a significant fraction of the isotropic gamma ray background observed by Fermi must result from dark matter as well.

  12. The structure of the radio emission from the NGC 1579/LkHα101 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Broderick, J.J.; Knapp, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radio-frequency observations at 3.7 and 11 cm of the NGC 1579/LkHα101 region show that the radio emission arises in a compact, < 1'' core concentric with a more extended approximately 1' emission region. At these wavelengths the compact component is optically thick, with a spectrum increasing as ν, whereas the extended region is optically thin and contributes at least 80 per cent of the total flux density. LkHα101 appears to be the source of excitation for all of the radio emission; this result, together with the total infrared luminosity, suggests that an appropriate spectral classification for LkHα101 is B1 IIe. (author)

  13. Operation of Small Radio Telescope (SRT) recorded 21 cm spectral line of Hydrogen at VATLY Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Dong; Pham Tuan Anh; Pham Ngoc Diep; Pham Thi Tuyet Nhung; Nguyen Van Hiep

    2013-01-01

    A small radio telescope (SRT) has been installed on the roof of the Hanoi astrophysics laboratory VATLY. It is equipped with a 2.6 m diameter mobile parabolic dish remotely controlled in elevation and azimuth and with super-heterodyne detection around the 21 cm hydrogen line. They demonstrate the high quality of the telescope performance and are used to evaluate lobe size, signal to noise ratios, anthropogenic interferences and measurement accuracies. Particular attention is given to the measurement of the pointing accuracy. First results of observations of the Sun and of the centre of the Milky Way are presented. (author)

  14. RADIO PROPERTIES OF THE BAT AGNs: THE FIR–RADIO RELATION, THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE, AND THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Krista Lynne; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Vogel, Stuart; Shimizu, Thomas T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Miller, Neal, E-mail: klsmith@astro.umd.edu [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Stevenson University, Stevenson, MD 21117 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We conducted 22 GHz 1″ JVLA imaging of 70 radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Swift -BAT survey. We find radio cores in all but three objects. The radio morphologies of the sample fall into three groups: compact and core-dominated, extended, and jet-like. We spatially decompose each image into core flux and extended flux, and compare the extended radio emission with that predicted from previous Herschel observations using the canonical FIR–radio relation. After removing the AGN contribution to the FIR and radio flux densities, we find that the relation holds remarkably well despite the potentially different star formation physics in the circumnuclear environment. We also compare our core radio flux densities with predictions of coronal models and scale-invariant jet models for the origin of radio emission in radio-quiet AGNs, and find general consistency with both models. However, we find that the L {sub R}/ L {sub X} relation does not distinguish between star formation and non-relativistic AGN-driven outflows as the origin of radio emission in radio-quiet AGNs. Finally, we examine where objects with different radio morphologies fall in relation to the main sequence (MS) of star formation, and conclude that those AGNs that fall below the MS, as X-ray selected AGNs have been found to do, have core-dominated or jet-like 22 GHz morphologies.

  15. New radio detections of early-type pre-main-sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, S.L.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Results of VLA radio continuum observations of 13 early-type pre-main-sequence stars selected from the 1984 catalog of Finkenzeller and Mundt are presented. The stars HD 259431 and MWC 1080 were detected at 3.6 cm, while HD 200775 and TY CrA were detected at both 3.6 and 6 cm. The flux density of HD 200775 has a frequency dependence consistent with the behavior expected for free-free emission originating in a fully ionized wind. However, an observation in A configuration suggests that the source geometry may not be spherically symmetric. In contrast, the spectral index of TY CrA is negative with a flux behavior implying nonthermal emission. The physical mechanism responsible for the nonthermal emission has not yet been identified, although gyrosynchrotron and synchrotron processes cannot be ruled out. 32 refs

  16. Values of Kp Indices, Ap Indices, Cp Indices, C9 Indices, Sunspot Number, and 10.7 cm Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data file consists of Kp indices, Ap indices, Cp indices, C9 indices, sunspot number, and 10.7 cm flux. The most often requested parameter of this file are the...

  17. High resolution polarimetry of the Sun at 3. 7 and 11. 1 cm wavelengths. [Stokes parameters, polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, K R [Tufts Univ., Medford, Mass. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1977-04-01

    The four Stokes parameters are presented for interferometric observations of the Sun at wavelengths of lambda=3.7 cm and lambda=11 cm with angular resolutions between 2.7 and 36.7 seconds of arc. An H..cap alpha.. solar flare of importance SN and type C has a radio wavelength (lambda=3.7 cm) size of 5 seconds of arc, a flux density of 0.3 x 10/sup -22/Wm/sup -2/Hz/sup -1/, and a brightness temperature on the order of 10/sup 7/K. The radio flare is 30% left circularly polarized at lambda=3.7 cm, 70% left circularly polarized at lambda=11 cm, and no detectable linear polarization was observed at either wavelength. During a forty hour observation of sunspot region McMath No 13926 no substantial variations in circular polarization were observed, whereas one hour prior to the eruption of a solar flare dramatic changes in circular polarization were observed. Small scale features whose angular sizes are on the order of five seconds of arc exhibit changes of circular polarization of up to 80%. At times other than those immediately preceding flare emission, the degree of circular polarization was the same as the two wavelengths but the sign was reversed. This situation can be explained if magnetic fields of intensity H<=1000 G and electron densities of Nsub(e)>=10/sup 7/cm/sup -3/ are present.

  18. Are the infrared-faint radio sources pulsars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A. D.; Keith, M.; Hobbs, G.; Norris, R. P.; Mao, M. Y.; Middelberg, E.

    2011-07-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are objects which are strong at radio wavelengths but undetected in sensitive Spitzer observations at infrared wavelengths. Their nature is uncertain and most have not yet been associated with any known astrophysical object. One possibility is that they are radio pulsars. To test this hypothesis we undertook observations of 16 of these sources with the Parkes Radio Telescope. Our results limit the radio emission to a pulsed flux density of less than 0.21 mJy (assuming a 50 per cent duty cycle). This is well below the flux density of the IFRS. We therefore conclude that these IFRS are not radio pulsars.

  19. Galactic synchrotron emission from WIMPs at radio frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter annihilations in the Galactic halo inject relativistic electrons and positrons which in turn generate a synchrotron radiation when interacting with the galactic magnetic field. We calculate the synchrotron flux for various dark matter annihilation channels, masses, and astrophysical assumptions in the low-frequency range and compare our results with radio surveys from 22 MHz to 1420 MHz. We find that current observations are able to constrain particle dark matter with ''thermal'' annihilation cross-sections, i.e. (σv) = 3 × 10 −26 cm 3 s −1 , and masses M DM ∼<10 GeV. We discuss the dependence of these bounds on the astrophysical assumptions, namely galactic dark matter distribution, cosmic rays propagation parameters, and structure of the galactic magnetic field. Prospects for detection in future radio surveys are outlined

  20. VLA radio observations of AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, E. R.; Marsh, T. R.; Chote, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: AR Scorpii is unique amongst known white dwarf binaries in showing powerful pulsations extending to radio frequencies. Here we aim to investigate the multi-frequency radio emission of AR Sco in detail, in order to constrain its origin and emission mechanisms. Methods: We present interferometric radio frequency imaging of AR Sco at 1.5, 5 and 9 GHz, analysing the total flux and polarization behaviour of this source at high time resolution (10, 3 and 3 s), across a full 3.6 h orbital period in each band. Results: We find strong modulation of the radio flux on the orbital period and the orbital sideband of the white dwarf's spin period (also known as the "beat" period). This indicates that, like the optical flux, the radio flux arises predominantly from on or near the inner surface of the M-dwarf companion star. The beat-phase pulsations of AR Sco decrease in strength with decreasing frequency. They are strongest at 9 GHz and at an orbital phase 0.5. Unlike the optical emission from this source, radio emission from AR Sco shows weak linear polarization but very strong circular polarization, reaching 30% at an orbital phase 0.8. We infer the probable existence of a non-relativistic cyclotron emission component, which dominates at low radio frequencies. Given the required magnetic fields, this also likely arises from on or near the M-dwarf. A table of the flux time series is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A66

  1. The Analysis of the Possible Thermal Emission at Radio Frequencies from an Evolved Supernova Remnant HB 3 (G132.7+1.3: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onić, D.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been reported that some of the flux density values for an evolved supernova remnant (SNR HB 3 (G132.7$+$1.3 are not accurate enough. In this work we therefore revised the analysis of the possible thermal emission at radio frequencies from this SNR using the recently published, corrected flux density values. A model including the sum of non-thermal (purely synchrotron and thermal (bremsstrahlung components is applied to fit the integrated radio spectrum of this SNR. The contribution of thermal component to the total volume emissivity at $1 mathrm{GHz}$ is estimated to be $approx37 \\%$. The ambient density is also estimated to be $napprox 9 mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ for $mathrm{T}=10^{4} mathrm{K}$. Again we obtained a relatively significant presence of thermal emission at radio frequencies from the SNR, which can support interaction between SNR HB 3 and adjacent molecular cloud associated with the mbox{H,{sc ii}} region W3. Our model estimates for thermal component contribution to total volume emissivity at $1 mathrm{GHz}$ and ambient density are similar to those obtained earlier ($approx40 \\%$, $approx10 mathrm{cm^{-3}}$. It is thus obvious that the corrected flux density values do not affect the basic conclusions.

  2. Structure of the radio emission from the NGC 1579/LkH. cap alpha. 101 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R L [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Va. (USA); Broderick, J J; Knapp, G R

    1976-06-01

    Radio-frequency observations at 3.7 and 11 cm of the NGC 1579/LkH..cap alpha..101 region show that the radio emission arises in a compact, < 1'' core concentric with a more extended approximately 1' emission region. At these wavelengths the compact component is optically thick, with a spectrum increasing as ..nu.., whereas the extended region is optically thin and contributes at least 80 per cent of the total flux density. LkH..cap alpha..101 appears to be the source of excitation for all of the radio emission; this result, together with the total infrared luminosity, suggests that an appropriate spectral classification for LkH..cap alpha..101 is B1 IIe.

  3. Multifrequency radio observations of SNR J0536-6735 (N 59B with associated pulsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozzetto L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of new Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA observations of supernova remnant, SNR J0536-6735. This remnant appears to follow a shell morphology with a diameter of D=36x29 pc (with 1 pc uncertainty in each direction. There is an embedded HII region on the northern limb of the remnant which made various analysis and measurements (such as flux density, spectral index and polarisation difficult. The radio-continuum emission followed the same structure as the optical emission, allowing for extent and flux density estimates at 20 cm. We estimate the surface brightness at 1 GHz of 2.55x10−21 Wm−2 Hz−1 sr−1 for the SNR. Also, we detect a distinctive radio-continuum point source which confirms the previous suggestion of this remnant being associated with pulsar wind nebula (PWN. The tail of this remnant is not seen in the radio-continuum images and is only seen in the optical and X-ray images.

  4. The radio-γ-ray connection in Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Bonnoli, G.

    2011-05-01

    We study the correlation between the γ-ray flux (Fγ), averaged over the first 11 months of the Fermi survey and integrated above 100 MeV, and the radio flux density (Fr at 20 GHz) of Fermi sources associated with a radio counterpart in the 20-GHz Australia Telescope Compact Array (AT20G) survey. Considering the blazars detected in both bands, the correlation is highly significant and has the form Fγ∝F0.85±0.04r, similar to BL Lacertae objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars. However, only a small fraction (˜1/15) of the AT20G radio sources with flat radio spectra are detected by Fermi. To understand if this correlation is real, we examine the selection effects introduced by the flux limits of both the radio and the γ-ray surveys, and the importance of variability of the γ-ray flux. After accounting for these effects, we find that the radio-γ-ray flux correlation is real, but its slope is steeper than the observed one, that is, Fγ∝Fδr with δ in the range 1.25-1.5. The observed Fγ-Fr correlation and the fraction of radio sources detected by Fermi are reproduced assuming a long-term γ-ray flux variability, following a lognormal probability distribution with standard deviation σ≥ 0.5 (corresponding to Fγ varying by at least a factor of 3). Such a variability is compatible, even if not necessarily equal, with what is observed when comparing, for the sources in common, the EGRET and the Fermi γ-ray fluxes (even if the Fermi fluxes are averaged over ˜1 yr). Another indication of variability is the non-detection of 12 out of 66 EGRET blazars by Fermi, despite its higher sensitivity. We also study the strong linear correlation between the γ-ray and the radio luminosity of the 144 AT20G-Fermi associations with known redshift and show, through partial correlation analysis, that it is statistically robust. Two possible implications of these correlations are discussed: the contribution of blazars to the extragalactic γ-ray background and the prediction

  5. Mean and Extreme Radio Properties of Quasars and the Origin of Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Kratzer, R.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the fraction of radio loud quasars and the mean radio properties of quasars. Although any quasar has only a ~10% chance of being radio loud and the average quasar has a radio luminosity of ~4x10^30 ergs/s/Hz, these properties are strong functions of not only luminosity, redshift, black hole mass, and accretion rate, but also the strength of the accretion disk wind (as characterized by CIV emission line properties). Quasars with higher optical luminosity and/or lower redshift have a higher than average probability of being radio loud, but their median radio luminosity (relative to optical) is much lower than average. We find that, while radio properties of quasars generally cannot be predicted from their optical properties, objects where one expects a strong radiation line driven wind (based on emission line features) have virtually no chance of being radio loud. The redder quasars are in the optical, the more radio flux (relative to optical) they have; this trend holds even for quasars that are not expected to be significantly dust reddened/extincted in the optical. Finally, we consider the radio properties of quasars in the framework of models which describe the radio loud extrema as being due to particularly high spin resulting from second generation mergers and in the context of star formation at lower levels of radio flux. This work was supported by NSF AAG grant 1108798.

  6. On the correlation between radio and gamma-ray luminosities of active galactic nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mücke, A.; Pohl, M.

    1997-01-01

    in flux-limited samples if intrinsic scatter does not exceed similar to 40 % of the original gamma-ray luminosity. However, if mean flux values of high variable sources are used we find the chance probability of high Spearman's correlation coefficient be significant underestimated. The analysis presented......The possibility of a correlation between the radio (cm)- and gamma-ray luminosity of variable AGN seen by EGRET is investigated. We perform Monte-Carlo simulations of typical data sets and apply different correlation techniques (partial correlation analysis, chi(2)-test applied on flux......-flux relations) in view of a truncation bias caused by sensitivity limits of the surveys. For K-corrected flux densities, we find that with the least squares method only a linear correlation can be recovered. Partial correlation analysis on the other side provides a robust tool to detect correlations even...

  7. Study of Cygnus X-3 at ultrahigh energies during the 1989 radio outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Berley, D.; Biller, S.D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Lu, X.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B.; Zhang, W.

    1990-01-01

    A unique feature of Cygnus X-3 is that occasionally it has large radio outbursts that begin very abruptly and last for several days. Several experiments in the past have claimed to observe signals above 1 TeV correlated with these radio bursts; the most recent bursts occurred in June and July 1989. No significant signal was observed by the CYGNUS experiment over time scales longer than a day during this time; a 90%-confidence-level limit of 3.0x10 -13 cm -2 s -1 is placed on the flux above 50 TeV during the period from 15 May to 31 July 1989

  8. Galactic synchrotron emission from WIMPs at radio frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: taoso@ific.uv.es [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Ed. Institutos, Apdo. Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter annihilations in the Galactic halo inject relativistic electrons and positrons which in turn generate a synchrotron radiation when interacting with the galactic magnetic field. We calculate the synchrotron flux for various dark matter annihilation channels, masses, and astrophysical assumptions in the low-frequency range and compare our results with radio surveys from 22 MHz to 1420 MHz. We find that current observations are able to constrain particle dark matter with ''thermal'' annihilation cross-sections, i.e. (σv) = 3 × 10{sup −26} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1}, and masses M{sub DM}∼<10 GeV. We discuss the dependence of these bounds on the astrophysical assumptions, namely galactic dark matter distribution, cosmic rays propagation parameters, and structure of the galactic magnetic field. Prospects for detection in future radio surveys are outlined.

  9. Variability of the Lyman alpha flux with solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, J.L.; Skumanich, A.

    1983-01-01

    A three-component model of the solar chromosphere, developed from ground based observations of the Ca II K chromospheric emission, is used to calculate the variability of the Lyman alpha flux between 1969 and 1980. The Lyman alpha flux at solar minimum is required in the model and is taken as 2.32 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 /s. This value occurred during 1975 as well as in 1976 near the commencement of solar cycle 21. The model predicts that the Lyman alpha flux increases to as much as 5 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 /s at the maximum of the solar cycle. The ratio of the average fluxes for December 1979 (cycle maximum) and July 1976 (cycle minimum) is 1.9. During solar maximum the 27-day solar rotation is shown to cause the Lyman alpha flux to vary by as much as 40% or as little as 5%. The model also shows that the Lyman alpha flux varies over intermediate time periods of 2 to 3 years, as well as over the 11-year sunspot cycle. We conclude that, unlike the sunspot number and the 10.7-cm radio flux, the Lyman alpha flux had a variability that was approximately the same during each of the past three cycles. Lyman alpha fluxes calculated by the model are consistent with measurements of the Lyman alpha flux made by 11 of a total of 14 rocket experiments conducted during the period 1969--1980. The model explains satisfactorily the absolute magnitude, long-term trends, and the cycle variability seen in the Lyman alpha irradiances by the OSO 5 satellite experiment. The 27-day variability observed by the AE-E satellite experiment is well reproduced. However, the magntidue of the AE-E 1 Lyman alpha irradiances are higher than the model calculations by between 40% and 80%. We suggest that the assumed calibration of the AE-E irradiances is in error

  10. Pair-Matching of Radio-Loud and Radio-Quiet AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozieł-Wierzbowska, Dorota [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Stasińska, Grażyna [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Paris Diderot, Meudon (France); Vale Asari, Natalia [Departamento de Física–CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Sikora, Marek [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warsaw (Poland); Goettems, Elisa [Departamento de Física–CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis (Brazil); Wójtowicz, Anna, E-mail: dorota.koziel@uj.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)

    2017-11-07

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are known to cover an extremely broad range of radio luminosities and the spread of their radio-loudness is very large at any value of the Eddington ratio. This implies very diverse jet production efficiencies which can result from the spread of the black hole spins and magnetic fluxes. Magnetic fluxes can be developed stochastically in the innermost zones of accretion discs, or can be advected to the central regions prior to the AGN phase. In the latter case there could be systematic differences between the properties of galaxies hosting radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) AGNs. In the former case the differences should be negligible for objects having the same Eddington ratio. To study the problem we decided to conduct a comparison study of host galaxy properties of RL and RQ AGNs. In this study we selected type II AGNs from SDSS spectroscopic catalogs. Our RL AGN sample consists of the AGNs appearing in the Best and Heckman (2012) catalog of radio galaxies. To compare RL and RQ galaxies that have the same AGN parameters we matched the galaxies in black hole mass, Eddington ratio and redshift. We compared several properties of the host galaxies in these two groups of objects like galaxy mass, color, concentration index, line widths, morphological type and interaction signatures. We found that in the studied group RL AGNs are preferentially hosted by elliptical galaxies while RQ ones are hosted by galaxies of later type. We also found that the fraction of interacting galaxies is the same in both groups of AGNs. These results suggest that the magnetic flux in RL AGNs is advected to the nucleus prior to the AGN phase.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared-faint radio sources catalog (Collier+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. D.; Banfield, J. K.; Norris, R. P.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Kimball, A. E.; Filipovic, M. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.

    2014-11-01

    The 20cm radio data come from the Unified Radio Catalog (URC) compiled by Kimball & Ivezic (2008AJ....136..684K). This radio catalogue combines data from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) VLA Sky Survey (NVSS; Condon et al., 1998, Cat. VIII/65), Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST; Becker, White & Helfand, 1995, cat. VIII/92), Green Bank 6cm survey (GB6; Gregory et al., 1996, Cat. VIII/40), the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS; Rengelink et al. 1997; de Bruyn et al. 2000, Cat. VIII/62) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6; Adelman-McCarthy et al., 2008, Cat. II/282). We use updated NVSS and FIRST data from the URC version 2.0 (Kimball & Ivezic, in preparation), which includes a number of new sources as well as updated positions and flux densities. The IR data come from WISE (Wright et al. (WISE Team) 2009, Cat. II/311), which is an all-sky survey centred at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22um (referred to as bands W1, W2, W3 and W4), with respective angular resolutions of 6.1, 6.4, 6.5 and 12.0-arcsec (full width at half-maximum, FWHM), and typical 5σ sensitivity levels of 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6mJy, with sensitivity increasing towards the ecliptic poles. (1 data file).

  12. Radio variability of the blazar AO 0235 + 164

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'dell, S.L.; Dennison, B.; Broderick, J.J.; Altschuler, D.R.; Condon, J.J.; Payne, H.E.; Mitchell, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    The high-redshift blazar A0 0235 + 164 exhibits flux-density variations which are primarily of the less common variety in which low-frequency flux-density variations track the high-frequency variations but are delayed and of smaller amplitude. Observational results based on five years of monitoring are presented which are correlated over at least a factor of 50 frequency range in the sense expected for an expanding synchrotron component: outbursts propagating toward lower frequencies with diminishing amplitudes. A simple, semiempirical jet model is developed which accounts reasonably well for the radio properties of the object. The predictions of the model are compared with observations, examining the radio flux-density histories, the radio spectral evolution, the radio structure, and evidence for relativistic bulk motion. 59 references

  13. Fast Radio Bursts’ Recipes for the Distributions of Dispersion Measures, Flux Densities, and Fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Yuu

    2018-05-01

    We investigate how the statistical properties of dispersion measure (DM) and apparent flux density/fluence of (nonrepeating) fast radio bursts (FRBs) are determined by unknown cosmic rate density history [ρ FRB(z)] and luminosity function (LF) of the transient events. We predict the distributions of DMs, flux densities, and fluences of FRBs taking account of the variation of the receiver efficiency within its beam, using analytical models of ρ FRB(z) and LF. Comparing the predictions with the observations, we show that the cumulative distribution of apparent fluences suggests that FRBs originate at cosmological distances and ρ FRB increases with redshift resembling the cosmic star formation history (CSFH). We also show that an LF model with a bright-end cutoff at log10 L ν (erg s‑1 Hz‑1) ∼ 34 are favored to reproduce the observed DM distribution if ρ FRB(z) ∝ CSFH, although the statistical significance of the constraints obtained with the current size of the observed sample is not high. Finally, we find that the correlation between DM and flux density of FRBs is potentially a powerful tool to distinguish whether FRBs are at cosmological distances or in the local universe more robustly with future observations.

  14. VLA radio-continuum survey of a sample of confirmed and marginal barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.A.; Simon, T.; Linsky, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from a 6-cm VLA survey of five confirmed Ba II stars and eight mild Ba II stars, undertaken to search for evidence of gyrosynchrotron emission or thermal emission from the primary star's wind that is enhanced or photoionized by a white dwarf companion. Of these 13 stars, only Beta UMi was detected as a possible radio source at a flux level of 0.11 mJy (3sigma). The 6-cm radio luminosities (L6) of the other stars are as small as log L6 less than or equal to 14.0 and are an order of magnitude or more lower than the average levels found in RS CVn systems, but are consistent with the L6 upper limits previously found for stars of spectral type similar to the Ba II stars and normal elemental abundances. The upper limit to the radio luminosity for the possible mild Ba II star 56 Peg, when combined with its previously known X-ray luminosity, may provide useful constraints on the various models that have been proposed for this interesting object, once its orbital period is known. 28 references

  15. Absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at seven wavelengths in the 1.8-4.2 cm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, L.V.; Snegireva, V.V.; Turchin, V.I.; Tsejtlin, N.M.; Voronkov, L.A.; Dmitrenko, D.A.; Kuznetsova, N.A.; Kholodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Results of absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at 1.8-4.17 cm wavelengths are presented. Spectra are built in the wave range of 1.8-100 cm with the use of results obtained earlier. Variability has been detected in radiation of Taurus A as well as ''steps'' in the spectrum of Taurus A with the spectral index α=0 in the region of 2 cm and 3-4 cm [ru

  16. Radio-continuum jets around the peculiar galaxy pair ESO 295-IG022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report new radio-continuum observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA of the region surrounding the peculiar galaxy pair ESO 295-IG022 at the centre of the poor cluster Abell S0102. We observed this cluster at wavelengths of λ=20/13 and 6/3 cm with the ATCA 6 km array. With these configurations, we achieved a resolution of ~2'' at 3 cm which is sufficient to resolve the jet-like structure of ~3' length detected at 20 cm. From our new high resolution images at 6 and 3 cm we confirm the presence of a double jet structure, most likely originating from the northern galaxy (ESO 295-IG022-N, bent and twisted towards the south. We found the spectral index of the jet to be very steep (α=-1.32. No point source was detected that could be associated with the core of ESO 295-IG022-N. On the other hand, ESO 295-IG022-S does not show any jet structure, but does show a point radio source. This source has variable flux and spectral index, and appears to be superposed on the line-of-sight of the jets (seen at 20-cm originating from the northern galaxy ESO 295-IG022-N. Finally, regions of very high and somewhat well ordered polarization were detected at the level of 70%.

  17. Cassini Radio Occultations of Saturn's Ionosphere: Modeling a Variable Influx of Water into Saturn's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L.; Mendillo, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Saturn-Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Model (STIM), a global circulation model (GCM) of Saturn's upper atmosphere, is used to investigate a range of possible parameters that could lead to the profiles measured recently by the Radio Science Subsystem (RSS) aboard Cassini. Specifically, electron density observations of Saturn's equatorial ionosphere demonstrate a dawn/dusk asymmetry, a possible double peak, and a high degree of vertical structure and variability. On average, peak electron densities are larger at dusk than dawn (5400 cm-3 vs. 1700 cm-3) and the peak altitudes are lower at dusk than dawn (1880 km vs. 2360 km). Self-consistent, time-dependent 1D water diffusion calculations have been combined with the GCM in order to examine the possibility that a topside flux of neutral water into Saturn's atmosphere may provide a loss mechanism -- via charge exchange with protons -- that is sufficient to reproduce the observed ionosphere. Our previous modeling results indicated that a constant background influx of (0.5 -- 1.0) x 107 H2O cm-2 sec-1 was adequate in reproducing Cassini measurements on average [Moore et al., 2006], however the large observed variations in the vertical electron density profiles require additional complexities in the modeling. In this study we show that one possible source of the structuring observed in the electron density profiles could be from brief surges and/or reductions in the background water flux, which ultimately may be linked to geysers near Enceladus' southern pole. Moore, L., A.F. Nagy, A.J. Kliore, I. Mueller-Wodarg, J.D. Richardson, M. Mendillo (2006), Cassini radio occultations of Saturn's ionopshere: I. model comparisons using a constant water flux, submitted to GRL.

  18. DEEP SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED-FAINT RADIO SOURCES: HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Ray P.; Mao, Minnie; Afonso, Jose; Cava, Antonio; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Huynh, Minh T.; Mauduit, Jean-Christophe; Surace, Jason; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, Matt; Lacy, Mark; Maraston, Claudia; Middelberg, Enno; Seymour, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRSs) are a rare class of objects which are relatively bright at radio wavelengths but very faint at infrared and optical wavelengths. Here we present sensitive near-infrared observations of a sample of these sources taken as part of the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey. Nearly all the IFRSs are undetected at a level of ∼1 μJy in these new deep observations, and even the detections are consistent with confusion with unrelated galaxies. A stacked image implies that the median flux density is S 3.6μm ∼ 0.2 μJy or less, giving extreme values of the radio-infrared flux density ratio. Comparison of these objects with known classes of object suggests that the majority are probably high-redshift radio-loud galaxies, possibly suffering from significant dust extinction.

  19. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2IFRS, but if confirmed, the increased AGN numbers at these redshifts will account for the unresolved part of the X-ray background. The identification of X-ray counterparts of IFRS is considered to be the smoking gun for this hypothesis. We propose to observe 8 IFRS using 30ks pointed observations. X-ray detections of IFRS with different ratios of radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  20. Radio observations of symbiotic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A E [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Epping (Australia). Div. of Radiophysics; Allen, D A

    1978-09-01

    A search for 2-cm continuum emission from 91 symbiotic stars has been undertaken using the Parkes radio telescope. Nine sources have been detected, four of which are reported for the first time. The radio spectral indices are mostly about + 0.6; these are interpreted in terms of mass loss. In two stars a portion of the radio spectrum has an index of zero, and for one of these stars (RX Puppis) this is plausibly a manifestation of the cessation of symbiotic activity that occurred about two decades ago. There is an extraordinarily good correlation between the detectability at 2cm and the presence of circumstellar dust, but not between the radio and optical domains. The importance of continued radio monitoring of HM Sagittae over the next few years is stressed.

  1. Spectral Index Properties of millijansky Radio Sources in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Kate; Hopkins, A. M.; Norris, R. P.; Zinn, P.; Middelberg, E.; Mao, M. Y.; Sharp, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    At the faintest radio flux densities (S1.4GHz 10 mJy) is well studied and is predominantly comprised of AGN. At fainter flux densities, particularly into the microJansky regime, star-forming galaxies begin to dominate the radio source population. Understanding these faint radio source populations is essential for understanding galaxy evolution, and the link between AGN and star formation. Conflicting results have recently arisen regarding whether there is a flattening of the average spectral index between a low radio frequency (325 or 610 MHz) and 1.4 GHz at these faint flux densities. To explore this issue, we have investigated the spectral index properties of a new catalogue of 843 MHz radio sources in the ELAIS-S1 (the European Large Area ISO Survey - South 1 Region) field. Our results support previous work showing a tendency towards flatter radio spectra at fainter flux densities. This catalogue is cross-matched to the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS), the widest deep radio survey to date at 1.4 GHz, with complementary 2.3 GHz, optical and infrared Spitzer Wide-area Infra-Red Extragalactic data. The variation of spectral index properties have been explored as a function of redshift, luminosity and flux density. [These new measurements have been used to identify a population of faint Compact Steep Spectrum sources, thought to be one of the earliest stages of the AGN life-cycle. Exploring this population will aid us in understanding the evolution of AGN as a whole.

  2. RADIO MONITORING OF THE PERIODICALLY VARIABLE IR SOURCE LRLL 54361: NO DIRECT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE RADIO AND IR EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbrich, Jan, E-mail: jan.forbrich@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Zapata, Luis A. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    LRLL 54361 is an infrared source located in the star-forming region IC 348 SW. Remarkably, its infrared luminosity increases by a factor of 10 over roughly one week every 25.34 days. To understand the origin of these remarkable periodic variations, we obtained sensitive 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of LRLL 54361 and its surroundings in six different epochs: three of them during the IR-on state and three during the IR-off state. The radio source associated with LRLL 54361 remained steady and did not show a correlation with the IR variations. We suggest that the IR is tracing the results of fast (with a timescale of days) pulsed accretion from an unseen binary companion, while the radio traces an ionized outflow with an extent of ∼100 AU that smooths out the variability over a period of the order of a year. The average flux density measured in these 2014 observations, 27 ± 5 μJy, is about a factor of two less than that measured about 1.5 years before, 53 ± 11 μJy, suggesting that variability in the radio is present, but over larger timescales than in the IR. We discuss other sources in the field, in particular two infrared/X-ray stars that show rapidly varying gyrosynchrotron emission.

  3. Suzaku Diagnostics of the Energetics in the Lobes of the Giant Radio Galaxy 3C 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Naoki; Seta, Hiromi; Gandhi, Poshak; Tashiro, Makoto S.

    2011-02-01

    The Suzaku observation of a giant radio galaxy 3C 35 revealed faint extended X-ray emission, associated with its radio lobes and/or host galaxy. After careful subtraction of the X-ray and non-X-ray background and contaminating X-ray sources, the X-ray spectrum of the faint emission was reproduced by a sum of the power-law (PL) and soft thermal components. The soft component was attributed to the thermal plasma emission from the host galaxy. The photon index of the PL component, Γ = 1.35+0.56 -0.86 +0.11 -0.10, where the first and second errors represent the statistical and systematic ones, was found to agree with the synchrotron radio index from the lobes, ΓR = 1.7. Thus, the PL component was attributed to the inverse Compton (IC) X-rays from the synchrotron electrons in the lobes. The X-ray flux density at 1 keV was derived as 13.6 ± 5.4+4.0 -3.6 nJy with the photon index fixed at the radio value. The X-ray surface brightness from these lobes (~0.2 nJy arcmin-2) is lowest among the lobes studied through the IC X-ray emission. In combination with the synchrotron radio flux density, 7.5 ± 0.2 Jy at 327.4 MHz, the electron energy density spatially averaged over the lobes was evaluated to be the lowest among those radio galaxies, as u e = (5.8 ± 2.3+1.9 -1.7) × 10-14 erg cm-3 over the electron Lorentz factor of 103-105. The magnetic energy density was calculated as u m = (3.1+2.5 -1.0 +1.4 -0.9) × 10-14 erg cm-3, corresponding to the magnetic field strength of 0.88+0.31 -0.16 +0.19 -0.14 μG. These results suggest that the energetics in the 3C 35 lobes are nearly consistent with equipartition between the electrons and magnetic fields.

  4. Extended radio emission and the nature of blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonucci, R.R.J.; Ulvestad, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The VLA has been used at 20 cm to map all 23 of the 54 confirmed blazars listed in the Angel and Stockman review paper that had not been mapped before at high resolution. (Blazars include BL Lac objects and optically violently variable quasars.) In addition, data on most of the previously mapped blazars have been reprocessed in order to achieve higher dynamic range. Extended emission has been detected associated with 49 of the 54 objects. The extended radio emission has been used to test the hypothesis that blazars are normal radio galaxies and radio quasars viewed along the jet axes. We find that blazars have substantial extended power, consistent with this hypothesis. Many have extended powers as high as the luminous Fanaroff-Riley class 2 radio doubles. The projected linear sizes are small, as expected from foreshortening of the extended sources, and many blazars have the expected core-halo morphology. There are also several small doubles, a head-tail source, and some one-sided sources, and these could be in cases where the line of sight is slightly off the jet axis, or projections of asymmetrical radio galaxies and quasars. The ratio of core to extended radio emission has been studied as a possible indicator of viewing aspect or beaming intensity. It is found to correlate with optical polarization, optical and radio core variability, and one-sided radio morphology. We can go beyond these consistency checks and work toward a proof of the hypothesis under discussion. The flux from the extended emission alone is sufficient in some blazars to qualify them for inclusion in the 3C and 4C catalogs. Suppose that the radio core emission is anisotropic, but the extended emission is predominantly isotropic. The isotropy of the extended emission implies that these blazars would be in the catalogs even if viewed from the side

  5. The Properties of Primordial Stars and Galaxies measured from the 21-cm Global Spectrum using the Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Bowman, Judd D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Fialkov, Anastasia; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kasper, Justin; Loeb, Abraham; Mirocha, Jordan; Monsalve, Raul A.; Rapetti, David; Tauscher, Keith; Wollack, Edward

    2017-01-01

    DARE is a mission concept designed to observe the formation of primordial stars, black holes, and galaxies (z=11-35) by measuring their spectral effects on the redshifted 21-cm hydrogen line. The UV and X-ray radiation emitted by these first objects ionized and heated the intergalactic medium and imprinted characteristic features in the 21-cm spectrum. The 1.4 GHz signal is redshifted into the radio band 40-120 MHz. DARE will take advantage of the quietest RF environment in the inner solar system by using the Moon as a shield from human radio frequency interference and solar emissions via observations on the lunar farside. DARE’s science objectives are to determine: when the first stars turned on and their properties, when the first black holes began accreting and their masses, the reionization history of the early Universe, and if evidence exists for exotic physics in the Dark Ages such as Dark Matter decay. Wideband crossed-dipole antennas, pilot tone stablized radiometric receivers, a polarimeter, and a digital spectrometer constitute the science instrument. DARE’s radiometer is precisely calibrated with a featureless spectral response, controlled systematics, and heritage from CMB missions. Models for the instrument main beam and sidelobes, antenna reflection coefficient, gain variations, and calibrations will be validated with electromagnetic simulations, laboratory and anechoic chamber measurements, and verified on-orbit. The unique frequency structure of the 21-cm spectrum, its uniformity over large angular scales, and its unpolarized state are unlike the spectrally featureless, spatially-varying, polarized emission of the bright Galactic foreground, allowing the signal to be cleanly separated from the foreground. The 21-cm signal will be extracted in the presence of foregrounds using a Bayesian framework with a Markov Chain Monto Carlo (MCMC) numerical inference technique. The DARE data analysis pipeline enables efficient, simultaneous, and self

  6. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parijskij, Y.N.; Gossachinskij, I.V.; Zuckerman, B.; Khersonsky, V.K.; Pustilnik, S.; Robinson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of major developments and discoveries in the field of radioastronomy during the period 1973-1975 is presented. The report is presented under the following headings:(1) Continuum radiation from the Galaxy; (2) Neutral hydrogen, 21 cm (galactic and extragalactic) and recombination lines; (3) Radioastronomy investigations of interstellar molecules; (4) Extragalactic radio astronomy and (6) Development in radio astronomy instruments. (B.R.H.)

  7. COMPLETE IONIZATION OF THE NEUTRAL GAS: WHY THERE ARE SO FEW DETECTIONS OF 21 cm HYDROGEN IN HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, S. J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Whiting, M. T., E-mail: sjc@physics.usyd.edu.au [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2012-11-10

    From the first published z {approx}> 3 survey of 21 cm absorption within the hosts of radio galaxies and quasars, Curran et al. found an apparent dearth of cool neutral gas at high redshift. From a detailed analysis of the photometry, each object is found to have a {lambda} = 1216 A continuum luminosity in excess of L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}, a critical value above which 21 cm has never been detected at any redshift. At these wavelengths, and below, hydrogen is excited above the ground state so that it cannot absorb in 21 cm. In order to apply the equation of photoionization equilibrium, we demonstrate that this critical value also applies to the ionizing ({lambda} {<=} 912 A) radiation. We use this to show, for a variety of gas density distributions, that upon placing a quasar within a galaxy of gas, there is always an ultraviolet luminosity above which all of the large-scale atomic gas is ionized. While in this state, the hydrogen cannot be detected or engage in star formation. Applying the mean ionizing photon rate of all of the sources searched, we find, using canonical values for the gas density and recombination rate coefficient, that the observed critical luminosity gives a scale length (3 kpc) similar that of the neutral hydrogen (H I) in the Milky Way, a large spiral galaxy. Thus, this simple yet physically motivated model can explain the critical luminosity (L {sub 912} {approx} L {sub 1216} {approx} 10{sup 23} W Hz{sup -1}), above which neutral gas is not detected. This indicates that the non-detection of 21 cm absorption is not due to the sensitivity limits of current radio telescopes, but rather that the lines of sight to the quasars, and probably the bulk of the host galaxies, are devoid of neutral gas.

  8. The Study of Radio Flux Density Variations of the Quasar OJ 287 by the Wavelet and the Singular Spectrum Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskykh Ganna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flux density variations of the extragalactic radio source OJ 287 are studied by applying the wavelet and the singular spectrum methods to the long-term monitoring data at 14.5, 8.0 and 4.8 GHz acquired at the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory during 40 years. This monitoring significantly supplements the episodic VLBI data. The wavelet analysis at all three frequencies revealed the presence of quasiperiods within the intervals 6.0–7.4 and 1.2–1.8 years. The singular spectrum analysis revealed the presence of quasiperiods within the intervals 6–10 and 1.6–4.0 years. For each quasiperiod the time interval of its existence was determined.

  9. The radio spectral energy distribution of infrared-faint radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Seymour, N.; Spitler, L. R.; Emonts, B. H. C.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Hunstead, R.; Intema, H. T.; Marvil, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sirothia, S. K.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Callingham, J. R.; Deshpande, A. A.; Dwarakanath, K. S.; For, B.-Q.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kapińska, A. D.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Zheng, Q.; Bannister, K. W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, I.; Indermuehle, B.; Popping, A.; Sault, R. J.; Whiting, M. T.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a class of radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshifts (z ≥ 1.7) that are characterised by their relative infrared faintness, resulting in enormous radio-to-infrared flux density ratios of up to several thousand. Aims: Because of their optical and infrared faintness, it is very challenging to study IFRS at these wavelengths. However, IFRS are relatively bright in the radio regime with 1.4 GHz flux densities of a few to a few tens of mJy. Therefore, the radio regime is the most promising wavelength regime in which to constrain their nature. We aim to test the hypothesis that IFRS are young AGN, particularly GHz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that have a low frequency turnover. Methods: We use the rich radio data set available for the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey fields, covering the frequency range between 150 MHz and 34 GHz with up to 19 wavebands from different telescopes, and build radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 34 IFRS. We then study the radio properties of this class of object with respect to turnover, spectral index, and behaviour towards higher frequencies. We also present the highest-frequency radio observations of an IFRS, observed with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 105 GHz, and model the multi-wavelength and radio-far-infrared SED of this source. Results: We find IFRS usually follow single power laws down to observed frequencies of around 150 MHz. Mostly, the radio SEDs are steep (α IFRS show statistically significantly steeper radio SEDs than the broader RL AGN population. Our analysis reveals that the fractions of GPS and CSS sources in the population of IFRS are consistent with the fractions in the broader RL AGN population. We find that at least % of IFRS contain young AGN, although the fraction might be significantly higher as suggested by the steep SEDs and the compact morphology of IFRS. The detailed multi

  10. Calibration of Solar Radio Spectrometer of the Purple Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, LU; Si-ming, LIU; Qi-wu, SONG; Zong-jun, NING

    2015-10-01

    Calibration is a basic and important job in solar radio spectral observations. It not only deduces the solar radio flux as an important physical quantity for solar observations, but also deducts the flat field of the radio spectrometer to display the radio spectrogram clearly. In this paper, we first introduce the basic method of calibration based on the data of the solar radio spectrometer of Purple Mountain Observatory. We then analyze the variation of the calibration coefficients, and give the calibrated results for a few flares. These results are compared with those of the Nobeyama solar radio polarimeter and the hard X-ray observations of the RHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) satellite, it is shown that these results are consistent with the characteristics of typical solar flare light curves. In particular, the analysis on the correlation between the variation of radio flux and the variation of hard X-ray flux in the pulsing phase of a flare indicates that these observations can be used to study the relevant radiation mechanism, as well as the related energy release and particle acceleration processes.

  11. Flux pinning characteristics in cylindrical niobium samples used for superconducting radio frequency cavity fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhavale, Asavari S.; Dhakal, Pashupati; Polyanskii, Anatolii A.; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2012-06-01

    We present the results from DC magnetization and penetration depth measurements of cylindrical bulk large-grain (LG) and fine-grain (FG) niobium samples used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The surface treatment consisted of electropolishing and low-temperature baking as they are typically applied to SRF cavities. The magnetization data are analyzed using a modified critical state model. The critical current density Jc and pinning force Fp are calculated from the magnetization data and their temperature dependence and field dependence are presented. The LG samples have lower critical current density and pinning force density compared to FG samples, favorable to lower flux trapping efficiency. This effect may explain the lower values of residual resistance often observed in LG cavities than FG cavities.

  12. Surveys of radio sources at 5 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauliny-Toth, I.I.K.

    1977-01-01

    A number of surveys have been carried out at a frequency of 5 GHz at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomy (MPIFR) with the aim of determining the number-flux density relation for the sources detected and also of obtaining their radio spectra and optical identifications. The surveys fall into two categories: first, the strong source (S) surveys which are intended in due course to cover the whole northern sky and to be complete above a flux density of about 0.6 Jy; second, surveys of limited areas of sky down to lower levels of the flux density. (Auth.)

  13. Search for Efficient Foreground Subtraction Method in 21cm Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Abhirup; Choudhury, Madhurima; Chakraborty, Arnab

    2017-06-01

    Observations of the HI 21 cm transition line promises to be an important probe into the cosmic Dark Ages and Epoch of Reionization. Detection of this redshifted 21 cm signal is one of the key science goal for several upcoming and future low frequency radio telescopes like Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Dark Ages Radio Explorer (DARE). One of the challenges for the detection of this signal is the accuracy of the foreground source removal. Several novel techniques have been explored already to remove bright foregrounds from both interferometric as well as total power experiments. Here, we present preliminary results from our investigation on application of Artificial Neural Networks to detect faint 21cm global signal amidst the sea of bright galactic foreground.

  14. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASAR PKS 1454-354

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of high-energy γ-ray (GeV) emission from the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1454-354 (z = 1.424). On 2008 September 4, the source rose to a peak flux of (3.5 ± 0.7) x 10 -6 ph cm -2 s -1 (E > 100 MeV) on a timescale of hours and then slowly dropped over the following 2 days. No significant spectral changes occurred during the flare. Fermi/LAT observations also showed that PKS 1454-354 is the most probable counterpart of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1500-3509. Multiwavelength measurements performed during the following days (7 September with Swift; 6-7 September with the ground-based optical telescope Automated Telescope for Optical Monitoring; 13 September with the Australia Telescope Compact Array) resulted in radio, optical, UV, and X-ray fluxes greater than archival data, confirming the activity of PKS 1454-354.

  15. Local Volume Hi Survey: the far-infrared radio correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Li; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Wang, Jing; Ho, Luis C.; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we measure the far-infrared (FIR) and radio flux densities of a sample of 82 local gas-rich galaxies, including 70 "dwarf" galaxies (M* correlation (FRC) over four orders of magnitude (F_1.4GHz ∝ F_FIR^{1.00± 0.08}). However, for detected galaxies only, a trend of larger FIR-to-radio ratio with decreasing flux density is observed. We estimate the star formation rate by combining UV and mid-IR data using empirical calibration. It is confirmed that both FIR and radio emission are strongly connected with star formation but with significant non-linearity. Dwarf galaxies are found radiation deficient in both bands, when normalized by star formation rate. It urges a "conspiracy" to keep the FIR-to-radio ratio generally constant. By using partial correlation coefficient in Pearson definition, we identify the key galaxy properties associated with the FIR and radio deficiency. Some major factors, such as stellar mass surface density, will cancel out when taking the ratio between FIR and radio fluxes. The remaining factors, such as HI-to-stellar mass ratio and galaxy size, are expected to cancel each other due to the distribution of galaxies in the parameter space. Such cancellation is probably responsible for the "conspiracy" to keep the FRC alive.

  16. Flux pinning characteristics in cylindrical ingot niobium used in superconducting radio frequency cavity fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhavale Ashavai, Pashupati Dhakal, Anatolii A Polyanskii, Gianluigi Ciovati

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of from DC magnetization and penetration depth measurements of cylindrical bulk large-grain (LG) and fine-grain (FG) niobium samples used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The surface treatment consisted of electropolishing and low temperature baking as they are typically applied to SRF cavities. The magnetization data were fitted using a modified critical state model. The critical current density Jc and pinning force Fp are calculated from the magnetization data and their temperature dependence and field dependence are presented. The LG samples have lower critical current density and pinning force density compared to FG samples which implies a lower flux trapping efficiency. This effect may explain the lower values of residual resistance often observed in LG cavities than FG cavities.

  17. Flux pinning characteristics in cylindrical niobium samples used for superconducting radio frequency cavity fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhavale, Asavari S; Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Polyanskii, Anatolii A

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from DC magnetization and penetration depth measurements of cylindrical bulk large-grain (LG) and fine-grain (FG) niobium samples used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The surface treatment consisted of electropolishing and low-temperature baking as they are typically applied to SRF cavities. The magnetization data are analyzed using a modified critical state model. The critical current density J c and pinning force F p are calculated from the magnetization data and their temperature dependence and field dependence are presented. The LG samples have lower critical current density and pinning force density compared to FG samples, favorable to lower flux trapping efficiency. This effect may explain the lower values of residual resistance often observed in LG cavities than FG cavities. (paper)

  18. Simulations of cm-wavelength Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy cluster and point source blind sky surveys and predictions for the RT32/OCRA-f and the Hevelius 100-m radio telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Bartosz; Kus, Andrzej [Toruń Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 11, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Birkinshaw, Mark [HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Peter, E-mail: blew@astro.uni.torun.pl, E-mail: Mark.Birkinshaw@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: peter.wilkinson@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: ajk@astro.uni.torun.pl [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of blind surveys for radio sources and galaxy cluster thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (TSZEs) using the four-pair, beam-switched OCRA-f radiometer on the 32-m radio telescope in Poland. The predictions are based on mock maps that include the cosmic microwave background, TSZEs from hydrodynamical simulations of large scale structure formation, and unresolved radio sources. We validate the mock maps against observational data, and examine the limitations imposed by simplified physics. We estimate the effects of source clustering towards galaxy clusters from NVSS source counts around Planck-selected cluster candidates, and include appropriate correlations in our mock maps. The study allows us to quantify the effects of halo line-of-sight alignments, source confusion, and telescope angular resolution on the detections of TSZEs. We perform a similar analysis for the planned 100-m Hevelius radio telescope (RTH) equipped with a 49-beam radio camera and operating at frequencies up to 22 GHz.We find that RT32/OCRA-f will be suitable for small-field blind radio source surveys, and will detect 33{sup +17}{sub −11} new radio sources brighter than 0.87 mJy at 30 GHz in a 1 deg{sup 2} field at > 5σ CL during a one-year, non-continuous, observing campaign, taking account of Polish weather conditions. It is unlikely that any galaxy cluster will be detected at 3σ CL in such a survey. A 60-deg{sup 2} survey, with field coverage of 2{sup 2} beams per pixel, at 15 GHz with the RTH, would find <1.5 galaxy clusters per year brighter than 60 μJy (at 3σ CL), and would detect about 3.4 × 10{sup 4} point sources brighter than 1 mJy at 5σ CL, with confusion causing flux density errors ∼< 2% (20%) in 68% (95%) of the detected sources.A primary goal of the planned RTH will be a wide-area (π sr) radio source survey at 15 GHz. This survey will detect nearly 3 × 10{sup 5} radio sources at 5σ CL down to 1.3 mJy, and tens of galaxy

  19. Periodicities observed on solar flux index (F10.7) during geomagnetic disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, B.; Narayan, C.; Chhatkuli, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Solar activities change within the period of 11 years. Sometimes the greatest event occurs in the period of solar maxima and the lowest activity occurs in the period of solar minimum. During the time period of solar activity sunspots number will vary. A 10.7 cm solar flux measurement is a determination of the strength of solar radio emission. The solar flux index is more often used for the prediction and monitoring of the solar activity. This study mainly focused on the variation on solar flux index and amount of electromagnetic wave in the atmosphere. Both seasonal and yearly variation on solar F10.7 index. We also analyzed the dataset obatained from riometer.Both instruments show seasonal and yearly variations. We also observed the solar cycle dependence on solar flux index and found a strong dependence on solar activity. Results also show that solar intensities higher during the rising phase of solar cycle. We also observed periodicities on solar flux index using wavelet analysis. Through this analysis, it was found that the power intensities of solar flux index show a high spectral variability.

  20. Integrated radio continuum spectra of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvil, Joshua; Owen, Frazer [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Eilek, Jean, E-mail: josh.marvil@csiro.au [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spectral shape of the total continuum radiation, between 74 MHz and 5 GHz (400-6 cm in wavelength), for a large sample of bright galaxies. We take advantage of the overlapping survey coverage of the VLA Low-Frequency Sky Survey, the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, and the Green Bank 6 cm Survey to achieve significantly better resolution, sensitivity, and sample size compared to prior efforts of this nature. For our sample of 250 bright galaxies we measure a mean spectral index, α, of –0.69 between 1.4 and 4.85 GHz, –0.55 between 325 MHz and 1.4 GHz, and –0.45 between 74 and 325 MHz, which amounts to a detection of curvature in the mean spectrum. The magnitude of this curvature is approximately Δα = –0.2 per logarithmic frequency decade when fit with a generalized function having constant curvature. No trend in low-frequency spectral flattening versus galaxy inclination is evident in our data, suggesting that free-free absorption is not a satisfying explanation for the observed curvature. The ratio of thermal to non-thermal emission is estimated through two independent methods: (1) using the IRAS far-IR fluxes and (2) with the value of the total spectral index. Method (1) results in a distribution of 1.4 GHz thermal fractions of 9% ± 3%, which is consistent with previous studies, while method (2) produces a mean 1.4 GHz thermal fraction of 51% with dispersion 26%. The highly implausible values produced by method (2) indicate that the sum of typical power-law thermal and non-thermal components is not a viable model for the total spectral index between 325 and 1.4 GHz. An investigation into relationships between spectral index, infrared-derived quantities, and additional source properties reveals that galaxies with high radio luminosity in our sample are found to have, on average, a flatter radio spectral index, and early types tend to have excess radio emission when compared to the radio-infrared ratio of later

  1. Study of underground muons during the January 1991 radio flare of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Dye, S.T.; Gajewski, W.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T.J.; Halverson, P.G.; Kielczewska, D.; Kropp, W.R.; Learned, J.G.; LoSecco, J.M.; Matsuno, S.; McGrath, G.; McGrew, C.; Miller, R.S.; Price, L.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.W.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Svoboda, R.

    1993-01-01

    Muons recorded by the IMB proton decay detector during the radio outburst from Cygnus X-3 in January 1991 are studied. Data are examined for both aperiodic excesses and those phase modulated at the x-ray period of Cygnus X-3. No correlation between the muon data and Cygnus X-3 is found. Further, this observation provides flux limits of Φ 90% C.L.≤2x10 -10 μ cm -2 s -1 at 1570 meters of water equivalent on the 20th and 23rd, in contrast with other reported signals

  2. MERLIN observations of steep-spectrum radio sources at 6 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akujor, C.E.; Zhang, F.J.; Fanti, C.

    1991-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of steep-spectrum radio sources made with MERLIN at 5 GHz. Thirty-one objects, comprising 11 quasars and 20 galaxies, most of them being 'Compact Steep-Spectrum' sources (CSSs), have been mapped with resolutions from 80 to 150 mas. This completes the current series of observations of CSS sources made with MERLIN at 5 GHz. We find that the majority of the quasars have complex structures, while galaxies tend to have double or triple structures, consistent with other recent studies of CSSs. (author)

  3. A CLOSER VIEW OF THE RADIO-FIR CORRELATION: DISENTANGLING THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF STAR FORMATION AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moric, I.; Smolcic, V.; Riechers, D. A.; Scoville, N.; Kimball, A.; Ivezic, Z.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the Unified Radio Catalog, a catalog of sources detected by various (NVSS, FIRST, WENSS, GB6) radio surveys, and SDSS, to IR wavelengths by matching it to the IRAS Point and Faint Source catalogs. By fitting each NVSS-selected galaxy's NUV-NIR spectral energy distribution (SED) with stellar population synthesis models we add to the catalog star formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and attenuations. We further add information about optical emission-line properties for NVSS-selected galaxies with available SDSS spectroscopy. Using an NVSS 20 cm (F 1.4 G Hz ∼> 2.5 mJy) selected sample, matched to the SDSS spectroscopic ('main' galaxy and quasar) catalogs and IRAS data (0.04 < z ∼< 0.2) we perform an in-depth analysis of the radio-FIR correlation for various types of galaxies, separated into (1) quasars, (2) star-forming, (3) composite, (4) Seyfert, (5) LINER, and (6) absorption line galaxies using the standard optical spectroscopic diagnostic tools. We utilize SED-based SFRs to independently quantify the source of radio and FIR emission in our galaxies. Our results show that Seyfert galaxies have FIR/radio ratios lower than, but still within the scatter of, the canonical value due to an additional (likely active galactic nucleus (AGN)) contribution to their radio continuum emission. Furthermore, IR-detected absorption and LINER galaxies are on average strongly dominated by AGN activity in both their FIR and radio emission; however their average FIR/radio ratio is consistent with that expected for star-forming galaxies. In summary, we find that most AGN-containing galaxies in our NVSS-IRAS-SDSS sample have FIR/radio flux ratios indistinguishable from those of the star-forming galaxies that define the radio-FIR correlation. Thus, attempts to separate AGNs from star-forming galaxies by their FIR/radio flux ratios alone can separate only a small fraction of the AGNs, such as the radio-loud quasars.

  4. Radio outbursts in extragalactic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinzel, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Three aspects of the flux density variability of extragalactic radio sources were examined: millimeter wavelength short timescale variability, the spectral evolution of outbursts, and whether the outbursts are periodically spaced. Observations of extragalactic radio sources were conducted using the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory between January and June 1985 at 88.2 GHz and during June and July 1985 at 40.0 GHz. Many of the sources exhibited significant flux density variations during the observing span. In addition, the most rapid variations observed were comparable with those reported in previous works. Two sources, 0355+50 and OJ287, both exhibited outbursts whose rise and fall timescales were less than a month. An anomalous flux density dropout was observed in 3C446 and was interpreted as an occultation event. Data at five frequencies between 2.7 and 89.6 GHz from the Dent-Balonek monitoring program were used to investigate the spectral evolution of eight outbursts. Outburst profile fitting was used to deconvolve the individual outbursts from one another at each frequency. The fit profiles were used to generate multiple epoch spectra to investigate the evolution of the outbursts. A phase residual minimization method was used to examine four sources for periodic behavior

  5. Soft X-ray emission from the radio pulsar PSR 0656 + 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, F. A.; Middleditch, J.; Hjellming, R. M.; Mason, K. O.

    1989-01-01

    A radio source with a flux density of a few mJy was found in the error region of the soft X-ray source E0656 + 14, and identified as the radio pulsar PSR 0656 + 14. The radio source has a steep, nonthermal spectrum and a high degree of linear (62 percent) and circular (19 percent) polarization. The X-ray spectrum of the pulsar is among the softest sources observed with the Einstein Observatory. The X-ray data taken with the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC) permit a range of blackbody temperatures of 3-6 x 10 to the 5th K, and an equivalent column density of hydrogen smaller than 4 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm. If the assumption is made that the X-ray flux is thermal radiation from surface of the neutron star, then the pulsar must be at a distance smaller than 550 pc, consistent with the low dispersion measure of PSR 0656 + 14. The X-ray timing data suggest that the X-ray emission is modulated at the pulsar's 0.385-s spin period with an amplitude of 18 percent + or - 6 percent, and that there is a 0.0002 probability that this is spurious. It was noted that PSR 0656 + 14 is close to the geometric center of a 20-deg diameter soft X-ray emitting ring called the Gemini-Monoceros enhancement. The close distance of the pulsar, together with its relatively young age of 1.1 x 10 to the 5th yr, makes it possible that the ring is a supernova remnant from the explosion of the pulsar's progenitor. A radio source extending over a region 1.2 to 3.3 arcmin south of the pulsar is a candidate for association with the pulsar.

  6. Soft X-ray emission from the radio pulsar PSR 0656 + 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Middleditch, J.; Hjellming, R.M.; Mason, K.O.

    1989-01-01

    A radio source with a flux density of a few mJy was found in the error region of the soft X-ray source E0656 + 14, and identified as the radio pulsar PSR 0656 + 14. The radio source has a steep, nonthermal spectrum and a high degree of linear (62%) and circular (19%) polarization. The X-ray spectrum of the pulsar is among the softest sources observed with the Einstein Observatory. The X-ray data taken with the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC) permit a range of blackbody temperatures of 3-6 x 10 to the 5th K, and an equivalent column density of hydrogen smaller than 4 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm. If the assumption is made that the X-ray flux is thermal radiation from surface of the neutron star, then the pulsar must be at a distance smaller than 550 pc, consistent with the low dispersion measure of PSR 0656 + 14. The X-ray timing data suggest that the X-ray emission is modulated at the pulsar's 0.385-s spin period with an amplitude of 18% + or - 6%, and that there is a 0.0002 probability that this is spurious. It was noted that PSR 0656 + 14 is close to the geometric center of a 20-deg diameter soft X-ray emitting ring called the Gemini-Monoceros enhancement. The close distance of the pulsar, together with its relatively young age of 1.1 x 10 to the 5th yr, makes it possible that the ring is a supernova remnant from the explosion of the pulsar's progenitor. A radio source extending over a region 1.2 to 3.3 arcmin south of the pulsar is a candidate for association with the pulsar. 46 refs

  7. Giant Radio Flare of Cygnus X-3 in September 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkin, S. A.; Nizhelskij, N. A.; Tsybulev, P. G.; Zhekanis, G. V.

    2017-06-01

    In the long-term multi-frequency monitoring program of the microquasars with RATAN-600 we discovered the giant flare from X-ray binary Cyg X-3 on 13 September 2016. It happened after 2000 days of the 'quiescent state' of the source passed after the former giant flare (˜18 Jy) in March 2011. We have found that during this quiet period the hard X-ray flux (Swift/BAT, 15-50 keV) and radio flux (RATAN-600, 11 GHz) have been strongly anti-correlated. Both radio flares occurred after transitions of the microquasar to a 'hypersoft' X-ray state that occurred in February 2011 and in the end of August 2016. The giant flare was predicted by us in the first ATel (Trushkin et al. (2016)). Indeed after dramatic decrease of the hard X-ray Swift 15-50 keV flux and RATAN 4- 11 GHz fluxes (a 'quenched state') a small flare (0.7 Jy at 4-11 GHz) developed on MJD 57632 and then on MJD 57644.5 almost simultaneously with X-rays radio flux rose from 0.01 to 15 Jy at 4.6 GHz during few days. The rise of the flaring flux is well fitted by a exponential law that could be a initial phase of the relativistic electrons generation by internal shock waves in the jets. Initially spectra were optically thick at frequencies lower 2 GHz and optically thin at frequencies higher 8 GHz with typical spectral index about -0.5. After maximum of the flare radio fluxes at all frequencies faded out with exponential law.

  8. Meteor trajectory estimation from radio meteor observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kákona, J.

    2016-01-01

    Radio meteor observation techniques are generally accepted as meteor counting methods useful mainly for meteor flux detection. Due to the technical progress in radio engineering and electronics a construction of a radio meteor detection network with software defined receivers has become possible. These receivers could be precisely time synchronized and could obtain data which provide us with more information than just the meteor count. We present a technique which is able to compute a meteor trajectory from the data recorded by multiple radio stations.

  9. Nancay "blind" 21 cm line survey of the Canes Venatici group region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan-Korteweg, RC; van Driel, W; Briggs, F; Binggeli, B; Mostefaoui, TI

    A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21 cm line with the Nancay decimetric radio telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350

  10. A3. 408 MHz radio continuum flux at mod(b) 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslam, C.G.T.

    1983-01-01

    The map shows the radio continuum brightness at a frequency of 408 MHz (lambda73 cm). The atlas of the all-sky survey published by Haslam et al. contains data from four surveys, made with the Jodrell Bank Mk I (anticenter region), the Bonn 100-m (-8 0 0 ), the Parkes 64-m (southern sky), and the Jodrell Bank Mk I A (north celestial pole region) telescopes. The respective references for the four component surveys are Haslam, Quigley, and Salter, 1970, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 147, 405; Haslam, Wilson, Graham, and Hunt, 1974, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 13, 359; Haslam, Wilson, Cooke, Cleary, Graham, Wilelebinski, and Day, 1975, Proc. ASA 2 (6), 331; and Haslam, Klein, Salter, Stoffel, Wilson, Cleary, Cooke, and Thomasson, 1981, Astron. Astrophys. 100, 209. The angular resolution of the original data base is 0 0 .85. For the map in galactic coordinates produced here, the data have been smoothed and placed on a 2 0 rectangular grid. The contours represent brightness temperature labelled in Kelvins. (Auth.)

  11. Slowly varying component of extreme ultraviolet solar radiation and its relation to solar radio radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R. D.; Neupert, W. M.

    1974-01-01

    A study of the correlations between solar EUV line fluxes and solar radio fluxes has been carried out. A calibration for the Goddard Space Flight Center EUV spectrum is suggested. The results are used to obtain an equation for the absolute EUV flux for several lines in the 150- to 400-A region and the total flux of 81 intense lines in the region, the 2800-MHz radio flux being used as independent variable.

  12. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Monitoring of the Black Hole X-Ray Binary, V404 Cygni during Its 2015 June Outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Poonam; Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007 (India)

    2017-09-10

    We report results from a Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) monitoring campaign of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cygni during its 2015 June outburst. The GMRT observations were carried out at observing frequencies of 1280, 610, 325, and 235 MHz, and extended from June 26.89 UT (a day after the strongest radio/X-ray outburst) to July 12.93 UT. We find the low-frequency radio emission of V404 Cygni to be extremely bright and fast-decaying in the outburst phase, with an inverted spectrum below 1.5 GHz and an intermediate X-ray state. The radio emission settles to a weak, quiescent state ≈11 days after the outburst, with a flat radio spectrum and a soft X-ray state. Combining the GMRT measurements with flux density estimates from the literature, we identify a spectral turnover in the radio spectrum at ≈1.5 GHz on ≈ June 26.9 UT, indicating the presence of a synchrotron self-absorbed emitting region. We use the measured flux density at the turnover frequency with the assumption of equipartition of energy between the particles and the magnetic field to infer the jet radius (≈4.0 × 10{sup 13} cm), magnetic field (≈0.5 G), minimum total energy (≈7 × 10{sup 39} erg), and transient jet power (≈8 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup −1}). The relatively low value of the jet power, despite V404 Cygni’s high black hole spin parameter, suggests that the radio jet power does not correlate with the spin parameter.

  13. Scorpius X-1 - an evolving double radio source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldzahler, B.J.; Fomalont, E.B.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1986-01-01

    The radio emission from Sco X-1 has been monitored with the VLA over a 5 yr period with 0.4 arcsec resolution at 4.85 GHz. The source contains three components: an unresolved radio core coincident with the stellar binary system; an unresolved lobe northeast of the core; and an extended lobe southwest of the core. All radio components are approximately comoving with the binary system and are thus undoubtedly associated with it. The northeast lobe is moving away from the core at a rate of 0.013-0.017 arcsec/yr, which corresponds to a velocity of 31-41 km/sec, assuming a distance of 500 pc to Sco X-1. The relative velocity of a hot spot in the southwest lobe with respect to the core is less than 70 km/sec. The flux density in the lobes appears to vary by about 20 percent over time scales of 1 yr, and the variations between the lobes may be correlated. The twin-exhaust beam model where energy is transported from the core to the lobes in narrow beams is the most acceptable model for the evolution of the source. However, interstellar density (greater than 0.6/cu cm) is needed to restrain the velocity of the northeast lobe (presumably the working surface of the beam). 16 references

  14. Automatic Web-Based, Radio-Network System To Monitor And Control Equipment For Investigating Gas Flux At Water - Air Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, N. T.; Silverstein, S.; Wik, M.; Beckman, P.; Crill, P. M.; Bastviken, D.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). Robust measurements of natural GHG emissions are vital for evaluating regional to global carbon budgets and for assessing climate feedbacks on natural emissions to improve climate models. Diffusive and ebullitive (bubble) transport are two major pathways of gas release from surface waters. To capture the high temporal variability of these fluxes in a well-defined footprint, we designed and built an inexpensive automatic device that includes an easily mobile diffusive flux chamber and a bubble counter, all in one. Besides a function of automatically collecting gas samples for subsequent various analyses in the laboratory, this device utilizes low cost CO2 sensor (SenseAir, Sweden) and CH4 sensor (Figaro, Japan) to measure GHG fluxes. To measure the spatial variability of emissions, each of the devices is equipped with an XBee module to enable a local radio communication DigiMesh network for time synchronization and data readout at a server-controller station on the lakeshore. Software of this server-controller is operated on a low cost Raspberry Pi computer which has a 3G connection for remote monitoring - controlling functions from anywhere in the world. From field studies in Abisko, Sweden in summer 2014 and 2015, the system has resulted in measurements of GHG fluxes comparable to manual methods. In addition, the deployments have shown the advantage of a low cost automatic network system to study GHG fluxes on lakes in remote locations.

  15. Improved Statistical Model Of 10.7-cm Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, John D.; Tabor, Jill L.

    1993-01-01

    Improved mathematical model simulates short-term fluctuations of flux of 10.7-cm-wavelength solar radiation during 91-day averaging period. Called "F10.7 flux", important as measure of solar activity and because it is highly correlated with ultraviolet radiation causing fluctuations in heating and density of upper atmosphere. F10.7 flux easily measureable at surface of Earth.

  16. Improvement in the Accuracy of Flux Measurement of Radio Sources by Exploiting an Arithmetic Pattern in Photon Bunching Noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieu, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    A hierarchy of statistics of increasing sophistication and accuracy is proposed to exploit an interesting and fundamental arithmetic structure in the photon bunching noise of incoherent light of large photon occupation number, with the purpose of suppressing the noise and rendering a more reliable and unbiased measurement of the light intensity. The method does not require any new hardware, rather it operates at the software level with the help of high-precision computers to reprocess the intensity time series of the incident light to create a new series with smaller bunching noise coherence length. The ultimate accuracy improvement of this method of flux measurement is limited by the timing resolution of the detector and the photon occupation number of the beam (the higher the photon number the better the performance). The principal application is accuracy improvement in the signal-limited bolometric flux measurement of a radio source.

  17. Improvement in the accuracy of flux measurement of radio sources by exploiting an arithmetic pattern in photon bunching noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Richard

    2018-01-01

    A hierarchy of statistics of increasing sophistication and accuracy is proposed, to exploit an interesting and fundamental arithmetic structure in the photon bunching noise of incoherent light of large photon occupation number, with the purpose of suppressing the noise and rendering a more reliable and unbiased measurement of the light intensity. The method does not require any new hardware, rather it operates at the software level, with the help of high precision computers, to reprocess the intensity time series of the incident light to create a new series with smaller bunching noise coherence length. The ultimate accuracy improvement of this method of flux measurement is limited by the timing resolution of the detector and the photon occupation number of the beam (the higher the photon number the better the performance). The principal application is accuracy improvement in the bolometric flux measurement of a radio source.

  18. The Gamma-Ray Emitting Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS 2004-447 II. The Radio View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Carpenter, B.; Elsaesser, D.; Gehrels, N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Context. gamma-ray-detected radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (gamma-NLS1) galaxies constitute a small but interesting sample of the gamma-ray-loud AGN. The radio-loudest gamma-NLS1 known, PKS2004447, is located in the southern hemisphere and is monitored in the radio regime by the multiwavelength monitoring programme TANAMI. Aims. We aim for the first detailed study of the radio morphology and long-term radio spectral evolution of PKS2004447, which are essential for understanding the diversity of the radio properties of gamma-NLS1s. Methods. The TANAMI VLBI monitoring program uses the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa to monitor the jets of radio-loud active galaxies in the southern hemisphere. Lower resolution radio flux density measurements at multiple radio frequencies over four years of observations were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Results. The TANAMI VLBI image at 8.4GHz shows an extended one-sided jet with a dominant compact VLBI core. Its brightness temperature is consistent with equipartition, but it is an order of magnitude below other gamma-NLS1s with the sample value varying over two orders of magnitude. We find a compact morphology with a projected large-scale size 11 kpc and a persistent steep radio spectrum with moderate flux-density variability. Conclusions. PKS2004447 appears to be a unique member of the gamma-NLS1 sample. It exhibits blazar-like features, such as a flat featureless X-ray spectrum and a core-dominated, one-sided parsec-scale jet with indications for relativistic beaming. However, the data also reveal properties atypical for blazars, such as a radio spectrum and large-scale size consistent with compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) objects, which are usually associated with young radio sources. These characteristics are unique among all gamma-NLS1s and extremely rare among gamma-ray-loud AGN.

  19. Observations of radio sources or 'What happened to radio stars?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    A review is given of the early history of the interpretation of the radiation mechanisms following the discovery of the discrete radio sources, both galactic and extragalactic. The conflicting views which prevailed in the early fifties are discussed in some detail: some advocated thermal radiation from stars relatively close by, and others proposed the alternative that synchrotron radiation was responsible for the majority of the radio sources. Attention is drawn to the importance of high-resolution interferometry, whereby the structure of many of the sources could be obtained. Red-shift measurements and spectral distributions also played a part in determining distances and flux strengths at the sources. (U.K.)

  20. Enhancing the Radio Astronomy Capabilities at NASA's Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; Franco, Manuel M.; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Jacobs, Christopher; Kuiper, Thomas; Majid, Walid

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is well known for its role in commanding and communicating with spacecraft across the solar system that produce a steady stream of new discoveries in Astrophysics, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Equipped with a number of large antennas distributed across the world, the DSN also has a history of contributing to a number of leading radio astronomical projects. This paper summarizes a number of enhancements that are being implemented currently and that are aimed at increasing its capabilities to engage in a wide range of science observations. These enhancements include* A dual-beam system operating between 18 and 27 GHz (~ 1 cm) capable of conducting a variety of molecular line observations, searches for pulsars in the Galactic center, and continuum flux density (photometry) of objects such as nearby protoplanetary disks* Enhanced spectroscopy and pulsar processing backends for use at 1.4--1.9 GHz (20 cm), 18--27 GHz (1 cm), and 38--50 GHz (0.7 cm)* The DSN Transient Observatory (DTN), an automated, non-invasive backend for transient searching* Larger bandwidths (>= 0.5 GHz) for pulsar searching and timing; and* Improved data rates (2048 Mbps) and better instrumental response for very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with the new DSN VLBI processor (DVP), which is providing unprecedented sensitivity for maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and development of future versions.One of the results of these improvements is that the 70~m Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43, Tidbinbilla antenna) is now the most sensitive radio antenna in the southern hemisphere. Proposals to use these systems are accepted from the international community.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics & Space Administration.

  1. Do Unification Models Explain the X-ray Properties of Radio Sources?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Kuraszkiewicz, J.; Haas, M.; Barthel, P.; Willner, S. P.; Leipski, C.; Worrall, D.; Birkinshaw, M.; Antonucci, R. R.; Ashby, M.; Chini, R.; Fazio, G. G.; Lawrence, C. R.; Ogle, P. M.; Schulz, B.

    Chandra observations of a complete, flux-limited sample of 38 high-redshift (1 radio selected (and so relatively unbiased in orientation), 3CRR radio sources (21 quasars, 17 narrow line radio galaxies, NLRGs) support Unification models and lead to estimates of the covering

  2. ARTIP: Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Gyanchandani, Dolly; Kulkarni, Sarang; Gupta, Neeraj; Pathak, Vineet; Pande, Arti; Joshi, Unmesh

    2018-02-01

    The Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (ARTIP) automates the entire process of flagging, calibrating, and imaging for radio-interferometric data. ARTIP starts with raw data, i.e. a measurement set and goes through multiple stages, such as flux calibration, bandpass calibration, phase calibration, and imaging to generate continuum and spectral line images. Each stage can also be run independently. The pipeline provides continuous feedback to the user through various messages, charts and logs. It is written using standard python libraries and the CASA package. The pipeline can deal with datasets with multiple spectral windows and also multiple target sources which may have arbitrary combinations of flux/bandpass/phase calibrators.

  3. STUDY OF CALIBRATION OF SOLAR RADIO SPECTROMETERS AND THE QUIET-SUN RADIO EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Chengming; Yan, Yihua; Tan, Baolin; Fu, Qijun; Liu, Yuying [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road A20, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Xu, Guirong [Hubei Key Laboratory for Heavy Rain Monitoring and Warning Research, Institute of Heavy Rain, China Meteorological Administration, Wuhan 430205 (China)

    2015-07-20

    This work presents a systematic investigation of the influence of weather conditions on the calibration errors by using Gaussian fitness, least chi-square linear fitness, and wavelet transform to analyze the calibration coefficients from observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometers (at frequency bands of 1.0–2.0 GHz, 2.6–3.8 GHz, and 5.2–7.6 GHz) during 1997–2007. We found that calibration coefficients are influenced by the local air temperature. Considering the temperature correction, the calibration error will reduce by about 10%–20% at 2800 MHz. Based on the above investigation and the calibration corrections, we further study the radio emission of the quiet Sun by using an appropriate hybrid model of the quiet-Sun atmosphere. The results indicate that the numerical flux of the hybrid model is much closer to the observation flux than that of other ones.

  4. Bk and Cf chromatographic separation and 249Bk/248Cm and 249Cf/248Cm elemental ratios determination by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgiotis, A.; Isnard, H.; Nonell, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Dupont, E.; AlMahamid, I.; Tiang, G.; Rao, L.; Lukens, W.; Cassette, P.; Panebianco, S.; Letourneau, A.; Chartier, F.

    2013-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron flux. In this context a Cm sample enriched in 248 Cm (97%) was irradiated in a thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The precise and accurate determination of Cf isotope ratios and of 249 Bk/ 248 Cm and 249 Cf/ 248 Cm elemental ratios in the 248 Cm irradiated sample is crucial for the calculation of actinide neutron capture cross-sections.This work describes an analytical procedure for the separation and the isotope ratio measurement of Bk and Cf in the irradiated sample.The Bk and Cf separation is based on a lanthanides separation protocol previously developed by the laboratory. Well-defined retention times for Bk and Cf were obtained by coupling the Ionic Chromatography (IC) with an ICP-QMS. All conditions of element separation by IC and the different steps of the analytical protocol in order to obtain the isotopic and elemental ratios are presented. Relative uncertainties of Cf isotopic ratios range from 0.3% to 0.5% and the uncertainty of the 249 Bk/ 248 Cm and 249 Cf/ 248 Cm elemental ratios are respectively 6.1% and 3.2%.This level of uncertainty for both isotopic and elemental ratios is in perfect agreement with the requirement for transmutation studies. (authors)

  5. Effects of proton irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV protons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 9th power P/sq cm-sec and fluences of 10 to the 10th power, 10 to the 11th power, 10 to the 12th power and 3 X 10 to the 12th power P/sq cm. I-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, 65 C and 165 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was taken as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. Degradation occurred for both uncovered 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm cells. Efficiencies are generally higher than those of comparable U.S. cells tested earlier. Damage (loss in maximum power efficiency) with proton fluence is somewhat higher for 10 ohm-cm cells, measured at the three temperatures, for fluences above 2 X 10 to the 11th power P/sq cm. Cell efficiency, as expected, changes drastically with temperature.

  6. Imprints of quasar duty cycle on the 21cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgar, Florian; Eames, Evan; Hottier, Clément; Semelin, Benoit

    2018-05-01

    Quasars contribute to the 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) primarily through their ionizing UV and X-ray emission. However, their radio continuum and Lyman-band emission also regulates the 21-cm signal in their direct environment, potentially leaving the imprint of their duty cycle. We develop a model for the radio and UV luminosity functions of quasars from the EoR, and constrain it using recent observations. Our model is consistent with the recent discovery of the quasar J1342+0928 at redshift ˜7.5, and also predicts only a few quasars suitable for 21-cm forest observations (˜10 mJy) in the sky. We exhibit a new effect on the 21-cm signal observed against the CMB: a radio-loud quasar can leave the imprint of its duty cycle on the 21-cm tomography. We apply this effect in a cosmological simulation and conclude that the effect of typical radio-loud quasars is most likely negligible in an SKA field of view. For a ˜10mJy quasar the effect is stronger though hardly observable at SKA resolution. Then we study the contribution of the lyman band (Ly-α to Ly-β) emission of quasars to the Wouthuisen-Field coupling. The collective effect of quasars on the 21-cm power spectrum is larger than the thermal noise at low k, though featureless. However, a distinctive pattern around the brightest quasars in an SKA field of view may be observable in the tomography, encoding the duration of their duty cycle. This pattern has a high signal-to-noise ratio for the brightest quasar in a typical SKA shallow survey.

  7. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RADIO-LOUD AND RADIO-QUIET γ -RAY PULSARS AS REVEALED BY FERMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C. Y.; Lee, Jongsu [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Takata, J. [Institute of Particle physics and Astronomy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Ng, C. W.; Cheng, K. S., E-mail: cyhui@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: takata@hust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2017-01-10

    By comparing the properties of non-recycled radio-loud γ -ray pulsars and radio-quiet γ -ray pulsars, we have searched for the differences between these two populations. We found that the γ -ray spectral curvature of radio-quiet pulsars can be larger than that of radio-loud pulsars. Based on the full sample of non-recycled γ -ray pulsars, their distributions of the magnetic field strength at the light cylinder are also found to be different. We note that this might result from an observational bias. By reexamining the previously reported difference of γ -ray-to-X-ray flux ratios, we found that the significance can be hampered by their statistical uncertainties. In the context of the outer gap model, we discuss the expected properties of these two populations and compare with the possible differences that are identified in our analysis.

  8. Measurement Technique in Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Study for Radio Astronomy Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Nor Hazmin Sabri; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim; Zamri Zainal Abidin; Asyaari Muhamad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will review our method in making measurements of radio frequency interference (RFI) in order to investigate the sereneness of interference in selected radio interference in Malaysia and Thailand. The selected site are University of Malaya (UM), Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Ubon (UB) and Chiang Mai (CM). The major RFI affecting radio astronomical windows below 1 GHz are electronic equipment system specifically radio navigation between 73.1 MHz and 75.2 MHz, radio broadcasting (151 MHz, 151.8 MHz and 152 MHz), aeronautical navigation (245.5 MHz, 248.7 MHz and 249 MHz and also fixed mobile at 605 MHz, 608.3 MHz, 612.2 MHz, 613.3 MHz. It is obviously showed that all sites within this region are free from interference between 320MHz and 330 MHz and is the best specific region to be considered for solar burst monitoring. We also investigate the effect of RFI on discovery of solar burst. (author)

  9. Optical identifications of flat-spectrum radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Condon, M.A.; Broderick, J.J.; Davis, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A complete sample of radio sources with S> or =0.3 Jy at 1400 MHz, +24 0 0 , and low-frequency spectral indices α(408, 1400) or =+0.5 are usually in empty fields. The lower limits that can be assigned to the radio-optical spectral indices α/sub RO/ of these sources are significantly higher than the median α/sub RO/ of the sources with flat high-frequency spectra, so the optical characteristics of the two classes of radio source are intrinsically different. The radio and optical fluxes of flat-spectrum QSO's appear to be correlated, at least when averaged over 10 2 --10 3 yr

  10. The Detectability of Radio Auroral Emission from Proxima b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Loeb, Abraham [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Magnetically active stars possess stellar winds whose interactions with planetary magnetic fields produce radio auroral emission. We examine the detectability of radio auroral emission from Proxima b, the closest known exosolar planet orbiting our nearest neighboring star, Proxima Centauri. Using the radiometric Bode’s law, we estimate the radio flux produced by the interaction of Proxima Centauri’s stellar wind and Proxima b’s magnetosphere for different planetary magnetic field strengths. For plausible planetary masses, Proxima b could produce radio fluxes of 100 mJy or more in a frequency range of 0.02–3 MHz for planetary magnetic field strengths of 0.007–1 G. According to recent MHD models that vary the orbital parameters of the system, this emission is expected to be highly variable. This variability is due to large fluctuations in the size of Proxima b’s magnetosphere as it crosses the equatorial streamer regions of dense stellar wind and high dynamic pressure. Using the MHD model of Garraffo et al. for the variation of the magnetosphere radius during the orbit, we estimate that the observed radio flux can vary nearly by an order of magnitude over the 11.2-day period of Proxima b. The detailed amplitude variation depends on the stellar wind, orbital, and planetary magnetic field parameters. We discuss observing strategies for proposed future space-based observatories to reach frequencies below the ionospheric cutoff (∼10 MHz), which would be required to detect the signal we investigate.

  11. NEW DISCOVERIES FROM THE ARECIBO 327 MHz DRIFT PULSAR SURVEY RADIO TRANSIENT SEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deneva, J. S. [National Research Council, resident at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Stovall, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); McLaughlin, M. A.; Bagchi, M.; Garver-Daniels, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bates, S. D. [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, 600113 (India); Freire, P. C. C.; Martinez, J. G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany); Jenet, F. [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    We present Clusterrank, a new algorithm for identifying dispersed astrophysical pulses. Such pulses are commonly detected from Galactic pulsars and rotating radio transients (RRATs), which are neutron stars with sporadic radio emission. More recently, isolated, highly dispersed pulses dubbed fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been identified as the potential signature of an extragalactic cataclysmic radio source distinct from pulsars and RRATs. Clusterrank helped us discover 14 pulsars and 8 RRATs in data from the Arecibo 327 MHz Drift Pulsar Survey (AO327). The new RRATs have DMs in the range 23.5–86.6 pc cm{sup −3} and periods in the range 0.172–3.901 s. The new pulsars have DMs in the range 23.6–133.3 pc cm{sup −3} and periods in the range 1.249–5.012 s, and include two nullers and a mode-switching object. We estimate an upper limit on the all-sky FRB rate of 10{sup 5} day{sup −1} for bursts with a width of 10 ms and flux density ≳83 mJy. The DMs of all new discoveries are consistent with a Galactic origin. In comparing statistics of the new RRATs with sources from the RRATalog, we find that both sets are drawn from the same period distribution. In contrast, we find that the period distribution of the new pulsars is different from the period distributions of canonical pulsars in the ATNF catalog or pulsars found in AO327 data by a periodicity search. This indicates that Clusterrank is a powerful complement to periodicity searches and uncovers a subset of the pulsar population that has so far been underrepresented in survey results and therefore in Galactic pulsar population models.

  12. NEW DISCOVERIES FROM THE ARECIBO 327 MHz DRIFT PULSAR SURVEY RADIO TRANSIENT SEARCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneva, J. S.; Stovall, K.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Bagchi, M.; Garver-Daniels, N.; Bates, S. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Martinez, J. G.; Jenet, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present Clusterrank, a new algorithm for identifying dispersed astrophysical pulses. Such pulses are commonly detected from Galactic pulsars and rotating radio transients (RRATs), which are neutron stars with sporadic radio emission. More recently, isolated, highly dispersed pulses dubbed fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been identified as the potential signature of an extragalactic cataclysmic radio source distinct from pulsars and RRATs. Clusterrank helped us discover 14 pulsars and 8 RRATs in data from the Arecibo 327 MHz Drift Pulsar Survey (AO327). The new RRATs have DMs in the range 23.5–86.6 pc cm −3 and periods in the range 0.172–3.901 s. The new pulsars have DMs in the range 23.6–133.3 pc cm −3 and periods in the range 1.249–5.012 s, and include two nullers and a mode-switching object. We estimate an upper limit on the all-sky FRB rate of 10 5  day −1 for bursts with a width of 10 ms and flux density ≳83 mJy. The DMs of all new discoveries are consistent with a Galactic origin. In comparing statistics of the new RRATs with sources from the RRATalog, we find that both sets are drawn from the same period distribution. In contrast, we find that the period distribution of the new pulsars is different from the period distributions of canonical pulsars in the ATNF catalog or pulsars found in AO327 data by a periodicity search. This indicates that Clusterrank is a powerful complement to periodicity searches and uncovers a subset of the pulsar population that has so far been underrepresented in survey results and therefore in Galactic pulsar population models

  13. Infrared and radio emission from S0 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, J.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Far-IR data are presented on 74 early-type S0 galaxies that were selected on the basis of the availability of radio-continuum measurements. Most of the galaxies are detected at IR wavelengths with IRAS, indicating the presence of a cold interstellar medium (ISM) in these galaxies. The mass of gas in these systems is estimated to lie in the range of 10 to the 7th to 10 to the 10th solar. The most massive ISM in some S0s approaches that found in some spirals. The brighter IR-emitting galaxies all lie close to a relationship established for gas-rich spiral galaxies. None of these galaxies have large ratio fluxes, suggesting that strong nuclear radio sources or extended radio lobes and jets are absent or suppressed. Strong radio emission is found among those galaxies that are either faint or not detected at IR wavelengths. The absence of an ISM suggests that these galaxies are of an earlier type that those that have large IR fluxes. 38 references

  14. Effects of electron irradiation and temperature on 1 ohm-cm and 10 ohm-cm silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletta, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    One OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm silicon solar cells were exposed to 1.0 MeV electrons at a fixed flux of 10 to the 11th power e/sq cm/sec and fluences of 10 to the 13th power, 10 to the 14th power and 10 to the 15th power e/sq.cm. 1-V curves of the cells were made at room temperature, - 63 C and + or - 143 C after each irradiation. A value of 139.5 mw/sq cm was used as AMO incident energy rate per unit area. The 10 OHM-cm cells appear more efficient than 1 OHM-cm cells after exposure to a fluence greater than 10 to the 14th power e/sq cm. The 1.0 MeV electron damage coefficients for both 1 OHM-cm and 10 OHM-cm cells are somewhat less than those for previously irradiated cells at room temperature. The values of the damage coefficients increase as the cell temperatures decrease. Efficiencies pertaining to maximum power output are about the same as those of n on p silicon cells evaluated previously.

  15. Parsec-Scale Radio Properties of Gamma-ray Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been investigated using observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Comparisons between LAT and non-LAT detected samples were made using both archival and contemporaneous data. In total, 244 sources were used in the LAT-detected sample. This very large, radio flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emission. It has been found that LAT-detected BL Lac objects are very similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects in most properties, although LAT BL Lac objects may have longer jets. The LAT flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from non-LAT FSRQs and are likely extreme members of the FSRQ population. Archival radio data indicated that there was no significant correlation between radio flux density and gamma-ray flux, especially at lower flux levels. However, contemporaneous observations showed a strong correlation. Most of the differences between the LAT and non-LAT populations are related to the cores of the sources, indicating that the gamma-ray emission may originate near the base of the jets (i.e., within a few pc of the central engine). There is some indication that LAT-detected sources may have larger jet opening angles than the non-LAT sources. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, suggesting that gamma-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields at the base of the jets of the blazars. Observations of sources in two epochs indicate that core fractional polarization was higher when the objects were detected by the LAT. Included in our sample are several non-blazar AGN such as 3C84, M82, and NGC 6251.

  16. New radio observations of NGC1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedlar, A.; Perley, R.; Crane, P.; Harrison, B.; Davies, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    VLA maps are presented for NGC1275 at 20 cm, with resolutions ranging from 1 to 40 arcsec. Over the central 30 arcsec there is evidence for collimated ejection at position angle -160 deg. Outside this region the radio structure bends rapidly by approximately 90 deg before merging into the 10-arcmin radio halo. It is suggested that models of pressure-driven accretion flows should take into account the presence of the relativistic gas which is responsible for the radio halo. 14 references

  17. RADIO EMISSION FROM SN 1994I IN NGC 5194 (M 51): THE BEST-STUDIED TYPE Ib/c RADIO SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Stockdale, Christopher; Rupen, Michael; Sramek, Richard A.; Williams, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of detailed monitoring of the radio emission from the Type Ic supernova SN 1994I from three days after optical discovery on 1994 March 31 until eight years later at age 2927 days on 2002 April 5. The data were mainly obtained using the Very Large Array at the five wavelengths of λλ1.3, 2.0, 3.6, 6.2, and 21 cm and from the Cambridge 5 km Ryle Telescope at λ2.0 cm. Two additional measurements were obtained at millimeter wavelengths. This data set represents the most complete, multifrequency radio observations ever obtained for a Type Ib/c supernova. The radio emission evolves regularly in both time and frequency and is well described by established supernova emission/absorption models. It is the first radio supernova with sufficient data to show that it is clearly dominated by the effects of synchrotron self-absorption at early times.

  18. Numerical simulation of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction for the application to solar radio burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, T.

    1981-01-01

    By the use of semi-analytical method the numerical simulations for the nonlinear scattering of axially symmetric plasma waves into plasma waves and radio waves have been made. The initial electron beam has a finite length and one-dimensional velocity distribution of power law. Induced back-scattering of plasma waves by thermal ions is strong even for a solar electron stream of rather low flux, say 2x10 11 cm -2 above 5 keV at fsub(p) of 40 MHz, which is enough to emit the observed type III bursts as the second harmonic. The ratio between the energy densities of plasma waves and thermal electrons (nkT) is of the order of 10 -6 , which may be a few orders lower than the threshold value for a caviton collapse of the plasma waves to occur. The second harmonic radio emission as attributed to the coalescence of two plasma waves, i.e. one excited by electron beam and one back-scattered by ions, is several orders higher than the fundamental radio emission caused by the scattering of plasma waves by thermal ions. (Auth.)

  19. Wavelet Based Characterization of Low Radio Frequency Solar Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, A.; Sharma, R.; Das, S. B.; Oberoi, D.; Pankratius, V.; Lonsdale, C.

    2016-12-01

    Low-frequency solar radio observations with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) have revealed the presence of numerous short-lived, narrow-band weak radio features, even during quiet solar conditions. In their appearance in in the frequency-time plane, they come closest to the solar type III bursts, but with much shorter spectral spans and flux densities, so much so that they are not detectable with the usual swept frequency radio spectrographs. These features occur at rates of many thousand features per hour in the 30.72 MHz MWA bandwidth, and hence necessarily require an automated approach to determine robust statistical estimates of their properties, e.g., distributions of spectral widths, temporal spans, flux densities, slopes in the time-frequency plane and distribution over frequency. To achieve this, a wavelet decomposition approach has been developed for feature recognition and subsequent parameter extraction from the MWA dynamic spectrum. This work builds on earlier work by the members of this team to achieve a reliable flux calibration in a computationally efficient manner. Preliminary results show that the distribution of spectral span of these features peaks around 3 MHz, most of them last for less than two seconds and are characterized by flux densities of about 60% of the background solar emission. In analogy with the solar type III bursts, this non-thermal emission is envisaged to arise via coherent emission processes. There is also an exciting possibility that these features might correspond to radio signatures of nanoflares, hypothesized (Gold, 1964; Parker, 1972) to explain coronal heating.

  20. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE AND SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER RADIO MAGNETAR SGR J1745–2900

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S.; Archibald, Robert F.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Scholz, Paul, E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2015-06-20

    We present results from eight months of Green Bank Telescope 8.7 GHz observations and nearly 18 months of Swift X-ray telescope observations of the radio magnetar SGR J1745–2900. We tracked the radio and X-ray flux density, polarization properties, profile evolution, rotation, and single-pulse behavior. We identified two main periods of activity. The first is characterized by approximately 5.5 months of relatively stable evolution in radio flux density, rotation, and profile shape, while in the second these properties varied substantially. Specifically, a third profile component emerged and the radio flux also became more variable. The single pulse properties also changed, most notably with a larger fraction of pulses with pulse widths ∼5–20 ms in the erratic state. Bright single pulses are well described by a log-normal energy distribution at low energies, but with an excess at high energies. The 2–10 keV flux decayed steadily since the initial X-ray outburst, while the radio flux remained stable to within ∼20% during the stable state. A joint pulsar timing analysis of the radio and X-ray data shows a level of timing noise unprecedented in a radio magnetar, though during the time covered by the radio data alone the timing noise was at a level similar to that observed in other radio magnetars. While SGR J1745–2900 is similar to other radio magnetars in many regards, it differs by having experienced a period of relative stability in the radio that now appears to have ended, while the X-ray properties evolved independently.

  1. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized

  2. Test report: Preliminary tests for the High Flux Reactor: Experimental determination of flow redistribution conditions at pressures between 4 and 5 kg/cm2 abs in a rectangular channel 2 mm thick and 60 cm long

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisiek, K.; Dumaine, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the context of safety research for the OSIRIS reactor, tests have been performed on the Super BOB cell with a view to determining experimentally the internal characteristics (or ''S'' curves) of a channel with a rectangular heating cross-section 2 x 38 mm and 600 mm long. During these tests the maximum pressure at the channel exit was brought to 3 kg/cm 2 abs. The pressurization level in the High Flux Reactor will be higher. That is why tests have been carried out at maximum pressure of 5 kg/cm 2 abs allowable on the ''super BOB'' loop without modifying it. The first objective of this test series was to determine the ''S'' curves and the exchange coefficients experimentally. This document discusses the test conditions and test results

  3. Neutrino Bursts from Fanaroff-Riley I Radio Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Halzen, Francis; Weiler, Thomas J.; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Halzen, Francis; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of existing observations (at the 4.5 \\sigma level) of TeV gamma-ray outbursts from the Fanaroff-Riley I (FRI) radio galaxy Centaurus A, we estimate the accompanying neutrino flux in a scenario where both photons and neutrinos emerge from pion decay. We find a neutrino flux on Earth dF_{\

  4. Mars' radio spectrum and the flying dust.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos-Serote, M.; Stam, D.M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Mars' radio spectrum at centimeter wavelengths is produced by thermal radiation from the surface and sub-surface. Observations at 2.8 cm made in the 1975 and 1978 show variations of its radio brightness as a function of longitude on the planet (Doherty et al. , ApJ 233, 1979). In addition, an

  5. Radio-quiet Gamma-ray Pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupin Chun-Che Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar is a neutron star that has significant γ-ray pulsation but without observed radio emission or only limited emission detected by high sensitivity radio surveys. The launch of the Fermi spacecraft in 2008 opened a new epoch to study the population of these pulsars. In the 2nd Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog of γ-ray pulsars, there are 35 (30 % of the 117 pulsars in the catalog known samples classified as radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars with radio flux density (S1400 of less than 30 μJy. Accompanying the observations obtained in various wavelengths, astronomers not only have the opportunity to study the emitting nature of radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars but also have proposed different models to explain their radiation mechanism. This article will review the history of the discovery, the emission properties, and the previous efforts to study pulsars in this population. Some particular cases known as Geminga-like pulsars (e.g., PSR J0633+1746, PSR J0007+7303, PSR J2021+4026, and so on are also to specified discuss their common and specific features.

  6. Comparison of regional and ecosystem CO2 fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Søgaard, Henrik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO2 from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio-soundings......A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO2 from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio...

  7. GAMMA-RAY BURST REVERSE SHOCK EMISSION IN EARLY RADIO AFTERGLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resmi, Lekshmi [Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Trivandrum (India); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: l.resmi@iist.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Reverse shock (RS) emission from gamma-ray bursts is an important tool in investigating the nature of the ejecta from the central engine. If the magnetization of the ejecta is not high enough to suppress the RS, a strong RS emission component, usually peaking in the optical/IR band early on, would provide an important contribution to early afterglow light curve. In the radio band, synchrotron self-absorption may suppress early RS emission and also delay the RS peak time. In this paper, we calculate the self-absorbed RS emission in the radio band under different dynamical conditions. In particular, we stress that the RS radio emission is subject to self-absorption in both RSs and forward shocks (FSs). We calculate the ratio between the RS to FS flux at the RS peak time for different frequencies, which is a measure of the detectability of the RS emission component. We then constrain the range of physical parameters for a detectable RS, in particular the role of magnetization. We notice that unlike optical RS emission which is enhanced by moderate magnetization, moderately magnetized ejecta do not necessarily produce a brighter radio RS due to the self-absorption effect. For typical parameters, the RS emission component would not be detectable below 1 GHz unless the medium density is very low (e.g., n < 10{sup −3} cm{sup −3} for the interstellar medium and A {sub *} < 5 × 10{sup −4} for wind). These predictions can be tested using the afterglow observations from current and upcoming radio facilities such as the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, the Low-Frequency Array, the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Telescope, and the Square Kilometer Array.

  8. Extragalactic dispersion measures of fast radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Han, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Fast radio bursts show large dispersion measures, much larger than the Galactic dispersion measure foreground. Therefore, they evidently have an extragalactic origin. We investigate possible contributions to the dispersion measure from host galaxies. We simulate the spatial distribution of fast radio bursts and calculate the dispersion measures along the sightlines from fast radio bursts to the edge of host galaxies by using the scaled NE2001 model for thermal electron density distributions. We find that contributions to the dispersion measure of fast radio bursts from the host galaxy follow a skew Gaussian distribution. The peak and the width at half maximum of the dispersion measure distribution increase with the inclination angle of a spiral galaxy, to large values when the inclination angle is over 70°. The largest dispersion measure produced by an edge-on spiral galaxy can reach a few thousand pc cm −3 , while the dispersion measures from dwarf galaxies and elliptical galaxies have a maximum of only a few tens of pc cm −3 . Notice, however, that additional dispersion measures of tens to hundreds of pc cm −3 can be produced by high density clumps in host galaxies. Simulations that include dispersion measure contributions from the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Andromeda Galaxy are shown as examples to demonstrate how to extract the dispersion measure from the intergalactic medium. (paper)

  9. The statistics of radio emission from quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.; Miller, L.; Longair, M.S.; Edinburgh Univ.

    1986-01-01

    The radio properties of quasars have traditionally been discussed in terms of the radio-to-optical flux-density ratio R, implying a correlation between emission in these wavebands. It is here shown that, for bright quasars, this apparent correlation is largely due to an abrupt change in the radio properties of the quasar population near absolute magnitude Msub(B)=-24. It is suggested that this change in due to the existence of two classes of quasar with differing host galaxies: a proportion of quasars brighter than Msub(B)approx.=-24 lie in elliptical galaxies and thus generate powerful radio sources, while elliptical galaxies with weaker nuclear quasar components are classified as N-galaxies rather than quasars; quasars fainter than Msub(B)approx.=-24 lie in spiral galaxies and thus are high-luminosity analogues of radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. (author)

  10. Associating Fast Radio Bursts with Extragalactic Radio Sources: General Methodology and a Search for a Counterpart to FRB 170107

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, T.; Berger, E.; Williams, P. K. G.; Blanchard, P. K.

    2018-06-01

    The discovery of a repeating fast radio burst (FRB) has led to the first precise localization, an association with a dwarf galaxy, and the identification of a coincident persistent radio source. However, further localizations are required to determine the nature of FRBs, the sources powering them, and the possibility of multiple populations. Here we investigate the use of associated persistent radio sources to establish FRB counterparts, taking into account the localization area and the source flux density. Due to the lower areal number density of radio sources compared to faint optical sources, robust associations can be achieved for less precise localizations as compared to direct optical host galaxy associations. For generally larger localizations that preclude robust associations, the number of candidate hosts can be reduced based on the ratio of radio-to-optical brightness. We find that confident associations with sources having a flux density of ∼0.01–1 mJy, comparable to the luminosity of the persistent source associated with FRB 121102 over the redshift range z ≈ 0.1–1, require FRB localizations of ≲20″. We demonstrate that even in the absence of a robust association, constraints can be placed on the luminosity of an associated radio source as a function of localization and dispersion measure (DM). For DM ≈1000 pc cm‑3, an upper limit comparable to the luminosity of the FRB 121102 persistent source can be placed if the localization is ≲10″. We apply our analysis to the case of the ASKAP FRB 170107, using optical and radio observations of the localization region. We identify two candidate hosts based on a radio-to-optical brightness ratio of ≳100. We find that if one of these is indeed associated with FRB 170107, the resulting radio luminosity (1029‑ 4 × 1030 erg s‑1 Hz‑1, as constrained from the DM value) is comparable to the luminosity of the FRB 121102 persistent source.

  11. The collective radio properties of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaquist, E.R.; Taylor, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Radio measurements of symbiotic stars are reported which extend the search for radio emission and provide multifrequency and multiepoch measurements of previously detected stars. The results show no evidence that there are time variations in excess of about 30 percent over a period of several years in the detected stars. The radio flux densities are correlated with brightness in the IR, especially at the longer IR wavelengths where dust emission dominates. It is confirmed that symbiotics with the latest red giant spectral types are the most luminous radio emitters. The D-types are the most radio-luminous. Virtually all detected stars with measurements at more than one frequency exhibit a positive spectral index, consistent with optically thick thermal bremsstrahlung. The binary separation for a number of radio-emitting symbiotics is estimated, and it is found that the distribution of inferred binary separations is dramatically different for IR D-types than for S-types. 37 refs

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxy clusters: radio halos, relics and parameters (Yuan+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Z. S.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.

    2017-10-01

    A large number of radio halos, relics, and mini-halos have been discovered and measured in recent decades through observations with VLA (e.g., Giovannini & Feretti 2000NewA....5..335G; van Weeren et al. 2011A&A...533A..35V), GMRT (e.g., Venturi et al. 2007A&A...463..937V; Kale et al. 2015A&A...579A..92K), WSRT (e.g., van Weeren et al. 2010Sci...330..347V; Trasatti et al. 2015A&A...575A..45T), and also ATCA (e.g., Shimwell et al. 2014MNRAS.440.2901S, 2015MNRAS.449.1486S). We have checked the radio images of radio halos, relics, and mini-halos in the literature and collected in Table 1 the radio flux Sν at frequencies within a few per cent around 1.4 GHz, 610 MHz, and 325 MHz; we have interpolated the flux at an intermediate frequency if measurements are available at higher and lower frequencies. To establish reliable scaling relations, we include only the very firm detection of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters, and omit questionable detections or flux estimates due to problematic point-source subtraction. (3 data files).

  13. RADIO NONDETECTION OF THE SGR 1806−20 GIANT FLARE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Patel, Chitrang

    2016-01-01

    We analyze archival data from the Parkes radio telescope, which was observing a location 35.°6 away from SGR 1806−20 during its giant γ -ray flare of 2004 December 27. We show that no fast radio burst (FRB)-like burst counterpart was detected, and set a radio limit of 110 MJy at 1.4 GHz, including the estimated 70 dB suppression of the signal due to its location in the far sidelobe of Parkes and the predicted scattering from the interstellar medium. The upper limit for the ratio of magnetar giant flare radio to γ -ray fluence is η SGR ≲ 10 7 Jy ms erg −1 cm 2 . Based on the nondetection of a short and prompt γ -ray counterpart of 15 FRBs in γ -ray transient monitors, we set a lower limit on the fluence ratios of FRBs to be η FRB ≳ 10 7–9 Jy ms erg −1 cm 2 . The fluence ratio limit for SGR 1806−20 is inconsistent with all but one of the 15 FRBs. We discuss possible variations in the magnetar-FRB emission mechanism and observational caveats that may reconcile the theory with observations.

  14. RADIO NONDETECTION OF THE SGR 1806−20 GIANT FLARE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FAST RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Patel, Chitrang, E-mail: shriharsh@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, 3600 University St., Montréal, QC H3A 2A8 (Canada)

    2016-08-10

    We analyze archival data from the Parkes radio telescope, which was observing a location 35.°6 away from SGR 1806−20 during its giant γ -ray flare of 2004 December 27. We show that no fast radio burst (FRB)-like burst counterpart was detected, and set a radio limit of 110 MJy at 1.4 GHz, including the estimated 70 dB suppression of the signal due to its location in the far sidelobe of Parkes and the predicted scattering from the interstellar medium. The upper limit for the ratio of magnetar giant flare radio to γ -ray fluence is η {sub SGR} ≲ 10{sup 7} Jy ms erg{sup −1} cm{sup 2}. Based on the nondetection of a short and prompt γ -ray counterpart of 15 FRBs in γ -ray transient monitors, we set a lower limit on the fluence ratios of FRBs to be η {sub FRB} ≳ 10{sup 7–9} Jy ms erg{sup −1} cm{sup 2}. The fluence ratio limit for SGR 1806−20 is inconsistent with all but one of the 15 FRBs. We discuss possible variations in the magnetar-FRB emission mechanism and observational caveats that may reconcile the theory with observations.

  15. THE RADIO-2 mm SPECTRAL INDEX OF THE CRAB NEBULA MEASURED WITH GISMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, R. G.; George, J. V.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Maher, S. F.; Moseley, S. H.; Sharp, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Korngut, P. M.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, T. M.; Kovacs, A.; Mason, B. S.; Navarro, S.; Sievers, A.; Sievers, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of 2 mm observations of the Crab Nebula, obtained using the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) bolometer camera on the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional 3.3 mm observations with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope are also presented. The integrated 2 mm flux density of the Crab Nebula provides no evidence for the emergence of a second synchrotron component that has been proposed. It is consistent with the radio power-law spectrum, extrapolated up to a break frequency of log (ν b [GHz]) = 2.84 ± 0.29 or ν b = 695 +651 -336 GHz. The Crab Nebula is well resolved by the ∼16.''7 beam (FWHM) of GISMO. Comparison to radio data at comparable spatial resolution enables us to confirm significant spatial variation of the spectral index between 21 cm and 2 mm. The main effect is a spectral flattening in the inner region of the Crab Nebula, correlated with the toroidal structure at the center of the nebula that is prominent in the near-IR through X-ray regime.

  16. Spectral Energy Distribution and Radio Halo of NGC 253 at Low Radio Frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Meurer, G. R.; For, B.-Q. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, WA 6009 (Australia); Crocker, R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bhandari, S.; Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hancock, P. J.; Lenc, E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Sydney NSW (Australia); Hurley-Walker, N.; Seymour, N. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Offringa, A. R. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), P.O. Box 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Hanish, D. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ekers, R. D.; Bell, M. E. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Dwarakanath, K. S. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Hindson, L. [Centre of Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); McKinley, B., E-mail: anna.kapinska@uwa.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); and others

    2017-03-20

    We present new radio continuum observations of NGC 253 from the Murchison Widefield Array at frequencies between 76 and 227 MHz. We model the broadband radio spectral energy distribution for the total flux density of NGC 253 between 76 MHz and 11 GHz. The spectrum is best described as a sum of a central starburst and extended emission. The central component, corresponding to the inner 500 pc of the starburst region of the galaxy, is best modeled as an internally free–free absorbed synchrotron plasma, with a turnover frequency around 230 MHz. The extended emission component of the spectrum of NGC 253 is best described as a synchrotron emission flattening at low radio frequencies. We find that 34% of the extended emission (outside the central starburst region) at 1 GHz becomes partially absorbed at low radio frequencies. Most of this flattening occurs in the western region of the southeast halo, and may be indicative of synchrotron self-absorption of shock-reaccelerated electrons or an intrinsic low-energy cutoff of the electron distribution. Furthermore, we detect the large-scale synchrotron radio halo of NGC 253 in our radio images. At 154–231 MHz the halo displays the well known X-shaped/horn-like structure, and extends out to ∼8 kpc in the z -direction (from the major axis).

  17. A giant radio flare from Cygnus X-3 with associated γ-ray emission: The 2011 radio and γ-ray flare of Cyg X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Tomsick, J. A.; Szostek, A.

    2012-01-01

    With frequent flaring activity of its relativistic jets, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is one of the most active microquasars and is the only Galactic black hole candidate with confirmed high-energy γ-ray emission, thanks to detections by Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT) and AGILE. In 2011, we observed Cyg X-3 in order to transit to a soft X-ray state, which is known to be associated with high-energy γ-ray emission. We present the results of a multiwavelength campaign covering a quenched state, when radio emission from Cyg X-3 is at its weakest and the X-ray spectrum is very soft. A giant (~20 Jy) optically thin radio flare marks the end of the quenched state, accompanied by rising non-thermal hard X-rays. Fermi/LAT observations (E≥ 100 MeV) reveal renewed γ-ray activity associated with this giant radio flare, suggesting a common origin for all non-thermal components. In addition, current observations unambiguously show that the γ-ray emission is not exclusively related to the rare giant radio flares. A three-week period of γ-ray emission is also detected when Cyg X-3 was weakly flaring in radio, right before transition to the radio quenched state. There were no γ-rays observed during the ~1-month long quenched state, when the radio flux is weakest. These results suggest transitions into and out of the ultrasoft X-ray (radio-quenched) state trigger γ-ray emission, implying a connection to the accretion process, and also that the γ-ray activity is related to the level of radio flux (and possibly shock formation), strengthening the connection to the relativistic jets.

  18. Compact continuum radio sources in the Orion Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay, G.; Moran, J.M.; Reid, M.J.; European Southern Observatory, Garching, West Germany)

    1987-01-01

    The Orion Nebula was observed with the VLA in order to search for radio emission from compact H II regions indicative of embedded OB stars or from winds associated with pre-main sequence, low-mass stars. Fourteen of the 21 detected radio sources are within 30 arcsec of Omega 1 Orionis C; 13 of these objects are probably neutral condensations surrounded by ionized envelopes that are excited by the star. If the temperature of the ionized envelopes is 10,000 K and their electron densities decrease as the square of the distance from the core center, then a typical neutral condensation has a radius of 10 to the 15th cm and a peak electron density of 400,000/cu cm. Seven sources are in or near the Orion molecular cloud. Four of the sources have optical counterparts. Two are highly variable radio sources associated with X-ray sources, and two have radio spectra indicative of thermal emission. Two of the three optically invisible sources have radio emission likely to arise in a dense ionized envelope surrounding and excited by an early B-type star. 46 references

  19. Radio spectra of pulsars. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izekova, V.A.; Kuzmin, A.D.; Malofeev, V.M.; Shitov, Yu.P.

    1981-01-01

    The results of flux pulsar radioemission measurements at meter wavelength, made at Pushchino Radio Astronomical Observatory of the Lebedev Physical Institute, are presented. Flux densities at 102, 85, 61 and 39 MHz have been measured for 85, 29, 37 and 23 pulsars correspondingly. Some of them were performed at all frequencies simultaneously. On the basis of these data and high frequencies data obtained by other authors, spectra of 52 pulsars were plotted. In practically all investigated pulsars we have detected a turn-over frequency at which the flux density of pulsar radioemission attained its maximum. Its mean value is vsub(m) = 130 +- 80 MHz. Averaged on many pulsars, the spectral index is negative in the 39-61 MHz frequency range (anti ALPHA 39 sub(-) 61 = -1.4 +- 0.4) and passes through zero at frequencies of about 100 MHz, becoming positive in the 100-400 MHz frequency range. It was noticed that the spectral index in the 100-400 MHz interval depends upon such pulsar periods as α 100 sub(-) 400 = 0.7 log p + 0.9. Using the spectra, more precise radio luminosities of pulsars have been computed. (orig.)

  20. Detecting primordial gravitational waves with circular polarization of the redshifted 21 cm line. II. Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhilash; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-05-01

    In the first paper of this series, we showed that the CMB quadrupole at high redshifts results in a small circular polarization of the emitted 21 cm radiation. In this paper we forecast the sensitivity of future radio experiments to measure the CMB quadrupole during the era of first cosmic light (z ˜20 ). The tomographic measurement of 21 cm circular polarization allows us to construct a 3D remote quadrupole field. Measuring the B -mode component of this remote quadrupole field can be used to put bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r . We make Fisher forecasts for a future Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT), consisting of an array of dipole antennas in a compact grid configuration, as a function of array size and observation time. We find that a FFTT with a side length of 100 km can achieve σ (r )˜4 ×10-3 after ten years of observation and with a sky coverage fsky˜0.7 . The forecasts are dependent on the evolution of the Lyman-α flux in the pre-reionization era, that remains observationally unconstrained. Finally, we calculate the typical order of magnitudes for circular polarization foregrounds and comment on their mitigation strategies. We conclude that detection of primordial gravitational waves with 21 cm observations is in principle possible, so long as the primordial magnetic field amplitude is small, but would require a very futuristic experiment with corresponding advances in calibration and foreground suppression techniques.

  1. Automated cross-identifying radio to infrared surveys using the LRPY algorithm: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, S. D.; Seymour, N.; Gulyaev, S.; Norris, R. P.; Banfield, J.; Vaccari, M.; Hopkins, A. M.; Franzen, T. M. O.

    2018-02-01

    Cross-identifying complex radio sources with optical or infra red (IR) counterparts in surveys such as the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) has traditionally been performed manually. However, with new surveys from the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder detecting many tens of millions of radio sources, such an approach is no longer feasible. This paper presents new software (LRPY - Likelihood Ratio in PYTHON) to automate the process of cross-identifying radio sources with catalogues at other wavelengths. LRPY implements the likelihood ratio (LR) technique with a modification to account for two galaxies contributing to a sole measured radio component. We demonstrate LRPY by applying it to ATLAS DR3 and a Spitzer-based multiwavelength fusion catalogue, identifying 3848 matched sources via our LR-based selection criteria. A subset of 1987 sources have flux density values for all IRAC bands which allow us to use criteria to distinguish between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star-forming galaxies (SFG). We find that 936 radio sources ( ≈ 47 per cent) meet both of the Lacy and Stern AGN selection criteria. Of the matched sources, 295 have spectroscopic redshifts and we examine the radio to IR flux ratio versus redshift, proposing an AGN selection criterion below the Elvis radio-loud AGN limit for this dataset. Taking the union of all three AGNs selection criteria we identify 956 as AGNs ( ≈ 48 per cent). From this dataset, we find a decreasing fraction of AGNs with lower radio flux densities consistent with other results in the literature.

  2. Radio emission from symbiotic variables: CI Cygni, Z Andromedae, and EG Andromedae - Temporal variability as clues to the nature of symbiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torbett, M.V.; Campbell, B.

    1989-01-01

    A continuing survey of interacting binary systems has yielded first detections of the symbiotic variables CI Cyg and EG And and reproduced previous flux measurements for Z And. The CI Cyg observation implies considerable radio variability for some symbiotics, while the radio flux from Z And indicates this object has been reasonably stable in the radio for years. Rapid radio variability may indicate the presence of mass transfer through an accretion disk. 27 refs

  3. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  4. Study of dryout heat fluxes in beds of inductively heated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, V.K.; Catton, I.

    1977-02-01

    Experimental observations of the dryout heat fluxes for inductively heated particulate beds have been made. The data were obtained when steel and lead particles in the size distribution 295-787 microns were placed in a 4.7 cm diameter pyrex glass jar and inductively heated by passing radio frequency current through a 13.3 cm diameter multi-turn work coil encircling the jar. Distilled water, methanol and acetone were used as coolants in the experiments, while the bed height was varied from 1.0 to 8.9 cm. Different mechanisms for the dryout in deep and shallow beds have been identified. Dryout in shallow beds is believed to occur when the vapor velocity in the gas jets exceeds a certain critical velocity at which choking of the vapor occurs, leading to obstruction in the flow of the liquid toward the bed. However, deep beds dry out when gravitational force can no longer maintain a downward coolant flow rate necessary to dissipate the heat generated in the bed. The heat flux data of the investigation and that from two previous investigations made at Argonne Laboratory and at UCLA have been correlated with semi-theoretical correlations based on the proposed hydrodynamic models. The deep and shallow bed correlations are used to predict the bed height at which transition from deep to shallow bed would occur. An application of the study has been made to determine the maximum coolable depths of the core debris as a function of the particle size, bed porosity and decay heat

  5. EoR Foregrounds: the Faint Extragalactic Radio Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Isabella

    2018-05-01

    A wealth of new data from upgraded and new radio interferometers are rapidly improving and transforming our understanding of the faint extra-galactic radio sky. Indeed the mounting statistics at sub-mJy and μJy flux levels is finally allowing us to get stringent observational constraints on the faint radio population and on the modeling of its various components. In this paper I will provide a brief overview of the latest results in areas that are potentially important for an accurate treatment of extra-galactic foregrounds in experiments designed to probe the Epoch of Reionization.

  6. Radio observations of the CMa OB1 H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylard, M.J.; Kemball, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive 10 0 x 15 0 13-cm map made of the CMa OB1 H II regions' radio emission shows a strong similarity to Hα emission photographs. Sharpless 296 is shown to consist of a prominent central and western arc completed by a weaker southern loop, and with a faint northern bar. The emission is thermal, superimposed over a predominantly non-thermal background. The H142α recombination line has been detected at eight positions in S296, and in S292 and S297. The average electron temperature in S296 is 6900 +- 1300 K. The UV fluxes from the CMa OB1 stars account for the observed emission measures of the H II regions. The H142α 1sr velocities indicate that the ionized material is in contact with the molecular clouds. (author)

  7. Absorption and Flux Density Measurements in an Iron Plug in R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Ragnar; Braun, Josef

    1958-11-15

    Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes have been measured in a 60 cm long, 'sliced' iron plug, which has been placed in the lower iron lid of the Swedish reactor R1. Au foils, Cu foils, Mn foils, P packets, Cu wires and small Fe cylinders have been used. The gamma flux has been determined with film dosimeters. The measurements have shown that only in the first centimeters of the iron is the activation determined by the thermal flux, which decreases with a relaxation length {lambda}= (1.51 {+-} 0.02) cm. The epithermal flux is entirely predominant already after 10 cm ( {lambda} = 16 cm). The epithermal neutron flux decreases even more slowly than the fast flux ({lambda} = 6.2 cm)

  8. Absorption and Flux Density Measurements in an Iron Plug in R1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Ragnar; Braun, Josef

    1958-11-01

    Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes have been measured in a 60 cm long, 'sliced' iron plug, which has been placed in the lower iron lid of the Swedish reactor R1. Au foils, Cu foils, Mn foils, P packets, Cu wires and small Fe cylinders have been used. The gamma flux has been determined with film dosimeters. The measurements have shown that only in the first centimeters of the iron is the activation determined by the thermal flux, which decreases with a relaxation length λ= (1.51 ± 0.02) cm. The epithermal flux is entirely predominant already after 10 cm ( λ = 16 cm). The epithermal neutron flux decreases even more slowly than the fast flux (λ = 6.2 cm)

  9. RADIO ASTROMETRY OF THE CLOSE ACTIVE BINARY HR 5110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbuhl, E.; Mutel, R. L.; Lynch, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Güedel, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-20

    The close active binary HR 5110 was observed at six epochs over 26 days using a global very long baseline interferometry array at 15.4 GHz. We used phase referencing to determine the position of the radio centroid at each epoch with an uncertainty significantly smaller than the component separation. After correcting for proper motion and parallax, we find that the centroid locations of all six epochs have barycenter separations consistent with an emission source located on the KIV secondary, and not in an interaction region between the stars or on the F primary. We used a homogeneous power-law gyrosynchrotron emission model to reproduce the observed flux densities and fractional circular polarization. The resulting ranges of mean magnetic field strength and relativistic electron densities are of the order of 10 G and 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}, respectively, in the source region.

  10. Searching for giga-Jansky fast radio bursts from the Milky Way with a global array of low-cost radio receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Dan; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-06-01

    If fast radio bursts (FRBs) originate from galaxies at cosmological distances, then their all-sky rate implies that the Milky Way may host an FRB every 30-1500 yr, on average. If many FRBs persistently repeat for decades or more, a local giant FRB could be active now, with 1 GHz radio pulses of flux ˜3 × 1010 Jy, comparable with the fluxes and frequencies detectable by cellular communication devices (cell phones, Wi-Fi and GPS). We propose searching for Galactic FRBs using a global array of low-cost radio receivers. One possibility is the ˜1 GHz communication channel in cellular phones, through a Citizens-Science downloadable application. Participating phones would continuously listen for and record candidate FRBs and would periodically upload information to a central data-processing website which will identify the signature of a real, globe-encompassing, FRB from an astronomical distance. Triangulation of the GPS-based pulse arrival times reported from different Earth locations will provide the FRB sky position, potentially to arcsecond accuracy. Pulse arrival times versus frequency, from reports from phones operating at diverse frequencies, or from fast signal de-dispersion by the application, will yield the dispersion measure (DM). Compared to a Galactic DM model, it will indicate the source distance within the Galaxy. A variant approach uses the built-in ˜100 MHz FM-radio receivers present in cell phones for an FRB search at lower frequencies. Alternatively, numerous 'software-defined radio' devices, costing ˜$10 US each, could be deployed and plugged into USB ports of personal computers (particularly in radio-quiet locations) to establish the global network of receivers.

  11. A polarized fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petroff, E.; van Haren, H.; The ANTARES Collaboration; The H.E.S.S. Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150215, with the Parkes radio telescope on 2015 February 15. The burst was detected in real time with a dispersion measure (DM) of 1105.6 ± 0.8 pc cm−3, a pulse duration of 2.8+1.2−0.5 ms, and a measured peak flux density assuming that

  12. Comparison of the X-Ray and Radio Light Curves of Quasar PKS 1510--089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, M. F.; Marscher, A. P.; Marchenko-Jorstad, S. G.; McHardy, I. M.; Aller, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    We present results for the X-ray-bright superluminal AGN PKS 1510-089 (z=0.36) monitored weekly with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer for the past four years in order to study the origin of X-ray emission from this extremely variable blazer. These RXTE data are compared with weekly cm-band flux and polarization observations from the Michigan Diameter telescope, to identify correlated activity and associated frequency-dependent time delays for constraining X-ray emission models; and bimonthly 7mm VLBA total and linearly polarized intensity imaging to identify temporal associations between X-ray events and the ejection of superluminal components and disturbances in the magnetic field, to test if the X-ray energy release is related to changes in the inner jet flow. Both the X-ray (2-20 keV) and radio flux are highly variable on timescales of weeks. The VLBA mas structure is dominated by a bright core with a weak jet; both the ejection of very fast superluminal knots and changes in the fractional polarization and EVPA of the core on timescales of one to four months are identified. Two outbursts in 1997 are well-resolved in both the centimeter and X-ray bands. Both the strong temporal association and the similar outburst shape support a causal relation, and a discrete cross-correlation analysis identifies that the X-ray lags the radio by 16 days during the bursts. Starting in 1998 the behavior changes: the correlation is weaker with the X-ray possibly leading the radio by six days. During the full time window there is a correlation between bands as expected if the radio photons are upscattered to X-ray energies. The time correlations and difference between the flat X-ray spectral index (0.0 <= alpha <= 0.5 where F(sub v) is proportional to v(exp -alpha)), and the mm-wave synchrotron spectrum (alpha = 0.8) are discussed within the framework of viable SSC models.

  13. Structure in the Radio Counterpart to the 2004 Dec 27 Giant Flare From SGR1806-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fender, Rob P.; Muxlow, T.W.B.; Garrett, M.A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Gaensler, B.M.; Garrington, S.T.; Paragi, Z.; Tudose, V.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Spencer, R.E.; Wijers,; Taylor, G.B.; /Southampton U. /Jodrell Bank /JIVE, Dwingeloo /NASA, Marshall /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Amsterdam U., Astron. Inst. /Astron. Inst. Romanian

    2006-01-11

    The formation of an expanding, moving, and fading radio source. We report observations of this radio source with the Multi-Element Radio-Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The observations confirm the elongation and expansion already reported based on observations at lower angular resolutions, but suggest that at early epochs the structure is not consistent with the very simplest models such as a smooth flux distribution. In particular there appears to be significant structure on small angular scales, with {approx}10% of the radio flux arising on angular scales <= 100 milliarcsec. This structure may correspond to localized sites of particle acceleration during the early phases of expansion and interaction with the ambient medium.

  14. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investi- gated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux density, ...

  15. Blazars with arcminute-scale radio halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvestad, J.S.; Antonucci, R.R.J.; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

    1986-01-01

    About 10-arcsec resolution 20-cm wavelength maps are presented for three nearby BL Lac objects: Mkn 180, whose halo has a linear size of 85 kpc, 2155-304, with a halo about 375 kpc across, and 1727 + 502, whose one-sided diffuse emission extends to a distance of about 145 kpc from its radio core. Little evidence is found for strong radio variability in the cores of the three blazars; these and other results obtained are consistent with the assertion that the three objects should be classified as normal low luminosity double radio galaxies with optically dull nuclei, if seen from other directions. 20 references

  16. The detectability of radio emission from exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C. R.; Murphy, Tara; Lenc, E.; Kaplan, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    Like the magnetised planets in our Solar System, magnetised exoplanets should emit strongly at radio wavelengths. Radio emission directly traces the planetary magnetic fields and radio detections can place constraints on the physical parameters of these features. Large comparative studies of predicted radio emission characteristics for the known population of exoplanets help to identify what physical parameters could be key for producing bright, observable radio emission. Since the last comparative study, many thousands of exoplanets have been discovered. We report new estimates for the radio flux densities and maximum emission frequencies for the current population of known exoplanets orbiting pre-main sequence and main-sequence stars with spectral types F-M. The set of exoplanets predicted to produce observable radio emission are Hot Jupiters orbiting young stars. The youth of these system predicts strong stellar magnetic fields and/or dense winds, which are key for producing bright, observable radio emission. We use a new all-sky circular polarisation Murchison Widefield Array survey to place sensitive limits on 200 MHz emission from exoplanets, with 3σ values ranging from 4.0 - 45.0 mJy. Using a targeted Giant Metre Wave Radio Telescope observing campaign, we also report a 3σ upper limit of 4.5 mJy on the radio emission from V830 Tau b, the first Hot Jupiter to be discovered orbiting a pre-main sequence star. Our limit is the first to be reported for the low-frequency radio emission from this source.

  17. Radio-frequency wave excitation and damping on a high β plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuth, H.

    1984-01-01

    Azimuthally symmetric (m = 0) radio-frequency (RF) waves for zero and for finite axial wave number k/sub z/ are investigated on the High BETA Q Machine, a two-meter, 20 cm-diameter, low-compression linear theta pinch (T greater than or equal to 200 eV, n approx. = 10 15 cm -3 ) fast rising (0.4 μs) compression field. The (k/sub z/ = 0) modes occur spontaneously following the implosion phase of the discharge. A novel 100-MW 1 to 1.3 MHz, short wavelength current drive excites the plasma column in the vicinity of the lowest fast magnetoacoustic mode at various filling pressures. This current drive is designed as an integral part of the compression coil, which is segmented with a 20-cm axial wavelength (k/sub z/ = 0.314 cm -1 ). The electron density oscillations along major and minor chords at various positions are measured by interferometry perpendicular to the pinch axis. The oscillatory radial magnetic field component between pinch wall and hot plasma edge is measured by probes. Phases, amplitudes and radial mode structure are studied for the free (k = 0) modes and the externally driven (k does not equal 0) modes for various filling pressures of deuterium. The energy deposition from the externally driven RF wave leads to a radial expansion of the plasma column, as observed by axial interferometry and by excluded flux measurements

  18. Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M. V.; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation.

  19. No evidence for radio-quiet BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocke, J.T.; Morris, S.L.; Gioia, I.; Maccacaro, T.; Schild, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Using a large, flux-limited sample of faint X-ray sources, a search has been conducted for radio-quiet BL Lacertae objects. None has been found. Thirty-two X-ray-selected BL Lac objects and BL Lac candidates have been found within the sources of the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS). Thirty-one of these have been observed with the VLA and all have been detected at 5 GHz. While the optical magnitudes of the EMSS BL Lac objects range from 17 to 20.8, their radio-to-optical spectral indices occupy a very small range. The very bright X-ray-selected BL Lac objects like PKS 2155-304 and Markarian 501 have similar range values. Therefore, unlike the clear dichotomy between radio-loud quasars and radio-quiet QSOs, there is no evidence for two populations of Lacertids distinguished by radio loudness. 43 refs

  20. Measuring planetary neutron albedo fluxes by remote gamma-ray sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, E.L.; Metzger, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    A remote-sensing γ-ray spectrometer (GRS) is capable of measuring planetary surface composition through the detection of characteristic gamma rays. In addition, the planetary neutron leakage flux may be detected by means of a thin neutron absorber surrounding the γ-ray detector which converts the neutron flux into a γ-ray flux having a unique energy signature. The γ rays representing the neutron flux are observed against interference consisting of cosmic γ rays, planetary continuum and line emission, and a variety of gamma rays arising from cosmic-ray particle interactions with the γ-ray spectrometer and spacecraft (SC). In this paper the amplitudes of planetary and non-planetary neutron fluxes are assessed and their impact on the sensitivity of measurement is calculated for a lunar orbiter mission and a comet nucleus rendezvous mission. For a 100 h observation period from an altitude of 100 km, a GRS on a lunar orbiter can detect a thermal neutron albedo flux as low as 0.002 cm -2 s -1 and measure the expected flux of approx.=0.6 cm -2 s -1 with an uncertainty of 0.001 cm -2 s -1 . A GRS rendezvousing with a comet at a distance equal to the radius of the comet's nucleus, again for a 100 h observation time, should detect a thermal neutron albedo flux at a level of 0.006 cm -2 s -1 and measure the expected flux of approx.=0.4 cm -2 s -1 with an uncertainty of 0.004 cm -2 s -1 . Mapping the planetary neutron flux jointly with the direct detection of H will not only provide a more accurate model for translating observed γ-ray fluxes into concentrations but will also extend the effective sampling depth and should provide a capability for simple stratigraphic modeling of hydrogen. (orig.)

  1. THE VLA SURVEY OF CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH. V. EVOLUTION AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SUB-MILLIJANSKY RADIO SOURCES AND THE ISSUE OF RADIO EMISSION IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, P.; Mainieri, V.; Rosati, P.; Miller, N.; Kellermann, K. I.; Tozzi, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the evolutionary properties and luminosity functions of the radio sources belonging to the Chandra Deep Field South Very Large Array survey, which reaches a flux density limit at 1.4 GHz of 43 μJy at the field center and redshift ∼5 and which includes the first radio-selected complete sample of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use a new, comprehensive classification scheme based on radio, far- and near-IR, optical, and X-ray data to disentangle star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from AGNs and radio-quiet from radio-loud AGNs. We confirm our previous result that SFGs become dominant only below 0.1 mJy. The sub-millijansky radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of SFGs and radio-quiet AGNs evolving at a similar, strong rate; non-evolving low-luminosity radio galaxies; and declining radio powerful (P ∼> 3 x 10 24 W Hz -1 ) AGNs. Our results suggest that radio emission from radio-quiet AGNs is closely related to star formation. The detection of compact, high brightness temperature cores in several nearby radio-quiet AGNs can be explained by the coexistence of two components, one non-evolving and AGN related and one evolving and star formation related. Radio-quiet AGNs are an important class of sub-millijansky sources, accounting for ∼30% of the sample and ∼60% of all AGNs, and outnumbering radio-loud AGNs at ∼< 0.1 mJy. This implies that future, large area sub-millijansky surveys, given the appropriate ancillary multiwavelength data, have the potential of being able to assemble vast samples of radio-quiet AGNs, bypassing the problems of obscuration that plague the optical and soft X-ray bands.

  2. Calculation of heat fluxes induced by radio frequency heating on the actively cooled protections of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) and lower hybrid (LH) antennas in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritz, G., E-mail: Guillaume.ritz@gmail.com [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Corre, Y., E-mail: Yann.corre@cea.fr [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Rault, M.; Missirlian, M. [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Portafaix, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Martinez, A.; Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.; Guilhem, D.; Salami, M.; Loarer, T. [CEA, Institut de la Recherche sur la Fusion Magnétique (IRFM), 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The heat flux generated by radiofrequency (RF) heating was calculated using Tore Supra's heating antennas. ► The highest heat flux value, generated by ions accelerated in RF-rectified sheath potentials, was 5 MW/m{sup 2}. ► The heat flux on the limiters of antennas was in the same order of magnitude as that on the toroidal pumping limiter. -- Abstract: Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) are recognized as important auxiliary heating and current drive methods for present and next step fusion devices. However, these radio frequency (RF) systems generate a heat flux up to several MW/m{sup 2} on the RF antennas during plasma operation. This paper focuses on the determination of the heat flux deposited on the lateral protections of the RF antennas in Tore Supra. The heat flux was calculated by finite element method (FEM) using a model of the lateral protection. The FEM calculation was based on surface temperature measurements using infrared cameras monitoring the RF antennas. The heat flux related to the acceleration of electrons in front of the LHCD grills (LHCD active) and to the acceleration of ions in RF-rectified sheath potentials (ICRH active) were calculated. Complementary results on the heat flux related to fast ions (ICRH active with a relatively low magnetic field) are also reported in this paper.

  3. Radio identifications of IRAS point sources with b greater than 30 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Broderick, J.J.; Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg)

    1986-01-01

    The present radio identifications of IRAS point sources on the basis of Green Bank 1400 MHz survey maps notes that 365 hot IR sources are not detectable radio sources, and that nearly all cool high latitude IRAS sources are extragalactic. The fainter IR-source identifications encompass optically bright quasars, BL Lac objects, Seyfert galaxies, and elliptical galaxies. No IRAS sources could be identified with distant elliptical radio galaxies, so that although the radio and IR fluxes of most IRAS extragalactic sources are tightly correlated, complete samples of strong radio and IR sources are almost completely disjoint; no more than 1 percent of the IR sources are radio sources and less than 1 percent of the radio sources are IR ones. 35 references

  4. The First Simultaneous X-Ray/Radio Detection of the First Be/BH System MWC 656

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribó, M.; Paredes, J. M.; Marcote, B.; Moldón, J.; Paredes-Fortuny, X. [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Munar-Adrover, P. [INAF/IAPS-Roma, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Iwasawa, K. [ICREA, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, IEEC-UB, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Casares, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Migliari, S. [European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado/P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    MWC 656 is the first known Be/black hole (BH) binary system. Be/BH binaries are important in the context of binary system evolution and sources of detectable gravitational waves because they are possible precursors of coalescing neutron star/BH binaries. X-ray observations conducted in 2013 revealed that MWC 656 is a quiescent high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), opening the possibility to explore X-ray/radio correlations and the accretion/ejection coupling down to low luminosities for BH HMXBs. Here we report on a deep joint Chandra /VLA observation of MWC 656 (and contemporaneous optical data) conducted in 2015 July that has allowed us to unambiguously identify the X-ray counterpart of the source. The X-ray spectrum can be fitted with a power law with Γ ∼ 2, providing a flux of ≃4 × 10{sup −15} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the 0.5–8 keV energy range and a luminosity of L {sub X} ≃ 3 × 10{sup 30} erg s{sup −1} at a 2.6 kpc distance. For a 5 M{sub ⊙} BH this translates into ≃5 × 10{sup −9} L {sub Edd}. These results imply that MWC 656 is about 7 times fainter in X-rays than it was two years before and reaches the faintest X-ray luminosities ever detected in stellar-mass BHs. The radio data provide a detection with a peak flux density of 3.5 ± 1.1 μ Jy beam{sup −1}. The obtained X-ray/radio luminosities for this quiescent BH HMXB are fully compatible with those of the X-ray/radio correlations derived from quiescent BH low-mass X-ray binaries. These results show that the accretion/ejection coupling in stellar-mass BHs is independent of the nature of the donor star.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SEDs of the radio continuum from KINGFISHER (Tabatabaei+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Schinnerer, E.; Krause, M.; Dumas, G.; Meidt, S.; Damas-Segovia, A.; Beck, R.; Murphy, E. J.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Groves, B.; Bolatto, A.; Dale, D.; Galametz, M.; Sandstrom, K.; Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Hunt, L. K.; de Looze, I.; Pellegrini, E. W.

    2017-10-01

    The KINGFISH sample consists of 61 nearby galaxies of different morphological types. From this sample, we selected all galaxies with declinations >=-21° and named this subsample KINGFISHER (KINGFISH galaxies Emitting in Radio). These galaxies can be observed with the Effelsberg 100m single-dish telescope to obtain global measurements of the radio continuum at 20cm, 6cm, and 3.6cm. The non-KINGFISH galaxy, M51, is also included in this study. We observed 35 of these galaxies at 6cm, 10 galaxies at 20cm, and 7 at 3.6cm to complete already existing archival data during four observation runs (2008 Dec, 2009 Dec, 2010 Apr and 2010 Dec & 2012 Mar). (3 data files).

  6. Determination flux in the Reactor JEN-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manas Diaz, L.; Montes Ponce de leon, J.

    1960-01-01

    This report summarized several irradiations that have been made to determine the neutron flux distributions in the core of the JEN-1 reactor. Gold foils of 380 μ gr and Mn-Ni (12% de Ni) of 30 mg have been employed. the epithermal flux has been determined by mean of the Cd radio. The resonance integral values given by Macklin and Pomerance have been used. (Author) 9 refs

  7. Biodiversity Loss in the Orion Radio Zoo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, W. J.; García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Kurtz, S. E.

    2001-03-01

    We re-examine radio observations of compact sources in the core of the Orion nebula and find that 70% of the sources correspond to known proplyds. For all of these sources, including many that have been previously classified as variable and non-thermal, the radio flux between 1.5 and 86 Ghz is fully accounted for by thermal free-free emission from the photoevaporation flow. We therefore suggest that many of the proposed Orion FOXES are in fact EIDERS, and that their apparent variability reflects observational difficulties in detecting the lower surface-brightness portions of the proplyds. The PIGs turn out to be extinct in Orion, and the hybrid creatures that we dub PANTHERS (Proplyds Associated with Non-THErmal Radio Sources) remain elusive.

  8. The Askaryan Radio Array: Overview and Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfendner, Carl; Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is radio frequency observatory under construction at the South Pole that is searching for ultrahigh energy neutrinos via the Askaryan effect. By instrumenting several gigatons of Antarctic glacial ice, the experiment aims to detect a flux of neutrinos above 10 PeV in energy. The measurement of this expected flux of neutrinos would provide information about the highest energy processes in the universe with no local horizon. The full detector consisting of 37 stations is being constructed in a phased deployment with 3 stations already in place and two more planned for deployment in the 2017-2018 season. Recent results from an analysis of data from two stations and a search for neutrinos correlated with gamma ray bursts are presented here. Funding provided by NSF CAREER Award 1255557, NSF ARA Grant 1404266, BigData Grant 1250720.

  9. HD 193793, a radio-emitting Wolf-Rayet binary star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, D.R.; Gottesman, S.T.

    1977-01-01

    The Wolf-Rayet binary HD 193793 has been observed as a weak, unresolved radio source. The observed flux densities do not agree with the predictions of the constant-mass-flow model of Wright and Barlow and Panagia and Felli. A variable-mass-flow model is suggested and an observational test is proposed. A comparison with γ 2 Vel is made, and the parameters affecting radio emission from Wolf-Rayet stars are briefly discussed. (author)

  10. The effect of solar radio bursts on the GNSS radio occultation signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Zhao, Biqiang; Wan, Weixing; Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Libo; Wei, Yong; Lei, Jiuhou; Solomon, Stan; Rocken, Christian

    2013-09-01

    radio burst (SRB) is the radio wave emission after a solar flare, covering a broad frequency range, originated from the Sun's atmosphere. During the SRB occurrence, some specific frequency radio wave could interfere with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and therefore disturb the received signals. In this study, the low Earth orbit- (LEO-) based high-resolution GNSS radio occultation (RO) signals from multiple satellites (COSMIC, CHAMP, GRACE, SAC-C, Metop-A, and TerraSAR-X) processed in University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) were first used to evaluate the effect of SRB on the RO technique. The radio solar telescope network (RSTN) observed radio flux was used to represent SRB occurrence. An extreme case during 6 December 2006 and statistical analysis during April 2006 to September 2012 were studied. The LEO RO signals show frequent loss of lock (LOL), simultaneous decrease on L1 and L2 signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) globally during daytime, small-scale perturbations of SNR, and decreased successful retrieval percentage (SRP) for both ionospheric and atmospheric occultations during SRB occurrence. A potential harmonic band interference was identified. Either decreased data volume or data quality will influence weather prediction, climate study, and space weather monitoring by using RO data during SRB time. Statistically, the SRP of ionospheric and atmospheric occultation retrieval shows ~4% and ~13% decrease, respectively, while the SNR of L1 and L2 show ~5.7% and ~11.7% decrease, respectively. A threshold value of ~1807 SFU of 1415 MHz frequency, which can result in observable GNSS SNR decrease, was derived based on our statistical analysis.

  11. Physics of compact radio sources. I. Particle acceleration and flux variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacholczyk, A.G.; Scott, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The observed patterns of variability of compact radio sources may be explained by assuming that the radio components are plasmons containing relativistic particles, and by applying a model with the following features: (1) the plasmons are ejected at high speed into the interstellar medium in the nuclei of active galaxies: (2) ram pressure confinement of the plasmons leads to Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities therein; (3) turbulence is thereby introduced into the plasmons; (4) the turbulence amplifies the plasmon magnetic field (for a short period) and this leads to betatron aceleration of the relativistic particles; (5) the turbulence vortices continue to accelerate the particles by the second-order Fermi acceleration mechanism. The emission patterns are the result of the combination of these accelerations and adiabatic losses

  12. Galaxy Evolution in the Radio Band: The Role of Star-forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, C.; Prandoni, I. [INAF-IRA, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lapi, A.; Obi, I.; Perrotta, F.; Bressan, A.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C. Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2017-06-20

    We investigate the astrophysics of radio-emitting star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and elucidate their statistical properties in the radio band, including luminosity functions, redshift distributions, and number counts at sub-mJy flux levels, which will be crucially probed by next-generation radio continuum surveys. Specifically, we exploit the model-independent approach by Mancuso et al. to compute the star formation rate functions, the AGN duty cycles, and the conditional probability of a star-forming galaxy to host an AGN with given bolometric luminosity. Coupling these ingredients with the radio emission properties associated with star formation and nuclear activity, we compute relevant statistics at different radio frequencies and disentangle the relative contribution of star-forming galaxies and AGNs in different radio luminosity, radio flux, and redshift ranges. Finally, we highlight that radio-emitting star-forming galaxies and AGNs are expected to host supermassive black holes accreting with different Eddington ratio distributions and to occupy different loci in the galaxy main-sequence diagrams. These specific predictions are consistent with current data sets but need to be tested with larger statistics via future radio data with multiband coverage on wide areas, as will become routinely achievable with the advent of the Square Kilometre Array and its precursors.

  13. ON THE ORIGIN OF FANAROFF-RILEY CLASSIFICATION OF RADIO GALAXIES: DECELERATION OF SUPERSONIC RADIO LOBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakatu, Nozomu; Kino, Motoki; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the origin of 'FRI/FRII dichotomy' - the division between Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) with subsonic lobes and class II (FRII) radio sources with supersonic lobes is sharp in the radio-optical luminosity plane (Owen-White diagram) - can be explained by the deceleration of advancing radio lobes. The deceleration is caused by the growth of the effective cross-sectional area of radio lobes. We derive the condition in which an initially supersonic lobe turns into a subsonic lobe, combining the ram pressure equilibrium between the hot spots and the ambient medium with the relation between 'the hot spot radius' and 'the linear size of radio sources' obtained from the radio observations. We find that the dividing line between the supersonic lobes and subsonic ones is determined by the ratio of the jet power L j to the number density of the ambient matter at the core radius of the host galaxy n-bar a . It is also found that the maximal ratio of (L j ,n-bar a ) exists and its value resides in (L j ,n-bar a ) max ∼10 44-47 er s -1 cm 3 , taking into account considerable uncertainties. This suggests that the maximal value (L j ,n-bar a ) max separates between FRIs and FRIIs.

  14. Radio emission, cosmic ray electrons, and the production of γ-rays in the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, W.R.; Simpson, G.A.; Cane, H.V.

    1980-01-01

    Using a perspective based on new radio data, we have reexamined the traditional derivation of the interstellar electron spectrum using the galactic nonthermal radio spectrum. The radio spectrum derived in the polar directions is now used as a base for this derivation rather than the anticenter spectrum. The interstellar electron spectrum between 70 and 1200 MeV is found to have an exponent -2.14 +- 0.06, steeper than previously determined, and leading to electron fluxes at low energies up to a factor of 10 larger than previously predicted. The electron spectrum below approx.20 MeV measured at Earth is used along with solar modulation arguments to suggest that this interstellar electron spectrum flattens to an exponent of -1.6 +- 0.1 between 5 and 70 MeV. We then use radio maps to predict the γ-ray fluxes produced by the bremsstrahlung process to be expected from these electrons. Using the radio maps, we fiest define L/sub eff/, the effective path length for radio emission in various directions, to predict the effective path length for γ-ray emission. The spectral shapes of γ-rays predicted when the contribution from π 0 decay is included, show little evidence of a pion-decay bump and agree well with those observed, indicating that large changes in the cosmic-ray electron to proton ratio from that observed locally are unlikely along a line of sight. The differences in the predicted and observed γ-ray intensities in the galactic plane are small. However, in the polar direction, the predicted γ-ray flux using the radio data is approx.6 times larger than that actually observed. This is indicative of the fact that the radio emissivity is considerably thicker than the γ-ray emissivity disk, and the cosmic-ray electron population extends beyond the gaseous disk of the Galaxy. This technique of estimating the γ-ray intensity using the radio data is compared with the usual technique which employs estimates of the column density of hydrogen

  15. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. VII. THE EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO STRUCTURE OF IM PEGASI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, M. F.; Bartel, N.; Ransom, R. R.; Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the total radio flux density as well as very long baseline interferometry images of the star, IM Pegasi, which was used as the guide star for the NASA/Stanford relativity mission Gravity Probe B. We obtained flux densities and images from 35 sessions of observations at 8.4 GHz (λ = 3.6 cm) between 1997 January and 2005 July. The observations were accurately phase-referenced to several extragalactic reference sources, and we present the images in a star-centered frame, aligned by the position of the star as derived from our fits to its orbital motion, parallax, and proper motion. Both the flux density and the morphology of IM Peg are variable. For most sessions, the emission region has a single-peaked structure, but 25% of the time, we observed a two-peaked (and on one occasion perhaps a three-peaked) structure. On average, the emission region is elongated by 1.4 ± 0.4 mas (FWHM), with the average direction of elongation being close to that of the sky projection of the orbit normal. The average length of the emission region is approximately equal to the diameter of the primary star. No significant correlation with the orbital phase is found for either the flux density or the direction of elongation, and no preference for any particular longitude on the star is shown by the emission region.

  16. The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelei

    2015-08-01

    The Tianlai 21cm intensity mapping experiment is aimed at surveying the northern sky 21cm intensity at mid-redshifts, thus map out the neutral hydrogen distribution. The experiment is named "Tianlai" which means "heavenly sound" in classic Chinese, because its ultimate goal is to use the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the correlation function or power spectrum of large scale structure to constrain the cosmic expansion rate, and determine the nature of dark energy.The pathfinder experiment consists three cylinder reflectors of 15m wide x 40m long, and 16 dishes of 6 meter aperture, for testing the basic principle and key technologies. A radio-quiet site in Hongliuxia, Xinjiang of north-west China is selected, currently the facilities are under construction, and the prototype is expected to start commissioning later this year. The experiment is run by NAOC, with members from France, USA and Canada.

  17. Implications from the Upper Limit of Radio Afterglow Emission of FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A γ-ray transient, Swift J0644.5-5111, has been claimed to be associated with FRB 131104. However, a long-term radio imaging follow-up observation only placed an upper limit on the radio afterglow flux of Swift J0644.5-5111. Applying the external shock model, we perform a detailed constraint on the afterglow parameters for the FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111 system. We find that for the commonly used microphysics shock parameters (e.g., {ɛ }e=0.1, {ɛ }B=0.01, and p = 2.3), if the fast radio burst (FRB) is indeed cosmological as inferred from its measured dispersion measure (DM), the ambient medium number density should be ≤slant {10}-3 {{cm}}-3, which is the typical value for a compact binary merger environment but disfavors a massive star origin. Assuming a typical ISM density, one would require that the redshift of the FRB be much smaller than the value inferred from DM (z\\ll 0.1), implying a non-cosmological origin of DM. The constraints are much looser if one adopts smaller {ɛ }B and {ɛ }e values, as observed in some gamma-ray burst afterglows. The FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111 association remains plausible. We critically discuss possible progenitor models for the system.

  18. The significance of radio astronomy for space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geschwinde, H.; Pilz, M.

    1982-01-01

    The age of radio astronomy started in the thirties with the discovery of radio emissions at a wavelength of 16.7 m from the milky way by the American Scientist Jansky. The first surprizing results however have been obtained with improved techniques not until world war II. With the large telescope in Jodrell Bank, English scientists discovered the 21 cm spectral line of neutral atomic hydrogen in 1951. (orig.) [de

  19. Radio propagation through the turbulent interstellar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickett, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    The current understanding of interstellar scattering is reviewed, and its impact on radio astronomy is examined. The features of interstellar plasma turbulence are also discussed. It is concluded that methods involving the investigation of the flux variability of pulsars and extragalactic sources and the VLBI visibility curves constitute new techniques for probing the ISM. However, scattering causes a seeing limitation in radio observations. It is now clear that variation due to RISS (refractive interstellar scintillations) is likely to be important for several classes of variable sources, especially low-frequency variables and centimeter-wave flickering. 168 refs

  20. Radio continuum observations of NML Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.C.; Seaquist, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt to detect thermal radio emission from a compact circumstellar cloud about the infrared star NML Cyg has been carried out at three frequencies, 2.7, 8.1, and 10.5 GHz. Although positive results were obtained with single-dish observations at 10.5 GHz, the radio emission is not from a circumstellar cloud about NML Cyg. Instead it is postulated that the emission is from an H ii region with an angular extent of approx.2'. The red print of the Sky Survey shows a faint nebulosity of comparable angular size overlapping the star's position, lending support to this interpretation. The interferometer observations at 2.7 and 8.1 GHz provide an upper limit on the radio emission from any compact circumstellar cloud about NML Cyg of 2.8 mJy, which is well below the flux density expected for the absorbing cloud postulated by Davies et al. (1972)

  1. A study of faint radio sources near the North Galactic Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benn, C.R.

    1981-09-01

    A large amount of observational data has been obtained on faint radio sources in a small area of sky near the North Galactic Pole (the 5C 12 area). This provides a new perspective (3 decades in flux density from the 3CR catalogue) on the physical properties and cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources. Chapter 1 introduces the problem and concludes that faint-object cosmology is best served by intensive investigation of sources in a small area of sky. An optimum area is chosen, at right ascension 12sup(h) 58sup(m) 43sup(s) and declination 35 0 14' 00'' (1950.0). Chapter 2 describes the 5C12 radio survey (complete to 9mJy apparent flux density at 408MHz) conducted with the One Mile Telescope at Cambridge. Chapter 4 describes a 4.85GHz survey to 20mJy of the area, conducted at Effelsberg. In chapter 5, a program of optical identification for the sources is described, using deep (msub(g) = 22.5, msub(y) = 20.7) Schmidt plates taken at Hale Observatories. A statistical algorithm is developed to cope with the problems of optical confusion due to radio positional errors. Chapter 6 draws on data from the previous 4, and presents results concerning radio source counts, spectral index distributions, optical identifications and clustering. (author)

  2. 10C survey of radio sources at 15.7 GHz - II. First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMI Consortium; Davies, Mathhew L.; Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Hobson, Michael P.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony; Olamaie, Malak; Pooley, Guy G.; Riley, Julia M.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Carmen; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Schammel, Michel P.; Scott, Paul F.; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Titterington, David J.; Zwart, Jonathan T. L.

    2011-08-01

    In a previous paper (Paper I), the observational, mapping and source-extraction techniques used for the Tenth Cambridge (10C) Survey of Radio Sources were described. Here, the first results from the survey, carried out using the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array (LA) at an observing frequency of 15.7 GHz, are presented. The survey fields cover an area of ≈27 deg2 to a flux-density completeness of 1 mJy. Results for some deeper areas, covering ≈12 deg2, wholly contained within the total areas and complete to 0.5 mJy, are also presented. The completeness for both areas is estimated to be at least 93 per cent. The 10C survey is the deepest radio survey of any significant extent (≳0.2 deg2) above 1.4 GHz. The 10C source catalogue contains 1897 entries and is available online. The source catalogue has been combined with that of the Ninth Cambridge Survey to calculate the 15.7-GHz source counts. A broken power law is found to provide a good parametrization of the differential count between 0.5 mJy and 1 Jy. The measured source count has been compared with that predicted by de Zotti et al. - the model is found to display good agreement with the data at the highest flux densities. However, over the entire flux-density range of the measured count (0.5 mJy to 1 Jy), the model is found to underpredict the integrated count by ≈30 per cent. Entries from the source catalogue have been matched with those contained in the catalogues of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey (both of which have observing frequencies of 1.4 GHz). This matching provides evidence for a shift in the typical 1.4-GHz spectral index to 15.7-GHz spectral index of the 15.7-GHz-selected source population with decreasing flux density towards sub-mJy levels - the spectra tend to become less steep. Automated methods for detecting extended sources, developed in Paper I, have been applied to the data; ≈5 per cent of the sources are found to be extended

  3. 21 cm cosmology in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Jonathan R; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    Imaging the Universe during the first hundreds of millions of years remains one of the exciting challenges facing modern cosmology. Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen offer the potential of opening a new window into this epoch. This will transform our understanding of the formation of the first stars and galaxies and of the thermal history of the Universe. A new generation of radio telescopes is being constructed for this purpose with the first results starting to trickle in. In this review, we detail the physics that governs the 21 cm signal and describe what might be learnt from upcoming observations. We also generalize our discussion to intensity mapping of other atomic and molecular lines.

  4. WEAK AND COMPACT RADIO EMISSION IN EARLY HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS. I. VLA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Claussen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Loinard, L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090, México (Mexico); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-12-01

    We present a high-sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array toward a sample of 58 high-mass star-forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC–IRs and CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the Very Large Array, this survey achieved map rms levels of ∼3–10  μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 continuum sources associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the millimeter dust clumps for CMCs, CMC–IRs, and HMCs are 6%, 53%, and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs and CMC–IRs occur close to the dust clump centers, with a median offset from it of 12,000 au and 4000 au, respectively. We calculated 5–25 GHz spectral indices using power-law fits and obtained a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), suggestive of thermal emission from ionized jets. In this paper we describe the sample, observations, and detections. The analysis and discussion will be presented in Paper II.

  5. Global spiral structure of M81 - radio continuum maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bash, F.N.; Kaufman, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus)

    1986-01-01

    VLA observations of the radio continuum emission from M81 at 6 and 20 cm are presented and used to check the predictions of density-wave theories. Both thermal and nonthermal radiation from the spiral arms are detected. Most of the bright knots along the radio arms are giant radio H II regions. The nonthermal emission defines spiral arms that are patchy and well-resolved, with a width of 1-2 kpc. The observed nonthermal arms are too broad to agree with the continuum gasdynamical calculations of Roberts (1969), Shu et al. (1972), and Visser (1978, 1980) for a classical density wave model. The observed arm widths appear consistent with the predictions of density-wave models that emphasize the clumpy nature of the ISM. The 20 cm arms appear to spiral outward from a faint inner H I ring, suggesting that the ring is produced by the inner Lindblad resonance. 36 references

  6. The faint radio source population at 15.7 GHz - II. Multi-wavelength properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittam, I. H.; Riley, J. M.; Green, D. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-11-01

    A complete, flux density limited sample of 96 faint (>0.5 mJy) radio sources is selected from the 10C survey at 15.7 GHz in the Lockman Hole. We have matched this sample to a range of multi-wavelength catalogues, including Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey, Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic survey, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey and optical data; multi-wavelength counterparts are found for 80 of the 96 sources and spectroscopic redshifts are available for 24 sources. Photometric redshifts are estimated for the sources with multi-wavelength data available; the median redshift of the sample is 0.91 with an interquartile range of 0.84. Radio-to-optical ratios show that at least 94 per cent of the sample are radio loud, indicating that the 10C sample is dominated by radio galaxies. This is in contrast to samples selected at lower frequencies, where radio-quiet AGN and star-forming galaxies are present in significant numbers at these flux density levels. All six radio-quiet sources have rising radio spectra, suggesting that they are dominated by AGN emission. These results confirm the conclusions of Paper I that the faint, flat-spectrum sources which are found to dominate the 10C sample below ˜1 mJy are the cores of radio galaxies. The properties of the 10C sample are compared to the Square Kilometre Array Design Studies Simulated Skies; a population of low-redshift star-forming galaxies predicted by the simulation is not found in the observed sample.

  7. The Velocity Distribution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Chernoff, D. F.; Cordes, J. M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We infer the velocity distribution of radio pulsars based on large-scale 0.4 GHz pulsar surveys. We do so by modelling evolution of the locations, velocities, spins, and radio luminosities of pulsars; calculating pulsed flux according to a beaming model and random orientation angles of spin and beam; applying selection effects of pulsar surveys; and comparing model distributions of measurable pulsar properties with survey data using a likelihood function. The surveys analyzed have well-defined characteristics and cover approx. 95% of the sky. We maximize the likelihood in a 6-dimensional space of observables P, dot-P, DM, absolute value of b, mu, F (period, period derivative, dispersion measure, Galactic latitude, proper motion, and flux density). The models we test are described by 12 parameters that characterize a population's birth rate, luminosity, shutoff of radio emission, birth locations, and birth velocities. We infer that the radio beam luminosity (i) is comparable to the energy flux of relativistic particles in models for spin-driven magnetospheres, signifying that radio emission losses reach nearly 100% for the oldest pulsars; and (ii) scales approximately as E(exp 1/2) which, in magnetosphere models, is proportional to the voltage drop available for acceleration of particles. We find that a two-component velocity distribution with characteristic velocities of 90 km/ s and 500 km/ s is greatly preferred to any one-component distribution; this preference is largely immune to variations in other population parameters, such as the luminosity or distance scale, or the assumed spin-down law. We explore some consequences of the preferred birth velocity distribution: (1) roughly 50% of pulsars in the solar neighborhood will escape the Galaxy, while approx. 15% have velocities greater than 1000 km/ s (2) observational bias against high velocity pulsars is relatively unimportant for surveys that reach high Galactic absolute value of z distances, but is severe for

  8. Extreme Radio Flares and Associated X-Ray Variability from Young Stellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbrich, Jan [Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Reid, Mark J.; Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Rivilla, Victor M. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Rau, Urvashi; Chandler, Claire J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Young stellar objects are known to exhibit strong radio variability on timescales of weeks to months, and a few reports have documented extreme radio flares with at least an order of magnitude change in flux density on timescales of hours to days. However, there have been few constraints on the occurrence rate of such radio flares or on the correlation with pre-main sequence X-ray flares, although such correlations are known for the Sun and nearby active stars. Here we report simultaneous deep VLA radio and Chandra X-ray observations of the Orion Nebula Cluster, targeting hundreds of sources to look for the occurrence rate of extreme radio variability and potential correlation with the most extreme X-ray variability. We identify 13 radio sources with extreme radio variability, with some showing an order of magnitude change in flux density in less than 30 minutes. All of these sources show X-ray emission and variability, but we find clear correlations with extreme radio flaring only on timescales <1 hr. Strong X-ray variability does not predict the extreme radio sources and vice versa. Radio flares thus provide us with a new perspective on high-energy processes in YSOs and the irradiation of their protoplanetary disks. Finally, our results highlight implications for interferometric imaging of sources violating the constant-sky assumption.

  9. A RADIO-LOUD MAGNETAR IN X-RAY QUIESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Lina; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, N. D. Ramesh; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Van Straten, Willem; Bates, Samuel; Kramer, Michael; Stappers, Ben; Burgay, Marta; D'Amico, Nichi; Milia, Sabrina; Possenti, Andrea; Johnston, Simon; Keith, Michael; Rea, Nanda

    2010-01-01

    As part of a survey for radio pulsars with the Parkes 64 m telescope, we have discovered PSR J1622-4950, a pulsar with a 4.3 s rotation period. Follow-up observations show that the pulsar has the highest inferred surface magnetic field of the known radio pulsars (B ∼3 x 10 14 G), and it exhibits significant timing noise and appears to have an inverted spectrum. Unlike the vast majority of the known pulsar population, PSR J1622-4950 appears to switch off for many hundreds of days and even in its on-state exhibits extreme variability in its flux density. Furthermore, the integrated pulse profile changes shape with epoch. All of these properties are remarkably similar to the only two magnetars previously known to emit radio pulsations. The position of PSR J1622-4950 is coincident with an X-ray source that, unlike the other radio pulsating magnetars, was found to be in quiescence. We conclude that our newly discovered pulsar is a magnetar-the first to be discovered via its radio emission.

  10. A giant radio flare from Cygnus X-3 with associated γ-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Tomsick, J. A.; Szostek, A.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Richards, J. L.; Pooley, G.; Trushkin, S.; Dubois, R.; Hill, A. B.; Kerr, M.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Bodaghee, A.; Tudose, V.; Parent, D.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.

    2012-04-01

    With frequent flaring activity of its relativistic jets, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is one of the most active microquasars and is the only Galactic black hole candidate with confirmed high-energy γ-ray emission, thanks to detections by Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT) and AGILE. In 2011, Cyg X-3 was observed to transit to a soft X-ray state, which is known to be associated with high-energy γ-ray emission. We present the results of a multiwavelength campaign covering a quenched state, when radio emission from Cyg X-3 is at its weakest and the X-ray spectrum is very soft. A giant (˜20 Jy) optically thin radio flare marks the end of the quenched state, accompanied by rising non-thermal hard X-rays. Fermi/LAT observations (E≥ 100 MeV) reveal renewed γ-ray activity associated with this giant radio flare, suggesting a common origin for all non-thermal components. In addition, current observations unambiguously show that the γ-ray emission is not exclusively related to the rare giant radio flares. A three-week period of γ-ray emission is also detected when Cyg X-3 was weakly flaring in radio, right before transition to the radio quenched state. No γ-rays are observed during the ˜1-month long quenched state, when the radio flux is weakest. Our results suggest transitions into and out of the ultrasoft X-ray (radio-quenched) state trigger γ-ray emission, implying a connection to the accretion process, and also that the γ-ray activity is related to the level of radio flux (and possibly shock formation), strengthening the connection to the relativistic jets.

  11. A polarized fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, E.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Keane, E. F.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Miller, R.; Andreoni, I.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bernard, S. R.; Bhandari, S.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Caleb, M.; Champion, D.; Chandra, P.; Cooke, J.; Dhillon, V. S.; Farnes, J. S.; Hardy, L. K.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Johnston, S.; Kasliwal, M.; Kramer, M.; Littlefair, S. P.; Macquart, J. P.; Mickaliger, M.; Possenti, A.; Pritchard, T.; Ravi, V.; Rest, A.; Rowlinson, A.; Sawangwit, U.; Stappers, B.; Sullivan, M.; Tiburzi, C.; van Straten, W.; ANTARES Collaboration; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; de Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pǎvǎlaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Tjus, J. Becker; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'c.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Reyes, R. De Los; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schüssler, F.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; Walt, D. J. Van Der; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.

    2017-08-01

    We report on the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150215, with the Parkes radio telescope on 2015 February 15. The burst was detected in real time with a dispersion measure (DM) of 1105.6 ± 0.8 pc cm-3, a pulse duration of 2.8^{+1.2}_{-0.5} ms, and a measured peak flux density assuming that the burst was at beam centre of 0.7^{+0.2}_{-0.1} Jy. The FRB originated at a Galactic longitude and latitude of 24.66°, 5.28° and 25° away from the Galactic Center. The burst was found to be 43 ± 5 per cent linearly polarized with a rotation measure (RM) in the range -9 < RM < 12 rad m-2 (95 per cent confidence level), consistent with zero. The burst was followed up with 11 telescopes to search for radio, optical, X-ray, γ-ray and neutrino emission. Neither transient nor variable emission was found to be associated with the burst and no repeat pulses have been observed in 17.25 h of observing. The sightline to the burst is close to the Galactic plane and the observed physical properties of FRB 150215 demonstrate the existence of sight lines of anomalously low RM for a given electron column density. The Galactic RM foreground may approach a null value due to magnetic field reversals along the line of sight, a decreased total electron column density from the Milky Way, or some combination of these effects. A lower Galactic DM contribution might explain why this burst was detectable whereas previous searches at low latitude have had lower detection rates than those out of the plane.

  12. Neutron flux measurements in PUSPATI Triga Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Ah Auu; Mohamad Amin Sharifuldin Salleh; Mohamad Ali Sufi.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron flux measurement in the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (PTR) was initiated after its commissioning on 28 June 1982. Initial measured thermal neutron flux at the bottom of the rotary specimen rack (rotating) and in-core pneumatic terminus were 3.81E+11 n/cm 2 sec and 1.10E+12n/cm 2 sec respectively at 100KW. Work to complete the neutron flux data are still going on. The cadmium ratio, thermal and epithermal neutron flux are measured in the reactor core, rotary specimen rack, in-core pneumatic terminus and thermal column. Bare and Cadmium covered gold foils and wires are used for the above measurement. The activities of the irradiated gold foils and wires are determined using Ge(Li) and hyperpure germinium detectors. (author)

  13. 2.2 micron image of 3C 368 at z = 1.13, a galaxy with aligned radio and stellar axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, K.C.; Miley, G.K.; Joyce, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    A K-band IR image of the z = 1.13 radio galaxy 3C 368, one of the brightest examples of the recently discovered phenomenon of alignment between the optical and radio axes of powerful distant radio galaxies, is presented. The observations show that the IR morphology is also elongated and aligned along the optical and radio axes, but is not coincident with the radio emission. Various mechanisms for producing the IR and optical flux and the resultant constraints on the origin of the alignment effect in high-redshift radio galaxies are discussed. The most likely explanation is that the emission is produced mainly by young stars formed by interaction of the radio source with the ISM. The IR flux is then interpreted as dominated by a population of red supergiants. Independent of the origin of the emission, the observed alignment implies that powerful radio galaxies at high redshifts are distant from giant ellipticals, even in the IR. Hence, attempts to derive a cosmological standard candle using studies which combine these two types of galaxies are likely to be invalid. 32 references

  14. Radio pulsars and transients in the Galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Deneva, J S; Bower, Geoffrey C; Cordes, J M; Hyman, Scott D; Backer, D C; Bhat, R; Chatterjee, S; Demorest, P; Ransom, S M; Vlemmings, W

    2006-01-01

    Radio pulsars and transients provide powerful probes of the star formation history, interstellar medium, and gravitational potential of the Galactic center. Historical radio observations of the Galactic center have not emphasized the time domain aspect of observing this region. We summarize a series of recent searches for and observations of radio transients and pulsars that make use of two advances in technology. The first is the formation of large fields of view (∼> 1 0 ) at relatively longer wavelengths (λ > 1 m), and the second is the construction of receivers and instruments capable of collecting data on microsecond time scales at relatively short wavelengths (∼ 3 cm)

  15. Evidence for a TDE Origin for the Radio Transient in Cygnus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael W.; de Vries, Martijn; Rowlinson, Antonia; Nulsen, Paul; Snios, Bradford; Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana

    2017-08-01

    Recently new JVLA observations by Perley et al. (2017) have revealed evidence for a luminous radio transient at a projected distance of 0.46 kpc from the nucleus of Cygnus A. Based on data taken between 1989 and 2016, the flux density of this radio transient has risen from an upper limit of dimming on this timescale, which we interpret as fading reflected nuclear emission from surrounding dust. In this presentation, we summarize these results and their implications in light of a TDE origin for the observed X-ray and radio variability.

  16. Local Group dSph radio survey with ATCA (I): observations and background sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Marco; Richter, Laura; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Massardi, Marcella; de Blok, W. J. G.; Profumo, Stefano; Orford, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are key objects in near-field cosmology, especially in connection to the study of galaxy formation and evolution at small scales. In addition, dSphs are optimal targets to investigate the nature of dark matter. However, while we begin to have deep optical photometric observations of the stellar population in these objects, little is known so far about their diffuse emission at any observing frequency, and hence on thermal and non-thermal plasma possibly residing within dSphs. In this paper, we present deep radio observations of six local dSphs performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 16 cm wavelength. We mosaicked a region of radius of about 1 deg around three `classical' dSphs, Carina, Fornax, and Sculptor, and of about half of degree around three `ultrafaint' dSphs, BootesII, Segue2, and Hercules. The rms noise level is below 0.05 mJy for all the maps. The restoring beams full width at half-maximum ranged from 4.2 arcsec × 2.5 arcsec to 30.0 arcsec × 2.1 arcsec in the most elongated case. A catalogue including the 1392 sources detected in the six dSph fields is reported. The main properties of the background sources are discussed, with positions and fluxes of brightest objects compared with the FIRST, NVSS, and SUMSS observations of the same fields. The observed population of radio emitters in these fields is dominated by synchrotron sources. We compute the associated source number counts at 2 GHz down to fluxes of 0.25 mJy, which prove to be in agreement with AGN count models.

  17. The energy distribution of electrons in radio jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouros, Alexandros; Kylafis, Nikolaos D.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Black-hole and neutron-star X-ray binaries exhibit compact radio jets, when they are in the so called quiescent, hard, or hard intermediate states. The radio spectrum in these states is flat to slightly inverted, I.e., the spectral index of the observed flux density is in the range 0 ≲ α ≲ 0.5. It is widely accepted that the energy distribution of the electrons, in the rest frame of the jet, is a power law with index in the range 3 ≲ p ≲ 5. Aims: Contrary to what our thinking was decades ago, now we know that the jets originate in the hot, inner flow around black holes and neutron stars. So it is worth investigating the radio spectrum that is emitted by a thermal jet as a function of direction. Methods: As an example, we consider a parabolic jet and, with the assumption of flux freezing, we compute the emitted spectrum in all directions, from radio to near infrared, using either a thermal distribution of electrons or a power-law one. Results: We have found that parabolic jets with a thermal distribution of electrons give also flat to slightly inverted spectra. In particular, for directions along the jet (θ = 0), both distributions of electron energies give α = 0 ± 0.01. The index α increases as the viewing angle θ increases and for directions perpendicular to the jet (θ = π/ 2), the thermal distribution gives α = 0.40 ± 0.05, while the power-law distribution gives α = 0.20 ± 0.05. The break frequency νb, which marks the transition from partially optically thick to optically thin synchrotron emission, is comparable for the power-law and the thermal distributions. Conclusions: Contrary to common belief, it is not necessary to invoke a power-law energy distribution of the electrons in a jet to explain its flat to slightly inverted radio spectrum. A relativistic Maxwellian produces similar radio spectra. Thus, the jet may be the widely invoked "corona" around black holes in X-ray binaries.

  18. Radio transients from newborn black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Murase, Kohta

    2018-05-01

    We consider radio emission from a newborn black hole (BH), which is accompanied by a mini-disk with a mass of ≲ M⊙. Such a disk can be formed from an outer edge of the progenitor's envelope, especially for metal-poor massive stars and/or massive stars in close binaries. The disk accretion rate is typically super-Eddington and an ultrafast outflow with a velocity of ˜0.1-0.3 c will be launched into the circumstellar medium. The outflow forms a collisionless shock, and electrons are accelerated and emit synchrotron emission in radio bands with a flux of ˜ 10^{26-30} erg s^{-1} Hz^{-1} days to decades after the BH formation. The model predicts not only a fast UV/optical transient but also quasi-simultaneous inverse-Compton X-ray emission ˜ a few days after the BH formation, and the discovery of the radio counterpart with coordinated searches will enable us to identify this type of transients. The occurrence rate can be 0.1 - 10 % of the core-collapse supernova rate, which makes them a promising target of dedicated radio observations such as the Jansky VLA Sky Survey.

  19. Different X-ray spectral evolution for black hole X-ray binaries in dual tracks of radio-X-ray correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qingwen; Dong, Ai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an 'outlier' track of radio-X-ray correlation was found, which is much steeper than the former universal correlation, where dual tracks were speculated to be triggered by different accretion processes. In this work, we test this issue by exploring hard X-ray spectral evolution in four black-hole X-ray binaries with multiple, quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations. First, we find that hard X-ray photon indices, Γ, are negatively and positively correlated with X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F 3-9 keV , is below and above a critical flux, F X, crit , which are consistent with predictions of the advection-dominated accretion flow and the disk-corona model, respectively. Second, and most importantly, we find that the radio-X-ray correlations are also clearly different when the X-ray fluxes are higher and lower than the critical flux as defined by X-ray spectral evolution. The data points with F 3-9 keV ≳ F X, crit have a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (F X ∝F R b and b ∼ 1.1-1.4), which roughly forms the ''outlier'' track. However, the data points with anti-correlation of Γ – F 3-9 keV either stay in the universal track with b ∼ 0.61 or stay in the transition track (from the universal to 'outlier' tracks or vice versa). Therefore, our results support that the universal and ''outlier'' tracks of radio-X-ray correlations are regulated by radiatively inefficient and radiatively efficient accretion model, respectively.

  20. A CLUSTER OF COMPACT RADIO SOURCES IN W40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez, Luis F.; Rodney, Steven A.; Reipurth, Bo

    2010-01-01

    We present deep 3.6 cm radio continuum observations of the H II region W40 obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) in its A and B configurations. We detect a total of 20 compact radio sources in a region of 4' x 4', with 11 of them concentrated in a band with 30'' of extent. We also present JHK photometry of the W40 cluster taken with the QUIRC instrument on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. These data reveal that 15 of the 20 VLA sources have infrared counterparts, and 10 show radio variability with periods less than 20 days. Based on these combined radio and IR data, we propose that eight of the radio sources are candidate ultracompact H II regions, seven are likely to be young stellar objects, and two may be shocked interstellar gas.

  1. Observations of radio emission in the 18 cm hydroxyl lines in the direction of Herbig-Haro objects and reflection nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, M.I.; Rudnitskij, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978 observations of Herbig-Haro objects and R associations in the 1665 and 1667 MHz main lines of the ground state of the OH molecule have been carried out at the Large radio telescope of the Nancay Radio Astronomy Station (France). Out of the 63 objects searched, the OH emission has been observed in 36 directions. In most cases, the observed line profiles have a simple singlepeak structure, with the line widths of 1-3 km/s. This emission most probably originates in interstellar dust clouds surrounding the Herbig-Haro objects and R associations. Some consequences of the results obtained are briefly discussed. Results of observations show that the quantity of strong maser radio sources near Herbig-Haro objects is not large

  2. Dosimetry of mixed gamma - neutron fluxes in the active zone of working reactor and gamma-flux after quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussaeva, M.A.; Zinov'ev, V.; Ibragimova, E.M.; Muminov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: For carrying out experiments in the channels of nuclear reactor, it is necessary to know the distribution of neutron flux and the intensity of accompanying gamma-radiation both in the working and quenched regimes. Dosimetric parameter of transparent dielectrics is based on the effect of monotonous changing of optical absorption or luminescence under neutrons and/or gamma-radiation. While the radioactivity induced in an element monitor is proportional only to a neutron fluence beginning from a threshold energy. Therefore the aim of this work was to determine the values of neutron and gamma-component fluxes separately and evaluate the contribution of each into the defect production in dielectrics. We used very pure quartz glass of KU-1 type, produced in Russian State Optical Institute by fusion from SiCl 4 in the mixed flow of O 2 +H 2 (impurities of Cl and OH up to 10 -2 % and the rest - below 10 -4 %), SiO 2 glasses with 30 % Ba, and also pure Ni wire. Since under irradiation in the working reactor samples were undergone mixed neutron and gamma fluxes, we suggested determination of intensity of gamma-radiation from radio-nuclides (products of uranium fission) after quenching the reactor by the current of ionization chamber and glass dosimeters. Samples of SiO 2 -BaO together with Ni monitors were irradiated for 1 hour in 18 channels of the active zone of the working reactor both in the sealed ampoules and in the contact with water of the 1-st cooling circuit at 40 deg C. The linear dependence of the induced optical density on the absorbed dose of n 0 + γ-radiation was obtained. Ni -monitors not sensitive to γ-radiation gained the induced radioactivity proportional to the absorbed energy of neutron flux above 1 MeV. Neutron fluxes in the 18 channels varied from 9.53·10 11 to 1.21·10 13 cm -2 s -1 corresponding to fluences from 3.43·10 15 to 4.3·10 16 cm -2 . Optical density of band 215 nm ascertained to E ' - center, which is ≡ Si * near oxygen

  3. Evolutionary tracks of extended radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    We know almost nothing about the evolutionary tracks of extragalactic radio sources but those tracks are, however, strongly constrained by the distribution of sources in the radio luminosity, P, overall physical size, D, diagram. The P-D diagram for the 3CR 166 source sample of Jenkins et al. (1977) is presented with later additions. Most of the sources are identified and have known redshifts. Because of doubts about the completeness of the sample in this region, the author has made searches in the 6C 151MHz survey for sources with specific surface brightnesses. The numbers found to a limiting flux density of 1-2 Jy suggest that there is no serious underestimate of the numbers in 166 source sample. (Auth.)

  4. Multifrequency VLA observations of PKS 0745-191: the archetypal 'cooling flow' radio source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, S.A.; O'Dea, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    We present 90-, 20-, 6- and 2-cm VLA observations of the high radio luminosity, cooling flow radio source PKS 0745-191. We find that the radio source has a core with a very steep spectrum and diffuse emission with an even steeper spectrum without clear indications of the jets, hotspots or double lobes found in other radio sources of comparable luminosity. The appearance of the source is highly dependent on frequency and resolution. This dependence reflects both the diffuse nature of the extended emission and the steep, but position-dependent, spectrum of the radio emission. (author)

  5. Radio continuum emission from young stellar objects in L1641

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.A.; Snell, R.L.; Strom, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a 6 and 20 cm radio continuum survey of young stellar objects in the L1641 region located south of the Orion Nebula are presented. Four are identified as low-luminosity young stellar objects in L1641 and three more as Herbig-Haro or Herbig-Haro-like objects. These objects have bolometric luminosities between 80 and 300 solar, and their 6-20 cm spectral index suggests optically thick, free-free emission. They are characterized by a rising spectrum between 2.2 and 25 microns, have no optical counterparts, and are associated with stellar wind activity. Thus, detectable radio continuum emission may be produced only by the youngest and most luminous objects in L1641. 34 refs

  6. A prompt radio burst from supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtle, A.J.; Campbell-Wilson, D.; Bunton, J.D.; Jauncey, D.L.; Kesteven, M.J.; Manchester, R.N.; Norris, R.P.; Storey, M.C.; Reynolds, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns a prompt radio burst from supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radio emission from the supernova was detected at Australian observatories within two days of the increase in optical brightness. Observations of radio emission at four frequencies i.e. 0.843, 1.415, 2.29 and 8.41 GHz are presented for the region of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova. At frequencies around 1 GHz the peak flux density was about 150mJy and occurred within four days of the supernova. (U.K.)

  7. A low-frequency radio survey of the planets with RAE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    Over one thousand occultations of each planet in the solar system have occurred during the period from mid-1973 through mid-1976 as seen from the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer 2 (RAE 2) spacecraft. These occultations have been examined for evidence of planetary radio emissions in the 0.025-13.1 MHz band. Only Jupiter and the earth have given positive results. Lack of detection of emission from the other planets can mean that either they do not emit radio noise in this band or the flux level of their emissions and/or its occurrence rate are too low to be detected by RAE 2.

  8. A low-frequency radio survey of the planets with RAE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.L.

    1976-08-01

    Over one thousand occultations of each planet in the solar system have occurred during the period from mid-1973 through mid-1976 as seen from the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer-2 (RAE-2) spacecraft. These occultations have been examined for evidence of planetary radio emissions in the 0.025 to 13.1 MHz band. Only Jupiter and the earth have given positive results. Lack of detection of emission from the other planets can mean that either they do not emit radio noise in this band or the flux level of their emissions and/or its occurrence rate are too low to be detected by RAE-2

  9. A low-frequency radio survey of the planets with RAE-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    Over one thousand occultations of each planet in the solar system have occurred during the period from mid-1973 through mid-1976 as seen from the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer-2 (RAE-2) spacecraft. These occultations have been examined for evidence of planetary radio emissions in the 0.025 to 13.1 MHz band. Only Jupiter and the earth have given positive results. Lack of detection of emission from the other planets can mean that either they do not emit radio noise in this band or the flux level of their emissions and/or its occurrence rate are too low to be detected by RAE-2.

  10. A low-frequency radio survey of the planets with RAE 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Over one thousand occultations of each planet in the solar system have occurred during the period from mid-1973 through mid-1976 as seen from the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer 2 (RAE 29) spacecraft. These occultations have been examined for evidence of planetary radio emissions in the 0.025--13.1 MHz band. Only Jupiter and the earth have given positive results. Lack of detection of emission from the other planets can mean that either they do not emit radio noise in this band or the flux level of their emissions and/or its occurrence rate are too low to be detected by RAE 2

  11. Magnetar giant flares in multipolar magnetic fields. II. Flux rope eruptions with current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Yu, Cong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a physical mechanism to explain giant flares and radio afterglows in terms of a magnetospheric model containing both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet (CS). With the appearance of a CS, we solve a mixed boundary value problem to get the magnetospheric field based on a domain decomposition method. We investigate properties of the equilibrium curve of the flux rope when the CS is present in background multipolar fields. In response to the variations at the magnetar surface, it quasi-statically evolves in stable equilibrium states. The loss of equilibrium occurs at a critical point and, beyond that point, it erupts catastrophically. New features show up when the CS is considered. In particular, we find two kinds of physical behaviors, i.e., catastrophic state transition and catastrophic escape. Magnetic energy would be released during state transitions. This released magnetic energy is sufficient to drive giant flares, and the flux rope would, therefore, go away from the magnetar quasi-statically, which is inconsistent with the radio afterglow. Fortunately, in the latter case, i.e., the catastrophic escape, the flux rope could escape the magnetar and go to infinity in a dynamical way. This is more consistent with radio afterglow observations of giant flares. We find that the minor radius of the flux rope has important implications for its eruption. Flux ropes with larger minor radii are more prone to erupt. We stress that the CS provides an ideal place for magnetic reconnection, which would further enhance the energy release during eruptions.

  12. Extended radio sources in the cluster environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.O. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Extended radio galaxies that lie in rich and poor clusters were studied. A sample of 3CR and 4C radio sources that spatially coincide with poor Zwicky clusters of galaxies was observed to obtain accurate positions and flux densities. Then interferometer observations at a resolution of approx. = 10 arcsec were performed on the sample. The resulting maps were used to determine the nature of the extended source structure, to make secure optical identifications, and to eliminate possible background sources. The results suggest that the environments around both classical double and head-tail radio sources are similar in rich and poor clusters. The majority of the poor cluster sources exhibit some signs of morphological distortion (i.e., head-tails) indicative of dynamic interaction with a relatively dense intracluster medium. A large fraction (60 to 100%) of all radio sources appear to be members of clusters of galaxies if one includes both poor and rich cluster sources. Detailed total intensity and polarization observations for a more restricted sample of two classical double sources and nine head-tail galaxies were also performed. The purpose was to examine the spatial distributions of spectral index and polarization. Thin streams of radio emission appear to connect the nuclear radio-point components to the more extended structures in the head-tail galaxies. It is suggested that a non-relativistic plasma beam can explain both the appearance of the thin streams and larger-scale structure as well as the energy needed to generate the observed radio emission. The rich and poor radio cluster samples are combined to investigate the relationship between source morphology and the scale sizes of clustering. There is some indication that a large fraction of radio sources, including those in these samples, are in superclusters of galaxies

  13. Effect of Different Thermal Neutron Fluxes on Blood of Male Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Latif, A.A.; Saeid, Kh. S.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.; Emara, N.M.; Emara, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the exposing of male mice to different fluxes of thermal neutron .Investigation has been performed by calculating of thermal neutron fluxes(0.27x10 8 N/cm 2 . 1h , 0.54x10 8 N/cm 2 . 1h, 1.08x10 8 N/cm 2 . 1h, 2.16x10 8 N/cm 2 . 3h and 4.32x10 8 N/cm 2 . 6h) which emitted from neutron irradiation cell with source Ra - Be (α,n) have activity 3 m. Ci made by leybold(55930) . The number and differential leucocytes counts types of white blood cells in million per cubic millimeter (W. B. Cs. mm -3 ) ,the number of platelets mm -3 ,the number of red blood cells in million per cubic millimeter (R. B. Cs. mm -3 ), the hemoglobin in Blood (mg/dl), the lymphocytes ,and the eosiniphil leucocytes in blood decrease with increasing thermal neutron fluxes. But neutrophile and monocytes in blood increase with increasing the thermal neutron fluxes

  14. EGRET Unidentified Source Radio Observations and Performance of Receiver Gain Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinuma, Kotaro; Asuma, Kuniyuki; Kuniyoshi, Masaya; Matsumura, Nobuo; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Kida, Sumiko; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Ichikawa, Hajime; Sawano, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Naoya; Suzuki, Shigehiro; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Nakayama, Yu; Daishido, Tsuneaki

    2006-01-01

    Last year, we have developed the receiver gain calibration system by using Johnson-Nyquist noise, for accuracy flux measurement, because we have been starting radio identification program of transient radio sources, blazars and radio counterpart of The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) unidentified γ-ray sources in Waseda Nasu Pulsar Observatory. It is shown that there are a few low correlation data between receiver gain and ambient temperature around receiver for anything troubles of receiver, because we can detect gain and ambient temperature through a day by developed system. Estimated fluctuations of daily data of steady sources decrease by removing low correlation data before analysing. As the result of our analysis by using above system, radio counterpart of EGRET identified source showed fading light-curve for a week

  15. An experimental study on hepatic ablation using an expandable radio-frequency needle electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Il; Lim, Hyo Keun; Park, Jong Min; Kang, Bo Kyung; Woo, Ji Young; Jang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Park, Cheol Keun; Heo, Jin Seok

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing on the size of thermal lesions after ablation using an expendable radio-frequency needle electrode in porcine liver. Ablation procedures involved the use of a monopolar radio-frequency generator and 15-G needle electrodes with four and seven retractable hooks (RITA Medical System, Mountain View, Cal., U.S.A.). The ablation protocol in fresh porcine liver comprised of combinations of varying hook deployment, highest set temperature, and ablation time. Following ablation, the maximum diameter of all thermal lesions was measured on a longitudinal section of the specimen. Ten representive lesions were examined by an experienced pathologist. At 3-cm hook deployment of the needle electrode with four lateral hooks, the size of spherical thermal lesions increased substantially with increases in the highest set temperature and ablation time until 11 minutes. After 11 minutes lesion size remained similar, with a maximum diameter of 3.3 cm. At 2-cm hook deployment, sizes decreased to about 2/3 of those at 3 cm , and at 1-cm hook deployment lesions were oblong. At 3-cm hook deployment of a needle electrode with seven hooks, the size of thermal lesions increased with increasing ablation time until 14 minutes, and the maximum diameter was 4.1 cm. Microscopic examination showed a wide zone of degeneration and focal coagulation necrosis. The size of thermal lesions produced by the use of an expandable radio-frequency needle electrode were predictable, varying according to degree of hook deployment, highest set temperature, and ablation time

  16. AN EXAMINATION OF THE OPTICAL SUBSTRUCTURE OF GALAXY CLUSTERS HOSTING RADIO SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, Joshua D.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    Using radio sources from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey, and optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have identified a large number of galaxy clusters. The radio sources within these clusters are driven by active galactic nuclei, and our cluster samples include clusters with bent, and straight, double-lobed radio sources. We also included a single-radio-component comparison sample. We examine these galaxy clusters for evidence of optical substructure, testing the possibility that bent double-lobed radio sources are formed as a result of large-scale cluster mergers. We use a suite of substructure analysis tools to determine the location and extent of substructure visible in the optical distribution of cluster galaxies, and compare the rates of substructure in clusters with different types of radio sources. We found no preference for significant substructure in clusters hosting bent double-lobed radio sources compared to those with other types of radio sources.

  17. Foreground and Sensitivity Analysis for Broadband (2D) 21 cm-Lyα and 21 cm-Hα Correlation Experiments Probing the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Stalder, Brian; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Tonry, John L.

    2017-11-01

    A detection of the predicted anticorrelation between 21 cm and either Lyα or Hα from the epoch of reionization (EOR) would be a powerful probe of the first galaxies. While 3D intensity maps isolate foregrounds in low-{k}\\parallel modes, infrared surveys cannot yet match the field of view and redshift resolution of radio intensity mapping experiments. In contrast, 2D (I.e., broadband) infrared intensity maps can be measured with current experiments and are limited by foregrounds instead of photon or thermal noise. We show that 2D experiments can measure most of the 3D fluctuation power at klimit on residual foregrounds of the 21 cm-Lyα cross-power spectrum at z˜ 7 of {{{Δ }}}2text{kJy sr}}-1 {{mK}}) (95%) at {\\ell }˜ 800. We predict levels of foreground correlation and sample variance noise in future experiments, showing that higher-resolution surveys such as LOFAR, SKA-LOW, and the Dark Energy Survey can start to probe models of the 21 cm-Lyα EOR cross spectrum.

  18. Turblence-related morphology in extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, G.; Ferrari, A.; Trussoni, E.

    1980-01-01

    As particle beams propagate through the intergalactic medium, unavoidable instabilities from shear flows produce turbulent magnetic waves. Rather than disrupting beams, this wave energy may enhance luminosity and alter morphology. For reasonable parameters the dominant nonlinear process is an energy cascade from long wavelengths ( 21 cm) to short wavelengths ( 14 cm), where particles are reaccelerated in quasi-linear fachion. We construct a phenomenological turbulence theory to describe this. In an ambient magnetic field, wave-particle scatterings which cause reacceleration can also lead to spatial cross-field diffusion, broadening the beam. Thus beams can flare rapidly as they propagate. This relates luminosity to morphology in a new way. The broadening is wholly intrinsic, unrelated to the beam environment. A variety of radio source types may be related to his effect. Protons do not scatter strongly, remaining collimated and depositing most of the beam energy in hot spots, which are generally weak in the radio but strong in the X-ray

  19. Neutron flux stabilization in the NG-150 neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, L.E.; Makarov, S.A.; Pronman, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    Problem of metal tritium target lifetime increase and neutron flux stabilization in the NG-150 neutron generators is studied. Possibility on neutron flux stabilization using the mass analyzer for low-angle (4 deg and 41 deg) mass separation of a beam in thre components, which fall on a target simultaneously, is confirmed experimentally. Basic generator parameters are: accelerating voltage of 150 kV, total beam current on a target of 1.5 mA, beam current density of 0.3-1.6 mA/cm 2 , beam diameter of 8 mm. The initial neutron flux on the targets of 0.73 mg/cm 2 thick constituted 1.1x10 11 ssup(-1). The neutron flux monitoring was accomplished from recoil proton recording by a plastic scintillator. Flux decrease by more than 5% served as a signel for measuring mass analyzer magnetic field providing beam displacement on a target and restoration of the given flux. The NG-150 generator neutron flux stabilization was attained during 2h

  20. Radio variability survey of very low luminosity protostars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: minho@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Ten very low luminosity objects were observed multiple times in the 8.5 GHz continuum in search of protostellar magnetic activities. A radio outburst of IRAM 04191+1522 IRS was detected, and the variability timescale was about 20 days or shorter. The results of this survey and archival observations suggest that IRAM 04191+1522 IRS is in active states about half the time. Archival data show that L1014 IRS and L1148 IRS were detectable previously and suggest that at least 20%-30% of very low luminosity protostars are radio variables. Considering the variability timescale and flux level of IRAM 04191+1522 IRS and the previous detection of the circular polarization of L1014 IRS, the radio outbursts of these protostars are probably caused by magnetic flares. However, IRAM 04191+1522 IRS is too young and small to develop an internal convective dynamo. If the detected radio emission is indeed coming from magnetic flares, the discovery implies that the flares may be caused by the fossil magnetic fields of interstellar origin.

  1. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg"2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (α_l_o_w) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.

  2. Latest results of the Tunka Radio Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostunin D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tunka Radio Extension (Tunka-Rex is an antenna array consisting of 63 antennas at the location of the TAIGA facility (Tunka Advanced Instrument for cosmic ray physics and Gamma Astronomy in Eastern Siberia, nearby Lake Baikal. Tunka-Rex is triggered by the air-Cherenkov array Tunka-133 during clear and moonless winter nights and by the scintillator array Tunka-Grande during the remaining time. Tunka-Rex measures the radio emission from the same air-showers as Tunka-133 and Tunka-Grande, but with a higher threshold of about 100 PeV. During the first stages of its operation, Tunka-Rex has proven, that sparse radio arrays can measure air-showers with an energy resolution of better than 15% and the depth of the shower maximum with a resolution of better than 40 g/cm2. To improve and interpret our measurements as well as to study systematic uncertainties due to interaction models, we perform radio simulations with CORSIKA and CoREAS. In this overview we present the setup of Tunka-Rex, discuss the achieved results and the prospects of mass-composition studies with radio arrays.

  3. Compact features in radio galaxies and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, A.

    1981-05-01

    The structure of compact features ('hotspots') in the outer lobes of classical double radio sources over a large flux density interval at 81.5 MHz is investigated in order to understand more fully the structural evolution of radio sources with both luminosity and redshift. The technique of interplanetary scintillations is used. An account is given of the development of a new telescope, the 3.6-hectare Array. A method for eliminating zero level and phase drifts from interferometric records and a method for analysing data scattered according to a skewed probability distribution are described. New observations of hotspots in complete samples of bright 3CR sources and 4C quasars having an intermediate flux density are then presented. The problems of interpreting scintillation data are then considered and three methods are suggested to reduce the difficulties imposed by the observational limitation known as 'blending', whereby the whole outer lobe may scintillate and distort the measured hotspot size. Finally, all the new observational data are assimilated and this leads to models for (a) the dependence of source structure on luminosity and (b) for the dependence of observed hotspot size on both luminosity and redshift. (author)

  4. Radio emission from the nova-like variable AC Cancri and the symbiotic variable AG Draconis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torbett, M.V.; Campbell, B.; Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA)

    1987-01-01

    Radio emission at 6 cm has been detected from the nova-like cataclysmic variable AC Cnc and the symbiotic variable AG Dra. The AC Cnc observation constitutes the first radio detection in this class of objects. The AG Dra source is probably resolved and appears to show asymmetric, extended structure. The radio emission can best be explained by thermal bremsstrahlung. 26 references

  5. A radio search for planetary nebulae near the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Because of galactic center is a hostile environment, and because planetaries are weak radio emitters, it is not clear a priori that one expects to detect any planetary nebulae at all in the nuclear region of the Galaxy. Therefore the expected lifetime and flux density distribution of galactic center nebulae is considered. The principal observational results from the Westerbork data, and the results of some pilot observations with the Very Large Array, which were intended to distinguish planetaries from other radio sources on an individual basis are given. (Auth.)

  6. Radio Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources ---Microblazars or Intermediate-Mass Black Holes?---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körding, E.; Colbert, E.; Falcke, H.

    In recent years Ultra-Luminous X-Ray sources (ULXs) received wide attention, however, their true nature is not yet understood. Many explanations have been suggested, including intermediate-mass black holes, super-Eddington accretion flows, anisotropic emission, and relativistic beaming of microquasars. We model the logN-logS distribution of ULXs assuming that each neutron star or black hole XRB can be described by an accretion disk plus jet model, where the jet is relativistically beamed. The distribution can be either fit by intermediate-mass black holes or by stellar mass black holes with mildly relativistic jets. Even though the jet is intrinsically weaker than the accretion disk, relativistic beaming can in the latter approach lead to the high fluxes observed. To further explore the possibility of microblazars contributing to the ULX phenomenon, we have embarked on a radio-monitoring study of ULXs in nearby galaxies with the VLA. However, up to now no radio flare has been detected. Using the radio/X-ray correlation the upper limits on the radio flux can be converted into upper limits for the black hole masses of MBH ≲ 10^3 M⊙.

  7. Discovery of a radio nebula around PSR J0855-4644

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, C.; Roy, S.; Acero, F.; Gupta, Y.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of a diffuse radio emission around PSR J0855-4644 using an upgraded GMRT (uGMRT) observation at 1.35 GHz. The radio emission is spatially coincident with the diffuse X-ray pulsar wind nebula (PWN) seen with XMM-Newton but is much larger in extent compared to the compact axisymmetric PWN seen with Chandra. The morphology of the emission, with a bright partial ring-like structure and two faint tail-like features strongly resembles a bow shock nebula, and indicates a velocity of 100 km/s through the ambient medium. We conclude that the emission is most likely to be associated with the radio PWN of PSR J0855-4644. From the integrated flux density, we estimate the energetics of the PWN.

  8. Solar radio bursts and their relation of coronal magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattenberg, A.

    1981-01-01

    Following a general introduction, chapters II and III describe a model for coronal flux tubes. The model tube is a cylindrically symmetric localized force free current, that is embedded in a potential field. In both chapters the growth rates and sizes of the kink mode instability are calculated by solving the linearized equation of motion. In chapters IV and V, observations of solar Type-I radio bursts are presented and analysed. The observations were gathered with the 60-channel radio spectrograph in Dwingeloo. Chapters VI, VII, VIII, IX and X are concerned with observations of solar microwave bursts. The observations, with high time resolution (0.1 s) and high one-dimensional angular resolution (max. 4'') were made with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. (Auth.)

  9. THE NON-THERMAL, TIME-VARIABLE RADIO EMISSION FROM Cyg OB2 no. 5: A WIND-COLLISION REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N.; Loinard, Laurent; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Dzib, Sergio A.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.

    2011-01-01

    The radio emission from the well-studied massive stellar system Cyg OB2 no. 5 is known to fluctuate with a period of 6.7 years between a low-flux state, when the emission is entirely of free-free origin, and a high-flux state, when an additional non-thermal component (of hitherto unknown nature) appears. In this paper, we demonstrate that the radio flux of that non-thermal component is steady on timescales of hours and that its morphology is arc-like. This shows that the non-thermal emission results from the collision between the strong wind driven by the known contact binary in the system and that of an unseen companion on a somewhat eccentric orbit with a 6.7 year period and a 5-10 mas semimajor axis. Together with the previously reported wind-collision region located about 0.''8 to the northeast of the contact binary, so far Cyg OB2 no. 5 appears to be the only multiple system known to harbor two radio-imaged wind-collision regions.

  10. THE RADIO AND OPTICAL LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF QUASARS. II. THE SDSS SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, J.; Petrosian, V.; Stawarz, Ł.; Lawrence, A.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the radio and optical luminosity evolutions and the true distribution of the radio-loudness parameter R, defined as the ratio of the radio to optical luminosity, for a set of more than 5000 quasars combining Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) radio data. We apply the method of Efron and Petrosian to access the intrinsic distribution parameters, taking into account the truncations and correlations inherent in the data. We find that the population exhibits strong positive evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with somewhat greater radio evolution than optical. With the luminosity evolutions accounted for, we determine the density evolutions and local radio and optical luminosity functions. The intrinsic distribution of the radio-loudness parameter R is found to be quite different from the observed one and is smooth with no evidence of a bimodality in radio loudness for log R ≥ –1. The results we find are in general agreement with the previous analysis of Singal et al., which used POSS-I optical and FIRST radio data.

  11. Radio observations of some clusters of galaxies at lambda=3.5 and 4 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efanov, V.A.; Zinchenko, I.I.; Kislyakov, A.G.; Krasil'nikov, A.A.; Kukina, E.P.; Moiseev, I.G.

    1980-01-01

    Millimeter radio observations with the 22-m Crimean antenna are reported for the central regions of the clusters of galaxies in Virgo, Hercules, and Coma Berenices, and from the cluster Abell 2199. In two of these, Coma and A2199, sources with a flux density of several jansky have been detected. The position of the source in A2199 matches that of the radio source 3C 338, but the object in the Coma cluster does not correspond to any known radio source. The nature of the emission from the new sources is discussed

  12. VLBI observations of the quasars CTD20 (0234+285), OJ248 (0827+243), and 4C19.44 (1354+195), and the millimeter-x-ray connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marscher, A.P.; Broderick, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have obtained limited VLBI data on the quasars CTD20, OJ248, and 4C19.44 at 2.8 cm. CTD20 was also observed at 6 and 18 cm. All three sources contain multicomponent structure, and rather large fractions of the 2.8-cm flux densities arise in unresolved regions. All of the radio flux density of CTD20 originates in compact components. 4C19.44 is dominated at low frequencies by a steep-spectrum component which exceeds about 7 mas in size. Above 2 GHz the spectrum is flat and variable owing to several compact components. CTD20 and OJ248 belong to a sample of millimeter-excess quasars which were shown by Owen, Helfand, and Spangler to have highly predictable ratios of 90 GHz to 2-keV flux densities. A self-Compton explanation of this relationship is supported by the existence of unresolved radio components. However, the rapid 90-GHz variability of OJ248 and other quasars with strong millimeter emission should destroy the observed tight correlation except under special circumstances. A synchrotron origin of the radio-to-x-ray emission requires that any variations in the radio should be time delayed relative to the x ray

  13. Imaging spectroscopy of type U and J solar radio bursts with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Hamish A. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Radio U-bursts and J-bursts are signatures of electron beams propagating along magnetic loops confined to the corona. The more commonly observed type III radio bursts are signatures of electron beams propagating along magnetic loops that extend into interplanetary space. Given the prevalence of solar magnetic flux to be closed in the corona, why type III bursts are more frequently observed than U-bursts or J-bursts is an outstanding question. Aims: We use Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) imaging spectroscopy between 30-80 MHz of low-frequency U-bursts and J-bursts, for the first time, to understand why electron beams travelling along coronal loops produce radio emission less often. Radio burst observations provide information not only about the exciting electron beams but also about the structure of large coronal loops with densities that are too low for standard extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or X-ray analysis. Methods: We analysed LOFAR images of a sequence of two J-bursts and one U-burst. The different radio source positions were used to model the spatial structure of the guiding magnetic flux tube and then deduce the energy range of the exciting electron beams without the assumption of a standard density model. We also estimated the electron density along the magnetic flux rope and compared it to coronal models. Results: The radio sources infer a magnetic loop that is 1 solar radius in altitude with the highest frequency sources starting around 0.6 solar radii. Electron velocities were found between 0.13 c and 0.24 c with the front of the electron beam travelling faster than the back of the electron beam. The velocities correspond to energy ranges within the beam from 0.7-11 keV to 0.7-43 keV. The density along the loop is higher than typical coronal density models and the density gradient is smaller. Conclusions: We found that a more restrictive range of accelerated beam and background plasma parameters can result in U-bursts or J-bursts, causing type III

  14. CORRELATION OF FERMI PHOTONS WITH HIGH-FREQUENCY RADIO GIANT PULSES FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, A. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mickaliger, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Lyutikov, M.; Langston, G. I.

    2011-01-01

    To constrain the giant pulse (GP) emission mechanism and test the model of Lyutikov for GP emission, we have carried out a campaign of simultaneous observations of the Crab pulsar at γ-ray (Fermi) and radio (Green Bank Telescope) wavelengths. Over 10 hr of simultaneous observations we obtained a sample of 2.1 x 10 4 GPs, observed at a radio frequency of 9 GHz, and 77 Fermi photons, with energies between 100 MeV and 5 GeV. The majority of GPs came from the interpulse (IP) phase window. We found no change in the GP generation rate within 10-120 s windows at lags of up to ±40 minutes of observed γ-ray photons. The 95% upper limit for a γ-ray flux enhancement in pulsed emission phase window around all GPs is four times the average pulsed γ-ray flux from the Crab. For the subset of IP GPs, the enhancement upper limit, within the IP emission window, is 12 times the average pulsed γ-ray flux. These results suggest that GPs, at least high-frequency IP GPs, are due to changes in coherence of radio emission rather than an overall increase in the magnetospheric particle density.

  15. Cosmic ray muon flux at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, F.E.; Ruybal, C.; Totushek, J.; Mei, D.-M.; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the muon flux is important to the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake, for which several low background experiments are being planned. The nearly vertical cosmic ray muon flux was measured in three locations at this laboratory: on the surface (1.149±0.017 x10 -2 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ), at the 800 ft (0.712 km w.e.) level (2.67±0.06 x10 -6 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ), and at the 2000 ft (1.78 km w.e.) level (2.56±0.25 x10 -7 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ). These fluxes agree well with model predictions.

  16. Soil CO2 flux from three ecosystems in tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melling, Lulie; Hatano, Ryusuke

    2005-01-01

    Soil CO 2 flux was measured monthly over a year from tropical peatland of Sarawak, Malaysia using a closed-chamber technique. The soil CO 2 flux ranged from 100 to 533 mg C/m 2 /h for the forest ecosystem, 63 to 245 mg C/m 2 /h for the sago and 46 to 335 mg C/m 2 /h for the oil palm. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the environmental variables over all sites could be classified into three components, namely, climate, soil moisture and soil bulk density, which accounted for 86% of the seasonal variability. A regression tree approach showed that CO 2 flux in each ecosystem was related to different underlying environmental factors. They were relative humidity for forest, soil temperature at 5 cm for sago and water-filled pore space for oil palm. On an annual basis, the soil CO 2 flux was highest in the forest ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.1 kg C/m 2 /yr followed by oil palm at 1.5 kg C/m 2 /yr and sago at 1.1 kg C/m 2 /yr. The different dominant controlling factors in CO 2 flux among the studied ecosystems suggested that land use affected the exchange of CO 2 between tropical peatland and the atmosphere

  17. MULTIFREQUENCY RADIO MEASUREMENTS OF SUPERNOVA 1987A OVER 22 YEARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanardo, G.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Potter, T. M.; Ball, Lewis; Kesteven, M. J.; Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Gaensler, B. M.; Ng, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present extensive observations of the radio emission from the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A made with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), since the first detection of the remnant in 1990. The radio emission has evolved in time providing unique information on the interaction of the SN shock with the circumstellar medium. We particularly focus on the monitoring observations at 1.4, 2.4, 4.8, and 8.6 GHz, which have been made at intervals of 4-6 weeks. The flux density data show that the remnant brightness is now increasing exponentially, while the radio spectrum is flattening. The current spectral index value of -0.68 represents an 18 ± 3% increase over the last eight years. The exponential trend in the flux is also found in the ATCA imaging observations at 9 GHz, which have been made since 1992, approximately twice a year, as well as in the 843 MHz data set from the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope from 1987 to 2007 March. Comparisons with data at different wavelengths (X-ray, Hα) are made. The rich data set that has been assembled in the last 22 years forms a basis for a better understanding of the evolution of the supernova remnant.

  18. The Evolution of the Stellar Hosts of Radio Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, Mark; Bunker, Andrew J.; Ridgway, Susan E.

    2000-01-01

    We present new near-infrared images of z>0.8 radio galaxies from the flux-limited 7C-iii sample of radio sources for which we have recently obtained almost complete spectroscopic redshifts. The 7C objects have radio luminosities ≅20 times fainter than 3C radio galaxies at a given redshift. The absolute magnitudes of the underlying host galaxies and their scale sizes are only weakly dependent on radio luminosity. Radio galaxy hosts at z∼2 are significantly brighter than the hosts of radio-quiet quasars at similar redshifts and the recent model AGN hosts of Kauffmann and Haehnelt. There is no evidence for strong evolution in scale size, which shows a large scatter at all redshifts. The hosts brighten significantly with redshift, consistent with the passive evolution of a stellar population that formed at z(greater-or-similar sign)3. This scenario is consistent with studies of host galaxy morphology and submillimeter continuum emission, both of which show strong evolution at z(greater-or-similar sign)2.5. The lack of a strong ''redshift cutoff'' in the radio luminosity function to z>4 suggests that the formation epoch of the radio galaxy host population lasts (greater-or-similar sign)1 Gyr, from z(greater-or-similar sign)5 to z∼3. We suggest these facts are best explained by models in which the most massive galaxies and their associated AGN form early because of high baryon densities in the centers of their dark matter haloes. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  19. Star Formation Rates in Lyman Break Galaxies: Radio Stacking of LBGs in the COSMOS Field and the Sub-μJy Radio Source Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, C. L.; Lee, Nicholas; Capak, P.; Schinnerer, E.; Lee, K.-S.; McCraken, H.; Yun, M. S.; Scoville, N.; Smolčić, V.; Giavalisco, M.; Datta, A.; Taniguchi, Y.; Urry, C. Megan

    2008-12-01

    We present an analysis of the radio properties of large samples of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 3, 4, and 5 from the COSMOS field. The median stacking analysis yields a statistical detection of the z ~ 3 LBGs (U-band dropouts), with a 1.4 GHz flux density of 0.90 +/- 0.21 μJy. The stacked emission is unresolved, with a size = 3 is smaller than at lower redshifts. Conversely, the radio luminosity for a given star formation rate may be systematically lower at very high redshift. Two possible causes for a suppressed radio luminosity are (1) increased inverse Compton cooling of the relativistic electron population due to scattering off the increasing CMB at high redshift or (2) cosmic-ray diffusion from systematically smaller galaxies. The radio detections of individual sources are consistent with a radio-loud AGN fraction of 0.3%. One source is identified as a very dusty, extreme starburst galaxy (a "submillimeter galaxy"). Based on observations in the COSMOS Legacy Survey including those taken on the HST, Keck, NRAO-VLA, Subaru, KPNO 4 m, CTIO 4 m, and CFHT 3.6 m. The Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  20. The Spectrum Landscape: Prospects for Terrestrial Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Harvey Steven

    2018-01-01

    Radio astronomers work within broad constraints imposed by commercial and other non-astronomical uses of the radio spectrum, somewhat modified to accommodate astronomy’s particular needs through the provision of radio quiet zones, radio frequency allocations, coordination agreements and other devices of spectrum management. As radio astronomers increase the instantaneous bandwidth, frequency coverage and sensitivity of their instruments, these external constraints, and not the limitations of their own instruments, will increasingly be the greatest obstacles to radio astronomy’s ability to observe the cosmos from the surface of the Earth. Therefore, prospects for future radio astronomy operations are contingent on situational awareness and planning for the impact of non-astronomical uses of the radio frequency spectrum. New radio astronomy instruments will have to incorporate adaptive reactions to external developments, and radio astronomers should be encouraged to think in untraditional ways. Increased attention to spectrum management is one of these. In this talk I’ll recap some recent developments such as the proliferation of 76 – 81 GHz car radar and orbiting earth-mapping radars, either of which can burn out a radio astronomy receiver. I’ll summarize present trends for non-astronomical radio spectrum use that will be coming to fruition in the next decade or so, categorized into terrestrial fixed and mobile, airborne and space-borne uses, sub-divided by waveband from the cm to the sub-mm. I’ll discuss how they will impact terrestrial radio astronomy and the various ways in which radio astronomy should be prepared to react. Protective developments must occur both within radio astronomy’s own domain – designing, siting and constructing its instruments and mitigating unavoidable RFI – and facing outward toward the community of other spectrum users. Engagement with spectrum management is no panacea but it is an important means, and perhaps the only

  1. UNVEILING THE NATURE OF IGR J17177-3656 WITH X-RAY, NEAR-INFRARED, AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paizis, A.; Nowak, M. A.; Wilms, J.; Chaty, S.; Corbel, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.; Chini, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first broadband (1-200 keV) simultaneous Chandra-INTEGRAL observations of the recently discovered hard X-ray transient IGR J17177-3656 that took place on 2011 March 22, about two weeks after the source discovery. The source had an average absorbed 1-200 keV flux of about 8 x 10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1 . We extracted a precise X-ray position of IGR J17177-3656, α J2000 = 17 h 17 m 42. s 62, δ J2000 = -36 0 56'04.''5 (90% uncertainty of 0.''6). We also report Swift, near-infrared, and quasi-simultaneous radio follow-up observations. With the multi-wavelength information at hand, we propose IGR J17177-3656 is a low-mass X-ray binary, seen at high inclination, probably hosting a black hole.

  2. THE WISE BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO-LOUD SOURCES: AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF CANDIDATE γ-RAY BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF/IASF di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    We present a catalog of radio-loud candidate γ-ray emitting blazars with WISE mid-infrared colors similar to the colors of confirmed γ-ray blazars. The catalog is assembled from WISE sources detected in all four WISE filters, with colors compatible with the three-dimensional locus of the WISE γ-ray emitting blazars, and which can be spatially cross-matched with radio sources from one of the three radio surveys: NVSS, FIRST, and/or SUMSS. Our initial WISE selection uses a slightly modified version of previously successful algorithms. We then select only the radio-loud sources using a measure of the radio-to-IR flux, the q {sub 22} parameter, which is analogous to the q {sub 24} parameter known in the literature but which instead uses the WISE band-four flux at 22 μm. Our final catalog contains 7855 sources classified as BL Lacs, FSRQs, or mixed candidate blazars; 1295 of these sources can be spatially re-associated as confirmed blazars. We describe the properties of the final catalog of WISE blazar-like radio-loud sources and consider possible contaminants. Finally, we discuss why this large catalog of candidate γ-ray emitting blazars represents a new and useful resource to address the problem of finding low-energy counterparts to currently unidentified high-energy sources.

  3. Polarimetry and Unification of Low-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Marshall H.; Ogle, Patrick M.; Tran, Hien D.; Goodrich, Robert W.; Miller, Joseph S.

    1999-01-01

    We have made high-quality measurements of the polarization spectra of 13 FR II radio galaxies and taken polarization images for 11 of these with the Keck telescopes. Seven of the eight narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) are polarized, and six of the seven show prominent broad Balmer lines in polarized light. The broad lines are also weakly visible in total flux. Some of the NLRGs show bipolar regions with roughly circumferential polarization vectors, revealing a large reflection nebula illuminated by a central source. Our observations powerfully support the hidden quasar hypothesis for some NLRGs. According to this hypothesis, the continuum and broad lines are blocked by a dusty molecular torus, but can be seen by reflected, hence polarized, light. Classification as a NLRG, a broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG), or a quasar therefore depends on orientation. However, not all objects fit into this unification scheme. Our sample is biased toward objects known in advance to be polarized, but the combination of our results with the 1996 findings of Hill, Goodrich, and DePoy show that at least six out of a complete, volume and flux-limited sample of nine FR II NLRGs have broad lines, seen either in polarization or Pα.The BLRGs in our sample range from 3C 382, which has a quasar-like spectrum, to the highly reddened IRAS source FSC 2217+259. This reddening sequence suggests a continuous transition from unobscured quasar to reddened BLRG to NLRG. Apparently the obscuring torus does not have a distinct edge. The BLRGs have polarization images that are consistent with a point source broadened by seeing and diluted by starlight. We do not detect extended nebular or scattered emission, perhaps because it is swamped by the nuclear source. Our starlight-corrected BLRG spectra can be explained with a two-component model: a quasar viewed through dust and quasar light scattered by dust. The direct flux is more reddened than the scattered flux, causing the polarization to rise steeply

  4. Polarimetry and Unification of Low-Redshift Radio Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Marshall H.; Ogle, Patrick M.; Tran, Hien D.; Goodrich, Robert W.; Miller, Joseph S.

    1999-11-01

    We have made high-quality measurements of the polarization spectra of 13 FR II radio galaxies and taken polarization images for 11 of these with the Keck telescopes. Seven of the eight narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) are polarized, and six of the seven show prominent broad Balmer lines in polarized light. The broad lines are also weakly visible in total flux. Some of the NLRGs show bipolar regions with roughly circumferential polarization vectors, revealing a large reflection nebula illuminated by a central source. Our observations powerfully support the hidden quasar hypothesis for some NLRGs. According to this hypothesis, the continuum and broad lines are blocked by a dusty molecular torus, but can be seen by reflected, hence polarized, light. Classification as a NLRG, a broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG), or a quasar therefore depends on orientation. However, not all objects fit into this unification scheme. Our sample is biased toward objects known in advance to be polarized, but the combination of our results with the 1996 findings of Hill, Goodrich, and DePoy show that at least six out of a complete, volume and flux-limited sample of nine FR II NLRGs have broad lines, seen either in polarization or P{alpha}.The BLRGs in our sample range from 3C 382, which has a quasar-like spectrum, to the highly reddened IRAS source FSC 2217+259. This reddening sequence suggests a continuous transition from unobscured quasar to reddened BLRG to NLRG. Apparently the obscuring torus does not have a distinct edge. The BLRGs have polarization images that are consistent with a point source broadened by seeing and diluted by starlight. We do not detect extended nebular or scattered emission, perhaps because it is swamped by the nuclear source. Our starlight-corrected BLRG spectra can be explained with a two-component model: a quasar viewed through dust and quasar light scattered by dust. The direct flux is more reddened than the scattered flux, causing the polarization to rise

  5. Neutron energy spectrum flux profile of Ghana's miniature neutron source reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogbadji, R.B.M.; Abrefah, R.G.; Ampomah-Amoako, E.; Agbemava, S.E.; Nyarko, B.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The total neutron flux spectrum of the compact core of Ghana's miniature neutron source reactor was studied. → Using 20,484 energy grids, the thermal, slowing down and fast neutron energy regions were studied. - Abstract: The total neutron flux spectrum of the compact core of Ghana's miniature neutron source reactor was understudied using the Monte Carlo method. To create small energy groups, 20,484 energy grids were used for the three neutron energy regions: thermal, slowing down and fast. The moderator, the inner irradiation channels, the annulus beryllium reflector and the outer irradiation channels were the region monitored. The thermal neutrons recorded their highest flux in the inner irradiation channel with a peak flux of (1.2068 ± 0.0008) x 10 12 n/cm 2 s, followed by the outer irradiation channel with a peak flux of (7.9166 ± 0.0055) x 10 11 n/cm 2 s. The beryllium reflector recorded the lowest flux in the thermal region with a peak flux of (2.3288 ± 0.0004) x 10 11 n/cm 2 s. The peak values of the thermal energy range occurred in the energy range (1.8939-3.7880) x 10 -08 MeV. The inner channel again recorded the highest flux of (1.8745 ± 0.0306) x 10 09 n/cm 2 s at the lower energy end of the slowing down region between 8.2491 x 10 -01 MeV and 8.2680 x 10 -01 MeV, but was over taken by the moderator as the neutron energies increased to 2.0465 MeV. The outer irradiation channel recorded the lowest flux in this region. In the fast region, the core, where the moderator is found, the highest flux was recorded as expected, at a peak flux of (2.9110 ± 0.0198) x 10 08 n/cm 2 s at 6.961 MeV. The inner channel recorded the second highest while the outer channel and annulus beryllium recorded very low flux in this region. The flux values in this region reduce asymptotically to 20 MeV.

  6. First results of the TIANSHAN radio experiment for neutrino detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau-Huynh, O., E-mail: omartino@in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Hautes Energies, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris Cedex (France); National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ardouin, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Carloganu, C. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermond-Ferrand (France); Charrier, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Gou, Q.; Hu, H. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Kai, L. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Lautridou, P. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Niess, V. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermond-Ferrand (France); Ravel, O. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines, CNRS/IN2P3 and Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Saugrin, T.; Wu, X. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhao, M. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Zheng, Y. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-01-11

    We present the first results of a set-up called TIANSHAN radio experiment for neutrino detection (TREND) being presently deployed on the site of the 21 cm array (21CMA) radio telescope, in XinJiang, China. We describe here its detection performances as well as the analysis method we applied to the data recorded with a small scale prototype. We demonstrate the ability of the TREND set-up for an autonomous radio-detection of extended air showers induced by cosmic rays. The full set-up will consist of 80 antennas deployed over a 4 km{sup 2} area, and could result in a very attractive and unequalled radio-detection facility for the characterization of showers induced by ultra-high energy neutrinos with energies around 10{sup 17} eV.

  7. Limits on fast radio bursts at 145 MHz with ARTEMIS, a real-time software backend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karastergiou, A.; Chennamangalam, J.; Armour, W.; Williams, C.; Mort, B.; Dulwich, F.; Salvini, S.; Magro, A.; Roberts, S.; Serylak, M.; Doo, A.; Bilous, A. V.; Breton, R. P.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Keane, E. F.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Noutsos, A.; Osłowski, S.; Sobey, C.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.

    2015-09-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond radio signals that exhibit dispersion larger than what the Galactic electron density can account for. We have conducted a 1446 h survey for FRBs at 145 MHz, covering a total of 4193 deg2 on the sky. We used the UK station of the low frequency array (LOFAR) radio telescope - the Rawlings Array - accompanied for a majority of the time by the LOFAR station at Nançay, observing the same fields at the same frequency. Our real-time search backend, Advanced Radio Transient Event Monitor and Identification System - ARTEMIS, utilizes graphics processing units to search for pulses with dispersion measures up to 320 cm-3 pc. Previous derived FRB rates from surveys around 1.4 GHz, and favoured FRB interpretations, motivated this survey, despite all previous detections occurring at higher dispersion measures. We detected no new FRBs above a signal-to-noise threshold of 10, leading to the most stringent upper limit yet on the FRB event rate at these frequencies: 29 sky-1 d-1 for five ms-duration pulses above 62 Jy. The non-detection could be due to scatter-broadening, limitations on the volume and time searched, or the shape of FRB flux density spectra. Assuming the latter and that FRBs are standard candles, the non-detection is compatible with the published FRB sky rate, if their spectra follow a power law with frequency (∝ να), with α ≳ +0.1, demonstrating a marked difference from pulsar spectra. Our results suggest that surveys at higher frequencies, including the low frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array, will have better chances to detect, estimate rates and understand the origin and properties of FRBs.

  8. Measurement of a thermal neutron flux using air activation; Mesure de flux de neutrons thermiques par activation d'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyonvarh, M; Lecomte, P; Le Meur, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    It is necessary to know, in irradiation loops, the thermal neutron flux after the irradiation device has been introduced and without being obliged to wait for the discharge of this device. In order to measure the flux and to control it continuously, one possible method is to place in the flux a coiled steel tube through which air passes. By measuring the activity of argon 41, and with a knowledge of the flow rate and the temperature of the air, it is possible to calculate the flux. An air-circulation flux controller is described and the relationship between the flux and the count rate is established The accuracy of an absolute measurement is about 14 per cent; that of a relative measurement is about 3 per cent. The measurement can be carried out equally well whether the reactor is operating at maximum or at low power. The measurement range goes from 10{sup 9} to lO{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.sec{sup -1}, and it would be possible after a few modifications to measure fluxes between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.sec{sup -1}. Finally, the method is very safe to operate: there is little risk of irradiation because of the low specific activity of the argon-41 formed, and no risk of contamination because the decay product of argon-41 is stable. This method, which is now being used in loops, is thus very practical. (authors) [French] Sur des boucles d'irradiation il est necessaire de connaitre le flux de neutrons thermiques apres mise en place du dispositif d'irradiation et sans etre oblige d'attendre le detournement de ce dispositif. Pour mesurer le flux et le controler en permanence, une methode consiste a placer sous flux un serpentin en acier dans lequel on fait circuler de l'air. La mesure d'activite d'argon 41 permet de calculer le flux, connaissant le debit et la temperature de l'air. Un controleur de flux par circulation d'air est decrit et la relation entre le flux et le taux de comptage est etablie. La precision d'une mesure absolue est de l'ordre de 14 pour

  9. Broad Line Radio Galaxies Observed with Fermi-LAT: The Origin of the GeV Gamma-Ray Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Takahashi, Y.; /Waseda U., RISE; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Hayashida, M.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Grandi, P.; /Bologna Observ.; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Celotti, A.; /SISSA, Trieste; Fegan, S.J.; Fortin, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T.; /Waseda U., RISE; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Tosti, G.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Digel, S.W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; McConville, W.; /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; Finke, J.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; D' Ammando, F.; /IASF, Palermo /INAF, Rome

    2012-06-07

    We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was however found in the considered dataset. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicate that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broad-band emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {ge} 1% on average for BLRGs, while {le} 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  10. A new sample of faint Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum radio sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, IAG; Schilizzi, RT; de Bruyn, AG; Miley, GK; Rengelink, RB; Rottgering, HJ

    The Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) has been used to select a sample of Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources at flux densities one to two orders of magnitude lower than bright GPS sources investigated in earlier studies. Sources with inverted spectra at frequencies above 325 MHz have

  11. Thermal neutron flux measurements using neutron-electron converters; Mesure de flux de neutrons thermiques avec des convertisseurs neutrons electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Meur, R; Lecomte, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The operation of neutron-electron converters designed for measuring thermal neutron fluxes is examined. The principle is to produce short lived isotopes emitting beta particles, by activation, and to measure their activity not by extracting them from the reactor, but directly in the reactor using the emitted electrons to deflect the needle of a galvanometer placed outside the flux. After a theoretical study, the results of the measurements are presented; particular attention is paid to a new type of converter characterized by a layer structure. The converters are very useful for obtaining flux distributions with more than 10{sup 7} neutrons cm{sup -2}*sec{sup -1}. They work satisfactorily in pressurized carbon dioxide at 400 Celsius degrees. Some points still have to be cleared up however concerning interfering currents in the detectors and the behaviour of the dielectrics under irradiation. (authors) [French] On examine le fonctionnement de convertisseurs neutrons electrons destines a des mesures de flux de neutrons thermiques. Le principe est de former par activation des isotopes a periodes courtes et a emission beta et de mesurer leur activite non pas en les sortant du reacteur, mais directement en pile, utilisant les electrons emis pour faire devier l'aiguille d'un galvanometre place hors flux. Apres une etude theorique, on indique des resultats de mesures obtenus, en insistant particulierement sur un nouveau type de convertisseur, caracterise par sa structure stratifiee. Les convertisseurs sont tres interessants pour tracer, des cartes de flux a partir de 10{sup 7} neutrons cm{sup -2}*s{sup -1}. Ils sont utilisables pour des flux de 10{sup 14} neutrons cm{sup -2}*s{sup -1}. Ils fonctionnent correctement dans du gaz carbonique sous pression a 400 C. Des points restent cependant a eclaircir concernant les courants parasites dans les detecteurs et le comportement des dielectriques pendant leur irradiation. (auteur)

  12. H I absorption in nearby compact radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, M.; Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Moss, V. A.; Curran, S. J.; Musaeva, A.; Deng, C.; Parry, R.; Sligo, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    H I absorption studies yield information on both active galactic nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes. This AGN activity interacts with the neutral gas in compact radio sources, which are believed to represent the young or recently re-triggered AGN population. We present the results of a survey for H I absorption in a sample of 66 compact radio sources at 0.040 100 km s-1) features, indicative of disturbed gas kinematics. Such broad, shallow and offset features are also found within low-excitation radio galaxies which is attributed to disturbed circumnuclear gas, consistent with early-type galaxies typically devoid of a gas-rich disc. Comparing mid-infrared colours of our galaxies with H I detections indicates that narrow and deep absorption features are preferentially found in late-type and high-excitation radio galaxies in our sample. These features are attributed to gas in galactic discs. By combining XMM-Newton archival data with 21-cm data, we find support that absorbed X-ray sources may be good tracers of H I content within the host galaxy. This sample extends previous H I surveys in compact radio galaxies to lower radio luminosities and provides a basis for future work exploring the higher redshift universe.

  13. Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krafft

    Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions

  14. Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Krafft

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions

  15. Cosmic ray muon flux at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, F.E., E-mail: fgray@regis.ed [Regis University, Department of Physics and Computational Science, 3333 Regis Blvd., Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Colorado School of Mines, Department of Physics, 1523 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Ruybal, C.; Totushek, J. [Regis University, Department of Physics and Computational Science, 3333 Regis Blvd., Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Mei, D.-M.; Thomas, K. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, 414 E. Clark St., Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); Zhang, C. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, 414 E. Clark St., Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States); China Three Gorges University, College of Science, Yichang 443002 (China)

    2011-05-11

    Measuring the muon flux is important to the Sanford Underground Laboratory at Homestake, for which several low background experiments are being planned. The nearly vertical cosmic ray muon flux was measured in three locations at this laboratory: on the surface (1.149{+-}0.017 x10{sup -2} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}), at the 800 ft (0.712 km w.e.) level (2.67{+-}0.06 x10{sup -6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}), and at the 2000 ft (1.78 km w.e.) level (2.56{+-}0.25 x10{sup -7} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}). These fluxes agree well with model predictions.

  16. The distribution of polarized radio sources >15 μJy IN GOODS-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, L.; Owen, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    We present deep Very Large Array observations of the polarization of radio sources in the GOODS-N field at 1.4 GHz at resolutions of 1.''6 and 10''. At 1.''6, we find that the peak flux cumulative number count distribution is N(> p) ∼ 45*(p/30 μJy) –0.6 per square degree above a detection threshold of 14.5 μJy. This represents a break from the steeper slopes at higher flux densities, resulting in fewer sources predicted for future surveys with the Square Kilometer Array and its precursors. It provides a significant challenge for using background rotation measures (RMs) to study clusters of galaxies or individual galaxies. Most of the polarized sources are well above our detection limit, and they are also radio galaxies that are well-resolved even at 10'', with redshifts from ∼0.2-1.9. We determined a total polarized flux for each source by integrating the 10'' polarized intensity maps, as will be done by upcoming surveys such as POSSUM. These total polarized fluxes are a factor of two higher, on average, than the peak polarized flux at 1.''6; this would increase the number counts by ∼50% at a fixed flux level. The detected sources have RMs with a characteristic rms scatter of ∼11 rad m –2 around the local Galactic value, after eliminating likely outliers. The median fractional polarization from all total intensity sources does not continue the trend of increasing at lower flux densities, as seen for stronger sources. The changes in the polarization characteristics seen at these low fluxes likely represent the increasing dominance of star-forming galaxies.

  17. Rapid radio polarization variability in the quasar 0917 + 624

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Witzel, A.; Qian, S.J.; Krichbaum, T.; Hummel, C.A.; Alberdi, A. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn 1 (DE))

    1989-12-01

    We have made measurements of the total flux density and the polarization of the quasar 0917+624 with a sampling of {approx} 1 hour using the 100 m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie (MPIfR) at 6 and 11 cm wavelength. The total flux density showed variations with an amplitude of {approx} 25% and a typical time scale of {approx} 1 day at both wavelengths. The polarized flux density P showed even more dramatic variations with an amplitude of a factor {approx} 3, correlated with the variability of the total flux density S, P being high whenever S was low and vice versa. At 6 cm wavelength a swing of the polarization position angle {chi} of 180{sup 0} wasobserved at a time when the total flux density showed a maximum. These findings make any extrinsic explanations of the effect (e.g. scattering in the interstellar medium) very unlikely. We discuss a model which gives an explanation of the observed variability in terms of shocks propagating in a magnetized jet.

  18. Radio Astronomy on and Around the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, Heino; Klein Wolt, Mark; Ping, Jinsong; Chen, Linjie

    2018-06-01

    The exploration of remote places on other planets has now become a major goal in current space flight scenarios. On the other hand, astronomers have always sought the most remote and isolated sites to place their observatories and to make their most precise and most breath taking discoveries. Especially for radio astronomy, lunar exploration offers a complete new window to the universe. The polar region and the far-side of the moon are acknowledged as unique locations for a low-frequency radio telescope providing scientific data at wavelengths that cannot be obtained from the Earth nor from single satellites. Scientific areas to be covered range from radio surveys, to solar-system studies, exo-planet detection, and astroparticle physics. The key science area, however, is the detection and measurement of cosmological 21 cm hydrogen emission from the still unexplored dark ages of the universe. Developing a lunar radio facility can happen in steps and may involve small satellites, rover-based radio antennas, of free- flying constellations around the moon. A first such step could be the Netherlands-Chinese Long Wavelength Explorer (NCLE), which is supposed to be launched in 2018 as part of the ChangE’4 mission to the moon-earth L2 point.

  19. Probing the Cosmological Principle in the counts of radio galaxies at different frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengaly, Carlos A. P.; Maartens, Roy; Santos, Mario G.

    2018-04-01

    According to the Cosmological Principle, the matter distribution on very large scales should have a kinematic dipole that is aligned with that of the CMB. We determine the dipole anisotropy in the number counts of two all-sky surveys of radio galaxies. For the first time, this analysis is presented for the TGSS survey, allowing us to check consistency of the radio dipole at low and high frequencies by comparing the results with the well-known NVSS survey. We match the flux thresholds of the catalogues, with flux limits chosen to minimise systematics, and adopt a strict masking scheme. We find dipole directions that are in good agreement with each other and with the CMB dipole. In order to compare the amplitude of the dipoles with theoretical predictions, we produce sets of lognormal realisations. Our realisations include the theoretical kinematic dipole, galaxy clustering, Poisson noise, simulated redshift distributions which fit the NVSS and TGSS source counts, and errors in flux calibration. The measured dipole for NVSS is ~2 times larger than predicted by the mock data. For TGSS, the dipole is almost ~ 5 times larger than predicted, even after checking for completeness and taking account of errors in source fluxes and in flux calibration. Further work is required to understand the nature of the systematics that are the likely cause of the anomalously large TGSS dipole amplitude.

  20. Radio synchrotron spectra of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, U.; Lisenfeld, U.; Verley, S.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the radio continuum spectra of 14 star-forming galaxies by fitting nonthermal (synchrotron) and thermal (free-free) radiation laws. The underlying radio continuum measurements cover a frequency range of 325 MHz to 24.5 GHz (32 GHz in case of M 82). It turns out that most of these synchrotron spectra are not simple power-laws, but are best represented by a low-frequency spectrum with a mean slope αnth = 0.59 ± 0.20 (Sν ∝ ν-α), and by a break or an exponential decline in the frequency range of 1-12 GHz. Simple power-laws or mildly curved synchrotron spectra lead to unrealistically low thermal flux densities, and/or to strong deviations from the expected optically thin free-free spectra with slope αth = 0.10 in the fits. The break or cutoff energies are in the range of 1.5-7 GeV. We briefly discuss the possible origin of such a cutoff or break. If the low-frequency spectra obtained here reflect the injection spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons, they comply with the mean spectral index of Galactic supernova remnants. A comparison of the fitted thermal flux densities with the (foreground-corrected) Hα fluxes yields the extinction, which increases with metallicity. The fraction of thermal emission is higher than believed hitherto, especially at high frequencies, and is highest in the dwarf galaxies of our sample, which we interpret in terms of a lack of containment in these low-mass systems, or a time effect caused by a very young starburst.

  1. The Radio/Gamma-Ray Connection from 120 MHz to 230 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Giroletti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio loud active galactic nuclei are composed of different spatial features, each one characterized by different spectral properties in the radio band. Among them, blazars are the most common class of sources detected at gamma-rays by Fermi, and their radio emission is dominated by the flat spectrum compact core. In this contribution, we explore the connection between emission at high energy revealed by Fermi and at radio frequencies. Taking as a reference the strong and very highly significant correlation found between gamma rays and cmradio emission, we explore the different behaviours found as we change the energy range in gamma rays and in radio, therefore changing the physical parameters of the zones involved in the emitted radiation. We find that the correlation weakens when we consider (1 gamma rays of energy above 10 GeV (except for high synchrotron peaked blazars or (2 low frequency radio data taken by the Murchison Widefield Array; on the other hand, the correlation strengthens when we consider mm-λ data taken by Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA.

  2. Ir A.H. de Voogt: life and career of a radio pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, R. G.

    2007-06-01

    There are probably few radio astronomers who would be able to recall A.H. de Voogt, which is unfortunate, but at the same time unsurprising: for he published no original astronomical research, never carried out pioneering observations, nor is his name linked to either theoretical or instrumental breakthroughs. Yet he was described by the man who first observed the 21 cm hydrogen line from the Netherlands as a radio astronomy pioneer, at the very birth of the Dutch effort. He was, moreover, a trail blazer at the cutting edge of radio, not once but twice in his career. Without him it is unlikely that the 21 cm line would have been observed in the Netherlands in 1951, and arguably the H I mapping of the Milky Way under Jan Oort's leadership would have taken place much later, if at all. Radio astronomy observing itself might well have been compromised by interference had it not been for De Voogt's foresight. \\ Anthonet Hugo de Voogt (1892-1969) built, while still a teenager, one of the very first amateur radio stations (call letters VO: *** -/- - -) in Holland, earned the radio-telegrapher's diploma during his student days, and was intimately involved in the foundation of the Dutch Society for Radio-Telegraphy in 1916. Until the 1920s, he was very active in amateur radio and astronomy circles. Trained in electrical engineering at Delft, he joined the PTT (Post Office) as a telegraph engineer in 1919, worked his way through the ranks to become head of the telephone district of Breda in 1939, and was promoted to head the PTT Radio Service just days after the end of the war. As his department was responsible for overseas radio communication, he initiated a research effort to study radio propagation in the ionosphere and the effects of solar activity. To this end, he rescued a number of Würzburg-Riese 7.5-m radar antennas abandoned at the end of the war, made one available for Jan Oort's H I work, and launched a series of radio astronomical initiatives. His group also

  3. Relativistic jet with shock waves like model of superluminal radio source. Jet relativista con ondas de choque como modelo de radio fuentes superluminales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A.; Gomez, J.L.; Marcaide, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the compact radio sources at milliarcsecond angular resolution can be explained in terms of shock waves propagating along bent jets. These jets consist of narrow-angle cones of plasma flowing at bulk relativistic velocities, within tangled magnetic fields, emitting synchrotron radiation. We have developed a numerical code which solves the synchrotron radiation transfer equations to compute the total and polarized emission of bent shocked relativistic jets, and we have applied it to reproduce the compact structure, kenimatic evolution and time flux density evolution of the superluminal radio source 4C 39.25 and to obtain its jet physical parameters. (Author) 23 ref.

  4. VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY IMAGING OF PARSEC-SCALE RADIO EMISSIONS IN NEARBY RADIO-QUIET NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Akihiro [The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Asada, Keiichi; Inoue, Makoto [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Fujisawa, Kenta [The Research Institute of Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan); Nagai, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wajima, Kiyoaki, E-mail: akihiro.doi@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2013-03-01

    We conducted Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations of seven nearby narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies at 1.7 GHz ({lambda}18 cm) with milliarcsecond resolution. This is the first systematic very long baseline interferometry study focusing on the central parsec-scale regions of radio-quiet NLS1s. Five of the seven were detected at a brightness temperature of {approx}> 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K and contain radio cores with high brightness temperatures of >6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K, indicating a nonthermal process driven by jet-producing central engines as in radio-loud NLS1s and other active galactic nucleus classes. VLBA images of MRK 1239, MRK 705, and MRK 766 exhibit parsec-scale jets with clear linear structures. A large portion of the radio power comes from diffuse emission components that are distributed within the nuclear regions ({approx}< 300 pc), which is a common characteristic throughout the observed NLS1s. Jet kinetic powers limited by the Eddington limit may be insufficient to allow the jets to escape to kiloparsec scales for these radio-quiet NLS1s with low-mass black holes of {approx}< 10{sup 7} M {sub Sun }.

  5. Flat radio-spectrum galaxies and BL Lacs I. Core properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dennett-Thorpe, J; Marcha, MJ

    This paper concerns the relationship of BL Lacs and flat-spectrum weak emission-line galaxies. We compare the weak emission-line galaxies and the BL Lacs in a sample of 57 flat-spectrum objects (Marcha et al. 1996), using high-frequency radio and non-thermal optical flux densities, spectral indices

  6. CORRELATION OF CHANDRA PHOTONS WITH THE RADIO GIANT PULSES FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, A. V.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Ransom, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    No apparent correlation was found between giant pulses (GPs) and X-ray photons from the Crab pulsar during 5.4 hr of simultaneous observations with the Green Bank Telescope at 1.5 GHz and Chandra X-Ray Observatory primarily in the energy range of 1.5-4.5 keV. During the Crab pulsar periods with GPs, the X-ray flux in radio emission phase windows does not change more than by ±10% for main pulse (MP) GPs and ±30% for interpulse (IP) GPs. During GPs themselves, the X-ray flux does not change by more than two times for MP GPs and five times for IP GPs. All limits quoted are compatible with 2σ fluctuations of the X-ray flux around the sets of false GPs with random arrival times. The results speak in favor of changes in plasma coherence as the origin of GPs. However, the results do not rule out variations in the rate of particle creation if the particles that emit coherent radio emission are mostly at the lowest Landau level.

  7. Predictions of ion energy distributions and radical fluxes in radio frequency biased inductively coupled plasma etching reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Robert J.; Kushner, Mark J.

    1996-03-01

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactors are being developed for low gas pressure (radio frequency (rf) bias is applied to the substrate. One of the goals of these systems is to independently control the magnitude of the ion flux by the inductively coupled power deposition, and the acceleration of ions into the substrate by the rf bias. In high plasma density reactors the width of the sheath above the wafer may be sufficiently thin that ions are able to traverse it in approximately 1 rf cycle, even at 13.56 MHz. As a consequence, the ion energy distribution (IED) may have a shape typically associated with lower frequency operation in conventional reactive ion etching tools. In this paper, we present results from a computer model for the IED incident on the wafer in ICP etching reactors. We find that in the parameter space of interest, the shape of the IED depends both on the amplitude of the rf bias and on the ICP power. The former quantity determines the average energy of the IED. The latter quantity controls the width of the sheath, the transit time of ions across the sheath and hence the width of the IED. In general, high ICP powers (thinner sheaths) produce wider IEDs.

  8. A polarized fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude

    OpenAIRE

    Rowlinson, A.; O'Sullivan, Michael; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, G.; Avgitas, T.; Bertin, V.; Puricelli, Stefano; Coniglione, R.; Gleixner, A; Lefèvre, Dominique; Michael, Turner; Pellegrino, Carlo; Piattelli, P.; Sanchez Losa, Agustín; Schnabel, J.

    2017-01-01

    This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2017 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We report on the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150215, with the Parkes radio telescope on 2015 February 15. The burst was detected in real time with a dispersion measure (DM) of 1105.6 ± 0.8 pc cm-3;3, a pulse duration of 2.8+1.2-0.25 ms, and a measured...

  9. Rapid variability of extragalactic radio sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Witzel, A.; Krichbaum, T.; Hummel, C.A.; Alberdi, A.; Schalinski, C.

    1989-02-02

    Since its discovery more than 20 years ago, variability of extragalactic radio sources on timescales of weeks to years has been the subject of many investigations. We have examined the variability of these sources on timescales of hours at wavelengths of 6 and 11 cm using the 100-m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie and report the results for two sources. The quasar QSO0917 + 62 showed variations with amplitudes of up to 23% in /similar to/ 24 hours, which were correlated at the two wavelengths; in the BL Lac object 0716 + 71 we found variations with amplitudes of 7-11%. We discuss intrinsic effects, gravitational lensing and scattering in the interstellar medium as possible explanations for rapid radio variability.

  10. Rapid variability of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Witzel, A.; Krichbaum, T.; Hummel, C.A.; Alberdi, A.; Schalinski, C.

    1989-01-01

    Since its discovery more than 20 years ago, variability of extragalactic radio sources on timescales of weeks to years has been the subject of many investigations. We have examined the variability of these sources on timescales of hours at wavelengths of 6 and 11 cm using the 100-m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie and report the results for two sources. The quasar QSO0917 + 62 showed variations with amplitudes of up to 23% in ∼ 24 hours, which were correlated at the two wavelengths; in the BL Lac object 0716 + 71 we found variations with amplitudes of 7-11%. We discuss intrinsic effects, gravitational lensing and scattering in the interstellar medium as possible explanations for rapid radio variability. (author)

  11. RADIO-QUIET AND RADIO-LOUD PULSARS: SIMILAR IN GAMMA-RAYS BUT DIFFERENT IN X-RAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marelli, M.; Mignani, R. P.; Luca, A. De; Salvetti, D. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Parkinson, P. M. Saz [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hartog, P. R. Den [Stanford University HEPL/KIPAC, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Wolff, M. T., E-mail: marelli@iasf-milano.inaf.it [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    We present new Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of a sample of eight radio-quiet (RQ) γ-ray pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. For all eight pulsars we identify the X-ray counterpart, based on the X-ray source localization and the best position obtained from γ-ray pulsar timing. For PSR J2030+4415 we found evidence for a ∼10″-long pulsar wind nebula. Our new results consolidate the work from Marelli et al. and confirm that, on average, the γ-ray-to-X-ray flux ratios (F{sub γ}/F{sub X}) of RQ pulsars are higher than for the radio-loud (RL) ones. Furthermore, while the F{sub γ}/F{sub X} distribution features a single peak for the RQ pulsars, the distribution is more dispersed for the RL ones, possibly showing two peaks. We discuss possible implications of these different distributions based on current models for pulsar X-ray emission.

  12. Radio-wave detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim; Besson, Dave

    2017-12-01

    Radio waves, perhaps because our terrestrial atmosphere and the cosmos beyond are uniquely transparent to them, or perhaps because they are macroscopic, so the basic instruments of detection (antennas) are easily constructible, arguably occupy a privileged position within the electromagnetic spectrum, and, correspondingly, receive disproportionate attention experimentally. Detection of radio-frequency radiation, at macroscopic wavelengths, has blossomed within the last decade as a competitive method for the measurement of cosmic particles, particularly charged cosmic rays and neutrinos. Cosmic-ray detection via radio emission from extensive air showers has been demonstrated to be a reliable technique that has reached a reconstruction quality of the cosmic-ray parameters competitive with more traditional approaches. Radio detection of neutrinos in dense media seems to be the most promising technique to achieve the gigantic detection volumes required to measure neutrinos at energies beyond the PeV-scale flux established by IceCube. In this article, we review radio detection both of cosmic rays in the atmosphere, as well as neutrinos in dense media.

  13. ARE THE VARIATIONS IN QUASAR OPTICAL FLUX DRIVEN BY THERMAL FLUCTUATIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Bechtold, Jill

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a sample of optical light curves for 100 quasars, 70 of which have black hole mass estimates. Our sample is the largest and broadest used yet for modeling quasar variability. The sources in our sample have z 42 ∼ λ (5100 A) ∼ 46 , and 10 6 ∼ BH /M sun ∼ 10 . We model the light curves as a continuous time stochastic process, providing a natural means of estimating the characteristic timescale and amplitude of quasar variations. We employ a Bayesian approach to estimate the characteristic timescale and amplitude of flux variations; our approach is not affected by biases introduced from discrete sampling effects. We find that the characteristic timescales strongly correlate with black hole mass and luminosity, and are consistent with disk orbital or thermal timescales. In addition, the amplitude of short-timescale variations is significantly anticorrelated with black hole mass and luminosity. We interpret the optical flux fluctuations as resulting from thermal fluctuations that are driven by an underlying stochastic process, such as a turbulent magnetic field. In addition, the intranight variations in optical flux implied by our empirical model are ∼<0.02 mag, consistent with current microvariability observations of radio-quiet quasars. Our stochastic model is therefore able to unify both long- and short-timescale optical variations in radio-quiet quasars as resulting from the same underlying process, while radio-loud quasars have an additional variability component that operates on timescales ∼<1 day.

  14. Methane Flux of Amazonian Peatland Ecosystems: Large Ecosystem Fluxes with Substantial Contribution from Palm (maritia Flexuosa) STEM Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haren, J. L. M.; Cadillo-Quiroz, H.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions through plants have long been known in wetlands. However, most measurements have focused on stem tops and leaves. Recently, measurements at the lower parts of stems have shown that stem emissions can exceed soil CH4 emissions in Asian peatlands (Pangala et al. 2013). The addition of stem fluxes to soil fluxes for total ecosystem fluxes has the potential to bridge the discrepancy between modeled to measured and bottom-up to top-down flux estimates. Our measurements in peatlands of Peru show that especially Mauritia flexuosa, a palm species, can emit very large quantities of CH4, although most trees emitted at least some CH4. We used flexible stem chambers to adapt to stems of any size above 5cm in diameter. The chambers were sampled in closed loop with a Gasmet DX4015 for flux measurements, which lasted ~5 minutes after flushing with ambient air. We found that M. flexuosa stem fluxes decrease with height along the stem and were positively correlated with soil fluxes. Most likely CH4 is transported up the stem with the xylem water. Measured M. flexuosa stem fluxes below 1.5m averaged 11.2±1.5 mg-C m-2 h-1 (±95% CI) with a maximum of 123±3.5 mg-C m-2 h-1 (±SE), whereas soil fluxes averaged 6.7±1.7 mg-C m-2 h-1 (±95% CI) with a maximum of 31.6±0.4 mg-C m-2 h-1 (±SE). Significant CH4 fluxes were measured up to 5 m height along the stems. Combined with the high density of ~150 M. flexuosa individuals per hectare in these peatlands and the consistent diameter of ~30cm, the high flux rates add ~20% to the soil flux. With anywhere between 1 and 5 billion M. flexuosa stems across Amazon basin wetlands, stem fluxes from this palm species could represent a major addition to the overall Amazon basin CH4 flux.

  15. GeV GAMMA-RAY FLUX UPPER LIMITS FROM CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Blasi, P.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of diffuse radio emission associated with clusters of galaxies indicates populations of relativistic leptons infusing the intracluster medium (ICM). Those electrons and positrons are either injected into and accelerated directly in the ICM, or produced as secondary pairs by cosmic-ray ions scattering on ambient protons. Radiation mechanisms involving the energetic leptons together with the decay of neutral pions produced by hadronic interactions have the potential to produce abundant GeV photons. Here, we report on the search for GeV emission from clusters of galaxies using data collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope from 2008 August to 2010 February. Thirty-three galaxy clusters have been selected according to their proximity and high mass, X-ray flux and temperature, and indications of non-thermal activity for this study. We report upper limits on the photon flux in the range 0.2-100 GeV toward a sample of observed clusters (typical values (1-5) x10 -9 photon cm -2 s -1 ) considering both point-like and spatially resolved models for the high-energy emission and discuss how these results constrain the characteristics of energetic leptons and hadrons, and magnetic fields in the ICM. The volume-averaged relativistic-hadron-to-thermal energy density ratio is found to be <5%-10% in several clusters.

  16. Radio outburst from a massive (proto)star. When accretion turns into ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, R.; Moscadelli, L.; Neri, R.; Sanna, A.; Caratti o Garatti, A.; Eisloffel, J.; Stecklum, B.; Ray, T.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Recent observations of the massive young stellar object S255 NIRS 3 have revealed a large increase in both methanol maser flux density and IR emission, which have been interpreted as the result of an accretion outburst, possibly due to instabilities in a circumstellar disk. This indicates that this type of accretion event could be common in young/forming early-type stars and in their lower mass siblings, and supports the idea that accretion onto the star may occur in a non-continuous way. Aims: As accretion and ejection are believed to be tightly associated phenomena, we wanted to confirm the accretion interpretation of the outburst in S255 NIRS 3 by detecting the corresponding burst of the associated thermal jet. Methods: We monitored the radio continuum emission from S255 NIRS 3 at four bands using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The millimetre continuum emission was also observed with both the Northern Extended Millimeter Array of IRAM and the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. Results: We have detected an exponential increase in the radio flux density from 6 to 45 GHz starting right after July 10, 2016, namely 13 months after the estimated onset of the IR outburst. This is the first ever detection of a radio burst associated with an IR accretion outburst from a young stellar object. The flux density at all observed centimetre bands can be reproduced with a simple expanding jet model. At millimetre wavelengths we infer a marginal flux increase with respect to the literature values and we show this is due to free-free emission from the radio jet. Conclusions: Our model fits indicate a significant increase in the jet opening angle and ionized mass loss rate with time. For the first time, we can estimate the ionization fraction in the jet and conclude that this must be low (memory of MalcolmWalmsley, who passed away before the present study could be completed. Without his insights and enlightened advice this work would have been impossible

  17. Detection of the Galactic Warm Neutral Medium in HI 21cm absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Narendra Nath; Kanekar, Nissim; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Roy, Nirupam

    2018-05-01

    We report a deep Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) search for Galactic HI 21cm absorption towards the quasar B0438-436, yielding the detection of wide, weak HI 21cm absorption, with a velocity-integrated HI 21cm optical depth of 0.0188 ± 0.0036 km s-1. Comparing this with the HI column density measured in the Parkes Galactic All-Sky Survey gives a column density-weighted harmonic mean spin temperature of 3760 ± 365 K, one of the highest measured in the Galaxy. This is consistent with most of the HI along the sightline arising in the stable warm neutral medium (WNM). The low peak HI 21cm optical depth towards B0438-436 implies negligible self-absorption, allowing a multi-Gaussian joint decomposition of the HI 21cm absorption and emission spectra. This yields a gas kinetic temperature of T_k ≤ (4910 ± 1900) K, and a spin temperature of T_s = (1000 ± 345) K for the gas that gives rise to the HI 21cm absorption. Our data are consistent with the HI 21cm absorption arising from either the stable WNM, with T_s ≪ T_k, T_k ≈ 5000 K, and little penetration of the background Lyman-α radiation field into the neutral hydrogen, or from the unstable neutral medium, with T_s ≈ T_k ≈ 1000K.

  18. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  19. Comparison of regional and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S. E. (Wind Energy Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark)); Soegaard, H. (Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Batchvarova, E. (National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    2009-07-01

    A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO{sub 2} from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO{sub 2} concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio-soundings and standard measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration near the ground. The method was used to derive the regional flux of CO{sub 2} over an agricultural site at Zealand in Denmark during an experiment on 12-13 June 2006. The regional fluxes of CO{sub 2} represent a combination of agricultural and forest surface conditions. It was found that the regional flux of CO{sub 2} in broad terms follows the behavior of the flux of CO{sub 2} at the agricultural (grassland) and the deciduous forest station. The regional flux is comparable not only in size but also in the diurnal (daytime) cycle of CO{sub 2} fluxes at the two stations. (orig.)

  20. A new detector for the measurement of neutron flux in nuclear reactors; Nouvelle methode de mesure des flux de neutrons dans les reacteurs atomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L; Labeyrie, J; Tarassenko, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The detector described is designed for the instantaneous measurement of thermal neutron fluxes, in the presence of high {gamma} ray activity; this detector can withstand temperatures as high as 500 deg. C. It is based on the following principle: radioactive atoms resulting from heavy-nucleus fission are carried by a gas flow to a detector recording their {beta} and {gamma} disintegration. Thermal neutron fluxes as low as few neutrons per cm{sup 2} per second can be measured. This detector may be used to control a nuclear reactor, to plot the thermal flux distribution with an excellent definition (1 mm{sup 2}) for fluxes higher than 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}/s. The time response of the system to a sharp variation of flux is limited, in case of large fluxes, to the transit time of the gas flow between the fission product emitter and the detector; of the order of one tenth of a sec per meter of piping. The detector may also be applied for spectroscopy of fission products eider than 0,1 s. (author)Fren. [French] On decrit un appareil permettant la mesure instantanee des flux de neutrons thermiques accompagnes de flux intenses de rayons {gamma} et situes dans des enceintes pouvant etre portees a des temperatures superieures a 500 deg. C. On utilise la radioactivite des atomes resultant de la fission des noyaux lourds; ces atomes sont entraines par un courant gazeux vers un detecteur de radioactivite qui enregistre leurs desintegrations {beta} et {gamma}. On peut mesurer des flux partir de quelques neutrons thermiques par cm{sup 2} et par seconde. L'appareil permet de suivre la puissance d'un reacteur atomique, de tracer des cartes de densite de neutrons avec une tres bonne definition (1 mm{sup 2}) dans le cas de flux superieurs a 10{sup 8} cm{sup 2}/s. Le temps de reponse du systeme a une variation du flux de neutrons est limite, poes flux importants, par le temps de transit du gaz entre l'emetteur de produits de fission et le detecteur: soit quelques dizaines de

  1. The Nature of the Stingray Nebula from Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Hardwick, Jennifer A.; De Marco, Orsola; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Gonidakis, Ioannis; Akhter, Shaila; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James A.

    2018-06-01

    We have analysed the full suite of Australia Telescope Compact Array data for the Stingray planetary nebula. Data were taken in the 4- to 23-GHz range of radio frequencies between 1991 and 2016. The radio flux density of the nebula generally declined during that period, but between 2013 and 2016 it shows signs of halting that decline. We produced the first spatially resolved radio images of the Stingray nebula from data taken in 2005. A ring structure, which appears to be associated with the ring seen in HST images, was visible. In addition, we found a narrow extension to the radio emission towards the eastern and western edges of the nebula. We derived the emission measure of the nebula - this decreased between 1992 and 2011, suggesting that the nebula is undergoing recombination. The radio spectral index is broadly consistent with a free-free emission mechanism, however a single data point hints that a steeper spectral index has possibly emerged since 2013, which could indicate the presence of synchrotron emission. If a non-thermal component component has emerged, such as one associated with a region that is launching a jet or outflow, we predict that it would intensify in the years to come.

  2. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  3. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37~GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4arcsec/2arcsec. Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a sub-population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6~$M_odot$ or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 $M_odot$.

  4. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the small Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37 GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (400 /200 . Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 200 and may represent a sub- population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6 Mo or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 Mo.

  5. Faraday rotation in the M87 radio/X-ray halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, B.

    1980-01-01

    Comparison of polarization maps at various wavelengths demonstrates the existence of a large Faraday rotation uniform over the radio core of M87. Much of this rotation must be external to the core, lest it appear completely depolarized when the rotation is about 90 degrees. The Faraday rotation is shown to occur primarily in the surrounding radio/X-ray halo. Using the electron density inferred from X-ray observations, the magnetic field in the halo is found to be 2.5 microgauss. The deduced magnetic field strength permits an evaluation of the importance of Compton scattering of 3 K background photons by relativistic electrons in the radio halo. The emergent Compton-scattered spectrum is calculated, and its contribution to the observed X-ray flux is small, probably about a percent or so, while the rest is due to thermal bremsstrahlung.

  6. The Infrared-Radio Correlation of Dusty Star Forming Galaxies at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Sidney; Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Jarugula, Sreevani

    2018-01-01

    Far-infrared (FIR) and radio continuum emission in galaxies are related by a common origin: massive stars and the processes triggered during their birth, lifetime, and death. FIR emission is produced by cool dust, heated by the absorption of UV emission from massive stars, which is then re-emitted in the FIR. Thermal free-free radiation emitted from HII regions dominates the spectral energy density (SED) of galaxies at roughly 30 GHz, while non-thermal synchrotron radiation dominates at lower frequencies. At low redshift, the infrared radio correlation (IRC, or qIR) holds as a tight empirical relation for many star forming galaxy types, but until recently, there has not been sensitive enough radio observations to extend this relation to higher redshifts. Many selection biases cloud the results of these analyses, leaving the evolution of the IRC with redshift ambiguous. In this poster, I present CIGALE fitted spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 24 gravitationally-lensed sources selected in the mm-wave from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) survey. I fit the IRC from infrared and submillimeter fluxes obtained with Herschel, Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), and SPT and radio fluxes obtained with ATCA at 2.1, 5.5, 9, and 30 GHz. This sample of SPT sources has a spectroscopic redshift range of 2.1poster, I will present the results of this study and compare our results to various results in the literature.

  7. Ultrahigh Flux Thin Film Boiling Heat Transfer Through Nanoporous Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyang; Chen, Renkun

    2018-05-09

    Phase change heat transfer is fundamentally important for thermal energy conversion and management, such as in electronics with power density over 1 kW/cm 2 . The critical heat flux (CHF) of phase change heat transfer, either evaporation or boiling, is limited by vapor flux from the liquid-vapor interface, known as the upper limit of heat flux. This limit could in theory be greater than 1 kW/cm 2 on a planar surface, but its experimental realization has remained elusive. Here, we utilized nanoporous membranes to realize a new "thin film boiling" regime that resulted in an unprecedentedly high CHF of over 1.2 kW/cm 2 on a planar surface, which is within a factor of 4 of the theoretical limit, and can be increased to a higher value if mechanical strength of the membranes can be improved (demonstrated with 1.85 kW/cm 2 CHF in this work). The liquid supply is achieved through a simple nanoporous membrane that supports the liquid film where its thickness automatically decreases as heat flux increases. The thin film configuration reduces the conductive thermal resistance, leads to high frequency bubble departure, and provides separate liquid-vapor pathways, therefore significantly enhances the heat transfer. Our work provides a new nanostructuring approach to achieve ultrahigh heat flux in phase change heat transfer and will benefit both theoretical understanding and application in thermal management of high power devices of boiling heat transfer.

  8. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FAST RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter, E-mail: jingluan@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are isolated, ms radio pulses with dispersion measure (DM) of order 10{sup 3} pc cm{sup –3}. Galactic candidates for the DM of high latitude bursts detected at GHz frequencies are easily dismissed. DM from bursts emitted in stellar coronas are limited by free-free absorption and those from H II regions are bounded by the nondetection of associated free-free emission at radio wavelengths. Thus, if astronomical, FRBs are probably extragalactic. FRB 110220 has a scattering tail of ∼5.6 ± 0.1 ms. If the electron density fluctuations arise from a turbulent cascade, the scattering is unlikely to be due to propagation through the diffuse intergalactic plasma. A more plausible explanation is that this burst sits in the central region of its host galaxy. Pulse durations of order ms constrain the sizes of FRB sources implying high brightness temperatures that indicates coherent emission. Electric fields near FRBs at cosmological distances would be so strong that they could accelerate free electrons from rest to relativistic energies in a single wave period.

  9. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are isolated, ms radio pulses with dispersion measure (DM) of order 10 3 pc cm –3 . Galactic candidates for the DM of high latitude bursts detected at GHz frequencies are easily dismissed. DM from bursts emitted in stellar coronas are limited by free-free absorption and those from H II regions are bounded by the nondetection of associated free-free emission at radio wavelengths. Thus, if astronomical, FRBs are probably extragalactic. FRB 110220 has a scattering tail of ∼5.6 ± 0.1 ms. If the electron density fluctuations arise from a turbulent cascade, the scattering is unlikely to be due to propagation through the diffuse intergalactic plasma. A more plausible explanation is that this burst sits in the central region of its host galaxy. Pulse durations of order ms constrain the sizes of FRB sources implying high brightness temperatures that indicates coherent emission. Electric fields near FRBs at cosmological distances would be so strong that they could accelerate free electrons from rest to relativistic energies in a single wave period

  10. SDSS J013127.34–032100.1: A NEWLY DISCOVERED RADIO-LOUD QUASAR AT z = 5.18 WITH EXTREMELY HIGH LUMINOSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Wei-Min; Bai, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Ju-jia; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fan, Yu-Feng; Chang, Liang; Wang, Chuan-Jun; Lun, Bao-Li [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Wang, Feige; Wu, Xue-Bing; Yang, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Zuo, Wenwen; Yang, Qian; Ai, Yanli [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Brandt, William N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Ran [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); and others

    2014-11-10

    Very few of the z > 5 quasars discovered to date have been radio-loud, with radio-to-optical flux ratios (radio-loudness parameters) higher than 10. Here we report the discovery of an optically luminous radio-loud quasar, SDSS J013127.34–032100.1 (J0131–0321 in short), at z = 5.18 ± 0.01 using the Lijiang 2.4 m and Magellan telescopes. J0131–0321 has a spectral energy distribution consistent with that of radio-loud quasars. With an i-band magnitude of 18.47 and a radio flux density of 33 mJy, its radio-loudness parameter is ∼100. The optical and near-infrared spectra taken by Magellan enable us to estimate its bolometric luminosity to be L {sub bol} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 48} erg s{sup –1}, approximately 4.5 times greater than that of the most distant quasar known to date. The black hole mass of J0131–0321 is estimated to be 2.7 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, with an uncertainty up to 0.4 dex. Detailed physical properties of this high-redshift, radio-loud, potentially super-Eddington quasar can be probed in the future with more dedicated and intensive follow-up observations using multi-wavelength facilities.

  11. A search for optical bursts from the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, L. K.; Dhillon, V. S.; Spitler, L. G.; Littlefair, S. P.; Ashley, R. P.; De Cia, A.; Green, M. J.; Jaroenjittichai, P.; Keane, E. F.; Kerry, P.; Kramer, M.; Malesani, D.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Possenti, A.; Rattanasoon, S.; Sahman, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    We present a search for optical bursts from the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 using simultaneous observations with the high-speed optical camera ULTRASPEC on the 2.4-m Thai National Telescope and radio observations with the 100-m Effelsberg Radio Telescope. A total of 13 radio bursts were detected, but we found no evidence for corresponding optical bursts in our 70.7-ms frames. The 5σ upper limit to the optical flux density during our observations is 0.33 mJy at 767 nm. This gives an upper limit for the optical burst fluence of 0.046 Jy ms, which constrains the broad-band spectral index of the burst emission to α ≤ -0.2. Two of the radio pulses are separated by just 34 ms, which may represent an upper limit on a possible underlying periodicity (a rotation period typical of pulsars), or these pulses may have come from a single emission window that is a small fraction of a possible period.

  12. In situ particle acceleration and physical conditions in radio tail galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacholczyk, A.G.; Scott, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A model for the objects known as radio tail galaxies is presented. Independent plasmons emerging from an active radio galaxy into an intracluster medium become turbulent due to Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The turbulence produces both in situ betatron and second order Fermi acceleration. Predictions of the dependence of spectral index and flux on distance along the tail match observations well. Fitting provides values of physical parameters in the tail. The relevance of this method of particle acceleration for the problem of the origin of X-ray emission in clusters of galaxies is discussed

  13. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64 GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4' /2' , these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliff 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2' and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8 Mfi, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  14. Characterisation of Redlen high-flux CdZnTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B.; Veale, M. C.; Wilson, M. D.; Seller, P.; Schneider, A.; Iniewski, K.

    2017-12-01

    CdZnTe is a promising material for the current generation of free electron laser light sources and future laser-driven γ-ray sources which require detectors capable of high flux imaging at X-ray and γ-ray energies (> 10 keV) . However, at high fluxes CdZnTe has been shown to polarise due to hole trapping, leading to poor performance. Novel Redlen CdZnTe material with improved hole transport properties has been designed for high flux applications. Small pixel CdZnTe detectors were fabricated by Redlen Technologies and flip-chip bonded to PIXIE ASICs. An XIA Digital Gamma Finder PIXIE-16 system was used to digitise each of the nine analogue signals with a timing resolution of 10 ns. Pulse shape analysis was used to extract the rise times and amplitude of signals. These were measured as a function of applied bias voltage and used to calculate the mobility (μ) and mobility-lifetime (μτ) of electrons and holes in the material for three identical detectors. The measured values of the transport properties of electrons in the high-flux-capable material was lower than previously reported for Redlen CdZnTe material (μeτe ~ 1 × 10-3 cm2V-1 and μe ~ 1000 cm2V-1s-1) while the hole transport properties were found to have improved (μhτh ~ 3 × 10-4 cm2V-1 and μh ~ 100 cm2V-1s-1).

  15. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF RADIO-QUIET QUASARS WITH WEAK EMISSION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Shemmer, Ohad

    2010-01-01

    We present radio and X-ray observations, as well as optical light curves, for a subset of 26 BL Lac candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) lacking strong radio emission and with z < 2.2. Half of these 26 objects are shown to be stars, galaxies, or absorbed quasars. We conclude that the other 13 objects are active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with abnormally weak emission features; 10 of those 13 are definitively radio quiet, and, for those with available optical light curves, their level of optical flux variability is consistent with radio-quiet quasars. We cannot exclude the possibility that some of these 13 AGNs lie on the extremely radio-faint tail of the BL Lac distribution, but our study generally supports the notion that all BL Lac objects are radio-loud. These radio-quiet AGNs appear to have intrinsically weak or absent broad emission line regions (BELRs), and, based on their X-ray properties, we argue that some are low-redshift analogs to weak line quasars (WLQs). SDSS BL Lac searches are so far the only systematic surveys of the SDSS database capable of recovering such exotic low-redshift WLQs. There are 71 more z < 2.2 radio-quiet BL Lac candidates already identified in the SDSS, but not considered here, and many of those might be best unified with WLQs as well. Future studies combining low- and high-redshift WLQ samples will yield new insight on our understanding of the structure and formation of AGN BELRs.

  16. The Host Galaxy and Redshift of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendulkar, S. P.; Kaspi, V. M.; Bassa, C. G.; Adams, E. A. K.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Maddox, N.; Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S.; Bower, G. C.; Law, C. J.; Bogdanov, S.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Demorest, P.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Marcote, B.; Paragi, Z.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.

    2017-01-01

    The precise localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB 121102) has provided the first unambiguous association (chance coincidence probability p ≲ 3 × 10"−"4) of an FRB with an optical and persistent radio counterpart. We report on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the counterpart and find that it is an extended (0.″6–0.″8) object displaying prominent Balmer and [O iii] emission lines. Based on the spectrum and emission line ratios, we classify the counterpart as a low-metallicity, star-forming, m_r_′ = 25.1 AB mag dwarf galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.19273(8), corresponding to a luminosity distance of 972 Mpc. From the angular size, the redshift, and luminosity, we estimate the host galaxy to have a diameter ≲4 kpc and a stellar mass of M _* ∼ (4–7) × 10"7 M _⊙, assuming a mass-to-light ratio between 2 to 3 M _⊙ L _⊙ "−"1. Based on the H α flux, we estimate the star formation rate of the host to be 0.4 M _⊙ yr"−"1 and a substantial host dispersion measure (DM) depth ≲324 pc cm"−"3. The net DM contribution of the host galaxy to FRB 121102 is likely to be lower than this value depending on geometrical factors. We show that the persistent radio source at FRB 121102’s location reported by Marcote et al. is offset from the galaxy’s center of light by ∼200 mas and the host galaxy does not show optical signatures for AGN activity. If FRB 121102 is typical of the wider FRB population and if future interferometric localizations preferentially find them in dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and prominent emission lines, they would share such a preference with long gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae.

  17. DO RADIO MAGNETARS PSR J1550-5418 AND J1622-4950 HAVE GIGAHERTZ-PEAKED SPECTRA?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijak, J.; Tarczewski, L.; Lewandowski, W. [Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Gora, Lubuska 2, 65-265 Zielona Gora (Poland); Melikidze, G., E-mail: jkijak@astro.ia.uz.zgora.pl [Also at Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 3-5 Cholokashvili Avenue, Tbilisi 0160, Georgia. (Georgia)

    2013-07-20

    We study the radio spectra of two magnetars, PSR J1550-5418 and J1622-4950. We argue that they are good candidates for pulsars with gigahertz-peaked spectra (GPS), as their observed flux density decreases at frequencies below 7 GHz. We suggest that this behavior is due to the influence of the pulsars' environments on radio waves. Both of the magnetars are associated with supernova remnants and thus are surrounded by hot, ionized gas, which can be responsible for the free-free absorption of radio waves. We conclude that the GPS feature of both magnetars and typical pulsars are formed by similar processes in the surrounding media rather than by different radio-emission mechanisms. Thus, the radio magnetars PSR J1550-5418 and J1622-4950 can be included in the class of GPS pulsars.

  18. An intensity map of hydrogen 21-cm emission at redshift z approximately 0.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Ching; Pen, Ue-Li; Bandura, Kevin; Peterson, Jeffrey B

    2010-07-22

    Observations of 21-cm radio emission by neutral hydrogen at redshifts z approximately 0.5 to approximately 2.5 are expected to provide a sensitive probe of cosmic dark energy. This is particularly true around the onset of acceleration at z approximately 1, where traditional optical cosmology becomes very difficult because of the infrared opacity of the atmosphere. Hitherto, 21-cm emission has been detected only to z = 0.24. More distant galaxies generally are too faint for individual detections but it is possible to measure the aggregate emission from many unresolved galaxies in the 'cosmic web'. Here we report a three-dimensional 21-cm intensity field at z = 0.53 to 1.12. We then co-add neutral-hydrogen (H i) emission from the volumes surrounding about 10,000 galaxies (from the DEEP2 optical galaxy redshift survey). We detect the aggregate 21-cm glow at a significance of approximately 4sigma.

  19. Radio emission of Abell galaxy clusters with red shifts from 0.02 to 0.075 at 102.5 MHz. Observations of clusters southward from the galactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The sample of 121 Abell clusters of galaxies with measured red shifts from 0.02 to 0.075, delta= 10 deg - +80 deg and within the completeness galactic-latitude region is presented. The completeness. with respect to the Abell's catalog is 80%. The completeness of the sample in function of distance (the completeness function) was constructed and the mean cluster density of 1.5x10 -6 Mpc -3 was derived. Observations at 102.5 MHz of 39 clusters southward from the galactic plane were carried out with BSA radio telescope. Flux density measurements for radio sources in the directions of the clusters have been made, integrated fluxes of clusters and luminosity estimations for their radio halos are presented. Radio emission of 11 clusters was detected , and for two of these and for other clust rs radio sources detected in the directions to the outskirts of clusters. Radio halos having the luminosity comparable to that of the A1656 (Coma) cluster are not typical for clusters

  20. THE RADIO JET ASSOCIATED WITH THE MULTIPLE V380 ORI SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Yam, J. Omar; Carrasco-González, Carlos [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Anglada, Guillem [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Trejo, Alfonso, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-01

    The giant Herbig–Haro object 222 extends over ∼6′ in the plane of the sky, with a bow shock morphology. The identification of its exciting source has remained uncertain over the years. A non-thermal radio source located at the core of the shock structure was proposed to be the exciting source. However, Very Large Array studies showed that the radio source has a clear morphology of radio galaxy and a lack of flux variations or proper motions, favoring an extragalactic origin. Recently, an optical–IR study proposed that this giant HH object is driven by the multiple stellar system V380 Ori, located about 23′ to the SE of HH 222. The exciting sources of HH systems are usually detected as weak free–free emitters at centimeter wavelengths. Here, we report the detection of an elongated radio source associated with the Herbig Be star or with its close infrared companion in the multiple V380 Ori system. This radio source has the characteristics of a thermal radio jet and is aligned with the direction of the giant outflow defined by HH 222 and its suggested counterpart to the SE, HH 1041. We propose that this radio jet traces the origin of the large scale HH outflow. Assuming that the jet arises from the Herbig Be star, the radio luminosity is a few times smaller than the value expected from the radio–bolometric correlation for radio jets, confirming that this is a more evolved object than those used to establish the correlation.

  1. THE RADIO JET ASSOCIATED WITH THE MULTIPLE V380 ORI SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Yam, J. Omar; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Anglada, Guillem; Trejo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The giant Herbig–Haro object 222 extends over ∼6′ in the plane of the sky, with a bow shock morphology. The identification of its exciting source has remained uncertain over the years. A non-thermal radio source located at the core of the shock structure was proposed to be the exciting source. However, Very Large Array studies showed that the radio source has a clear morphology of radio galaxy and a lack of flux variations or proper motions, favoring an extragalactic origin. Recently, an optical–IR study proposed that this giant HH object is driven by the multiple stellar system V380 Ori, located about 23′ to the SE of HH 222. The exciting sources of HH systems are usually detected as weak free–free emitters at centimeter wavelengths. Here, we report the detection of an elongated radio source associated with the Herbig Be star or with its close infrared companion in the multiple V380 Ori system. This radio source has the characteristics of a thermal radio jet and is aligned with the direction of the giant outflow defined by HH 222 and its suggested counterpart to the SE, HH 1041. We propose that this radio jet traces the origin of the large scale HH outflow. Assuming that the jet arises from the Herbig Be star, the radio luminosity is a few times smaller than the value expected from the radio–bolometric correlation for radio jets, confirming that this is a more evolved object than those used to establish the correlation.

  2. Radio measurements in the fields of gamma-ray sources. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, W.; Schlickeiser, R.

    1982-01-01

    The γ-ray source CG 195+04 has been searched for radio counterparts at wavelengths between 2.8 cm and 18 cm with the 100-m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn. We have detected a number of sources and measured their spectra. Our positions may form the basis for future surveys in other frequency ranges. Different physical emission models suggest compactness of the γ-ray source. (orig.)

  3. Spectrophotometry of the Hα region in the spectrum of HR 1099 during the February 1978 radio flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of the Hα emission line in the spectrum of HR 1099 (=HD 22468=V711 Tauri) was obtained during the radio flare of February 1978. The profiles observed during the flare have higher peak intensities and larger equivalent widths than profiles obtained outside of the flare at approximately the same orbital phases. Both the general shapes of the profiles and the equivalent widths appear to correlate with the radio flux. A preflare profile exhibits a flare-type profile, suggesting that radio outbursts in RS CVn systems may be preceded by Hα enhancement

  4. Constraints on the progenitor system and the environs of SN 2014J from deep radio observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Glorieta de las Astronomía, s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Lundqvist, P.; Björnsson, C. I.; Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Beswick, R. J.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Argo, M. K. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Paragi, Z. [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Ryder, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Marcaide, J. M.; Ros, E.; Guirado, J. C. [Departamento de Astronomía i Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Martí-Vidal, I. [Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    We report deep EVN and eMERLIN observations of the Type Ia SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82. Our observations represent, together with JVLA observations of SNe 2011fe and 2014J, the most sensitive radio studies of Type Ia SNe ever. By combining data and a proper modeling of the radio emission, we constrain the mass-loss rate from the progenitor system of SN 2014J to M-dot ≲7.0×10{sup −10} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} (for a wind speed of 100 km s{sup –1}). If the medium around the supernova is uniform, then n {sub ISM} ≲ 1.3 cm{sup –3}, which is the most stringent limit for the (uniform) density around a Type Ia SN. Our deep upper limits favor a double-degenerate (DD) scenario—involving two WD stars—for the progenitor system of SN 2014J, as such systems have less circumstellar gas than our upper limits. By contrast, most single-degenerate (SD) scenarios, i.e., the wide family of progenitor systems where a red giant, main-sequence, or sub-giant star donates mass to an exploding WD, are ruled out by our observations. (While completing our work, we noticed that a paper by Margutti et al. was submitted to The Astrophysical Journal. From a non-detection of X-ray emission from SN 2014J, the authors obtain limits of M-dot ≲1.2×10{sup −9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (for a wind speed of 100 km s{sup –1}) and n {sub ISM} ≲ 3.5 cm{sup –3}, for the ρ∝r {sup –2} wind and constant density cases, respectively. As these limits are less constraining than ours, the findings by Margutti et al. do not alter our conclusions. The X-ray results are, however, important to rule out free-free and synchrotron self-absorption as a reason for the radio non-detections.) Our estimates on the limits on the gas density surrounding SN2011fe, using the flux density limits from Chomiuk et al., agree well with their results. Although we discuss the possibilities of an SD scenario passing observational tests, as well as uncertainties in the modeling of the radio emission, the

  5. Short-term radio variability and parsec-scale structure in A gamma-ray narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0323+342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajima, Kiyoaki [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200030 (China); Fujisawa, Kenta [The Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan); Hayashida, Masaaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Isobe, Naoki [The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ishida, Takafumi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshinori, E-mail: kwajima@shao.ac.cn [Center for Astronomy, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    We made simultaneous single-dish and very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) observations of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 323+342, showing gamma-ray activity revealed by Fermi/Large Area Telescope observations. We found significant variation of the total flux density at 8 GHz on the timescale of one month by the single-dish monitoring. The total flux density varied by 5.5% in 32 days, which is comparable to the gamma-ray variability timescale, corresponding to the variability brightness temperature of 7.0 × 10{sup 11} K. The source consists of central and southeastern components on the parsec (pc) scale. Only the flux of the central component decreased in the same way as the total flux density, indicating that the short-term radio variability, and probably the gamma-ray-emitting region, is associated with this component. From the VLBI observations, we obtained brightness temperatures of greater than (5.2 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 10} K and derived an equipartition Doppler factor of greater than 1.7, a variability Doppler factor of 2.2, and an 8 GHz radio power of 10{sup 24.6} W Hz{sup –1}. Combining them, we conclude that acceleration of radio jets and creation of high-energy particles are ongoing in the central engine and that the apparent very radio-loud feature of the source is due to the Doppler boosting effect, resulting in the intrinsic radio loudness being an order of magnitude smaller than the observed values. We also conclude that the pc-scale jet represents recurrent activity from the spectral fitting and the estimated kinematic age of pc- and kpc-scale extended components with different position angles.

  6. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven

    2006-10-01

    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  7. Neptune's microwave spectrum from 1 mm to 20 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pater, I.; Richmond, M.

    1989-01-01

    Total flux densities and disk-averaged brightness temperatures have been tabulated on the basis of VLA observations of Neptune at 1.3, 2, 6, and 20 cm wavelengths; a recalibration is also conducted of previous observations in order to accurately ascertain the spectral shape of this planet, which is found to have increasing brightness temperature with increasing wavelength, in contrast with that of Uranus. If all the detected emission is atmospheric thermal radiation, ammonia abundance must either be a factor of about 50 lower than the solar N value throughout the Neptune atmosphere, or the planet must emit about 0.3-0.5 mJy synchrotron radiation at 20 cm; the latter possibility is consistent with a planetary magnetic field strength of about 0.5 G at the surface. 39 refs

  8. Infrared-faint radio sources are at high redshifts. Spectroscopic redshift determination of infrared-faint radio sources using the Very Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Sharp, R.; Spitler, L. R.; Parker, Q. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are characterised by relatively high radio flux densities and associated faint or even absent infrared and optical counterparts. The resulting extremely high radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousands were previously known only for high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs), suggesting a link between the two classes of object. However, the optical and infrared faintness of IFRS makes their study difficult. Prior to this work, no redshift was known for any IFRS in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) fields which would help to put IFRS in the context of other classes of object, especially of HzRGs. Aims: This work aims at measuring the first redshifts of IFRS in the ATLAS fields. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that IFRS are similar to HzRGs, that they are higher-redshift or dust-obscured versions of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of IFRS was spectroscopically observed using the Focal Reducer and Low Dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data were calibrated based on the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF) and redshifts extracted from the final spectra, where possible. This information was then used to calculate rest-frame luminosities, and to perform the first spectral energy distribution modelling of IFRS based on redshifts. Results: We found redshifts of 1.84, 2.13, and 2.76, for three IFRS, confirming the suggested high-redshift character of this class of object. These redshifts and the resulting luminosities show IFRS to be similar to HzRGs, supporting our hypothesis. We found further evidence that fainter IFRS are at even higher redshifts. Conclusions: Considering the similarities between IFRS and HzRGs substantiated in this work, the detection of IFRS, which have a significantly higher sky density than HzRGs, increases the number of active galactic nuclei in the early universe and adds to the problems of explaining the formation of

  9. RESOLUTION OF THE COMPACT RADIO CONTINUUM SOURCES IN Arp220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batejat, Fabien; Conway, John E.; Hurley, Rossa; Parra, Rodrigo; Diamond, Philip J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    We present 2 cm and 3.6 cm wavelength very long baseline interferometry images of the compact radio continuum sources in the nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp220. Based on their radio spectra and variability properties, we confirm these sources to be a mixture of supernovae (SNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs). Of the 17 detected sources we resolve 7 at both wavelengths. The SNe generally only have upper size limits. In contrast all the SNRs are resolved with diameters ≥0.27 pc. This size limit is consistent with them having just entered their Sedov phase while embedded in an interstellar medium (ISM) of density 10 4 cm -3 . These objects lie on the diameter-luminosity correlation for SNRs (and so also on the diameter-surface brightness relation) and extend these correlations to very small sources. The data are consistent with the relation L∝D -9/4 . Revised equipartition arguments adjusted to a magnetic field to a relativistic particle energy density ratio of 1% combined with a reasonable synchrotron-emitting volume filling factor of 10% give estimated magnetic field strengths in the SNR shells of ∼15-50 mG. The SNR shell magnetic fields are unlikely to come from compression of ambient ISM fields and must instead be internally generated. We set an upper limit of 7 mG for the ISM magnetic field. The estimated energy in relativistic particles, 2%-20% of the explosion kinetic energy, is consistent with estimates from models that fit the IR-radio correlation in compact starburst galaxies.

  10. A Nonthermal Radio Filament Connected to the Galactic Black Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mark R.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Goss, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Using the Very Large Array, we have investigated a nonthermal radio filament (NTF) recently found very near the Galactic black hole and its radio counterpart, Sgr A*. While this NTF—the Sgr A West Filament (SgrAWF)—shares many characteristics with the population of NTFs occupying the central few hundred parsecs of the Galaxy, the SgrAWF has the distinction of having an orientation and sky location that suggest an intimate physical connection to Sgr A*. We present 3.3 and 5.5 cm images constructed using an innovative methodology that yields a very high dynamic range, providing an unprecedentedly clear picture of the SgrAWF. While the physical association of the SgrAWF with Sgr A* is not unambiguous, the images decidedly evoke this interesting possibility. Assuming that the SgrAWF bears a physical relationship to Sgr A*, we examine the potential implications. One is that Sgr A* is a source of relativistic particles constrained to diffuse along ordered local field lines. The relativistic particles could also be fed into the local field by a collimated outflow from Sgr A*, perhaps driven by the Poynting flux accompanying the black hole spin in the presence of a magnetic field threading the event horizon. Second, we consider the possibility that the SgrAWF is the manifestation of a low-mass-density cosmic string that has become anchored to the black hole. The simplest form of these hypotheses would predict that the filament be bi-directional, whereas the SgrAWF is only seen on one side of Sgr A*, perhaps because of the dynamics of the local medium.

  11. A Solar Stationary Type IV Radio Burst and Its Radiation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Chen, Yao; Cho, Kyungsuk; Feng, Shiwei; Vasanth, Veluchamy; Koval, Artem; Du, Guohui; Wu, Zhao; Li, Chuanyang

    2018-04-01

    A stationary Type IV (IVs) radio burst was observed on September 24, 2011. Observations from the Nançay RadioHeliograph (NRH) show that the brightness temperature (TB) of this burst is extremely high, over 10^{11} K at 150 MHz and over 108 K in general. The degree of circular polarization (q) is between -60% ˜ -100%, which means that it is highly left-handed circularly polarized. The flux-frequency spectrum follows a power-law distribution, and the spectral index is considered to be roughly -3 ˜ -4 throughout the IVs. Radio sources of this event are located in the wake of the coronal mass ejection and are spatially dispersed. They line up to present a formation in which lower-frequency sources are higher. Based on these observations, it is suggested that the IVs was generated through electron cyclotron maser emission.

  12. Spatial distribution of neutron flux for the A-711 neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essiet, A. E.; Owolabi, S. A.; Adesanmi, C. A.; Balogun, F. A.

    1996-01-01

    The spatial distribution of neutron flux for the Kaman sciences A-711 neutron generator recently installed at the Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Ile-Ife Nigeria has been determined. At an operational tube current of 2.0 mA and high voltage power supply (HVPS) of 158 kV, the neutron flux increases from 1.608 ± 0.021*10 8 n/cm 2 s at the top of the irradiated plastic vial to 2.640 ± 0.022*10 8 n/cm 2 s at the centre, and then decreases to 1.943 ± 0.02* 8 n/cm 2 s at the bottom. The flux density is strongly dependent on the diameter of deuteron at the tritium target, and within this range a source strength of 10 8 n/s has been measured for the A-711 neutron generator

  13. Exploring the Variability of the Flat-spectrum Radio Source 1633+382. II. Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Lee, Sang-Sung; Rani, Bindu; Kim, Dae-Won; Kino, Motoki; Hodgson, Jeffrey; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Byun, Do-Young; Gurwell, Mark; Kang, Sin-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Soon-Wook; Park, Jong-Ho; Trippe, Sascha; Wajima, Kiyoaki

    2018-06-01

    The flat-spectrum radio quasar 1633+382 (4C 38.41) showed a significant increase of its radio flux density during the period 2012 March–2015 August, which correlates with γ-ray flaring activity. Multi-frequency simultaneous very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations were conducted as part of the interferometric monitoring of gamma-ray bright active galactic nuclei (iMOGABA) program and supplemented with additional radio monitoring observations with the OVRO 40 m telescope, the Boston University VLBI program, and the Submillimeter Array. The epochs of the maxima for the two largest γ-ray flares coincide with the ejection of two respective new VLBI components. Analysis of the spectral energy distribution indicates a higher turnover frequency after the flaring events. The evolution of the flare in the turnover frequency-turnover flux density plane probes the adiabatic losses in agreement with the shock-in-jet model. The derived synchrotron self-absorption magnetic fields, of the order of 0.1 mG, do not seem to change dramatically during the flares, and are much weaker, by a factor 104, than the estimated equipartition magnetic fields, indicating that the source of the flare may be associated with a particle-dominated emitting region.

  14. Discovery of radio emission from the symbiotic X-ray binary system GX 1+4

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eijnden, J.; Degenaar, N.; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wijnands, R.; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Rupen, M. P.

    2018-02-01

    We report the discovery of radio emission from the accreting X-ray pulsar and symbiotic X-ray binary GX 1+4 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. This is the first radio detection of such a system, wherein a strongly magnetized neutron star accretes from the stellar wind of an M-type giant companion. We measure a 9 GHz radio flux density of 105.3 ± 7.3 μJy, but cannot place meaningful constraints on the spectral index due to a limited frequency range. We consider several emission mechanisms that could be responsible for the observed radio source. We conclude that the observed properties are consistent with shocks in the interaction of the accretion flow with the magnetosphere, a synchrotron-emitting jet, or a propeller-driven outflow. The stellar wind from the companion is unlikely to be the origin of the radio emission. If the detected radio emission originates from a jet, it would show that strong magnetic fields (≥1012 G) do not necessarily suppress jet formation.

  15. Burnout heat flux in natural flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, M.M.; Darwish, M.A.; Mahmoud, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty runs of experiments were conducted to determine the critical heat flux for natural flow boiling with water flowing upwards through annuli of centrally heated stainless steel tube. The test section has concentric heated tube of 14mm diameter and heated lengthes of 15 and 25 cm. The outside surface of the annulus was formed by various glass tubes of 17.25, 20 and 25.9mm diameter. System pressure is atmospheric. Inlet subcooling varied from 18 to 5 0 C. Obtained critical heat flux varied from 24.46 to 62.9 watts/cm 2 . A number of parameters having dominant influence on the critical heat flux and hydrodynamic instability (flow and pressure oscillations) preceeding the burnout have been studied. These parameters are mass flow rate, mass velocity, throttling, channel geometry (diameters ratio, length to diameter ratio, and test section length), and inlet subcooling. Flow regimes before and at the moments of burnout were observed, discussed, and compared with the existing physical model of burnout

  16. Characteristics of planetary nebulae and H II regions based on lambda = 1. 35 cm continuum measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braz, M A; Jardim, J O; Kaufmann, P [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia et Astrofisica

    1975-11-01

    Physical parameters are derived and discussed for stronger H II regions and planetary nebulae for which continuum radio data at lambda = 1.35 cm was obtained. The study includes southern hemisphere planetary nebulae IC-418, NGC-6,302, NGC-6,369, and H II regions RCW-65, RCW-87, RCW-99, H 2-3 and H 2-6.

  17. Foreground Subtraction and Signal reconstruction in redshifted 21cm Global Signal Experiments using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Madhurima; Datta, Abhirup

    2018-05-01

    Observations of HI 21cm transition line is a promising probe into the Dark Ages and Epoch-of-Reionization. Detection of this redshifted 21cm signal is one of the key science goal for several upcoming low-frequency radio telescopes like HERA, SKA and DARE. Other global signal experiments include EDGES, LEDA, BIGHORNS, SCI-HI, SARAS. One of the major challenges for the detection of this signal is the accuracy of the foreground source removal. Several novel techniques have been explored already to remove bright foregrounds from both interferometric as well as total power experiments. Here, we present preliminary results from our investigation on application of ANN to detect 21cm global signal amidst bright galactic foreground. Following the formalism of representing the global 21cm signal by 'tanh' model, this study finds that the global 21cm signal parameters can be accurately determined even in the presence of bright foregrounds represented by 3rd order log-polynomial or higher.

  18. THE COMPLEX NORTH TRANSITION REGION OF CENTAURUS A: RADIO STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, Susan G. [NASA' s Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Mail Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Eilek, Jean A. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Owen, Frazer N., E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O,  Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    We present deep radio images of the inner ∼50 kpc of Centaurus A, taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 90 cm. We focus on the Transition Regions between the inner galaxy—including the active nucleus, inner radio lobes, and star-forming disk—and the outer radio lobes. We detect previously unknown extended emission around the Inner Lobes, including radio emission from the star-forming disk. We find that the radio-loud part of the North Transition Region (NTR), known as the North Middle Lobe, is significantly overpressured relative to the surrounding interstellar medium. We see no evidence for a collimated flow from the active galactic nucleus through this region. Our images show that the structure identified by Morganti et al. as a possible large-scale jet appears to be part of a narrow ridge of emission within the broader, diffuse, radio-loud region. This knotty radio ridge is coincident with other striking phenomena: compact X-ray knots, ionized gas filaments, and streams of young stars. Several short-lived phenomena in the NTR, as well as the frequent re-energization required by the Outer Lobes, suggest that energy must be flowing through both Transition Regions at the present epoch. We suggest that the energy flow is in the form of a galactic wind.

  19. Use of CITATION code for flux calculation in neutron activation analysis with voluminous sample using an Am-Be source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifi, R.; Idiri, Z.; Bode, P.

    2002-01-01

    The CITATION code based on neutron diffusion theory was used for flux calculations inside voluminous samples in prompt gamma activation analysis with an isotopic neutron source (Am-Be). The code uses specific parameters related to the energy spectrum source and irradiation system materials (shielding, reflector). The flux distribution (thermal and fast) was calculated in the three-dimensional geometry for the system: air, polyethylene and water cuboidal sample (50x50x50 cm). Thermal flux was calculated in a series of points inside the sample. The results agreed reasonably well with observed values. The maximum thermal flux was observed at a distance of 3.2 cm while CITATION gave 3.7 cm. Beyond a depth of 7.2 cm, the thermal flux to fast flux ratio increases up to twice and allows us to optimise the detection system position in the scope of in-situ PGAA

  20. Radio and optical studies of high luminosity Iras galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolstencroft, R.D.; Parker, Q.A.; Savage, A.; MacGillivray, H.T.; Leggett, S.K.; Clowes, R.G.; Unger, S.W.; Pedlar, A.; Heasley, J.N.; Menzies, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Follow-up observations of a complete sample of 154 IRAS galaxies, optically identified down to B=21, indicate that between 3 and 9% of the sample are ultraluminous depending on the choice of H 0 . VLA observations at 20 cm of the complete sample indicate that 85% are detected above 1mJy and for the most part the radio emission is centrally concentrated. The tight linear relation between radio and infrared luminosities is valid at the highest luminosities. Of the 11 most luminous objects one is a quasar: it fits the radio infrared relation very well which suggests that the infrared and radio emission has the same origin as in the other IRAS galaxies, ie. it probably originates primarily in regions of star formation in the host galaxy. The other 10 very luminous galaxies are either close but resolved mergers or double galaxies, presumably interacting. Radio observations of the 10 original empty field sources in our sample with no optical counterpart (B ≤ 21) allow us to conclude that 4 of these are fainter galaxies just outside the IRAS error ellipse with high values of L IR /L B . One other object, with a radio source at the edge of the error ellipse but no optical counterpart brighter than B = 23, may prove to be a highly luminous galaxy with L IR /L B > ∼ 1250

  1. High heat flux cooling for accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, I.; Nagler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerator targets, both for radioisotope production and for high neutron flux sources generate very high thermal power in the target material which absorbs the particles beam. Generally, the geometric size of the targets is very small and the power density is high. The design of these targets requires dealing with very high heat fluxes and very efficient heat removal techniques in order to preserve the integrity of the target. Normal heat fluxes from these targets are in the order of 1 kw/cm 2 and may reach levels of an order of magnitude higher

  2. Radio and optical observations of 0218+357 - The smallest Einstein ring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Stanghellini, Carlo; Dey, Arjun; Van Breugel, Wil; Deustua, Susana; Smith, Eric P.

    1992-01-01

    VLA radio observations and optical imaging and spectroscopy of the Einstein radio ring 0218+357 are presented. The ring is detected at 22.4 GHz and shows a basically similar structure at 5, 15, and 22.4 GHz. The B component has varied and was about 15 percent brighter in the 8.4 GHz data than in the data of Patnaik et al. (1992). The ring is highly polarized. A weak jetlike feature extending out roughly 2 arcsec to the southeast of component A is detected at 6 cm. The source has amorphous radio structure extending out to about 11 arcsec from the core. For an adopted redshift of 0.68, the extended radio emission is very powerful. The optical spectrum is rather red and shows no strong features. A redshift of about 0.68 is obtained. The identification is a faint compact m(r) about 20 galaxy which extends to about 4.5 arcsec (about 27 kpc). As much as 50 percent of the total light may be due to a central AGN. The observed double core and ring may be produced by an off-center radio core with extended radio structure.

  3. Foreground mitigation strategy for measuring the 21 cm-LAE cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiura, Shintaro; Line, Jack L. B.; Kubota, Kenji; Hasegawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2018-05-01

    The cross power spectrum of the 21 cm signal and Lyman-α emitters (LAEs) is a probe of the Epoch of Reionization. Astrophysical foregrounds do not correlate with the LAE distribution, though the foregrounds contribute to the error. To study the impact of foregrounds on the measurement, we assume realistic observation by the Murchison Widefield Array using a catalogue of radio galaxies, a LAE survey by the Subaru Hyper Supreme-Cam and the redshift of LAEs is determined by the Prime Focus Spectrograph. The HI distribution is estimated from a radiative transfer simulation with models based on results of radiation hydrodynamics simulation. Using these models, we found that the error of cross power spectrum is dominated by foreground terms. Furthermore, we estimate the effects of foreground removal, and find 99% of the foreground removal is required to detect the 21 cm-LAE signal at k ~ 0.4 h Mpc-1.

  4. H{sub 2}O Megamasers toward Radio-bright Seyfert 2 Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. S.; Liu, Z. W. [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wang, J. Z. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Coldwell, G. V., E-mail: jszhang@gzhu.edu.cn [FCEFyN-UNSJ-CONICET, San Juan (Argentina)

    2017-02-20

    Using the Effelsberg-100 m telescope, we perform a successful pilot survey on H{sub 2}O maser emission toward a small sample of radio-bright Seyfert 2 galaxies with a redshift larger than 0.04. The targets were selected from a large Seyfert 2 sample derived from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). One source, SDSS J102802.9+104630.4 ( z ∼ 0.0448), was detected four times during our observations, with a typical maser flux density of ∼30 mJy and a corresponding (very large) luminosity of ∼1135 L {sub ⊙}. The successful detection of this radio-bright Seyfert 2 and an additional tentative detection support our previous statistical results that H{sub 2}O megamasers tend to arise from Seyfert 2 galaxies with large radio luminosity. The finding provides further motivation for an upcoming larger H{sub 2}O megamaser survey toward Seyfert 2s with particularly radio-bright nuclei with the basic goal to improve our understanding of the nuclear environment of active megamaser host galaxies.

  5. First detection in gamma-rays of a young radio galaxy: Fermi -LAT observations of the compact symmetric object PKS 1718−649

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliori, G.; Loh, A.; Corbel, S. [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/IRFU—CNRS/INSU—Université Paris Diderot), CEA DSM/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Siemiginowska, A.; Sobolewska, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ostorero, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Stawarz, Ł., E-mail: giulia.migliori@cea.fr [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-04-20

    We report the γ -ray detection of a young radio galaxy, PKS 1718−649, belonging to the class of compact symmetric objects (CSOs), with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite. The third Fermi Gamma-ray LAT catalog (3FGL) includes an unassociated γ -ray source, 3FGL J1728.0−6446, located close to PKS 1718−649. Using the latest Pass 8 calibration, we confirm that the best-fit 1 σ position of the γ -ray source is compatible with the radio location of PKS 1718−649. Cross-matching of the γ -ray source position with the positions of blazar sources from several catalogs yields negative results. Thus, we conclude that PKS 1718−649 is the most likely counterpart to the unassociated LAT source. We obtain a detection test statistics TS ∼ 36 (>5 σ ) with a best-fit photon spectral index Γ = 2.9 ± 0.3 and a 0.1–100 GeV photon flux density F {sub 0.1−100} {sub GeV} = (11.5 ± 0.3) × 10{sup −9} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. We argue that the linear size (∼2 pc), the kinematic age (∼100 years), and the source distance ( z = 0.014) make PKS 1718−649 an ideal candidate for γ -ray detection in the framework of the model proposing that the most compact and the youngest CSOs can efficiently produce GeV radiation via inverse-Compton scattering of the ambient photon fields by the radio lobe non-thermal electrons. Thus, our detection of the source in γ -rays establishes young radio galaxies as a distinct class of extragalactic high-energy emitters and yields a unique insight on the physical conditions in compact radio lobes interacting with the interstellar medium of the host galaxy.

  6. A direct localization of a fast radio burst and its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S; Law, C J; Wharton, R S; Burke-Spolaor, S; Hessels, J W T; Bower, G C; Cordes, J M; Tendulkar, S P; Bassa, C G; Demorest, P; Butler, B J; Seymour, A; Scholz, P; Abruzzo, M W; Bogdanov, S; Kaspi, V M; Keimpema, A; Lazio, T J W; Marcote, B; McLaughlin, M A; Paragi, Z; Ransom, S M; Rupen, M; Spitler, L G; van Langevelde, H J

    2017-01-04

    Fast radio bursts are astronomical radio flashes of unknown physical nature with durations of milliseconds. Their dispersive arrival times suggest an extragalactic origin and imply radio luminosities that are orders of magnitude larger than those of all known short-duration radio transients. So far all fast radio bursts have been detected with large single-dish telescopes with arcminute localizations, and attempts to identify their counterparts (source or host galaxy) have relied on the contemporaneous variability of field sources or the presence of peculiar field stars or galaxies. These attempts have not resulted in an unambiguous association with a host or multi-wavelength counterpart. Here we report the subarcsecond localization of the fast radio burst FRB 121102, the only known repeating burst source, using high-time-resolution radio interferometric observations that directly image the bursts. Our precise localization reveals that FRB 121102 originates within 100 milliarcseconds of a faint 180-microJansky persistent radio source with a continuum spectrum that is consistent with non-thermal emission, and a faint (twenty-fifth magnitude) optical counterpart. The flux density of the persistent radio source varies by around ten per cent on day timescales, and very long baseline radio interferometry yields an angular size of less than 1.7 milliarcseconds. Our observations are inconsistent with the fast radio burst having a Galactic origin or its source being located within a prominent star-forming galaxy. Instead, the source appears to be co-located with a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus or a previously unknown type of extragalactic source. Localization and identification of a host or counterpart has been essential to understanding the origins and physics of other kinds of transient events, including gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruption events. However, if other fast radio bursts have similarly faint radio and optical counterparts, our findings imply that

  7. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64~GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3~cm (4arcsec/2arcsec, these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8~$M_odot$, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33\\% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  8. HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF THE ATLBS REGIONS: THE RADIO SOURCE COUNTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, K.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Saripalli, L.; Ekers, R. D., E-mail: kshitij@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2013-01-01

    The Australia Telescope Low-brightness Survey (ATLBS) regions have been mosaic imaged at a radio frequency of 1.4 GHz with 6'' angular resolution and 72 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise. The images (centered at R.A. 00{sup h}35{sup m}00{sup s}, decl. -67 Degree-Sign 00'00'' and R.A. 00{sup h}59{sup m}17{sup s}, decl. -67 Degree-Sign 00'00'', J2000 epoch) cover 8.42 deg{sup 2} sky area and have no artifacts or imaging errors above the image thermal noise. Multi-resolution radio and optical r-band images (made using the 4 m CTIO Blanco telescope) were used to recognize multi-component sources and prepare a source list; the detection threshold was 0.38 mJy in a low-resolution radio image made with beam FWHM of 50''. Radio source counts in the flux density range 0.4-8.7 mJy are estimated, with corrections applied for noise bias, effective area correction, and resolution bias. The resolution bias is mitigated using low-resolution radio images, while effects of source confusion are removed by using high-resolution images for identifying blended sources. Below 1 mJy the ATLBS counts are systematically lower than the previous estimates. Showing no evidence for an upturn down to 0.4 mJy, they do not require any changes in the radio source population down to the limit of the survey. The work suggests that automated image analysis for counts may be dependent on the ability of the imaging to reproduce connecting emission with low surface brightness and on the ability of the algorithm to recognize sources, which may require that source finding algorithms effectively work with multi-resolution and multi-wavelength data. The work underscores the importance of using source lists-as opposed to component lists-and correcting for the noise bias in order to precisely estimate counts close to the image noise and determine the upturn at sub-mJy flux density.

  9. Towards the Realization of Graphene Based Flexible Radio Frequency Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthi N. Yogeesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on our progress and development of high speed flexible graphene field effect transistors (GFETs with high electron and hole mobilities (~3000 cm2/V·s, and intrinsic transit frequency in the microwave GHz regime. We also describe the design and fabrication of flexible graphene based radio frequency system. This RF communication system consists of graphite patch antenna at 2.4 GHz, graphene based frequency translation block (frequency doubler and AM demodulator and graphene speaker. The communication blocks are utilized to demonstrate graphene based amplitude modulated (AM radio receiver operating at 2.4 GHz.

  10. H2O Megamasers toward Radio-bright Seyfert 2 Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. S.; Liu, Z. W.; Henkel, C.; Wang, J. Z.; Coldwell, G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Effelsberg-100 m telescope, we perform a successful pilot survey on H2O maser emission toward a small sample of radio-bright Seyfert 2 galaxies with a redshift larger than 0.04. The targets were selected from a large Seyfert 2 sample derived from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). One source, SDSS J102802.9+104630.4 (z ˜ 0.0448), was detected four times during our observations, with a typical maser flux density of ˜30 mJy and a corresponding (very large) luminosity of ˜1135 L ⊙. The successful detection of this radio-bright Seyfert 2 and an additional tentative detection support our previous statistical results that H2O megamasers tend to arise from Seyfert 2 galaxies with large radio luminosity. The finding provides further motivation for an upcoming larger H2O megamaser survey toward Seyfert 2s with particularly radio-bright nuclei with the basic goal to improve our understanding of the nuclear environment of active megamaser host galaxies. Based on observations with the 100 m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) at Effelsberg.

  11. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.zapata@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: a.palau@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-07-20

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  12. The low-frequency radio eclipses of the black widow pulsar J1810+1744

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, E. J.; Breton, R. P.; Clarke, A. O.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Stappers, B. W.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bassa, C. G.; Broderick, J. W.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Sobey, C.; ter Veen, S.; van Leeuwen, J.; Weltevrede, P.

    2018-05-01

    We have observed and analysed the eclipses of the black widow pulsar J1810+1744 at low radio frequencies. Using LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations between 2011 and 2015, we have measured variations in flux density, dispersion measure, and scattering around eclipses. High-time resolution, simultaneous beamformed, and interferometric imaging LOFAR observations show concurrent disappearance of pulsations and total flux from the source during the eclipses, with a 3σ upper limit of 36 mJy ( duration scaling as ∝ ν-0.41 ± 0.03. The results are discussed in the context of the physical parameters of the system, and an examination of eclipse mechanisms reveals cyclotron-synchrotron absorption as the most likely primary cause, although non-linear scattering mechanisms cannot be quantitatively ruled out. The inferred mass-loss rate is a similar order of magnitude to the mean rate required to fully evaporate the companion in a Hubble time.

  13. X-Ray and Radio Observations of the Magnetar SGR J1935+2154 during Its 2014, 2015, and 2016 Outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, George; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Van der Horst, Alexander J. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Jaodand, Amruta; Hessels, Jason W. T. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Baring, Matthew G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Harding, Alice K.; Gehrels, Neil [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Raánana 43537 (Israel); Huppenkothen, Daniela [Center for Data Science, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Göğüş, Ersin [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Lin, Lin, E-mail: gyounes@gwu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed broadband X-ray and radio data of the magnetar SGR J1935+2154 taken in the aftermath of its 2014, 2015, and 2016 outbursts. The source soft X-ray spectrum <10 keV is well described with a blackbody+power-law (BB+PL) or 2BB model during all three outbursts. Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observations revealed a hard X-ray tail, with a PL photon index Γ = 0.9, extending up to 50 keV, with flux comparable to the one detected <10 keV. Imaging analysis of Chandra data did not reveal small-scale extended emission around the source. Following the outbursts, the total 0.5–10 keV flux from SGR J1935+2154 increased in concordance to its bursting activity, with the flux at activation onset increasing by a factor of ∼7 following its strongest 2016 June outburst. A Swift /X-Ray Telescope observation taken 1.5 days prior to the onset of this outburst showed a flux level consistent with quiescence. We show that the flux increase is due to the PL or hot BB component, which increased by a factor of 25 compared to quiescence, while the cold BB component kT = 0.47 keV remained more or less constant. The 2014 and 2015 outbursts decayed quasi-exponentially with timescales of ∼40 days, while the stronger 2016 May and June outbursts showed a quick short-term decay with timescales of about four days. Our Arecibo radio observations set the deepest limits on the radio emission from a magnetar, with a maximum flux density limit of 14 μ Jy for the 4.6 GHz observations and 7 μ Jy for the 1.4 GHz observations. We discuss these results in the framework of the current magnetar theoretical models.

  14. PSR J2030+364I: Radio Discovery and Gamma-ray Study of a Middle-aged Pulsar in the Now Identified Fermi-LAT Source 1FGL J2030.0+3641

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, F.; Kerr, M.; Ray, P. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Johnston, S.; Romani, R. W.; Parent, D.; Decesar, M. E.; Harding, A. K.; Donato, D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    In a radio search with the Green Bank Telescope of three unidentified low Galactic latitude Fermi-LAT sources, we have discovered the middle-aged pulsar J2030+3641, associated with IFGL J2030.0+3641 (2FGL J2030.0+3640). Following the detection of gamma-ray pulsations using a radio ephemeris, we have obtained a phase-coherent timing solution based on gamma-ray and radio pulse arrival times that spans the entire Fermi mission. With a rotation period of 0.28, spin-down luminosity of 3 x 10(exp 34) erg/s, and characteristic age of 0.5 Myr, PSR J2030+3641 is a middle-aged neutron star with spin parameters similar to those of the exceedingly gamma-ray-bright and radio-undetected Geminga. Its gamma-ray flux is 1 % that of Geminga, primarily because of its much larger distance, as suggested by the large integrated column density of free electrons, DM = 246 pc/cu cm. We fit the gamma-ray light curve, along with limited radio polarimetric constraints, to four geometrical models of magnetospheric emission, and while none of the fits have high significance some are encouraging and suggest that further refinements of these models may be worthwhile. We argue that not many more non-millisecond radio pulsars may be detected along the Galactic plane that are responsible for LAT sources, but that modified methods to search for gamma-ray pulsations should be productive - PSR J2030+364 I would have been found blindly in gamma rays if only > or approx. 0.8 GeV photons had been considered, owing to its relatively flat spectrum and location in a region of high soft background.

  15. Variability of GPS Radio Sources at 5 GHz Lang Cui , Xiang Liu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-02-07

    Feb 7, 2010 ... Abstract. We carry out flux monitoring on a sample of 169 Gigahertz. Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources at 5 GHz and find that about one- third of them show considerable Inter-Month Variability (IMV), and these. IMV phenomena are likely to be caused by interstellar scintillation (ISS). Furthermore, we ...

  16. Extensive Broadband X-Ray Monitoring During the Formation of a Giant Radio Jet Base in Cyg X-3 with AstroSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J. S.; Verdhan Chauhan, Jai; Rawat, Divya; Misra, Ranjeev; Agrawal, P. C.; Chandra, Sunil; Bagri, Kalyani; Jain, Pankaj; Manchanda, R. K.; Chitnis, Varsha; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2018-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral and timing behavior of Cyg X-3 as observed by AstroSat during the onset of a giant radio flare on 2017 April 1–2. Within a timescale of a few hours, the source shows a transition from the hypersoft state (HPS) to a more luminous state (we termed as the very high state), which coincides with the time of the steep rise in radio flux density by an order of magnitude. Modeling the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) and Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) spectra jointly in 0.5–70.0 keV, we found that the first few hours of the observation is dominated by the HPS with no significant counts above 17 keV. Later, an additional flat power-law component suddenly appeared in the spectra that extends to very high energies with the power-law photon index of {1.49}-0.03+0.04. Such a flat power-law component has never been reported from Cyg X-3. Interestingly the fitted power-law model in 25–70 keV, when extrapolated to the radio frequency, predicts the radio flux density to be consistent with the trend measured from the RATAN-600 telescope at 11.2 GHz. This provides direct evidence of the synchrotron origin of flat X-ray power-law component and the most extensive monitoring of the broadband X-ray behavior at the moment of decoupling the giant radio jet base from the compact object in Cyg X-3. Using SXT and LAXPC observations, we determine the giant flare ejection time as MJD 57845.34 ± 0.08 when 11.2 GHz radio flux density increases from ∼100 to ∼478 mJy.

  17. Population Synthesis of Radio & Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Sara; Gonthier, P. L.; Harding, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of known gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the Galactic disk has risen substantially thanks to confirmed detections by Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). We have developed a new population synthesis of gamma-ray and radio MSPs in the galaxy which uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to explore the large and small worlds of the model parameter space and allows for comparisons of the simulated and detected MSP distributions. The simulation employs empirical radio and gamma-ray luminosity models that are dependent upon the pulsar period and period derivative with freely varying exponents. Parameters associated with the birth distributions are also free to vary. The computer code adjusts the magnitudes of the model luminosities to reproduce the number of MSPs detected by a group of ten radio surveys, thus normalizing the simulation and predicting the MSP birth rates in the Galaxy. Computing many Markov chains leads to preferred sets of model parameters that are further explored through two statistical methods. Marginalized plots define confidence regions in the model parameter space using maximum likelihood methods. A secondary set of confidence regions is determined in parallel using Kuiper statistics calculated from comparisons of cumulative distributions. These two techniques provide feedback to affirm the results and to check for consistency. Radio flux and dispersion measure constraints have been imposed on the simulated gamma-ray distributions in order to reproduce realistic detection conditions. The simulated and detected distributions agree well for both sets of radio and gamma-ray pulsar characteristics, as evidenced by our various comparisons.

  18. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  19. Cosmology from angular size counts of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapahi, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    The cosmological implications of the observed angular sizes of extragalactic radio sources are investigated using (i) the log N-log theta relation, where N is the number of sources with an angular size greater than a value theta, for the complete sample of 3CR sources, and (ii) the thetasub(median) vs flux density (S) relation derived from the 3CR, the All-sky, and the Ooty occulation surveys, spanning a flux density range of about 300:1. The method of estimating the expected N(theta) and thetasub(m)(S) relations for a uniform distribution of sources in space is outlined. Since values of theta>approximately 100second arc in the 3C sample arise from sources of small z, the slope of the N(theta) relation in this range is practically independent of the world model and the distribution of source sizes, but depends strongly on the radio luminosity function (RLF). From the observed slope the RLF is derived in the luminosity range of about 10 23 178 26 W Hz -1 sr -1 to be of the form rho(P)dP proportional to Psup(-2.1)dP. It is shown that the angular size data provide independent evidence of evolution in source properties with epoch. It is difficult to explain the data with the simple steady-state theory even if identified QSOs are excluded from ths source samples and a local deficiency of strong source is postulated. The simplest evolutionary scheme that fits the data in the Einstein-de Sitter cosmology indicates that (a) the local RLF steepens considerably at high luminosities, (b) the comoving density of high luminosity sources increases with z in a manner similar to that implied by the log N-log S data and by the V/Vsub(m) test for QSOs, and (c) the mean physical sizes of radio sources evolve with z approximately as (1+z) -1 . Similar evolutionary effects appear to be present for QSOs as well as radio galaxies. (author)

  20. Quantitative calculations of helium ion escape fluxes from the polar ionospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitt, W.J.; Schunk, R.W.; Banks, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    Recent experimental measurements of He + outward fluxes have been obtained for winter and summer hemispheres. The observed fluxes indicate an average He + escape flux of 2 x 10 7 cm -2 s -1 in the winter hemisphere and a factor of 10-20 lower in the summer hemisphere. Earlier theoretical calculations had yielded winter fluxes a factor of 4 lower than the measured values and summer fluxes a further factor of 20 below the winter fluxes. We have attempted to reduce this discrepancy between our earlier theoretical model and the experimental observations by improving our theoretical model in the following ways. The helium photoionization cross sections used are accurate to 10%, the latest solar EUV fluxes measured by the Atmosphere Explorer satellites have been incorporated, and the most recent MSIS model of the neutral atmosphere is contained in the model. A range of conditions covering solar cycle, seasonal, and geomagnetic conditions were studied. The results show a maximum He + escape flux of 1.4 x 10 7 cm -2 s -1 for solar maximum, winter, low magnetic activity conditions, which is within the scatter of the measured fluxes. The computed summer He + escape flux is a factor of 20 lower than the winter value, a result which is in reasonable agreement with the summer experimental observations. Possible reasons for the slight discrepancy between theory and experiment in summer are discussed

  1. Neutron flux of 100kW in the irradiation terminals of the IPR-R1 Triga Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangirolami, Dante Marco

    2009-01-01

    In this work, it was carried out a study of the neutron flux in the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor irradiation facilities: rotary specimen rack (RSR), pneumatic transfer tube two (PTT2) and the central thimble (CT). The objective was to obtain the neutron flux profile on the RSR, which has forty irradiation positions, and also values for the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes of some RSR positions and also of the PTT2 and of the CT facility. It was applied the neutron activation analysis of a reference material, Al-Au (0.1%) alloy. Irradiations were performed on 16 different dates. It was concluded that for the RSR, the average value of thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes depends on the vertical position of the reactor control rods. Neutron flux variations along the RSR form a characteristic profile, whose values depend on the location of the irradiation position in the reactor core and on the control rods vertical position. In the RSR, the obtained values of thermal and epithermal neutron flux were (8.1 +- 0.3) x 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 , and (3.4 +- 0.2)x10 10 n.cm -2 .s -1 , respectively. For the PTT2 and the CT, the values for the epithermal neutron flux were respectively (3.3 +- 0.2) x 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 and (2.6 +- 0.1) x 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 . For these facilities, the thermal neutron flux was estimated, and the obtained values were (2.4 +- 0.2) x 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 and (2.8 +- 0.1)x10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 for the PTT2 and the CT, respectively. (author)

  2. Radio frequency ablation of small renal tumors:: intermediate results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J J; Walther, M M; Pautler, S E; Coleman, J A; Hvizda, J; Peterson, James; Linehan, W M; Wood, B J

    2004-05-01

    With evolving radio frequency technology, the clinical application of radio frequency ablation (RFA) has been actively investigated in the treatment for small renal tumors. We present our intermediate patient outcomes after RFA. Since January 2001, 17 patients with a total of 24 hereditary renal tumors ranging from 1.2 to 2.85 cm were treated with RFA using the 200 W Cool-tip RF System (Radionics, Burlington, Massachusetts) under laparoscopic (9) or percutaneous (8) guidance and had a minimum 1-year followup. A percutaneous approach was considered unsuitable if kidney tumors were contiguous to bowel, ureter or large vessels. Treatment eligibility criteria included an average tumor diameter of less than 3.0 cm, tumor growth during 1 year and solid appearance with contrast enhancement (HU change greater than 20) on computerized tomography (CT). Postoperative followup consisted of CT with and without intravenous contrast, and renal function assessment at regular intervals. Median patient age was 38 years (range 20 to 51). At a median followup of 385 days (range 342 to 691), median tumor or thermal lesion diameter decreased from 2.26 to 1.62 cm (p = 0.0013), and only 1 lesion (4%), which was located centrally near the hilum, exhibited contrast enhancement (HU change greater than 10) on CT at 12 months. Of the 15 renal tumors ablated laparoscopically, 13 were in direct contact with the bowel and 2 were abutting the ureter, necessitating mobilization before RFA. Laparoscopic ultrasound was used to guide radio frequency electrode placement and monitor the ablation process in these cases. Operative time and intraoperative blood loss (mean +/- standard mean of error) were 243 +/- 29 minutes and 67 +/- 9 cc, respectively. In 1 patient whose ureter was adherent to the tumor a ureteropelvic junction obstruction developed after laparoscopic RFA, requiring open repair. At the minimum 1-year followup 23 of 24 ablated tumors lacked contrast uptake on CT, meeting our radiographic

  3. Heat flux microsensor measurements and calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, James P.; Hager, Jon M.; Onishi, Shinzo; Diller, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    A new thin-film heat flux gage has been fabricated specifically for severe high temperature operation using platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium for the thermocouple elements. Radiation calibrations of this gage were performed at the AEDC facility over the available heat flux range (approx. 1.0 - 1,000 W/cu cm). The gage output was linear with heat flux with a slight increase in sensitivity with increasing surface temperature. Survivability of gages was demonstrated in quench tests from 500 C into liquid nitrogen. Successful operation of gages to surface temperatures of 750 C has been achieved. No additional cooling of the gages is required because the gages are always at the same temperature as the substrate material. A video of oxyacetylene flame tests with real-time heat flux and temperature output is available.

  4. A search for radio emission from exoplanets around evolved stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, E.; Coughlan, C. P.; Vlemmings, W.; Varenius, E.; Sirothia, S.; Ray, T. P.; Olofsson, H.

    2018-04-01

    The majority of searches for radio emission from exoplanets have to date focused on short period planets, i.e., the so-called hot Jupiter type planets. However, these planets are likely to be tidally locked to their host stars and may not generate sufficiently strong magnetic fields to emit electron cyclotron maser emission at the low frequencies used in observations (typically ≥150 MHz). In comparison, the large mass-loss rates of evolved stars could enable exoplanets at larger orbital distances to emit detectable radio emission. Here, we first show that the large ionized mass-loss rates of certain evolved stars relative to the solar value could make them detectable with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) at 150 MHz (λ = 2 m), provided they have surface magnetic field strengths >50 G. We then report radio observations of three long period (>1 au) planets that orbit the evolved stars β Gem, ι Dra, and β UMi using LOFAR at 150 MHz. We do not detect radio emission from any system but place tight 3σ upper limits of 0.98, 0.87, and 0.57 mJy on the flux density at 150 MHz for β Gem, ι Dra, and β UMi, respectively. Despite our non-detections these stringent upper limits highlight the potential of LOFAR as a tool to search for exoplanetary radio emission at meter wavelengths.

  5. Radio emission from pre-main-sequence stars in Corona Australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.

    1987-01-01

    The central region of the Corona Australis molecular cloud surrounding the stars R and TY CrA has been studied using the VLA at 6 cm. Eleven radio sources are detected including five associated with pre-main-sequence objects. The most striking is associated with the near-IR source IRS 7 and shows a complex structure comprising two strong pointlike sources positioned either side of the deeply embedded IR source and two extended lobes of radio emission. The IRS 7 radio source appears to be similar to that associated with Lynds 1551 IRS 5 but has a considerably larger angular size. The other detected sources include the massive pre-main-sequence star TY CrA, the near-IR sources IRS 1 and IRS 5, and the Herbig-Haro object HH 101. The stars R and T CrA were not detected. 35 references

  6. Radio jets in NGC 4151: where eMERLIN meets HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. R. A.; McHardy, I. M.; Baldi, R. D.; Beswick, R. J.; Argo, M. K.; Dullo, B. T.; Knapen, J. H.; Brinks, E.; Fenech, D. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Panessa, F.; Rampadarath, H.; Westcott, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present high-sensitivity eMERLIN radio images of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 at 1.51 GHz. We compare the new eMERLIN images to those from archival MERLIN observations in 1993 to determine the change in jet morphology in the 22 yr between observations. We report an increase by almost a factor of 2 in the peak flux density of the central core component, C4, thought to host the black hole, but a probable decrease in some other components, possibly due to adiabatic expansion. The core flux increase indicates an active galactic nucleus (AGN) that is currently active and feeding the jet. We detect no significant motion in 22 yr between C4 and the component C3, which is unresolved in the eMERLIN image. We present a spectral index image made within the 512 MHz band of the 1.51 GHz observations. The spectrum of the core, C4, is flatter than that of other components further out in the jet. We use HST emission-line images (H α, [O III] and [O II]) to study the connection between the jet and the emission-line region. Based on the changing emission-line ratios away from the core and comparison with the eMERLIN radio jet, we conclude that photoionization from the central AGN is responsible for the observed emission-line properties further than 4 arcsec (360 pc) from the core, C4. Within this region, a body of evidence (radio-line co-spatiality, low [O III]/H α and estimated fast shocks) suggests additional ionization from the jet.

  7. The 60 micron to 20 centimeter infrared-to-radio ratio within spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicay, M. D.; Helou, G.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed comparison is presented of the distribution of 60 micron IR and 20 cm radio continuum emission within 25 galaxies, mostly disk spirals. Local maxima in the thermal IR and nonthermal radio emission are found to be spatially coincident on scales of less than about 0.4 kpc in the nearest sample galaxies. The IR-red disk in normal spirals appears to be characterized by a shorter scale length than that of the radio continuum disk, suggesting that the IR-to-radio ratio should decrease as a function of radius. A model that successfully accounts for the observations is introduced which is based on the assumptions of steady-state star formation activity within the disk on kpc scales and a tight coupling between the origins of the dust-heating radiation and the radio-emitting cosmic-ray electrons. The underlying source is described as an exponential disk. The results also suggest that a random walk process cannot by itself describe the temporal evolution of cosmic rays.

  8. THE SCALING RELATIONS AND THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE FOR RADIO HALOS AND RELICS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Z. S.; Han, J. L.; Wen, Z. L.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters is known to be related to cluster mass and cluster dynamical state. We collect the observed fluxes of radio halos, relics, and mini-halos for a sample of galaxy clusters from the literature, and calculate their radio powers. We then obtain the values of cluster mass or mass proxies from previous observations, and also obtain the various dynamical parameters of these galaxy clusters from optical and X-ray data. The radio powers of relics, halos, and mini-halos are correlated with the cluster masses or mass proxies, as found by previous authors, while the correlations concerning giant radio halos are in general the strongest. We found that the inclusion of dynamical parameters as the third dimension can significantly reduce the data scatter for the scaling relations, especially for radio halos. We therefore conclude that the substructures in X-ray images of galaxy clusters and the irregular distributions of optical brightness of member galaxies can be used to quantitatively characterize the shock waves and turbulence in the intracluster medium responsible for re-accelerating particles to generate the observed diffuse radio emission. The power of radio halos and relics is correlated with cluster mass proxies and dynamical parameters in the form of a fundamental plane

  9. Results from and prospects for the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg A.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA is one of the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA is based on experience obtained with the LOPES and CODALEMA experiments in Europe and aims to study in the MHz region the details of the emission mechanism of radio signals from extensive air showers. The data from AERA will be used to assess the sensitivity of MHz radiation to the mass composition of cosmic rays. Because of its energy threshold at 2 × 1017 eV the dip region in the cosmic-ray flux spectrum can be studied in detail. We present first results of AERA and of its prototypes and we provide an outlook towards the future.

  10. Aperture synthesis observations of solar and stellar radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastian, T.S.

    1987-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis relied upon the radio astronomical instrument, The Very Large Array. The thesis is divided into three major sections. In the first the author applied maximum entropy-type image reconstruction techniques, using both single dish and iterferometer data, to generate full disk images of the Sun at a wavelength λ ∼ 21 cm. Using a set of six such images obtained during the Sun's decline from sunspot maximum to minimum, he has noted a number of previously unreported phenomena. Among these: (1) a systematic decrease in quiet Sun's brightness temperature as it declined to minimum; (2) a systematic decrease in the Sun's radius at 21 cm; (3) evidence for the evolution of polar coronal holes during the course of the solar cycle. The observed variation, though not noted previously at radio wavelengths, is entirely consistent with white light K coronagraph data. The results reported here explain the conflicting nature of a number of past observations. In the second section of the thesis, he presents the results of a long term survey of magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs). Cataclysmic variables are close binary systems which contain a white dwarf accreting mass from a late-type secondary, typically a dwarf of spectral type, G, K, or M. The survey resulted in the detection of two out of the eighteen systems observed. In the third section of the thesis, he presents new results on flare stars in the solar neighborhood and in the Pleiades. He has successfully employed the technique of dynamic spectroscopy to constrain the mechanisms(s) for radio flaring on other stars. The second part of section three is devoted to a search for radio emission from flare stars in the Pleiades which was motivated by the evolutionary questions raised by flare stars and the Pleiades lower main sequence

  11. Neutron flux measurements in C-9 capsule pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbos, D.; Roth, C. S.; Gugiu, D.; Preda, M.

    2001-01-01

    C-9 capsule is a fuel testing facility in which the testing consists of a daily cycle ranging between the limits 100% power to 50% power. C-9 in-pile section with sample holder an instrumentation are introduced in G-9 and G-10 experimental channels. The experimental fuel channel has a maximum value when the in-pile section (pressure tube) is in G-9 channel and minimum value in G-10 channel. In this paper the main goals are determination or measurements of: - axial thermal neutron flux distribution in C-9 pressure tube both in G-9 and G-10 channel; - ratio of maximum neutron flux value in G-9 and the same value in G-9 channel and the same value in G-10 channel; - neutron flux-spectrum. On the basis of axial neutron flux distribution measurements, the experimental fuel element in sample holder position in set. Both axial neutron flux distribution of thermal neutrons and neutron flux-spectrum were performed using multi- foil activation technique. Activation rates were obtained by absolute measurements of the induced activity using gamma spectroscopy methods. To determine the axial thermal neutron flux distribution in G-9 and G-10, Cu 100% wire was irradiated at the reactor power of 2 MW. Ratio between the two maximum values, in G-9 and G-10 channels, is 2.55. Multi-foil activation method was used for neutron flux spectrum measurements. The neutron spectra and flux were obtained from reaction rate measurements by means of SAND 2 code. To obtain gamma-ray spectra, a HPGe detector connected to a multichannel analyzer was used. The spectrometer is absolute efficiency calibrated. The foils were irradiated at 2 MW reactor power in previously determined maximum flux position resulted from wire measurements. This reaction rates were normalized for 10 MW reactor power. Neutron self shielding corrections for the activation foils were applied. The self-shielding corrections are computed using Monte Carlo simulation methods. The measured integral flux is 1.1·10 14 n/cm 2 s

  12. Three-Wave Resonance Modulation and Fine Structures in the Solar Short Centimeter Wave Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德焴; 吴洪敖; 秦至海

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented. We propose that when the radiation of solar radio bursts propagates outward as a pump wave through the conora, the three-wave resonance interaction would occur if the radio emission interacts with the MHD wave and scattering wave in the conora. This process induces a nonlinear modulation in the emission flux S. The statistical relations between the repetition rates R and S and between the modulation amplitude △S and S, observed from 1.36cm, 2cm and 3.2cm solar radio bursts could be well interpreted by this model under the conditions of imperfect matching and k2≠0. The appreciable difference in the modulation periods among the 2cm, 3.2cm and 1.36cm waves might be caused by the differences in the MHD waves joining in the modulation. Several theoretical expectations have been made from this model, which may be inspected in further observation.

  13. Dark matter in the Reticulum II dSph: a radio search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Marco; Richter, Laura; Colafrancesco, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    We present a deep radio search in the Reticulum II dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Observations were conducted at 16 cm wavelength, with an rms sensitivity of 0.01 mJy/beam, and with the goal of searching for synchrotron emission induced by annihilation or decay of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Data were complemented with observations on large angular scales taken with the KAT-7 telescope. We find no evidence for a diffuse emission from the dSph and we derive competitive bounds on the WIMP properties. In addition, we detect more than 200 new background radio sources. Among them, we show there are two compelling candidates for being the radio counterpart of the possible γ-ray emission reported by other groups using Fermi-LAT data.

  14. Dark matter in the Reticulum II dSph: a radio search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regis, Marco; Richter, Laura; Colafrancesco, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    We present a deep radio search in the Reticulum II dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Observations were conducted at 16 cm wavelength, with an rms sensitivity of 0.01 mJy/beam, and with the goal of searching for synchrotron emission induced by annihilation or decay of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Data were complemented with observations on large angular scales taken with the KAT-7 telescope. We find no evidence for a diffuse emission from the dSph and we derive competitive bounds on the WIMP properties. In addition, we detect more than 200 new background radio sources. Among them, we show there are two compelling candidates for being the radio counterpart of the possible γ-ray emission reported by other groups using Fermi-LAT data.

  15. RADIO AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2006jd: ANOTHER STRONGLY INTERACTING TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Poonam [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada); Chevalier, Roger A.; Irwin, Christopher M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Chugai, Nikolai [Institute of Astronomy of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya Street 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fransson, Claes [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Soderberg, Alicia M. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chakraborti, Sayan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Immler, Stefan, E-mail: Poonam.Chandra@rmc.ca [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    We report four years of radio and X-ray monitoring of the Type IIn supernova SN 2006jd at radio wavelengths with the Very Large Array, Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, and Expanded Very Large Array; at X-ray wavelengths with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-XRT. We assume that the radio and X-ray emitting particles are produced by shock interaction with a dense circumstellar medium. The radio emission shows an initial rise that can be attributed to free-free absorption by cool gas mixed into the nonthermal emitting region; external free-free absorption is disfavored because of the shape of the rising light curves and the low gas column density inferred along the line of sight to the emission region. The X-ray luminosity implies a preshock circumstellar density {approx}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} at a radius r {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm, but the column density inferred from the photoabsorption of X-rays along the line of sight suggests a significantly lower density. The implication may be an asymmetry in the interaction. The X-ray spectrum shows Fe line emission at 6.9 keV that is stronger than is expected for the conditions in the X-ray emitting gas. We suggest that cool gas mixed into the hot gas plays a role in the line emission. Our radio and X-ray data both suggest the density profile is flatter than r{sup -2} because of the slow evolution of the unabsorbed emission.

  16. Radio Detection of the Fermi-LAT Blind Search Millisecond Pulsar J1311-3430

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Cheung, C. C.; Giroletti, M.; Cognard, I.; Camilo, F.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Roy, J.; Romani, R. W.; Ferrara, E. C.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of radio emission from PSR J1311.3430, the first millisecond pulsar (MSP) discovered in a blind search of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) gamma-ray data. We detected radio pulsations at 2 GHz, visible for less than 10% of approximately 4.5 hr of observations using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Observations at 5 GHz with the GBT and at several lower frequencies with Parkes, Nan cay, and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope resulted in non-detections. We also report the faint detection of a steep spectrum continuum radio source (0.1 mJy at 5 GHz) in interferometric imaging observations with the Jansky Very Large Array. These detections demonstrate that PSR J1311.3430 is not radio quiet and provide additional evidence that radio-quiet MSPs are rare. The radio dispersion measure of 37.8 pc cm(exp -3) provides a distance estimate of 1.4 kpc for the system, yielding a gamma-ray efficiency of 30%, typical of LAT-detected MSPs. We see apparent excess delay in the radio pulses as the pulsar appears from eclipse and we speculate on possible mechanisms for the non-detections of the pulse at other orbital phases and observing frequencies.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio luminosity function of FSRQs (Mao+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, P.; Urry, C. M.; Marchesini, E.; Landoni, M.; Massaro, F.; Ajello, M.

    2018-01-01

    To build the largest sample of flat-spectrum radio quasars, we started with the radio catalog of the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeter (FIRST) survey (Helfand+ 2015, VIII/92), which covered 10575deg2 of the sky; and the Green Bank 6cm (GB6) Radio Source Catalog (Gregory+ 1996, VIII/40), which covered 17000deg2 of the sky. We cross-matched the radio position of each FIRST source with sources in the GB6 catalog, taking into account the positional uncertainties of both radio surveys. Of the 638 radio sources with flat radio spectra, 327 have an optical spectrum available in the literature, 266 from SDSS and the rest from various other sources identified through the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED). Out of the 327 objects with optical spectra classified, 200 were classified as FSRQs (of which 168 are free from contamination), 26 were classified as BL Lacs, 38 were classified as Seyferts, 41 were classified as Galaxies, 2 were classified as stars, and 12 and 8 indicated as noisy or uncertain, respectively. An additional 85 quasars (of which 74 are free from contamination) out of the 119 with a literature description were also included in the inclusive sample. See section 2 for more details on the sample selection. (2 data files).

  18. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources. Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Deller, A. T.; Collier, J. D.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z ≳ 2). Aims: Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. Methods: We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Results: Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginally higher VLBI detection fraction than randomly selected sources with mJy flux densities at arcsec-scales. Moreover, our data provide a positive correlation between compactness - defined as the ratio of milliarcsec- to arcsec-scale flux density - and redshift for IFRS, but suggest a decreasing mean compactness with increasing arcsec-scale radio flux density. Based on these findings, we suggest that IFRS tend to contain young AGNs whose jets have not formed yet or have not expanded, equivalent to very compact objects. We found two IFRS that are resolved into two components. The two components are spatially separated by a few hundred milliarcseconds in both cases. They might be components of one AGN, a binary black hole, or the result of gravitational lensing.

  19. Monitoring of Cyg X-3 giant flare with Medicina and the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Giroletti, M.; Righini, S.; Orlati, A.; Iacolina, M. N.; Navarrini, A.; Buttu, M.; Migoni, C.; Melis, A.; Concu, R.; Vargiu, G. P.; Bachetti, M.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Loru, S.; Marongiu, M.

    2016-09-01

    Following the detection of Cyg X-3 entering in an ultra soft X-ray state, a forthcoming giant flare was predicted by Trushkin et al. (ATel #9416). In fact, a significant radio flux increase was detected three weeks later, on 14-16 September 2016 (ATel #9502).

  20. LANSCE steady state unperturbed thermal neutron fluxes at 100 μA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    The ''maximum'' unperturbed, steady state thermal neutron flux for LANSCE is calculated to be 2 /times/ 10 13 n/cm 2 -s for 100 μA of 800-MeV protons. This LANSCE neutron flux is a comparable entity to a steady state reactor thermal neutron flux. LANSCE perturbed steady state thermal neutron fluxes have also been calculated. Because LANSCE is a pulsed neutron source, much higher ''peak'' (in time) neutron fluxes can be generated than at a steady state reactor source. 5 refs., 5 figs

  1. Analysis and Comparison of 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation in Urban and Suburban Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Abreu, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement-based comparison of cm-wave propagation in urban and suburban scenarios at 24 GHz with transmitter antennas located above rooftop level. Different sets of directional measurements, exploring the full azimuth and the range from -30 to +30 degrees in elevation, were...

  2. Anti-correlated X-ray and Radio Variability in the Transitional Millisecond Pulsar PSR J1023+0038

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Deller, Adam; Miller-Jones, James; Archibald, Anne; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Jaodand, Amruta; Patruno, Alessandro; Bassa, Cees; D'Angelo, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    The PSR J1023+0038 binary system hosts a 1.69-ms neutron star and a low-mass, main-sequence-like star. The system underwent a transformation from a rotation-powered to a low-luminosity accreting state in 2013 June, in which it has remained since. We present an unprecedented set of strictly simultaneous Chandra X-ray Observatory and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations, which for the first time reveal a highly reproducible, anti-correlated variability pattern. Rapid declines in X-ray flux are always accompanied by a radio brightening with duration that closely matches the low X-ray flux mode intervals. We discuss these findings in the context of accretion and jet outflow physics and their implications for using the radio/X-ray luminosity plane to distinguish low-luminosity candidate black hole binary systems from accreting transitional millisecond pulsars.

  3. Measurement and modelling ozone fluxes over a cut and fertilized grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mészáros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment between 20 May and 15 June 2000, the ozone flux was measured by the eddy covariance method above intensively managed grassland in Braunschweig, northern Germany. Three different phases of vegetation were covered during the measuring campaign: tall grass canopy before cut (29 May 2000, short grass after cut, and re-growing vegetation after fertilization (5 June 2000. Results show that beside weather conditions, the agricultural activities significantly influenced the O3 fluxes. After the cut the daytime average of the deposition velocity (vd decreased from 0.44 cm s−1 to 0.26 cm s−1 and increased again to 0.32 cm s−1 during the third period. Detailed model calculations were carried out to estimate deposition velocity and ozone flux. The model captures the general diurnal patter of deposition, with vd daytime values of 0.52, 0.24, and 0.35 cm s−1 in the first, second and third period, respectively. Thus the model predicts a stronger response to the cut than the measurements, which is nevertheless smaller than expected on the basis of change in leaf area. The results show that both cut and fertilization have complex impacts on fluxes. Reduction of vegetation by cutting decreased the stomatal flux initially greatly, but the stomatal flux recovered to 80% of its original value within a week. At the same time, the non-stomatal flux appears to have increased directly after the cut, which the model partially explains by an increase in the deposition to the soil. A missing sink after the cut may be the chemical interaction with biogenic volatile organic compounds released after the cut and exposed senescent plant parts, or the increase in soil NO emissions after fertilization. Increased canopy temperatures may also have promoted ozone destruction on leaf surfaces. These results demonstrate the importance of canopy

  4. Time delay of the PeV gamma ray burst after the October 1985 radio flare of Cygnus X-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezinsky, V S

    1988-08-11

    Cygnus X-3 remains a puzzling and controversial source of ultra-high-energy radiation, E greater than or equal to 0.1 PeV. In existing data, TeV and sometimes PeV radiation has been seen episodically; such an episode is connected with the radio flare of Cyg X-3 in October 1985, when PeV radiation with no phase structure was seen. The PeV pulse was detected 3-5 days after the radio flare. The author proposes a natural explanation for the delay, in which gamma-photons of PeV energy are absorbed by radio radiation inside the source. After a delay, the gamma radiation emerges as the radio flux diminishes and absorption decreases.

  5. Cosmological radio emission induced by WIMP Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.; Lineros, R.; Taoso, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the radio synchrotron emission induced by WIMP dark matter annihilations and decays in extragalactic halos. We compute intensity, angular correlation, and source counts and discuss the impact on the expected signals of dark matter clustering, as well as of other astrophysical uncertainties as magnetic fields and spatial diffusion. Bounds on dark matter microscopic properties are then derived, and, depending on the specific set of assumptions, they are competitive with constraints from other indirect dark matter searches. At GHz frequencies, dark matter sources can become a significant fraction of the total number of sources with brightness below the microJansky level. We show that, at this level of fluxes (which are within the reach of the next-generation radio surveys), properties of the faint edge of differential source counts, as well as angular correlation data, can become an important probe for WIMPs

  6. Cosmological radio emission induced by WIMP Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, N.; Regis, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, R.; Taoso, M., E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: mtaoso@phas.ubc.ca [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Ed. Institutos, Apdo. Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the radio synchrotron emission induced by WIMP dark matter annihilations and decays in extragalactic halos. We compute intensity, angular correlation, and source counts and discuss the impact on the expected signals of dark matter clustering, as well as of other astrophysical uncertainties as magnetic fields and spatial diffusion. Bounds on dark matter microscopic properties are then derived, and, depending on the specific set of assumptions, they are competitive with constraints from other indirect dark matter searches. At GHz frequencies, dark matter sources can become a significant fraction of the total number of sources with brightness below the microJansky level. We show that, at this level of fluxes (which are within the reach of the next-generation radio surveys), properties of the faint edge of differential source counts, as well as angular correlation data, can become an important probe for WIMPs.

  7. A new detector for the measurement of neutron flux in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Labeyrie, J.; Tarassenko, S.

    1958-01-01

    The detector described is designed for the instantaneous measurement of thermal neutron fluxes, in the presence of high γ ray activity; this detector can withstand temperatures as high as 500 deg. C. It is based on the following principle: radioactive atoms resulting from heavy-nucleus fission are carried by a gas flow to a detector recording their β and γ disintegration. Thermal neutron fluxes as low as few neutrons per cm 2 per second can be measured. This detector may be used to control a nuclear reactor, to plot the thermal flux distribution with an excellent definition (1 mm 2 ) for fluxes higher than 10 8 n/cm 2 /s. The time response of the system to a sharp variation of flux is limited, in case of large fluxes, to the transit time of the gas flow between the fission product emitter and the detector; of the order of one tenth of a sec per meter of piping. The detector may also be applied for spectroscopy of fission products eider than 0,1 s. (author) [fr

  8. Measurement of the neutron flux distributions, epithermal index, Westcott thermal neutron flux in the irradiation capsules of hydraulic conveyer (Hyd) and pneumatic tubes (Pn) facilities of the KUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Hiroshi

    2001-05-01

    The reactions of Au(n, γ) 198 Au and Ti(n, p) 47 or 48 Sc were used for the measurements of the thermal and epithermal (thermal + epithermal) and the fast neutron flux distributions, respectively. In the case of Hyd (Hydraulic conveyer), the thermal + epithermal and fast neutron flux distributions in the horizontal direction in the capsule are especially flat; the distortion of the fluxes are 0.6% and 5.4%, respectively. However, these neutron fluxes in the vertical direction are low at the top and high at the bottom of the capsule. These differences between the top and bottom are 14% for both distributions. On the other hand, in polyethylene capsules of Pn-1, 2, 3 (Pneumatic tubes Nos. 1, 2, 3), in contrast with Hyd, these neutron flux distributions in the horizontal direction have gradients of 8 - 18% per 2.5 cm diameter, and those on the vertical axis have a distortion of approximately 5%. The strength of the epithermal dE/E component relative to the neutron density including both thermal and epithermal neutrons, i.e., the epithermal index, for the hydraulic conveyer (Hyd) and pneumatic tube No.2 (Pn-2), in which the irradiation experiments can be achieved, are determined by the multiple foil activation method using the reactions of Au(n, γ) 198 Au and Co(n, γ) 60(m+g) Co. The epithermal index observed in an aluminum capsule of Hyd is 0.034-0.04, and the Westcott thermal neutron flux is 1.2x10 14 cm -2 sec -1 at approximately 1 cm above the bottom. The epithermal index in a Pn-2 polyethylene capsule was measured by not only the multiple foil activation method but also the Cd-ratio method in which the Au(n, γ) 198 Au reaction in a cadmium cover is also used. The epithermal index is 0.045 - 0.055, and the thermal neutron flux is 1.8x10 13 cm -2 sec -1 . (J.P.N.)

  9. Annual and seasonal CO2 fluxes from Russian southern taiga soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurganova, I.; Lopes De Gerenyu, V.; Rozanova, L.; Sapronov, D.; Myakshina, T.; Kudeyarov, V.

    2003-01-01

    Annual and seasonal characteristics of CO 2 emission from five different ecosystems were studied in situ (Russia, Moscow Region) from November 1997 through October 2000. The annual behaviour of the soil respiration rate is influenced by weather conditions during a particular year. Annual CO 2 fluxes from the soils depend on land use of the soils and averaged 684 and 906 g C/m 2 from sandy Albeluvisols (sod-podzolic soils) under forest and grassland, respectively. Annual emission from clay Phaeozems (grey forest soils) was lower and ranged from 422 to 660 g C/m 2 ; the order of precedence was arable 2 fluxes caused by weather conditions ranged from 18% (forest ecosystem on Phaeozems) to 31% (agro-ecosystem). The contribution from the cold period (with snow, November-April) to the annual CO 2 flux was substantial and averaged 21% and 14% for natural and agricultural ecosystems, respectively. The CO 2 fluxes comprised approximately 48-51% in summer, 23-24% in autumn, 18-20% in spring and 7-10% in winter of the total annual carbon dioxide flux

  10. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  11. A theory of solar type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.L.; Smith, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A theory of type III bursts is reviewed. Energetic electrons propagating through the interplanetary medium are shown to excite the one dimensional oscillating two stream instability (OTSI). The OTSI is in turn stabilized by anomalous resistivity which completes the transfer of long wavelength Langmuir waves to short wavelengths, out of resonance with the electrons. The theory explains the small energy losses suffered by the electrons in propagating to 1 AU, the predominance of second harmonic radiation, and the observed correlation between radio and electron fluxes. (Auth.)

  12. Problem of spiral galaxies and satellite radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, H.; Carpenter, R.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed comparison is made between the results of this program and the results of previous investigators. In particular, attention is called to the potentially important implications of an investigation by Tovmasyan, who searched a large number of spirals and found evidence that a small percentage of them apparently have radio satellites located up to 20' from the central galaxy. 15 sources were measured selected from Tovmasyan's list of 43 satellite sources. Results confirm his positions and relative flux densities for each of the sources

  13. On the detection of magnetospheric radio bursts from Uranus and Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.; Maggs, J.E.

    1975-11-01

    Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn are sources of intense but sporadic bursts of electromagnetic radiation or magnetospheric radio bursts (MRB). The similarity of the differential power flux spectra of the MRB from all three planets is examined. The intensity of the MRB is scaled for the solar wind power input into a planetary magnetosphere. The possibility of detecting MRB from Uranus and Neptune is considered

  14. Visibility-based angular power spectrum estimation in low-frequency radio interferometric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Ghosh, Abhik; Ali, Sk. Saiyad

    2014-01-01

    We present two estimators to quantify the angular power spectrum of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio interferometric observations. This is relevant for both the foregrounds and the cosmological 21-cm signal buried therein. The discussion here is restricted to the

  15. The Extreme Ultraviolet Flux of Very Low Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2017-09-01

    The X-ray and EUV emission of stars is vital for understanding the atmospheres and evolution of their planets. The coronae of dwarf stars later than M6 behave differently to those of earlier spectral types and are more X-ray dim and radio bright. Too faint to have been observed by EUVE, their EUV behavior is currently highly uncertain. We propose to observe a small sample of late M dwarfs using the off-axis HRC-S thin Al" filter that is sensitive to EUV emission in the 50-200 A range. The measured fluxes will be used to understand the amount of cooler coronal plasma present, and extend X-ray-EUV flux relations to the latest stellar types.

  16. Optimization of the radio lanthanides separation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera T, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    At present, cancer is a major cause of mortality in our country, therefore, its prevention, diagnosis and treatment are vital to health systems. The cancer treatment and other diseases, from monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or amino macro aggregates marked with beta particle emitting radionuclides, is a highly promising field. The radioactive lanthanides: Pm, Tb, Ho, and Lu are beta emitters, which possess nuclear and chemical properties, which have shown their feasibility as radioisotopes of radiotherapeutic use. However, these radioisotopes are not available commercially in this connection, the Research Laboratory of Radioactive Materials of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, has developed the methodology of production of these radioisotopes and based on this work is designed, constructed and installed the radio lanthanides separation device for the radioisotopes production routinely. This device is part of the cell, , which has and auxiliary air service, an extraction system and is protected with a 10 cm of lead shielding. The radio lanthanides separation device is manual and easy to handle. The main function of this equipment is the radio lanthanides separation from extractive chromatography through packed columns with a commercial resin (Ln SPS) and coated on the top and bottom by fiberglass. The radio lanthanides separation device comprises a main carrousel where the separation columns and elution containers are mounted. It also has a system of open irradiation vials, carrier samples for columns and glassware. This paper presents a detailed description of the radio lanthanides separation device and its management, which allows the radioisotopes production Pm, Tb, Ho, and Lu from the separation of its parents Nd, Dy, Gd, and Yb respectively. (Author)

  17. A search for fast radio bursts associated with gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniswamy, Divya; Wayth, Randall B.; Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.; Reynolds, Cormac; McCallum, Jamie N.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of seven fast radio bursts (FRBs) has recently been reported. FRBs are short duration (∼1 ms), highly dispersed radio pulses from astronomical sources. The physical interpretation for the FRBs remains unclear but is thought to involve highly compact objects at cosmological distance. It has been suggested that a fraction of FRBs could be physically associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent radio observations of GRBs have reported the detection of two highly dispersed short duration radio pulses using a 12 m radio telescope at 1.4 GHz. Motivated by this result, we have performed a systematic and sensitive search for FRBs associated with GRBs. We have observed five GRBs at 2.3 GHz using a 26 m radio telescope located at the Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory, Hobart. The radio telescope was automated to rapidly respond to Gamma-ray Coordination Network notifications from the Swift satellite and slew to the GRB position within ∼140 s. The data were searched for pulses up to 5000 pc cm –3 in dispersion measure and pulse widths ranging from 640 μs to 25.60 ms. We did not detect any events ≥6σ. An in depth statistical analysis of our data shows that events detected above 5σ are consistent with thermal noise fluctuations only. A joint analysis of our data with previous experiments shows that previously claimed detections of FRBs from GRBs are unlikely to be astrophysical. Our results are in line with the lack of consistency noted between the recently presented FRB event rates and GRB event rates.

  18. Internal gravity waves in Titan's atmosphere observed by Voyager radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    The radio scintillations caused by scattering from small-scale irregularities in Titan's neutral atmosphere during a radio occultation of Voyager 1 by Titan are investigated. Intensity and frequency fluctuations occurred on time scales from about 0.1 to 1.0 sec at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths whenever the radio path passed within 90 km of the surface, indicating the presence of variations in refractivity on length scales from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. Above 25 km, the altitude profile of intensity scintillations closely agrees with the predictions of a simple theory based on the characteristics of internal gravity waves propagating with little or no attenuation through the vertical stratification in Titan's atmosphere. These observations support a hypothesis of stratospheric gravity waves, possibly driven by a cloud-free convective region in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere.

  19. The Host Galaxy and Redshift of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendulkar, S. P.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Bassa, C. G.; Adams, E. A. K.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Maddox, N. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S. [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science and Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bower, G. C. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 645 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Law, C. J. [Department of Astronomy and Radio Astronomy Lab, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Demorest, P. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Lazio, T. J. W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Marcote, B.; Paragi, Z. [Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, Postbus 2, NL-7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Scholz, P., E-mail: shriharsh@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: bassa@astron.nl [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, BC V2A 6J9 (Canada); and others

    2017-01-10

    The precise localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB 121102) has provided the first unambiguous association (chance coincidence probability p ≲ 3 × 10{sup −4}) of an FRB with an optical and persistent radio counterpart. We report on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the counterpart and find that it is an extended (0.″6–0.″8) object displaying prominent Balmer and [O iii] emission lines. Based on the spectrum and emission line ratios, we classify the counterpart as a low-metallicity, star-forming, m{sub r′} = 25.1 AB mag dwarf galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.19273(8), corresponding to a luminosity distance of 972 Mpc. From the angular size, the redshift, and luminosity, we estimate the host galaxy to have a diameter ≲4 kpc and a stellar mass of M {sub *} ∼ (4–7) × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}, assuming a mass-to-light ratio between 2 to 3 M {sub ⊙} L {sub ⊙} {sup −1}. Based on the H α flux, we estimate the star formation rate of the host to be 0.4 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and a substantial host dispersion measure (DM) depth ≲324 pc cm{sup −3}. The net DM contribution of the host galaxy to FRB 121102 is likely to be lower than this value depending on geometrical factors. We show that the persistent radio source at FRB 121102’s location reported by Marcote et al. is offset from the galaxy’s center of light by ∼200 mas and the host galaxy does not show optical signatures for AGN activity. If FRB 121102 is typical of the wider FRB population and if future interferometric localizations preferentially find them in dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and prominent emission lines, they would share such a preference with long gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae.

  20. The importance of the electron mean free path for superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, J. T.; Gonnella, D.; Liepe, M.

    2017-01-01

    Impurity-doping of niobium is an exciting new technology in the field of superconducting radio-frequency accelerators, producing cavities with record-high quality factor Q0 and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer surface resistance that decreases with increasing radio-frequency field. Recent theoretical work has offered a promising explanation for this so-called "anti-Q-slope," but the link between the decreasing surface resistance and the shortened electron mean free path of doped cavities has remained elusive. In this work, we investigate this link, finding that the magnitude of this decrease varies directly with the mean free path: shorter mean free paths correspond to stronger anti-Q-slopes. We draw a theoretical connection between the mean free path and the overheating of the quasiparticles, which leads to the reduction of the anti-Q-slope towards the normal Q-slope of long-mean-free-path cavities. We also investigate the sensitivity of the residual resistance to trapped magnetic flux, a property that is greatly enhanced for doped cavities, and calculate an optimal doping regime for a given amount of trapped flux.

  1. Heat transfer for ultrahigh flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Lake, J.A.; Oh, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a uniquely designed nuclear reactor to supply neutrons for materials research is the focus of recent reactor design efforts. The biological, materials, and fundamental physics aspects of research require neutron fluxes much higher than present research and testing facilities can produce. The most advanced research using neutrons as probing detectors is being done in the High Flux Reactor at the Institut Laue Langeuin, France. The design of a reactor that can produce neutron fluxes of 1.0 x 10 16 n/cm 2 .s requires a relatively high power (300 MW range) and a small core volume (approximately 30 liters). This combination of power and volume leads to a high power density which places increased demands on thermal hydraulic margins

  2. SINGLE-PULSE RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER MAGNETAR PSR J1745–2900

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhen; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Ya-Jun; Zhao, Rong-Bing; Fan, Qing-Yuan; Hong, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Dong-Rong; Li, Bin; Liang, Shi-Guang; Ling, Quan-Bao; Liu, Qing-Hui; Qian, Zhi-Han; Zhang, Xiu-Zhong; Zhong, Wei-Ye; Ye, Shu-Hua [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wu, Xin-Ji [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Manchester, R. N. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Weltevrede, P. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Yuan, Jian-Ping [Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Lee, Ke-Jia, E-mail: yanzhen@shao.ac.cn [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-11-20

    In this paper, we report radio observations of the Galactic Center magnetar PSR J1745–2900 at six epochs between 2014 June and October. These observations were carried out using the new Shanghai Tian Ma Radio Telescope at a frequency of 8.6 GHz. Both the flux density and integrated profile of PSR J1745–2900 show dramatic changes from epoch to epoch, showing that the pulsar was in its “erratic” phase. On MJD 56836, the flux density of this magnetar was about 8.7 mJy, which was 10 times larger than that reported at the time of discovery, enabling a single-pulse analysis. The emission is dominated by narrow “spiky” pulses that follow a log-normal distribution in peak flux density. From 1913 pulses, we detected 53 pulses whose peak flux densities are 10 times greater than that of the integrated profile. They are concentrated in pulse phase at the peaks of the integrated profile. The pulse widths at the 50% level of these bright pulses were between 0.°2 and 0.°9, much narrower than that of the integrated profile (∼12°). The observed pulse widths may be limited by interstellar scattering. No clear correlation was found between the widths and peak flux density of these pulses and no evidence was found for subpulse drifting. Relatively strong spiky pulses are also detected in the other five epochs of observation, showing the same properties as those detected in MJD 56836. These strong spiky pulses cannot be classified as “giant” pulses but are more closely related to normal pulse emission.

  3. Are There Multiple Populations of Fast Radio Bursts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Divya; Li, Ye; Zhang, Bing

    2018-02-01

    The repeating FRB 121102 (the “repeater”) shows repetitive bursting activities and was localized in a host galaxy at z = 0.193. On the other hand, despite dozens of hours of telescope time spent on follow-up observations, no other fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been observed to repeat. Yet, it has been speculated that the repeater is the prototype of FRBs, and that other FRBs should show similar repeating patterns. Using the published data, we compare the repeater with other FRBs in the observed time interval (Δt)–flux ratio (S i /S i+1) plane. We find that whereas other FRBs occupy the upper (large S i /S i+1) and right (large Δt) regions of the plane due to the non-detections of other bursts, some of the repeater bursts fall into the lower left region of the plot (short interval and small flux ratio) excluded by the non-detection data of other FRBs. The trend also exists even if one only selects those bursts detectable by the Parkes radio telescope. If other FRBs were similar to the repeater, our simulations suggest that the probability that none of them have been detected to repeat with the current searches would be ∼(10‑4–10‑3). We suggest that the repeater is not representative of the entire FRB population, and that there is strong evidence of more than one population of FRBs.

  4. The quiet Sun brightness temperature at 408 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avignon, Y.; Lantos, P.; Palagi, F.; Patriarchi, P.

    1975-01-01

    The flux of the radio quiet Sun and the brightness temperature at 408 MHz (73cm) are derived from measurements with the E-W Nancay interferometer and the E-W arm of the Medicina North Cross. It is shown that the lowest envelopes, which defined the radio quiet Sun, correspond to transits of extended coronal holes across the disk of the Sun. (Auth.)

  5. Extended Radio Emission in MOJAVE Blazars: Challenges to Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Cooper, N. J.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a study on the kiloparsec-scale radio emission in the complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample, comprising 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei. New 1.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) radio images of six quasars and previously unpublished images of 21 blazars are presented, along with an analysis of the high-resolution (VLA A-array) 1.4 GHz emission for the entire sample. While extended emission is detected in the majority of the sources, about 7% of the sources exhibit only radio core emission. We expect more sensitive radio observations, however, to detect faint emission in these sources, as we have detected in the erstwhile "core-only" source, 1548+056. The kiloparsec-scale radio morphology varies widely across the sample. Many BL Lac objects exhibit extended radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphology typical of powerful FRII jets, while a substantial number of quasars possess radio powers intermediate between FRIs and FRIIs. This poses challenges to the simple radio-loud unified scheme, which links BL Lac objects to FRIs and quasars to FRIIs. We find a significant correlation between extended radio emission and parsec-scale jet speeds: the more radio powerful sources possess faster jets. This indicates that the 1.4 GHz (or low-frequency) radio emission is indeed related to jet kinetic power. Various properties such as extended radio power and apparent parsec-scale jet speeds vary smoothly between different blazar subclasses, suggesting that, at least in terms of radio jet properties, the distinction between quasars and BL Lac objects, at an emission-line equivalent width of 5 Å, is essentially an arbitrary one. While the two blazar subclasses display a smooth continuation in properties, they often reveal differences in the correlation test results when considered separately. This can be understood if, unlike quasars, BL Lac objects do not constitute a homogeneous population, but rather include both FRI and FRII radio galaxies for

  6. EXTENDED RADIO EMISSION IN MOJAVE BLAZARS: CHALLENGES TO UNIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Cooper, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study on the kiloparsec-scale radio emission in the complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample, comprising 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei. New 1.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) radio images of six quasars and previously unpublished images of 21 blazars are presented, along with an analysis of the high-resolution (VLA A-array) 1.4 GHz emission for the entire sample. While extended emission is detected in the majority of the sources, about 7% of the sources exhibit only radio core emission. We expect more sensitive radio observations, however, to detect faint emission in these sources, as we have detected in the erstwhile 'core-only' source, 1548+056. The kiloparsec-scale radio morphology varies widely across the sample. Many BL Lac objects exhibit extended radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphology typical of powerful FRII jets, while a substantial number of quasars possess radio powers intermediate between FRIs and FRIIs. This poses challenges to the simple radio-loud unified scheme, which links BL Lac objects to FRIs and quasars to FRIIs. We find a significant correlation between extended radio emission and parsec-scale jet speeds: the more radio powerful sources possess faster jets. This indicates that the 1.4 GHz (or low-frequency) radio emission is indeed related to jet kinetic power. Various properties such as extended radio power and apparent parsec-scale jet speeds vary smoothly between different blazar subclasses, suggesting that, at least in terms of radio jet properties, the distinction between quasars and BL Lac objects, at an emission-line equivalent width of 5 A, is essentially an arbitrary one. While the two blazar subclasses display a smooth continuation in properties, they often reveal differences in the correlation test results when considered separately. This can be understood if, unlike quasars, BL Lac objects do not constitute a homogeneous population, but rather include both FRI and FRII radio galaxies for

  7. MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES WITH FLEXIBLE WIDE-AREA RADIO TRANSIENT SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Shawhan, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Simonetti, John H.; Tsai, Jr-Wei [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Chen, Kevin [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Dowell, Jayce; Obenberger, Kenneth; Taylor, Gregory B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, 87131 (United States); Gough, Jonathan D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehman College, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Kanner, Jonah [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California CA 91125 (United States); Kavic, Michael [Department of Physics, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ∼30 s time window and ∼200–500 deg{sup 2} sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ∼2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  8. AMANDA Observations Constrain the Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halzen, Francis; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    A number of experimental techniques are currently being deployed in an effort to make the first detection of ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos. To accomplish this goal, techniques using radio and acoustic detectors are being developed, which are optimally designed for studying neutrinos with energies in the PeV-EeV range and above. Data from the AMANDA experiment, in contrast, has been used to place limits on the cosmic neutrino flux at less extreme energies (up to {approx}10 PeV). In this letter, we show that by adopting a different analysis strategy, optimized for much higher energy neutrinos, the same AMANDA data can be used to place a limit competitive with radio techniques at EeV energies. We also discuss the sensitivity of the IceCube experiment, in various stages of deployment, to ultra-high energy neutrinos.

  9. Optical Time-Domain and Radio Imaging Analyses of the Dynamic Hearts of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Krista Lynne

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most extreme objects in the universe: galaxies with a central supermassive black hole feeding on gas from a hot accretion disk. Despite their potential as powerful tools to study topics ranging from relativity to cosmology, they remain quite mysterious. In the first portion of this thesis, we explore how an AGN may influence the formation of stars in its host galaxy. Using high-resolution 22 GHz radio imaging of an X-ray selected sample of radio-quiet AGN, we find that the far-infrared radio correlation for normal star forming galaxies remains valid within a few hundred parsecs of the central engine. Because the core flux is often spatially isolated from star formation, we can also determine that the radio emission in radio-quiet AGN is consistent with both coronal and disk-jet coupling models. Finally, we find that AGN with jet-like radio morphologies have suppressed star formation, possibly indicating ongoing feedback. The second portion of this thesis uses optical AGN light curves to study the physics of accretion. The Kepler spacecraft produces groundbreaking light curves, but its fixed field of view only contained a handful of known AGN. We conduct an X-ray survey of this field, yielding 93 unique X-ray sources identified by optical follow-up spectroscopy as a mixture of AGN and stars. For the AGN, we spectroscopically measure black hole masses and accretion rates. We then analyze a sample of 22 Kepler AGN light curves. We develop a customized pipeline for AGN science with Kepler, a necessary step since the initial data was optimized for the unique goal of exoplanet detection. The light curves display an astonishing variety of behaviors in a new regime of optical variability inaccessible with previous facilities. We find power spectral slopes inconsistent with the damped random walk model, characteristic variability timescales, correlations of variability properties with physical parameters, and bimodal flux

  10. A fast radio burst in the direction of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi, V.; Shannon, R. M.; Jameson, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report the real-time discovery of a fast radio burst (FRB 131104) with the Parkes radio telescope in a targeted observation of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The dispersion measure of the burst is 779 cm$^{-3}$ pc, exceeding predictions for the maximum line-of-sight Galactic contribution by a factor of 11. The temporal structure of the burst is characterized by an exponential scattering tail with a timescale of 2.0$^{+0.8}_{-0.5}$ ms at 1582 MHz that scales as frequency to the power $...

  11. Radio/X-ray monitoring of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 382. High-energy view with XMM-Newtonand NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini, F.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Grandi, P.; Torresi, E.; Ballantyne, D. R.; De Marco, B.; De Rosa, A.; Giroletti, M.; Malzac, J.; Marinucci, A.; Middei, R.; Ponti, G.; Tortosa, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present the analysis of five joint XMM-Newton/NuSTARobservations, 20 ks each and separated by 12 days, of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 382. The data were obtained as part of a campaign performed in September-October 2016 simultaneously with VLBA. The radio data and their relation with the X-ray ones will be discussed in a following paper. The source exhibits a moderate flux variability in the UV/X-ray bands, and a limited spectral variability especially in the soft X-ray band. In agreement with past observations, we find the presence of a warm absorber, an iron Kα line with no associated Compton reflection hump, and a variable soft excess well described by a thermal Comptonization component. The data are consistent with a "two-corona" scenario, in which the UV emission and soft excess are produced by a warm (kT ≃ 0.6 keV), optically thick (τ ≃ 20) corona consistent with being a slab fully covering a nearly passive accretion disc, while the hard X-ray emission is due to a hot corona intercepting roughly 10% of the soft emission. These results are remarkably similar to those generally found in radio-quiet Seyferts, thus suggesting a common accretion mechanism.

  12. Irradiation induced creep in graphite with respect to the flux effect and the high fluence behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundy, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    In accelerated irradiation creep tests, performed in the HFR Petten, in a fast neutron flux of about 2x10 4 cm -2 s -1 and at temperatures of 300 and 500 0 C, a fast neutron fluence in excess of 20x10 21 cm -2 (EDN) has been attained so far. As a supplement to this, an analogous creep test was conducted in a fast neutron flux lower by a factor of four which is more typical for the service conditions in a HTR, with a maximum fast fluence of only 4x10 21 cm -2 (EDN). This experiment was aimed at answering the question if, for equal fast fluence, enhanced irradiation creep and Wigner dimensional change would take place in a reduced fast neutron flux. This problem has more generally been addressed to as the ''flux effect'' or the ''equivalent temperature concept''. (orig./IHOE)

  13. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  14. Diurnal Change of Soil Carbon Flux of Binhai New District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. F.; Mao, T. Y.; Ye, W.

    2018-05-01

    In order to investigate the factors influencing diurnal change of soil carbon flux of Binhai New District. Field observation experiments were carried out by using LC pro-SD photosynthetic apparatus. The diurnal changes of soil carbon flux and its environmental factors such as atmosphere temperature and soil temperature were analysed. The results indicated that soil carbon flux appeared single diurnal pattern. The diurnal average of soil carbon flux ranked from 0.2761 to 2.3367μmo1/m2/s. Soil carbon flux varied significantly among different land use regimes(Pequations (Pquadratic correlations between soil carbon flux and soil temperature (10cm). And soil temperature could account for more than 32.27% of the soil carbon flux changes (P<0.05, R2=0.3227-0.7465).

  15. NuSTAR reveals the Comptonizing corona of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 382

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Bollenbacher, J. M. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Brenneman, L. W. [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street MS-67, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Madsen, K. K.; Baloković, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boggs, S. E. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W. [DTU SpaceNational Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lohfink, A. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Marinucci, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Markwardt, C. B.; Zhang, W. W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, D., E-mail: david.ballantyne@physics.gatech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are active galactic nuclei that produce powerful, large-scale radio jets, but appear as Seyfert 1 galaxies in their optical spectra. In the X-ray band, BLRGs also appear like Seyfert galaxies, but with flatter spectra and weaker reflection features. One explanation for these properties is that the X-ray continuum is diluted by emission from the jet. Here, we present two NuSTAR observations of the BLRG 3C 382 that show clear evidence that the continuum of this source is dominated by thermal Comptonization, as in Seyfert 1 galaxies. The two observations were separated by over a year and found 3C 382 in different states separated by a factor of 1.7 in flux. The lower flux spectrum has a photon-index of Γ=1.68{sub −0.02}{sup +0.03}, while the photon-index of the higher flux spectrum is Γ=1.78{sub −0.03}{sup +0.02}. Thermal and anisotropic Comptonization models provide an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from kT{sub e} = 330 ± 30 keV in the low flux data to 231{sub −88}{sup +50} keV in the high flux observation. This cooling behavior is typical of Comptonizing corona in Seyfert galaxies and is distinct from the variations observed in jet-dominated sources. In the high flux observation, simultaneous Swift data are leveraged to obtain a broadband spectral energy distribution and indicates that the corona intercepts ∼10% of the optical and ultraviolet emitting accretion disk. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, with no detectable relativistic Fe Kα line, that may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk.

  16. Millijansky radio variability in SDSS stripe 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H. [University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Richards, G. T., E-mail: hodge@mpia.de [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg{sup 2}. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f {sub var} > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  17. IRAS observations of radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Miley, G.; Habing, H. J.; Young, E.; Low, F. J.; Beichman, C. A.; Clegg, P. E.; Harris, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    Observations from 12 to 100 microns are presented of two radio-quiet and three radio-loud quasars. Over this wavelength range, all five have grossly similar continuum energy distributions. The continua of the radio-loud quasars are consistent with synchrotron radiation. There is an indication, however, of excess 100 micron emission in the two radio-quiet quasars.

  18. Probe measurements of hydrogen fluxes during discharge cleaning in JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) has been applied during discharge cleaning in the JFT-2M tokamak to measure hydrogen fluxes. The TDS carbon sample, thickness 0.13 mm, was heated to 1000 0 C by direct current and the temperature distribution of the sample surface measured by infrared thermography. The probe was exposed to three types of plasma: Taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC), ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC), and glow discharge cleaning (GDC). The TDS spectra show peak desorption at around 800 0 C. The hydrogen flux, obtained by integration of the TDS spectrum, decreases exponentially in the radial direction with decay length 7.4 cm and 5.8 cm in TDC and ECR-DC, respectively. The relation between hydrogen fluxes and water vapour production was investigated. In TDC, the amount of water vapour depends more strongly on the electron temperature of the plasma than on the hydrogen flux. In ECR-DC, the production of water vapour increases approximately linearly with the hydrogen-flux. In GDC, hydrogen fluxes were measured by TDS but no water vapour could be detected in the residual gases during the discharge. (orig.)

  19. Neutron Flux Variation in the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya, M.; Ahmed, Y.A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to ascertain the level of flux variation in one of the inner irradiation channels of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1), the irradiation container used for routine activation analysis was employed with copper wires as flux monitors. Measurements were carried out with copper wires arranged in axial direction to determine the thermal neutron flux at selected positions using absolute foil activation method. Our results show that there exists a slight flux variation from one position to another ranging from (4.57±0.21) x 10 11 to (5.20± 0.20) x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 .Individual foil shows slight flux variation from one position to another in the same irradiation container but they all pointed toward a level of consistency in variation in spite of the recent installation of the cadmium lined irradiation channel. The values obtained in this work are in good agreement with the previously measured value of (5.14±0.24) x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 after commissioning of NIRR-1 (Jonah et al., 2005). This shows that the cadmium lined installation does not affect the flux stability. In order to improve the accuracy of NAA using NIRR-l facility, there is need for flux corrections to be made by MNSR users during NAA particularly for samples in the axial position for long irradiation.

  20. Spatial Dynamics of Indoor Radio Wideband Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayar Aawatif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The multipath components of superwideband (2–17.2 GHz nonline-of-sight channel responses measured inside several buildings are stable along sections that are 27 cm long on average with a standard deviation of 16 cm. The stability regions of multipath components have an approximately log-normal histogram. An analysis of measured channels that explicitly includes finite spatial areas of visibility of the multipath components is superior to the classic analysis that attributes spatial dynamics to interference of the multipath. The spatial stability of measured responses, that is, the size of the typical area of visibility of each multipath component, decreases as the carrier frequency increases but does not depend on bandwidth. The results offer insight into the nature of the diffuse part of the radio channel.

  1. Study feature of variability extragalactic radio sources 3C 446 and BL Lac in the centimeter wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukharev, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of the analysis of long-term monitoring (over 40 years) changes in radio fluxes of the two extragalactic sources - 3C 446, and BL Lac. Observations at frequencies of 14.5, 8, 4.8 GHz were obtained in the Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO). With using Fourier filtering were selected 0- C (short-period), and the trend component of flux variations that were analyzed separately with using the wavelet-analysis method. Each of these components is associated with certain physical processes in the 'core-accretion disk-jet' system. Were constructed time-frequency wavelet-spectra showing the changes of the frequency composition of the investigated data over time. For the trend component values of the main periods of -4-9 years (3C 446) and -8 years (BL Lac), for 0- C component -0.8-3 years (3C 446) and -0.6-4 years (BL Lac) and they appear in the temporal and structural changes of the jet. On the basis of calculating the global wavelet-spectra in the frequency range identified main phases activity of radio sources. Obtained comparison between the dynamics of jets (Mojave VLBI images), and change the frequency spectral structure of the studied data. With bandpass wavelet filtering, flux components corresponding to the main periods in the spectra, were identified and also found the delay between the observation frequencies in spectral bands of these periods

  2. First Ionospheric Results From the MAVEN Radio Occultation Science Experiment (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul; Felici, M.; Mendillo, M.; Moore, L.; Narvaez, C.; Vogt, M. F.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2018-05-01

    Radio occultation observations of the ionosphere of Mars can span the full vertical extent of the ionosphere, in contrast to in situ measurements that rarely sample the main region of the ionosphere. However, most existing radio occultation electron density profiles from Mars were acquired without clear context for the solar forcing or magnetospheric conditions, which presents challenges for the interpretation of these profiles. Here we present 48 ionospheric electron density profiles acquired by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission (MAVEN) Radio Occultation Science Experiment (ROSE) from 5 July 2016 to 27 June 2017 at solar zenith angles of 54° to 101°. Latitude coverage is excellent, and comprehensive context for the interpretation of these profiles is provided by other MAVEN instruments. The profiles show a 9-km increase in ionospheric peak altitude in January 2017 that is associated with a lower atmospheric dust storm, variations in electron densities in the M1 layer that cannot be explained by variations in the solar soft X-ray flux, and topside electron densities that are larger in strongly magnetized regions than in weakly magnetized regions. MAVEN Radio Occultation Science Experiment electron density profiles are publicly available on the NASA Planetary Data System.

  3. Accurate determination of Curium and Californium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 248Cm samples for transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourgiotis, A.; Isnard, H.; Aubert, M.; Dupont, E.; AlMahamid, I.; Cassette, P.; Panebianco, S.; Letourneau, A.; Chartier, F.; Tian, G.; Rao, L.; Lukens, W.

    2011-02-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments including the mini-INCA (INcineration of Actinides) project for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron fluxes, in view of proposing solutions to reduce the radiotoxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. In this context, a Cm sample enriched in {sup 248}Cm ({approx}97 %) was irradiated in thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). This work describes a quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) analytical procedure for precise and accurate isotopic composition determination of Cm before sample irradiation and of Cm and Cf after sample irradiation. The factors that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of isotopic ratio measurements by ICP-QMS, such as peak centre correction, detector dead time, mass bias, abundance sensitivity and hydrides formation, instrumental background, and memory blank were carefully evaluated and corrected. Uncertainties of the isotopic ratios, taking into account internal precision of isotope ratio measurements, peak tailing, and hydrides formations ranged from 0.3% to 1.3%. This uncertainties range is quite acceptable for the nuclear data to be used in transmutation studies.

  4. Teaching radio astrophysics the hand-on way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    observations of neutral hydrogen from Milky Way and solar flux moni-toring. Such experiments are also useful to familiarize the students with astronomy jargon, which many times becomes an impediment in connecting them with research. This program also aims to develop low cost radio telescopes with involvement of engineering students and the presentation aims at sharing the experience in this program. Future possibilities bridging the gap between the research institutions, such as ours, and the student population at large are also discussed.

  5. Limits on the quiescent radio emission from the black hole binaries GRO J1655−40 and XTE J1550−564

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvelo, D.E.; Fender, R.P.; Russell, D.M.; Gallo, E.; Corbel, S.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Bell, M.E.; Lewis, F.; Maccarone, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of radio observations of the black hole binaries GRO J1655−40 and XTE J1550−564 in quiescence, with the upgraded Australia Telescope Compact Array. Neither system was detected. Radio flux density upper limits (3σ) of 26 μJy (at 5.5 GHz), 47 μJy (at 9 GHz) for GRO J1655−40 and

  6. A persistent high-energy flux from the heart of the Milky Way: Integral's view of the Galactic center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanger, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Renaud, M.

    2006-01-01

    Highly sensitive imaging observations of the Galactic center ( GC) at high energies with an angular resolution of order 100 is a very recent development in the field of high-energy astrophysics. The IBIS/ISGRI imager on the INTEGRAL observatory detected for the first time a hard X-ray source, IGR......-rays to the overall spectrum from this region. There is also evidence for hard emission from a region located between the central black hole and the radio arc near l similar to 0.degrees 1 along the Galactic plane and known to contain giant molecular clouds....... sigma upper limit on the flux at the electron-positron annihilation energy of 511 keV from the direction of Sgr A* is set at 1.9 x 10(-4) photons cm(-2) s(-1). Very recently, the HESS collaboration presented the detection of a source of similar to TeV gamma-rays also located within an arcminute of Sgr A...

  7. Dynamical or static radio halo - Is there a galactic wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Schlickeiser, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a galactic wind on a radio halo can be best observed at frequencies smaller than about 1 GHz. At higher frequencies static halo models predict the same features as dynamical halo models. External galaxies, which exhibit a break by 0.5 in their high frequency nonthermal integral flux spectrum, are the best candidates for studying the influence of galactic winds on the formation of relativistic electron haloes around these systems. Several such cases are presented

  8. Radio occultation studies of the Venus atmosphere with the Magellan spacecraft. 2: Results from the October 1991 experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Steffes, Paul G.; Hinson, David P.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Tyler, G. Leonard

    1994-01-01

    On October 5 and 6, 1991, three dual-frequency ingress radio occultation experiments were conducted at Venus during consecutive orbits of the Magellan spacecraft. The radio signals probed a region of the atmosphere near 65 deg N, with a solar zenith angle of 108 deg, reaching below 35 km at 3.6 cm, and below 34 km at 13 cm (above a mean radius of 6052 km). The high effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of the Magellan spacecraft and highly successful attitude maneuvers allowed these signals to probe deeper than any previous radio occultation experiment and also resulted in the most accurate thermal and sulfuric acid vapor abundance profiles ever obtained at Venus through radio occultation techniques. The performance of the spacecraft and the experiment design are discussed in an accompanying paper. Average electron density profiles retrieved from the data possess peaks between 2600 and 6000/cu cm, well below typical values of 10,000/cu cm retrieved in 1979 by Pioneer Venus at similar solar zenith angles. Other basic results include vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, and density in the neutral atmosphere, 13- and 3.6-cm absorpttivity, and H2SO4 (g) abundance below the main cloud layer. H2SO4 (g) becomes significant below 50 km, reaching peaks between 18 and 24 ppm near 39 km before dropping precipitously below 38 km. These sharp decreases confirm the thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid vapor below 39 km. Since the Venus atmosphere rotated approximately 10 deg between experiments, the data contain information about the horizontal variability of the atmosphere. All derived profiles exhibit significant variations from orbit to orbit, indicating the presence of dynamical processes between 33 and 200 km. In particular, the orbit-to-orbit variations in temperature and in H2SO4 (g) abundance appear to be correlated, suggesting that a common mechanism may be responsible for the observed spatial variations.

  9. Magnetic fields in barred galaxies I. The atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, R; Ehle, M; Harnett, J I; Haynes, R F; Shukurov, A M; Sokoloff, D D; Thierbach, M

    2002-01-01

    The total and polarized radio continuum emission of 20 barred galaxies was observed with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 3, 6, 18 and 22 cm and with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 6 cm and 13 cm. Maps at 30 arcsec angular resolution are presented here. Polarized emission (and therefore a large-scale regular magnetic field) was detected in 17 galaxies. Most galaxies of our sample are similar to non-barred galaxies with respect to the radio/far-infrared flux correlation and equipartition strength of the total magnetic field. Galaxies with highly elongated bars are not always radio-bright. We discuss the correlation of radio properties with the aspect ratio of the bar and other measures of the bar strength. We introduce a new measure of the bar strength, \\Lambda, related to the quadrupole moment of the bar's gravitational potential. The radio surface brightness I of the barred galaxies in our sample is correlated with \\Lambda, I \\propto \\Lambda^0.4+/-0.1, and thus is highest in galaxies with a lon...

  10. Soil surface CO2 fluxes and the carbon budget of a grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J. M.; Garcia, R.; Verma, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil surface CO2 fluxes are reported for three sites within the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) area, and simple empirical equations are fit to the data to provide predictions of soil fluxes from environmental observations. A prototype soil chamber, used to make the flux measurements, is described and tested by comparing CO2 flux measurements to a 40-L chamber, a 1-m/cu chamber, and eddy correlation. Results suggest that flux measurements with the prototype chamber are consistent with measurements by other methods to within about 20 percent. A simple empirical equation based on 10-cm soil temperature, 0- to 10-cm soil volumetric water content, and leaf area index predicts the soil surface CO2 flux with a rms error of 1.2 micro-mol sq m/s for all three sites. Further evidence supports using this equation to evaluate soil surface CO2 during the 1987 FIFE experiment. The soil surface CO2 fluxes when averaged over 24 hours are comparable to daily gross canopy photosynthetic rates. For 6 days of data the net daily accumulation of carbon is about 0.6 g CO2 sq m/d; this is only a few percent of the daily gross accumulation of carbon by photosynthesis. As the soil became drier in 1989, the net accumulation of carbon by the prairie increased, suggesting that the soil flux is more sensitive to temperature and drought than the photosynthetic fluxes.

  11. Radio frequency radiation (RFR) exposures from mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.; Lubinas, V.; Wood, M.P.; Saribalas, J.; Adams, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the free space levels of radio frequency radiation (RFR) around a hand-held mobile phone and the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced in the ocular region of a phantom head exposed to RFR from a mobile phone are presented. The level of RFR measured 5 cm from the antenna of a mobile phone transmitting 600 mW was 0.27 mW/cm 2 . The average SAR level measured in the nearside eye of the phantom head containing tissue equivalent jellies was 0.7 W/kg for a 600 mW transmit power which is very much less than the spatial peak limit of 8 W/kg underlying the Australian and other national and international RFR exposure standards. (author)

  12. Geothermal flux through palagonitized tephra, Surtsey, Iceland - The Surtsey temperature-data-relay experiment via Landsat-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. D.; Preble, D. M.; Jakobsson, S.

    1976-01-01

    The net geothermal flux through palagonitized basaltic tephra rims of the Surtur I and Surtur II craters at Surtsey, Iceland, in 1972, is estimated at 780 plus or minus 325 microcal/sq cm/s, indicating a decline since 1969 when a flux of 1500 microcal/sq cm/s was estimated. Heat flux in this range characterizes the postvolcanic environment on Surtsey in which the subaerial polagonitization of basaltic tephra is associated with mass transfer of hydrothermal vapor, either of meteoric or sea-water origin, only a few years after cessation of eruptive activity. The flux estimation is the result of the Surtsey data-relay experiment via Landsat-1 which was carried out in several phases. Temperature data were transmitted for a 38-day period in November and December 1972. A near-surface vertical gradient of 69.4 C/m was obtained, suggesting a mixed mechanism of heat transfer, partitioned between conduction and convection.

  13. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  14. Feasibility of laser pumping with neutron fluxes from present-day large tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-08-01

    The minimum fusion-neutron flux needed to observe nuclear-pumped lasing with tokamaks can be reduced substantially by optimizing neutron scattering into the laser cell, located between adjacent toroidal-field coils. The laser lines most readily pumped are probably the /sup 3/He-Ne lines at 0.633 ..mu.. and in the infrared, where the /sup 3/He-Ne gas is excited by energetic ions produced in the /sup 3/He(n,p)T reaction. These lines are expected to lase at the levels of D-T neutron flux foreseen for the TFTR in 1989 (>>10/sup 12/ n/cm/sup 2//s), while amplification should be observable at the existing levels of D-D neutron flux (greater than or equal to 5 x 10/sup 9/ n/cm/sup 2//s). Lasing on the 1.73 ..mu.. and 2.63 ..mu.. transitions of Xe may be observable at the maximum expected levels of D-T neutron flux in TFTR enhanced by scattering.

  15. Feasibility of laser pumping with neutron fluxes from present-day large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-08-01

    The minimum fusion-neutron flux needed to observe nuclear-pumped lasing with tokamaks can be reduced substantially by optimizing neutron scattering into the laser cell, located between adjacent toroidal-field coils. The laser lines most readily pumped are probably the 3 He-Ne lines at 0.633 μ and in the infrared, where the 3 He-Ne gas is excited by energetic ions produced in the 3 He(n,p)T reaction. These lines are expected to lase at the levels of D-T neutron flux foreseen for the TFTR in 1989 (>>10 12 n/cm 2 /s), while amplification should be observable at the existing levels of D-D neutron flux (≥ 5 x 10 9 n/cm 2 /s). Lasing on the 1.73 μ and 2.63 μ transitions of Xe may be observable at the maximum expected levels of D-T neutron flux in TFTR enhanced by scattering

  16. PROPER MOTIONS OF THE OUTER KNOTS OF THE HH 80/81/80N RADIO-JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Carrasco-González, Carlos [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México (Mexico); Araudo, Anabella [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Estalella, Robert [Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC-UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Anglada, Guillem; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalunya (Spain)

    2015-11-20

    The radio-knots of the Herbig–Haro (HH) 80/81/80N jet extend from the HH 80 object to the recently discovered Source 34 and has a total projected jet size of 10.3 pc, constituting the largest collimated radio-jet system known so far. It is powered by the bright infrared source IRAS 18162−2048 associated with a massive young stellar object. We report 6 cm JVLA observations that, compared with previous 6 cm VLA observations carried out in 1989, allow us to derive proper motions of the HH 80, HH 81, and HH 80N radio knots located about 2.5 pc away in projection from the powering source. For the first time, we measure proper motions of the optically obscured HH 80N object providing evidence that this knot, along with HH 81 and HH 80 are associated with the same radio-jet. We also confirm the presence of Source 34, located further north of HH 80N, previously proposed to belong to the jet.We derived that the tangential velocity of HH 80N is 260 km s{sup −1} and has a direction in agreement with the expected direction of a ballistic precessing jet. The HH 80 and HH 81 objects have tangential velocities of 350 and 220 km s{sup −1}, respectively, but their directions are somewhat deviated from the expected jet path. The velocities of the HH objects studied in this work are significantly lower than those derived for the radio knots of the jet close to the powering source (600–1400 km s{sup −1}) suggesting that the jet is slowing down due to a strong interaction with the ambient medium. As a result, since HH 80 and HH 81 are located near the edge of the cloud, the inhomogeneous and low density medium may contribute to skew the direction of their determined proper motions. The HH 80 and HH 80N emission at 6 cm is, at least in part, probably synchrotron radiation produced by relativistic electrons in a magnetic field of 1 mG. If these electrons are accelerated in a reverse adiabatic shock, we estimate a jet total density of ≲1000 cm{sup −3}. All of these

  17. Gas Breakdown of Radio Frequency Glow Discharges in Helium at near Atmospheric Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinkun; Xu Jinzhou; Cui Tongfei; Guo Ying; Zhang Jing; Shi Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    A one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was developed for radio frequency glow discharge in helium at near atmospheric pressure, and was employed to study the gas breakdown characteristics in terms of breakdown voltage. The effective secondary electron emission coefficient and the effective electric field for ions were demonstrated to be important for determining the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge at near atmospheric pressure. The constant of A was estimated to be 64±4 cm −1 Torr −1 , which was proportional to the first Townsend coefficient and could be employed to evaluate the gas breakdown voltage. The reduction in the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge with excitation frequency was studied and attributed to the electron trapping effect in the discharge gap

  18. Implications from the upper limit of radio afterglow emission of FRB 131104/Swift J0644.5-5111

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A $\\gamma$-ray transient, Swift J0644.5-5111, has been claimed to be associated with FRB 131104. The $\\gamma$-ray energy output is estimated as $E_\\gamma \\approx 5\\times 10^{51}$\\,erg at the nominal $z\\approx 0.55$ redshift implied by the dispersion measure of FRB 131104. However, a long-term radio imaging follow-up observations only place an upper limit on the radio afterglow flux of Swift J0644.5-5111. Applying the external shock model, we make a detailed constraint on the afterglow paramet...

  19. Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays from radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, B.; Rachen, J. P.; Merten, L.; van Vliet, A.; Becker Tjus, J.

    2018-02-01

    Radio galaxies are intensively discussed as the sources of cosmic rays observed above about 3 × 1018 eV, called ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). We present a first, systematic approach that takes the individual characteristics of these sources into account, as well as the impact of the extragalactic magnetic-field structures up to a distance of 120 Mpc. We use a mixed simulation setup, based on 3D simulations of UHECRs ejected by observed, individual radio galaxies taken out to a distance of 120 Mpc, and on 1D simulations over a continuous source distribution contributing from beyond 120 Mpc. Additionally, we include the ultra-luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A at a distance of about 250 Mpc, as its contribution is so strong that it must be considered as an individual point source. The implementation of the UHECR ejection in our simulation setup, both that of individual radio galaxies and the continuous source function, is based on a detailed consideration of the physics of radio jets and standard first-order Fermi acceleration. This allows to derive the spectrum of ejected UHECR as a function of radio luminosity, and at the same time provides an absolute normalization of the problem involving only a small set of parameters adjustable within narrow constraints. We show that the average contribution of radio galaxies taken over a very large volume cannot explain the observed features of UHECRs measured at Earth. However, we obtain excellent agreement with the spectrum, composition, and arrival-direction distribution of UHECRs measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory, if we assume that most UHECRs observed arise from only two sources: the ultra-luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A, providing a mostly light composition of nuclear species dominating up to about 6 × 1019 eV, and the nearest radio galaxy Centaurus A, providing a heavy composition dominating above 6 × 1019 eV . Here we have to assume that extragalactic magnetic fields out to 250 Mpc, which we did not

  20. Radio and infrared observations of the faint nebula GM24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L F; Roth, M; Tapia, M; Canto, J; Persi, P; Ferrari-Toniolo, M

    1986-02-01

    The faint nebulosity GM24=PP85 listed by Parsamian and Petrosian (1979) was observed at infrared (1-10 ..mu..m) and radio (6 cm and CO line) wavelengths in the vicinity of the CO hot spot reported by Torrelles et al. (1983). The radio continuum (6 cm) emission from a spherically symmetrical HII region was detected with the Very Large Array. Its position coincides with the brightest part of the visible nebulosity and a 1-4 ..mu..m emission peak. Their infrared maps made at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de San Pedro Martir, show two additional (1-10 ..mu..m) peaks located at distances approx. 30 arc sec from the compact HII region, all surrounded by extended near infrared (1-4 ..mu..m) emission. A detailed CO (J=1 ..-->.. 0) map of the whole molecular cloud was also obtained with the University of Texas Millimeter - Wave Telescope. Their results are interpreted in terms of the recent formation of three massive stars, one of which, having developed an HII region, is at a slightly later phase of its evolution. The extended near infrared emission may arise in a reflection nebula similar to NGC 7538-Irs 9. 4 references.

  1. The integrated radio continuum spectrum of M33 - Evidence for free-free absorption by cool ionized gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, F. P.; Mahoney, M. J.; Howarth, N.

    1992-01-01

    We present measurements of the integrated radio continuum flux density of M33 at frequencies between 22 and 610 MHz and discuss the radio continuum spectrum of M33 between 22 MHz and 10 GHz. This spectrum has a turnover between 500 and 900 MHz, depending on the steepness of the high frequency radio spectrum of M33. Below 500 MHz the spectrum is relatively flat. We discuss possible mechanisms to explain this spectral shape and consider efficient free-free absorption of nonthermal emission by a cool (not greater than 1000 K) ionized gas to be a very likely possibility. The surface filling factor of both the nonthermal and the thermal material appears to be small (of order 0.001), which could be explained by magnetic field/density fluctuations in the M 33 interstellar medium. We briefly speculate on the possible presence of a nuclear radio source with a steep spectrum.

  2. The excess radio background and fast radio transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, John; Kephart, Thomas W.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years ARCADE 2, combined with older experiments, has detected an additional radio background, measured as a temperature and ranging in frequency from 22 MHz to 10 GHz, not accounted for by known radio sources and the cosmic microwave background. One type of source which has not been considered in the radio background is that of fast transients (those with event times much less than the observing time). We present a simple estimate, and a more detailed calculation, for the contribution of radio transients to the diffuse background. As a timely example, we estimate the contribution from the recently-discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Although their contribution is likely 6 or 7 orders of magnitude too small (though there are large uncertainties in FRB parameters) to account for the ARCADE 2 excess, our development is general and so can be applied to any fast transient sources, discovered or yet to be discovered. We estimate parameter values necessary for transient sources to noticeably contribute to the radio background

  3. Motion and properties of nuclear radio components in Seyfert galaxies seen with VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelberg, E.; Roy, A. L.; Nagar, N. M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Norris, R. P.; Wilson, A. S.; Falcke, H.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Witzel, A.; Fricke, K. J.

    2004-04-01

    We report EVN, MERLIN and VLBA observations at 18 cm, 6 cm and 3.6 cm of the Seyfert galaxies NGC 7674, NGC 5506, NGC 2110 and Mrk 1210 to study their structure and proper motions on pc scales and to add some constraints on the many possible causes of the radio-quietness of Seyferts. The component configurations in NGC 7674 and NGC 2110 are simple, linear structures, whereas the configurations in NGC 5506 and Mrk 1210 have multiple components with no clear axis of symmetry. We suggest that NGC 7674 is a low-luminosity compact symmetric object. Comparing the images at different epochs, we find a proper motion in NGC 7674 of (0.92±0.07) c between the two central components separated by 282 pc and, in NGC 5506, we find a 3 σ upper limit of 0.50 c for the components separated by 3.8 pc. Our results confirm and extend earlier work showing that the outward motion of radio components in Seyfert galaxies is non-relativistic on pc scales. We briefly discuss whether this non-relativistic motion is intrinsic to the jet-formation process or results from deceleration of an initially relativistic jet by interaction with the pc or sub-pc scale interstellar medium. We combined our sample with a list compiled from the literature of VLBI observations made of Seyfert galaxies, and found that most Seyfert nuclei have at least one flat-spectrum component on the VLBI scale, which was not seen in the spectral indices measured at arcsec resolution. We found also that the bimodal alignment of pc and kpc radio structures displayed by radio galaxies and quasars is not displayed by this sample of Seyferts, which shows a uniform distribution of misalignment between 0° and 90°. The frequent misalignment could result from jet precession or from deflection of the jet by interaction with gas in the interstellar medium.

  4. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray and Neutrino-Induced Muon Flux at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    SNO collaboration; Aharmim, B.; Ahmed, S. N.; Andersen, T. C.; Anthony, A. E.; Barros, N.; Beier, E. W.; Bellerive, A.; Beltran, B.; Bergevin, M.; Biller, S. D.; Boudjemline, K.; Boulay, M. G.; Burritt, T. H.; Cai, B.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, M.; Chon, M. C.; Cleveland, B. T.; Cox-Mobrand, G. A.; Currat, C. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Doe, P. J.; Dosanjh, R. S.; Doucas, G.; Drouin, P.-L.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Fleurot, F.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Gagnon, N.; Goon, J. TM.; Grant, D. R.; Guillian, E.; Habib, S.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Harvey, P. J.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hemingway, R. J.; Henning, R.; Hime, A.; Howard, C.; Howe, M. A.; Huang, M.; Jamieson, B.; Jelley, N. A.; Klein, J. R.; Kos, M.; Kruger, A.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C. M.; Lange, R.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Loach, J. C.; Luoma, S.; MacLellan, R.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Marino, A. D.; Martin, R.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McGee, S.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, M. L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Noble, A. J.; Oblath, N. S.; Okada, C. E.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Opachich, Y.; Orebi Gann, G. D.; Oser, S. M.; Ott, R. A.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rollin, E.; Schwendener, M. H.; Secrest, J. A.; Seibert, S. R.; Simard, O.; Simpson, J. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, M. W. E.; Sonley, T. J.; Steiger, T. D.; Stonehill, L. C.; Tagg, N.; Tesic, G.; Tolich, N.; Tsui, T.; Van de Water, R. G.; VanDevender, B. A.; Virtue, C. J.; Waller, D.; Waltham, C. E.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wark, D. L.; Watson, P.; Wendland, J.; West, N.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wouters, J. M.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, F.; Zuber, K.

    2009-07-10

    Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth's surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring the flux of through-going muons as a function of zenith angle, the SNO experiment can distinguish between the oscillated and un-oscillated portion of the neutrino flux. A total of 514 muon-like events are measured between -1 {le} cos {theta}{sub zenith} 0.4 in a total exposure of 2.30 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup 2} s. The measured flux normalization is 1.22 {+-} 0.09 times the Bartol three-dimensional flux prediction. This is the first measurement of the neutrino-induced flux where neutrino oscillations are minimized. The zenith distribution is consistent with previously measured atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. The cosmic ray muon flux at SNO with zenith angle cos {theta}{sub zenith} > 0.4 is measured to be (3.31 {+-} 0.01 (stat.) {+-} 0.09 (sys.)) x 10{sup -10} {micro}/s/cm{sup 2}.

  5. DEEP 1.4 GHz FOLLOW-UP OF THE STEEP SPECTRUM RADIO HALO IN A521

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallacasa, D.; Macario, G.; Setti, G.; Brunetti, G.; Cassano, R.; Venturi, T.; Giacintucci, S.; Kassim, N. E.; Lane, W.

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, we reported on the discovery of a radio halo with very steep spectrum in the merging galaxy cluster A521 through observations with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. We showed that the steep spectrum of the halo is inconsistent with a secondary origin of the relativistic electrons and supports a turbulent acceleration scenario. At that time, due to the steep spectrum, the available observations at 1.4 GHz (archival NRAO-Very Large Array-VLA-CnB-configuration data) were not adequate to accurately determine the flux density associated with the radio halo. In this paper, we report the detection at 1.4 GHz of the radio halo in A521 using deep VLA observations in the D configuration. We use these new data to confirm the steep spectrum of the object. We consider A521 the prototype of a population of very steep spectrum halos. This population is predicted assuming that turbulence plays an important role in the acceleration of relativistic particles in galaxy clusters, and we expect it will be unveiled by future surveys at low frequencies with the LOFAR and LWA radio telescopes.

  6. Spectral properties of 441 radio pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, F.; van Straten, W.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Johnston, S.; Kerr, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of the spectral properties of 441 pulsars observed with the Parkes radio telescope near the centre frequencies of 728, 1382 and 3100 MHz. The observations at 728 and 3100 MHz were conducted simultaneously using the dual-band 10-50 cm receiver. These high-sensitivity, multifrequency observations provide a systematic and uniform sample of pulsar flux densities. We combine our measurements with spectral data from the literature in order to derive the spectral properties of these pulsars. Using techniques from robust regression and information theory, we classify the observed spectra in an objective, robust and unbiased way into five morphological classes: simple or broken power law, power law with either low- or high-frequency cut-off and log-parabolic spectrum. While about 79 per cent of the pulsars that could be classified have simple power-law spectra, we find significant deviations in 73 pulsars, 35 of which have curved spectra, 25 with a spectral break and 10 with a low-frequency turn-over. We identify 11 gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) pulsars, with 3 newly identified in this work and 8 confirmations of known GPS pulsars; 3 others show tentative evidence of GPS, but require further low-frequency measurements to support this classification. The weighted mean spectral index of all pulsars with simple power-law spectra is -1.60 ± 0.03. The observed spectral indices are well described by a shifted log-normal distribution. The strongest correlations of spectral index are with spin-down luminosity, magnetic field at the light-cylinder and spin-down rate. We also investigate the physical origin of the observed spectral features and determine emission altitudes for three pulsars.

  7. USING THE METHODS OF WAVELET ANALYSIS AND SINGULAR SPECTRUM ANALYSIS IN THE STUDY OF RADIO SOURCE BL LAC

    OpenAIRE

    Donskykh, G. I.; Ryabov, M. I.; Sukharev, A. I.; Aller, M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the monitoring data of extragalactic source BL Lac. This monitoring was held withUniversityofMichigan26-meter radio  telescope. To study flux density of extragalactic source BL Lac at frequencies of 14.5, 8 and 4.8 GHz, the wavelet analysis and singular spectrum analysis were used. Calculating the integral wavelet spectra allowed revealing long-term  components  (~7-8 years) and short-term components (~ 1-4 years) in BL Lac. Studying of VLBI radio maps (by the program Mojave) ...

  8. 210Pb and Mass Flux Imbalance Between the Settling Particulates and Sediments at a Sediment Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.; Chung, Y.; Hung, G.

    2005-05-01

    In order to evaluate the mass balance problems between the settling particulates and the underlying sediments, sediment traps were deployed at M1 site (21o32¡¦N, 119o28¡¦E; 2948m) where a box core was taken recently. The sediment trap results were previously published (Chung et al., 2004: Continental Shelf Research). We report here the 210Pb profile measured on this box core by determining its daughter, 210Po, with alpha spectrometry, assuming the paired nuclides are in radioactive equilibrium. The box core (33 cm long, taken in June, 2004) was analyzed for the distributions of its water content, loss on ignition (LOI), and 210Pb. The water content decreases with depth and averages about 55 percent; the LOI as a measure of the total organic matter (TOM) is fairly constant at about 12 percent. The 210Pb profile shows a general exponential decrease with depth, yielding a maximum sedimentation rate of 0.26cm/y, applying a constant flux and constant sedimentation rate model. This rate translates to a mass flux of 0.31g/cm2/y or about 8.5g/m2/d with a dry bulk density of 1.2g/cm3. Based on the excess 210Pb inventory integrated over the core length, the 210Pb flux is estimated at about 19.2dpm/cm2/y or 526dpm/cm2/d assuming at steady state. The 210Pb and mass fluxes obtained from the deepest trap at M1 were only 129dpm/m2/d and 0.55g/m2/d, respectively. The large ¡excess¡" of the 210Pb and mass fluxes in the sediments over those measured from the sediment trap (4 times in 210Pb flux and 14 times in mass flux) suggests either the sedimentation rate was overestimated due to neglect of the mixing effect, and/or large additional particulates, as resuspended sediments which contain less 210Pb, have been transported laterally near the bottom from elsewhere.

  9. CONSTRAINING JET PRODUCTION SCENARIOS BY STUDIES OF NARROW-LINE RADIO GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, Marek [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Stasinska, Grazyna [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Koziel-Wierzbowska, Dorota [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Madejski, Greg M. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Asari, Natalia V., E-mail: sikora@camk.edu.pl [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-01

    We study a large sample of narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) with extended radio structures. Using 1.4 GHz radio luminosities L {sub 1.4}, narrow optical emission line luminosities L {sub [OIII]} and L{sub H{sub {alpha}}}, as well as black hole masses M {sub BH} derived from stellar velocity dispersions measured from the optical spectra obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that (1) NLRGs cover about four decades of the Eddington ratio, {lambda} {identical_to} L {sub bol}/L {sub Edd}{proportional_to}L {sub line}/M {sub BH}; (2) L {sub 1.4}/M {sub BH} strongly correlates with {lambda}; and (3) radio loudness, R{identical_to}L{sub 1.4}/L{sub line}, strongly anti-correlates with {lambda}. A very broad range of the Eddington ratio indicates that the parent population of NLRGs includes both radio-loud quasars (RLQs) and broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs). The correlations they obey and their high jet production efficiencies favor a jet production model which involves the so-called magnetically choked accretion scenario. In this model, production of the jet is dominated by the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, and the magnetic fields in the vicinity of the central black hole are confined by the ram pressure of the accretion flow. Since large net magnetic flux accumulated in central regions of the accretion flow required by the model can take place only via geometrically thick accretion, we speculate that the massive, 'cold' accretion events associated with luminous emission-line active galactic nucleus can be accompanied by an efficient jet production only if preceded by a hot, very sub-Eddington accretion phase.

  10. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    15 General Editorial on Publication Ethics. Changed Relation between Solar 10.7-cm Radio Flux and some Activity Indices which describe the Radiation at Different Altitudes of Atmosphere during Cycles 21–23 · E. A. Bruevich ...

  11. Methane fluxes from the mound-building termite species of North Australian savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, H.; Livesely, S. J.; Arndt, S. K.; Dawes-Gromadzki, T.; Cook, G. D.; Hutley, L.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are estimated to contribute 3-19% to the global methane emissions. These estimates have large uncertainties because of the limited number of field-based studies and species studied, as well as issues of diel and seasonal variation. We measured methane fluxes from four common mound-building termite species (Microcerotermes nervosus, n=26; M. serratus, n=4; Tumulitermes pastinator, n=5; and Amitermes darwini, n=4) in tropical savannas near Darwin in the Northern Territory, Australia. Methane fluxes from replicated termite mounds were measured in the field using manual chambers with fluxes reported on a mound volume basis. Methane flux was measured in both wet and dry seasons and diel variation was investigated by measuring methane flux every 4 hours over a 24 hour period. Mound temperature was measured concurrently with flux to examine this relationship. In addition, five M. nervosus mounds removed from the field and incubated under controlled temperature conditions over a 24 hour period to remove the effect of varying temperature. During the observation campaigns, mean monthly minimum and maximum temperatures for February (wet season) were 24.7 and 30.8°C, respectively, and were 20.1 to 31.4 °C in June (dry season). Annual rainfall in 2008 for Darwin was 1970.1 mm, with a maximum of 670 mm falling in February and no rain in May and June. Methane fluxes were greatest in the wet season for all species, ranging from 265.1±101.1 (T. pastinator) to 2256.6±757.1 (M. serratus) µg CH4-C/m3/h. In the dry season, methane fluxes were at their lowest, ranging from 10.0±5.5 (T. pastinator) to 338.0±165.9 (M. serratus) µg CH4-C/m3/h. On a diel basis, methane fluxes were smallest at the coolest time of the day (~0700 hrs) and greatest at the warmest (~1400 hrs) for all species, and for both wet and dry seasons. Typical diel variation in flux from M. serratus dominated mounds ranged from 902.6±261.9 to 1392.1±408.1 µg CH4-C/m3/h in wet season and 99.6±57.4 to

  12. Simultaneous radio and x-ray activity in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaquist, E.R.; Gilmore, W.S.; Johnston, K.J.; Grindlay, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous observations at radio and X-ray wavelengths of flarelike events in SS 433 were made during 1979 October 5-9 and 19-22. The radio spectra show evidence for low-frequency absorption, which may be due to either synchrotron self-absorption or free-free absorption by a stellar wind. In the latter case, a model is developed indicating that clouds of relativistic gas are generated at least 10 14 cm from the stellar object and are swept outward through the stellar wind by highly collimated beams. A mass loss of approx.10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 and an outflow speed of approx.1000 km s -1 are consistent with the data. The beam velocities (0.26c) are found to be consistent with the previous optical and radio data. The X-ray emission is evidently nonthermal and closely related to the radio flares, particularly during the event on October 5-9. The behavior during the second event on October 19-22 is considerably more complex. The source of the X-ray radiation is either synchrotron or inverse Compton emission. No clear cut decision is permitted by the data, although the latter mechanism seems to be an inevitable consequence of the known presence of both ultrarelativistic electrons and a high optical stellar luminosity. The inverse Compton mechansim is considered in more detail in the context of the model used to explain the radio behavior. The complexity of the October 19-22 data seems to defy' any simple model

  13. Weakening of flux-pinning strength for high-Tc superconductors in an alternating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the flux-pinning forces in high temperature superconductors which were found to be weakened in an ac field as the applied field strength or the frequency increases. In the weakly pinned regime, flux dynamics could be described with the concept of magnetic diffusion. Flux-motion-induced finite resistivity could lead to significant skin-effect which was reflected in the ac screening effectiveness. The frequency dependence of the relative local field within a superconducting hollow cylinder were used to deduce the flux-motion resistivity ρ. For superconducting YB 2 Cu 3 O 7 - x compounds at 77K it was found that ρ ∼(mu, Omega)-cm. The corresponding magnetic diffusion coefficient was ∼ 224 cm 2 /s. At 750 Hz the skin depth is around 1.54 mm as compared with the 2-mm sample wall thickness

  14. Passive flux meter measurement of water and nutrient flux in saturated porous media: bench-scale laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W; Hatfield, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    The passive nutrient flux meter (PNFM) is introduced for simultaneous measurement of both water and nutrient flux through saturated porous media. The PNFM comprises a porous sorbent pre-equilibrated with a suite of alcohol tracers, which have different partitioning coefficients. Water flux was estimated based on the loss of loaded resident tracers during deployment, while nutrient flux was quantified based on the nutrient solute mass captured on the sorbent. An anionic resin, Lewatit 6328 A, was used as a permeable sorbent and phosphate (PO4(3-)) was the nutrient studied. The phosphate sorption capacity of the resin was measured in batch equilibration tests as 56 mg PO4(3-) g(-1), which was determined to be adequate capacity to retain PO4(3-) loads intercepted over typical PNFM deployment periods in most natural systems. The PNFM design was validated with bench-scale laboratory tests for a range of 9.8 to 28.3 cm d(-1) Darcy velocities and 6 to 43 h deployment durations. Nutrient and water fluxes measured by the PNFM averaged within 6 and 12% of the applied values, respectively, indicating that the PNFM shows promise as a tool for simultaneous measurement of water and nutrient fluxes.

  15. An experimental study of high heat flux removal by shear-driven liquid films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensively evaporating liquid films, moving under the friction of a co-current gas flow in a mini-channel (shear-driven liquid films, are promising for the use in cooling systems of modern semiconductor devices with high local heat release. In this work, the effect of various parameters, such as the liquid and gas flow rates and channel height, on the critical heat flux in the locally heated shear-driven water film has been studied. A record value of the critical heat flux of 1200 W/cm2 has been achieved in experiments. Heat leaks to the substrate and heat losses to the atmosphere in total do not exceed 25% for the heat flux above 400 W/cm2. Comparison of the critical heat fluxes for the shear-driven liquid film and for flow boiling in a minichannel shows that the critical heat flux is an order of magnitude higher for the shear-driven liquid film. This confirms the prospect of using shear-driven liquid films in the modern high-efficient cooling systems.

  16. The Effect of Solar Radiation on Radio Signal for Radio Astronomy Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Hazmin Sabri; Atiq Wahidah Azlan; Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Shahirah Syafa Sulan; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim; Wan Zul Adli Wan Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    Radio astronomy is a subfields of astronomy which is discovers the celestial objects at radio frequencies. Observation in radio astronomy is conducted using single antenna or array of antennas, known as radio telescope. Other than that, radio astronomy also holds an advantage over other alternatives to optical astronomy due to its capability of observing from the ground level. In this study, the effect of solar radiation that contributes the Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) is reviewed. The low RFI level is required to set up the radio telescope for radio astronomy observation. The effect of solar radiation on radio signal was investigated by determining the RFI pattern using spectrum analyzer. The solar radiation data was obtained from weather station located at KUSZA Observatory, East Coast Environmental Research Institute (ESERI), UniSZA. We can conclude that the solar radiation factor give the minimum significant effect to radio signal. (author)

  17. Study of variation of materials patients room's door related of neutron flux iradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalasari, Yuliana Dian; Suparmi, A.; Sardjono, Y.

    2017-08-01

    The treatment chamber of patients has been simulating with MCNPX Code. Optimation of simulation design of Irradiation chamber is corresponding to ISO standards for 30 MeV cyclotron generator. The simulation has used the variation of door's materials that was applied at treatment room's door. The variation of materials was Stainless Steel 202 and Pb, the thickness Pb and stainless steel 202 with the thickness were 2 cm, respectively. Neutron flux that was radiated to stainless steel 202 in the sequence was 3.34195 × 105 n . Cm-2 s-1 and 8.41568 × 104 n . Cm-2 s-1, while for Pb was 4.01349 × 105 n . Cm-2 s-1 and 2.58058 × 104 n . Cm-2 s-1. The further, neutron flux that was radiated to Pb and stainless steel 202 with the thickness were 4 cm in sequence was 4.00601 × 105 n . Cm-2 s-1 and 1.71713 × 104 n . Cm-2 s-1 for Pb, while for SS 202 was 3.09925 × 105 n . Cm-2 s-1. From this ratio we concluded that material Pb absorbed higher neutron flux than material Stainless Steel 202. On the other hand, the cost of Pb was more expensive than Stainless Steel 202. In addition, the material Stainless Steel 202 was obtaine more easily than the material Pb. There fore to overcome the economics problem, can try to build the door with stainless still 202 sheet and Pb sheet together. The further, the neutron dose with 2 cm of thickness was 7.69603 × 10-2 Gy and 2.10623 × 10-2 Gy for SS 202, while for Pb was 4.19444 × 10-2 Gy and 1.50581 × 10-2 Gy. While the neutron dose with 4 cm of thickness for SS 202 was 9.39602 × 10-2 Gy and for Pb was 4.46541 × 10-2 Gy and 1.50502 × 10-2 Gy. We recommend that this simulation should be further optimized.

  18. Neutrino fluxes produced by high energy solar flare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeets, E.V.; Shmonin, V.L.

    1975-01-01

    In this work the calculated differential energy spectra of neutrinos poduced by high energy protons accelerated during 'small' solar flares are presented. The muon flux produced by neutrino interactions with the matter at large depths under the ground is calculated. The obtained flux of muons for the total number of solar flare accelerated protons of 10 28 - 10 32 is within 10 9 - 10 13 particles/cm 2 X s x ster. (orig.) [de

  19. Flux pinning characteristics in cylindrical ingot niobium used in superconducting radio frequency cavity fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Dhavale, Asavari S.; Dhakal, Pashupati; Polyanskii, Anatolii A.; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of from DC magnetization and penetration depth measurements of cylindrical bulk large-grain (LG) and fine-grain (FG) niobium samples used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The surface treatment consisted of electropolishing and low temperature baking as they are typically applied to SRF cavities. The magnetization data were fitted using a modified critical state model. The critical current density Jc and pinning force Fp are calculat...

  20. Increasing the neutron flux study for the TRR-II core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-H.; Yang, J.-T.; Chou, Y.-C.

    1999-01-01

    The maximum unperturbed thermal flux of the originally proposed core design, which is a 6x6 square arrangement with power level of 20 MW and has been presented at the 6th Meeting of IGORR, for the TRR-II reactor is about 2.0x10 14 n/cm 2 -sec. However, it is no longer satisfied the user's requirement, that is, it must reach at least 2.5x10 14 n/cm 2 -sec. In order to enhance the thermal neutron flux, one of the most effective ways is to increase the average power density. Therefore, two new designs with more compact cores are then proposed and studied. One is 5x6 rectangular arrangement with power of 20 MW; the other one is 5x5 square arrangement with power of 16 MW. It is for sure that both core designs can satisfy thermal hydraulic safety limits. The designed parameters related to neutronics are listed and compared fundamentally. According to our calculation, although both cores have similar average power density, the results show that the 5x6/20 MW design has the maximum unperturbed thermal flux in the D 2 O region about 2.7x10 14 n/cm 2 -sec, and the 5x5/16 MW design has 2.5x10 14 n/cm 2 -sec. The maximum thermal flux in the neighborhood of the longer side of the 5x6 core is about 7% higher than the one in the neighborhood of any side of the 5x5 core. This 'long-side effect' gives the 5x6/20 MW core design an advantage of the utilization of the thermal neutron flux in the D 2 O region. In addition, the 5x5 core is also more sensitive to the reactivity change on account of in-core irradiation test facilities. Therefore, under overall considerations the 5x6/20 MW core design is chosen for further detailed design. (author)

  1. Disturbance phenomena in VLF standard radio wave observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Yoshikazu

    1977-01-01

    Storm aftereffect, i.e. the phase disturbance after initiation of a magnetic storm has been revealed in the observation of VLF standard radio waves. In VLF long distance propagation at middle latitudes (L - 3), the phase disturbance for several days after the initiation of a magnetic storm is due to electron fall from the radiation belt. This has been confirmed by the comparison with electron flux detected by an artificial satellite. The correlations between VLF phase disturbance and magnetism activity or ionosphere absorption are described. The relation between winter anomaly and phase disturbance is also discussed. (Mori, K.)

  2. Radio observations reveal a smooth circumstellar environment around the extraordinary type Ib supernova 2012au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Atish; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Margutti, Raffaella; Milisavljevic, Dan; Chakraborti, Sayan; Dittmann, Jason; Drout, Maria; Sanders, Nathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chomiuk, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Medvedev, Mikhail [The Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Chevalier, Roger [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Chugai, Nikolai [Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyatnitskaya 48, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fransson, Claes [Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nakar, Ehud, E-mail: atish.vyas@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2014-12-10

    We present extensive radio and X-ray observations of SN 2012au, an energetic, radio-luminous supernova of Type Ib that exhibits multi-wavelength properties bridging subsets of hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae, hypernovae, and normal core-collapse supernovae. The observations closely follow models of synchrotron emission from a shock-heated circumburst medium that has a wind density profile (ρ∝r {sup –2}). We infer a sub-relativistic velocity for the shock wave v ≈ 0.2 c and a radius of r ≈ 1.4 × 10{sup 16}cm at 25 days after the estimated date of explosion. For a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup –1}, we determine the mass-loss rate of the progenitor to be M-dot =3.6×10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, consistent with the estimates from X-ray observations. We estimate the total internal energy of the radio-emitting material to be E ≈ 10{sup 47} erg, which is intermediate to SN 1998bw and SN 2002ap. The evolution of the radio light curve of SN 2012au is in agreement with its interaction with a smoothly distributed circumburst medium and the absence of stellar shells ejected from previous outbursts out to r ≈ 10{sup 17} cm from the supernova site. We conclude that the bright radio emission from SN 2012au was not dissimilar from other core-collapse supernovae despite its extraordinary optical properties, and that the evolution of the SN 2012au progenitor star was relatively quiet, marked with a steady mass loss, during the final years preceding explosion.

  3. Radio frequency integrated circuit design for cognitive radio systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahim, Amr

    2015-01-01

    This book fills a disconnect in the literature between Cognitive Radio systems and a detailed account of the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement such systems.  Throughout the book, requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radio systems are emphasized when discussing the circuit implementation details.  In addition, this book details several novel concepts that advance state-of-the-art cognitive radio systems.  This is a valuable reference for anybody with background in analog and radio frequency (RF) integrated circuit design, needing to learn more about integrated circuits requirements and implementation for cognitive radio systems. ·         Describes in detail cognitive radio systems, as well as the circuit implementation and architectures required to implement them; ·         Serves as an excellent reference to state-of-the-art wideband transceiver design; ·         Emphasizes practical requirements and constraints imposed by cognitive radi...

  4. MEASUREMENT OF 21 cm BRIGHTNESS FLUCTUATIONS AT z {approx} 0.8 IN CROSS-CORRELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, K. W.; Switzer, E. R.; Calin, L.-M.; Pen, U.-L.; Shaw, J. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Banavar, N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Bandura, K. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Blake, C. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Chang, T.-C.; Liao, Y.-W. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, X.; Li, Y.-C. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Natarajan, A.; Peterson, J. B.; Voytek, T. C. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    In this Letter, 21 cm intensity maps acquired at the Green Bank Telescope are cross-correlated with large-scale structure traced by galaxies in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. The data span the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1 over two fields totaling {approx}41 deg. sq. and 190 hr of radio integration time. The cross-correlation constrains {Omega}{sub HI} b{sub HI} r = [0.43 {+-} 0.07(stat.) {+-} 0.04(sys.)] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, where {Omega}{sub HI} is the neutral hydrogen (H I) fraction, r is the galaxy-hydrogen correlation coefficient, and b{sub HI} is the H I bias parameter. This is the most precise constraint on neutral hydrogen density fluctuations in a challenging redshift range. Our measurement improves the previous 21 cm cross-correlation at z {approx} 0.8 both in its precision and in the range of scales probed.

  5. Rocket measurement of auroral electron fluxes associated with field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazich, P.M.; Anderson, H.R.

    1975-01-01

    A Nike-Tomahawk rocket was instrumented with a vector magnetometer and an array of particle detectors including an electron and proton energyspectrometer covering the energy range 0.5-20 keV in seven fixed intervals and measuring the pitch angle distribution from 0degree to 180degree as the rocket spun. The payload was launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, at 0722 UT on February 25, 1972, over a bright auroral band that evidently was the poleward electron aurora, beyond the trapping boundary. An upper limit to the measured proton flux was 10 6 /cm 2 s sr keV. The energy spectrum of the electron flux measured during passage over the visible aurora always exhibited a peak within the measured energy range. During passage over the brighter auroral forms the peak shifted from approx.3 to approx.10 keV, the pitch angle distribution became peaked along B, and the intensity increased. Maximum fluxes of approx.3times10 8 el/cm 2 s sr keV were seen over the aurora, which reached approx.60 kR of lambda5577. The electron flux in regions of maximum flux tended to be the most field-aligned in the energy interval showing the highest intensity

  6. Radio emission in peculiar galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demellorabaca, Dulia F.; Abraham, Zulema

    1990-01-01

    During the last decades a number of surveys of peculiar galaxies have been carried out and accurate positions become available. Since peculiarities are a possible evidence of radio emission (Wright, 1974; Sulentic, 1976; Stocke et al., 1978), the authors selected a sample of 24 peculiar galaxies with optical jet-like features or extensions in different optical catalogues, mainly the Catalogue of Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations (Arp and Madore, 1987) and the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas (Lauberts, 1982) for observation at the radio continuum frequency of 22 GHz. The sample is listed in a table. Sol (1987) studied this sample and concluded that the majority of the jet-like features seem to admit an explanation in terms of interactive galaxies with bridges and/or tails due to tidal effects. Only in a few cases do the jets seem to be possibly linked to some nuclear activity of the host galaxy. The observations were made with the 13.7m-radome enclosed Itapetinga Radiotelescope (HPBW of 4.3 arcmin), in Brazil. The receiver was a 1 GHz d.s.b. super-heterodine mixer operated in total-power mode, with a system temperature of approximately 800 K. The observational technique consisted in scans in right ascention, centralized in the optical position of the galaxy. The amplitude of one scan was 43 arcmin, and its duration time was 20 seconds. The integration time was at least 2 hours (12 ten-minute observations) and the sensibility limit adopted was an antenna temperature greater than 3 times the r.m.s. error of the baseline determination. Virgo A was used as the calibrator source. Three galaxies were detected for the first time as radio sources and four other known galaxies at low frequencies had their flux densities measured at 22 GHz. The results for these sources are presented.

  7. Fermi-LAT and Suzaku Observations of the Radio Galaxy Centaurus B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, Junichiro

    2012-01-01

    CentaurusB is a nearby radio galaxy positioned in the Southern hemisphere close to the Galactic plane. Here we present a detailed analysis of about 43 months accumulation of Fermi-LAT data and of newly acquired Suzaku X-ray data for Centaurus B. The source is detected at GeV photon energies, although we cannot completely exclude the possibility that it is an artifact due to incorrect modeling of the bright Galactic diffuse emission in the region. The LAT image provides a weak hint of a spatial extension of the γ rays along the radio lobes, which is consistent with the lack of source variability in the GeV range. We note that the extension cannot be established statistically due to the low number of the photons. Surprisingly, we do not detect any diffuse emission of the lobes at X-ray frequencies, with the provided upper limit only marginally consistent with the previously claimed ASCA flux. The broad-band modeling shows that the observed γ-ray flux of the source may be produced within the lobes, if the diffuse non-thermal X-ray emission component is not significantly below the derived Suzaku upper limit. This association would imply that efficient in-situ acceleration of the ultrarelativistic particles is occurring and that the lobes are dominated by the pressure from the relativistic particles. However, if the diffuse X-ray emission is much below the Suzaku upper limits, the observed γ-ray flux is not likely to be produced within the lobes, but instead within the unresolved core of Centaurus B. In this case, the extended lobes could be dominated by the pressure of the magnetic field.

  8. Fermi-LAT and Suzaku Observations of the Radio Galaxy Centaurus B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuta, Junichiro; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Tanaka, Y.T.; /Hiroshima U.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; O' Sullivan, S.P.; /Australia, CSIRO, Epping; Cheung, C.C.; /NAS, Washington, D.C.; Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Yuasa, T.; Odaka, H.; Takahashi, T.; /JAXA, Sagamihara; Svoboda, J.; /European Space Agency

    2012-08-17

    CentaurusB is a nearby radio galaxy positioned in the Southern hemisphere close to the Galactic plane. Here we present a detailed analysis of about 43 months accumulation of Fermi-LAT data and of newly acquired Suzaku X-ray data for Centaurus B. The source is detected at GeV photon energies, although we cannot completely exclude the possibility that it is an artifact due to incorrect modeling of the bright Galactic diffuse emission in the region. The LAT image provides a weak hint of a spatial extension of the {gamma} rays along the radio lobes, which is consistent with the lack of source variability in the GeV range. We note that the extension cannot be established statistically due to the low number of the photons. Surprisingly, we do not detect any diffuse emission of the lobes at X-ray frequencies, with the provided upper limit only marginally consistent with the previously claimed ASCA flux. The broad-band modeling shows that the observed {gamma}-ray flux of the source may be produced within the lobes, if the diffuse non-thermal X-ray emission component is not significantly below the derived Suzaku upper limit. This association would imply that efficient in-situ acceleration of the ultrarelativistic particles is occurring and that the lobes are dominated by the pressure from the relativistic particles. However, if the diffuse X-ray emission is much below the Suzaku upper limits, the observed {gamma}-ray flux is not likely to be produced within the lobes, but instead within the unresolved core of Centaurus B. In this case, the extended lobes could be dominated by the pressure of the magnetic field.

  9. Fermi monitoring of radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Ravikumar, C. D., E-mail: vaidehi@iiap.res.in [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Malappuram-673635 (India)

    2015-02-01

    We present detailed analysis of the γ-ray flux variability and spectral properties of the five radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 (RL-NLSy1) galaxies, detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, namely 1H 0323+342, SBS 0846+513, PMN J0948+0022, PKS 1502+036, and PKS 2004−447. The first three sources show significant flux variations, including the rapid variability of a few hours by 1H 0323+342. The average γ-ray spectrum of 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022 shows deviation from a simple power-law (PL) behavior, whereas the PL model gives a better fit for the other three sources. The spectra of 1H 0323+342, SBS 0846+513, and PMN J0948+0022, which are in low, flaring, and moderately active states, respectively, show significant curvature. Such curvature in the γ-ray spectrum of 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022 could be due to the emission region located inside the broad line region (BLR) where the primary mechanism of the γ-ray emission is inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of BLR photons occurring in the Klein–Nishina regime. The γ-ray emission of SBS 0846+513 is explained by IC scattering of dusty torus photons, which puts the emission region outside the BLR and thus under the Thomson regime. Therefore, the observed curvature of SBS 0846+513 could be intrinsic to the particle energy distribution. The presence of curvature in the γ-ray spectrum and flux variability amplitudes of some of the RL-NLSy1 galaxies suggests that these sources could be akin to low/moderate jet power flat spectrum radio quasars.

  10. Fermi monitoring of radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed analysis of the γ-ray flux variability and spectral properties of the five radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 (RL-NLSy1) galaxies, detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, namely 1H 0323+342, SBS 0846+513, PMN J0948+0022, PKS 1502+036, and PKS 2004−447. The first three sources show significant flux variations, including the rapid variability of a few hours by 1H 0323+342. The average γ-ray spectrum of 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022 shows deviation from a simple power-law (PL) behavior, whereas the PL model gives a better fit for the other three sources. The spectra of 1H 0323+342, SBS 0846+513, and PMN J0948+0022, which are in low, flaring, and moderately active states, respectively, show significant curvature. Such curvature in the γ-ray spectrum of 1H 0323+342 and PMN J0948+0022 could be due to the emission region located inside the broad line region (BLR) where the primary mechanism of the γ-ray emission is inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of BLR photons occurring in the Klein–Nishina regime. The γ-ray emission of SBS 0846+513 is explained by IC scattering of dusty torus photons, which puts the emission region outside the BLR and thus under the Thomson regime. Therefore, the observed curvature of SBS 0846+513 could be intrinsic to the particle energy distribution. The presence of curvature in the γ-ray spectrum and flux variability amplitudes of some of the RL-NLSy1 galaxies suggests that these sources could be akin to low/moderate jet power flat spectrum radio quasars.

  11. The Compact Radio Sources in the Nucleus of NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. L.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Wilson, A. S.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    1998-09-01

    We report VLBA images of the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 at 1.7, 5, and 15 GHz, with resolutions between 3 and 10 mas (0.2-0.7 pc) and a sensitivity of ~106 K at all three frequencies. Our goals are to study the morphology of the radio emission at subparsec resolution and to investigate thermal gas in the putative obscuring disk or torus and in the narrow-line region clouds through free-free absorption of the radio emission. All four known radio components in the central arcsecond (S2, S1, C, and NE, from south to north) have been detected at either 1.7 or 5 GHz, or both. No radio emission was detected at 15 GHz. Component S1 is probably associated with the active nucleus, with radio emission originating from the inner edge of the obscuring torus according to Gallimore et al. Our observed flux densities at 1.7 and 5 GHz are in agreement with their thermal bremsstrahlung emission model, and we find that the nuclear radiation may be strong enough to heat the gas in S1 to the required temperature of ~4 × 106 K. The bremsstrahlung power would be 0.15(frefl/0.01) times the bolometric luminosity of the nucleus between 1014.6 and 1018.4 Hz (where frefl is the fraction of radiation reflected into our line of sight by the electron-scattering mirror) and so the model is energetically reasonable. We also discuss two other models for S1 that also match the observed radio spectrum: electron scattering by the torus of radio emission from a compact synchrotron self-absorbed source and synchrotron radiation from the torus itself. Components NE and S2 have spectra consistent with optically thin synchrotron emission, without significant absorption. Both of these components are elongated roughly perpendicular to the larger scale radio jet, suggesting that their synchrotron emission is related to transverse shocks in the jet or to bow shocks in the external medium. Component C has a nonthermal spectrum absorbed at low frequency. This absorption is consistent with free

  12. New results and techniques in space radio astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    The methods and results of early space radioastronomy experiments are reviewed, with emphasis on the RAE 1 spacecraft which was designed specifically and exclusively for radio astronomical studies. The RAE 1 carries two gravity-gradient-stabilized 229-m traveling-wave V-antennas, a 37-m dipole antenna, and a number of radiometer systems to provide measurements over the 0.2 to 9.2 MHz frequency range with a time resolution of 0.5 sec and an absolute accuracy of plus or minus 25%. Observations of solar bursts at frequencies down to 0.2 MHz provide new information on the density, plasma velocity, and dynamics of coronal streamers out to distances greater than 50 solar radii. New information on the distribution of the ionized component of the interstellar medium is being obtained from galactic continuum background maps at frequencies around 4 MHz. Cosmic noise background spectra measured down to 0.5 MHz produce new estimates on the interstellar flux of cosmic rays, on magnetic fields in the galactic halo, and on distant extragalactic radio sources.

  13. Response of concrete exposed to a high heat flux on one surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, J.F.

    1977-11-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the response of concrete to severe thermal environments such as might be encountered during the interaction of molten reactor core materials with the containment substructure following a hypothetical fuel melt accident. The dominant mechanism for erosion of both limestone and basaltic concrete appears to be melting of the cementitious material in the matrix. The erosion proceeded in a quiescent manner with negligible spallation. The erosion rate increased with heat flux, becoming as large as approximately 70 cm/hr for a net surface heat flux of roughly 190 W/cm 2 . Analyses reveal the surface temperature to be the single most significant parameter affecting the net surface heat flux, through its importance to emitted radiation; and that the greatest fraction of the net energy transmitted to the concrete goes into sensible heat

  14. THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET DEFICIT AND MAGNETICALLY ARRESTED ACCRETION IN RADIO-LOUD QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punsly, Brian, E-mail: brian.punsly1@verizon.net [1415 Granvia Altamira, Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 (United States); ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica, I-65100 10 Pescara (Italy)

    2014-12-20

    The Hubble Space Telescope composite quasar spectra presented in Telfer et al. show a significant deficit of emission in the extreme ultraviolet for the radio-loud component of the quasar population (RLQs) compared to the radio-quiet component of the quasar population. The composite quasar continuum emission between 1100 Å and ∼580 Å is generally considered to be associated with the innermost regions of the accretion flow onto the central black hole. The deficit between 1100 Å and 580 Å in RLQs has a straightforward interpretation as a missing or a suppressed innermost region of local energy dissipation in the accretion flow. It is proposed that this can be the result of islands of large-scale magnetic flux in RLQs that are located close to the central black hole that remove energy from the accretion flow as Poynting flux (sometimes called magnetically arrested accretion). These magnetic islands are natural sites for launching relativistic jets. Based on the Telfer et al. data and the numerical simulations of accretion flows in Penna et al., the magnetic islands are concentrated between the event horizon and an outer boundary of <2.8 M (in geometrized units) for rapidly rotating black holes and <5.5 M for modestly rotating black holes.

  15. A model of fast radio bursts: collisions between episodic magnetic blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long-Biao; Huang, Yong-Feng; Geng, Jin-Jun; Li, Bing

    2018-06-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are bright radio pulses from the sky with millisecond durations and Jansky-level flux densities. Their origins are still largely uncertain. Here we suggest a new model for FRBs. We argue that the collision of a white dwarf with a black hole can generate a transient accretion disk, from which powerful episodicmagnetic blobs will be launched. The collision between two consecutive magnetic blobs can result in a catastrophic magnetic reconnection, which releases a large amount of free magnetic energy and forms a forward shock. The shock propagates through the cold magnetized plasma within the blob in the collision region, radiating through the synchrotron maser mechanism, which is responsible for a non-repeating FRB signal. Our calculations show that the theoretical energetics, radiation frequency, duration timescale and event rate can be very consistent with the observational characteristics of FRBs.

  16. Coma cluster ultradiffuse galaxies are not standard radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struble, Mitchell F.

    2018-02-01

    Matching members in the Coma cluster catalogue of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) from SUBARU imaging with a very deep radio continuum survey source catalogue of the cluster using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) within a rectangular region of ∼1.19 deg2 centred on the cluster core reveals matches consistent with random. An overlapping set of 470 UDGs and 696 VLA radio sources in this rectangular area finds 33 matches within a separation of 25 arcsec; dividing the sample into bins with separations bounded by 5, 10, 20 and 25 arcsec finds 1, 4, 17 and 11 matches. An analytical model estimate, based on the Poisson probability distribution, of the number of randomly expected matches within these same separation bounds is 1.7, 4.9, 19.4 and 14.2, each, respectively, consistent with the 95 per cent Poisson confidence intervals of the observed values. Dividing the data into five clustercentric annuli of 0.1° and into the four separation bins, finds the same result. This random match of UDGs with VLA sources implies that UDGs are not radio galaxies by the standard definition. Those VLA sources having integrated flux >1 mJy at 1.4 GHz in Miller, Hornschemeier and Mobasher without SDSS galaxy matches are consistent with the known surface density of background radio sources. We briefly explore the possibility that some unresolved VLA sources near UDGs could be young, compact, bright, supernova remnants of Type Ia events, possibly in the intracluster volume.

  17. Duty-cycle and energetics of remnant radio-loud AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ross J.

    2018-05-01

    Deriving the energetics of remnant and restarted active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is much more challenging than for active sources due to the complexity in accurately determining the time since the nucleus switched-off. I resolve this problem using a new approach that combines spectral ageing and dynamical models to tightly constrain the energetics and duty-cycles of dying sources. Fitting the shape of the integrated radio spectrum yields the fraction of the source age the nucleus is active; this, in addition to the flux density, source size, axis ratio, and properties of the host environment, provides a constraint on dynamical models describing the remnant radio source. This technique is used to derive the intrinsic properties of the well-studied remnant radio source B2 0924+30. This object is found to spend 50_{-12}^{+14} Myr in the active phase and a further 28_{-5}^{+6} Myr in the quiescent phase, have a jet kinetic power of 3.6_{-1.7}^{+3.0}× 10^{37} W, and a lobe magnetic field strength below equipartition at the 8σ level. The integrated spectra of restarted and intermittent radio sources are found to yield a `steep-shallow' shape when the previous outburst occurred within 100 Myr. The duty-cycle of B2 0924+30 is hence constrained to be δ < 0.15 by fitting the shortest time to the previous comparable outburst that does not appreciably modify the remnant spectrum. The time-averaged feedback energy imparted by AGNs into their host galaxy environments can in this manner be quantified.

  18. Estimation of radioactive contaminants in Cm242 and Cm244 isotopic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, V.P.; Makarenko, A.I.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation properties of Cm 242 and Cm 244 preparations and the effect on them of possible contaminants are considered. One of the most important requirements for K alpha active fuels for radioisotope thermoelectric batteries is ensuring a low ionizing radiation background. In determining the effect of impurities on the radiation properties of a preparation, quantitative evaluation of certain factors is sufficient. In a Cm 242 preparation it is possible to show that Am 241 and Cm 243 are undesirable impurities. The presence of Am 241 increases the soft gamma output by 20%. The presence of Cm 243 may double the dose rate from an unshielded preparation and increase the hard gamma output 10-fold. The properties of Cm 242 preparations deteriorate when Am 243 and Cm 243 are present

  19. Determination flux in the Reactor JEN-1; Medida de flujos de neutrones en el nucleo del Reactor JEN-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manas Diaz, L; Montes Ponce de leon, J.

    1960-07-01

    This report summarized several irradiations that have been made to determine the neutron flux distributions in the core of the JEN-1 reactor. Gold foils of 380 {mu} gr and Mn-Ni (12% de Ni) of 30 mg have been employed. the epithermal flux has been determined by mean of the Cd radio. The resonance integral values given by Macklin an