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Sample records for clustering extremely large

  1. A highly efficient multi-core algorithm for clustering extremely large datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Johann M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the demand for computational power in computational biology has increased due to rapidly growing data sets from microarray and other high-throughput technologies. This demand is likely to increase. Standard algorithms for analyzing data, such as cluster algorithms, need to be parallelized for fast processing. Unfortunately, most approaches for parallelizing algorithms largely rely on network communication protocols connecting and requiring multiple computers. One answer to this problem is to utilize the intrinsic capabilities in current multi-core hardware to distribute the tasks among the different cores of one computer. Results We introduce a multi-core parallelization of the k-means and k-modes cluster algorithms based on the design principles of transactional memory for clustering gene expression microarray type data and categorial SNP data. Our new shared memory parallel algorithms show to be highly efficient. We demonstrate their computational power and show their utility in cluster stability and sensitivity analysis employing repeated runs with slightly changed parameters. Computation speed of our Java based algorithm was increased by a factor of 10 for large data sets while preserving computational accuracy compared to single-core implementations and a recently published network based parallelization. Conclusions Most desktop computers and even notebooks provide at least dual-core processors. Our multi-core algorithms show that using modern algorithmic concepts, parallelization makes it possible to perform even such laborious tasks as cluster sensitivity and cluster number estimation on the laboratory computer.

  2. Distant Galaxy Clusters Hosting Extreme Central Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The recently-discovered Phoenix cluster harbors the most star-forming central cluster galaxy of any cluster in the known Universe, by nearly a factor of 10. This extreme system appears to be fulfilling early cooling flow predictions, although the lack of similar systems makes any interpretation difficult. In an attempt to find other "Phoenix-like" clusters, we have cross-correlated archival all-sky surveys (in which Phoenix was detected) and isolated 4 similarly-extreme systems which are also coincident in position and redshift with an overdensity of red galaxies. We propose here to obtain Chandra observations of these extreme, Phoenix-like systems, in order to confirm them as relaxed, rapidly-cooling galaxy clusters.

  3. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-01-01

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community

  4. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1039e45. 12. Hao Y...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In current war trauma, 20-30% of all extremity injuries and >80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve...through both axonal advance and in revascularization of the graft following placement. We are confident that this technology may allow us to

  5. Electronic and atomic impacts on large clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gspann, J.

    1982-01-01

    Describing first the generation and properties of molecular beams of large Van der Waals clusters such as speed distribution, cluster size distribution, and internal temperature of the clusters, the review then features the results of electronic impacts on large clusters: metastable electronic cluster excitations, ejection of positive cluster ions of less than 100 atoms from much larger parent clusters, and ionization of the large clusters. Atomic impacts at thermal energies are treated with respect to the scattering cross section of the clusters, their drag coefficient in free molecular flow, and the peculiarities of impacts on helium clusters of either isotope. (Auth.)

  6. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    These antimicrobial peptides are implicated in the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonisation and have been shown to be upregulated...be equivalent to standard autograft repair in rodent models. Outcomes have now been validated in a large animal (swine) model with 5 cm ulnar nerve...Goals of the Project Task 1– Determine mechanical properties, seal strength and resistance to biodegradation of candidate photochemical nerve wrap

  7. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  8. Parallel multiple instance learning for extremely large histopathology image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Li, Yeshu; Shen, Zhengyang; Wu, Ziwei; Gao, Teng; Fan, Yubo; Lai, Maode; Chang, Eric I-Chao

    2017-08-03

    Histopathology images are critical for medical diagnosis, e.g., cancer and its treatment. A standard histopathology slice can be easily scanned at a high resolution of, say, 200,000×200,000 pixels. These high resolution images can make most existing imaging processing tools infeasible or less effective when operated on a single machine with limited memory, disk space and computing power. In this paper, we propose an algorithm tackling this new emerging "big data" problem utilizing parallel computing on High-Performance-Computing (HPC) clusters. Experimental results on a large-scale data set (1318 images at a scale of 10 billion pixels each) demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for low-latency real-time applications. The framework proposed an effective and efficient system for extremely large histopathology image analysis. It is based on the multiple instance learning formulation for weakly-supervised learning for image classification, segmentation and clustering. When a max-margin concept is adopted for different clusters, we obtain further improvement in clustering performance.

  9. Electron impact ionization of large krypton clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shao-Hui; Li Ru-Xin; Ni Guo-Quan; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2004-01-01

    We show that the detection of ionization of very large van der Waals clusters in a pulsed jet or a beam can be realized by using a fast ion gauge. Rapid positive feedback electron impact ionization and fragmentation processes,which are initially ignited by electron impact ionization of the krypton clusters with the electron current of the ion gauge, result in the appearance of a progressional oscillation-like ion spectrum, or just of a single fast event under critical conditions. Each line in the spectrum represents a correlated explosion or avalanche ionization of the clusters.The phenomena have been analysed qualitatively along with a Rayleigh scattering experiment of the corresponding cluster jet.

  10. Coupled Cluster Theory for Large Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudin, Pablo

    This thesis describes the development of local approximations to coupled cluster (CC) theory for large molecules. Two different methods are presented, the divide–expand–consolidate scheme (DEC), for the calculation of ground state energies, and a local framework denoted LoFEx, for the calculation...

  11. Large Scale Processes and Extreme Floods in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; AghaKouchak, A.; Lall, U.

    2016-12-01

    Persistent large scale anomalies in the atmospheric circulation and ocean state have been associated with heavy rainfall and extreme floods in water basins of different sizes across the world. Such studies have emerged in the last years as a new tool to improve the traditional, stationary based approach in flood frequency analysis and flood prediction. Here we seek to advance previous studies by evaluating the dominance of large scale processes (e.g. atmospheric rivers/moisture transport) over local processes (e.g. local convection) in producing floods. We consider flood-prone regions in Brazil as case studies and the role of large scale climate processes in generating extreme floods in such regions is explored by means of observed streamflow, reanalysis data and machine learning methods. The dynamics of the large scale atmospheric circulation in the days prior to the flood events are evaluated based on the vertically integrated moisture flux and its divergence field, which are interpreted in a low-dimensional space as obtained by machine learning techniques, particularly supervised kernel principal component analysis. In such reduced dimensional space, clusters are obtained in order to better understand the role of regional moisture recycling or teleconnected moisture in producing floods of a given magnitude. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) is also used as a measure of local convection activities. We investigate for individual sites the exceedance probability in which large scale atmospheric fluxes dominate the flood process. Finally, we analyze regional patterns of floods and how the scaling law of floods with drainage area responds to changes in the climate forcing mechanisms (e.g. local vs large scale).

  12. Metasurface Cloaks for Large Cylindrical Cluster Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Yakovlev, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we investigate the performance of metasurfaces used for cloaking of cluster configurations formed by different arrangements of multiple dielectric cylinders and excited by an electric line source. While a suitably designed metasurface can be used to effectively cloak isolated electrically...... small cylinders, we demonstrate that even electrically large clusters of such particles can be cloaked by covering its constituent cylinders with the metasurface cloaks. This holds for densely packed cylinders due to significantly reduced coupling by the presence of the cloaks. The results may...

  13. [Parallel virtual reality visualization of extreme large medical datasets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of a brief description of grid computing, the essence and critical techniques of parallel visualization of extreme large medical datasets are discussed in connection with Intranet and common-configuration computers of hospitals. In this paper are introduced several kernel techniques, including the hardware structure, software framework, load balance and virtual reality visualization. The Maximum Intensity Projection algorithm is realized in parallel using common PC cluster. In virtual reality world, three-dimensional models can be rotated, zoomed, translated and cut interactively and conveniently through the control panel built on virtual reality modeling language (VRML). Experimental results demonstrate that this method provides promising and real-time results for playing the role in of a good assistant in making clinical diagnosis.

  14. Time series clustering in large data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fejfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of time series is a widely researched area. There are many methods for dealing with this task. We are actually using the Self-organizing map (SOM with the unsupervised learning algorithm for clustering of time series. After the first experiment (Fejfar, Weinlichová, Šťastný, 2009 it seems that the whole concept of the clustering algorithm is correct but that we have to perform time series clustering on much larger dataset to obtain more accurate results and to find the correlation between configured parameters and results more precisely. The second requirement arose in a need for a well-defined evaluation of results. It seems useful to use sound recordings as instances of time series again. There are many recordings to use in digital libraries, many interesting features and patterns can be found in this area. We are searching for recordings with the similar development of information density in this experiment. It can be used for musical form investigation, cover songs detection and many others applications.The objective of the presented paper is to compare clustering results made with different parameters of feature vectors and the SOM itself. We are describing time series in a simplistic way evaluating standard deviations for separated parts of recordings. The resulting feature vectors are clustered with the SOM in batch training mode with different topologies varying from few neurons to large maps.There are other algorithms discussed, usable for finding similarities between time series and finally conclusions for further research are presented. We also present an overview of the related actual literature and projects.

  15. Properties of liquid clusters in large-scale molecular dynamics nucleation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angélil, Raymond; Diemand, Jürg; Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    We have performed large-scale Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous vapor-to-liquid nucleation, with 10 9 atoms. This large number allows us to resolve extremely low nucleation rates, and also provides excellent statistics for cluster properties over a wide range of cluster sizes. The nucleation rates, cluster growth rates, and size distributions are presented in Diemand et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 74309 (2013)], while this paper analyses the properties of the clusters. We explore the cluster temperatures, density profiles, potential energies, and shapes. A thorough understanding of the properties of the clusters is crucial to the formulation of nucleation models. Significant latent heat is retained by stable clusters, by as much as ΔkT = 0.1ε for clusters with size i = 100. We find that the clusters deviate remarkably from spherical—with ellipsoidal axis ratios for critical cluster sizes typically within b/c = 0.7 ± 0.05 and a/c = 0.5 ± 0.05. We examine cluster spin angular momentum, and find that it plays a negligible role in the cluster dynamics. The interfaces of large, stable clusters are thinner than planar equilibrium interfaces by 10%−30%. At the critical cluster size, the cluster central densities are between 5% and 30% lower than the bulk liquid expectations. These lower densities imply larger-than-expected surface areas, which increase the energy cost to form a surface, which lowers nucleation rates

  16. Identification of large-scale meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation in the US northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Laurie; Barlow, Mathew; Feldstein, Steven B.; Gutowski, William J.

    2018-03-01

    Patterns of daily large-scale circulation associated with Northeast US extreme precipitation are identified using both k-means clustering (KMC) and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) applied to tropopause height. The tropopause height provides a compact representation of the upper-tropospheric potential vorticity, which is closely related to the overall evolution and intensity of weather systems. Extreme precipitation is defined as the top 1% of daily wet-day observations at 35 Northeast stations, 1979-2008. KMC is applied on extreme precipitation days only, while the SOM algorithm is applied to all days in order to place the extreme results into the overall context of patterns for all days. Six tropopause patterns are identified through KMC for extreme day precipitation: a summertime tropopause ridge, a summertime shallow trough/ridge, a summertime shallow eastern US trough, a deeper wintertime eastern US trough, and two versions of a deep cold-weather trough located across the east-central US. Thirty SOM patterns for all days are identified. Results for all days show that 6 SOM patterns account for almost half of the extreme days, although extreme precipitation occurs in all SOM patterns. The same SOM patterns associated with extreme precipitation also routinely produce non-extreme precipitation; however, on extreme precipitation days the troughs, on average, are deeper and the downstream ridges more pronounced. Analysis of other fields associated with the large-scale patterns show various degrees of anomalously strong moisture transport preceding, and upward motion during, extreme precipitation events.

  17. Extreme value prediction of the wave-induced vertical bending moment in large container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    increase the extreme hull girder response significantly. Focus in the present paper is on the influence of the hull girder flexibility on the extreme response amidships, namely the wave-induced vertical bending moment (VBM) in hogging, and the prediction of the extreme value of the same. The analysis...... in the present paper is based on time series of full scale measurements from three large container ships of 8600, 9400 and 14000 TEU. When carrying out the extreme value estimation the peak-over-threshold (POT) method combined with an appropriate extreme value distribution is applied. The choice of a proper...... threshold level as well as the statistical correlation between clustered peaks influence the extreme value prediction and are taken into consideration in the present paper....

  18. Scaling and clustering effects of extreme precipitation distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Yu; Singh, Vijay P.; Li, Jianfeng

    2012-08-01

    SummaryOne of the impacts of climate change and human activities on the hydrological cycle is the change in the precipitation structure. Closely related to the precipitation structure are two characteristics: the volume (m) of wet periods (WPs) and the time interval between WPs or waiting time (t). Using daily precipitation data for a period of 1960-2005 from 590 rain gauge stations in China, these two characteristics are analyzed, involving scaling and clustering of precipitation episodes. Our findings indicate that m and t follow similar probability distribution curves, implying that precipitation processes are controlled by similar underlying thermo-dynamics. Analysis of conditional probability distributions shows a significant dependence of m and t on their previous values of similar volumes, and the dependence tends to be stronger when m is larger or t is longer. It indicates that a higher probability can be expected when high-intensity precipitation is followed by precipitation episodes with similar precipitation intensity and longer waiting time between WPs is followed by the waiting time of similar duration. This result indicates the clustering of extreme precipitation episodes and severe droughts or floods are apt to occur in groups.

  19. CLUSTER DYNAMICS LARGELY SHAPES PROTOPLANETARY DISK SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne, E-mail: kvincke@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    To what degree the cluster environment influences the sizes of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars is still an open question. This is particularly true for the short-lived clusters typical for the solar neighborhood, in which the stellar density and therefore the influence of the cluster environment change considerably over the first 10 Myr. In previous studies, the effect of the gas on the cluster dynamics has often been neglected; this is remedied here. Using the code NBody6++, we study the stellar dynamics in different developmental phases—embedded, expulsion, and expansion—including the gas, and quantify the effect of fly-bys on the disk size. We concentrate on massive clusters (M {sub cl} ≥ 10{sup 3}–6 ∗ 10{sup 4} M {sub Sun}), which are representative for clusters like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) or NGC 6611. We find that not only the stellar density but also the duration of the embedded phase matters. The densest clusters react fastest to the gas expulsion and drop quickly in density, here 98% of relevant encounters happen before gas expulsion. By contrast, disks in sparser clusters are initially less affected, but because these clusters expand more slowly, 13% of disks are truncated after gas expulsion. For ONC-like clusters, we find that disks larger than 500 au are usually affected by the environment, which corresponds to the observation that 200 au-sized disks are common. For NGC 6611-like clusters, disk sizes are cut-down on average to roughly 100 au. A testable hypothesis would be that the disks in the center of NGC 6611 should be on average ≈20 au and therefore considerably smaller than those in the ONC.

  20. Jellyfish: the origin and distribution of extreme ram-pressure stripping events in massive galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Conor; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke; Blumenthal, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observational signatures and physical origin of ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z = 0.3-0.7, based on images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen `jellyfish' galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define morphological criteria to select 211 additional, less obvious cases of RPS. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of 124 candidates so far confirmed 53 as cluster members. For the brightest and most favourably aligned systems, we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on the orientation of apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the onset of these events occurs primarily at large distances from the cluster core (>400 kpc), and that the trajectories of the affected galaxies feature high-impact parameters. Simple models show that such trajectories are highly improbable for galaxy infall along filaments but common for infall at high velocities, even after observational biases are accounted for, provided the duration of the resulting RPS events is ≲500 Myr. We thus tentatively conclude that extreme RPS events are preferentially triggered by cluster mergers, an interpretation that is supported by the disturbed dynamical state of many of the host clusters. This hypothesis implies that extreme RPS might occur also near the cores of merging poor clusters or even merging groups of galaxies. Finally, we present nine additional `jellyfish" galaxies at z > 0.3 discovered by us, thereby doubling the number of such systems known at intermediate redshift.

  1. Automatic management software for large-scale cluster system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Yunjian; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Sun Gongxing

    2007-01-01

    At present, the large-scale cluster system faces to the difficult management. For example the manager has large work load. It needs to cost much time on the management and the maintenance of large-scale cluster system. The nodes in large-scale cluster system are very easy to be chaotic. Thousands of nodes are put in big rooms so that some managers are very easy to make the confusion with machines. How do effectively carry on accurate management under the large-scale cluster system? The article introduces ELFms in the large-scale cluster system. Furthermore, it is proposed to realize the large-scale cluster system automatic management. (authors)

  2. Report from the 4th Workshop on Extremely Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Becla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Academic and industrial users are increasingly facing the challenge of petabytes of data, but managing and analyzing such large data sets still remains a daunting task. The 4th Extremely Large Databases workshop was organized to examine the needs of communities under-represented at the past workshops facing these issues. Approaches to big data statistical analytics as well as emerging opportunities related to emerging hardware technologies were also debated. Writable extreme scale databases and the science benchmark were discussed. This paper is the final report of the discussions and activities at this workshop.

  3. Exactly soluble models for surface partition of large clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, K.A.; Bugaev, K.A.; Elliott, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    The surface partition of large clusters is studied analytically within a framework of the 'Hills and Dales Model'. Three formulations are solved exactly by using the Laplace-Fourier transformation method. In the limit of small amplitude deformations, the 'Hills and Dales Model' gives the upper and lower bounds for the surface entropy coefficient of large clusters. The found surface entropy coefficients are compared with those of large clusters within the 2- and 3-dimensional Ising models

  4. Jellyfish: Observational Properties of Extreme Ram-Pressure Stripping Events in Massive Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conor, McPartland; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the physical origin and observational signatures of extreme ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z=0.3-0.7, based on data in the F606W passband obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen ``jellyfish" galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define quantitative morphological criteria to select candidate galaxies which are similar to known cases of RPS. Considering a sample of 16 ``jellyfish" galaxies (10 of which we present for the first time), we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on dynamical features such as apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the observed events occur primarily at large distances from the cluster core and involve infall trajectories featuring high impact parameters. Simple models of cluster growth show that such trajectories are consistent with two scenarios: 1) galaxy infall along filaments; and 2) infall at high velocities (≥1000 km/s) characteristic of cluster mergers. The observed distribution of events is best described by timescales of ˜few Myr in agreement with recent numerical simulations of RPS. The broader areal coverage of the Hubble Frontier Fields should provide an even larger sample of RPS events to determine the relative contributions of infall and cluster mergers. Prompted by the discovery of several jellyfish galaxies whose brightness in the F606W passband rivals or exceeds that of the respective brightest cluster galaxy, we attempt to constrain the luminosity function of galaxies undergoing RPS. The observed significant excess at the bright end compared to the luminosity functions of blue cluster members strongly suggests enhanced star formation, thus challenging theoretical and numerical studies according to which RPS merely displaces existing star-forming regions. In-depth studies of individual objects will help test our

  5. Imaging extrasolar planets with the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolissaint L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT is the most ambitious of the ELTs being planned. With a diameter of 42 m and being fully adaptive from the start, the E-ELT will be more than one hundred times more sensitive than the present-day largest optical telescopes. Discovering and characterising planets around other stars will be one of the most important aspects of the E-ELT science programme. We model an extreme adaptive optics instrument on the E-ELT. The resulting contrast curves translate to the detectability of exoplanets.

  6. Report from the 3rd Workshop on Extremely Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Becla

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Academic and industrial users are increasingly facing the challenge of petabytes of data, but managing and analyzing such large data sets still remains a daunting task. Both the database and the map/reduce communities worldwide are working on addressing these issues. The 3rdExtremely Large Databases workshop was organized to examine the needs of scientific communities beginning to face these issues, to reach out to European communities working on extremely large scale data challenges, and to brainstorm possible solutions. The science benchmark that emerged from the 2nd workshop in this series was also debated. This paper is the final report of the discussions and activities at this workshop.

  7. Impact of heuristics in clustering large biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafin, Md Kishwar; Kabir, Kazi Lutful; Ridwan, Iffatur; Anannya, Tasmiah Tamzid; Karim, Rashid Saadman; Hoque, Mohammad Mozammel; Rahman, M Sohel

    2015-12-01

    Traditional clustering algorithms often exhibit poor performance for large networks. On the contrary, greedy algorithms are found to be relatively efficient while uncovering functional modules from large biological networks. The quality of the clusters produced by these greedy techniques largely depends on the underlying heuristics employed. Different heuristics based on different attributes and properties perform differently in terms of the quality of the clusters produced. This motivates us to design new heuristics for clustering large networks. In this paper, we have proposed two new heuristics and analyzed the performance thereof after incorporating those with three different combinations in a recently celebrated greedy clustering algorithm named SPICi. We have extensively analyzed the effectiveness of these new variants. The results are found to be promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Report from the 2nd Workshop on Extremely Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Becla

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and sophistication of large scale analytics in science and industry have advanced dramatically in recent years. Analysts are struggling to use complex techniques such as time series analysis and classification algorithms because their familiar, powerful tools are not scalable and cannot effectively use scalable database systems. The 2nd Extremely Large Databases (XLDB workshop was organized to understand these issues, examine their implications, and brainstorm possible solutions. The design of a new open source science database, SciDB that emerged from the first workshop in this series was also debated. This paper is the final report of the discussions and activities at this workshop.

  9. Ac hopping conduction at extreme disorder takes place on the percolating cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of the random barrier model show that ac currents at extreme disorder are carried almost entirely by the percolating cluster slightly above threshold; thus contributions from isolated low activation-energy clusters are negligible. The effective medium approximation in conjunction...

  10. Formation of large clusters during sputtering of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudt, C.; Heinrich, R.; Wucher, A.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied the formation of polyatomic clusters during sputtering of metal surfaces by keV ion bombardment. Both positively charged (secondary cluster ions) and neutral clusters have been detected in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer under otherwise identical experimental conditions, the sputtered neutrals being post-ionized by single photon absorption using a pulsed 157 nm VUV laser beam. Due to the high achievable laser intensity, the photoionization of all clusters could be saturated, thus enabling a quantitative determination of the respective partial sputtering yields. We find that the relative yield distributions of sputtered clusters are strongly correlated with the total sputtering yield in a way that higher yields lead to higher abundances of large clusters. By using heavy projectile ions (Xe + ) in connection with bombarding energies up to 15 keV, we have been able to detect sputtered neutral silver clusters containing up to about 60 atoms. For cluster sizes above 40 atoms, doubly charged species are shown to be produced in the photoionization process with non-negligible efficiency. From a direct comparison of secondary neutral and ion yields, the ionization probability of sputtered clusters is determined as a function of the cluster size. It is demonstrated that even the largest silver clusters are still predominantly sputtered as neutrals

  11. Analysis and comparison of very large metagenomes with fast clustering and functional annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weizhong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The remarkable advance of metagenomics presents significant new challenges in data analysis. Metagenomic datasets (metagenomes are large collections of sequencing reads from anonymous species within particular environments. Computational analyses for very large metagenomes are extremely time-consuming, and there are often many novel sequences in these metagenomes that are not fully utilized. The number of available metagenomes is rapidly increasing, so fast and efficient metagenome comparison methods are in great demand. Results The new metagenomic data analysis method Rapid Analysis of Multiple Metagenomes with a Clustering and Annotation Pipeline (RAMMCAP was developed using an ultra-fast sequence clustering algorithm, fast protein family annotation tools, and a novel statistical metagenome comparison method that employs a unique graphic interface. RAMMCAP processes extremely large datasets with only moderate computational effort. It identifies raw read clusters and protein clusters that may include novel gene families, and compares metagenomes using clusters or functional annotations calculated by RAMMCAP. In this study, RAMMCAP was applied to the two largest available metagenomic collections, the "Global Ocean Sampling" and the "Metagenomic Profiling of Nine Biomes". Conclusion RAMMCAP is a very fast method that can cluster and annotate one million metagenomic reads in only hundreds of CPU hours. It is available from http://tools.camera.calit2.net/camera/rammcap/.

  12. Sizing the star cluster population of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2018-04-01

    The number of star clusters that populate the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at deprojected distances knowledge of the LMC cluster formation and dissolution histories, we closely revisited such a compilation of objects and found that only ˜35 per cent of the previously known catalogued clusters have been included. The remaining entries are likely related to stellar overdensities of the LMC composite star field, because there is a remarkable enhancement of objects with assigned ages older than log(t yr-1) ˜ 9.4, which contrasts with the existence of the LMC cluster age gap; the assumption of a cluster formation rate similar to that of the LMC star field does not help to conciliate so large amount of clusters either; and nearly 50 per cent of them come from cluster search procedures known to produce more than 90 per cent of false detections. The lack of further analyses to confirm the physical reality as genuine star clusters of the identified overdensities also glooms those results. We support that the actual size of the LMC main body cluster population is close to that previously known.

  13. A Unique Sample of Extreme-BCG Clusters at 0.2 < z < 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Gordon

    2017-09-01

    The recently-discovered Phoenix cluster harbors the most extreme BCG in the known universe. Despite the cluster's high mass and X-ray luminosity, it was consistently identified by surveys as an isolated AGN, due to the bright central point source and the compact cool core. Armed with hindsight, we have undertaken an all-sky survey based on archival X-ray, OIR, and radio data to identify other similarly-extreme systems that were likewise missed. A pilot study demonstrated that this strategy works, leading to the discovery of a new, massive cluster at z 0.2 which was missed by previous X-ray surveys due to the presence of a bright central QSO. We propose here to observe 6 new clusters from our complete northern-sky survey, which harbor some of the most extreme central galaxies known.

  14. Large Scale Meteorological Pattern of Extreme Rainfall in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswanto, Heri; Grotjahn, Richard; Rachmi, Arinda; Suhermi, Novri; Oktania, Erma; Wijaya, Yosep

    2014-05-01

    Extreme Weather Events (EWEs) cause negative impacts socially, economically, and environmentally. Considering these facts, forecasting EWEs is crucial work. Indonesia has been identified as being among the countries most vulnerable to the risk of natural disasters, such as floods, heat waves, and droughts. Current forecasting of extreme events in Indonesia is carried out by interpreting synoptic maps for several fields without taking into account the link between the observed events in the 'target' area with remote conditions. This situation may cause misidentification of the event leading to an inaccurate prediction. Grotjahn and Faure (2008) compute composite maps from extreme events (including heat waves and intense rainfall) to help forecasters identify such events in model output. The composite maps show large scale meteorological patterns (LSMP) that occurred during historical EWEs. Some vital information about the EWEs can be acquired from studying such maps, in addition to providing forecaster guidance. Such maps have robust mid-latitude meteorological patterns (for Sacramento and California Central Valley, USA EWEs). We study the performance of the composite approach for tropical weather condition such as Indonesia. Initially, the composite maps are developed to identify and forecast the extreme weather events in Indramayu district- West Java, the main producer of rice in Indonesia and contributes to about 60% of the national total rice production. Studying extreme weather events happening in Indramayu is important since EWEs there affect national agricultural and fisheries activities. During a recent EWE more than a thousand houses in Indramayu suffered from serious flooding with each home more than one meter underwater. The flood also destroyed a thousand hectares of rice plantings in 5 regencies. Identifying the dates of extreme events is one of the most important steps and has to be carried out carefully. An approach has been applied to identify the

  15. Report from the 5th Workshop on Extremely Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Becla

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The 5th XLDB workshop brought together scientific and industrial users, developers, and researchers of extremely large data and focused on emerging challenges in the healthcare and genomics communities, spreadsheet-based large scale analysis, and challenges in applying statistics to large scale analysis, including machine learning. Major problems discussed were the lack of scalable applications, the lack of expertise in developing solutions, the lack of respect for or attention to big data problems, data volume growth exceeding Moore's Law, poorly scaling algorithms, and poor data quality and integration. More communication between users, developers, and researchers is sorely needed. A variety of future work to help all three groups was discussed, ranging from collecting challenge problems to connecting with particular industrial or academic sectors.

  16. Interacting star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Overmerging problem solved by cluster group formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Stéphane; Bergond, Gilles; Vallenari, Antonella

    1999-04-01

    We present the tidal tail distributions of a sample of candidate binary clusters located in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). One isolated cluster, SL 268, is presented in order to study the effect of the LMC tidal field. All the candidate binary clusters show tidal tails, confirming that the pairs are formed by physically linked objects. The stellar mass in the tails covers a large range, from 1.8x 10(3) to 3x 10(4) \\msun. We derive a total mass estimate for SL 268 and SL 356. At large radii, the projected density profiles of SL 268 and SL 356 fall off as r(-gamma ) , with gamma = 2.27 and gamma =3.44, respectively. Out of 4 pairs or multiple systems, 2 are older than the theoretical survival time of binary clusters (going from a few 10(6) years to 10(8) years). A pair shows too large age difference between the components to be consistent with classical theoretical models of binary cluster formation (Fujimoto & Kumai \\cite{fujimoto97}). We refer to this as the ``overmerging'' problem. A different scenario is proposed: the formation proceeds in large molecular complexes giving birth to groups of clusters over a few 10(7) years. In these groups the expected cluster encounter rate is larger, and tidal capture has higher probability. Cluster pairs are not born together through the splitting of the parent cloud, but formed later by tidal capture. For 3 pairs, we tentatively identify the star cluster group (SCG) memberships. The SCG formation, through the recent cluster starburst triggered by the LMC-SMC encounter, in contrast with the quiescent open cluster formation in the Milky Way can be an explanation to the paucity of binary clusters observed in our Galaxy. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile}

  17. Report from the 6th Workshop on Extremely Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liwei Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Petascale data management and analysis remain one of the main unresolved challenges in today's computing. The 6th Extremely Large Databases workshop was convened alongside the XLDB conference to discuss the challenges in the health care, biology, and natural resources communities. The role of cloud computing, the dominance of file-based solutions in science applications, in-situ and predictive analysis, and commercial software use in academic environments were discussed in depth as well. This paper summarizes the discussions of this workshop.

  18. Metal cluster compounds - chemistry and importance; clusters containing isolated main group element atoms, large metal cluster compounds, cluster fluxionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, B.

    1988-01-01

    This part of the review on metal cluster compounds deals with clusters containing isolated main group element atoms, with high nuclearity clusters and metal cluster fluxionality. It will be obvious that main group element atoms strongly influence the geometry, stability and reactivity of the clusters. High nuclearity clusters are of interest in there own due to the diversity of the structures adopted, but their intermediate position between molecules and the metallic state makes them a fascinating research object too. These both sites of the metal cluster chemistry as well as the frequently observed ligand and core fluxionality are related to the cluster metal and surface analogy. (author)

  19. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes: large earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Lavenda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershock sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Fréchet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions shows that self-similar power laws are transformed into nonscaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Fréchet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Fréchet distribution. Earthquaketemperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  20. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes. Large earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavenda, B. [Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy); Cipollone, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). National Centre for Research on Thermodynamics

    2000-06-01

    A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershocks sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Frechet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions show that self-similar power laws are transformed into non scaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Frechet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same catalogue of Chinese earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Frechet distribution. Earthquake temperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  1. Solving Large Clustering Problems with Meta-Heuristic Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel; Andersen, Kim Allan; Bang-Jensen, Jørgen

    In Clustering Problems, groups of similar subjects are to be retrieved from data sets. In this paper, Clustering Problems with the frequently used Minimum Sum-of-Squares Criterion are solved using meta-heuristic search. Tabu search has proved to be a successful methodology for solving optimization...... problems, but applications to large clustering problems are rare. The simulated annealing heuristic has mainly been applied to relatively small instances. In this paper, we implement tabu search and simulated annealing approaches and compare them to the commonly used k-means approach. We find that the meta-heuristic...

  2. Large Scale Simulations of the Euler Equations on GPU Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Liebmann, Manfred

    2010-08-01

    The paper investigates the scalability of a parallel Euler solver, using the Vijayasundaram method, on a GPU cluster with 32 Nvidia Geforce GTX 295 boards. The aim of this research is to enable large scale fluid dynamics simulations with up to one billion elements. We investigate communication protocols for the GPU cluster to compensate for the slow Gigabit Ethernet network between the GPU compute nodes and to maintain overall efficiency. A diesel engine intake-port and a nozzle, meshed in different resolutions, give good real world examples for the scalability tests on the GPU cluster. © 2010 IEEE.

  3. MAD about the Large Magellanic Cloud Preparing for the era of Extremely Large Telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Valenti, E.; Cignoni, M.; Mackey, A. D.

    We present J, H, K-s photometry from the the Multi conjugate Adaptive optics Demonstrator (MAD), a visitor instrument at the VLT, of a resolved stellar population in a small crowded field in the bar of the Large Magellanic Cloud near the globular cluster NGC 1928. In a total exposure time of 6, 36

  4. Parallel clustering algorithm for large-scale biological data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minchao; Zhang, Wu; Ding, Wang; Dai, Dongbo; Zhang, Huiran; Xie, Hao; Chen, Luonan; Guo, Yike; Xie, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Recent explosion of biological data brings a great challenge for the traditional clustering algorithms. With increasing scale of data sets, much larger memory and longer runtime are required for the cluster identification problems. The affinity propagation algorithm outperforms many other classical clustering algorithms and is widely applied into the biological researches. However, the time and space complexity become a great bottleneck when handling the large-scale data sets. Moreover, the similarity matrix, whose constructing procedure takes long runtime, is required before running the affinity propagation algorithm, since the algorithm clusters data sets based on the similarities between data pairs. Two types of parallel architectures are proposed in this paper to accelerate the similarity matrix constructing procedure and the affinity propagation algorithm. The memory-shared architecture is used to construct the similarity matrix, and the distributed system is taken for the affinity propagation algorithm, because of its large memory size and great computing capacity. An appropriate way of data partition and reduction is designed in our method, in order to minimize the global communication cost among processes. A speedup of 100 is gained with 128 cores. The runtime is reduced from serval hours to a few seconds, which indicates that parallel algorithm is capable of handling large-scale data sets effectively. The parallel affinity propagation also achieves a good performance when clustering large-scale gene data (microarray) and detecting families in large protein superfamilies.

  5. A Deep Learning Prediction Model Based on Extreme-Point Symmetric Mode Decomposition and Cluster Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guohui; Zhang, Songling; Yang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Aiming at the irregularity of nonlinear signal and its predicting difficulty, a deep learning prediction model based on extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition (ESMD) and clustering analysis is proposed. Firstly, the original data is decomposed by ESMD to obtain the finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and residuals. Secondly, the fuzzy c-means is used to cluster the decomposed components, and then the deep belief network (DBN) is used to predict it. Finally, the reconstructed ...

  6. Extremely large breast abscess in a breastfeeding mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martic, Krešimir; Vasilj, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Puerperal mastitis often occurs in younger primiparous women. Most cases occur between 3 and 8 weeks postpartum. If mastitis results in the formation of a breast abscess, surgical drainage or needle aspiration is most commonly performed. We report a case of an extremely large breast abscess in a primiparous 20-year-old woman, which presented 6 weeks postpartum. Surgical incision and evacuation of 2 liters of exudate were performed, and intravenous antibiotics therapy was administered. On the sixth day after incision, we secondarily closed the wound. Examination after 3 months showed symmetrical breasts with a small scar in the incision area of the right breast. A high degree of suspicion and adequate diagnostic procedures are essential to avoid delay in the treatment of mastitis and breast abscess and thereby prevent unnecessary surgical treatment.

  7. Extremely large magnetoresistance and electronic structure of TmSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Yan; Zhang, Hongyun; Lu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Lin-Lin; Xu, Sheng; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Liu, Kai; Zhou, Shuyun; Xia, Tian-Long

    2018-02-01

    We report the magnetotransport properties and the electronic structure of TmSb. TmSb exhibits extremely large transverse magnetoresistance and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillation at low temperature and high magnetic field. Interestingly, the split of Fermi surfaces induced by the nonsymmetric spin-orbit interaction has been observed from SdH oscillation. The analysis of the angle-dependent SdH oscillation illustrates the contribution of each Fermi surface to the conductivity. The electronic structure revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and first-principles calculations demonstrates a gap at the X point and the absence of band inversion. Combined with the trivial Berry phase extracted from SdH oscillation and the nearly equal concentrations of electron and hole from Hall measurements, it is suggested that TmSb is a topologically trivial semimetal and the observed XMR originates from the electron-hole compensation and high mobility.

  8. Large-Scale Multi-Dimensional Document Clustering on GPU Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Mueller, Frank [North Carolina State University; Zhang, Yongpeng [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Document clustering plays an important role in data mining systems. Recently, a flocking-based document clustering algorithm has been proposed to solve the problem through simulation resembling the flocking behavior of birds in nature. This method is superior to other clustering algorithms, including k-means, in the sense that the outcome is not sensitive to the initial state. One limitation of this approach is that the algorithmic complexity is inherently quadratic in the number of documents. As a result, execution time becomes a bottleneck with large number of documents. In this paper, we assess the benefits of exploiting the computational power of Beowulf-like clusters equipped with contemporary Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) as a means to significantly reduce the runtime of flocking-based document clustering. Our framework scales up to over one million documents processed simultaneously in a sixteennode GPU cluster. Results are also compared to a four-node cluster with higher-end GPUs. On these clusters, we observe 30X-50X speedups, which demonstrates the potential of GPU clusters to efficiently solve massive data mining problems. Such speedups combined with the scalability potential and accelerator-based parallelization are unique in the domain of document-based data mining, to the best of our knowledge.

  9. Adaptive Scaling of Cluster Boundaries for Large-Scale Social Media Data Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lei; Tan, Ah-Hwee; Wunsch, Donald C

    2016-12-01

    The large scale and complex nature of social media data raises the need to scale clustering techniques to big data and make them capable of automatically identifying data clusters with few empirical settings. In this paper, we present our investigation and three algorithms based on the fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (Fuzzy ART) that have linear computational complexity, use a single parameter, i.e., the vigilance parameter to identify data clusters, and are robust to modest parameter settings. The contribution of this paper lies in two aspects. First, we theoretically demonstrate how complement coding, commonly known as a normalization method, changes the clustering mechanism of Fuzzy ART, and discover the vigilance region (VR) that essentially determines how a cluster in the Fuzzy ART system recognizes similar patterns in the feature space. The VR gives an intrinsic interpretation of the clustering mechanism and limitations of Fuzzy ART. Second, we introduce the idea of allowing different clusters in the Fuzzy ART system to have different vigilance levels in order to meet the diverse nature of the pattern distribution of social media data. To this end, we propose three vigilance adaptation methods, namely, the activation maximization (AM) rule, the confliction minimization (CM) rule, and the hybrid integration (HI) rule. With an initial vigilance value, the resulting clustering algorithms, namely, the AM-ART, CM-ART, and HI-ART, can automatically adapt the vigilance values of all clusters during the learning epochs in order to produce better cluster boundaries. Experiments on four social media data sets show that AM-ART, CM-ART, and HI-ART are more robust than Fuzzy ART to the initial vigilance value, and they usually achieve better or comparable performance and much faster speed than the state-of-the-art clustering algorithms that also do not require a predefined number of clusters.

  10. The interaction of super-intense ultra-short laser pulse and micro-clusters with large atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jingwei; Yang Chaowen; An Zhu; Yuan Xuedong; Sun Weiguo; Luo Xiaobing; Wang Hu; Bai Lixing; Shi Miangong; Miao Lei; Zhen Zhijian; Gu Yuqin; Liu Hongjie; Zhu Zhouseng; Sun Liwei; Liao Xuehua

    2007-01-01

    The fusion mechanism of large deuterium clusters (100-1000 Atoms/per cluster) in super-intense ultra-short laser pulse field, Coulomb explosions of micro-cluster in solids, gases and Large-size clusters have been studied using the interaction of a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses with large deuterium clusters, collision of high-quality beam of micro-cluster from 2.5 MV van de Graaff accelerator with solids, gases and large clusters. The experimental advance of the project is reported. (authors)

  11. Accelerated EM-based clustering of large data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.J.; Nunnink, J.R.J.; Vlassis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the poor performance (linear complexity) of the EM algorithm in clustering large data sets, and inspired by the successful accelerated versions of related algorithms like k-means, we derive an accelerated variant of the EM algorithm for Gaussian mixtures that: (1) offers speedups that

  12. Large Scale Simulations of the Euler Equations on GPU Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Liebmann, Manfred; Douglas, Craig C.; Haase, Gundolf; Horvá th, Zoltá n

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the scalability of a parallel Euler solver, using the Vijayasundaram method, on a GPU cluster with 32 Nvidia Geforce GTX 295 boards. The aim of this research is to enable large scale fluid dynamics simulations with up to one

  13. Large psub(T) pion production and clustered parton model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanki, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1977-05-01

    Recent experimental results on the large p sub(T) inclusive ..pi../sup 0/ productions by pp and ..pi..p collisions are interpreted by the parton model in which the constituent quarks are defined to be the clusters of the quark-partons and gluons.

  14. Extreme ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy of pure and core-shell rare gas clusters at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroedter, Lasse

    2013-08-15

    The interaction of rare gas clusters with short-wavelength radiation of free-electron lasers (FELs) has been studied extensively over the last decade by means of electron and ion time-of-flight spectroscopy. This thesis describes the design and construction of a fluorescence spectrometer for the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range and discusses the cluster experiments performed at FLASH, the Free-electron LAser in Hamburg. Fluorescence of xenon and of argon clusters was studied, both in dependence on the FEL pulse intensity and on the cluster size. The FEL wavelength was set to the giant 4d-resonance of xenon at 13.5 nm and the FEL pulse intensity reached peak values of 2.7.10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. For xenon clusters, charge states of at least 11+ were identified. For argon, charge states up to 7+ were detected. The cluster-size dependent study revealed a decrease of the fluorescence yield per atom with increasing cluster size. This decrease is explained with the help of a geometric model. It assumes that virtually the entire fluorescence yield stems from shells of ions on the cluster surface, whereas ions in the cluster core predominantly recombine non-radiatively with electrons. However, the detailed analysis of fluorescence spectra from clusters consisting of a core of Xe atoms and a surrounding shell of argon atoms shows that, in fact, a small fraction of the fluorescence signal comes from Xe ions in the cluster core. Interestingly, these ions are as highly charged as the ions in the shells of a pure Xe cluster. This result goes beyond the current understanding of charge and energy transfer processes in these systems and points toward the observation of ultrafast charging dynamics in a time window where mass spectrometry is inherently blind. (orig.)

  15. Extreme ultraviolet fluorescence spectroscopy of pure and core-shell rare gas clusters at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroedter, Lasse

    2013-08-01

    The interaction of rare gas clusters with short-wavelength radiation of free-electron lasers (FELs) has been studied extensively over the last decade by means of electron and ion time-of-flight spectroscopy. This thesis describes the design and construction of a fluorescence spectrometer for the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range and discusses the cluster experiments performed at FLASH, the Free-electron LAser in Hamburg. Fluorescence of xenon and of argon clusters was studied, both in dependence on the FEL pulse intensity and on the cluster size. The FEL wavelength was set to the giant 4d-resonance of xenon at 13.5 nm and the FEL pulse intensity reached peak values of 2.7.10 15 W/cm 2 . For xenon clusters, charge states of at least 11+ were identified. For argon, charge states up to 7+ were detected. The cluster-size dependent study revealed a decrease of the fluorescence yield per atom with increasing cluster size. This decrease is explained with the help of a geometric model. It assumes that virtually the entire fluorescence yield stems from shells of ions on the cluster surface, whereas ions in the cluster core predominantly recombine non-radiatively with electrons. However, the detailed analysis of fluorescence spectra from clusters consisting of a core of Xe atoms and a surrounding shell of argon atoms shows that, in fact, a small fraction of the fluorescence signal comes from Xe ions in the cluster core. Interestingly, these ions are as highly charged as the ions in the shells of a pure Xe cluster. This result goes beyond the current understanding of charge and energy transfer processes in these systems and points toward the observation of ultrafast charging dynamics in a time window where mass spectrometry is inherently blind. (orig.)

  16. Correlated proton-electron hole dynamics in protonated water clusters upon extreme ultraviolet photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2On after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. For situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20 to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects.

  17. Correlated proton-electron hole dynamics in protonated water clusters upon extreme ultraviolet photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast nuclear and electronic dynamics of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n after extreme ultraviolet photoionization is investigated. In particular, we focus on cluster cations with n = 3, 6, and 21. Upon ionization, two positive charges are present in the cluster related to the excess proton and the missing electron, respectively. A correlation is found between the cluster's geometrical conformation and initial electronic energy with the size of the final fragments produced. For situations in which the electron hole and proton are initially spatially close, the two entities become correlated and separate in a time-scale of 20 to 40 fs driven by strong non-adiabatic effects. PMID:26798842

  18. LARGE-SCALE FILAMENTARY STRUCTURES AROUND THE VIRGO CLUSTER REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Lee, Woong; Chung, Jiwon [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Bureau, Martin [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Yoon, Hyein; Chung, Aeree [Department of Astronomy and Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jeong, Hyunjin; Sung, Eon-Chang, E-mail: screy@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: star4citizen@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We revisit the filamentary structures of galaxies around the Virgo cluster, exploiting a larger data set, based on the HyperLeda database, than previous studies. In particular, this includes a large number of low-luminosity galaxies, resulting in better sampled individual structures. We confirm seven known structures in the distance range 4  h {sup −1} Mpc < SGY < 16  h {sup −1} Mpc, now identified as filaments, where SGY is the axis of the supergalactic coordinate system roughly along the line of sight. The Hubble diagram of the filament galaxies suggests they are infalling toward the main body of the Virgo cluster. We propose that the collinear distribution of giant elliptical galaxies along the fundamental axis of the Virgo cluster is smoothly connected to two of these filaments (Leo II A and B). Behind the Virgo cluster (16  h {sup −1} Mpc < SGY < 27  h {sup −1} Mpc), we also identify a new filament elongated toward the NGC 5353/4 group (“NGC 5353/4 filament”) and confirm a sheet that includes galaxies from the W and M clouds of the Virgo cluster (“W–M sheet”). In the Hubble diagram, the NGC 5353/4 filament galaxies show infall toward the NGC 5353/4 group, whereas the W–M sheet galaxies do not show hints of gravitational influence from the Virgo cluster. The filamentary structures identified can now be used to better understand the generic role of filaments in the build-up of galaxy clusters at z  ≈ 0.

  19. Attosecond extreme ultraviolet generation in cluster by using spatially inhomogeneous field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Liqiang, E-mail: lqfeng-lngy@126.com [College of Science, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou, 121000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Liu, Hang [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121000 (China)

    2015-01-15

    A promising method to generate the attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources has been theoretically investigated emerging from the two-dimensional Ar{sup +} cluster driven by the spatially inhomogeneous field. The results show that with the introduction of the Ar{sup +} cluster model, not only the harmonic cutoffs are enhanced, but also the harmonic yields are reinforced. Furthermore, by properly moderating the inhomogeneity as well as the laser parameters of the inhomogeneous field, the harmonic cutoff can be further extended. As a result, three almost linearly polarized XUV pulses with durations of 40 as, 42 as, and 45 as can be obtained.

  20. Orthology detection combining clustering and synteny for very large datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Lechner, Marcus; Hernandez-Rosales, Maribel; Doerr, Daniel; Wieseke, Nicolas; Thévenin, Annelyse; Stoye, Jens; Hartmann, Roland K.; Prohaska, Sonja J.; Stadler, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of orthology relationships is an important step both in gene function prediction as well as towards understanding patterns of sequence evolution. Orthology assignments are usually derived directly from sequence similarities for large data because more exact approaches exhibit too high computational costs. Here we present PoFF, an extension for the standalone tool Proteinortho, which enhances orthology detection by combining clustering, sequence similarity, and synteny. In the ...

  1. Statistical uncertainty of extreme wind storms over Europe derived from a probabilistic clustering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Michael; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2016-04-01

    Extratropical wind storms pose one of the most dangerous and loss intensive natural hazards for Europe. However, due to only 50 years of high quality observational data, it is difficult to assess the statistical uncertainty of these sparse events just based on observations. Over the last decade seasonal ensemble forecasts have become indispensable in quantifying the uncertainty of weather prediction on seasonal timescales. In this study seasonal forecasts are used in a climatological context: By making use of the up to 51 ensemble members, a broad and physically consistent statistical base can be created. This base can then be used to assess the statistical uncertainty of extreme wind storm occurrence more accurately. In order to determine the statistical uncertainty of storms with different paths of progression, a probabilistic clustering approach using regression mixture models is used to objectively assign storm tracks (either based on core pressure or on extreme wind speeds) to different clusters. The advantage of this technique is that the entire lifetime of a storm is considered for the clustering algorithm. Quadratic curves are found to describe the storm tracks most accurately. Three main clusters (diagonal, horizontal or vertical progression of the storm track) can be identified, each of which have their own particulate features. Basic storm features like average velocity and duration are calculated and compared for each cluster. The main benefit of this clustering technique, however, is to evaluate if the clusters show different degrees of uncertainty, e.g. more (less) spread for tracks approaching Europe horizontally (diagonally). This statistical uncertainty is compared for different seasonal forecast products.

  2. Characteristics of autumn-winter extreme precipitation on the Norwegian west coast identified by cluster analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, U. [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Uni Bjerknes Centre, Bergen (Norway); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sorteberg, A. [University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-08-15

    Extremely high autumn and winter precipitation events on the European west coast are often driven by low-pressure systems in the North Atlantic. Climate projections suggest the number and intensity of these events is likely to increase far more than the mean precipitation. In this study we investigate the autumn-winter extreme precipitation on the Norwegian west coast and the connection between its spatial distribution and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns using the k-means cluster analysis. We use three relatively high resolved downscalings of one global coupled model: the Arpege global atmospheric model (stretched grid with 35-km horizontal resolution over Norway) and the WRF-downscaled Arpege model (30 and 10-km) for the 30-year periods of 1961-1990 and 2021-2050. The cluster analysis finds three main SLP patterns responsible for extreme precipitation in different parts of the country. The SLP patterns found are similar to the NAO positive pattern known to strengthen the westerly flow towards European coast. We then apply the method to investigate future change in extreme precipitation. We find an increase in the number of days with extreme precipitation of 15, 39 and 35% in the two simulations (Arpege 35-km and WRF 30 and 10-km, respectively). We do not find evidence of a significant change in the frequency of weather patterns between the present and the future periods. Rather, it is the probability of a given weather pattern to cause extreme precipitation which is increased in the future, probably due to higher temperatures and an increased moisture content of the air. The WRF model predicts the increase in this probability caused by the most important SLP patterns to be >50%. The Arpege model does not predict such a significant change because the general increase in extreme precipitation predicted is smaller, probably due to its coarser resolution over ocean which leads to smoother representation of the low pressure systems. (orig.)

  3. The CMS online cluster: IT for a large data acquisition and control cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G; Beccati, B; Cano, E; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Deldicque, C; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Gutleber, J; Behrens, U; Hatton, D; Biery, K; Brett, A; Cheung, H; Branson, J; Coarasa, J A; Dusinberre, E; Rodrigues, F Fortes

    2010-01-01

    The CMS online cluster consists of more than 2000 computers running about 10000 application instances. These applications implement the control of the experiment, the event building, the high level trigger, the online database and the control of the buffering and transferring of data to the Central Data Recording at CERN. In this paper the IT solutions employed to fulfil the requirements of such a large cluster are revised. Details are given on the chosen network structure, configuration management system, monitoring infrastructure and on the implementation of the high availability for the services and infrastructure.

  4. IR wireless cluster synapses of HYDRA very large neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    RF/IR wireless (virtual) synapses are critical components of HYDRA (Hyper-Distributed Robotic Autonomy) neural networks, already discussed in two earlier papers. The HYDRA network has the potential to be very large, up to 10 11-neurons and 10 18-synapses, based on already established technologies (cellular RF telephony and IR-wireless LANs). It is organized into almost fully connected IR-wireless clusters. The HYDRA neurons and synapses are very flexible, simple, and low-cost. They can be modified into a broad variety of biologically-inspired brain-like computing capabilities. In this third paper, we focus on neural hardware in general, and on IR-wireless synapses in particular. Such synapses, based on LED/LD-connections, dominate the HYDRA neural cluster.

  5. Orthology detection combining clustering and synteny for very large datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Marcus; Hernandez-Rosales, Maribel; Doerr, Daniel; Wieseke, Nicolas; Thévenin, Annelyse; Stoye, Jens; Hartmann, Roland K; Prohaska, Sonja J; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    The elucidation of orthology relationships is an important step both in gene function prediction as well as towards understanding patterns of sequence evolution. Orthology assignments are usually derived directly from sequence similarities for large data because more exact approaches exhibit too high computational costs. Here we present PoFF, an extension for the standalone tool Proteinortho, which enhances orthology detection by combining clustering, sequence similarity, and synteny. In the course of this work, FFAdj-MCS, a heuristic that assesses pairwise gene order using adjacencies (a similarity measure related to the breakpoint distance) was adapted to support multiple linear chromosomes and extended to detect duplicated regions. PoFF largely reduces the number of false positives and enables more fine-grained predictions than purely similarity-based approaches. The extension maintains the low memory requirements and the efficient concurrency options of its basis Proteinortho, making the software applicable to very large datasets.

  6. Orthology detection combining clustering and synteny for very large datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lechner

    Full Text Available The elucidation of orthology relationships is an important step both in gene function prediction as well as towards understanding patterns of sequence evolution. Orthology assignments are usually derived directly from sequence similarities for large data because more exact approaches exhibit too high computational costs. Here we present PoFF, an extension for the standalone tool Proteinortho, which enhances orthology detection by combining clustering, sequence similarity, and synteny. In the course of this work, FFAdj-MCS, a heuristic that assesses pairwise gene order using adjacencies (a similarity measure related to the breakpoint distance was adapted to support multiple linear chromosomes and extended to detect duplicated regions. PoFF largely reduces the number of false positives and enables more fine-grained predictions than purely similarity-based approaches. The extension maintains the low memory requirements and the efficient concurrency options of its basis Proteinortho, making the software applicable to very large datasets.

  7. Virtual screening by a new Clustering-based Weighted Similarity Extreme Learning Machine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupa, Kitsuchart; Kudisthalert, Wasu

    2018-01-01

    Machine learning techniques are becoming popular in virtual screening tasks. One of the powerful machine learning algorithms is Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) which has been applied to many applications and has recently been applied to virtual screening. We propose the Weighted Similarity ELM (WS-ELM) which is based on a single layer feed-forward neural network in a conjunction of 16 different similarity coefficients as activation function in the hidden layer. It is known that the performance of conventional ELM is not robust due to random weight selection in the hidden layer. Thus, we propose a Clustering-based WS-ELM (CWS-ELM) that deterministically assigns weights by utilising clustering algorithms i.e. k-means clustering and support vector clustering. The experiments were conducted on one of the most challenging datasets-Maximum Unbiased Validation Dataset-which contains 17 activity classes carefully selected from PubChem. The proposed algorithms were then compared with other machine learning techniques such as support vector machine, random forest, and similarity searching. The results show that CWS-ELM in conjunction with support vector clustering yields the best performance when utilised together with Sokal/Sneath(1) coefficient. Furthermore, ECFP_6 fingerprint presents the best results in our framework compared to the other types of fingerprints, namely ECFP_4, FCFP_4, and FCFP_6.

  8. Spatial extreme value analysis to project extremes of large-scale indicators for severe weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleland, Eric; Brown, Barbara G; Ammann, Caspar M

    2013-09-01

    Concurrently high values of the maximum potential wind speed of updrafts ( W max ) and 0-6 km wind shear (Shear) have been found to represent conducive environments for severe weather, which subsequently provides a way to study severe weather in future climates. Here, we employ a model for the product of these variables (WmSh) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/United States National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis over North America conditioned on their having extreme energy in the spatial field in order to project the predominant spatial patterns of WmSh. The approach is based on the Heffernan and Tawn conditional extreme value model. Results suggest that this technique estimates the spatial behavior of WmSh well, which allows for exploring possible changes in the patterns over time. While the model enables a method for inferring the uncertainty in the patterns, such analysis is difficult with the currently available inference approach. A variation of the method is also explored to investigate how this type of model might be used to qualitatively understand how the spatial patterns of WmSh correspond to extreme river flow events. A case study for river flows from three rivers in northwestern Tennessee is studied, and it is found that advection of WmSh from the Gulf of Mexico prevails while elsewhere, WmSh is generally very low during such extreme events. © 2013 The Authors. Environmetrics published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. III. Reticulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Dame, Kyra; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Jeon, Young-Beom; Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair R.; Kunder, Andrea; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2013-06-01

    This is the third in a series of papers studying the variable stars in old globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The primary goal of this series is to look at how the characteristics and behavior of RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to those of their counterparts in Oosterhoff-I/II systems. In this paper we present the results of our new time-series BVI photometric study of the globular cluster Reticulum. We found a total of 32 variables stars (22 RRab, 4 RRc, and 6 RRd stars) in our field of view. We present photometric parameters and light curves for these stars. We also present physical properties, derived from Fourier analysis of light curves, for some of the RR Lyrae stars. We discuss the Oosterhoff classification of Reticulum and use our results to re-derive the distance modulus and age of the cluster. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  10. Launching large computing applications on a disk-less cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwemmer, Rainer; Caicedo Carvajal, Juan Manuel; Neufeld, Niko

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb Event Filter Farm system is based on a cluster of the order of 1.500 disk-less Linux nodes. Each node runs one instance of the filtering application per core. The amount of cores in our current production environment is 8 per machine for the old cluster and 12 per machine on extension of the cluster. Each instance has to load about 1.000 shared libraries, weighting 200 MB from several directory locations from a central repository. The repository is currently hosted on a SAN and exported via NFS. The libraries are all available in the local file system cache on every node. Loading a library still causes a huge number of requests to the server though, because the loader will try to probe every available path. Measurements show there are between 100.000-200.000 calls per application instance start up. Multiplied by the numbers of cores in the farm, this translates into a veritable DDoS attack on the servers, which lasts several minutes. Since the application is being restarted frequently, a better solution had to be found.scp Rolling out the software to the nodes is out of the question, because they have no disks and the software in it's entirety is too large to put into a ram disk. To solve this problem we developed a FUSE based file systems which acts as a permanent, controllable cache that keeps the essential files that are necessary in stock.

  11. Extreme Temperature Regimes during the Cool Season and their Associated Large-Scale Circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In the cool season (November-March), extreme temperature events (ETEs) always hit the continental United States (US) and provide significant societal impacts. According to the anomalous amplitudes of the surface air temperature (SAT), there are two typical types of ETEs, e.g. cold waves (CWs) and warm waves (WWs). This study used cluster analysis to categorize both CWs and WWs into four distinct regimes respectively and investigated their associated large-scale circulations on intra-seasonal time scale. Most of the CW regimes have large areal impact over the continental US. However, the distribution of cold SAT anomalies varies apparently in four regimes. In the sea level, the four CW regimes are characterized by anomalous high pressure over North America (near and to west of cold anomaly) with different extension and orientation. As a result, anomalous northerlies along east flank of anomalous high pressure convey cold air into the continental US. To the middle troposphere, the leading two groups feature large-scale and zonally-elongated circulation anomaly pattern, while the other two regimes exhibit synoptic wavetrain pattern with meridionally elongated features. As for the WW regimes, there are some patterns symmetry and anti-symmetry with respect to CW regimes. The WW regimes are characterized by anomalous low pressure and southerlies wind over North America. The first and fourth groups are affected by remote forcing emanating from North Pacific, while the others appear mainly locally forced.

  12. Shortest triplet clustering: reconstructing large phylogenies using representative sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy Vinh Le

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolutionary relationships among species based on their genetic information is one of the primary objectives in phylogenetic analysis. Reconstructing phylogenies for large data sets is still a challenging task in Bioinformatics. Results We propose a new distance-based clustering method, the shortest triplet clustering algorithm (STC, to reconstruct phylogenies. The main idea is the introduction of a natural definition of so-called k-representative sets. Based on k-representative sets, shortest triplets are reconstructed and serve as building blocks for the STC algorithm to agglomerate sequences for tree reconstruction in O(n2 time for n sequences. Simulations show that STC gives better topological accuracy than other tested methods that also build a first starting tree. STC appears as a very good method to start the tree reconstruction. However, all tested methods give similar results if balanced nearest neighbor interchange (BNNI is applied as a post-processing step. BNNI leads to an improvement in all instances. The program is available at http://www.bi.uni-duesseldorf.de/software/stc/. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the new approach efficiently reconstructs phylogenies for large data sets. We found that BNNI boosts the topological accuracy of all methods including STC, therefore, one should use BNNI as a post-processing step to get better topological accuracy.

  13. A Distributed Algorithm for the Cluster-Based Outlier Detection Using Unsupervised Extreme Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xite Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outlier detection is an important data mining task, whose target is to find the abnormal or atypical objects from a given dataset. The techniques for detecting outliers have a lot of applications, such as credit card fraud detection and environment monitoring. Our previous work proposed the Cluster-Based (CB outlier and gave a centralized method using unsupervised extreme learning machines to compute CB outliers. In this paper, we propose a new distributed algorithm for the CB outlier detection (DACB. On the master node, we collect a small number of points from the slave nodes to obtain a threshold. On each slave node, we design a new filtering method that can use the threshold to efficiently speed up the computation. Furthermore, we also propose a ranking method to optimize the order of cluster scanning. At last, the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approaches are verified through a plenty of simulation experiments.

  14. Fake Superpotential for Large and Small Extremal Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Ferrara, S; Trigiante, M

    2010-01-01

    We consider the fist order, gradient-flow, description of the scalar fields coupled to spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat black holes in extended supergravities. Using the identification of the fake superpotential with Hamilton's characteristic function we clarify some of its general properties, showing in particular (besides reviewing the issue of its duality invariance) that W has the properties of a Liapunov's function, which implies that its extrema (associated with the horizon of extremal black holes) are asymptotically stable equilibrium points of the corresponding first order dynamical system (in the sense of Liapunov). Moreover, we show that the fake superpotential W has, along the entire radial flow, the same flat directions which exist at the attractor point. This allows to study properties of the ADM mass also for small black holes where in fact W has no critical points at finite distance in moduli space. In particular the W function for small non-BPS black holes can always be computed anal...

  15. Plasmon resonances in large noble-metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soennichsen, C; Franzl, T; Wilk, T; Plessen, G von; Feldmann, J

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of spherical gold and silver clusters with diameters of 20 nm and larger. The light scattering spectra of individual clusters are measured using dark-field microscopy, thus avoiding inhomogeneous broadening effects. The dipolar plasmon resonances of the clusters are found to have nearly Lorentzian line shapes. With increasing size we observe polaritonic red-shifts of the plasmon line and increased radiation damping for both gold and silver clusters. Apart from some cluster-to-cluster variations of the plasmon lines, agreement with Mie theory is reasonably good for the gold clusters. However, it is less satisfactory for the silver clusters, possibly due to cluster faceting or chemical effects

  16. Cluman: Advanced cluster management for the large-scale infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babik, Marian; Fedorko, Ivan; Rodrigues, David

    2011-01-01

    The recent uptake of multi-core computing has produced a rapid growth of virtualisation and cloud computing services. With the increased use of the many-core processors this trend will likely accelerate and computing centres will be faced with the management of the tens of thousands of the virtual machines. Furthermore, these machines will likely be geographically distributed and need to be allocated on demand. In order to cope with such complexity we have designed and developed an advanced cluster management system that can execute administrative tasks targeting thousands of machines as well as provide an interactive high-density visualisation of the fabrics. The job management subsystem can perform complex tasks while following their progress and output and report aggregated information back to the system administrators. The visualisation subsystem can display tree maps of the infrastructure elements with data and monitoring information, thus providing a very detailed overview of the large clusters at a glance. The initial experience with development and testing of the system will be presented as well as an evaluation of its performance.

  17. High Performance Multivariate Visual Data Exploration for Extremely Large Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat

    2008-01-01

    One of the central challenges in modern science is the need to quickly derive knowledge and understanding from large, complex collections of data. We present a new approach that deals with this challenge by combining and extending techniques from high performance visual data analysis and scientific data management. This approach is demonstrated within the context of gaining insight from complex, time-varying datasets produced by a laser wakefield accelerator simulation. Our approach leverages histogram-based parallel coordinates for both visual information display as well as a vehicle for guiding a data mining operation. Data extraction and subsetting are implemented with state-of-the-art index/query technology. This approach, while applied here to accelerator science, is generally applicable to a broad set of science applications, and is implemented in a production-quality visual data analysis infrastructure. We conduct a detailed performance analysis and demonstrate good scalability on a distributed memory Cray XT4 system

  18. High Performance Multivariate Visual Data Exploration for Extremely Large Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Wu, Kesheng; Childs, Hank; Meredith, Jeremy; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Ahern, Sean; Weber, Gunther H.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes; Prabhat,

    2008-08-22

    One of the central challenges in modern science is the need to quickly derive knowledge and understanding from large, complex collections of data. We present a new approach that deals with this challenge by combining and extending techniques from high performance visual data analysis and scientific data management. This approach is demonstrated within the context of gaining insight from complex, time-varying datasets produced by a laser wakefield accelerator simulation. Our approach leverages histogram-based parallel coordinates for both visual information display as well as a vehicle for guiding a data mining operation. Data extraction and subsetting are implemented with state-of-the-art index/query technology. This approach, while applied here to accelerator science, is generally applicable to a broad set of science applications, and is implemented in a production-quality visual data analysis infrastructure. We conduct a detailed performance analysis and demonstrate good scalability on a distributed memory Cray XT4 system.

  19. The structure and large-scale organization of extreme cold waves over the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zuowei; Black, Robert X.; Deng, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Extreme cold waves (ECWs) occurring over the conterminous United States (US) are studied through a systematic identification and documentation of their local synoptic structures, associated large-scale meteorological patterns (LMPs), and forcing mechanisms external to the US. Focusing on the boreal cool season (November-March) for 1950‒2005, a hierarchical cluster analysis identifies three ECW patterns, respectively characterized by cold surface air temperature anomalies over the upper midwest (UM), northwestern (NW), and southeastern (SE) US. Locally, ECWs are synoptically organized by anomalous high pressure and northerly flow. At larger scales, the UM LMP features a zonal dipole in the mid-tropospheric height field over North America, while the NW and SE LMPs each include a zonal wave train extending from the North Pacific across North America into the North Atlantic. The Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) in general simulates the three ECW patterns quite well and successfully reproduces the observed enhancements in the frequency of their associated LMPs. La Niña and the cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) favor the occurrence of NW ECWs, while the warm PDO phase, low Arctic sea ice extent and high Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) are associated with elevated SE-ECW frequency. Additionally, high Eurasian SCE is linked to increases in the occurrence likelihood of UM ECWs.

  20. Experiences constructing and running large shared clusters at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahyl, V.; Barroso, M.; Charbonnier, C.; Eldik, J. van; Jones, P.; Kleinwort, T.; Smith, T.

    2001-01-01

    The latest steps in the steady evolution of the CERN Computer Centre have been to reduce the multitude of clusters and architectures and to concentrate on commodity hardware. An active RISC decommissioning program has been undertaken to encourage migration to Linux, and a program of merging dedicated experiment clusters into larger shared facilities has been launched. The authors describe these programs and the experiences running the resultant multi-hundred node shared Linux clusters

  1. Desorption of large molecules with light-element clusters: Effects of cluster size and substrate nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcorte, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.delcorte@uclouvain.be [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences - Bio and Soft Matter, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud, 1 bte 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Garrison, Barbara J. [Department of Chemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This contribution focuses on the conditions required to desorb a large hydrocarbon molecule using light-element clusters. The test molecule is a 7.5 kDa coil of polystyrene (PS61). Several projectiles are compared, from C{sub 60} to 110 kDa organic droplets and two substrates are used, amorphous polyethylene and mono-crystalline gold. Different aiming points and incidence angles are examined. Under specific conditions, 10 keV nanodrops can desorb PS61 intact from a gold substrate and from a soft polyethylene substrate. The prevalent mechanism for the desorption of intact and 'cold' molecules is one in which the molecules are washed away by the projectile constituents and entrained in their flux, with an emission angle close to {approx}70 deg. The effects of the different parameters on the dynamics and the underlying physics are discussed in detail and the predictions of the model are compared with other published studies.

  2. Desorption of large molecules with light-element clusters: Effects of cluster size and substrate nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcorte, Arnaud; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the conditions required to desorb a large hydrocarbon molecule using light-element clusters. The test molecule is a 7.5 kDa coil of polystyrene (PS61). Several projectiles are compared, from C 60 to 110 kDa organic droplets and two substrates are used, amorphous polyethylene and mono-crystalline gold. Different aiming points and incidence angles are examined. Under specific conditions, 10 keV nanodrops can desorb PS61 intact from a gold substrate and from a soft polyethylene substrate. The prevalent mechanism for the desorption of intact and 'cold' molecules is one in which the molecules are washed away by the projectile constituents and entrained in their flux, with an emission angle close to ∼70 deg. The effects of the different parameters on the dynamics and the underlying physics are discussed in detail and the predictions of the model are compared with other published studies.

  3. THE PECULIAR CHEMICAL INVENTORY OF NGC 2419: AN EXTREME OUTER HALO 'GLOBULAR CLUSTER'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Kirby, Evan N.; Huang Wenjin

    2011-01-01

    NGC 2419 is a massive outer halo Galactic globular cluster (GC) whose stars have previously been shown to have somewhat peculiar abundance patterns. We have observed seven luminous giants that are members of NGC 2419 with Keck/HIRES at reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. One of these giants is very peculiar, with an extremely low [Mg/Fe] and high [K/Fe] but normal abundances of most other elements. The abundance pattern does not match the nucleosynthetic yields of any supernova model. The other six stars show abundance ratios typical of inner halo Galactic GCs, represented here by a sample of giants in the nearby GC M30. Although our measurements show that NGC 2419 is unusual in some respects, its bulk properties do not provide compelling evidence for a difference between inner and outer halo GCs.

  4. Pulse-coupled mixed-mode oscillators: Cluster states and extreme noise sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamchandani, Avinash J.; Graham, James N.; Riecke, Hermann

    2018-04-01

    Motivated by rhythms in the olfactory system of the brain, we investigate the synchronization of all-to-all pulse-coupled neuronal oscillators exhibiting various types of mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs) composed of sub-threshold oscillations (STOs) and action potentials ("spikes"). We focus particularly on the impact of the delay in the interaction. In the weak-coupling regime, we reduce the system to a Kuramoto-type equation with non-sinusoidal phase coupling and the associated Fokker-Planck equation. Its linear stability analysis identifies the appearance of various cluster states. Their type depends sensitively on the delay and the width of the pulses. Interestingly, long delays do not imply slow population rhythms, and the number of emerging clusters only loosely depends on the number of STOs. Direct simulations of the oscillator equations reveal that for quantitative agreement of the weak-coupling theory the coupling strength and the noise have to be extremely small. Even moderate noise leads to significant skipping of STO cycles, which can enhance the diffusion coefficient in the Fokker-Planck equation by two orders of magnitude. Introducing an effective diffusion coefficient extends the range of agreement significantly. Numerical simulations of the Fokker-Planck equation reveal bistability and solutions with oscillatory order parameters that result from nonlinear mode interactions. These are confirmed in simulations of the full spiking model.

  5. An Extremely Lithium-rich Bright Red Giant in the Globular Cluster M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert P.; Peterson, Ruth C.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Sneden, Christopher; Fulbright, Jon P.; Langer, G. Edward

    1999-06-01

    We have serendipitously discovered an extremely lithium-rich star on the red giant branch of the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272). An echelle spectrum obtained with the Keck I High-Resolution Echelle Spectrograph reveals a Li I λ6707 resonance doublet of 520 mÅ equivalent width, and our analysis places the star among the most Li-rich giants known: logε(Li)~=+3.0. We determine the elemental abundances of this star, IV-101, and three other cluster members of similar luminosity and color and conclude that IV-101 has abundance ratios typical of giants in M3 and M13 that have undergone significant mixing. We discuss mechanisms by which a low-mass star may be so enriched in Li, focusing on the mixing of material processed by the hydrogen-burning shell just below the convective envelope. While such enrichment could conceivably happen only rarely, it may in fact regularly occur during giant-branch evolution but be rarely detected because of rapid subsequent Li depletion. Based on observations obtained with the Keck I Telescope of the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the California Association for Research in Astronomy (CARA), Inc., on behalf of the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. This Letter is dedicated to the memory of our beloved colleague Ed Langer, who died after a brief illness on February 16, 1999. Ed brought a unique theoretical perspective to our globular cluster abundance studies. His career truly embodied the academic ideals of inspiration in both teaching and research. He made friends wherever he traveled, and was an inspiration to students. We will miss him greatly.

  6. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Coupon, Jean, E-mail: elinorm@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, ch. dEcogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland)

    2017-02-10

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6 σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  7. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N.; Coupon, Jean

    2017-01-01

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6 σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  8. Large Cluster of Neisseria meningitidis Urethritis in Columbus, Ohio, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Jose A; Turner, Abigail Norris; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Retchless, Adam C; Kretz, Cecilia B; Briere, Elizabeth; Tzeng, Yih-Ling; Stephens, David S; Maierhofer, Courtney; Del Rio, Carlos; Abrams, A Jeanine; Trees, David L; Ervin, Melissa; Licon, Denisse B; Fields, Karen S; Roberts, Mysheika Williams; Dennison, Amanda; Wang, Xin

    2017-07-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a Gram-negative diplococcus that normally colonizes the nasopharynx and rarely infects the urogenital tract. On Gram stain of urethral exudates, Nm can be misidentified as the more common sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In response to a large increase in cases of Nm urethritis identified among men presenting for screening at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Columbus, Ohio, we investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of men with Nm urethritis and the molecular and phylogenetic characteristics of their Nm isolates. The study was conducted between 1 January and 18 November 2015. Seventy-five Nm urethritis cases were confirmed by biochemical and polymerase chain reaction testing. Men with Nm urethritis were a median age of 31 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 24-38) and had a median of 2 sex partners in the last 3 months (IQR = 1-3). Nm cases were predominantly black (81%) and heterosexual (99%). Most had urethral discharge (91%), reported oral sex with a female in the last 12 months (96%), and were treated with a ceftriaxone-based regimen (95%). A minority (15%) also had urethral chlamydia coinfection. All urethral Nm isolates were nongroupable, ST-11 clonal complex (cc11), ET-15, and clustered together phylogenetically. Urethral Nm isolates were similar by fine typing (PorA P1.5-1,10-8, PorB 2-2, FetA F3-6), except 2, which had different PorB types (2-78 and 2-52). Between January and November 2015, 75 urethritis cases due to a distinct Nm clade occurred among primarily black, heterosexual men in Columbus, Ohio. Future urogenital Nm infection studies should focus on pathogenesis and modes of sexual transmission. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Blocked inverted indices for exact clustering of large chemical spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, P.; Sach-Peltason, L.; Ottmann, C.; Kohlbacher, O.

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of pairwise compound similarities based on fingerprints is one of the fundamental tasks in chemoinformatics. Methods for efficient calculation of compound similarities are of utmost importance for various applications like similarity searching or library clustering. With the

  10. The impact of clustering of extreme European windstorm events on (re)insurance market portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Wallace, Kirsten; Alvarez-Diaz, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally the occurrence of windstorm loss events in Europe has been considered as independent. However, a number of significant losses close in space and time indicates that this assumption may need to be revised. Under particular atmospheric conditions multiple loss-causing cyclones can occur in succession, affecting similar geographic regions and, therefore, insurance markets. A notable example is of Lothar and Martin in France in December 1999. Although the existence of cyclone families is well-known by meteorologists, there has been limited research into occurrence of serial windstorms. However, climate modelling research is now providing the ability to explore the physical drivers of clustering, and to improve understanding of the hazard aspect of catastrophe modelling. While analytics tools, including catastrophe models, may incorporate assumptions regarding the influence of dependency through statistical means, the most recent research outputs provide a new strand of information with the potential to re-assess the probabilistic loss potential in light of clustering and to provide an additional view on probable maximum losses to windstorm-exposed portfolios across regions such as Northwest Europe. There is however, a need for the testing of these new techniques within operational (re)insurance applications, and this paper provide an overview of the most current clustering research, including the 2009 paper by Vitolo et. al., in relation to reinsurance risk modelling, and to assess the potential impact of such additional information on the overall risk assessment process. We examine the consequences of the serial clustering of extra-tropical cyclones demonstrated by Vitolo et al. (2009) from the perspective of a large European reinsurer, examining potential implications for: • Pricing • Accumulation And • Capital adequacy

  11. Mechanism of de-activation and clustering of B in Si at extremely high concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, L.; Piro, A.M.; Privitera, V.; Rimini, E.; Fortunato, G.; Svensson, B.G.; Foad, M.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    It is known that B deactivation and clustering occur in the presence of an excess of Si self-interstitials (Is). First principle calculations predicted the path of clusters growth, but the precursor complexes are too small to be visible even by the highest resolution microscopy. Channeling with nuclear reaction analyses allowed to detect the location of small B-Is complexes into the lattice formed as a consequence of the B interaction with the Is. In this work we extend this method to determine the complexes formed during the initial stage of B precipitation in Si doped at extremely high concentration (4 at%) and subjected to thermal treatment. The samples were prepared by excimer laser annealing (ELA) of Si implanted with 1 keV B. The thickness of the molten layer was 100 nm and the B profile was boxlike with a maximum hole concentration of ∼2 x 10 21 cm -3 . The electrical deactivation and carrier mobility of this metastable system has been studied as a function of subsequent annealing in the temperature range between 200 and 850 deg. C. Channeling analyses have been performed to investigate the B lattice location at the initial stage of precipitation. The difference, with respect to previous investigations, is the very small distance (<1 nm) between adjacent B atoms substitutional located in the lattice and the absence of Is that can be released during annealing, since the end of range defects were completely dissolved by ELA. In this way, information on the B complex evolution in a free-of-defects sample have been obtained

  12. Blocked inverted indices for exact clustering of large chemical spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Philipp; Sach-Peltason, Lisa; Ottmann, Christian; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2014-09-22

    The calculation of pairwise compound similarities based on fingerprints is one of the fundamental tasks in chemoinformatics. Methods for efficient calculation of compound similarities are of the utmost importance for various applications like similarity searching or library clustering. With the increasing size of public compound databases, exact clustering of these databases is desirable, but often computationally prohibitively expensive. We present an optimized inverted index algorithm for the calculation of all pairwise similarities on 2D fingerprints of a given data set. In contrast to other algorithms, it neither requires GPU computing nor yields a stochastic approximation of the clustering. The algorithm has been designed to work well with multicore architectures and shows excellent parallel speedup. As an application example of this algorithm, we implemented a deterministic clustering application, which has been designed to decompose virtual libraries comprising tens of millions of compounds in a short time on current hardware. Our results show that our implementation achieves more than 400 million Tanimoto similarity calculations per second on a common desktop CPU. Deterministic clustering of the available chemical space thus can be done on modern multicore machines within a few days.

  13. Probing dark energy models with extreme pairwise velocities of galaxy clusters from the DEUS-FUR simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillot, Vincent R.; Alimi, Jean-Michel; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Rasera, Yann

    2015-06-01

    Observations of colliding galaxy clusters with high relative velocity probe the tail of the halo pairwise velocity distribution with the potential of providing a powerful test of cosmology. As an example it has been argued that the discovery of the Bullet Cluster challenges standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model predictions. Halo catalogues from N-body simulations have been used to estimate the probability of Bullet-like clusters. However, due to simulation volume effects previous studies had to rely on a Gaussian extrapolation of the pairwise velocity distribution to high velocities. Here, we perform a detail analysis using the halo catalogues from the Dark Energy Universe Simulation Full Universe Runs (DEUS-FUR), which enables us to resolve the high-velocity tail of the distribution and study its dependence on the halo mass definition, redshift and cosmology. Building upon these results, we estimate the probability of Bullet-like systems in the framework of Extreme Value Statistics. We show that the tail of extreme pairwise velocities significantly deviates from that of a Gaussian, moreover it carries an imprint of the underlying cosmology. We find the Bullet Cluster probability to be two orders of magnitude larger than previous estimates, thus easing the tension with the ΛCDM model. Finally, the comparison of the inferred probabilities for the different DEUS-FUR cosmologies suggests that observations of extreme interacting clusters can provide constraints on dark energy models complementary to standard cosmological tests.

  14. Installing, Running and Maintaining Large Linux Clusters at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bahyl, V; van Eldik, Jan; Fuchs, Ulrich; Kleinwort, Thorsten; Murth, Martin; Smith, Tim; Bahyl, Vladimir; Chardi, Benjamin; Eldik, Jan van; Fuchs, Ulrich; Kleinwort, Thorsten; Murth, Martin; Smith, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Having built up Linux clusters to more than 1000 nodes over the past five years, we already have practical experience confronting some of the LHC scale computing challenges: scalability, automation, hardware diversity, security, and rolling OS upgrades. This paper describes the tools and processes we have implemented, working in close collaboration with the EDG project [1], especially with the WP4 subtask, to improve the manageability of our clusters, in particular in the areas of system installation, configuration, and monitoring. In addition to the purely technical issues, providing shared interactive and batch services which can adapt to meet the diverse and changing requirements of our users is a significant challenge. We describe the developments and tuning that we have introduced on our LSF based systems to maximise both responsiveness to users and overall system utilisation. Finally, this paper will describe the problems we are facing in enlarging our heterogeneous Linux clusters, the progress we have ...

  15. Large-scale Meteorological Patterns Associated with Extreme Precipitation Events over Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, C.; Loikith, P. C.; Lintner, B. R.; Pike, M.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events can have profound impacts on human life and infrastructure, with broad implications across a range of stakeholders. Changes to extreme precipitation events are a projected outcome of climate change that warrants further study, especially at regional- to local-scales. While global climate models are generally capable of simulating mean climate at global-to-regional scales with reasonable skill, resiliency and adaptation decisions are made at local-scales where most state-of-the-art climate models are limited by coarse resolution. Characterization of large-scale meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation events at local-scales can provide climatic information without this scale limitation, thus facilitating stakeholder decision-making. This research will use synoptic climatology as a tool by which to characterize the key large-scale meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation events in the Portland, Oregon metro region. Composite analysis of meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation days, and associated watershed-specific flooding, is employed to enhance understanding of the climatic drivers behind such events. The self-organizing maps approach is then used to characterize the within-composite variability of the large-scale meteorological patterns associated with extreme precipitation events, allowing us to better understand the different types of meteorological conditions that lead to high-impact precipitation events and associated hydrologic impacts. A more comprehensive understanding of the meteorological drivers of extremes will aid in evaluation of the ability of climate models to capture key patterns associated with extreme precipitation over Portland and to better interpret projections of future climate at impact-relevant scales.

  16. The Peculiar Chemical Inventory of NGC 2419: An Extreme Outer Halo "Globular Cluster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Huang, Wenjin; Kirby, Evan N.

    2011-10-01

    NGC 2419 is a massive outer halo Galactic globular cluster (GC) whose stars have previously been shown to have somewhat peculiar abundance patterns. We have observed seven luminous giants that are members of NGC 2419 with Keck/HIRES at reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. One of these giants is very peculiar, with an extremely low [Mg/Fe] and high [K/Fe] but normal abundances of most other elements. The abundance pattern does not match the nucleosynthetic yields of any supernova model. The other six stars show abundance ratios typical of inner halo Galactic GCs, represented here by a sample of giants in the nearby GC M30. Although our measurements show that NGC 2419 is unusual in some respects, its bulk properties do not provide compelling evidence for a difference between inner and outer halo GCs. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. OGLE Collection of Star Clusters. New Objects in the Outskirts of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, D. M.; Udalski, A.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Skowron, J.; Karczmarek, P.; Cieślar, M.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.

    2016-09-01

    The Magellanic System (MS), consisting of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Magellanic Bridge (MBR), contains diverse sample of star clusters. Their spatial distribution, ages and chemical abundances may provide important information about the history of formation of the whole System. We use deep photometric maps derived from the images collected during the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-IV) to construct the most complete catalog of star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud using the homogeneous photometric data. In this paper we present the collection of star clusters found in the area of about 225 square degrees in the outer regions of the LMC. Our sample contains 679 visually identified star cluster candidates, 226 of which were not listed in any of the previously published catalogs. The new clusters are mainly young small open clusters or clusters similar to associations.

  18. Topic modeling for cluster analysis of large biological and medical datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weizhong; Zou, Wen; Chen, James J

    2014-01-01

    The big data moniker is nowhere better deserved than to describe the ever-increasing prodigiousness and complexity of biological and medical datasets. New methods are needed to generate and test hypotheses, foster biological interpretation, and build validated predictors. Although multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis may allow researchers to identify groups, or clusters, of related variables, the accuracies and effectiveness of traditional clustering methods diminish for large and hyper dimensional datasets. Topic modeling is an active research field in machine learning and has been mainly used as an analytical tool to structure large textual corpora for data mining. Its ability to reduce high dimensionality to a small number of latent variables makes it suitable as a means for clustering or overcoming clustering difficulties in large biological and medical datasets. In this study, three topic model-derived clustering methods, highest probable topic assignment, feature selection and feature extraction, are proposed and tested on the cluster analysis of three large datasets: Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) dataset, lung cancer dataset, and breast cancer dataset, which represent various types of large biological or medical datasets. All three various methods are shown to improve the efficacy/effectiveness of clustering results on the three datasets in comparison to traditional methods. A preferable cluster analysis method emerged for each of the three datasets on the basis of replicating known biological truths. Topic modeling could be advantageously applied to the large datasets of biological or medical research. The three proposed topic model-derived clustering methods, highest probable topic assignment, feature selection and feature extraction, yield clustering improvements for the three different data types. Clusters more efficaciously represent truthful groupings and subgroupings in the data than traditional methods, suggesting

  19. Extreme temperatures and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in six large Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Renjie; Li, Tiantian; Cai, Jing; Yan, Meilin; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal trend of out-of-hospital coronary death (OHCD) and sudden cardiac death has been observed, but whether extreme temperature serves as a risk factor is rarely investigated. We therefore aimed to evaluate the impact of extreme temperatures on OHCDs in China. We obtained death records of 126,925 OHCDs from six large Chinese cities (Harbin, Beijing, Tianjin, Nanjing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) during the period 2009-2011. The short-term associations between extreme temperature and OHCDs were analysed with time-series methods in each city, using generalised additive Poisson regression models. We specified distributed lag non-linear models in studying the delayed effects of extreme temperature. We then applied Bayesian hierarchical models to combine the city-specific effect estimates. The associations between extreme temperature and OHCDs were almost U-shaped or J-shaped. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of extreme cold temperatures over the lags 0-14 days comparing the 1st and 25th centile temperatures were 1.49 (95% posterior interval (PI) 1.26-1.76); the pooled RRs of extreme hot temperatures comparing the 99th and 75th centile temperatures were 1.53 (95% PI 1.27-1.84) for OHCDs. The RRs of extreme temperature on OHCD were higher if the patients with coronary heart disease were old, male and less educated. This multicity epidemiological study suggested that both extreme cold and hot temperatures posed significant risks on OHCDs, and might have important public health implications for the prevention of OHCD or sudden cardiac death. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. A large, benign prostatic cyst presented with an extremely high serum prostate-specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Kuang; Pemberton, Richard

    2016-01-08

    We report a case of a patient who presented with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent radical prostatectomy for presumed prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the whole mount prostatectomy specimen showed only small volume, organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma and a large, benign intraprostatic cyst, which was thought to be responsible for the PSA elevation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Non-parametric co-clustering of large scale sparse bipartite networks on the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Toke Jansen; Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    of row and column clusters from a hypothesis space of an infinite number of clusters. To reach large scale applications of co-clustering we exploit that parameter inference for co-clustering is well suited for parallel computing. We develop a generic GPU framework for efficient inference on large scale...... sparse bipartite networks and achieve a speedup of two orders of magnitude compared to estimation based on conventional CPUs. In terms of scalability we find for networks with more than 100 million links that reliable inference can be achieved in less than an hour on a single GPU. To efficiently manage...

  2. United States Temperature and Precipitation Extremes: Phenomenology, Large-Scale Organization, Physical Mechanisms and Model Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R. X.

    2017-12-01

    We summarize results from a project focusing on regional temperature and precipitation extremes over the continental United States. Our project introduces a new framework for evaluating these extremes emphasizing their (a) large-scale organization, (b) underlying physical sources (including remote-excitation and scale-interaction) and (c) representation in climate models. Results to be reported include the synoptic-dynamic behavior, seasonality and secular variability of cold waves, dry spells and heavy rainfall events in the observational record. We also study how the characteristics of such extremes are systematically related to Northern Hemisphere planetary wave structures and thus planetary- and hemispheric-scale forcing (e.g., those associated with major El Nino events and Arctic sea ice change). The underlying physics of event onset are diagnostically quantified for different categories of events. Finally, the representation of these extremes in historical coupled climate model simulations is studied and the origins of model biases are traced using new metrics designed to assess the large-scale atmospheric forcing of local extremes.

  3. A dynamic lattice searching method with rotation operation for optimization of large clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xia; Cai Wensheng; Shao Xueguang

    2009-01-01

    Global optimization of large clusters has been a difficult task, though much effort has been paid and many efficient methods have been proposed. During our works, a rotation operation (RO) is designed to realize the structural transformation from decahedra to icosahedra for the optimization of large clusters, by rotating the atoms below the center atom with a definite degree around the fivefold axis. Based on the RO, a development of the previous dynamic lattice searching with constructed core (DLSc), named as DLSc-RO, is presented. With an investigation of the method for the optimization of Lennard-Jones (LJ) clusters, i.e., LJ 500 , LJ 561 , LJ 600 , LJ 665-667 , LJ 670 , LJ 685 , and LJ 923 , Morse clusters, silver clusters by Gupta potential, and aluminum clusters by NP-B potential, it was found that both the global minima with icosahedral and decahedral motifs can be obtained, and the method is proved to be efficient and universal.

  4. THE EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF CLUSTERS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD-MISSING LINKS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) massive star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud have revealed that the majority possess bifurcated or extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO) morphologies. This effect can be understood to arise from subsequent star formation among the stellar population with age differences between constituent stars amounting to 50-300 Myr. Age spreads of this order are similarly invoked to explain the light-element abundance variations witnessed in ancient globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we explore the proposition that the clusters exhibiting the EMSTO phenomenon are a general phase in the evolution of massive clusters, one that naturally leads to the particular chemical properties of the ancient GC population. We show that the isolation of EMSTO clusters to intermediate ages is the consequence of observational selection effects. In our proposed scenario, the EMSTO phenomenon is identical to that which establishes the light-element abundance variations that are ubiquitous in the ancient GC population. Our scenario makes a strong prediction: EMSTO clusters will exhibit abundance variations in the light-elements characteristic of the ancient GC population.

  5. Large-solid-angle illuminators for extreme ultraviolet lithography with laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W.

    1995-06-01

    Laser Plasma Sources (LPSS) of extreme ultraviolet radiation are an attractive alternative to synchrotron radiation sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) due to their modularity, brightness, and modest size and cost. To fully exploit the extreme ultraviolet power emitted by such sources, it is necessary to capture the largest possible fraction of the source emission half-sphere while simultaneously optimizing the illumination stationarity and uniformity on the object mask. In this LDRD project, laser plasma source illumination systems for EUVL have been designed and then theoretically and experimentally characterized. Ellipsoidal condensers have been found to be simple yet extremely efficient condensers for small-field EUVL imaging systems. The effects of aberrations in such condensers on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging have been studied with physical optics modeling. Lastly, the design of an efficient large-solid-angle condenser has been completed. It collects 50% of the available laser plasma source power at 14 nm and delivers it properly to the object mask in a wide-arc-field camera

  6. Extreme Radio Flares and Associated X-Ray Variability from Young Stellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbrich, Jan [Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Reid, Mark J.; Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Rivilla, Victor M. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Rau, Urvashi; Chandler, Claire J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Young stellar objects are known to exhibit strong radio variability on timescales of weeks to months, and a few reports have documented extreme radio flares with at least an order of magnitude change in flux density on timescales of hours to days. However, there have been few constraints on the occurrence rate of such radio flares or on the correlation with pre-main sequence X-ray flares, although such correlations are known for the Sun and nearby active stars. Here we report simultaneous deep VLA radio and Chandra X-ray observations of the Orion Nebula Cluster, targeting hundreds of sources to look for the occurrence rate of extreme radio variability and potential correlation with the most extreme X-ray variability. We identify 13 radio sources with extreme radio variability, with some showing an order of magnitude change in flux density in less than 30 minutes. All of these sources show X-ray emission and variability, but we find clear correlations with extreme radio flaring only on timescales <1 hr. Strong X-ray variability does not predict the extreme radio sources and vice versa. Radio flares thus provide us with a new perspective on high-energy processes in YSOs and the irradiation of their protoplanetary disks. Finally, our results highlight implications for interferometric imaging of sources violating the constant-sky assumption.

  7. Shell structures and chaos in nuclei and large metallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, W.D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Nazmitdinov, R.G.; Radu, S.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1995-01-01

    A reflection-asymmetric deformed oscillator potential is analyzed from the classical and quantum mechanical point of view. The connection between occurrence of shell structures and classical periodic orbits is studied using the ''removal of resonances method'' in a classical analysis. In this approximation, the effective single particle potential becomes separable and the frequencies of the classical trajectories are easily determined. It turns out that the winding numbers calculated in this way are in good agreement with the ones found from the corresponding quantum mechanical spectrum using the particle number dependence of the fluctuating part of the total energy. When the octupole term is switched on it is found that prolate shapes are stable against chaos and can exhibit shells where spherical and oblate cases become chaotic. An attempt is made to explain this difference in the quantum mechanical context by looking at the distribution of exceptional points which results from the matrix structure of the respective Hamiltonians. In a similar way we analyze the modified Nilsson model and discuss its consequences for metallic clusters. (orig.)

  8. Extremely large and significantly anisotropic magnetoresistance in ZrSiS single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Yao, Shu-Hua, E-mail: shyao@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: ybchen@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: zhoujian@nju.edu.cn; Zhou, Jian, E-mail: shyao@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: ybchen@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: zhoujian@nju.edu.cn; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Lu, Ming-Hui [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Xiao; Chen, Y. B., E-mail: shyao@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: ybchen@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: zhoujian@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Yan-Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructure, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-06-13

    Recently, the extremely large magnetoresistance (MR) observed in transition metal telluride, like WTe{sub 2}, attracted much attention because of the potential applications in magnetic sensor. Here, we report the observation of extremely large magnetoresistance as 3.0 × 10{sup 4}% measured at 2 K and 9 T magnetic field aligned along [001]-ZrSiS. The significant magnetoresistance change (∼1.4 × 10{sup 4}%) can be obtained when the magnetic field is titled from [001] to [011]-ZrSiS. These abnormal magnetoresistance behaviors in ZrSiS can be understood by electron-hole compensation and the open orbital of Fermi surface. Because of these superior MR properties, ZrSiS may be used in the magnetic sensors.

  9. Drastic Pressure Effect on the Extremely Large Magnetoresistance in WTe2: Quantum Oscillation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, P L; Hu, J; He, L P; Pan, J; Hong, X C; Zhang, Z; Zhang, J; Wei, J; Mao, Z Q; Li, S Y

    2015-07-31

    The quantum oscillations of the magnetoresistance under ambient and high pressure have been studied for WTe2 single crystals, in which extremely large magnetoresistance was discovered recently. By analyzing the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, four Fermi surfaces are identified, and two of them are found to persist to high pressure. The sizes of these two pockets are comparable, but show increasing difference with pressure. At 0.3 K and in 14.5 T, the magnetoresistance decreases drastically from 1.25×10(5)% under ambient pressure to 7.47×10(3)% under 23.6 kbar, which is likely caused by the relative change of Fermi surfaces. These results support the scenario that the perfect balance between the electron and hole populations is the origin of the extremely large magnetoresistance in WTe2.

  10. The age calibration of integrated ultraviolet colors and young stellar clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, J.; Brocato, E.; Cassatella, A.; Castellani, V.; Geyer, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated colors in selected far-UV bands are presented for a large sample of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) clusters. Theoretical calculations of these integrated colors are derived and discussed. The location in the two-color diagram C(18-28), C(15-31) is expected to be a sensitive but smooth function of cluster age for ages in the range 5 to 800 million yr. Theoretical results appear in very good agreement with the observed colors of LMC clusters. From this comparison, the gap in the observed colors is suggested to be caused by the lack of LMC clusters in the range of ages between 200 million to one billion yr. The two-color location of old globulars is discussed, also in connection with available data for the M31 clusters. 36 refs

  11. Spectral clustering and biclustering learning large graphs and contingency tables

    CERN Document Server

    Bolla, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Explores regular structures in graphs and contingency tables by spectral theory and statistical methods This book bridges the gap between graph theory and statistics by giving answers to the demanding questions which arise when statisticians are confronted with large weighted graphs or rectangular arrays. Classical and modern statistical methods applicable to biological, social, communication networks, or microarrays are presented together with the theoretical background and proofs. This book is suitable for a one-semester course for graduate students in data mining, mult

  12. EXTENDED STAR FORMATION IN THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 2209

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of the 1 Gyr old star cluster NGC 2209 in the Large Magellanic Cloud made with the GMOS imager on the Gemini South Telescope. These observations show that the cluster exhibits a main-sequence turnoff that spans a broader range in luminosity than can be explained by a single-aged stellar population. This places NGC 2209 amongst a growing list of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) clusters that show evidence for extended or multiple epochs of star formation of between 50 and 460 Myr in extent. The extended main-sequence turnoff observed in NGC 2209 is a confirmation of the prediction in Keller et al. made on the basis of the cluster's large core radius. We propose that secondary star formation is a defining feature of the evolution of massive star clusters. Dissolution of lower mass clusters through evaporation results in only clusters that have experienced secondary star formation surviving for a Hubble time, thus providing a natural connection between the extended main-sequence turnoff phenomenon and the ubiquitous light-element abundance ranges seen in the ancient Galactic globular clusters.

  13. How do the multiple large-scale climate oscillations trigger extreme precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengfei; Yang, Tao; Xu, Chong-Yu; Yong, Bin; Shao, Quanxi; Li, Zhenya; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xudong; Li, Shu

    2017-10-01

    Identifying the links between variations in large-scale climate patterns and precipitation is of tremendous assistance in characterizing surplus or deficit of precipitation, which is especially important for evaluation of local water resources and ecosystems in semi-humid and semi-arid regions. Restricted by current limited knowledge on underlying mechanisms, statistical correlation methods are often used rather than physical based model to characterize the connections. Nevertheless, available correlation methods are generally unable to reveal the interactions among a wide range of climate oscillations and associated effects on precipitation, especially on extreme precipitation. In this work, a probabilistic analysis approach by means of a state-of-the-art Copula-based joint probability distribution is developed to characterize the aggregated behaviors for large-scale climate patterns and their connections to precipitation. This method is employed to identify the complex connections between climate patterns (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)) and seasonal precipitation over a typical semi-humid and semi-arid region, the Haihe River Basin in China. Results show that the interactions among multiple climate oscillations are non-uniform in most seasons and phases. Certain joint extreme phases can significantly trigger extreme precipitation (flood and drought) owing to the amplification effect among climate oscillations.

  14. Processing large remote sensing image data sets on Beowulf clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Maddox, Brian; Beckmann, Tim; Schmidt, Gail

    2003-01-01

    High-performance computing is often concerned with the speed at which floating- point calculations can be performed. The architectures of many parallel computers and/or their network topologies are based on these investigations. Often, benchmarks resulting from these investigations are compiled with little regard to how a large dataset would move about in these systems. This part of the Beowulf study addresses that concern by looking at specific applications software and system-level modifications. Applications include an implementation of a smoothing filter for time-series data, a parallel implementation of the decision tree algorithm used in the Landcover Characterization project, a parallel Kriging algorithm used to fit point data collected in the field on invasive species to a regular grid, and modifications to the Beowulf project's resampling algorithm to handle larger, higher resolution datasets at a national scale. Systems-level investigations include a feasibility study on Flat Neighborhood Networks and modifications of that concept with Parallel File Systems.

  15. Diversity in the stellar velocity dispersion profiles of a large sample of brightest cluster galaxies z ≤ 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubser, S. I.; Hoekstra, H.; Babul, A.; O'Sullivan, E.

    2018-06-01

    We analyse spatially resolved deep optical spectroscopy of brightestcluster galaxies (BCGs) located in 32 massive clusters with redshifts of 0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.30 to investigate their velocity dispersion profiles. We compare these measurements to those of other massive early-type galaxies, as well as central group galaxies, where relevant. This unique, large sample extends to the most extreme of massive galaxies, spanning MK between -25.7 and -27.8 mag, and host cluster halo mass M500 up to 1.7 × 1015 M⊙. To compare the kinematic properties between brightest group and cluster members, we analyse similar spatially resolved long-slit spectroscopy for 23 nearby brightest group galaxies (BGGs) from the Complete Local-Volume Groups Sample. We find a surprisingly large variety in velocity dispersion slopes for BCGs, with a significantly larger fraction of positive slopes, unique compared to other (non-central) early-type galaxies as well as the majority of the brightest members of the groups. We find that the velocity dispersion slopes of the BCGs and BGGs correlate with the luminosity of the galaxies, and we quantify this correlation. It is not clear whether the full diversity in velocity dispersion slopes that we see is reproduced in simulations.

  16. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  17. AGE AND MASS FOR 920 LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD CLUSTERS DERIVED FROM 100 MILLION MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2012-01-01

    We present new age and mass estimates for 920 stellar clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on previously published broadband photometry and the stellar cluster analysis package, MASSCLEANage. Expressed in the generic fitting formula, d 2 N/dMdt∝M α t β , the distribution of observed clusters is described by α = –1.5 to –1.6 and β = –2.1 to –2.2. For 288 of these clusters, ages have recently been determined based on stellar photometric color-magnitude diagrams, allowing us to gauge the confidence of our ages. The results look very promising, opening up the possibility that this sample of 920 clusters, with reliable and consistent age, mass, and photometric measures, might be used to constrain important characteristics about the stellar cluster population in the LMC. We also investigate a traditional age determination method that uses a χ 2 minimization routine to fit observed cluster colors to standard infinite-mass limit simple stellar population models. This reveals serious defects in the derived cluster age distribution using this method. The traditional χ 2 minimization method, due to the variation of U, B, V, R colors, will always produce an overdensity of younger and older clusters, with an underdensity of clusters in the log (age/yr) = [7.0, 7.5] range. Finally, we present a unique simulation aimed at illustrating and constraining the fading limit in observed cluster distributions that includes the complex effects of stochastic variations in the observed properties of stellar clusters.

  18. Star cluster formation history along the minor axis of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Cole, Andrew A.; Emptage, Bryn

    2018-01-01

    We analysed Washington CMT1 photometry of star clusters located along the minor axis of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), from the LMC optical centre up to ∼39° outwards to the North-West. The data base was exploited in order to search for new star cluster candidates, to produce cluster CMDs cleaned from field star contamination and to derive age estimates for a statistically complete cluster sample. We confirmed that 146 star cluster candidates are genuine physical systems, and concluded that an overall ∼30 per cent of catalogued clusters in the surveyed regions are unlikely to be true physical systems. We did not find any new cluster candidates in the outskirts of the LMC (deprojected distance ≳ 8°). The derived ages of the studied clusters are in the range 7.2 < log(t yr-1) ≤ 9.4, with the sole exception of the globular cluster NGC 1786 (log(t yr-1) = 10.10). We also calculated the cluster frequency for each region, from which we confirmed previously proposed outside-in formation scenarios. In addition, we found that the outer LMC fields show a sudden episode of cluster formation (log(t yr-1) ∼7.8-7.9) which continued until log(t yr-1) ∼7.3 only in the outermost LMC region. We link these features to the first pericentre passage of the LMC to the Milky Way (MW), which could have triggered cluster formation due to ram pressure interaction between the LMC and MW halo.

  19. Using GRACE Satellite Gravimetry for Assessing Large-Scale Hydrologic Extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global assessment of the spatiotemporal variability in terrestrial total water storage anomalies (TWSA in response to hydrologic extremes is critical for water resources management. Using TWSA derived from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE satellites, this study systematically assessed the skill of the TWSA-climatology (TC approach and breakpoint (BP detection method for identifying large-scale hydrologic extremes. The TC approach calculates standardized anomalies by using the mean and standard deviation of the GRACE TWSA corresponding to each month. In the BP detection method, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD is first applied to identify the mean return period of TWSA extremes, and then a statistical procedure is used to identify the actual occurrence times of abrupt changes (i.e., BPs in TWSA. Both detection methods were demonstrated on basin-averaged TWSA time series for the world’s 35 largest river basins. A nonlinear event coincidence analysis measure was applied to cross-examine abrupt changes detected by these methods with those detected by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. Results show that our EMD-assisted BP procedure is a promising tool for identifying hydrologic extremes using GRACE TWSA data. Abrupt changes detected by the BP method coincide well with those of the SPI anomalies and with documented hydrologic extreme events. Event timings obtained by the TC method were ambiguous for a number of river basins studied, probably because the GRACE data length is too short to derive long-term climatology at this time. The BP approach demonstrates a robust wet-dry anomaly detection capability, which will be important for applications with the upcoming GRACE Follow-On mission.

  20. Hydration of a Large Anionic Charge Distribution - Naphthalene-Water Cluster Anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. Mathias; Adams, Christopher L.

    2010-06-01

    We report the infrared spectra of anionic clusters of naphthalene with up to three water molecules. Comparison of the experimental infrared spectra with theoretically predicted spectra from quantum chemistry calculations allow conclusions regarding the structures of the clusters under study. The first water molecule forms two hydrogen bonds with the π electron system of the naphthalene moiety. Subsequent water ligands interact with both the naphthalene and the other water ligands to form hydrogen bonded networks, similar to other hydrated anion clusters. Naphthalene-water anion clusters illustrate how water interacts with negative charge delocalized over a large π electron system. The clusters are interesting model systems that are discussed in the context of wetting of graphene surfaces and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Wind and wave extremes over the world oceans from very large ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Aarnes, Ole Johan; Abdalla, Saleh; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Janssen, Peter A. E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Global return values of marine wind speed and significant wave height are estimated from very large aggregates of archived ensemble forecasts at +240 h lead time. Long lead time ensures that the forecasts represent independent draws from the model climate. Compared with ERA-Interim, a reanalysis, the ensemble yields higher return estimates for both wind speed and significant wave height. Confidence intervals are much tighter due to the large size of the data set. The period (9 years) is short enough to be considered stationary even with climate change. Furthermore, the ensemble is large enough for nonparametric 100 year return estimates to be made from order statistics. These direct return estimates compare well with extreme value estimates outside areas with tropical cyclones. Like any method employing modeled fields, it is sensitive to tail biases in the numerical model, but we find that the biases are moderate outside areas with tropical cyclones.

  2. Science case and requirements for the MOSAIC concept for a multi-object spectrograph for the European extremely large telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.J.; Puech, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Hammer, F.; Jagourel, P.; Caffau, E.; Disseau, K.; Flores, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Aussel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries. In this contribution we summarise the key cases relating to studies of high-redshift galaxies, galaxy evolution, and stellar populations, with a more expansive presentation of a new case relating to detection of exoplanets in stellar clusters. A general requirement is the need for two observational modes to best exploit the large (=40 arcmin 2 ) patrol field of the E-ELT. The first mode ('high multiplex') requires integrated-light (or coarsely resolved) optical/near-IR spectroscopy of ≥100 objects simultaneously. The second ('high definition'), enabled by wide-field adaptive optics, requires spatially-resolved, near-IR of ≥10 objects/sub-fields. Within the context of the conceptual study for an ELT-MOS called MOSAIC, we summarise the top level requirements from each case and introduce the next steps in the design process. (authors)

  3. Coupled large-eddy simulation and morphodynamics of a large-scale river under extreme flood conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Stony Brook University Team

    2016-11-01

    We present a coupled flow and morphodynamic simulations of extreme flooding in 3 km long and 300 m wide reach of the Mississippi River in Minnesota, which includes three islands and hydraulic structures. We employ the large-eddy simulation (LES) and bed-morphodynamic modules of the VFS-Geophysics model to investigate the flow and bed evolution of the river during a 500 year flood. The coupling of the two modules is carried out via a fluid-structure interaction approach using a nested domain approach to enhance the resolution of bridge scour predictions. The geometrical data of the river, islands and structures are obtained from LiDAR, sub-aqueous sonar and in-situ surveying to construct a digital map of the river bathymetry. Our simulation results for the bed evolution of the river reveal complex sediment dynamics near the hydraulic structures. The numerically captured scour depth near some of the structures reach a maximum of about 10 m. The data-driven simulation strategy we present in this work exemplifies a practical simulation-based-engineering-approach to investigate the resilience of infrastructures to extreme flood events in intricate field-scale riverine systems. This work was funded by a Grant from Minnesota Dept. of Transportation.

  4. p-tert-Butylcalix[8]arene: an extremely versatile platform for cluster formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie M; Sanz, Sergio; McIntosh, Ruaraidh D; Beavers, Christine M; Teat, Simon J; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J

    2012-12-07

    p-tert-Butylcalix[4]arene is a bowl-shaped molecule capable of forming a range of polynuclear metal clusters under different experimental conditions. p-tert-Butylcalix[8]arene (TBC[8]) is a significantly more flexible analogue that has previously been shown to form mono- and binuclear lanthanide (Ln) metal complexes. The latter (cluster) motif is commonly observed and involves the calixarene adopting a near double-cone conformation, features of which suggested that it may be exploited as a type of assembly node in the formation of larger polynuclear lanthanide clusters. Variation in the experimental conditions employed for this system provides access to Ln(1), Ln(2), Ln(4), Ln(5), Ln(6), Ln(7) and Ln(8) complexes, with all polymetallic clusters containing the common binuclear lanthanide fragment. Closer inspection of the structures of the polymetallic clusters reveals that all but one (Ln(8)) are in fact based on metal octahedra or the building blocks of octahedra, with the identity and size of the final product dependent upon the basicity of the solution and the deprotonation level of the TBC[8] ligand. This demonstrates both the versatility of the ligand towards incorporation of additional metal centres, and the associated implications for tailoring the magnetic properties of the resulting assemblies in which lanthanide centres may be interchanged. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Long-Term Memory: A Natural Mechanism for the Clustering of Extreme Events and Anomalous Residual Times in Climate Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, Armin; Eichner, Jan F.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2005-01-01

    We study the statistics of the return intervals between extreme events above a certain threshold in long-term persistent records. We find that the long-term memory leads (i)to a stretched exponential distribution of the return intervals, (ii)to a pronounced clustering of extreme events, and (iii)to an anomalous behavior of the mean residual time to the next event that depends on the history and increases with the elapsed time in a counterintuitive way. We present an analytical scaling approach and demonstrate that all these features can be seen in long climate records. The phenomena should also occur in heartbeat records, Internet traffic, and stock market volatility and have to be taken into account for an efficient risk evaluation.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF STELLAR STRATIFICATION IN THREE YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Rochau, Boyke; Mackey, Dougal; Xin Yu

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of stellar stratification in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We apply our recently developed effective radius method for the assessment of stellar stratification on imaging data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of three young LMC clusters to characterize the phenomenon and develop a comparative scheme for its assessment in such clusters. The clusters of our sample, NGC 1983, NGC 2002, and NGC 2010, are selected on the basis of their youthfulness, and their variety in appearance, structure, stellar content, and surrounding stellar ambient. Our photometry is complete for magnitudes down to m 814 ≅ 23 mag, allowing the calculation of the structural parameters of the clusters, the estimation of their ages, and the determination of their stellar content. Our study shows that each cluster in our sample demonstrates stellar stratification in a quite different manner and at different degree from the others. Specifically, NGC 1983 shows partial segregation, with the effective radius increasing with fainter magnitudes only for the faintest stars of the cluster. Our method on NGC 2002 provides evidence of strong stellar stratification for both bright and faint stars; the cluster demonstrates the phenomenon with the highest degree in the sample. Finally, NGC 2010 is not segregated, as its bright stellar content is not centrally concentrated, the relation of effective radius to magnitude for stars of intermediate brightness is rather flat, and we find no evidence of stratification for its faintest stars. For the parameterization of the phenomenon of stellar stratification and its quantitative comparison among these clusters, we propose the slope derived from the change in the effective radius over the corresponding magnitude range as indicative parameter of the degree of stratification in the clusters. A positive value of this slope indicates mass segregation in the cluster, while a negative or zero value

  7. Cluster galaxy dynamics and the effects of large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martin; Cohn, J. D.; Smit, Renske

    2010-11-01

    Advances in observational capabilities have ushered in a new era of multi-wavelength, multi-physics probes of galaxy clusters and ambitious surveys are compiling large samples of cluster candidates selected in different ways. We use a high-resolution N-body simulation to study how the influence of large-scale structure in and around clusters causes correlated signals in different physical probes and discuss some implications this has for multi-physics probes of clusters (e.g. richness, lensing, Compton distortion and velocity dispersion). We pay particular attention to velocity dispersions, matching galaxies to subhaloes which are explicitly tracked in the simulation. We find that not only do haloes persist as subhaloes when they fall into a larger host, but groups of subhaloes retain their identity for long periods within larger host haloes. The highly anisotropic nature of infall into massive clusters, and their triaxiality, translates into an anisotropic velocity ellipsoid: line-of-sight galaxy velocity dispersions for any individual halo show large variance depending on viewing angle. The orientation of the velocity ellipsoid is correlated with the large-scale structure, and thus velocity outliers correlate with outliers caused by projection in other probes. We quantify this orientation uncertainty and give illustrative examples. Such a large variance suggests that velocity dispersion estimators will work better in an ensemble sense than for any individual cluster, which may inform strategies for obtaining redshifts of cluster members. We similarly find that the ability of substructure indicators to find kinematic substructures is highly viewing angle dependent. While groups of subhaloes which merge with a larger host halo can retain their identity for many Gyr, they are only sporadically picked up by substructure indicators. We discuss the effects of correlated scatter on scaling relations estimated through stacking, both analytically and in the simulations

  8. A Self-Organizing Spatial Clustering Approach to Support Large-Scale Network RTK Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lili; Guo, Jiming; Wang, Lei

    2018-06-06

    The network real-time kinematic (RTK) technique can provide centimeter-level real time positioning solutions and play a key role in geo-spatial infrastructure. With ever-increasing popularity, network RTK systems will face issues in the support of large numbers of concurrent users. In the past, high-precision positioning services were oriented towards professionals and only supported a few concurrent users. Currently, precise positioning provides a spatial foundation for artificial intelligence (AI), and countless smart devices (autonomous cars, unmanned aerial-vehicles (UAVs), robotic equipment, etc.) require precise positioning services. Therefore, the development of approaches to support large-scale network RTK systems is urgent. In this study, we proposed a self-organizing spatial clustering (SOSC) approach which automatically clusters online users to reduce the computational load on the network RTK system server side. The experimental results indicate that both the SOSC algorithm and the grid algorithm can reduce the computational load efficiently, while the SOSC algorithm gives a more elastic and adaptive clustering solution with different datasets. The SOSC algorithm determines the cluster number and the mean distance to cluster center (MDTCC) according to the data set, while the grid approaches are all predefined. The side-effects of clustering algorithms on the user side are analyzed with real global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data sets. The experimental results indicate that 10 km can be safely used as the cluster radius threshold for the SOSC algorithm without significantly reducing the positioning precision and reliability on the user side.

  9. Large-scale dynamics associated with clustering of extratropical cyclones affecting Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Joaquim G.; Gómara, Iñigo; Masato, Giacomo; Dacre, Helen F.; Woollings, Tim; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Some recent winters in Western Europe have been characterized by the occurrence of multiple extratropical cyclones following a similar path. The occurrence of such cyclone clusters leads to large socio-economic impacts due to damaging winds, storm surges, and floods. Recent studies have statistically characterized the clustering of extratropical cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe and hypothesized potential physical mechanisms responsible for their formation. Here we analyze 4 months ...

  10. An extremely bright gamma-ray pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Pulsars are rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars, created in the gravitational collapse of massive stars. We report the detection of pulsed giga-electron volt gamma rays from the young pulsar PSR J0540-6919 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. This is the first gamma-ray pulsar detected in another galaxy. It has the most luminous pulsed gamma-ray emission yet observed, exceeding the Crab pulsar's by a factor of 20. PSR J0540-6919 presents an extreme test case for understanding the structure and evolution of neutron star magnetospheres. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Electric-field-induced extremely large change in resistance in graphene ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu

    2018-01-01

    A colossal magnetoresistance (˜100×10^3% ) and an extremely large magnetoresistance (˜1×10^6% ) have been previously explored in manganite perovskites and Dirac materials, respectively. However, the requirement of an extremely strong magnetic field (and an extremely low temperature) makes them not applicable for realistic devices. In this work, we propose a device that can generate even larger changes in resistance in a zero-magnetic field and at a high temperature. The device is composed of graphene under two strips of yttrium iron garnet (YIG), where two gate voltages are applied to cancel the heavy charge doping in the YIG-induced half-metallic ferromagnets. By calculations using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, we demonstrate that, when a proper gate voltage is applied on the free ferromagnet, changes in resistance up to 305×10^6% (16×10^3% ) can be achieved at the liquid helium (nitrogen) temperature and in a zero magnetic field. We attribute such a remarkable effect to a gate-induced full-polarization reversal in the free ferromagnet, which results in a metal-state to insulator-state transition in the device. We also find that the proposed effect can be realized in devices using other magnetic insulators, such as EuO and EuS. Our work should be helpful for developing a realistic switching device that is energy saving and CMOS-technology compatible.

  12. Contribution of large-scale midlatitude disturbances to hourly precipitation extremes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Abatzoglou, John T.; Fowler, Hayley J.

    2018-02-01

    Midlatitude synoptic weather regimes account for a substantial portion of annual precipitation accumulation as well as multi-day precipitation extremes across parts of the United States (US). However, little attention has been devoted to understanding how synoptic-scale patterns contribute to hourly precipitation extremes. A majority of 1-h annual maximum precipitation (AMP) across the western US were found to be linked to two coherent midlatitude synoptic patterns: disturbances propagating along the jet stream, and cutoff upper-level lows. The influence of these two patterns on 1-h AMP varies geographically. Over 95% of 1-h AMP along the western coastal US were coincident with progressive midlatitude waves embedded within the jet stream, while over 30% of 1-h AMP across the interior western US were coincident with cutoff lows. Between 30-60% of 1-h AMP were coincident with the jet stream across the Ohio River Valley and southeastern US, whereas a a majority of 1-h AMP over the rest of central and eastern US were not found to be associated with either midlatitude synoptic features. Composite analyses for 1-h AMP days coincident to cutoff lows and jet stream show that an anomalous moisture flux and upper-level dynamics are responsible for initiating instability and setting up an environment conducive to 1-h AMP events. While hourly precipitation extremes are generally thought to be purely convective in nature, this study shows that large-scale dynamics and baroclinic disturbances may also contribute to precipitation extremes on sub-daily timescales.

  13. AN EXTREME STARBURST IN THE CORE OF A RICH GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tracy; Bonaventura, Nina; Delahaye, Anna; Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C.; DeGroot, Andrew; Wilson, Gillian; Foltz, Ryan; Muzzin, Adam; Chapman, Scott; Cooper, Mike; Lidman, Chris; Surace, Jason; Dunne, Loretta; Geach, James; Hayden, Brian; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Huang, Jiasheng; Pope, Alexandra; Smith, Matthew W. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of N gal (500 kpc) = 30 ± 8 implies a total halo mass, within 500 kpc, of ∼3.8 ± 1.2 × 10 14 M ⊙ , comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with L IR = 6.2 ± 0.9 × 10 12 L ⊙ . The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at z = 1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ∼860 ± 130 M ⊙ yr −1 . The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of >10 individual clumps arranged as “beads on a string” over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times

  14. AN EXTREME STARBURST IN THE CORE OF A RICH GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Tracy; Bonaventura, Nina; Delahaye, Anna [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, Québec, H3P 1T3 (Canada); Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); DeGroot, Andrew; Wilson, Gillian; Foltz, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Muzzin, Adam; Chapman, Scott [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cooper, Mike [Centre for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Surace, Jason [Spitzer Space Science Centre, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dunne, Loretta [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Geach, James [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Hayden, Brian [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hildebrandt, Hendrik [Argelander-Institute fur Astronomie, Auf dem Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Huang, Jiasheng [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 011003 (United States); Smith, Matthew W. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-08-20

    We have discovered an optically rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.7089 with star formation occurring in close proximity to the central galaxy. The system, SpARCS104922.6+564032.5, was detected within the Spitzer Adaptation of the red-sequence Cluster Survey, and confirmed through Keck-MOSFIRE spectroscopy. The rest-frame optical richness of N{sub gal} (500 kpc) = 30 ± 8 implies a total halo mass, within 500 kpc, of ∼3.8 ± 1.2 × 10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙}, comparable to other clusters at or above this redshift. There is a wealth of ancillary data available, including Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope optical, UKIRT-K, Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, and Herschel-SPIRE. This work adds submillimeter imaging with the SCUBA2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and near-infrared imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The mid/far-infrared (M/FIR) data detect an Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxy spatially coincident with the central galaxy, with L{sub IR} = 6.2 ± 0.9 × 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙}. The detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at z = 1.7 in a Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the source implies the FIR luminosity is dominated by star formation (an Active Galactic Nucleus contribution of 20%) with a rate of ∼860 ± 130 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The optical source corresponding to the IR emission is likely a chain of >10 individual clumps arranged as “beads on a string” over a linear scale of 66 kpc. Its morphology and proximity to the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) imply a gas-rich interaction at the center of the cluster triggered the star formation. This system indicates that wet mergers may be an important process in forming the stellar mass of BCGs at early times.

  15. Multiple stellar generations in the Large Magellanic Cloud Star Cluster NGC 1846

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, Antonino

    2010-09-01

    The recent discovery of multiple stellar populations in massive Galactic globular clusters poses a serious challenge for models of star cluster formation and evolution. The finding of multiple main sequences in the massive clusters NGC 2808 and omega Centauri, and multiple sub-giant-branch in NGC 1851 and many other globulars have demonstrated that star clusters are not as simple as we have imagined for decades. Surprisingly the only way to explain the main sequence splitting appears to be Helium enrichment, up to an astonishingly high Y 0.40.An unique angle on this problem can be provided by intermediate-age clusters in the Magellanic Clouds with peculiar main-sequence turn-off morphologies. Recent discoveries, based on ACS data of unparalleled photometric accuracy, have demonstrated that the CMDs of a large fraction of these clusters { 70 %} are not consistent with the simple, single stellar population hypothesis. Explanations for what conditions could give rise to multiple populations in Galactic Globular Clusters remain controversial; this is even more the case for LMC clustersTo properly constraint the multipopulation phenomenon in Magellanic Cloud star clusters, we propose deep UV/IR imaging of NGC 1846, a star cluster where multiple populations have already been identified. The proposed observation will allow us to accurately measure the age difference between the stellar populations providing fundamental clues on the formation mechanism. Our simulations of WFC3 performance suggest that we will be able to detect even the main sequence splitting caused by small He differences {Delta Y 0.02}.

  16. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Loss of Large Area induced from extreme events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sok Chul; Park, Jong Seuk; Kim, Byung Soon; Jang, Dong Ju; Lee, Seung Woo

    2015-01-01

    USNRC announced several regulatory requirements and guidance documents regarding the event of loss of large area including 10CFR 50.54(hh), Regulatory Guide 1.214 and SRP 19.4. In Korea, consideration of loss of large area has been limitedly taken into account for newly constructing NPPs as voluntary based. In general, it is hardly possible to find available information on methodology and key assumptions for the assessment of LOLA due to 'need to know based approach'. Urgent needs exists for developing country specific regulatory requirements, guidance and evaluation methodology by themselves with the consideration of their own geographical and nuclear safety and security environments. Currently, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) has developed an Extended Damage Mitigation Guideline (EDMG) for APR1400 under contract with foreign consulting company. The submittal guidance NEI 06-12 related to B.5.b Phase 2 and 3 focused on unit-wise mitigation strategy instead of site level mitigation or response strategy. Phase 1 mitigating strategy and guideline for LOLA (Loss of Large Area) provides emphasis on site level arrangement including cooperative networking outside organizations and agile command and control system. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has carried out a pilot in-house research project to develop the methodology and guideline for evaluation of LOLA since 2014. This paper introduces the summary of major results and outcomes of the aforementioned research project. After Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident, the awareness on countering the event of loss of large area induced from extreme man-made hazards or extreme beyond design basis external event. Urgent need exists to develop regulatory guidance for coping with this undesirable situation, which has been out of consideration at existing nuclear safety regulatory framework due to the expectation of rare possibility of occurrence

  17. THE BIZARRE CHEMICAL INVENTORY OF NGC 2419, AN EXTREME OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Kirby, Evan N., E-mail: jlc@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: enk@astro.caltech.edu [Palomar Observatory, Mail Stop 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We present new Keck/HIRES observations of six red giants in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 2419. Although the cluster is among the most distant and most luminous in the Milky Way, it was considered chemically ordinary until very recently. Our previous work showed that the near-infrared Ca II triplet line strength varied more than expected for a chemically homogeneous cluster, and that at least one star had unusual abundances of Mg and K. Here, we confirm that NGC 2419 harbors a population of stars, comprising about one-third of its mass, that is depleted in Mg by a factor of eight and enhanced in K by a factor of six with respect to the Mg-normal population. Although the majority, Mg-normal population appears to have a chemical abundance pattern indistinguishable from ordinary, inner-halo GCs, the Mg-poor population exhibits dispersions of several elements. The abundances of K and Sc are strongly anti-correlated with Mg, and some other elements (Si and Ca among others) are weakly anti-correlated with Mg. These abundance patterns suggest that the different populations of NGC 2419 sample the ejecta of diverse supernovae in addition to asymptotic giant branch ejecta. However, the abundances of Fe-peak elements except Sc show no star-to-star variation. We find no nucleosynthetic source that satisfactorily explains all of the abundance variations in this cluster. Because NGC 2419 appears like no other GC, we reiterate our previous suggestion that it is not a GC at all, but rather the core of an accreted dwarf galaxy.

  18. Transumbilical single-site laparoscopy takes the advantage of ultraminilaparotomy in managing an extremely large ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan Su

    2012-11-01

    Conclusion: This application not only provides both advantages of ultraminilaparotomy and laparoscopy but it also overcomes the limitations of both approaches. Therefore, it is the surgical approach of choice for a patient bearing an extremely large ovarian cystic tumor.

  19. Large carbon cluster thin film gauges for measuring aerodynamic heat transfer rates in hypersonic shock tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinath, S; Reddy, K P J

    2015-01-01

    Different types of Large Carbon Cluster (LCC) layers are synthesized by a single-step pyrolysis technique at various ratios of precursor mixture. The aim is to develop a fast responsive and stable thermal gauge based on a LCC layer which has relatively good electrical conduction in order to use it in the hypersonic flow field. The thermoelectric property of the LCC layer has been studied. It is found that these carbon clusters are sensitive to temperature changes. Therefore suitable thermal gauges were developed for blunt cone bodies and were tested in hypersonic shock tunnels at a flow Mach number of 6.8 to measure aerodynamic heating. The LCC layer of this thermal gauge encounters high shear forces and a hostile environment for test duration in the range of a millisecond. The results are favorable to use large carbon clusters as a better sensor than a conventional platinum thin film gauge in view of fast responsiveness and stability. (paper)

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of sputtering of organic overlayers by slow, large clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzeznik, L.; Czerwinski, B.; Garrison, B.J.; Winograd, N.; Postawa, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The ion-stimulated desorption of organic molecules by impact of large and slow clusters is examined using molecular dynamics (MDs) computer simulations. The investigated system, represented by a monolayer of benzene deposited on Ag{1 1 1}, is irradiated with projectiles composed of thousands of noble gas atoms having a kinetic energy of 0.1-20 eV/atom. The sputtering yield of molecular species and the kinetic energy distributions are analyzed and compared to the results obtain for PS4 overlayer. The simulations demonstrate quite clearly that the physics of ejection by large and slow clusters is distinct from the ejection events stimulated by the popular SIMS clusters, like C 60 , Au 3 and SF 5 at tens of keV energies.

  1. Searching for filaments and large-scale structure around DAFT/FADA clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durret, F.; Márquez, I.; Acebrón, A.; Adami, C.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Capelato, H.; Martinet, N.; Sarron, F.; Ulmer, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Clusters of galaxies are located at the intersection of cosmic filaments and are still accreting galaxies and groups along these preferential directions. However, because of their relatively low contrast on the sky, filaments are difficult to detect (unless a large amount of spectroscopic data are available), and unambiguous detections have been limited until now to relatively low redshifts (zDAFT/FADA survey for which we had deep wide field photometric data. For each cluster, based on a colour-magnitude diagram, we selected galaxies that were likely to belong to the red sequence, and hence to be at the cluster redshift, and built density maps. By computing the background for each of these maps and drawing 3σ contours, we estimated the elongations of the structures detected in this way. Whenever possible, we identified the other structures detected on the density maps with clusters listed in NED. Results: We find clear elongations in twelve clusters out of thirty, with sizes that can reach up to 7.6 Mpc. Eleven other clusters have neighbouring structures, but the zones linking them are not detected in the density maps at a 3σ level. Three clusters show no extended structure and no neighbours, and four clusters are of too low contrast to be clearly visible on our density maps. Conclusions: The simple method we have applied appears to work well to show the existence of filaments and/or extensions around a number of clusters in the redshift range 0.4 large cluster samples such as the clusters detected in the CFHTLS and SDSS-Stripe 82 surveys in the near future. Based on our own data (see Guennou et al. 2014) and archive data obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and

  2. Parallel Multivariate Spatio-Temporal Clustering of Large Ecological Datasets on Hybrid Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreepathi, Sarat [ORNL; Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL; Mills, Richard T. [Argonne National Laboratory; Hoffman, Forrest M. [ORNL; Sripathi, Vamsi [Intel Corporation; Hargrove, William Walter [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States Forest Service (USFS)

    2017-09-01

    A proliferation of data from vast networks of remote sensing platforms (satellites, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), airborne etc.), observational facilities (meteorological, eddy covariance etc.), state-of-the-art sensors, and simulation models offer unprecedented opportunities for scientific discovery. Unsupervised classification is a widely applied data mining approach to derive insights from such data. However, classification of very large data sets is a complex computational problem that requires efficient numerical algorithms and implementations on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. Additionally, increasing power, space, cooling and efficiency requirements has led to the deployment of hybrid supercomputing platforms with complex architectures and memory hierarchies like the Titan system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The advent of such accelerated computing architectures offers new challenges and opportunities for big data analytics in general and specifically, large scale cluster analysis in our case. Although there is an existing body of work on parallel cluster analysis, those approaches do not fully meet the needs imposed by the nature and size of our large data sets. Moreover, they had scaling limitations and were mostly limited to traditional distributed memory computing platforms. We present a parallel Multivariate Spatio-Temporal Clustering (MSTC) technique based on k-means cluster analysis that can target hybrid supercomputers like Titan. We developed a hybrid MPI, CUDA and OpenACC implementation that can utilize both CPU and GPU resources on computational nodes. We describe performance results on Titan that demonstrate the scalability and efficacy of our approach in processing large ecological data sets.

  3. Neutron Star Astronomy in the era of the European Extremely Large Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignani, Roberto P.

    2011-01-01

    About 25 isolated neutron stars (INSs) are now detected in the optical domain, mainly thanks to the HST and to VLT-class telescopes. The European Extremely Large Telescope(E-ELT) will yield ∼100 new identifications, many of which from the follow-up of SKA, IXO, and Fermi observations. Moreover, the E-ELT will allow to carry out, on a much larger sample, INS observations which still challenge VLT-class telescopes, enabling studies on the structure and composition of the NS interior, of its atmosphere and magnetosphere, as well as to search for debris discs. In this contribution, I outline future perspectives for NS optical astronomy with the E-ELT.

  4. Influence of a Large Pillar on the Optimum Roadway Position in an Extremely Close Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mining practice in an extremely close coal seam, theoretical analysis was conducted on the vertical stress distribution of the floor strata under a large coal pillar. The vertical stress distribution regulation of a No. 5 coal seam was revealed. To obtain the optimum position of the roadway that bears the supporting pressure of a large coal pillar, numerical modeling was applied to analyze the relation among the stress distribution of the roadway surrounding the rock that bears the supporting pressure of a large coal pillar, the plastic zone distribution of the roadway surrounding the rock, the surrounding rock deformation, and the roadway layout position. The theoretical calculation results of the stress value, stress variation rate, and influencing range of the stress influencing angle showed that the reasonable malposition of the No. 5 coal seam roadway was an inner malposition of 4 m. The mining practice showed the following: the layout of No. 25301 panel belt roadway at the position of the inner malposition of 4 m was reasonable, the roadway support performance was favourable without deformation, and ground pressure was not obvious. The research achievement of this study is the provision of a reference for roadway layouts under similar conditions.

  5. Identifying influential nodes in large-scale directed networks: the role of clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan-Bing; Gao, Hui; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Identifying influential nodes in very large-scale directed networks is a big challenge relevant to disparate applications, such as accelerating information propagation, controlling rumors and diseases, designing search engines, and understanding hierarchical organization of social and biological networks. Known methods range from node centralities, such as degree, closeness and betweenness, to diffusion-based processes, like PageRank and LeaderRank. Some of these methods already take into account the influences of a node's neighbors but do not directly make use of the interactions among it's neighbors. Local clustering is known to have negative impacts on the information spreading. We further show empirically that it also plays a negative role in generating local connections. Inspired by these facts, we propose a local ranking algorithm named ClusterRank, which takes into account not only the number of neighbors and the neighbors' influences, but also the clustering coefficient. Subject to the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) spreading model with constant infectivity, experimental results on two directed networks, a social network extracted from delicious.com and a large-scale short-message communication network, demonstrate that the ClusterRank outperforms some benchmark algorithms such as PageRank and LeaderRank. Furthermore, ClusterRank can also be applied to undirected networks where the superiority of ClusterRank is significant compared with degree centrality and k-core decomposition. In addition, ClusterRank, only making use of local information, is much more efficient than global methods: It takes only 191 seconds for a network with about [Formula: see text] nodes, more than 15 times faster than PageRank.

  6. Identifying influential nodes in large-scale directed networks: the role of clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan-Bing Chen

    Full Text Available Identifying influential nodes in very large-scale directed networks is a big challenge relevant to disparate applications, such as accelerating information propagation, controlling rumors and diseases, designing search engines, and understanding hierarchical organization of social and biological networks. Known methods range from node centralities, such as degree, closeness and betweenness, to diffusion-based processes, like PageRank and LeaderRank. Some of these methods already take into account the influences of a node's neighbors but do not directly make use of the interactions among it's neighbors. Local clustering is known to have negative impacts on the information spreading. We further show empirically that it also plays a negative role in generating local connections. Inspired by these facts, we propose a local ranking algorithm named ClusterRank, which takes into account not only the number of neighbors and the neighbors' influences, but also the clustering coefficient. Subject to the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR spreading model with constant infectivity, experimental results on two directed networks, a social network extracted from delicious.com and a large-scale short-message communication network, demonstrate that the ClusterRank outperforms some benchmark algorithms such as PageRank and LeaderRank. Furthermore, ClusterRank can also be applied to undirected networks where the superiority of ClusterRank is significant compared with degree centrality and k-core decomposition. In addition, ClusterRank, only making use of local information, is much more efficient than global methods: It takes only 191 seconds for a network with about [Formula: see text] nodes, more than 15 times faster than PageRank.

  7. A Self-Organizing Spatial Clustering Approach to Support Large-Scale Network RTK Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Shen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The network real-time kinematic (RTK technique can provide centimeter-level real time positioning solutions and play a key role in geo-spatial infrastructure. With ever-increasing popularity, network RTK systems will face issues in the support of large numbers of concurrent users. In the past, high-precision positioning services were oriented towards professionals and only supported a few concurrent users. Currently, precise positioning provides a spatial foundation for artificial intelligence (AI, and countless smart devices (autonomous cars, unmanned aerial-vehicles (UAVs, robotic equipment, etc. require precise positioning services. Therefore, the development of approaches to support large-scale network RTK systems is urgent. In this study, we proposed a self-organizing spatial clustering (SOSC approach which automatically clusters online users to reduce the computational load on the network RTK system server side. The experimental results indicate that both the SOSC algorithm and the grid algorithm can reduce the computational load efficiently, while the SOSC algorithm gives a more elastic and adaptive clustering solution with different datasets. The SOSC algorithm determines the cluster number and the mean distance to cluster center (MDTCC according to the data set, while the grid approaches are all predefined. The side-effects of clustering algorithms on the user side are analyzed with real global navigation satellite system (GNSS data sets. The experimental results indicate that 10 km can be safely used as the cluster radius threshold for the SOSC algorithm without significantly reducing the positioning precision and reliability on the user side.

  8. Constraints on dark matter annihilation in clusters of galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blanford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R.A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P.S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Edmonds, Y.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Lande, J.; Lee, S.H.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Omodei, N.; Panetta, J.H.; Porter, T.A.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Thayer, J.G.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Starck, J.L.; Tibaldo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nearby clusters and groups of galaxies are potentially bright sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission resulting from the pair-annihilation of dark matter particles. However, no significant gamma-ray emission has been detected so far from clusters in the first 11 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We interpret this non-detection in terms of constraints on dark matter particle properties. In particular for leptonic annihilation final states and particle masses greater than similar to 200 GeV, gamma-ray emission from inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons is expected to dominate the dark matter annihilation signal from clusters, and our gamma-ray limits exclude large regions of the parameter space that would give a good fit to the recent anomalous Pamela and Fermi-LAT electron-positron measurements. We also present constraints on the annihilation of more standard dark matter candidates, such as the lightest neutralino of supersymmetric models. The constraints are particularly strong when including the fact that clusters are known to contain substructure at least on galaxy scales, increasing the expected gamma-ray flux by a factor of similar to 5 over a smooth-halo assumption. We also explore the effect of uncertainties in cluster dark matter density profiles, finding a systematic uncertainty in the constraints of roughly a factor of two, but similar overall conclusions. In this work, we focus on deriving limits on dark matter models; a more general consideration of the Fermi-LAT data on clusters and clusters as gamma-ray sources is forthcoming. (authors)

  9. Identifying Influential Nodes in Large-Scale Directed Networks: The Role of Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan-Bing; Gao, Hui; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Identifying influential nodes in very large-scale directed networks is a big challenge relevant to disparate applications, such as accelerating information propagation, controlling rumors and diseases, designing search engines, and understanding hierarchical organization of social and biological networks. Known methods range from node centralities, such as degree, closeness and betweenness, to diffusion-based processes, like PageRank and LeaderRank. Some of these methods already take into account the influences of a node’s neighbors but do not directly make use of the interactions among it’s neighbors. Local clustering is known to have negative impacts on the information spreading. We further show empirically that it also plays a negative role in generating local connections. Inspired by these facts, we propose a local ranking algorithm named ClusterRank, which takes into account not only the number of neighbors and the neighbors’ influences, but also the clustering coefficient. Subject to the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) spreading model with constant infectivity, experimental results on two directed networks, a social network extracted from delicious.com and a large-scale short-message communication network, demonstrate that the ClusterRank outperforms some benchmark algorithms such as PageRank and LeaderRank. Furthermore, ClusterRank can also be applied to undirected networks where the superiority of ClusterRank is significant compared with degree centrality and k-core decomposition. In addition, ClusterRank, only making use of local information, is much more efficient than global methods: It takes only 191 seconds for a network with about nodes, more than 15 times faster than PageRank. PMID:24204833

  10. Prototype of a laser guide star wavefront sensor for the Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, M.; Lombini, M.; Schreiber, L.; Bregoli, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Cosentino, G.; Diolaiti, E.; Foppiani, I.

    2018-06-01

    The new class of large telescopes, like the future Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), are designed to work with a laser guide star (LGS) tuned to a resonance of atmospheric sodium atoms. This wavefront sensing technique presents complex issues when applied to big telescopes for many reasons, mainly linked to the finite distance of the LGS, the launching angle, tip-tilt indetermination and focus anisoplanatism. The implementation of a laboratory prototype for the LGS wavefront sensor (WFS) at the beginning of the phase study of MAORY (Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics Relay) for ELT first light has been indispensable in investigating specific mitigation strategies for the LGS WFS issues. This paper presents the test results of the LGS WFS prototype under different working conditions. The accuracy within which the LGS images are generated on the Shack-Hartmann WFS has been cross-checked with the MAORY simulation code. The experiments show the effect of noise on centroiding precision, the impact of LGS image truncation on wavefront sensing accuracy as well as the temporal evolution of the sodium density profile and LGS image under-sampling.

  11. Extremely large magnetoresistance in few-layer graphene/boron-nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinadhan, Kalon; Shin, Young Jun; Jalil, Rashid; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Geim, Andre K; Castro Neto, Antonio H; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-09-21

    Understanding magnetoresistance, the change in electrical resistance under an external magnetic field, at the atomic level is of great interest both fundamentally and technologically. Graphene and other two-dimensional layered materials provide an unprecedented opportunity to explore magnetoresistance at its nascent stage of structural formation. Here we report an extremely large local magnetoresistance of ∼2,000% at 400 K and a non-local magnetoresistance of >90,000% in an applied magnetic field of 9 T at 300 K in few-layer graphene/boron-nitride heterostructures. The local magnetoresistance is understood to arise from large differential transport parameters, such as the carrier mobility, across various layers of few-layer graphene upon a normal magnetic field, whereas the non-local magnetoresistance is due to the magnetic field induced Ettingshausen-Nernst effect. Non-local magnetoresistance suggests the possibility of a graphene-based gate tunable thermal switch. In addition, our results demonstrate that graphene heterostructures may be promising for magnetic field sensing applications.

  12. Web service discovery among large service pools utilising semantic similarity and clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fuzan; Li, Minqiang; Wu, Harris; Xie, Lingli

    2017-03-01

    With the rapid development of electronic business, Web services have attracted much attention in recent years. Enterprises can combine individual Web services to provide new value-added services. An emerging challenge is the timely discovery of close matches to service requests among large service pools. In this study, we first define a new semantic similarity measure combining functional similarity and process similarity. We then present a service discovery mechanism that utilises the new semantic similarity measure for service matching. All the published Web services are pre-grouped into functional clusters prior to the matching process. For a user's service request, the discovery mechanism first identifies matching services clusters and then identifies the best matching Web services within these matching clusters. Experimental results show that the proposed semantic discovery mechanism performs better than a conventional lexical similarity-based mechanism.

  13. Integrated analysis of CFD data with K-means clustering algorithm and extreme learning machine for localized HVAC control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hongming; Soh, Yeng Chai; Wu, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining a desired comfort level while minimizing the total energy consumed is an interesting optimization problem in Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system control. This paper proposes a localized control strategy that uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results and K-means clustering algorithm to optimally partition an air-conditioned room into different zones. The temperature and air velocity results from CFD simulation are combined in two ways: 1) based on the relationship indicated in predicted mean vote (PMV) formula; 2) based on the relationship extracted from ASHRAE RP-884 database using extreme learning machine (ELM). Localized control can then be effected in which each of the zones can be treated individually and an optimal control strategy can be developed based on the partitioning result. - Highlights: • The paper provides a visual guideline for thermal comfort analysis. • CFD, K-means, PMV and ELM are used to analyze thermal conditions within a room. • Localized control strategy could be developed based on our clustering results

  14. A Fast SVD-Hidden-nodes based Extreme Learning Machine for Large-Scale Data Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wan-Yu; Bai, Zuo; Huang, Guang-Bin; Zheng, Qing-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Big dimensional data is a growing trend that is emerging in many real world contexts, extending from web mining, gene expression analysis, protein-protein interaction to high-frequency financial data. Nowadays, there is a growing consensus that the increasing dimensionality poses impeding effects on the performances of classifiers, which is termed as the "peaking phenomenon" in the field of machine intelligence. To address the issue, dimensionality reduction is commonly employed as a preprocessing step on the Big dimensional data before building the classifiers. In this paper, we propose an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) approach for large-scale data analytic. In contrast to existing approaches, we embed hidden nodes that are designed using singular value decomposition (SVD) into the classical ELM. These SVD nodes in the hidden layer are shown to capture the underlying characteristics of the Big dimensional data well, exhibiting excellent generalization performances. The drawback of using SVD on the entire dataset, however, is the high computational complexity involved. To address this, a fast divide and conquer approximation scheme is introduced to maintain computational tractability on high volume data. The resultant algorithm proposed is labeled here as Fast Singular Value Decomposition-Hidden-nodes based Extreme Learning Machine or FSVD-H-ELM in short. In FSVD-H-ELM, instead of identifying the SVD hidden nodes directly from the entire dataset, SVD hidden nodes are derived from multiple random subsets of data sampled from the original dataset. Comprehensive experiments and comparisons are conducted to assess the FSVD-H-ELM against other state-of-the-art algorithms. The results obtained demonstrated the superior generalization performance and efficiency of the FSVD-H-ELM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Large-scale dynamics associated with clustering of extratropical cyclones affecting Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joaquim G.; Gómara, Iñigo; Masato, Giacomo; Dacre, Helen F.; Woollings, Tim; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Some recent winters in Western Europe have been characterized by the occurrence of multiple extratropical cyclones following a similar path. The occurrence of such cyclone clusters leads to large socio-economic impacts due to damaging winds, storm surges, and floods. Recent studies have statistically characterized the clustering of extratropical cyclones over the North Atlantic and Europe and hypothesized potential physical mechanisms responsible for their formation. Here we analyze 4 months characterized by multiple cyclones over Western Europe (February 1990, January 1993, December 1999, and January 2007). The evolution of the eddy driven jet stream, Rossby wave-breaking, and upstream/downstream cyclone development are investigated to infer the role of the large-scale flow and to determine if clustered cyclones are related to each other. Results suggest that optimal conditions for the occurrence of cyclone clusters are provided by a recurrent extension of an intensified eddy driven jet toward Western Europe lasting at least 1 week. Multiple Rossby wave-breaking occurrences on both the poleward and equatorward flanks of the jet contribute to the development of these anomalous large-scale conditions. The analysis of the daily weather charts reveals that upstream cyclone development (secondary cyclogenesis, where new cyclones are generated on the trailing fronts of mature cyclones) is strongly related to cyclone clustering, with multiple cyclones developing on a single jet streak. The present analysis permits a deeper understanding of the physical reasons leading to the occurrence of cyclone families over the North Atlantic, enabling a better estimation of the associated cumulative risk over Europe.

  16. Massively parallel Monte Carlo. Experiences running nuclear simulations on a large condor cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickner, James; O'Dwyer, Joel; Roach, Greg; Uher, Josef; Hitchen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The trivially-parallel nature of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations make them ideally suited for running on a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment. We report on the setup and operation of a large, cycle-harvesting Condor computer cluster, used to run MC simulations of nuclear instruments ('jobs') on approximately 4,500 desktop PCs. Successful operation must balance the competing goals of maximizing the availability of machines for running jobs whilst minimizing the impact on users' PC performance. This requires classification of jobs according to anticipated run-time and priority and careful optimization of the parameters used to control job allocation to host machines. To maximize use of a large Condor cluster, we have created a powerful suite of tools to handle job submission and analysis, as the manual creation, submission and evaluation of large numbers (hundred to thousands) of jobs would be too arduous. We describe some of the key aspects of this suite, which has been interfaced to the well-known MCNP and EGSnrc nuclear codes and our in-house PHOTON optical MC code. We report on our practical experiences of operating our Condor cluster and present examples of several large-scale instrument design problems that have been solved using this tool. (author)

  17. Accurate density-functional calculations on large systems: Fullerenes and magnetic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.I.

    1996-01-01

    Efforts to accurately compute all-electron density-functional energies for large molecules and clusters using Gaussian basis sets will be reviewed. The foundation of this effort, variational fitting, will be described and followed by three applications of the method. The first application concerns fullerenes. When first discovered, C 60 is quite unstable relative to the higher fullerenes. In addition, to raising questions about the relative abundance of the various fullerenes, this work conflicted with the then state-of-the art density-funcitonal calculations on crystalline graphite. Now high accuracy molecular and band structure calculations are in fairly good agreement. Second, we have used these methods to design transition metal clusters having the highest magnetic moment by maximizing the symmetry-required degeneracy of the one-electron orbitals. Most recently, we have developed accurate, variational generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) forces for use in geometry optimization of clusters and in molecular-dynamics simulations of friction. The GGA optimized geometries of a number of large clusters will be given

  18. Revealing the cluster of slow transients behind a large slow slip event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, William B; Rousset, Baptiste; Lasserre, Cécile; Campillo, Michel

    2018-05-01

    Capable of reaching similar magnitudes to large megathrust earthquakes [ M w (moment magnitude) > 7], slow slip events play a major role in accommodating tectonic motion on plate boundaries through predominantly aseismic rupture. We demonstrate here that large slow slip events are a cluster of short-duration slow transients. Using a dense catalog of low-frequency earthquakes as a guide, we investigate the M w 7.5 slow slip event that occurred in 2006 along the subduction interface 40 km beneath Guerrero, Mexico. We show that while the long-period surface displacement, as recorded by Global Positioning System, suggests a 6-month duration, the motion in the direction of tectonic release only sporadically occurs over 55 days, and its surface signature is attenuated by rapid relocking of the plate interface. Our proposed description of slow slip as a cluster of slow transients forces us to re-evaluate our understanding of the physics and scaling of slow earthquakes.

  19. An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Magdaleno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain: international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975. It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA. These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs. Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations.

  20. OGLE Collection of Star Clusters. New Objects in the Outskirts of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, M.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, D. M.; Udalski, A.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Skowron, J.; Karczmarek, P.; Cieślar, M.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pawlak, M.; Poleski, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Magellanic System (MS), consisting of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Magellanic Bridge (MBR), contains diverse sample of star clusters. Their spatial distribution, ages and chemical abundances may provide important information about the history of formation of the whole System. We use deep photometric maps derived from the images collected during the fourth phase of The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-IV) to construct the most com...

  1. Quenched Large Deviations for Simple Random Walks on Percolation Clusters Including Long-Range Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Noam; Mukherjee, Chiranjib; Okamura, Kazuki

    2018-03-01

    We prove a quenched large deviation principle (LDP) for a simple random walk on a supercritical percolation cluster (SRWPC) on {Z^d} ({d ≥ 2}). The models under interest include classical Bernoulli bond and site percolation as well as models that exhibit long range correlations, like the random cluster model, the random interlacement and the vacant set of random interlacements (for {d ≥ 3}) and the level sets of the Gaussian free field ({d≥ 3}). Inspired by the methods developed by Kosygina et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 59:1489-1521, 2006) for proving quenched LDP for elliptic diffusions with a random drift, and by Yilmaz (Commun Pure Appl Math 62(8):1033-1075, 2009) and Rosenbluth (Quenched large deviations for multidimensional random walks in a random environment: a variational formula. Ph.D. thesis, NYU, arXiv:0804.1444v1) for similar results regarding elliptic random walks in random environment, we take the point of view of the moving particle and prove a large deviation principle for the quenched distribution of the pair empirical measures of the environment Markov chain in the non-elliptic case of SRWPC. Via a contraction principle, this reduces easily to a quenched LDP for the distribution of the mean velocity of the random walk and both rate functions admit explicit variational formulas. The main difficulty in our set up lies in the inherent non-ellipticity as well as the lack of translation-invariance stemming from conditioning on the fact that the origin belongs to the infinite cluster. We develop a unifying approach for proving quenched large deviations for SRWPC based on exploiting coercivity properties of the relative entropies in the context of convex variational analysis, combined with input from ergodic theory and invoking geometric properties of the supercritical percolation cluster.

  2. Irradiated large segment allografts in limb saving surgery for extremity tumor - Philippine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.H.M.; Agcaoili, N.; Turqueza, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Limb saving surgery has only recently become an option in the Phillipines. This has given a better comprehension of oncologic principles and from the refinement of bone-reconstruction procedures. Foremost among the latter is the use of large segment bone allografts. Large-segment allografts (LSA) are available from the Tissue and Bone Bank of the University of the Philippines (UP). After harvest, these bones are processed at the Bank, radiation-sterilized at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, and then stored in a -80 degree C deep freezer. We present our 4-year experience (Jan 93 - Dec 96) with LSA for limb saving surgery in musculoskeletal tumors. All patients included had: (1) malignant or aggressive extremity tumors; (2) surgery performed by the UP - Musculoskeletal Tumor Unit (UP-MUST Unit); (3) reconstructions utilizing irradiated large-segment allografts from the UP Tissue and Bone Bank; and (4) follow-up of at least one year or until death. Tumors included osteosarcoma (6) giant cell tumors (11), and metastatic lesions (3). Age ranged from 16-64 years old; 13 males and 7 females. Bones involved were the femur (12) tibia (5) and humerus (3). Average defect length was 15 cm and surgeries performed were intercalary replacement (5), resection arthrodesis (11), hemicondylar allograft (3), and allograft-prosthesis-composite (1). Follow-up ranged was from 17- 60 months or until death. Fifteen (1 5) were alive with NED (no evidence of disease), 3 were dead (2 of disease 1 of other causes), and 2 were AWED (alive with evidence of disease). Functional evaluation using the criteria of the International Society of Limb Salvage (ISOLS) was performed on 18 patients. This averaged 27.5 out of 30 points (92%) for 15 patients. Many having returned to their previous work and recreation. The 3 failures were due to infections in 2 cases (both of whom opted for amputations but who have not been fit with prostheses), and a fracture (secondary to a fall) in one case. Limb

  3. Cluster-cluster clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Cambridge Univ., England; Sussex Univ., Brighton, England)

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references

  4. Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Associated with Temperature Extremes as a Basis for Model Evaluation: Methodological Overview and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loikith, P. C.; Broccoli, A. J.; Waliser, D. E.; Lintner, B. R.; Neelin, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Anomalous large-scale circulation patterns often play a key role in the occurrence of temperature extremes. For example, large-scale circulation can drive horizontal temperature advection or influence local processes that lead to extreme temperatures, such as by inhibiting moderating sea breezes, promoting downslope adiabatic warming, and affecting the development of cloud cover. Additionally, large-scale circulation can influence the shape of temperature distribution tails, with important implications for the magnitude of future changes in extremes. As a result of the prominent role these patterns play in the occurrence and character of extremes, the way in which temperature extremes change in the future will be highly influenced by if and how these patterns change. It is therefore critical to identify and understand the key patterns associated with extremes at local to regional scales in the current climate and to use this foundation as a target for climate model validation. This presentation provides an overview of recent and ongoing work aimed at developing and applying novel approaches to identifying and describing the large-scale circulation patterns associated with temperature extremes in observations and using this foundation to evaluate state-of-the-art global and regional climate models. Emphasis is given to anomalies in sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height over North America using several methods to identify circulation patterns, including self-organizing maps and composite analysis. Overall, evaluation results suggest that models are able to reproduce observed patterns associated with temperature extremes with reasonable fidelity in many cases. Model skill is often highest when and where synoptic-scale processes are the dominant mechanisms for extremes, and lower where sub-grid scale processes (such as those related to topography) are important. Where model skill in reproducing these patterns is high, it can be inferred that extremes are

  5. Model of large volumetric capacitance in graphene supercapacitors based on ion clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian; Fogler, M. M.; Shklovskii, B. I.

    2011-12-01

    Electric double-layer supercapacitors (SCs) are promising devices for high-power energy storage based on the reversible absorption of ions into porous conducting electrodes. Graphene is a particularly good candidate for the electrode material in SCs due to its high conductivity and large surface area. In this paper, we consider SC electrodes made from a stack of graphene sheets with randomly inserted spacer molecules. We show that the large volumetric capacitances C≳100F/cm3 observed experimentally can be understood as a result of collective intercalation of ions into the graphene stack and the accompanying nonlinear screening by graphene electrons that renormalizes the charge of the ion clusters.

  6. A model of large volumetric capacitance in graphene supercapacitors based on ion clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian; Fogler, Michael; Shklovskii, Boris

    2012-02-01

    Electric double layer supercapacitors are promising devices for high-power energy storage based on the reversible absorption of ions into porous, conducting electrodes. Graphene is a particularly good candidate for the electrode material in supercapacitors due to its high conductivity and large surface area. In this paper we consider supercapacitor electrodes made from a stack of graphene sheets with randomly-inserted ``spacer" molecules. We show that the large volumetric capacitances C > 100 F/cm^3 observed experimentally can be understood as a result of collective intercalation of ions into the graphene stack and the accompanying nonlinear screening by graphene electrons that renormalizes the charge of the ion clusters.

  7. Evidence from stellar abundances for a large age difference between two globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, R.J.; Croke, B.F.W.; Cannon, R.D.; Bell, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The globular clusters NGC288 and NGC362 are central to recent claims of large age differences (∼3 Gyr) between globular clusters associated with our Galaxy. According to standard models for the formation of the Galaxy, the system of globular clusters formed during the dynamical collapse of the protogalactic cloud, a process which should have lasted no more than 1 Gyr. But the claimed age differences are derived from stellar evolution models using assumed CNO abundances, and uncertainty in the actual CNO abundances of about a factor of three could account for an apparent 2-Gyr age difference. We have accurately measured abundances in red giants in NGC288 and NGC362, and find that the Fe abundance and the sum of the C, N and O abundances are essentially the same in every star studied. By eliminating compositional differences and thus confirming the reality of the age difference, these results imply a cluster formation period that is hard to reconcile with the standard collapse model. (author)

  8. Discovery of large-scale diffuse radio emission in low-mass galaxy cluster Abell 1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggen, M.; Rafferty, D.; Bonafede, A.; van Weeren, R. J.; Shimwell, T.; Intema, H.; Röttgering, H.; Brunetti, G.; Di Gennaro, G.; Savini, F.; Wilber, A.; O'Sullivan, S.; Ensslin, T. A.; De Gasperin, F.; Hoeft, M.

    2018-04-01

    Extended, steep-spectrum radio synchrotron sources are pre-dominantly found in massive galaxy clusters as opposed to groups. LOFAR Two-Metre Sky Survey images have revealed a diffuse, ultra-steep spectrum radio source in the low-mass cluster Abell 1931. The source has a fairly irregular morphology with a largest linear size of about 550 kpc. The source is only seen in LOFAR observations at 143 MHz and GMRT observations at 325 MHz. The spectral index of the total source between 143 MHz and 325 MHz is α _{143}^{325} = -2.86 ± 0.36. The source remains invisible in Very Large Array (1-2 GHz) observations as expected given the spectral index. Chandra X-ray observations of the cluster revealed a bolometric luminosity of LX = (1.65 ± 0.39) × 1043 erg s-1 and a temperature of 2.92_{-0.87}^{+1.89} keV which implies a mass of around ˜1014M⊙. We conclude that the source is a remnant radio galaxy that has shut off around 200 Myr ago. The brightest cluster galaxy, a radio-loud elliptical galaxy, could be the source for this extinct source. Unlike remnant sources studied in the literature, our source has a steep spectrum at low radio frequencies. Studying such remnant radio galaxies at low radio frequencies is important for understanding the scarcity of such sources and their role in feedback processes.

  9. Bi-Level Decentralized Active Power Control for Large-Scale Wind Farm Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shengli; Wu, Qiuwei; Guo, Yifei

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a bi-level decentralized active power control (DAPC) for a large-scale wind farm cluster, consisting of several wind farms for better active power dispatch. In the upper level, a distributed active power control scheme based on the distributed consensus is designed to achieve...... fair active power sharing among multiple wind farms, which generates the power reference for each wind farm. A distributed estimator is used to estimate the total available power of all wind farms. In the lower level, a centralized control scheme based on the Model Predictive Control (MPC) is proposed...... to regulate active power outputs of all wind turbines (WTs) within a wind farm, which reduces the fatigue loads of WTs while tracking the power reference obtained from the upper level control. A wind farm cluster with 8 wind farms and totally 160 WTs, was used to test the control performance of the proposed...

  10. How large are the consequences of covariate imbalance in cluster randomized trials: a simulation study with a continuous outcome and a binary covariate at the cluster level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerbeek, Mirjam; van Schie, Sander

    2016-07-11

    The number of clusters in a cluster randomized trial is often low. It is therefore likely random assignment of clusters to treatment conditions results in covariate imbalance. There are no studies that quantify the consequences of covariate imbalance in cluster randomized trials on parameter and standard error bias and on power to detect treatment effects. The consequences of covariance imbalance in unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed models are investigated by means of a simulation study. The factors in this study are the degree of imbalance, the covariate effect size, the cluster size and the intraclass correlation coefficient. The covariate is binary and measured at the cluster level; the outcome is continuous and measured at the individual level. The results show covariate imbalance results in negligible parameter bias and small standard error bias in adjusted linear mixed models. Ignoring the possibility of covariate imbalance while calculating the sample size at the cluster level may result in a loss in power of at most 25 % in the adjusted linear mixed model. The results are more severe for the unadjusted linear mixed model: parameter biases up to 100 % and standard error biases up to 200 % may be observed. Power levels based on the unadjusted linear mixed model are often too low. The consequences are most severe for large clusters and/or small intraclass correlation coefficients since then the required number of clusters to achieve a desired power level is smallest. The possibility of covariate imbalance should be taken into account while calculating the sample size of a cluster randomized trial. Otherwise more sophisticated methods to randomize clusters to treatments should be used, such as stratification or balance algorithms. All relevant covariates should be carefully identified, be actually measured and included in the statistical model to avoid severe levels of parameter and standard error bias and insufficient power levels.

  11. Jets from jets: re-clustering as a tool for large radius jet reconstruction and grooming at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Benjamin; Nef, Pascal; Schwartzman, Ariel; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj

    2015-02-01

    Jets with a large radius R ≳ 1 and grooming algorithms are widely used to fully capture the decay products of boosted heavy particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Unlike most discriminating variables used in such studies, the jet radius is usually not optimized for specific physics scenarios. This is because every jet configuration must be calibrated, insitu, to account for detector response and other experimental effects. One solution to enhance the availability of large- R jet configurations used by the LHC experiments is jet re-clustering. Jet re-clustering introduces an intermediate scale r groomed jets. Jet re-clustering has the benefit that no additional large-R calibration is necessary, allowing the re-clustered large radius parameter to be optimized in the context of specific precision measurements or searches for new physics.

  12. VARIABLE STARS IN LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. NGC 1786

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; De Lee, Nathan; Catelan, Márcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; Borissova, Jura

    2012-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B–V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Hadoop-based Large-scale Network Traffic Analysis Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As Hadoop has gained popularity in big data era, it is widely used in various fields. The self-design and self-developed large-scale network traffic analysis cluster works well based on Hadoop, with off-line applications running on it to analyze the massive network traffic data. On purpose of scientifically and reasonably evaluating the performance of analysis cluster, we propose a performance evaluation system. Firstly, we set the execution times of three benchmark applications as the benchmark of the performance, and pick 40 metrics of customized statistical resource data. Then we identify the relationship between the resource data and the execution times by a statistic modeling analysis approach, which is composed of principal component analysis and multiple linear regression. After training models by historical data, we can predict the execution times by current resource data. Finally, we evaluate the performance of analysis cluster by the validated predicting of execution times. Experimental results show that the predicted execution times by trained models are within acceptable error range, and the evaluation results of performance are accurate and reliable.

  14. Laser heating of large noble gas clusters: from the resonant to the relativistic interaction regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumbrell, E T; Moore, A S; Clark, E L; Garbett, W J; Comley, A J; Edwards, R D; Eagleton, R E [Plasma Physics Division, AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Lazarus, J A; Nilson, P M; Robinson, J S; Hohenberger, M; Symes, D R; Smith, R A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clarke, R J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: edward.gumbrell@awe.co.uk, E-mail: r.a.smith@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    Wide-ranging measurements of sub-picosecond laser interactions with large noble gas cluster targets have been conducted in order to help clarify the nature and extent of the underlying laser-plasma heating. Within the sub-relativistic vacuum irradiance range of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}, we find that electron temperatures measured with continuum x-ray spectroscopy exhibit a pronounced multi-keV enhancement. Analysis indicates this behaviour to be consistent with collisional or collisionless resonant heating mechanisms. We also present the first measurements of laser-to-cluster energy deposition at relativistic vacuum irradiances, our data demonstrating absorption fractions of 90% or more. Optical probing was used to resolve the onset of a supersonic ionization front resulting from this very high absorption, and shows that despite significant pre-focus heating, the greatest plasma energy densities can be generated about the vacuum focus position. Electron energy spectra measurements confirm that laser-plasma super-heating occurs, and together with ion data establish that relativistic laser-plasma coupling in atomic clusters can take place without significant MeV particle beam production. In conjunction with optical self-emission data, the optical probing also indicates laser pre-pulse effects at peak vacuum irradiance of 5 x 10{sup 19} W cm{sup -2}. Laser absorption, plasma heating and energy transport data are supported throughout with analytical and numerical modelling.

  15. LOD-based clustering techniques for efficient large-scale terrain storage and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaohong; Pajarola, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Large multi-resolution terrain data sets are usually stored out-of-core. To visualize terrain data at interactive frame rates, the data needs to be organized on disk, loaded into main memory part by part, then rendered efficiently. Many main-memory algorithms have been proposed for efficient vertex selection and mesh construction. Organization of terrain data on disk is quite difficult because the error, the triangulation dependency and the spatial location of each vertex all need to be considered. Previous terrain clustering algorithms did not consider the per-vertex approximation error of individual terrain data sets. Therefore, the vertex sequences on disk are exactly the same for any terrain. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering algorithm which introduces the level-of-detail (LOD) information to terrain data organization to map multi-resolution terrain data to external memory. In our approach the LOD parameters of the terrain elevation points are reflected during clustering. The experiments show that dynamic loading and paging of terrain data at varying LOD is very efficient and minimizes page faults. Additionally, the preprocessing of this algorithm is very fast and works from out-of-core.

  16. Jets from jets: re-clustering as a tool for large radius jet reconstruction and grooming at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachman, Benjamin; Nef, Pascal; Schwartzman, Ariel; Swiatlowski, Maximilian [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj [Center for High Energy Physics, University of Oregon,1371 E. 13th Ave, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)

    2015-02-12

    Jets with a large radius R≳1 and grooming algorithms are widely used to fully capture the decay products of boosted heavy particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Unlike most discriminating variables used in such studies, the jet radius is usually not optimized for specific physics scenarios. This is because every jet configuration must be calibrated, insitu, to account for detector response and other experimental effects. One solution to enhance the availability of large-R jet configurations used by the LHC experiments is jet re-clustering. Jet re-clustering introduces an intermediate scale rlarge radius jets. In this paper we systematically study and propose new jet re-clustering configurations and show that re-clustered large radius jets have essentially the same jet mass performance as large radius groomed jets. Jet re-clustering has the benefit that no additional large-R calibration is necessary, allowing the re-clustered large radius parameter to be optimized in the context of specific precision measurements or searches for new physics.

  17. Jets from jets: re-clustering as a tool for large radius jet reconstruction and grooming at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachman, Benjamin; Nef, Pascal; Schwartzman, Ariel; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj

    2015-01-01

    Jets with a large radius R≳1 and grooming algorithms are widely used to fully capture the decay products of boosted heavy particles at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Unlike most discriminating variables used in such studies, the jet radius is usually not optimized for specific physics scenarios. This is because every jet configuration must be calibrated, insitu, to account for detector response and other experimental effects. One solution to enhance the availability of large-R jet configurations used by the LHC experiments is jet re-clustering. Jet re-clustering introduces an intermediate scale rlarge radius jets. In this paper we systematically study and propose new jet re-clustering configurations and show that re-clustered large radius jets have essentially the same jet mass performance as large radius groomed jets. Jet re-clustering has the benefit that no additional large-R calibration is necessary, allowing the re-clustered large radius parameter to be optimized in the context of specific precision measurements or searches for new physics.

  18. Large Scale Influences on Summertime Extreme Precipitation in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Koster, Randal Dean

    2016-01-01

    Observations indicate that over the last few decades there has been a statistically significant increase in precipitation in the northeastern United States and that this can be attributed to an increase in precipitation associated with extreme precipitation events. Here a state-of-the-art atmospheric reanalysis is used to examine such events in detail. Daily extreme precipitation events defined at the 75th and 95th percentile from gridded gauge observations are identified for a selected region within the Northeast. Atmospheric variables from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2), are then composited during these events to illustrate the time evolution of associated synoptic structures, with a focus on vertically integrated water vapor fluxes, sea level pressure, and 500-hectopascal heights. Anomalies of these fields move into the region from the northwest, with stronger anomalies present in the 95th percentile case. Although previous studies show tropical cyclones are responsible for the most intense extreme precipitation events, only 10 percent of the events in this study are caused by tropical cyclones. On the other hand, extreme events resulting from cutoff low pressure systems have increased. The time period of the study was divided in half to determine how the mean composite has changed over time. An arc of lower sea level pressure along the East Coast and a change in the vertical profile of equivalent potential temperature suggest a possible increase in the frequency or intensity of synoptic-scale baroclinic disturbances.

  19. Maximal planar networks with large clustering coefficient and power-law degree distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Yan Gang; Wang Binghong

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we propose a simple rule that generates scale-free networks with very large clustering coefficient and very small average distance. These networks are called random Apollonian networks (RANs) as they can be considered as a variation of Apollonian networks. We obtain the analytic results of power-law exponent γ=3 and clustering coefficient C=(46/3)-36 ln (3/2)≅0.74, which agree with the simulation results very well. We prove that the increasing tendency of average distance of RANs is a little slower than the logarithm of the number of nodes in RANs. Since most real-life networks are both scale-free and small-world networks, RANs may perform well in mimicking the reality. The RANs possess hierarchical structure as C(k)∼k -1 that are in accord with the observations of many real-life networks. In addition, we prove that RANs are maximal planar networks, which are of particular practicability for layout of printed circuits and so on. The percolation and epidemic spreading process are also studied and the comparisons between RANs and Barabasi-Albert (BA) as well as Newman-Watts (NW) networks are shown. We find that, when the network order N (the total number of nodes) is relatively small (as N∼10 4 ), the performance of RANs under intentional attack is not sensitive to N, while that of BA networks is much affected by N. And the diseases spread slower in RANs than BA networks in the early stage of the suseptible-infected process, indicating that the large clustering coefficient may slow the spreading velocity, especially in the outbreaks

  20. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... Author for correspondence (zh4403701@126.com). MS received 15 ... lic clusters using density functional theory (DFT)-GGA of the DMOL3 package. ... In the process of geometric optimization, con- vergence thresholds ..... and Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of. Jiangsu Province ...

  1. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environmental as well as technical problems during fuel gas utilization. ... adsorption on some alloys of Pd, namely PdAu, PdAg ... ried out on small neutral and charged Au24,26,27, Cu,28 ... study of Zanti et al.29 on Pdn (n = 1–9) clusters.

  2. Contribution of large-scale circulation anomalies to changes in extreme precipitation frequency in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lejiang; Zhong, Shiyuan; Pei, Lisi; Bian, Xindi; Heilman, Warren E

    2016-01-01

    The mean global climate has warmed as a result of the increasing emission of greenhouse gases induced by human activities. This warming is considered the main reason for the increasing number of extreme precipitation events in the US. While much attention has been given to extreme precipitation events occurring over several days, which are usually responsible for severe flooding over a large region, little is known about how extreme precipitation events that cause flash flooding and occur at sub-daily time scales have changed over time. Here we use the observed hourly precipitation from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 forcing datasets to determine trends in the frequency of extreme precipitation events of short (1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h) duration for the period 1979–2013. The results indicate an increasing trend in the central and eastern US. Over most of the western US, especially the Southwest and the Intermountain West, the trends are generally negative. These trends can be largely explained by the interdecadal variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with the AMO making a greater contribution to the trends in both warm and cold seasons. (letter)

  3. PROBING THE EXTREME REALM OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK IN THE MASSIVE GALAXY CLUSTER, RX J1532.9+3021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Allen, S. W.; Canning, R. E. A.; Werner, N.; Ehlert, S.; Von der Linden, A. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Taylor, G. B.; Grimes, C. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New-Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sanders, J. S., E-mail: juliehl@stanford.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We present a detailed Chandra, XMM-Newton, Very Large Array (VLA) and Hubble Space Telescope analysis of one of the strongest cool core clusters known, RX J1532.9+3021 (z = 0.3613). Using new, deep 90 ks Chandra observations, we confirm the presence of a western X-ray cavity or bubble, and report on a newly discovered eastern X-ray cavity. The total mechanical power associated with these active galactic nucleus (AGN) driven outflows is (22 ± 9) × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}, and is sufficient to offset the cooling, indicating that AGN feedback still provides a viable solution to the cooling flow problem even in the strongest cool core clusters. Based on the distribution of the optical filaments, as well as a jet-like structure seen in the 325 MHz VLA radio map, we suggest that the cluster harbors older outflows along the north to south direction. The jet of the central AGN is therefore either precessing or sloshing-induced motions have caused the outflows to change directions. There are also hints of an X-ray depression to the north aligned with the 325 MHz jet-like structure, which might represent the highest redshift ghost cavity discovered to date. We further find evidence of a cold front (r ≈ 65 kpc) that coincides with the outermost edge of the western X-ray cavity and the edge of the radio mini-halo. The common location of the cold front with the edge of the radio mini-halo supports the idea that the latter originates from electrons being reaccelerated due to sloshing-induced turbulence. Alternatively, its coexistence with the edge of the X-ray cavity may be due to cool gas being dragged out by the outburst. We confirm that the central AGN is highly sub-Eddington and conclude that a >10{sup 10} M{sub ☉} or a rapidly spinning black hole is favored to explain both the radiative-inefficiency of the AGN and the powerful X-ray cavities.

  4. Combinations of large-scale circulation anomalies conducive to precipitation extremes in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, Marek; Müller, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 138, March 2014 (2014), s. 205-212 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1990 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : precipitation extreme * synoptic-scale cause * re-analysis * circulation anomaly Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809513003372

  5. Scalable Algorithms for Clustering Large Geospatiotemporal Data Sets on Manycore Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. T.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Sreepathi, S.; Sripathi, V.

    2016-12-01

    The increasing availability of high-resolution geospatiotemporal data sets from sources such as observatory networks, remote sensing platforms, and computational Earth system models has opened new possibilities for knowledge discovery using data sets fused from disparate sources. Traditional algorithms and computing platforms are impractical for the analysis and synthesis of data sets of this size; however, new algorithmic approaches that can effectively utilize the complex memory hierarchies and the extremely high levels of available parallelism in state-of-the-art high-performance computing platforms can enable such analysis. We describe a massively parallel implementation of accelerated k-means clustering and some optimizations to boost computational intensity and utilization of wide SIMD lanes on state-of-the art multi- and manycore processors, including the second-generation Intel Xeon Phi ("Knights Landing") processor based on the Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture, which includes several new features, including an on-package high-bandwidth memory. We also analyze the code in the context of a few practical applications to the analysis of climatic and remotely-sensed vegetation phenology data sets, and speculate on some of the new applications that such scalable analysis methods may enable.

  6. Forcings and feedbacks on convection in the 2010 Pakistan flood: Modeling extreme precipitation with interactive large-scale ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ji; Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2016-09-01

    Extratropical extreme precipitation events are usually associated with large-scale flow disturbances, strong ascent, and large latent heat release. The causal relationships between these factors are often not obvious, however, the roles of different physical processes in producing the extreme precipitation event can be difficult to disentangle. Here we examine the large-scale forcings and convective heating feedback in the precipitation events, which caused the 2010 Pakistan flood within the Column Quasi-Geostrophic framework. A cloud-revolving model (CRM) is forced with large-scale forcings (other than large-scale vertical motion) computed from the quasi-geostrophic omega equation using input data from a reanalysis data set, and the large-scale vertical motion is diagnosed interactively with the simulated convection. Numerical results show that the positive feedback of convective heating to large-scale dynamics is essential in amplifying the precipitation intensity to the observed values. Orographic lifting is the most important dynamic forcing in both events, while differential potential vorticity advection also contributes to the triggering of the first event. Horizontal moisture advection modulates the extreme events mainly by setting the environmental humidity, which modulates the amplitude of the convection's response to the dynamic forcings. When the CRM is replaced by either a single-column model (SCM) with parameterized convection or a dry model with a reduced effective static stability, the model results show substantial discrepancies compared with reanalysis data. The reasons for these discrepancies are examined, and the implications for global models and theoretical models are discussed.

  7. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. II. NGC 1786

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2012-12-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B-V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  8. Quantum dynamics of small H2 and D2 clusters in the large cage of structure II clathrate hydrate: Energetics, occupancy, and vibrationally averaged cluster structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastianelli, Francesco; Xu, Minzhong; Bačić, Zlatko

    2008-12-01

    We report diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations of the quantum translation-rotation (T-R) dynamics of one to five para-H2 (p-H2) and ortho-D2 (o-D2) molecules inside the large hexakaidecahedral (51264) cage of the structure II clathrate hydrate, which was taken to be rigid. These calculations provide a quantitative description of the size evolution of the ground-state properties, energetics, and the vibrationally averaged geometries, of small (p-H2)n and (o-D2)n clusters, n=1-5, in nanoconfinement. The zero-point energy (ZPE) of the T-R motions rises steeply with the cluster size, reaching 74% of the potential well depth for the caged (p-H2)4. At low temperatures, the rapid increase of the cluster ZPE as a function of n is the main factor that limits the occupancy of the large cage to at most four H2 or D2 molecules, in agreement with experiments. Our DMC results concerning the vibrationally averaged spatial distribution of four D2 molecules, their mean distance from the cage center, the D2-D2 separation, and the specific orientation and localization of the tetrahedral (D2)4 cluster relative to the framework of the large cage, agree very well with the low-temperature neutron diffraction experiments involving the large cage with the quadruple D2 occupancy.

  9. POPULATION PARAMETERS OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. NEW INSIGHTS FROM EXTENDED MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS IN SEVEN STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Puzia, Thomas H.; Chandar, Rupali

    2011-01-01

    We discuss new photometry from high-resolution images of seven intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with several different sets of theoretical isochrones and determine systematic uncertainties for population parameters when derived using any one set of isochrones. The cluster CMDs show several interesting features, including extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) regions, narrow red giant branches, and clear sequences of unresolved binary stars. We show that the extended MSTOs are not caused by photometric uncertainties, contamination by field stars, or the presence of binary stars. Enhanced helium abundances in a fraction of cluster stars are also ruled out as the reason for the extended MSTOs. Quantitative comparisons with simulations indicate that the MSTO regions are better described by a spread in ages than by a bimodal age distribution, although we cannot formally rule out the latter for the three lowest-mass clusters in our sample (which have masses lower than ∼3 x 10 4 M sun ). This conclusion differs from that of some previous works which suggested that the age distribution in massive clusters in our sample is bimodal. This suggests that any secondary star formation occurred in an extended fashion rather than through short bursts. We discuss these results in the context of the nature of multiple stellar populations in star clusters.

  10. A marked concentration of galaxy clusters: is this the origin of large-scale motions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaramella, R.; Baiesi-Pillastrini, G.; Vettolani, G.; Zamorani, G.

    1989-01-01

    The distances and velocities of 400 elliptical galaxies, out to redshifts equivalent to recession velocities of ∼ 6,000 km s -1 , suggest that the peculiar velocities obtained by subtraction of the general cosmological expansion are best fitted by a flow induced by a 'great attractor', a large mass of 5.4 x 10 16 M solar and centred on galactic longitude l = 307 0 and latitude b = 9 0 at a distance R m = 4,350 ± 350 km s -1 . A redshift survey of ∼ 900 galaxies shows that the excess galaxy number counts in this direction are due to two substantial concentrations of galaxies at recession velocities υ ∼ 3,000 km s -1 and 4,500 km s -1 . Here we show that in roughly the same direction there is also a very rich concentration of galaxy clusters which may have a considerable dynamical influence. The estimated redshift distances of these clusters range from 3,000 to 20,000 km s -1 , with a main complex at υ ∼ 14,000 km s -1 . The barycentre of this concentration lies ∼ 25 0 away from the cosmic microwave background dipole, and ∼ 10 0 away from the latest reported position of the Great Attractor. (author)

  11. Extreme weather events in southern Germany - Climatological risk and development of a large-scale identification procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, A.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Rohlfing, G.; Ulbrich, U.

    2009-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as thunderstorms, hail and heavy rain or snowfall can pose a threat to human life and to considerable tangible assets. Yet there is a lack of knowledge about present day climatological risk and its economic effects, and its changes due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations. Therefore, parts of economy particularly sensitve to extreme weather events such as insurance companies and airports require regional risk-analyses, early warning and prediction systems to cope with such events. Such an attempt is made for southern Germany, in close cooperation with stakeholders. Comparing ERA40 and station data with impact records of Munich Re and Munich Airport, the 90th percentile was found to be a suitable threshold for extreme impact relevant precipitation events. Different methods for the classification of causing synoptic situations have been tested on ERA40 reanalyses. An objective scheme for the classification of Lamb's circulation weather types (CWT's) has proved to be most suitable for correct classification of the large-scale flow conditions. Certain CWT's have been turned out to be prone to heavy precipitation or on the other side to have a very low risk of such events. Other large-scale parameters are tested in connection with CWT's to find out a combination that has the highest skill to identify extreme precipitation events in climate model data (ECHAM5 and CLM). For example vorticity advection in 700 hPa shows good results, but assumes knowledge of regional orographic particularities. Therefore ongoing work is focused on additional testing of parameters that indicate deviations of a basic state of the atmosphere like the Eady Growth Rate or the newly developed Dynamic State Index. Evaluation results will be used to estimate the skill of the regional climate model CLM concerning the simulation of frequency and intensity of the extreme weather events. Data of the A1B scenario (2000-2050) will be examined for a possible climate change

  12. Identification of a large, fast-expanding HIV-1 subtype B transmission cluster among MSM in Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Galindo, Juan Ángel; Torres-Puente, Manoli; Bracho, María Alma; Alastrué, Ignacio; Juan, Amparo; Navarro, David; Galindo, María José; Gimeno, Concepción; Ortega, Enrique; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    We describe and characterize an exceptionally large HIV-1 subtype B transmission cluster occurring in the Comunidad Valenciana (CV, Spain). A total of 1806 HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase (PR/RT) sequences from different patients were obtained in the CV between 2004 and 2014. After subtyping and generating a phylogenetic tree with additional HIV-1 subtype B sequences, a very large transmission cluster which included almost exclusively sequences from the CV was detected (n = 143 patients). This cluster was then validated and characterized with further maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian coalescent reconstructions. With these analyses, the CV cluster was delimited to 113 patients, predominately men who have sex with men (MSM). Although it was significantly located in the city of Valencia (n = 105), phylogenetic analyses suggested this cluster derives from a larger HIV lineage affecting other Spanish localities (n = 194). Coalescent analyses estimated its expansion in Valencia to have started between 1998 and 2004. From 2004 to 2009, members of this cluster represented only 1.46% of the HIV-1 subtype B samples studied in Valencia (n = 5/143), whereas from 2010 onwards its prevalence raised to 12.64% (n = 100/791). In conclusion, we have detected a very large transmission cluster in the CV where it has experienced a very fast growth in the recent years in the city of Valencia, thus contributing significantly to the HIV epidemic in this locality. Its transmission efficiency evidences shortcomings in HIV control measures in Spain and particularly in Valencia.

  13. Towards Development of Clustering Applications for Large-Scale Comparative Genotyping and Kinship Analysis Using Y-Short Tandem Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, Ali; Sapawi, Azizian Mohd; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2015-06-01

    Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are genetic markers with practical applications in human identification. However, where mass identification is required (e.g., in the aftermath of disasters with significant fatalities), the efficiency of the process could be improved with new statistical approaches. Clustering applications are relatively new tools for large-scale comparative genotyping, and the k-Approximate Modal Haplotype (k-AMH), an efficient algorithm for clustering large-scale Y-STR data, represents a promising method for developing these tools. In this study we improved the k-AMH and produced three new algorithms: the Nk-AMH I (including a new initial cluster center selection), the Nk-AMH II (including a new dominant weighting value), and the Nk-AMH III (combining I and II). The Nk-AMH III was the superior algorithm, with mean clustering accuracy that increased in four out of six datasets and remained at 100% in the other two. Additionally, the Nk-AMH III achieved a 2% higher overall mean clustering accuracy score than the k-AMH, as well as optimal accuracy for all datasets (0.84-1.00). With inclusion of the two new methods, the Nk-AMH III produced an optimal solution for clustering Y-STR data; thus, the algorithm has potential for further development towards fully automatic clustering of any large-scale genotypic data.

  14. Complex active regions as the main source of extreme and large solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    A study of solar proton sources indicated that solar flare events responsible for ≥2000 pfu proton fluxes mostly occur in complex active regions (CARs), i.e., in transition structures between active regions and activity complexes. Different classes of similar structures and their relation to solar proton events (SPEs) and evolution, depending on the origination conditions, are considered. Arguments in favor of the fact that sunspot groups with extreme dimensions are CARs are presented. An analysis of the flare activity in a CAR resulted in the detection of "physical" boundaries, which separate magnetic structures of the same polarity and are responsible for the independent development of each structure.

  15. Extremely Large Magnetoresistance at Low Magnetic Field by Coupling the Nonlinear Transport Effect and the Anomalous Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhaochu; Xiong, Chengyue; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Zhen-Gang; Cai, Jianwang; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2016-04-13

    The anomalous Hall effect of a magnetic material is coupled to the nonlinear transport effect of a semiconductor material in a simple structure to achieve a large geometric magnetoresistance (MR) based on a diode-assisted mechanism. An extremely large MR (>10(4) %) at low magnetic fields (1 mT) is observed at room temperature. This MR device shows potential for use as a logic gate for the four basic Boolean logic operations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Group Clustering Mechanism for P2P Large Scale Data Sharing Collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGQianni; LUXinda; CHENLi

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that P2P scientific collaboration network will exhibit small-world topology, as do a large number of social networks for which the same pattern has been documented. In this paper we propose a topology building protocol to benefit from the small world feature. We find that the idea of Freenet resembles the dynamic pattern of social interactions in scientific data sharing and the small world characteristic of Freenet is propitious to improve the file locating performance in scientificdata sharing. But the LRU (Least recently used) datas-tore cache replacement scheme of Freenet is not suitableto be used in scientific data sharing network. Based onthe group locality of scientific collaboration, we proposean enhanced group clustering cache replacement scheme.Simulation shows that this scheme improves the request hitratio dramatically while keeping the small average hops per successful request comparable to LRU.

  17. DEMNUni: the clustering of large-scale structures in the presence of massive neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castorina, Emanuele; Carbone, Carmelita; Bel, Julien; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Dolag, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the clustering features of Large Scale Structures (LSS) in the presence of massive neutrinos, employing a set of large-volume, high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, where neutrinos are treated as separate collisionless particles. The volume of 8 h -3 Gpc 3 , combined with a resolution of about 8×10 10 h -1 M ⊚ for the cold dark matter (CDM) component, represents a significant improvement over previous N-body simulations in massive neutrino cosmologies. In this work we focus, in the first place, on the analysis of nonlinear effects in CDM and neutrinos perturbations contributing to the total matter power spectrum. We show that most of the nonlinear evolution is generated exclusively by the CDM component. We therefore compare mildly nonlinear predictions from Eulerian Perturbation Theory (PT), and fully nonlinear prescriptions (HALOFIT) with the measurements obtained from the simulations. We find that accounting only for the nonlinear evolution of the CDM power spectrum allows to recover the total matter power spectrum with the same accuracy as the massless case. Indeed, we show that, the most recent version of the (HALOFIT) formula calibrated on ΛCDM simulations can be applied directly to the linear CDM power spectrum without requiring additional fitting parameters in the massive case. As a second step, we study the abundance and clustering properties of CDM halos, confirming that, in massive neutrino cosmologies, the proper definition of the halo bias should be made with respect to the cold rather than the total matter distribution, as recently shown in the literature. Here we extend these results to the redshift space, finding that, when accounting for massive neutrinos, an improper definition of the linear bias can lead to a systematic error of about 1-2 % in the determination of the linear growth rate from anisotropic clustering. This result is quite important if we consider that future spectroscopic galaxy surveys, as e.g. Euclid, are

  18. Large Area Diamond Tribological Surfaces with Negligible Wear in Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we propose to demonstrate the processing of very large area diamond sliding bearings and tribological surfaces. The bearings and surfaces will experience...

  19. Robust multi-scale clustering of large DNA microarray datasets with the consensus algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grotkjær, Thomas; Winther, Ole; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    Motivation: Hierarchical and relocation clustering (e.g. K-means and self-organizing maps) have been successful tools in the display and analysis of whole genome DNA microarray expression data. However, the results of hierarchical clustering are sensitive to outliers, and most relocation methods...... analysis by collecting re-occurring clustering patterns in a co-occurrence matrix. The results show that consensus clustering obtained from clustering multiple times with Variational Bayes Mixtures of Gaussians or K-means significantly reduces the classification error rate for a simulated dataset...

  20. Fast large-scale clustering of protein structures using Gauss integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Tim; Borg, Mikael; Boomsma, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    trajectories. Results: We present Pleiades, a novel approach to clustering protein structures with a rigorous mathematical underpinning. The method approximates clustering based on the root mean square deviation by rst mapping structures to Gauss integral vectors – which were introduced by Røgen and co......-workers – and subsequently performing K-means clustering. Conclusions: Compared to current methods, Pleiades dramatically improves on the time needed to perform clustering, and can cluster a signicantly larger number of structures, while providing state-ofthe- art results. The number of low energy structures generated...

  1. Changes in daily climate extremes in China and their connection to the large scale atmospheric circulation during 1961-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Qinglong [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Beijing (China); Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Department of Geoinformatics, Jena (Germany); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Kang, Shichang [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Beijing (China); State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Aguilar, Enric [Universitat Rovirai Virgili de Tarragona, Climate Change Research Group, Geography Unit, Tarragona (Spain); Pepin, Nick [University of Portsmouth, Department of Geography, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Fluegel, Wolfgang-Albert [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Department of Geoinformatics, Jena (Germany); Yan, Yuping [National Climate Center, Beijing (China); Xu, Yanwei; Huang, Jie [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Beijing (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yongjun [Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Beijing (China)

    2011-06-15

    negative magnitudes. This is inconsistent with changes of water vapor flux calculated from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Large scale atmospheric circulation changes derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis grids show that a strengthening anticyclonic circulation, increasing geopotential height and rapid warming over the Eurasian continent have contributed to the changes in climate extremes in China. (orig.)

  2. A large-aperture, low-resolution quadrupole separator for producing deposited cluster materials

    CERN Document Server

    Denby, P M

    2000-01-01

    A wide-aperture, low-resolution quadrupole separator for metal clusters is described. Its performance has been evaluated by numerical calculations of the trajectories of clusters. Operating in the frequency range from 5 to 100 KHz allows one to separate clusters in the mass range from 30000 to 300000 AMU and by suitable choice of the AC and DC voltages one can obtain a resolution of 0.15. At this resolution the transmission of clusters from a source is 100% over the selected mass range. By biasing the quadrupole it has been possible to obtain a very sharp cut-off between the transmitted clusters and those outside the selected range. Trajectory calculation for clusters deposited onto a biased 2 cm diameter substrate show that it is possible to keep the deposition energy below 25 eV for 90% of the clusters when the quadrupole is itself biased.

  3. A large-aperture, low-resolution quadrupole separator for producing deposited cluster materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denby, P.M.; Eastham, D.A. E-mail: d.a.eastham@dl.ac.uk

    2000-03-01

    A wide-aperture, low-resolution quadrupole separator for metal clusters is described. Its performance has been evaluated by numerical calculations of the trajectories of clusters. Operating in the frequency range from 5 to 100 KHz allows one to separate clusters in the mass range from 30000 to 300000 AMU and by suitable choice of the AC and DC voltages one can obtain a resolution of 0.15. At this resolution the transmission of clusters from a source is 100% over the selected mass range. By biasing the quadrupole it has been possible to obtain a very sharp cut-off between the transmitted clusters and those outside the selected range. Trajectory calculation for clusters deposited onto a biased 2 cm diameter substrate show that it is possible to keep the deposition energy below 25 eV for 90% of the clusters when the quadrupole is itself biased.

  4. A large-aperture, low-resolution quadrupole separator for producing deposited cluster materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, P.M.; Eastham, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    A wide-aperture, low-resolution quadrupole separator for metal clusters is described. Its performance has been evaluated by numerical calculations of the trajectories of clusters. Operating in the frequency range from 5 to 100 KHz allows one to separate clusters in the mass range from 30000 to 300000 AMU and by suitable choice of the AC and DC voltages one can obtain a resolution of 0.15. At this resolution the transmission of clusters from a source is 100% over the selected mass range. By biasing the quadrupole it has been possible to obtain a very sharp cut-off between the transmitted clusters and those outside the selected range. Trajectory calculation for clusters deposited onto a biased 2 cm diameter substrate show that it is possible to keep the deposition energy below 25 eV for 90% of the clusters when the quadrupole is itself biased

  5. Electron scattering in large water clusters from photoelectron imaging with high harmonic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmann, Thomas E; Hartweg, Sebastian; Ban, Loren; Chasovskikh, Egor; Yoder, Bruce L; Signorell, Ruth

    2018-06-06

    Low-energy electron scattering in water clusters (H2O)n with average cluster sizes of n < 700 is investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using high harmonic radiation at photon energies of 14.0, 20.3, and 26.5 eV for ionization from the three outermost valence orbitals. The measurements probe the evolution of the photoelectron anisotropy parameter β as a function of cluster size. A remarkably steep decrease of β with increasing cluster size is observed, which for the largest clusters reaches liquid bulk values. Detailed electron scattering calculations reveal that neither gas nor condensed phase scattering can explain the cluster data. Qualitative agreement between experiment and simulations is obtained with scattering calculations that treat cluster scattering as an intermediate case between gas and condensed phase scattering.

  6. ASPECT: A spectra clustering tool for exploration of large spectral surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    in der Au, A.; Meusinger, H.; Schalldach, P. F.; Newholm, M.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Analysing the empirical output from large surveys is an important challenge in contemporary science. Difficulties arise, in particular, when the database is huge and the properties of the object types to be selected are poorly constrained a priori. Aims: We present the novel, semi-automated clustering tool ASPECT for analysing voluminous archives of spectra. Methods: The heart of the program is a neural network in the form of a Kohonen self-organizing map. The resulting map is designed as an icon map suitable for the inspection by eye. The visual analysis is supported by the option to blend in individual object properties such as redshift, apparent magnitude, or signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the package provides several tools for the selection of special spectral types, e.g. local difference maps which reflect the deviations of all spectra from one given input spectrum (real or artificial). Results: ASPECT is able to produce a two-dimensional topological map of a huge number of spectra. The software package enables the user to browse and navigate through a huge data pool and helps them to gain an insight into underlying relationships between the spectra and other physical properties and to get the big picture of the entire data set. We demonstrate the capability of ASPECT by clustering the entire data pool of ~6 × 105 spectra from the Data Release 4 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To illustrate the results regarding quality and completeness we track objects from existing catalogues of quasars and carbon stars, respectively, and connect the SDSS spectra with morphological information from the GalaxyZoo project. Code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/547/A115

  7. DISCOVERY OF MASSIVE, MOSTLY STAR FORMATION QUENCHED GALAXIES WITH EXTREMELY LARGE Lyα EQUIVALENT WIDTHS AT z ∼ 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Scoville, Nick Z.; Capak, Peter L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 105-24, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Toft, Sune [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); McCracken, Henry J. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Le Fèvre, Olivier; Tasca, Lidia; Ilbert, Olivier [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Renzini, Alvio [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Lilly, Simon; Carollo, Marcella; Kovač, Katarina [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: tani@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [MPI for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2015-08-10

    We report a discovery of six massive galaxies with both extremely large Lyα equivalent widths (EWs) and evolved stellar populations at z ∼ 3. These MAssive Extremely STrong Lyα emitting Objects (MAESTLOs) have been discovered in our large-volume systematic survey for strong Lyα emitters (LAEs) with 12 optical intermediate-band data taken with Subaru/Suprime-Cam in the COSMOS field. Based on the spectral energy distribution fitting analysis for these LAEs, it is found that these MAESTLOs have (1) large rest-frame EWs of EW{sub 0} (Lyα) ∼ 100–300 Å, (2) M{sub ⋆} ∼ 10{sup 10.5}–10{sup 11.1} M{sub ⊙}, and (3) relatively low specific star formation rates of SFR/M{sub ⋆} ∼ 0.03–1 Gyr{sup −1}. Three of the six MAESTLOs have extended Lyα emission with a radius of several kiloparsecs, although they show very compact morphology in the HST/ACS images, which correspond to the rest-frame UV continuum. Since the MAESTLOs do not show any evidence for active galactic nuclei, the observed extended Lyα emission is likely to be caused by a star formation process including the superwind activity. We suggest that this new class of LAEs, MAESTLOs, provides a missing link from star-forming to passively evolving galaxies at the peak era of the cosmic star formation history.

  8. Extreme hydrometeorological events in the Peruvian Central Andes during austral summer and their relationship with the large-scale circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulca, Juan C.

    In this Master's dissertation, atmospheric circulation patterns associated with extreme hydrometeorological events in the Mantaro Basin, Peruvian Central Andes, and their teleconnections during the austral summer (December-January-February-March) are addressed. Extreme rainfall events in the Mantaro basin are related to variations of the large-scale circulation as indicated by the changing strength of the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low (BH-NL) system. Dry (wet) spells are associated with a weakening (strengthening) of the BH-NL system and reduced (enhanced) influx of moist air from the lowlands to the east due to strengthened westerly (easterly) wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels. At the same time extreme rainfall events of the opposite sign occur over northeastern Brazil (NEB) due to enhanced (inhibited) convective activity in conjunction with a strengthened (weakened) Nordeste Low. Cold episodes in the Mantaro Basin are grouped in three types: weak, strong and extraordinary cold episodes. Weak and strong cold episodes in the MB are mainly associated with a weakening of the BH-NL system due to tropical-extratropical interactions. Both types of cold episodes are associated with westerly wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels aloft the Peruvian Central Andes, which inhibit the influx of humid air masses from the lowlands to the east and hence limit the potential for development of convective cloud cover. The resulting clear sky conditions cause nighttime temperatures to drop, leading to cold extremes below the 10-percentile. Extraordinary cold episodes in the MB are associated with cold and dry polar air advection at all tropospheric levels toward the central Peruvian Andes. Therefore, weak and strong cold episodes in the MB appear to be caused by radiative cooling associated with reduced cloudiness, rather than cold air advection, while the latter plays an important role for extraordinary cold episodes only.

  9. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  10. Fabrication of large size alginate beads for three-dimensional cell-cluster culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengtao; Ruan, Meilin; Liu, Hongni; Cao, Yiping; He, Rongxiang

    2017-08-01

    We fabricated large size alginate beads using a simple microfluidic device under a co-axial injection regime. This device was made by PDMS casting with a mold formed by small diameter metal and polytetrafluorothylene tubes. Droplets of 2% sodium alginate were generated in soybean oil through the device and then cross-linked in a 2% CaCl2 solution, which was mixed tween80 with at a concentration of 0.4 to 40% (w/v). Our results showed that the morphology of the produced alginate beads strongly depends on the tween80 concentration. With the increase of concentration of tween80, the shape of the alginate beads varied from semi-spherical to tailed-spherical, due to the decrease of interface tension between oil and cross-link solution. To access the biocompatibility of the approach, MCF-7 cells were cultured with the alginate beads, showing the formation of cancer cells clusters which might be useful for future studies.

  11. MRI induced second-degree burn in a patient with extremely large uterine leiomyomas: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Min; Kang, Bo Kyeong; Song, Soon Young; Koh, Byung Hee; Choi, Joong Sub; Lee, Won Moo

    2015-01-01

    Burns and thermal injuries related with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are rare. Previous literature indicates that medical devices with cable, cosmetics or tattoo are known as risk factors for burns and thermal injuries. However, there is no report of MRI-related burns in Korea. Herein, we reported a case of deep second degree burn after MRI in a 38-year-old female patient with multiple uterine leiomyomas including some that were large and degenerated. The large uterine leiomyoma-induced protruded anterior abdominal wall in direct contact with the body coil during MRI was suspected as the cause of injury, by retrospective analysis. Therefore, awareness of MRI related thermal injury is necessary to prevent this hazard, together with extreme care during MRI

  12. MRI induced second-degree burn in a patient with extremely large uterine leiomyomas: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Kang, Bo Kyeong; Song, Soon Young; Koh, Byung Hee; Choi, Joong Sub; Lee, Won Moo [Hanyang University Medical Center, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Burns and thermal injuries related with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are rare. Previous literature indicates that medical devices with cable, cosmetics or tattoo are known as risk factors for burns and thermal injuries. However, there is no report of MRI-related burns in Korea. Herein, we reported a case of deep second degree burn after MRI in a 38-year-old female patient with multiple uterine leiomyomas including some that were large and degenerated. The large uterine leiomyoma-induced protruded anterior abdominal wall in direct contact with the body coil during MRI was suspected as the cause of injury, by retrospective analysis. Therefore, awareness of MRI related thermal injury is necessary to prevent this hazard, together with extreme care during MRI.

  13. Identification of a large, fast-expanding HIV-1 subtype B transmission cluster among MSM in Valencia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ángel Patiño-Galindo

    Full Text Available We describe and characterize an exceptionally large HIV-1 subtype B transmission cluster occurring in the Comunidad Valenciana (CV, Spain. A total of 1806 HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase (PR/RT sequences from different patients were obtained in the CV between 2004 and 2014. After subtyping and generating a phylogenetic tree with additional HIV-1 subtype B sequences, a very large transmission cluster which included almost exclusively sequences from the CV was detected (n = 143 patients. This cluster was then validated and characterized with further maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian coalescent reconstructions. With these analyses, the CV cluster was delimited to 113 patients, predominately men who have sex with men (MSM. Although it was significantly located in the city of Valencia (n = 105, phylogenetic analyses suggested this cluster derives from a larger HIV lineage affecting other Spanish localities (n = 194. Coalescent analyses estimated its expansion in Valencia to have started between 1998 and 2004. From 2004 to 2009, members of this cluster represented only 1.46% of the HIV-1 subtype B samples studied in Valencia (n = 5/143, whereas from 2010 onwards its prevalence raised to 12.64% (n = 100/791. In conclusion, we have detected a very large transmission cluster in the CV where it has experienced a very fast growth in the recent years in the city of Valencia, thus contributing significantly to the HIV epidemic in this locality. Its transmission efficiency evidences shortcomings in HIV control measures in Spain and particularly in Valencia.

  14. A Large-Scale Multi-Hop Localization Algorithm Based on Regularized Extreme Learning for Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Yan, Xiaoyong; Zhao, Wei; Qian, Chengshan

    2017-12-20

    A novel large-scale multi-hop localization algorithm based on regularized extreme learning is proposed in this paper. The large-scale multi-hop localization problem is formulated as a learning problem. Unlike other similar localization algorithms, the proposed algorithm overcomes the shortcoming of the traditional algorithms which are only applicable to an isotropic network, therefore has a strong adaptability to the complex deployment environment. The proposed algorithm is composed of three stages: data acquisition, modeling and location estimation. In data acquisition stage, the training information between nodes of the given network is collected. In modeling stage, the model among the hop-counts and the physical distances between nodes is constructed using regularized extreme learning. In location estimation stage, each node finds its specific location in a distributed manner. Theoretical analysis and several experiments show that the proposed algorithm can adapt to the different topological environments with low computational cost. Furthermore, high accuracy can be achieved by this method without setting complex parameters.

  15. Shaping a novel security approach in chemical industrial clusters to prevent large-scale domino events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Dullaert, Wout; Soudan, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Two aspects are important when it comes to guaranteeing an effective and efficient security policy in a chemical industrial cluster. The first issue involves obtaining an acceptable level of collaboration between the different enterprises forming the cluster. The second topic is to ensure that an

  16. Transmembrane molecular transport during versus after extremely large, nanosecond electric pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle C; Weaver, James C

    2011-08-19

    Recently there has been intense and growing interest in the non-thermal biological effects of nanosecond electric pulses, particularly apoptosis induction. These effects have been hypothesized to result from the widespread creation of small, lipidic pores in the plasma and organelle membranes of cells (supra-electroporation) and, more specifically, ionic and molecular transport through these pores. Here we show that transport occurs overwhelmingly after pulsing. First, we show that the electrical drift distance for typical charged solutes during nanosecond pulses (up to 100 ns), even those with very large magnitudes (up to 10 MV/m), ranges from only a fraction of the membrane thickness (5 nm) to several membrane thicknesses. This is much smaller than the diameter of a typical cell (∼16 μm), which implies that molecular drift transport during nanosecond pulses is necessarily minimal. This implication is not dependent on assumptions about pore density or the molecular flux through pores. Second, we show that molecular transport resulting from post-pulse diffusion through minimum-size pores is orders of magnitude larger than electrical drift-driven transport during nanosecond pulses. While field-assisted charge entry and the magnitude of flux favor transport during nanosecond pulses, these effects are too small to overcome the orders of magnitude more time available for post-pulse transport. Therefore, the basic conclusion that essentially all transmembrane molecular transport occurs post-pulse holds across the plausible range of relevant parameters. Our analysis shows that a primary direct consequence of nanosecond electric pulses is the creation (or maintenance) of large populations of small pores in cell membranes that govern post-pulse transmembrane transport of small ions and molecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Extreme precipitation variability, forage quality and large herbivore diet selection in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, James W.; Gedir, Jay V.; Marshal, Jason P.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Jansen, Brian; Morgart, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional ecology forms the interface between environmental variability and large herbivore behaviour, life history characteristics, and population dynamics. Forage conditions in arid and semi-arid regions are driven by unpredictable spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall. Diet selection by herbivores should be directed towards overcoming the most pressing nutritional limitation (i.e. energy, protein [nitrogen, N], moisture) within the constraints imposed by temporal and spatial variability in forage conditions. We investigated the influence of precipitation-induced shifts in forage nutritional quality and subsequent large herbivore responses across widely varying precipitation conditions in an arid environment. Specifically, we assessed seasonal changes in diet breadth and forage selection of adult female desert bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis mexicana in relation to potential nutritional limitations in forage N, moisture and energy content (as proxied by dry matter digestibility, DMD). Succulents were consistently high in moisture but low in N and grasses were low in N and moisture until the wet period. Nitrogen and moisture content of shrubs and forbs varied among seasons and climatic periods, whereas trees had consistently high N and moderate moisture levels. Shrubs, trees and succulents composed most of the seasonal sheep diets but had little variation in DMD. Across all seasons during drought and during summer with average precipitation, forages selected by sheep were higher in N and moisture than that of available forage. Differences in DMD between sheep diets and available forage were minor. Diet breadth was lowest during drought and increased with precipitation, reflecting a reliance on few key forage species during drought. Overall, forage selection was more strongly associated with N and moisture content than energy content. Our study demonstrates that unlike north-temperate ungulates which are generally reported to be energy-limited, N and moisture

  18. Observation of a barium xenon exciplex within a large argon cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, M; Gaveau, M-A; Mestdagh, J-M

    2010-07-21

    Spectroscopic measurements provide fluorescence and excitation spectra of a single barium atom codeposited with xenon atoms on argon clusters of average size approximately 2000. The spectra are studied as a function of the number of xenon atoms per cluster. The excitation spectrum with approximately 10 xenon atoms per cluster is qualitatively similar to that observed when no xenon atom is present on the cluster. It consists of two bands located on each side of the 6s6p (1)P-6s(2) (1)S resonance line of the free barium. In contrast, the fluorescence spectrum differs qualitatively since a barium-xenon exciplex is observed, which has no counterpart in xenon free clusters. In particular an emission is observed, which is redshifted by 729 cm(-1) with respect to the Ba(6s6p (1)P-6s(2) (1)S) resonance line.

  19. Seasonal clustering of sinopulmonary mucormycosis in patients with hematologic malignancies at a large comprehensive cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobini Sivagnanam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive Mucorales infections (IMI lead to significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. The role of season and climatic conditions in case clustering of IMI remain poorly understood. Methods Following detection of a cluster of sinopulmonary IMIs in patients with hematologic malignancies, we reviewed center-based medical records of all patients with IMIs and other invasive fungal infections (IFIs between January of 2012 and August of 2015 to assess for case clustering in relation to seasonality. Results A cluster of 7 patients were identified with sinopulmonary IMIs (Rhizopus microsporus/azygosporus, 6; Rhizomucor pusillus, 1 during a 3 month period between June and August of 2014. All patients died or were discharged to hospice. The cluster was managed with institution of standardized posaconazole prophylaxis to high-risk patients and patient use of N-95 masks when outside of protected areas on the inpatient service. Review of an earlier study period identified 11 patients with IMIs of varying species over the preceding 29 months without evidence of clustering. There were 9 total IMIs in the later study period (12 month post-initial cluster with 5 additional cases in the summer months, again suggesting seasonal clustering. Extensive environmental sampling did not reveal a source of mold. Using local climatological data abstracted from National Centers for Environmental Information the clusters appeared to be associated with high temperatures and low precipitation. Conclusions Sinopulmonary Mucorales clusters at our center had a seasonal variation which appeared to be related to temperature and precipitation. Given the significant mortality associated with IMIs, local climatic conditions may need to be considered when considering center specific fungal prevention and prophylaxis strategies for high-risk patients.

  20. A Patient with Advanced Gastric Cancer Presenting with Extremely Large Uterine Fibroid Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Kuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uterine fibroid tumors (uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine tumors. The incidence of uterine fibroid tumors increases in older women and may occur in more than 30% of women aged 40 to 60. Many uterine fibroid tumors are asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally. Case Presentation. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with general weakness, dyspepsia, abdominal distension, and a palpable abdominal mass. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed a huge tumor mass in the abdomen which was compressing the intestine and urinary bladder. Gastroduodenal endoscopic and biopsy results showed a Borrmann type IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with gastric cancer with disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis. She underwent a hysterectomy with both salphingo-oophorectomy and bypass gastrojejunostomy. Simultaneous uterine fibroid tumor with other malignancies is generally observed without resection. But in this case, a surgical resection was required to resolve an intestinal obstruction and to exclude the possibility of a metastatic tumor. Conclusion. When a large pelvic or ovarian mass is detected in gastrointestinal malignancy patients, physicians try to exclude the presence of a Krukenberg tumor. If the tumors cause certain symptoms, surgical resection is recommended to resolve symptoms and to exclude a metastatic tumor.

  1. Design of focused and restrained subsets from extremely large virtual libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamois, Eric A; Lin, Chien T; Waldman, Marvin

    2003-11-01

    With the current and ever-growing offering of reagents along with the vast palette of organic reactions, virtual libraries accessible to combinatorial chemists can reach sizes of billions of compounds or more. Extracting practical size subsets for experimentation has remained an essential step in the design of combinatorial libraries. A typical approach to computational library design involves enumeration of structures and properties for the entire virtual library, which may be unpractical for such large libraries. This study describes a new approach termed as on the fly optimization (OTFO) where descriptors are computed as needed within the subset optimization cycle and without intermediate enumeration of structures. Results reported herein highlight the advantages of coupling an ultra-fast descriptor calculation engine to subset optimization capabilities. We also show that enumeration of properties for the entire virtual library may not only be unpractical but also wasteful. Successful design of focused and restrained subsets can be achieved while sampling only a small fraction of the virtual library. We also investigate the stability of the method and compare results obtained from simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithms (GA).

  2. Ensemble seasonal forecast of extreme water inflow into a large reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gelfan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An approach to seasonal ensemble forecast of unregulated water inflow into a large reservoir was developed. The approach is founded on a physically-based semi-distributed hydrological model ECOMAG driven by Monte-Carlo generated ensembles of weather scenarios for a specified lead-time of the forecast (3 months ahead in this study. Case study was carried out for the Cheboksary reservoir (catchment area is 374 000 km2 located on the middle Volga River. Initial watershed conditions on the forecast date (1 March for spring freshet and 1 June for summer low-water period were simulated by the hydrological model forced by daily meteorological observations several months prior to the forecast date. A spatially distributed stochastic weather generator was used to produce time-series of daily weather scenarios for the forecast lead-time. Ensemble of daily water inflow into the reservoir was obtained by driving the ECOMAG model with the generated weather time-series. The proposed ensemble forecast technique was verified on the basis of the hindcast simulations for 29 spring and summer seasons beginning from 1982 (the year of the reservoir filling to capacity to 2010. The verification criteria were used in order to evaluate an ability of the proposed technique to forecast freshet/low-water events of the pre-assigned severity categories.

  3. Volume changes of extremely large and giant intracranial aneurysms after treatment with flow diverter stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Angelo; Byrne, James V. [ohn Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford Neurovascular and Neuroradiology Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Rane, Neil; Kueker, Wilhelm; Cellerini, Martino; Corkill, Rufus [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    This study assessed volume changes of unruptured large and giant aneurysms (greatest diameter >20 mm) after treatment with flow diverter (FD) stents. Clinical audit of the cases treated in a single institution, over a 5-year period. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected from the hospital records. Aneurysm volumes were measured by manual outlining at sequential slices using computerised tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography data. The audit included eight patients (seven females) with eight aneurysms. Four aneurysms involved the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA), three the supraclinoid ICA and one the basilar artery. Seven patients presented with signs and symptoms of mass effect and one with seizures. All but one aneurysm was treated with a single FD stent; six aneurysms were also coiled (either before or simultaneously with FD placement). Minimum follow-up time was 6 months (mean 20 months). At follow-up, three aneurysms decreased in size, three were unchanged and two increased. Both aneurysms that increased in size showed persistent endosaccular flow at follow-up MR; in one case, failure was attributed to suboptimal position of the stent; in the other case, it was attributed to persistence of a side branch originating from the aneurysm (similar to the endoleak phenomenon of aortic aneurysms). At follow-up, five aneurysms were completely occluded; none of these increased in volume. Complete occlusion of the aneurysms leads, in most cases, to its shrinkage. In cases of late aneurysm growth or regrowth, consideration should be given to possible endoleak as the cause. (orig.)

  4. Highly efficient periodically poled KTP-isomorphs with large apertures and extreme domain aspect-ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalias, Carlota; Zukauskas, Andrius; Tjörnhamman, Staffan; Viotti, Anne-Lise; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Laurell, Fredrik

    2018-02-01

    Since the early 1990's, a substantial effort has been devoted to the development of quasi-phased-matched (QPM) nonlinear devices, not only in ferroelectric oxides like LiNbO3, LiTaO3 and KTiOPO4 (KTP), but also in semiconductors as GaAs, and GaP. The technology to implement QPM structures in ferroelectric oxides has by now matured enough to satisfy the most basic frequency-conversion schemes without substantial modification of the poling procedures. Here, we present a qualitative leap in periodic poling techniques that allows us to demonstrate devices and frequency conversion schemes that were deemed unfeasible just a few years ago. Thanks to our short-pulse poling and coercive-field engineering techniques, we are able to demonstrate large aperture (5 mm) periodically poled Rb-doped KTP devices with a highly-uniform conversion efficiency over the whole aperture. These devices allow parametric conversion with energies larger than 60 mJ. Moreover, by employing our coercive-field engineering technique we fabricate highlyefficient sub-µm periodically poled devices, with periodicities as short as 500 nm, uniform over 1 mm-thick crystals, which allow us to realize mirrorless optical parametric oscillators with counter-propagating signal and idler waves. These novel devices present unique spectral and tuning properties, superior to those of conventional OPOs. Furthermore, our techniques are compatible with KTA, a KTP isomorph with extended transparency in the mid-IR range. We demonstrate that our highly-efficient PPKTA is superior both for mid-IR and for green light generation - as a result of improved transmission properties in the visible range. Our KTP-isomorph poling techniques leading to highly-efficient QPM devices will be presented. Their optical performance and attractive damage thresholds will be discussed.

  5. STAR CLUSTER FORMATION WITH STELLAR FEEDBACK AND LARGE-SCALE INFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzner, Christopher D.; Jumper, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    During star cluster formation, ongoing mass accretion is resisted by stellar feedback in the form of protostellar outflows from the low-mass stars and photo-ionization and radiation pressure feedback from the massive stars. We model the evolution of cluster-forming regions during a phase in which both accretion and feedback are present and use these models to investigate how star cluster formation might terminate. Protostellar outflows are the strongest form of feedback in low-mass regions, but these cannot stop cluster formation if matter continues to flow in. In more massive clusters, radiation pressure and photo-ionization rapidly clear the cluster-forming gas when its column density is too small. We assess the rates of dynamical mass ejection and of evaporation, while accounting for the important effect of dust opacity on photo-ionization. Our models are consistent with the census of protostellar outflows in NGC 1333 and Serpens South and with the dust temperatures observed in regions of massive star formation. Comparing observations of massive cluster-forming regions against our model parameter space, and against our expectations for accretion-driven evolution, we infer that massive-star feedback is a likely cause of gas disruption in regions with velocity dispersions less than a few kilometers per second, but that more massive and more turbulent regions are too strongly bound for stellar feedback to be disruptive

  6. Radiative and Dynamical Feedbacks Limit the Climate Response to Extremely Large Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, D. C.; Vidal, C. M.; Keeble, J. M.; Griffiths, P. T.; Archibald, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are a major cause of chemical and climatic perturbations to the atmosphere, injecting chemically and radiatively active species such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the stratosphere. The rate determining step for sulfate aerosol production is SO2 + OH +M → HSO3 +M. This means that chemical feedbacks on the hydroxyl radical, OH, can modulate the production rate of sulfate aerosol and hence the climate effects of large volcanic eruptions. Radiative feedbacks due to aerosols, ozone and sulfur dioxide and subsequent dynamical changes also affect the evolution of the aerosol cloud. Here we assess the role of radiative and chemical feedbacks on sulfate aerosol production using UM-UKCA, a chemistry-climate model coupled to GLOMAP, a prognostic modal aerosol model. A 200 Tg (10x Pinatubo) emission scenario is investigated. Accounting for radiative feedbacks, the SO2 lifetime is 55 days compared to 26 days in the baseline 20 Tg (1x Pinatubo) simulation. By contrast, if all radiative feedbacks are neglected the lifetime is 73 days. Including radiative feedbacks reduces the SO2 lifetime: heating of the lower stratosphere by aerosol increases upwelling and increases transport of water vapour across the tropopause, increasing OH concentrations. The maximum effective radius of the aerosol particles increases from 1.09 µm to 1.34 µm as the production of aerosol is quicker. Larger and fewer aerosol particles are produced which are less effective at scattering shortwave radiation and will more quickly sediment from the stratosphere. As a result, the resulting climate cooling by the eruption will be less strong when accounting for these radiative feedbacks. We illustrate the consequences of these effects for the 1257 Samalas eruption, the largest common era volcanic eruption, using UM-UKCA in a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration. As a potentially halogen rich eruption, we investigate the differing ozone response to halogen-rich and halogen

  7. GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY. III. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: Fe AND AGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we refine our method for the abundance analysis of high-resolution spectroscopy of the integrated light of unresolved globular clusters (GCs). This method was previously demonstrated for the analysis of old (>10 Gyr) Milky Way (MW) GCs. Here, we extend the technique to young clusters using a training set of nine GCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Depending on the signal-to-noise ratio of the data, we use 20-100 Fe lines per cluster to successfully constrain the ages of old clusters to within a ∼5 Gyr range, the ages of ∼2 Gyr clusters to a 1-2 Gyr range, and the ages of the youngest clusters (0.05-1 Gyr) to a ∼200 Myr range. We also demonstrate that we can measure [Fe/H] in clusters with any age less than 12 Gyr with similar or only slightly larger uncertainties (0.1-0.25 dex) than those obtained for old MW GCs (0.1 dex); the slightly larger uncertainties are due to the rapid evolution in stellar populations at these ages. In this paper, we present only Fe abundances and ages. In the next paper in this series, we present our complete analysis of ∼20 elements for which we are able to measure abundances. For several of the clusters in this sample, there are no high-resolution abundances in the literature from individual member stars; our results are the first detailed chemical abundances available. The spectra used in this paper were obtained at Las Campanas with the echelle on the du Pont Telescope and with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope.

  8. Informational and linguistic analysis of large genomic sequence collections via efficient Hadoop cluster algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro Petrillo, Umberto; Roscigno, Gianluca; Cattaneo, Giuseppe; Giancarlo, Raffaele

    2018-06-01

    Information theoretic and compositional/linguistic analysis of genomes have a central role in bioinformatics, even more so since the associated methodologies are becoming very valuable also for epigenomic and meta-genomic studies. The kernel of those methods is based on the collection of k-mer statistics, i.e. how many times each k-mer in {A,C,G,T}k occurs in a DNA sequence. Although this problem is computationally very simple and efficiently solvable on a conventional computer, the sheer amount of data available now in applications demands to resort to parallel and distributed computing. Indeed, those type of algorithms have been developed to collect k-mer statistics in the realm of genome assembly. However, they are so specialized to this domain that they do not extend easily to the computation of informational and linguistic indices, concurrently on sets of genomes. Following the well-established approach in many disciplines, and with a growing success also in bioinformatics, to resort to MapReduce and Hadoop to deal with 'Big Data' problems, we present KCH, the first set of MapReduce algorithms able to perform concurrently informational and linguistic analysis of large collections of genomic sequences on a Hadoop cluster. The benchmarking of KCH that we provide indicates that it is quite effective and versatile. It is also competitive with respect to the parallel and distributed algorithms highly specialized to k-mer statistics collection for genome assembly problems. In conclusion, KCH is a much needed addition to the growing number of algorithms and tools that use MapReduce for bioinformatics core applications. The software, including instructions for running it over Amazon AWS, as well as the datasets are available at http://www.di-srv.unisa.it/KCH. umberto.ferraro@uniroma1.it. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Development of a Large-Format Science-Grade CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, for Extreme Ultra Violet Spectroscopy and Imaging in Space Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltham, N. R; Prydderch, M; Mapson-Menard, H; Morrissey, Q; Turchetta, R; Pool, P; Harris, A

    2005-01-01

    We describe our programme to develop a large-format science-grade CMOS active pixel sensor for future space science missions, and in particular an extreme ultra-violet spectrograph for solar physics...

  10. Core expansion in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, R.A.W.; Freeman, K.C.; Lauer, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    The core radii of 18 rich star clusters in the LMC with ages from 10 Myr to 1 Gyr. Data for an additional 17 clusters with ages from 1 Myr to 10 Gyr are available in the literature. The combined sample shows that the core radii increase from about 0 to about 5 pc between about 1 Myr and 1 Gyr, and then begin to decrease again. The expansion of the cores is probably driven by mass loss from evolving stars. Models of cluster evolution show that the rate of increase in core radius is sensitive to the slope of the initial mass function. The observed core radius-age relation for the LMC clusters favors an intial mass function with slope slightly flatter than the Salpeter value. 20 refs

  11. Fulfilment of Grid Code Obligations by Large Offshore Wind Farms Clusters Connected via HVDC Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Attya, A.B.; Anaya-Lara, Olimpo; Ledesma, P.; Svendsen, Harald Georg

    2016-01-01

    - The foreseen high penetration levels of wind power will force the systems operators to apply restrictive constraints on wind power plants. The ability of offshore wind clusters, which are connected via HVDC, to fulfill the grid codes, especially those related to voltage stability is investigated. This came in the frame of a project to develop an integrated and practical tool to design offshore wind clusters (EERA-DTOC). The applied case studies examine the system stability during and aft...

  12. Electronic properties of large metal clusters in Jellium and pseudo-jellium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catara, F.; Van Giai, N.; Chomaz, P.

    1994-08-01

    The energy-density functional approach and jellium-like models are used to examine two important electronic properties of metal (Li, Na, K) clusters: their shell and supershell structures, and the behaviour of plasmon energies with increasing cluster sizes. A comparative study is made between predictions of the usual jellium model and those of the pseudo-jellium model where pseudo-Hamiltonians are used. (authors) 10 figs., 5 tabs., 16 refs

  13. Early studies reported extreme findings with large variability: a meta-epidemiologic study in the field of endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Alahdab, Fares; Almasri, Jehad; Haydour, Qusay; Mohammed, Khaled; Abu Dabrh, Abd Moain; Prokop, Larry J; Alfarkh, Wedad; Lakis, Sumaya; Montori, Victor M; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the presence of extreme findings and fluctuation in effect size in endocrinology. We systematically identified all meta-analyses published in 2014 in the field of endocrinology. Within each meta-analysis, the effect size of the primary binary outcome was compared across studies according to their order of publication. We pooled studies using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects method. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the I(2) and tau(2). Twelve percent of the included 100 meta-analyses reported the largest effect size in the very first published study. The largest effect size occurred in the first 2 earliest studies in 31% of meta-analyses. When the effect size was the largest in the first published study, it was three times larger than the final pooled effect (ratio of rates, 3.26; 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 5.90). The largest heterogeneity measured by I(2) was observed in 18% of the included meta-analyses when combining the first 2 studies or 17% when combing the first 3 studies. In endocrinology, early studies reported extreme findings with large variability. This behavior of the evidence needs to be taken into account when used to formulate clinical policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between damage clustering and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus in early and late stages of the disease: cluster analyses in a large cohort from the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Lupus Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pego-Reigosa, José María; Lois-Iglesias, Ana; Rúa-Figueroa, Íñigo; Galindo, María; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanessa; Ibáñez Ruan, Jesús; Olivé, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Gómez, Manuel; Fernández Nebro, Antonio; Andrés, Mariano; Erausquin, Celia; Tomero, Eva; Horcada Rubio, Loreto; Uriarte Isacelaya, Esther; Freire, Mercedes; Montilla, Carlos; Sánchez-Atrio, Ana I; Santos-Soler, Gregorio; Zea, Antonio; Díez, Elvira; Narváez, Javier; Blanco-Alonso, Ricardo; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Ruiz-Lucea, María Esther; Fernández-Castro, Mónica; Hernández-Beriain, José Ángel; Gantes-Mora, Marian; Hernández-Cruz, Blanca; Pérez-Venegas, José; Pecondón-Español, Ángela; Marras Fernández-Cid, Carlos; Ibáñez-Barcelo, Mónica; Bonilla, Gema; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Castellví, Iván; Alegre, Juan José; Calvet, Joan; Marenco de la Fuente, José Luis; Raya, Enrique; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Tomás Ramón; Quevedo-Vila, Víctor; Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Otón, Teresa; Rahman, Anisur; López-Longo, Francisco Javier

    2016-07-01

    To identify patterns (clusters) of damage manifestations within a large cohort of SLE patients and evaluate the potential association of these clusters with a higher risk of mortality. This is a multicentre, descriptive, cross-sectional study of a cohort of 3656 SLE patients from the Spanish Society of Rheumatology Lupus Registry. Organ damage was ascertained using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index. Using cluster analysis, groups of patients with similar patterns of damage manifestations were identified. Then, overall clusters were compared as well as the subgroup of patients within every cluster with disease duration shorter than 5 years. Three damage clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (80.6% of patients) presented a lower amount of individuals with damage (23.2 vs 100% in clusters 2 and 3, P Cluster 2 (11.4% of patients) was characterized by musculoskeletal damage in all patients. Cluster 3 (8.0% of patients) was the only group with cardiovascular damage, and this was present in all patients. The overall mortality rate of patients in clusters 2 and 3 was higher than that in cluster 1 (P clusters. Both in early and late stages of the disease, there was a significant association of these clusters with an increased risk of mortality. Physicians should pay special attention to the early prevention of damage in these two systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Extreme magnification of an individual star at redshift 1.5 by a galaxy-cluster lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Diego, Jose M.; Rodney, Steven; Kaiser, Nick; Broadhurst, Tom; Zitrin, Adi; Treu, Tommaso; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Morishita, Takahiro; Jauzac, Mathilde; Selsing, Jonatan; Oguri, Masamune; Pueyo, Laurent; Ross, Timothy W.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Smith, Nathan; Hjorth, Jens; Cenko, S. Bradley; Wang, Xin; Howell, D. Andrew; Richard, Johan; Frye, Brenda L.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Foley, Ryan J.; Norman, Colin; Bradac, Marusa; Zheng, Weikang; Brammer, Gabriel; Benito, Alberto Molino; Cava, Antonio; Christensen, Lise; de Mink, Selma E.; Graur, Or; Grillo, Claudio; Kawamata, Ryota; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Matheson, Thomas; McCully, Curtis; Nonino, Mario; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Riess, Adam G.; Rosati, Piero; Schmidt, Kasper Borello; Sharon, Keren; Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2018-04-01

    Galaxy-cluster gravitational lenses can magnify background galaxies by a total factor of up to 50. Here we report an image of an individual star at redshift z = 1.49 (dubbed MACS J1149 Lensed Star 1) magnified by more than ×2,000. A separate image, detected briefly 0.26″ from Lensed Star 1, is probably a counterimage of the first star demagnified for multiple years by an object of ≳3 solar masses in the cluster. For reasonable assumptions about the lensing system, microlensing fluctuations in the stars' light curves can yield evidence about the mass function of intracluster stars and compact objects, including binary fractions and specific stellar evolution and supernova models. Dark-matter subhaloes or massive compact objects may help to account for the two images' long-term brightness ratio.

  16. Efficient computation of k-Nearest Neighbour Graphs for large high-dimensional data sets on GPU clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dashti

    Full Text Available This paper presents an implementation of the brute-force exact k-Nearest Neighbor Graph (k-NNG construction for ultra-large high-dimensional data cloud. The proposed method uses Graphics Processing Units (GPUs and is scalable with multi-levels of parallelism (between nodes of a cluster, between different GPUs on a single node, and within a GPU. The method is applicable to homogeneous computing clusters with a varying number of nodes and GPUs per node. We achieve a 6-fold speedup in data processing as compared with an optimized method running on a cluster of CPUs and bring a hitherto impossible [Formula: see text]-NNG generation for a dataset of twenty million images with 15 k dimensionality into the realm of practical possibility.

  17. Natural Time and Nowcasting Earthquakes: Are Large Global Earthquakes Temporally Clustered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luginbuhl, Molly; Rundle, John B.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the temporal clustering of large global earthquakes with respect to natural time, or interevent count, as opposed to regular clock time. To do this, we use two techniques: (1) nowcasting, a new method of statistically classifying seismicity and seismic risk, and (2) time series analysis of interevent counts. We chose the sequences of M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 and M_{λ } ≥ 8.0 earthquakes from the global centroid moment tensor (CMT) catalog from 2004 to 2016 for analysis. A significant number of these earthquakes will be aftershocks of the largest events, but no satisfactory method of declustering the aftershocks in clock time is available. A major advantage of using natural time is that it eliminates the need for declustering aftershocks. The event count we utilize is the number of small earthquakes that occur between large earthquakes. The small earthquake magnitude is chosen to be as small as possible, such that the catalog is still complete based on the Gutenberg-Richter statistics. For the CMT catalog, starting in 2004, we found the completeness magnitude to be M_{σ } ≥ 5.1. For the nowcasting method, the cumulative probability distribution of these interevent counts is obtained. We quantify the distribution using the exponent, β, of the best fitting Weibull distribution; β = 1 for a random (exponential) distribution. We considered 197 earthquakes with M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 and found β = 0.83 ± 0.08. We considered 15 earthquakes with M_{λ } ≥ 8.0, but this number was considered too small to generate a meaningful distribution. For comparison, we generated synthetic catalogs of earthquakes that occur randomly with the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude statistics. We considered a synthetic catalog of 1.97 × 10^5 M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 earthquakes and found β = 0.99 ± 0.01. The random catalog converted to natural time was also random. We then generated 1.5 × 10^4 synthetic catalogs with 197 M_{λ } ≥ 7.0 in each catalog and

  18. Binding energy of large icosahedral and cuboctahedral Lennard-Jones clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northby, J.A.; Xie, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is widely believed that the lowest energy configurations for small rare gas clusters have icosahedral symmetry. This contrasts with the bulk crystal structures which have cuboctahedral fcc symmetry. It is of interest to understand the transition between this finite and bulk behavior. To model this transition in rare gas clusters we have undertaken optimization studies within the Lennard-Jones pair potential model. Using a combination of Monte Carlo and Partan Search optimization methods, the lowest energy relaxed structures of Lennard-Jones clusters having icosahedral and cuboctahedral symmetry were found. Studies were performed for complete shell clusters ranging in size from one shell having 13 atoms to 14 shells having 10,179 atoms. It was found that the icosahedral structures are lower in energy than the cuboctahedral structures for cluster sizes having 13 shells or fewer. Additional studies were performed using the more accurate Aziz-Chen [HFD-C] pair potential parameterized for argon. The conclusions appear to be relatively insensitive to the form of the potential. (orig.)

  19. A cluster-based strategy for assessing the overlap between large chemical libraries and its application to a recent acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Michael F M; Gibbs, Alan C; Jaeger, Edward P; Verbinnen, Danny; Lobanov, Victor S; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K

    2006-01-01

    We report on the structural comparison of the corporate collections of Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development (JNJPRD) and 3-Dimensional Pharmaceuticals (3DP), performed in the context of the recent acquisition of 3DP by JNJPRD. The main objective of the study was to assess the druglikeness of the 3DP library and the extent to which it enriched the chemical diversity of the JNJPRD corporate collection. The two databases, at the time of acquisition, collectively contained more than 1.1 million compounds with a clearly defined structural description. The analysis was based on a clustering approach and aimed at providing an intuitive quantitative estimate and visual representation of this enrichment. A novel hierarchical clustering algorithm called divisive k-means was employed in combination with Kelley's cluster-level selection method to partition the combined data set into clusters, and the diversity contribution of each library was evaluated as a function of the relative occupancy of these clusters. Typical 3DP chemotypes enriching the diversity of the JNJPRD collection were catalogued and visualized using a modified maximum common substructure algorithm. The joint collection of JNJPRD and 3DP compounds was also compared to other databases of known medicinally active or druglike compounds. The potential of the methodology for the analysis of very large chemical databases is discussed.

  20. A VLT/FLAMES STUDY OF THE PECULIAR INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 1846. I. KINEMATICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present high-resolution VLT/FLAMES observations of red giant stars in the massive intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1846, which, on the basis of its extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO), possesses an internal age spread of ≈300 Myr. We describe in detail our target selection and data reduction procedures, and construct a sample of 21 stars possessing radial velocities indicating their membership of NGC 1846 at high confidence. We consider high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula Mo-17, and conclude that this object is also a member of the cluster. Our measured radial velocities allow us to conduct a detailed investigation of the internal kinematics of NGC 1846, the first time this has been done for an EMSTO system. The key result of this work is that the cluster exhibits a significant degree of systemic rotation, of a magnitude comparable to the mean velocity dispersion. Using an extensive suite of Monte Carlo models we demonstrate that, despite our relatively small sample size and the substantial fraction of unresolved binary stars in the cluster, the rotation signal we detect is very likely to be genuine. Our observations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of simulations modeling the formation of multiple populations of stars in globular clusters, where a dynamically cold, rapidly rotating second generation is a common feature. NGC 1846 is less than one relaxation time old, so any dynamical signatures encoded during its formation ought to remain present.

  1. Disseminating quality improvement: study protocol for a large cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Michael T

    2011-04-01

    with outcome data will be included in the analysis, following the intent-to-treat principle. Organizational covariates in the analysis include program size, management score, and state. Discussion The study offers seven recommendations for conducting a large-scale cluster-randomized trial: provide valuable services, have aims that are clear and important, seek powerful allies, understand the recruiting challenge, cultivate commitment, address turnover, and encourage rigor and flexibility. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials. govNCT00934141

  2. Hierarchical Clustering of Large Databases and Classification of Antibiotics at High Noise Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Yarkov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for divisive hierarchical clustering of chemical compounds based on 2D structural fragments is suggested. The algorithm is deterministic, and given a random ordering of the input, will always give the same clustering and can process a database up to 2 million records on a standard PC. The algorithm was used for classification of 1,183 antibiotics mixed with 999,994 random chemical structures. Similarity threshold, at which best separation of active and non active compounds took place, was estimated as 0.6. 85.7% of the antibiotics were successfully classified at this threshold with 0.4% of inaccurate compounds. A .sdf file was created with the probe molecules for clustering of external databases.

  3. K-Nearest Neighbor Intervals Based AP Clustering Algorithm for Large Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affinity Propagation (AP algorithm is an effective algorithm for clustering analysis, but it can not be directly applicable to the case of incomplete data. In view of the prevalence of missing data and the uncertainty of missing attributes, we put forward a modified AP clustering algorithm based on K-nearest neighbor intervals (KNNI for incomplete data. Based on an Improved Partial Data Strategy, the proposed algorithm estimates the KNNI representation of missing attributes by using the attribute distribution information of the available data. The similarity function can be changed by dealing with the interval data. Then the improved AP algorithm can be applicable to the case of incomplete data. Experiments on several UCI datasets show that the proposed algorithm achieves impressive clustering results.

  4. Large-scale Reconstructions and Independent, Unbiased Clustering Based on Morphological Metrics to Classify Neurons in Selective Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Elise M; Briggs, Farran

    2017-02-15

    This protocol outlines large-scale reconstructions of neurons combined with the use of independent and unbiased clustering analyses to create a comprehensive survey of the morphological characteristics observed among a selective neuronal population. Combination of these techniques constitutes a novel approach for the collection and analysis of neuroanatomical data. Together, these techniques enable large-scale, and therefore more comprehensive, sampling of selective neuronal populations and establish unbiased quantitative methods for describing morphologically unique neuronal classes within a population. The protocol outlines the use of modified rabies virus to selectively label neurons. G-deleted rabies virus acts like a retrograde tracer following stereotaxic injection into a target brain structure of interest and serves as a vehicle for the delivery and expression of EGFP in neurons. Large numbers of neurons are infected using this technique and express GFP throughout their dendrites, producing "Golgi-like" complete fills of individual neurons. Accordingly, the virus-mediated retrograde tracing method improves upon traditional dye-based retrograde tracing techniques by producing complete intracellular fills. Individual well-isolated neurons spanning all regions of the brain area under study are selected for reconstruction in order to obtain a representative sample of neurons. The protocol outlines procedures to reconstruct cell bodies and complete dendritic arborization patterns of labeled neurons spanning multiple tissue sections. Morphological data, including positions of each neuron within the brain structure, are extracted for further analysis. Standard programming functions were utilized to perform independent cluster analyses and cluster evaluations based on morphological metrics. To verify the utility of these analyses, statistical evaluation of a cluster analysis performed on 160 neurons reconstructed in the thalamic reticular nucleus of the thalamus

  5. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. New Theoretical Developments in Exploring Electronically Excited States: Including Localized Configuration Interaction Singles and Application to Large Helium Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closser, Kristina Danielle

    This thesis presents new developments in excited state electronic structure theory. Contrasted with the ground state, the electronically excited states of atoms and molecules often are unstable and have short lifetimes, exhibit a greater diversity of character and are generally less well understood. The very unusual excited states of helium clusters motivated much of this work. These clusters consist of large numbers of atoms (experimentally 103--109 atoms) and bands of nearly degenerate excited states. For an isolated atom the lowest energy excitation energies are from 1s → 2s and 1s → 2 p transitions, and in clusters describing the lowest energy band minimally requires four states per atom. In the ground state the clusters are weakly bound by van der Waals interactions, however in the excited state they can form well-defined covalent bonds. The computational cost of quantum chemical calculations rapidly becomes prohibitive as the size of the systems increase. Standard excited-state methods such as configuration interaction singles (CIS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) can be used with ≈100 atoms, and are optimized to treat only a few states. Thus, one of our primary aims is to develop a method which can treat these large systems with large numbers of nearly degenerate excited states. Additionally, excited states are generally formed far from their equilibrium structures. Vertical excitations from the ground state induce dynamics in the excited states. Thus, another focus of this work is to explore the results of these forces and the fate of the excited states. Very little was known about helium cluster excited states when this work began, thus we first investigated the excitations in small helium clusters consisting of 7 or 25 atoms using CIS. The character of these excited states was determined using attachment/detachment density analysis and we found that in the n = 2 manifold the excitations could generally be interpreted as

  8. Accurate Energies and Structures for Large Water Clusters Using the X3LYP Hybrid Density Functional

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Julius T.; Xu, Xin; Goddard, William A., III

    2004-01-01

    We predict structures and energies of water clusters containing up to 19 waters with X3LYP, an extended hybrid density functional designed to describe noncovalently bound systems as accurately as covalent systems. Our work establishes X3LYP as the most practical ab initio method today for calculating accurate water cluster structures and energies. We compare X3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ energies to the most accurate theoretical values available (n = 2−6, 8), MP2 with basis set superposition error (BSSE)...

  9. Direct evidence for radiative charge transfer after inner-shell excitation and ionization of large clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Andreas; Stumpf, Vasili; Holzapfel, Xaver; Wiegandt, Florian; Schmidt, Philipp; Ozga, Christian; Reiß, Philipp; Ben Ltaief, Ltaief; Küstner-Wetekam, Catmarna; Jahnke, Till; Ehresmann, Arno; Demekhin, Philipp V.; Gokhberg, Kirill; Knie, André

    2018-01-01

    We directly observe radiative charge transfer (RCT) in Ne clusters by dispersed vacuum-ultraviolet photon detection. The doubly ionized Ne2+-{{{N}}{{e}}}n-1 initial states of RCT are populated after resonant 1s-3p photoexcitation or 1s photoionization of Ne n clusters with ≈ 2800. These states relax further producing Ne+-Ne+-{{{N}}{{e}}}n-2 final states, and the RCT photon is emitted. Ab initio calculations assign the observed RCT signal to the{}{{{N}}{{e}}}2+(2{{{p}}}-2{[}1{{D}}]){--}{{{N}}{{e}}}n-1 initial state, while transitions from other possible initial states are proposed to be quenched by competing relaxation processes. The present results are in agreement with the commonly discussed scenario, where the doubly ionized atom in a noble gas cluster forms a dimer which dissipates its vibrational energy on a picosecond timescale. Our study complements the picture of the RCT process in weakly bound clusters, providing information which is inaccessible by charged particle detection techniques.

  10. Large clusters of co-expressed genes in the Drosophila genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutanaev, Alexander M; Kalmykova, Alla I; Shevelyov, Yuri Y; Nurminsky, Dmitry I

    2002-12-12

    Clustering of co-expressed, non-homologous genes on chromosomes implies their co-regulation. In lower eukaryotes, co-expressed genes are often found in pairs. Clustering of genes that share aspects of transcriptional regulation has also been reported in higher eukaryotes. To advance our understanding of the mode of coordinated gene regulation in multicellular organisms, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the chromosomal distribution of co-expressed genes in Drosophila. We identified a total of 1,661 testes-specific genes, one-third of which are clustered on chromosomes. The number of clusters of three or more genes is much higher than expected by chance. We observed a similar trend for genes upregulated in the embryo and in the adult head, although the expression pattern of individual genes cannot be predicted on the basis of chromosomal position alone. Our data suggest that the prevalent mechanism of transcriptional co-regulation in higher eukaryotes operates with extensive chromatin domains that comprise multiple genes.

  11. A percolation process on the square lattice where large finite clusters are frozen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J.; de Lima, B.N.B.; Nolin, P.

    2012-01-01

    In (Aldous, Math. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 128 (2000), 465-477), Aldous constructed a growth process for the binary tree where clusters freeze as soon as they become infinite. It was pointed out by Benjamini and Schramm that such a process does not exist for the square lattice. This motivated us

  12. A Fossil Bulge Globular Cluster Revealed by very Large Telescope Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.; Momany, Y.; Saviane, I.; Bica, E.; Jílková, L.; Salerno, G.M.; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 737, č. 1 (2011), 31/1-31/9 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxy * globular clusters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  13. Dual beam organic depth profiling using large argon cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzweber, M; Shard, AG; Jungnickel, H; Luch, A; Unger, WES

    2014-01-01

    Argon cluster sputtering of an organic multilayer reference material consisting of two organic components, 4,4′-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl- amino]-biphenyl (NPB) and aluminium tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate) (Alq3), materials commonly used in organic light-emitting diodes industry, was carried out using time-of-flight SIMS in dual beam mode. The sample used in this study consists of a ∽400-nm-thick NPB matrix with 3-nm marker layers of Alq3 at depth of ∽50, 100, 200 and 300 nm. Argon cluster sputtering provides a constant sputter yield throughout the depth profiles, and the sputter yield volumes and depth resolution are presented for Ar-cluster sizes of 630, 820, 1000, 1250 and 1660 atoms at a kinetic energy of 2.5 keV. The effect of cluster size in this material and over this range is shown to be negligible. © 2014 The Authors. Surface and Interface Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25892830

  14. Do Country Stereotypes Exist in PISA? A Clustering Approach for Large, Sparse, and Weighted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Mirka; Kärkkäinen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    Certain stereotypes can be associated with people from different countries. For example, the Italians are expected to be emotional, the Germans functional, and the Chinese hard-working. In this study, we cluster all 15-year-old students representing the 68 different nations and territories that participated in the latest Programme for…

  15. Dynamical transitions in large systems of mean field-coupled Landau-Stuart oscillators: Extensive chaos and cluster states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Wai Lim; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study dynamical systems in which a large number N of identical Landau-Stuart oscillators are globally coupled via a mean-field. Previously, it has been observed that this type of system can exhibit a variety of different dynamical behaviors. These behaviors include time periodic cluster states in which each oscillator is in one of a small number of groups for which all oscillators in each group have the same state which is different from group to group, as well as a behavior in which all oscillators have different states and the macroscopic dynamics of the mean field is chaotic. We argue that this second type of behavior is "extensive" in the sense that the chaotic attractor in the full phase space of the system has a fractal dimension that scales linearly with N and that the number of positive Lyapunov exponents of the attractor also scales linearly with N. An important focus of this paper is the transition between cluster states and extensive chaos as the system is subjected to slow adiabatic parameter change. We observe discontinuous transitions between the cluster states (which correspond to low dimensional dynamics) and the extensively chaotic states. Furthermore, examining the cluster state, as the system approaches the discontinuous transition to extensive chaos, we find that the oscillator population distribution between the clusters continually evolves so that the cluster state is always marginally stable. This behavior is used to reveal the mechanism of the discontinuous transition. We also apply the Kaplan-Yorke formula to study the fractal structure of the extensively chaotic attractors.

  16. Comparing large covariance matrices under weak conditions on the dependence structure and its application to gene clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinyuan; Zhou, Wen; Zhou, Wen-Xin; Wang, Lan

    2017-03-01

    Comparing large covariance matrices has important applications in modern genomics, where scientists are often interested in understanding whether relationships (e.g., dependencies or co-regulations) among a large number of genes vary between different biological states. We propose a computationally fast procedure for testing the equality of two large covariance matrices when the dimensions of the covariance matrices are much larger than the sample sizes. A distinguishing feature of the new procedure is that it imposes no structural assumptions on the unknown covariance matrices. Hence, the test is robust with respect to various complex dependence structures that frequently arise in genomics. We prove that the proposed procedure is asymptotically valid under weak moment conditions. As an interesting application, we derive a new gene clustering algorithm which shares the same nice property of avoiding restrictive structural assumptions for high-dimensional genomics data. Using an asthma gene expression dataset, we illustrate how the new test helps compare the covariance matrices of the genes across different gene sets/pathways between the disease group and the control group, and how the gene clustering algorithm provides new insights on the way gene clustering patterns differ between the two groups. The proposed methods have been implemented in an R-package HDtest and are available on CRAN. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  17. Long-Term Fault Memory: A New Time-Dependent Recurrence Model for Large Earthquake Clusters on Plate Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salditch, L.; Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S.; Spencer, B. D.; Campbell, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    A challenge for earthquake hazard assessment is that geologic records often show large earthquakes occurring in temporal clusters separated by periods of quiescence. For example, in Cascadia, a paleoseismic record going back 10,000 years shows four to five clusters separated by approximately 1,000 year gaps. If we are still in the cluster that began 1700 years ago, a large earthquake is likely to happen soon. If the cluster has ended, a great earthquake is less likely. For a Gaussian distribution of recurrence times, the probability of an earthquake in the next 50 years is six times larger if we are still in the most recent cluster. Earthquake hazard assessments typically employ one of two recurrence models, neither of which directly incorporate clustering. In one, earthquake probability is time-independent and modeled as Poissonian, so an earthquake is equally likely at any time. The fault has no "memory" because when a prior earthquake occurred has no bearing on when the next will occur. The other common model is a time-dependent earthquake cycle in which the probability of an earthquake increases with time until one happens, after which the probability resets to zero. Because the probability is reset after each earthquake, the fault "remembers" only the last earthquake. This approach can be used with any assumed probability density function for recurrence times. We propose an alternative, Long-Term Fault Memory (LTFM), a modified earthquake cycle model where the probability of an earthquake increases with time until one happens, after which it decreases, but not necessarily to zero. Hence the probability of the next earthquake depends on the fault's history over multiple cycles, giving "long-term memory". Physically, this reflects an earthquake releasing only part of the elastic strain stored on the fault. We use the LTFM to simulate earthquake clustering along the San Andreas Fault and Cascadia. In some portions of the simulated earthquake history, events would

  18. Blue straggler stars beyond the Milky Way: a non-segregated population in the Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 2213

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyuan; Hong, Jongsuk

    2018-06-01

    Using the high-resolution observations obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope, we analysed the blue straggler stars (BSSs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 2213. We found that the radial distribution of BSSs is consistent with that of the normal giant stars in NGC 2213, showing no evidence of mass segregation. However, an analytic calculation carried out for these BSSs shows that they are already dynamically old, because the estimated half-mass relaxation time for these BSSs is significantly shorter than the isochronal age of the cluster. We also performed direct N-body simulations for an NGC 2213-like cluster to understand the dynamical processes that lead to this non-segregated radial distribution of BSSs. Our numerical simulation shows that the presence of black hole subsystems inside the cluster centre can significantly affect the dynamical evolution of BSSs. The combined effects of the delayed segregation, binary disruption, and exchange interactions of BSS progenitor binaries may result in this non-segregated radial distribution of BSSs in NGC 2213.

  19. Radar Emission Sources Identification Based on Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering for Large Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Dudczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More advanced recognition methods, which may recognize particular copies of radars of the same type, are called identification. The identification process of radar devices is a more specialized task which requires methods based on the analysis of distinctive features. These features are distinguished from the signals coming from the identified devices. Such a process is called Specific Emitter Identification (SEI. The identification of radar emission sources with the use of classic techniques based on the statistical analysis of basic measurable parameters of a signal such as Radio Frequency, Amplitude, Pulse Width, or Pulse Repetition Interval is not sufficient for SEI problems. This paper presents the method of hierarchical data clustering which is used in the process of radar identification. The Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering Algorithm (HACA based on Generalized Agglomerative Scheme (GAS implemented and used in the research method is parameterized; therefore, it is possible to compare the results. The results of clustering are presented in dendrograms in this paper. The received results of grouping and identification based on HACA are compared with other SEI methods in order to assess the degree of their usefulness and effectiveness for systems of ESM/ELINT class.

  20. Large-strain time-temperature equivalence in high density polyethylene for prediction of extreme deformation and damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray G.T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Time-temperature equivalence is a widely recognized property of many time-dependent material systems, where there is a clear predictive link relating the deformation response at a nominal temperature and a high strain-rate to an equivalent response at a depressed temperature and nominal strain-rate. It has been found that high-density polyethylene (HDPE obeys a linear empirical formulation relating test temperature and strain-rate. This observation was extended to continuous stress-strain curves, such that material response measured in a load frame at large strains and low strain-rates (at depressed temperatures could be translated into a temperature-dependent response at high strain-rates and validated against Taylor impact results. Time-temperature equivalence was used in conjuction with jump-rate compression tests to investigate isothermal response at high strain-rate while exluding adiabatic heating. The validated constitutive response was then applied to the analysis of Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion of HDPE, a tensile analog to Taylor impact developed at LANL. The Dyn-Ten-Ext test results and FEA found that HDPE deformed smoothly after exiting the die, and after substantial drawing appeared to undergo a pressure-dependent shear damage mechanism at intermediate velocities, while it fragmented at high velocities. Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion, properly coupled with a validated constitutive model, can successfully probe extreme tensile deformation and damage of polymers.

  1. Dominant Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Systems for the Extreme Precipitation over the Western Sichuan Basin in Summer 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The western Sichuan Basin (WSB is a rainstorm center influenced by complicated factors such as topography and circulation. Based on multivariable empirical orthogonal function technique for extreme precipitation processes (EPP in WSB in 2013, this study reveals the dominant circulation patterns. Results indicate that the leading modes are characterized by “Saddle” and “Sandwich” structures, respectively. In one mode, a TC from the South China Sea (SCS converts into the inverted trough and steers warm moist airflow northward into the WSB. At the same time, WPSH extends westward over the Yangtze River and conveys a southeasterly warm humid flow. In the other case, WPSH is pushed westward by TC in the Western Pacific and then merges with an anomalous anticyclone over SCS. The anomalous anticyclone and WPSH form a conjunction belt and convey the warm moist southwesterly airflow to meet with the cold flow over the WSB. The configurations of WPSH and TC in the tropic and the blocking and trough in the midhigh latitudes play important roles during the EPPs over the WSB. The persistence of EPPs depends on the long-lived large-scale circulation configuration steady over the suitable positions.

  2. Design of a prototype position actuator for the primary mirror segments of the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A.; Morante, E.; Viera, T.; Núñez, M.; Reyes, M.

    2010-07-01

    European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) based in 984 primary mirror segments achieving required optical performance; they must position relatively to adjacent segments with relative nanometer accuracy. CESA designed M1 Position Actuators (PACT) to comply with demanding performance requirements of EELT. Three PACT are located under each segment controlling three out of the plane degrees of freedom (tip, tilt, piston). To achieve a high linear accuracy in long operational displacements, PACT uses two stages in series. First stage based on Voice Coil Actuator (VCA) to achieve high accuracies in very short travel ranges, while second stage based on Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) provides large stroke ranges and allows positioning the first stage closer to the demanded position. A BLDC motor is used achieving a continuous smoothly movement compared to sudden jumps of a stepper. A gear box attached to the motor allows a high reduction of power consumption and provides a great challenge for sizing. PACT space envelope was reduced by means of two flat springs fixed to VCA. Its main characteristic is a low linear axial stiffness. To achieve best performance for PACT, sensors have been included in both stages. A rotary encoder is included in BLDC stage to close position/velocity control loop. An incremental optical encoder measures PACT travel range with relative nanometer accuracy and used to close the position loop of the whole actuator movement. For this purpose, four different optical sensors with different gratings will be evaluated. Control strategy show different internal closed loops that work together to achieve required performance.

  3. Contribution of large-scale circulation anomalies to changes in extreme precipitation frequency in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Lisi Pei; Xindi (Randy) Bian; Warren E. Heilman

    2016-01-01

    The mean global climate has warmed as a result of the increasing emission of greenhouse gases induced by human activities. This warming is considered the main reason for the increasing number of extreme precipitation events in the US. While much attention has been given to extreme precipitation events occurring over several days, which are usually responsible for...

  4. Two-Phase and Graph-Based Clustering Methods for Accurate and Efficient Segmentation of Large Mass Spectrometry Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Alex; Race, Alan M; Steven, Rory T; Barnes, Jennifer R; Hulme, Heather; Goodwin, Richard J A; Styles, Iain B; Bunch, Josephine

    2017-11-07

    Clustering is widely used in MSI to segment anatomical features and differentiate tissue types, but existing approaches are both CPU and memory-intensive, limiting their application to small, single data sets. We propose a new approach that uses a graph-based algorithm with a two-phase sampling method that overcomes this limitation. We demonstrate the algorithm on a range of sample types and show that it can segment anatomical features that are not identified using commonly employed algorithms in MSI, and we validate our results on synthetic MSI data. We show that the algorithm is robust to fluctuations in data quality by successfully clustering data with a designed-in variance using data acquired with varying laser fluence. Finally, we show that this method is capable of generating accurate segmentations of large MSI data sets acquired on the newest generation of MSI instruments and evaluate these results by comparison with histopathology.

  5. Analysis of color-magnitude diagrams from three large Magellanic Cloud clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The color-magnitude diagrams of three LMC clusters and a field were derived from photographic and CCD data provided by Dr. P.J. Flower of Clemson University and Dr. R. Schommer of Rutgers University. The photographic data were scanned and converted to intensity images at KPNO. The stellar photometry program RICHFLD was used to measure the raw magnitudes from these images. Problems with the standard sequence on the plate kept the color terms for the photographic data from being well determined. A version of DAOPHOT was installed on the VAX 11/280s at Clemson and was used to measure the magnitudes from the CCD images of NGC 2249. These magnitudes were used to define another photoelectric sequence for the photographic data which were used to determine a well defined transformation into the standard BV system. The CMDs derived from both the photographic and CCD images of NGC 2249 showed a gap near the tip of the MS. This gap was taken to be the period of rapid evolution just after core hydrogen exhaustion. Using a true distance modulus of 18.3 for the LMC and a reddening taken from the literature, an age of 600 +/- 75 million years was found for NGC 2249. Comparing the CMD of SL 889 to that of NGC 2249 gives a similar age for this small LMC cluster. A subgiant branch was identified in the CMD of NGC 2241. Comparison to old metal poor galactic clusters gave an age near 4 billion years, favoring the short distance scale to the LMC

  6. Clusters and pivots for evaluating a large numberof alternatives in AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Ishizaka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AHP has been successful in many cases but it has a major limitation: a larger number of alternatives requires a high number of judgements in the comparison matrices. In order to reduce this problem,we present a method with clusters and pivots. This method also helps with a further four problems of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. It enlarges the comparison scale, facilitates the construction of a consistent or near consistent matrix, eliminates the problem of the choice of the priorities derivation method and allows the use of incomparable alternatives.

  7. Large Magnetovolume Effect Induced by Embedding Ferromagnetic Clusters into Antiferromagnetic Matrix of Cobaltite Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ping; Lin, Xiaohuan; Koda, Akihiro; Lee, Sanghyun; Ishikawa, Yoshihisa; Torii, Shuki; Yonemura, Masao; Mochiku, Takashi; Sagayama, Hajime; Itoh, Shinichi; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Otomo, Toshiya; Wang, Yinxia; Kadono, Ryosuke; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Materials that show negative thermal expansion (NTE) have significant industrial merit because they can be used to fabricate composites whose dimensions remain invariant upon heating. In some materials, NTE is concomitant with the spontaneous magnetization due to the magnetovolume effect (MVE). Here the authors report a new class of MVE material; namely, a layered perovskite PrBaCo 2 O 5.5+ x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.41), in which strong NTE [β ≈ -3.6 × 10 -5 K -1 (90-110 K) at x = 0.24] is triggered by embedding ferromagnetic (F) clusters into the antiferromagnetic (AF) matrix. The strongest MVE is found near the boundary between F and AF phases in the phase diagram, indicating the essential role of competition between the F-clusters and the AF-matrix. Furthermore, the MVE is not limited to the PrBaCo 2 O 5.5+ x but is also observed in the NdBaCo 2 O 5.5+ x . The present study provides a new approach to obtaining MVE and offers a path to the design of NTE materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Parallel algorithms for large-scale biological sequence alignment on Xeon-Phi based clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Haidong; Chan, Yuandong; Xu, Kai; Schmidt, Bertil; Peng, Shaoliang; Liu, Weiguo

    2016-07-19

    Computing alignments between two or more sequences are common operations frequently performed in computational molecular biology. The continuing growth of biological sequence databases establishes the need for their efficient parallel implementation on modern accelerators. This paper presents new approaches to high performance biological sequence database scanning with the Smith-Waterman algorithm and the first stage of progressive multiple sequence alignment based on the ClustalW heuristic on a Xeon Phi-based compute cluster. Our approach uses a three-level parallelization scheme to take full advantage of the compute power available on this type of architecture; i.e. cluster-level data parallelism, thread-level coarse-grained parallelism, and vector-level fine-grained parallelism. Furthermore, we re-organize the sequence datasets and use Xeon Phi shuffle operations to improve I/O efficiency. Evaluations show that our method achieves a peak overall performance up to 220 GCUPS for scanning real protein sequence databanks on a single node consisting of two Intel E5-2620 CPUs and two Intel Xeon Phi 7110P cards. It also exhibits good scalability in terms of sequence length and size, and number of compute nodes for both database scanning and multiple sequence alignment. Furthermore, the achieved performance is highly competitive in comparison to optimized Xeon Phi and GPU implementations. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/turbo0628/LSDBS-mpi .

  9. Genomic Selection Using Extreme Phenotypes and Pre-Selection of SNPs in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Linsong; Xiao, Shijun; Chen, Junwei; Wan, Liang; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-10-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is an effective method to improve predictive accuracies of genetic values. However, high cost in genotyping will limit the application of this technology in some species. Therefore, it is necessary to find some methods to reduce the genotyping costs in genomic selection. Large yellow croaker is one of the most commercially important marine fish species in southeast China and Eastern Asia. In this study, genotyping-by-sequencing was used to construct the libraries for the NGS sequencing and find 29,748 SNPs in the genome. Two traits, eviscerated weight (EW) and the ratio between eviscerated weight and whole body weight (REW), were chosen to study. Two strategies to reduce the costs were proposed as follows: selecting extreme phenotypes (EP) for genotyping in reference population or pre-selecting SNPs to construct low-density marker panels in candidates. Three methods of pre-selection of SNPs, i.e., pre-selecting SNPs by absolute effects (SE), by single marker analysis (SMA), and by fixed intervals of sequence number (EL), were studied. The results showed that using EP was a feasible method to save the genotyping costs in reference population. Heritability did not seem to have obvious influences on the predictive abilities estimated by EP. Using SMA was the most feasible method to save the genotyping costs in candidates. In addition, the combination of EP and SMA in genomic selection also showed good results, especially for trait of REW. We also described how to apply the new methods in genomic selection and compared the genotyping costs before and after using the new methods. Our study may not only offer a reference for aquatic genomic breeding but also offer a reference for genomic prediction in other species including livestock and plants, etc.

  10. Large wood recruitment processes and transported volumes in Swiss mountain streams during the extreme flood of August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeb, Nicolas; Rickenmann, Dieter; Badoux, Alexandre; Rickli, Christian; Waldner, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The extreme flood event that occurred in August 2005 was the most costly (documented) natural hazard event in the history of Switzerland. The flood was accompanied by the mobilization of > 69,000 m3 of large wood (LW) throughout the affected area. As recognized afterward, wood played an important role in exacerbating the damages, mainly because of log jams at bridges and weirs. The present study aimed at assessing the risk posed by wood in various catchments by investigating the amount and spatial variability of recruited and transported LW. Data regarding LW quantities were obtained by field surveys, remote sensing techniques (LiDAR), and GIS analysis and was subsequently translated into a conceptual model of wood transport mass balance. Detailed wood budgets and transport diagrams were established for four study catchments of Swiss mountain streams, showing the spatial variability of LW recruitment and deposition. Despite some uncertainties with regard to parameter assumptions, the sum of reconstructed wood input and observed deposition volumes agree reasonably well. Mass wasting such as landslides and debris flows were the dominant recruitment processes in headwater streams. In contrast, LW recruitment from lateral bank erosion became significant in the lower part of mountain streams where the catchment reached a size of about 100 km2. According to our analysis, 88% of the reconstructed total wood input was fresh, i.e., coming from living trees that were recruited from adjacent areas during the event. This implies an average deadwood contribution of 12%, most of which was estimated to have been in-channel deadwood entrained during the flood event.

  11. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Loss of Large Area Induced from Extreme Events with Malicious Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.C.; Park, J.S.; Chang, D.J.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, S.W.; Lee, Y.J.; Kim, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Event of loss of large area (LOLA) induced from extreme external event at multi-units nuclear installation has been emerged a new challenges in the realm of nuclear safety and regulation after Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident. The relevant information and experience on evaluation methodology and regulatory requirements are rarely available and negative to share due to the security sensitivity. Most of countries has been prepared their own regulatory requirements and methodologies to evaluate impact of LOLA at nuclear power plant. In Korea, newly amended the Nuclear Safety Acts requires to assess LOLA in terms of EDMG (Extended Damage Mitigation Guideline). Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has performed a pilot research project to develop the methodology and regulatory review guidance on LOLA at multi-units nuclear power plant since 2014. Through this research, we proposed a methodology to identify the strategies for preventive and mitigation of the consequences of LOLA utilizing PSA techniques or its results. The proposed methodology is comprised of 8 steps including policy consideration, threat evaluation, identification of damage path sets, SSCs capacity evaluation and identification of mitigation measures and strategies. The consequence of LOLA due to malevolent aircraft crash may significantly susceptible with analysis assumptions including type of aircraft, amount of residual fuel, and hittable angle and so on, which cannot be shared overtly. This paper introduces a evaluation methodology for LOLA using PSA technique and its results. Also we provide a case study to evaluate hittable access angle using flight simulator for two types of air crafts and to identify potential path sets leading to core damage by affected SSCs within damaged area.(author).

  12. High-order finite-element seismic wave propagation modeling with MPI on a large GPU cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatitsch, Dimitri; Erlebacher, Gordon; Goeddeke, Dominik; Michea, David

    2010-01-01

    We implement a high-order finite-element application, which performs the numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation resulting for instance from earthquakes at the scale of a continent or from active seismic acquisition experiments in the oil industry, on a large cluster of NVIDIA Tesla graphics cards using the CUDA programming environment and non-blocking message passing based on MPI. Contrary to many finite-element implementations, ours is implemented successfully in single precision, maximizing the performance of current generation GPUs. We discuss the implementation and optimization of the code and compare it to an existing very optimized implementation in C language and MPI on a classical cluster of CPU nodes. We use mesh coloring to efficiently handle summation operations over degrees of freedom on an unstructured mesh, and non-blocking MPI messages in order to overlap the communications across the network and the data transfer to and from the device via PCIe with calculations on the GPU. We perform a number of numerical tests to validate the single-precision CUDA and MPI implementation and assess its accuracy. We then analyze performance measurements and depending on how the problem is mapped to the reference CPU cluster, we obtain a speedup of 20x or 12x.

  13. A DEEP VERY LARGE ARRAY RADIO CONTINUUM SURVEY OF THE CORE AND OUTSKIRTS OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Neal A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Mobasher, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    We present deep 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum observations of two ∼0.5 deg 2 fields in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The two fields, 'Coma 1' and 'Coma 3', correspond to the cluster core and southwest infall region and were selected on account of abundant preexisting multiwavelength data. In their most sensitive regions the radio data reach 22 μJy rms per 4.''4 beam, sufficient to detect (at 5σ) Coma member galaxies with L 1.4 G Hz = 1.3 x 10 20 W Hz -1 . The full catalog of radio detections is presented herein and consists of 1030 sources detected at ≥5σ, 628 of which are within the combined Coma 1 and Coma 3 area. We also provide optical identifications of the radio sources using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The depth of the radio observations allows us to detect active galactic nucleus in cluster elliptical galaxies with M r r r ∼ sun yr -1 .

  14. From Drought to Flood: Biological Responses of Large River Salmonids and Emergent Management Challenges Under California's Extreme Hydroclimatic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.

    2017-12-01

    California's hydroclimatic regime is characterized by extreme interannual variability including periodic, multi-year droughts and winter flooding sequences. Statewide, water years 2012-2016 were characterized by extreme drought followed by likely one of the wettest years on record in water year 2017. Similar drought-flood patterns have occurred multiple times both in the contemporary empirical record and reconstructed climate records. Both the extreme magnitude and rapid succession of these hydroclimatic periods pose difficult challenges for water managers and regulatory agencies responsible for providing instream flows to protect and recover threatened and endangered fish species. Principal among these riverine fish species are federally listed winter-run and spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Central Valley steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and the pelagic species Delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus). Poor instream conditions from 2012-2016 resulted in extremely low abundance estimates and poor overall fish health, and while fish monitoring results from water year 2017 are too preliminary to draw substantive conclusions, early indicators show continued downward population trends despite the historically wet conditions. This poster evaluates California's hydroclimatic conditions over the past decade and quantifies resultant impacts of the 2012-2016 drought and the extremely wet 2017 water year to both adult escapement and juvenile production estimates in California's major inland salmon rivers over that same time span. We will also examine local, state, and federal regulatory actions both in response to the extreme hydroclimatic variability and in preparation for future drought-flood sequences.

  15. The Strip Clustering Scheme for data collection in large-scale Wireless Sensing Network of the road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhoujing Ye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For intelligent traffic and road structural health monitoring, Wireless Sensing Network has been applied widely in transportation, and large quantity of sensor nodes have been embedded in roadways. Now the service lives of sensors are limited mainly because of their battery power storage. So the life cycle of the whole network can be extended if the service life of each sensor in the network is prolonged. In this paper, the Strip Clustering Scheme (SCS is proposed to replace the Conventional Scheme (CS. This method includes region division, cluster head node selection, link construction, data fusion and transmission. Adopting SCS can reduce a lot of redundant data and the total energy consumption of the network by data fusion. In addition, adopting SCS can also extend the monitoring area without increasing the communication range of the Access Point (AP, and facilitate further expansion of the network as a result. Based on the numerically simulated results, CS method can be used for the WSN within 75 m, and SCS method is more suitable when the monitoring range is larger than 75 m. To achieve the optimal network costs and the network life cycle by using SCS, the range of d (the longitudinal spacing of adjacent nodes, is suggested as 10–12.5 m and the energy of cluster head nodes is 60% higher than the energy of non-head nodes with fixed w (the transverse distance of adjacent nodes. And the extra energy of head nodes can be obtained by adding the number of battery within the head nodes or using renewable energy technologies. Keywords: WSN, Road, Energy consumption, Conventional Scheme, Strip Clustering Scheme

  16. Understanding the faint red galaxy population using large-scale clustering measurements from SDSS DR7

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Ashley; Tojeiro, Rita; Percival, Will

    2011-01-01

    We use data from the SDSS to investigate the evolution of the large-scale galaxy bias as a function of luminosity for red galaxies. We carefully consider correlation functions of galaxies selected from both photometric and spectroscopic data, and cross-correlations between them, to obtain multiple measurements of the large-scale bias. We find, for our most robust analyses, a strong increase in bias with luminosity for the most luminous galaxies, an intermediate regime where bias does not evol...

  17. A Simple but Powerful Heuristic Method for Accelerating k-Means Clustering of Large-Scale Data in Life Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kazuki; Morishita, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    K-means clustering has been widely used to gain insight into biological systems from large-scale life science data. To quantify the similarities among biological data sets, Pearson correlation distance and standardized Euclidean distance are used most frequently; however, optimization methods have been largely unexplored. These two distance measurements are equivalent in the sense that they yield the same k-means clustering result for identical sets of k initial centroids. Thus, an efficient algorithm used for one is applicable to the other. Several optimization methods are available for the Euclidean distance and can be used for processing the standardized Euclidean distance; however, they are not customized for this context. We instead approached the problem by studying the properties of the Pearson correlation distance, and we invented a simple but powerful heuristic method for markedly pruning unnecessary computation while retaining the final solution. Tests using real biological data sets with 50-60K vectors of dimensions 10-2001 (~400 MB in size) demonstrated marked reduction in computation time for k = 10-500 in comparison with other state-of-the-art pruning methods such as Elkan's and Hamerly's algorithms. The BoostKCP software is available at http://mlab.cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~ichikawa/boostKCP/.

  18. Extreme value analysis of air pollution data and their comparison between two large urban regions of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Droprinchinski Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen years of hourly atmospheric pollutant data (1996–2011 in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP, and seven years (2005–2011 of data measured in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ, were analyzed in order to study the extreme pollution events and their return period. In addition, the objective was to compare the air quality between the two largest Brazilian urban areas and provide information for decision makers, government agencies and civil society. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD were applied to investigate the behavior of pollutants in these two regions. Although GEV and GPD are different approaches, they presented similar results. The probability of higher concentrations for CO, NO, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 was more frequent during the winter, and O3 episodes occur most frequently during summer in the MASP. On the other hand, there is no seasonally defined behavior in MARJ for pollutants, with O3 presenting the shortest return period for high concentrations. In general, Ibirapuera and Campos Elísios stations present the highest probabilities of extreme events with high concentrations in MASP and MARJ, respectively. When the regions are compared, MASP presented higher probabilities of extreme events for all analyzed pollutants, except for NO; while O3 and PM2.5 are those with most frequent probabilities of presenting extreme episodes, in comparison other pollutants. Keywords: Air pollutants, Extreme events, Megacities, Ozone, Particulate matter

  19. The full-length microRNA cluster in the intron of large latency transcript is associated with the virulence of pseudorabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Mei-Mei; Yan, Kai; Tang, Qi; Wu, Yi-Quan; He, Wen-Bo; Chen, Huan-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2018-07-01

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV), the etiological pathogen of Aujeszky's disease, belongs to the Alphaherpesvirus subfamily. Large latency transcript (LLT), the most abundant PRV transcript, harbors a ~ 4.6 kb microRNA (miRNA) cluster-encoding intron. To investigate the function of the LLT miRNA cluster during the life cycle of PRV, we generated a miRNA cluster mutation virus (PRV-∆miR cluster) and revertant virus. Analysis of the growth kinetics of PRV-ΔmiR cluster-infected cells revealed significantly smaller plaques and lower titers than the wild-type and revertant viruses. The mutation virus exhibited increased IE180 and decreased EP0 expression. The clinical symptoms observed in mice infected with PRV-ΔmiR cluster revealed that the miRNA cluster is involved in the pathogenesis of PRV. Physical parameters, virus shedding assays, and the SN 50 titers revealed that the miRNA cluster enhances PRV virulence in pigs. Collectively, our findings suggest that the full-length miRNA cluster is involved in PRV replication and virulence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental synchronization of chaos in a large ring of mutually coupled single-transistor oscillators: Phase, amplitude, and clustering effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minati, Ludovico, E-mail: lminati@ieee.org, E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it [MR-Lab, Center for Mind/Brain Science, University of Trento, Italy and Scientific Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, experimental evidence of multiple synchronization phenomena in a large (n = 30) ring of chaotic oscillators is presented. Each node consists of an elementary circuit, generating spikes of irregular amplitude and comprising one bipolar junction transistor, one capacitor, two inductors, and one biasing resistor. The nodes are mutually coupled to their neighbours via additional variable resistors. As coupling resistance is decreased, phase synchronization followed by complete synchronization is observed, and onset of synchronization is associated with partial synchronization, i.e., emergence of communities (clusters). While component tolerances affect community structure, the general synchronization properties are maintained across three prototypes and in numerical simulations. The clusters are destroyed by adding long distance connections with distant notes, but are otherwise relatively stable with respect to structural connectivity changes. The study provides evidence that several fundamental synchronization phenomena can be reliably observed in a network of elementary single-transistor oscillators, demonstrating their generative potential and opening way to potential applications of this undemanding setup in experimental modelling of the relationship between network structure, synchronization, and dynamical properties.

  1. Experimental synchronization of chaos in a large ring of mutually coupled single-transistor oscillators: Phase, amplitude, and clustering effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minati, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, experimental evidence of multiple synchronization phenomena in a large (n = 30) ring of chaotic oscillators is presented. Each node consists of an elementary circuit, generating spikes of irregular amplitude and comprising one bipolar junction transistor, one capacitor, two inductors, and one biasing resistor. The nodes are mutually coupled to their neighbours via additional variable resistors. As coupling resistance is decreased, phase synchronization followed by complete synchronization is observed, and onset of synchronization is associated with partial synchronization, i.e., emergence of communities (clusters). While component tolerances affect community structure, the general synchronization properties are maintained across three prototypes and in numerical simulations. The clusters are destroyed by adding long distance connections with distant notes, but are otherwise relatively stable with respect to structural connectivity changes. The study provides evidence that several fundamental synchronization phenomena can be reliably observed in a network of elementary single-transistor oscillators, demonstrating their generative potential and opening way to potential applications of this undemanding setup in experimental modelling of the relationship between network structure, synchronization, and dynamical properties

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations with electronic stopping can reproduce experimental sputtering yields of metals impacted by large cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiting; Zhou, Wei; Feng, Qijie; Zheng, Jian

    2018-03-01

    An unsolved problem in research of sputtering from metals induced by energetic large cluster ions is that molecular dynamics (MD) simulations often produce sputtering yields much higher than experimental results. Different from the previous simulations considering only elastic atomic interactions (nuclear stopping), here we incorporate inelastic electrons-atoms interactions (electronic stopping, ES) into MD simulations using a friction model. In this way we have simulated continuous 45° impacts of 10-20 keV C60 on a Ag(111) surface, and found that the calculated sputtering yields can be very close to the experimental results when the model parameter is appropriately assigned. Conversely, when we ignore the effect of ES, the yields are much higher, just like the previous studies. We further expand our research to the sputtering of Au induced by continuous keV C60 or Ar100 bombardments, and obtain quite similar results. Our study indicates that the gap between the experimental and the simulated sputtering yields is probably induced by the ignorance of ES in the simulations, and that a careful treatment of this issue is important for simulations of cluster-ion-induced sputtering, especially for those aiming to compare with experiments.

  3. Data Mining of Extremely Large Ad-Hoc Data Sets to Produce Reverse Web-Link Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Resource Identifier JAR Java Archive JSON JavaScript Object Notation MR MapReduce NPS Naval Postgraduate School PaaS Platform as a Service RDD...Apache Hadoop framework , is one of the typical tools for cluster computing and distributed processing. For this research, we used both hardware and...fromGoogle’sMR paper [3]. MR is amodule in the Apache Hadoop framework . To work with MR requires thinking about processing data in a special way: make

  4. Large amplitude solitary waves in and near the Earth’s magnetosphere, magnetopause and bow shock: Polar and Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cattell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary waves with large electric fields (up to 100's of mV/m have been observed throughout the magnetosphere and in the bow shock. We discuss observations by Polar at high altitudes ( ~ 4-8 RE , during crossings of the plasma sheet boundary and cusp, and new measurements by Polar at the equatorial magnetopause and by Cluster near the bow shock, in the cusp and at the plasma sheet boundary. We describe the results of a statistical study of electron solitary waves observed by Polar at high altitudes. The mean solitary wave duration was ~ 2 ms. The waves have velocities from ~ 1000 km/s to  > 2500 km/s. Observed scale sizes (parallel to the magnetic field are on the order of 1-10lD, with eF/kTe from ~ 0.01 to O(1. The average speed of solitary waves at the plasma sheet boundary is faster than the average speed observed in the cusp and at cusp injections. The amplitude increases with both velocity and scale size. These observations are all consistent with the identification of the solitary waves as electron hole modes. We also report the discovery of solitary waves at the magnetopause, observed in Polar data obtained at the subsolar equatorial magnetopause. Both positive and negative potential structures have been observed with amplitudes up to ~ 25 mV/m. The velocities range from 150 km/s to >2500 km/s, with scale sizes the order of a kilometer (comparable to the Debye length. Initial observations of solitary waves by the four Cluster satellites are utilized to discuss the scale sizes and time variability of the regions where the solitary waves occur. Preliminary results from the four Cluster satellites have given a glimpse of the spatial and temporal variability of the occurrence of solitary waves and their association with other wave modes. In all the events studied, significant differences were observed in the waveforms observed simultaneously at the four locations separated by ~ 1000 km. When solitary waves were seen at one satellite, they

  5. Nuclear clustering - a cluster core model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Selvi, G.; Nandhini, N.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear clustering, similar to other clustering phenomenon in nature is a much warranted study, since it would help us in understanding the nature of binding of the nucleons inside the nucleus, closed shell behaviour when the system is highly deformed, dynamics and structure at extremes. Several models account for the clustering phenomenon of nuclei. We present in this work, a cluster core model study of nuclear clustering in light mass nuclei

  6. Clustering structures of large proteins using multifractal analyses based on a 6-letter model and hydrophobicity scale of amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianyi; Yu Zuguo; Anh, Vo

    2009-01-01

    The Schneider and Wrede hydrophobicity scale of amino acids and the 6-letter model of protein are proposed to study the relationship between the primary structure and the secondary structural classification of proteins. Two kinds of multifractal analyses are performed on the two measures obtained from these two kinds of data on large proteins. Nine parameters from the multifractal analyses are considered to construct the parameter spaces. Each protein is represented by one point in these spaces. A procedure is proposed to separate large proteins in the α, β, α + β and α/β structural classes in these parameter spaces. Fisher's linear discriminant algorithm is used to assess our clustering accuracy on the 49 selected large proteins. Numerical results indicate that the discriminant accuracies are satisfactory. In particular, they reach 100.00% and 84.21% in separating the α proteins from the {β, α + β, α/β} proteins in a parameter space; 92.86% and 86.96% in separating the β proteins from the {α + β, α/β} proteins in another parameter space; 91.67% and 83.33% in separating the α/β proteins from the α + β proteins in the last parameter space.

  7. DEEP CHANDRA, HST-COS, AND MEGACAM OBSERVATIONS OF THE PHOENIX CLUSTER: EXTREME STAR FORMATION AND AGN FEEDBACK ON HUNDRED KILOPARSEC SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Miller, Eric D.; ZuHone, John A.; McNamara, Brian R.; Weeren, Reinout J. van; Bayliss, Matthew; Jones-Forman, Christine; Applegate, Douglas E.; Benson, Bradford A.; Carlstrom, John E.; Mantz, Adam B.; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Chatzikos, Marios; Edge, Alastair C.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie; Stalder, Brian; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    We present new ultraviolet, optical, and X-ray data on the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). Deep optical imaging reveals previously undetected filaments of star formation, extending to radii of ∼50–100 kpc in multiple directions. Combined UV-optical spectroscopy of the central galaxy reveals a massive (2 × 10 9 M ⊙ ), young (∼4.5 Myr) population of stars, consistent with a time-averaged star formation rate of 610 ± 50 M ⊙ yr −1 . We report a strong detection of O vi λλ1032,1038, which appears to originate primarily in shock-heated gas, but may contain a substantial contribution (>1000 M ⊙ yr −1 ) from the cooling intracluster medium (ICM). We confirm the presence of deep X-ray cavities in the inner ∼10 kpc, which are among the most extreme examples of radio-mode feedback detected to date, implying jet powers of 2–7 × 10 45 erg s −1 . We provide evidence that the active galactic nucleus inflating these cavities may have only recently transitioned from “quasar-mode” to “radio-mode,” and may currently be insufficient to completely offset cooling. A model-subtracted residual X-ray image reveals evidence for prior episodes of strong radio-mode feedback at radii of ∼100 kpc, with extended “ghost” cavities indicating a prior epoch of feedback roughly 100 Myr ago. This residual image also exhibits significant asymmetry in the inner ∼200 kpc (0.15R 500 ), reminiscent of infalling cool clouds, either due to minor mergers or fragmentation of the cooling ICM. Taken together, these data reveal a rapidly evolving cool core which is rich with structure (both spatially and in temperature), is subject to a variety of highly energetic processes, and yet is cooling rapidly and forming stars along thin, narrow filaments

  8. Extremely large magnetoresistance and Kohler's rule in PdSn4: A complete study of thermodynamic, transport, and band-structure properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Na Hyun; Wu, Yun; Wang, Lin-Lin; Orth, Peter P.; Downing, Savannah S.; Manni, Soham; Mou, Dixiang; Johnson, Duane D.; Kaminski, Adam; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2017-10-01

    The recently discovered material PtSn4 is known to exhibit extremely large magnetoresistance (XMR) that also manifests Dirac arc nodes on the surface. PdSn4 is isostructural to PtSn4 with the same electron count. We report on the physical properties of high-quality single crystals of PdSn4 including specific heat, temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent resistivity and magnetization, and electronic band-structure properties obtained from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). We observe that PdSn4 has physical properties that are qualitatively similar to those of PtSn4, but find also pronounced differences. Importantly, the Dirac arc node surface state of PtSn4 is gapped out for PdSn4. By comparing these similar compounds, we address the origin of the extremely large magnetoresistance in PdSn4 and PtSn4; based on detailed analysis of the magnetoresistivity ρ (H ,T ) , we conclude that neither the carrier compensation nor the Dirac arc node surface state are the primary reason for the extremely large magnetoresistance. On the other hand, we find that, surprisingly, Kohler's rule scaling of the magnetoresistance, which describes a self-similarity of the field-induced orbital electronic motion across different length scales and is derived for a simple electronic response of metals to an applied magnetic field is obeyed over the full range of temperatures and field strengths that we explore.

  9. Extremely large magnetoresistance and Kohler's rule in PdSn4 : A complete study of thermodynamic, transport, and band-structure properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Na Hyun; Wu, Yun; Wang, Lin-Lin; Orth, Peter P.; Downing, Savannah S.

    2017-01-01

    The recently discovered material PtSn 4 is known to exhibit extremely large magnetoresistance (XMR) that also manifests Dirac arc nodes on the surface. PdSn 4 is isostructural to PtSn 4 with the same electron count. Here, we report on the physical properties of high-quality single crystals of PdSn 4 including specific heat, temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent resistivity and magnetization, and electronic band-structure properties obtained from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). We observe that PdSn 4 has physical properties that are qualitatively similar to those of PtSn 4 , but find also pronounced differences. Importantly, the Dirac arc node surface state of PtSn 4 is gapped out for PdSn 4 . By comparing these similar compounds, we address the origin of the extremely large magnetoresistance in PdSn 4 and PtSn 4 ; based on detailed analysis of the magnetoresistivity ρ (H , T) , we conclude that neither the carrier compensation nor the Dirac arc node surface state are the primary reason for the extremely large magnetoresistance. On the other hand, we also find that, surprisingly, Kohler's rule scaling of the magnetoresistance, which describes a self-similarity of the field-induced orbital electronic motion across different length scales and is derived for a simple electronic response of metals to an applied magnetic field is obeyed over the full range of temperatures and field strengths that we explore.

  10. Evaluating the ClimEx Single Model Large Ensemble in Comparison with EURO-CORDEX Results of Seasonal Means and Extreme Precipitation Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Trentini, F.; Schmid, F. J.; Braun, M.; Brisette, F.; Frigon, A.; Leduc, M.; Martel, J. L.; Willkofer, F.; Wood, R. R.; Ludwig, R.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorological extreme events seem to become more frequent in the present and future, and a seperation of natural climate variability and a clear climate change effect on these extreme events gains more and more interest. Since there is only one realisation of historical events, natural variability in terms of very long timeseries for a robust statistical analysis is not possible with observation data. A new single model large ensemble (SMLE), developed for the ClimEx project (Climate change and hydrological extreme events - risks and perspectives for water management in Bavaria and Québec) is supposed to overcome this lack of data by downscaling 50 members of the CanESM2 (RCP 8.5) with the Canadian CRCM5 regional model (using the EURO-CORDEX grid specifications) for timeseries of 1950-2099 each, resulting in 7500 years of simulated climate. This allows for a better probabilistic analysis of rare and extreme events than any preceding dataset. Besides seasonal sums, several extreme indicators like R95pTOT, RX5day and others are calculated for the ClimEx ensemble and several EURO-CORDEX runs. This enables us to investigate the interaction between natural variability (as it appears in the CanESM2-CRCM5 members) and a climate change signal of those members for past, present and future conditions. Adding the EURO-CORDEX results to this, we can also assess the role of internal model variability (or natural variability) in climate change simulations. A first comparison shows similar magnitudes of variability of climate change signals between the ClimEx large ensemble and the CORDEX runs for some indicators, while for most indicators the spread of the SMLE is smaller than the spread of different CORDEX models.

  11. Emergency repair of upper extremity large soft tissue and vascular injuries with flow-through anterolateral thigh free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yi; Fu, Guo; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Yan, Li-Wei; Zhu, Qing-Tang; Gu, Li-Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Qi, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Complex extremity trauma commonly involves both soft tissue and vascular injuries. Traditional two-stage surgical repair may delay rehabilitation and functional recovery, as well as increase the risk of infections. We report a single-stage reconstructive surgical method that repairs soft tissue defects and vascular injuries with flow-through free flaps to improve functional outcomes. Between March 2010 and December 2016 in our hospital, 5 patients with severe upper extremity trauma received single-stage reconstructive surgery, in which a flow-through anterolateral thigh free flap was applied to repair soft tissue defects and vascular injuries simultaneously. Cases of injured artery were reconstructed with the distal trunk of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. A segment of adjacent vein was used if there was a second artery injury. Patients were followed to evaluate their functional recoveries, and received computed tomography angiography examinations to assess peripheral circulation. Two patients had post-operative thumb necrosis; one required amputation, and the other was healed after debridement and abdominal pedicle flap repair. The other 3 patients had no major complications (infection, necrosis) to the recipient or donor sites after surgery. All the patients had achieved satisfactory functional recovery by the end of the follow-up period. Computed tomography angiography showed adequate circulation in the peripheral vessels. The success of these cases shows that one-step reconstructive surgery with flow-through anterolateral thigh free flaps can be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with complex upper extremity trauma with soft tissue defects and vascular injuries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Validity of the classical monte carlo method to model the magnetic properties of a large transition-metal cluster: Mn19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nicola; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Kritikos, Mikael; Westin, L Gunnar

    2006-03-20

    The susceptibility of the large transition-metal cluster [Mn19O12(MOE)14(MOEH)10].MOEH (MOE = OC2H2O-CH3) has been fitted through classical Monte Carlo simulation, and an estimation of the exchange coupling constants has been done. With these results, it has been possible to perform a full-matrix diagonalization of the cluster core, which was used to provide information on the nature of the low-lying levels.

  13. Probing the large-scale structure of the universe: an analysis of 55 bright southern clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olowin, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation presents the description of 55 bright, close (Z less than or equal to 0.1) clusters of galaxies as a homogeneous sample taken from a new effort to catalog galaxy clusters in the Southern Hemisphere. The positions of some 21,000 galaxies in clusters were cataloged along with visual magnitudes, morphological types, position angles of extended objects and pertinent remarks. For all of the clusters, various cluster parameters were determined and form the basis of comparative studies for these fundamental aggregates of matter in the universe. The aims of this study are to produce a homogeneous sample of galaxy clusters measured to a uniform limiting magnitude of m/sub v/ = 19.0 by means of a calibrated stepscale: catalogued with accurate positions relative to nearby astrometric standard stars; morphologically classified and population typed; and statistically analyzed in a uniform fashion to deduce certain cluster parameters. The cluster parameters of interest include an estimate of cluster distance, cluster center and cluster richness; galaxy distributions as a function of morphological type, magnitude distribution and core radius as determined by an isothermal gas sphere model

  14. Test of Gravity on Large Scales with Weak Gravitational Lensing and Clustering Measurements of SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, R.; Seljak, U.; Gunn, J.; Lombriser, L.

    2009-01-01

    We perform a test of gravity on large scales (5-50 Mpc/h) using 70,000 luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 with redshifts 0.16clustering-- that can discriminate between different theories of gravity and is largely independent of galaxy bias and sigma_8. In particular, E_G is sensitive to the relation between the spatial and temporal scalar perturbations in the space-time metric. While these two potentials are equivalent in concordance cosmology (GR+LCDM) in the absence of anisotropic stress, they are not equivalent in alternative theories of gravity in general, so that different models make different predictions for E_G. We find E_G=0.37±0.05 averaged over scales 5

  15. Using Star Clusters as Tracers of Star Formation and Chemical Evolution: The Chemical Enrichment History of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor V.; Asa’d, Randa

    2018-05-01

    The star formation (SFH) and chemical enrichment (CEH) histories of Local Group galaxies are traditionally studied by analyzing their resolved stellar populations in a form of color–magnitude diagrams obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Star clusters can be studied in integrated light using ground-based telescopes to much larger distances. They represent snapshots of the chemical evolution of their host galaxy at different ages. Here we present a simple theoretical framework for the chemical evolution based on the instantaneous recycling approximation (IRA) model. We infer a CEH from an SFH and vice versa using observational data. We also present a more advanced model for the evolution of individual chemical elements that takes into account the contribution of supernovae type Ia. We demonstrate that ages, iron, and α-element abundances of 15 star clusters derived from the fitting of their integrated optical spectra reliably trace the CEH of the Large Magellanic Cloud obtained from resolved stellar populations in the age range 40 Myr age–metallicity relation. Moreover, the present-day total gas mass of the LMC estimated by the IRA model (6.2× {10}8 {M}ȯ ) matches within uncertainties the observed H I mass corrected for the presence of molecular gas (5.8+/- 0.5× {10}8 {M}ȯ ). We briefly discuss how our approach can be used to study SFHs of galaxies as distant as 10 Mpc at the level of detail that is currently available only in a handful of nearby Milky Way satellites. .

  16. Large-scale parallel uncontracted multireference-averaged quadratic coupled cluster: the ground state of the chromium dimer revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2009-11-12

    The accurate prediction of the potential energy function of the X1Sigmag+ state of Cr2 is a remarkable challenge; large differential electron correlation effects, significant scalar relativistic contributions, the need for large flexible basis sets containing g functions, the importance of semicore valence electron correlation, and its multireference nature pose considerable obstacles. So far, the only reasonable successful approaches were based on multireference perturbation theory (MRPT). Recently, there was some controversy in the literature about the role of error compensation and systematic defects of various MRPT implementations that cannot be easily overcome. A detailed basis set study of the potential energy function is presented, adopting a variational method. The method of choice for this electron-rich target with up to 28 correlated electrons is fully uncontracted multireference-averaged quadratic coupled cluster (MR-AQCC), which shares the flexibility of the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) approach and is, in addition, approximately size-extensive (0.02 eV in error as compared to the MRCI value of 1.37 eV for two noninteracting chromium atoms). The best estimate for De arrives at 1.48 eV and agrees well with the experimental data of 1.47 +/- 0.056 eV. At the estimated CBS limit, the equilibrium bond distance (1.685 A) and vibrational frequency (459 cm-1) are in agreement with experiment (1.679 A, 481 cm-1). Large basis sets and reference configuration spaces invariably result in huge wave function expansions (here, up to 2.8 billion configuration state functions), and efficient parallel implementations of the method are crucial. Hence, relevant details on implementation and general performance of the parallel program code are discussed as well.

  17. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    sell their products successfully in international markets, but there is also an increasingly large consumer base within India. Indeed, Indian industrial clusters have contributed to a substantial part of this growth process, and there are several hundred registered clusters within the country...... of this handbook, which focuses on the role of CSR in MSMEs. Hence we contribute to the literature on CSR in industrial clusters and specifically CSR in Indian industrial clusters by investigating the drivers of CSR in India’s industrial clusters....

  18. Long term effectiveness on prescribing of two multifaceted educational interventions: results of two large scale randomized cluster trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Magrini

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Information on benefits and risks of drugs is a key element affecting doctors' prescribing decisions. Outreach visits promoting independent information have proved moderately effective in changing prescribing behaviours. OBJECTIVES: Testing the short and long-term effectiveness on general practitioners' prescribing of small groups meetings led by pharmacists. METHODS: Two cluster open randomised controlled trials (RCTs were carried out in a large scale NHS setting. Ad hoc prepared evidence based material were used considering a therapeutic area approach--TEA, with information materials on osteoporosis or prostatic hyperplasia--and a single drug oriented approach--SIDRO, with information materials on me-too drugs of 2 different classes: barnidipine or prulifloxacin. In each study, all 115 Primary Care Groups in a Northern Italy area (2.2 million inhabitants, 1737 general practitioners were randomised to educational small groups meetings, in which available evidence was provided together with drug utilization data and clinical scenarios. Main outcomes were changes in the six-months prescription of targeted drugs. Longer term results (24 and 48 months were also evaluated. RESULTS: In the TEA trial, one of the four primary outcomes showed a reduction (prescription of alfuzosin compared to tamsulosin and terazosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia: prescribing ratio -8.5%, p = 0.03. Another primary outcome (prescription of risedronate showed a reduction at 24 and 48 months (-7.6%, p = 0.02; and -9,8%, p = 0.03, but not at six months (-5.1%, p = 0.36. In the SIDRO trial both primary outcomes showed a statistically significant reduction (prescription of barnidipine -9.8%, p = 0.02; prescription of prulifloxacin -11.1%, p = 0.04, which persisted or increased over time. INTERPRETATION: These two cluster RCTs showed the large scale feasibility of a complex educational program in a NHS setting, and its potentially

  19. Patterns of variation at Ustilago maydis virulence clusters 2A and 19A largely reflect the demographic history of its populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Kellner

    Full Text Available The maintenance of an intimate interaction between plant-biotrophic fungi and their hosts over evolutionary times involves strong selection and adaptative evolution of virulence-related genes. The highly specialised maize pathogen Ustilago maydis is assigned with a high evolutionary capability to overcome host resistances due to its high rates of sexual recombination, large population sizes and long distance dispersal. Unlike most studied fungus-plant interactions, the U. maydis - Zea mays pathosystem lacks a typical gene-for-gene interaction. It exerts a large set of secreted fungal virulence factors that are mostly organised in gene clusters. Their contribution to virulence has been experimentally demonstrated but their genetic diversity within U. maydis remains poorly understood. Here, we report on the intraspecific diversity of 34 potential virulence factor genes of U. maydis. We analysed their sequence polymorphisms in 17 isolates of U. maydis from Europe, North and Latin America. We focused on gene cluster 2A, associated with virulence attenuation, cluster 19A that is crucial for virulence, and the cluster-independent effector gene pep1. Although higher compared to four house-keeping genes, the overall levels of intraspecific genetic variation of virulence clusters 2A and 19A, and pep1 are remarkably low and commensurate to the levels of 14 studied non-virulence genes. In addition, each gene is present in all studied isolates and synteny in cluster 2A is conserved. Furthermore, 7 out of 34 virulence genes contain either no polymorphisms or only synonymous substitutions among all isolates. However, genetic variation of clusters 2A and 19A each resolve the large scale population structure of U. maydis indicating subpopulations with decreased gene flow. Hence, the genetic diversity of these virulence-related genes largely reflect the demographic history of U. maydis populations.

  20. Large reptiles and cold temperatures: Do extreme cold spells set distributional limits for tropical reptiles in Florida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Parry, Mark; Beauchamp, Jeff; Rochford, Mike; Smith, Brian J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Brandt, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Distributional limits of many tropical species in Florida are ultimately determined by tolerance to low temperature. An unprecedented cold spell during 2–11 January 2010, in South Florida provided an opportunity to compare the responses of tropical American crocodiles with warm-temperate American alligators and to compare the responses of nonnative Burmese pythons with native warm-temperate snakes exposed to prolonged cold temperatures. After the January 2010 cold spell, a record number of American crocodiles (n = 151) and Burmese pythons (n = 36) were found dead. In contrast, no American alligators and no native snakes were found dead. American alligators and American crocodiles behaved differently during the cold spell. American alligators stopped basking and retreated to warmer water. American crocodiles apparently continued to bask during extreme cold temperatures resulting in lethal body temperatures. The mortality of Burmese pythons compared to the absence of mortality for native snakes suggests that the current population of Burmese pythons in the Everglades is less tolerant of cold temperatures than native snakes. Burmese pythons introduced from other parts of their native range may be more tolerant of cold temperatures. We documented the direct effects of cold temperatures on crocodiles and pythons; however, evidence of long-term effects of cold temperature on their populations within their established ranges remains lacking. Mortality of crocodiles and pythons outside of their current established range may be more important in setting distributional limits.

  1. Experience of Google's latest deep learning library, TensorFlow, in a large-scale WLCG cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Gen; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Quadt, Arnulf [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The researchers at the Google Brain team released their second generation's Deep Learning library, TensorFlow, as an open-source package under the Apache 2.0 license in November, 2015. Google has already deployed the first generation's library using DistBlief in various systems such as Google Search, advertising systems, speech recognition systems, Google Images, Google Maps, Street View, Google Translate and many other latest products. In addition, many researchers in high energy physics have recently started to understand and use Deep Learning algorithms in their own research and analysis. We conceive a first use-case scenario of TensorFlow to create the Deep Learning models from high-dimensional inputs like physics analysis data in a large-scale WLCG computing cluster. TensorFlow carries out computations using a dataflow model and graph structure onto a wide variety of different hardware platforms and systems, such as many CPU architectures, GPUs and smartphone platforms. Having a single library that can distribute the computations to create a model to the various platforms and systems would significantly simplify the use of Deep Learning algorithms in high energy physics. We deploy TensorFlow with the Docker container environments and present the first use in our grid system.

  2. Extended data analysis strategies for high resolution imaging MS : new methods to deal with extremely large image hyperspectral datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, L.A.; Broersen, A.; Fletcher, I.W.; Liere, van R.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The large size of the hyperspectral datasets that are produced with modern mass spectrometric imaging techniques makes it difficult to analyze the results. Unsupervised statistical techniques are needed to extract relevant information from these datasets and reduce the data into a surveyable

  3. Pinpointing Needles in Giant Haystacks: Use of Text Mining to Reduce Impractical Screening Workload in Extremely Large Scoping Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemilt, Ian; Simon, Antonia; Hollands, Gareth J.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Ogilvie, David; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kelly, Michael P.; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    In scoping reviews, boundaries of relevant evidence may be initially fuzzy, with refined conceptual understanding of interventions and their proposed mechanisms of action an intended output of the scoping process rather than its starting point. Electronic searches are therefore sensitive, often retrieving very large record sets that are…

  4. GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY. IV. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: α, Fe-PEAK, LIGHT, AND HEAVY ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in eight clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05-12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high-resolution (R ∼ 25,000), integrated-light (IL) spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional IL χ 2 -minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak (∼15 mÅ) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N ∼ 30). Additionally, we supplement the IL abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (age +0.5) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star ejecta to the interstellar medium throughout the later history of the LMC. We also find a correlation of IL Na and Al abundances with cluster mass in the sense that more massive, older clusters are enriched in the light elements Na and Al with respect to Fe, which implies that these clusters harbor star-to-star abundance variations as is common in the MW. Lower mass, intermediate-age, and young clusters have Na and Al abundances that are lower and more consistent with LMC field stars. Our results can be used to constrain both future chemical evolution models for the LMC and theories of globular cluster formation.

  5. Not-so-simple stellar populations in the intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters NGC 1831 and NGC 1868

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai, E-mail: joshuali@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Using a combination of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Wide-Field and Planetary Camera-2 observations, we explore the physical properties of the stellar populations in two intermediate-age star clusters, NGC 1831 and NGC 1868, in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on their color-magnitude diagrams. We show that both clusters exhibit extended main-sequence turn offs. To explain the observations, we consider variations in helium abundance, binarity, age dispersions, and the fast rotation of the clusters' member stars. The observed narrow main sequence excludes significant variations in helium abundance in both clusters. We first establish the clusters' main-sequence binary fractions using the bulk of the clusters' main-sequence stellar populations ≳ 1 mag below their turn-offs. The extent of the turn-off regions in color-magnitude space, corrected for the effects of binarity, implies that age spreads of order 300 Myr may be inferred for both clusters if the stellar distributions in color-magnitude space were entirely due to the presence of multiple populations characterized by an age range. Invoking rapid rotation of the population of cluster members characterized by a single age also allows us to match the observed data in detail. However, when taking into account the extent of the red clump in color-magnitude space, we encounter an apparent conflict for NGC 1831 between the age dispersion derived from that based on the extent of the main-sequence turn off and that implied by the compact red clump. We therefore conclude that, for this cluster, variations in stellar rotation rate are preferred over an age dispersion. For NGC 1868, both models perform equally well.

  6. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-resolution, Integrated-light Spectroscopy. IV. The Large Magellanic Cloud: α, Fe-peak, Light, and Heavy Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in eight clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05-12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high-resolution (R ~ 25,000), integrated-light (IL) spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional IL χ2-minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak (~15 mÅ) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N ~ 30). Additionally, we supplement the IL abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (age +0.5) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star ejecta to the interstellar medium throughout the later history of the LMC. We also find a correlation of IL Na and Al abundances with cluster mass in the sense that more massive, older clusters are enriched in the light elements Na and Al with respect to Fe, which implies that these clusters harbor star-to-star abundance variations as is common in the MW. Lower mass, intermediate-age, and young clusters have Na and Al abundances that are lower and more consistent with LMC field stars. Our results can be used to constrain both future chemical evolution models for the LMC and theories of globular cluster formation. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  7. Photodissociation of hydrogen iodide on the surface of large argon clusters: The orientation of the librational wave function and the scattering from the cluster cage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavicek, Petr; Jungwirth, Pavel; Lewerenz, Marius; Nahler, N. Hendrik; Farnik, Michal; Buck, Udo

    2004-01-01

    A set of photodissociation experiments and simulations of hydrogen iodide (HI) on Ar n clusters, with an average size =139, has been carried out for different laser polarizations. The doped clusters are prepared by a pick-up process. The HI molecule is then photodissociated by a UV laser pulse and the outgoing H fragment is ionized by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization in a (2+1) excitation scheme within the same laser pulse at the wavelength of 243 nm. The measured time-of-flight spectra are transformed into hydrogen kinetic energy distributions. They exhibit a strong fraction of caged H atoms at zero-kinetic energy and peaks at the unperturbed cage exit for both spin-orbit channels nearly independent of the polarization. At this dissociation wavelength, the bare HI molecule exhibits a strict state separation, with a parallel transition to the spin-orbit excited state and perpendicular transitions to the ground state. The experimental results have been reproduced using molecular simulation techniques. Classical molecular dynamics was used to estimate the HI dopant distribution after the pick-up procedure. Subsequently, quasi-classical molecular dynamics (Wigner trajectories approach) has been applied for the photodissociation dynamics. The following main results have been obtained: (i) The HI dopant lands on the surface of the argon cluster during the pick-up process, (ii) zero-point energy plays a dominant role for the hydrogen orientation in the ground state of HI-Ar n surface clusters, qualitatively changing the result of the photodissociation experiment upon increasing the number of argon atoms, and, finally, (iii) the scattering of hydrogen atoms from the cage which originate from different dissociation states seriously affects the experimentally measured kinetic energy distributions

  8. Comparison of cluster-based and source-attribution methods for estimating transmission risk using large HIV sequence databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vu, Stéphane; Ratmann, Oliver; Delpech, Valerie; Brown, Alison E; Gill, O Noel; Tostevin, Anna; Fraser, Christophe; Volz, Erik M

    2018-06-01

    Phylogenetic clustering of HIV sequences from a random sample of patients can reveal epidemiological transmission patterns, but interpretation is hampered by limited theoretical support and statistical properties of clustering analysis remain poorly understood. Alternatively, source attribution methods allow fitting of HIV transmission models and thereby quantify aspects of disease transmission. A simulation study was conducted to assess error rates of clustering methods for detecting transmission risk factors. We modeled HIV epidemics among men having sex with men and generated phylogenies comparable to those that can be obtained from HIV surveillance data in the UK. Clustering and source attribution approaches were applied to evaluate their ability to identify patient attributes as transmission risk factors. We find that commonly used methods show a misleading association between cluster size or odds of clustering and covariates that are correlated with time since infection, regardless of their influence on transmission. Clustering methods usually have higher error rates and lower sensitivity than source attribution method for identifying transmission risk factors. But neither methods provide robust estimates of transmission risk ratios. Source attribution method can alleviate drawbacks from phylogenetic clustering but formal population genetic modeling may be required to estimate quantitative transmission risk factors. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The long string at the stretched horizon and the entropy of large non-extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri; Zakharov, Valentin I.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how long strings can arise at the stretched horizon and how they can account for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We use the thermal scalar field theory to derive the asymptotic density of states and corresponding stress tensor of a microcanonical long string gas in Rindler space. We show that the equality of the Hagedorn and Hawking temperatures gives rise to the tree-level entropy of large black holes in accordance with the Bekenstein-Hawking-Wald formula.

  10. The long string at the stretched horizon and the entropy of large non-extremal black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, Thomas G. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Krijgslaan, 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Verschelde, Henri [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Krijgslaan, 281-S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Zakharov, Valentin I. [ITEP,B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute Phys. & Technol.,Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University,Sukhanova str 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-04

    We discuss how long strings can arise at the stretched horizon and how they can account for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We use the thermal scalar field theory to derive the asymptotic density of states and corresponding stress tensor of a microcanonical long string gas in Rindler space. We show that the equality of the Hagedorn and Hawking temperatures gives rise to the tree-level entropy of large black holes in accordance with the Bekenstein-Hawking-Wald formula.

  11. SWAP OBSERVATIONS OF THE LONG-TERM, LARGE-SCALE EVOLUTION OF THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaton, Daniel B.; De Groof, Anik; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan [Royal Observatory of Belgium-SIDC, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Shearer, Paul [Department of Mathematics, 2074 East Hall, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) EUV solar telescope on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy 2 spacecraft has been regularly observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since 2010 February. With a field of view of 54 × 54 arcmin, SWAP provides the widest-field images of the EUV corona available from the perspective of the Earth. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images, it is possible to produce low-noise composites that reveal the structure of the EUV corona to relatively large heights. A particularly important step in this processing was to remove instrumental stray light from the images by determining and deconvolving SWAP's point-spread function from the observations. In this paper, we use the resulting images to conduct the first-ever study of the evolution of the large-scale structure of the corona observed in the EUV over a three year period that includes the complete rise phase of solar cycle 24. Of particular note is the persistence over many solar rotations of bright, diffuse features composed of open magnetic fields that overlie polar crown filaments and extend to large heights above the solar surface. These features appear to be related to coronal fans, which have previously been observed in white-light coronagraph images and, at low heights, in the EUV. We also discuss the evolution of the corona at different heights above the solar surface and the evolution of the corona over the course of the solar cycle by hemisphere.

  12. HIV-TRACE (Transmission Cluster Engine): a tool for large scale molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and other rapidly evolving pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Weaver, Steven; Leigh Brown, Andrew J; Wertheim, Joel O

    2018-01-31

    In modern applications of molecular epidemiology, genetic sequence data are routinely used to identify clusters of transmission in rapidly evolving pathogens, most notably HIV-1. Traditional 'shoeleather' epidemiology infers transmission clusters by tracing chains of partners sharing epidemiological connections (e.g., sexual contact). Here, we present a computational tool for identifying a molecular transmission analog of such clusters: HIV-TRACE (TRAnsmission Cluster Engine). HIV-TRACE implements an approach inspired by traditional epidemiology, by identifying chains of partners whose viral genetic relatedness imply direct or indirect epidemiological connections. Molecular transmission clusters are constructed using codon-aware pairwise alignment to a reference sequence followed by pairwise genetic distance estimation among all sequences. This approach is computationally tractable and is capable of identifying HIV-1 transmission clusters in large surveillance databases comprising tens or hundreds of thousands of sequences in near real time, i.e., on the order of minutes to hours. HIV-TRACE is available at www.hivtrace.org and from github.com/veg/hivtrace, along with the accompanying result visualization module from github.com/veg/hivtrace-viz. Importantly, the approach underlying HIV-TRACE is not limited to the study of HIV-1 and can be applied to study outbreaks and epidemics of other rapidly evolving pathogens. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Large stability and high catalytic activities of sub-nm metal (0) clusters: implications into the nucleation and growth theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Yolanda; Buceta, David; Calvo, Javier; Huseyinova, Shahana; Cuerva, Miguel; Pérez, Ángel; Domínguez, Blanca; López-Quintela, M Arturo

    2015-07-01

    Clusters are stable catalytic species, which are produced during the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs). Their existence contradicts the thermodynamic principles used to explain the formation of NPs by the classical nucleation and growth theories (NGTs). Using chemical and electrochemical methods we will show that depending on the experimental conditions one can produce either Ag clusters or Ag NPs. Moreover, using already prepared Ag clusters one can observe the disappearance of the usual induction period observed for the kinetics of NP formation, indicating that clusters catalyze the formation of NPs. Taking these data together with some previous examples of cluster-catalyzed anisotropic growth, we derived a qualitative approach to include the catalytic activities of clusters into the formation of NPs, which is incorporated into the NGT. Some qualitative conclusions about the main experimental parameters, which affect the formation of clusters versus NPs, as well as the catalytic mechanism versus the non-catalytic one, are also described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Extremely large nonsaturating magnetoresistance and ultrahigh mobility due to topological surface states in the metallic Bi2Te3 topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K.; Chou, M.; Graf, D.; Yang, H. D.; Lorenz, B.; Chu, C. W.

    2017-05-01

    Weak antilocalization (WAL) effects in Bi2Te3 single crystals have been investigated at high and low bulk charge-carrier concentrations. At low charge-carrier density the WAL curves scale with the normal component of the magnetic field, demonstrating the dominance of topological surface states in magnetoconductivity. At high charge-carrier density the WAL curves scale with neither the applied field nor its normal component, implying a mixture of bulk and surface conduction. WAL due to topological surface states shows no dependence on the nature (electrons or holes) of the bulk charge carriers. The observations of an extremely large nonsaturating magnetoresistance and ultrahigh mobility in the samples with lower carrier density further support the presence of surface states. The physical parameters characterizing the WAL effects are calculated using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka formula. At high charge-carrier concentrations, there is a greater number of conduction channels and a decrease in the phase coherence length compared to low charge-carrier concentrations. The extremely large magnetoresistance and high mobility of topological insulators have great technological value and can be exploited in magnetoelectric sensors and memory devices.

  15. Discovery of a new Wolf-Rayet star and a candidate star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Chené, A.-N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Schnurr, O.; Shenar, T.; Sander, A.; Hainich, R.; Langer, N.; Hamann, W.-R.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.

    2014-08-01

    We report the first-ever discovery of a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in the Large Magellanic Cloud via detection of a circular shell with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up observations with Gemini-South resolved the central star of the shell into two components separated from each other by ≈2 arcsec (or ≈0.5 pc in projection). One of these components turns out to be a WN3 star with H and He lines both in emission and absorption (we named it BAT99 3a using the numbering system based on extending the Breysacher et al. catalogue). Spectroscopy of the second component showed that it is a B0 V star. Subsequent spectroscopic observations of BAT99 3a with the du Pont 2.5-m telescope and the Southern African Large Telescope revealed that it is a close, eccentric binary system, and that the absorption lines are associated with an O companion star. We analysed the spectrum of the binary system using the non-LTE Potsdam WR (POWR) code, confirming that the WR component is a very hot (≈90 kK) WN star. For this star, we derived a luminosity of log L/ L⊙ = 5.45 and a mass-loss rate of 10- 5.8 M⊙ yr- 1, and found that the stellar wind composition is dominated by helium with 20 per cent of hydrogen. Spectroscopy of the shell revealed an He III region centred on BAT99 3a and having the same angular radius (≈15 arcsec) as the shell. We thereby add a new example to a rare class of high-excitation nebulae photoionized by WR stars. Analysis of the nebular spectrum showed that the shell is composed of unprocessed material, implying that the shell was swept-up from the local interstellar medium. We discuss the physical relationship between the newly identified massive stars and their possible membership of a previously unrecognized star cluster.

  16. Using Cluster Analysis to Compartmentalize a Large Managed Wetland Based on Physical, Biological, and Climatic Geospatial Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahus, Ian; Migliaccio, Kati; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle; Klarenberg, Geraldine; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2018-04-27

    Hierarchical and partitional cluster analyses were used to compartmentalize Water Conservation Area 1, a managed wetland within the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge in southeast Florida, USA, based on physical, biological, and climatic geospatial attributes. Single, complete, average, and Ward's linkages were tested during the hierarchical cluster analyses, with average linkage providing the best results. In general, the partitional method, partitioning around medoids, found clusters that were more evenly sized and more spatially aggregated than those resulting from the hierarchical analyses. However, hierarchical analysis appeared to be better suited to identify outlier regions that were significantly different from other areas. The clusters identified by geospatial attributes were similar to clusters developed for the interior marsh in a separate study using water quality attributes, suggesting that similar factors have influenced variations in both the set of physical, biological, and climatic attributes selected in this study and water quality parameters. However, geospatial data allowed further subdivision of several interior marsh clusters identified from the water quality data, potentially indicating zones with important differences in function. Identification of these zones can be useful to managers and modelers by informing the distribution of monitoring equipment and personnel as well as delineating regions that may respond similarly to future changes in management or climate.

  17. Extremely large anthropogenic-aerosol contribution to total aerosol load over the Bay of Bengal during winter season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kaskaoutis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ship-borne observations of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD have been carried out over the entire Bay of Bengal (BoB as part of the W-ICARB cruise campaign during the period 27 December 2008–30 January 2009. The results reveal a pronounced temporal and spatial variability in the optical characteristics of aerosols mainly due to anthropogenic emissions and their dispersion controlled by local meteorology. The highest aerosol amount, with mean AOD500>0.4, being even above 1.0 on specific days, is found close to the coastal regions in the western and northern parts of BoB. In these regions the Ångström exponent is also found to be high (~1.2–1.25 indicating transport of strong anthropogenic emissions from continental regions, while very high AOD500 (0.39±0.07 and α380–870 values (1.27±0.09 are found over the eastern BoB. Except from the large α380–870 values, an indication of strong fine-mode dominance is also observed from the AOD curvature, which is negative in the vast majority of the cases, suggesting dominance of an anthropogenic-pollution aerosol type. On the other hand, clean maritime conditions are rather rare over the region, while the aerosol types are further examined through a classification scheme based on the relationship between α and dα. It was found that even for the same α values the fine-mode dominance is larger for higher AODs showing the strong continental influence over the marine environment of BoB. Furthermore, there is also an evidence of aerosol-size growth under more turbid conditions indicative of coagulation and/or humidification over specific BoB regions. The results obtained using OPAC model show significant fraction of soot aerosols (~6 %–8 % over the eastern and northwestern BoB, while coarse-mode sea salt particles are found to dominate in the southern parts of BoB.

  18. Large-Scale Skin Resurfacing of the Upper Extremity in Pediatric Patients Using a Pre-Expanded Intercostal Artery Perforator Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiao; Herrler, Tanja; Gu, Bin; Yang, Mei; Li, Qingfeng; Dai, Chuanchang; Xie, Feng

    2018-05-01

    The repair of extensive upper limb skin lesions in pediatric patients is extremely challenging due to substantial limitations of flap size and donor-site morbidity. We aimed to create an oversize preexpanded flap based on intercostal artery perforators for large-scale resurfacing of the upper extremity in children. Between March 2013 and August 2016, 11 patients underwent reconstructive treatment for extensive skin lesions in the upper extremity using a preexpanded intercostal artery perforator flap. Preoperatively, 2 to 4 candidate perforators were selected as potential pedicle vessels based on duplex ultrasound examination. After tissue expander implantation in the thoracodorsal area, regular saline injections were performed until the expanded flap was sufficient in size. Then, a pedicled flap was formed to resurface the skin lesion of the upper limb. The pedicles were transected 3 weeks after flap transfer. Flap survival, complications, and long-term outcome were evaluated. The average time of tissue expansion was 133 days with a mean final volume of 1713 mL. The thoracoabdominal flaps were based on 2 to 6 pedicles and used to resurface a mean skin defect area of 238 cm ranging from 180 to 357 cm. In all cases, primary donor-site closure was achieved. Marginal necrosis was seen in 5 cases. The reconstructed limbs showed satisfactory outcome in both aesthetic and functional aspects. The preexpanded intercostal artery perforator flap enables 1-block repair of extensive upper limb skin lesions. Due to limited donor-site morbidity and a pedicled technique, this resurfacing approach represents a useful tool especially in pediatric patients.

  19. Functional Genome Mining for Metabolites Encoded by Large Gene Clusters through Heterologous Expression of a Whole-Genome Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Wang, Yemin; Zhao, Zhilong; Gao, Guixi; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Kang, Qianjin; He, Xinyi; Lin, Shuangjun; Pang, Xiuhua; Deng, Zixin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome sequencing projects in the last decade revealed numerous cryptic biosynthetic pathways for unknown secondary metabolites in microbes, revitalizing drug discovery from microbial metabolites by approaches called genome mining. In this work, we developed a heterologous expression and functional screening approach for genome mining from genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries in Streptomyces spp. We demonstrate mining from a strain of Streptomyces rochei, which is known to produce streptothricins and borrelidin, by expressing its BAC library in the surrogate host Streptomyces lividans SBT5, and screening for antimicrobial activity. In addition to the successful capture of the streptothricin and borrelidin biosynthetic gene clusters, we discovered two novel linear lipopeptides and their corresponding biosynthetic gene cluster, as well as a novel cryptic gene cluster for an unknown antibiotic from S. rochei. This high-throughput functional genome mining approach can be easily applied to other streptomycetes, and it is very suitable for the large-scale screening of genomic BAC libraries for bioactive natural products and the corresponding biosynthetic pathways. IMPORTANCE Microbial genomes encode numerous cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters for unknown small metabolites with potential biological activities. Several genome mining approaches have been developed to activate and bring these cryptic metabolites to biological tests for future drug discovery. Previous sequence-guided procedures relied on bioinformatic analysis to predict potentially interesting biosynthetic gene clusters. In this study, we describe an efficient approach based on heterologous expression and functional screening of a whole-genome library for the mining of bioactive metabolites from Streptomyces. The usefulness of this function-driven approach was demonstrated by the capture of four large biosynthetic gene clusters for metabolites of various chemical types, including

  20. The Secrets of the Nearest Starburst Cluster. I. Very Large Telescope/ISAAC Photometry of NGC 3603

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Andrea; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandl, Bernhard; Zinnecker, Hans; Grebel, Eva K.

    2004-08-01

    VLT/ISAAC JHKL photometry with subarcsecond resolution of the dense, massive starburst cluster NGC 3603 YC forming the core of the NGC 3603 giant molecular cloud is analyzed to reveal characteristics of the stellar population in unprecedented detail. The color-magnitude plane features a strong pre-main-sequence/main-sequence (PMS/MS) transition region, including the PMS/MS transition point, and reveals a secondary sequence for the first time in a nearby young starburst cluster. Arguments for a possible binary nature of this sequence are given. The resolved PMS/MS transition region allows isochrone fitting below the hydrogen-burning turn-on in NGC 3603 YC, yielding an independent estimate of global cluster parameters. A distance modulus of 13.9 mag, equivalent to d=6.0+/-0.3 kpc, is derived, as well as a line-of-sight extinction of AV=4.5+/-0.6 toward PMS stars in the cluster center. The interpretation of a binary candidate sequence suggests a single age of 1 Myr for NGC 3603 YC, providing evidence for a single burst of star formation without the need to employ an age spread in the PMS population, as argued for in earlier studies. Disk fractions are derived from L-band excesses, indicating a radial increase in the disk frequency from 20% to 40% from the core to the cluster outskirts. The low disk fraction in the cluster core, as compared to the 42% L-band excess fraction found for massive stars in the Trapezium cluster of a comparably young age, indicates strong photoevaporation in the cluster center. The estimated binary fraction of 30%, as well as the low disk fraction, suggest strong impacts on low-mass star formation due to stellar interactions in the dense starburst. The significant differences between NGC 3603 YC and less dense and massive young star clusters in the Milky Way reveal the importance of using local starbursts as templates for massive extragalactic star formation. Based on observations obtained at the ESO VLT on Paranal, Chile, under programs 63.I

  1. Evaluating spatial and temporal relationships between an earthquake cluster near Entiat, central Washington, and the large December 1872 Entiat earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We investigate spatial and temporal relations between an ongoing and prolific seismicity cluster in central Washington, near Entiat, and the 14 December 1872 Entiat earthquake, the largest historic crustal earthquake in Washington. A fault scarp produced by the 1872 earthquake lies within the Entiat cluster; the locations and areas of both the cluster and the estimated 1872 rupture surface are comparable. Seismic intensities and the 1–2 m of coseismic displacement suggest a magnitude range between 6.5 and 7.0 for the 1872 earthquake. Aftershock forecast models for (1) the first several hours following the 1872 earthquake, (2) the largest felt earthquakes from 1900 to 1974, and (3) the seismicity within the Entiat cluster from 1976 through 2016 are also consistent with this magnitude range. Based on this aftershock modeling, most of the current seismicity in the Entiat cluster could represent aftershocks of the 1872 earthquake. Other earthquakes, especially those with long recurrence intervals, have long‐lived aftershock sequences, including the Mw">MwMw 7.5 1891 Nobi earthquake in Japan, with aftershocks continuing 100 yrs after the mainshock. Although we do not rule out ongoing tectonic deformation in this region, a long‐lived aftershock sequence can account for these observations.

  2. Characterization of a large deletion in the {beta}-globin gene cluster in a newborn with hemoglobin FE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, E.; Dietz, L.; Shafer, F. [Children`s Hosptial, Oakland, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A sample on a newborn with hemoglobin FE screen results was obtained to investigate whether E/E or B/{beta}{degrees} thalassemia was present using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. The newborn appeared homozygous for the hemoglobin E mutation in our initial study, but the parents` genotypes did not support this diagnosis. The father is homozygous for the absence of the hemoglobin E mutation (non E/non E) and the mother is heterozygous (E/non E) for this mutation. The limitation of PCR analysis is an assumption that the amplification of the two {beta}-globin alleles is equivalent. A large deletion on one {beta}-globin gene, which would produce E/{beta}{degrees} thalassemia, would be missed if it included part or the entire region subjected to amplification. The family results were consistent with either non-paternity, sample mix-up or such a deletion of the {beta}-globin gene in the father and child. To rule out the possibility of non-paternity, two polymorphic loci (HLA on chromosome 6 and a VNTR system of chromosome 17) that are outside of the {beta}-globin gene were analyzed and show that inheritance is consistent and the likelihood of a sample mix-up is then reduced. We therefore believe there is a gene deletion in this family. At the present time, analyses of the RFLPs that are 5{prime} of the {beta}-globin gene cluster show that the polymorphisms most distal from the 5{prime} {beta}-globin gene are not being inherited as expected. These results support our interpretation that a deletion exists in the father and was inherited by the child. The father`s clinical picture of possible HPFH (the father has 12% hemoglobin F) also supports the interpretation of a deletion in this family. Deletions of the {beta}-globin gene within this ethnic group are rare. Currently, Southern blots on the family are being probed to determine the extent of the putative deletion.

  3. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. D. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, NTU/AS, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Volk, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  4. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near infrared spectroscopy, dust shells, and cool envelopes in extreme Large Magellanic Cloud asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-01-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ''tip'' of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ''stellar'' cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk.

  5. Neoadjuvant Interdigitated Chemoradiotherapy Using Mesna, Doxorubicin, and Ifosfamide for Large, High-grade, Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremity: Improved Efficacy and Reduced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Sen, Neilayan; Jeans, Elizabeth B; Miller, Luke; Batus, Marta; Gitelis, Steven; Wang, Dian; Abrams, Ross A

    2018-05-18

    Patients with large, high-grade extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) are at high risk for both local and distant recurrence. RTOG 95-14, using a regimen of neoadjuvant interdigitated chemoradiotherapy with mesna, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and dacarbazine followed by surgery and 3 cycles of adjuvant mesna, doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and dacarbazine, demonstrated high rates of disease control at the cost of significant toxicity (83% grade 4, 5% grade 5). As such, this regimen has not been widely adopted. Herein, we report our institutional outcomes utilizing a modified interdigitated chemoradiotherapy regimen, without dacarbazine, and current radiotherapy planning and delivery techniques for high-risk STS. Adults with large (≥5 cm; median, 12.9 cm), grade 3 extremity STS who were prospectively treated as part of our institutional standard of care from 2008 to 2016 are included. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy consisted of 3 cycles of mesna, doxorubicin, and ifosfamide (MAI) and 44 Gy (22 Gy in 11 fractions between cycles of MAI) after which patients underwent surgical resection and received 3 additional cycles of MAI. Twenty-six patients received the MAI treatment protocol. At a median follow-up of 47.3 months, 23 (88.5%) patients are still alive. Three year locoregional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival are 95.0%, 64.0%, and 95.0%, respectively. There have been no therapy-related deaths or secondary malignancies. The nonhematologic grade 4 toxicity rate was 7.7%. Neoadjuvant interdigitated MAI radiotherapy followed by resection and 3 cycles of adjuvant MAI has resulted in acceptable and manageable toxicity and highly favorable survival in patients at greatest risk for treatment failure.

  6. Discovery of a Large-Scale Filament Connected to the Massive Galaxy Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 at z=0.551,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, H.; Barrett, E.; Donovan, D.

    2004-07-01

    We report the detection of a 4 h-170 Mpc long large-scale filament leading into the massive galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. The extent of this object well beyond the cluster's nominal virial radius (~2.3 Mpc) rules out prior interaction between its constituent galaxies and the cluster and makes it a prime candidate for a genuine filament as opposed to a merger remnant or a double cluster. The structure was discovered as a pronounced overdensity of galaxies selected to have V-R colors close to the cluster red sequence. Extensive spectroscopic follow-up of over 300 of these galaxies in a region covering the filament and the cluster confirms that the entire structure is located at the cluster redshift of z=0.545. Featuring galaxy surface densities of typically 15 Mpc-2 down to luminosities of 0.13L*V, the most diffuse parts of the filament are comparable in density to the clumps of red galaxies found around A851 in the only similar study carried out to date (Kodama et al.). Our direct detection of an extended large-scale filament funneling matter onto a massive distant cluster provides a superb target for in-depth studies of the evolution of galaxies in environments of greatly varying density and supports the predictions from theoretical models and numerical simulations of structure formation in a hierarchical picture. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Based partly on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (US), the Particle Physics and Astronomy

  7. Gems in the outer galaxy: Near-infrared imaging of three young clusters at large galactic radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Images recorded with the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) and corrected for atmospheric seeing by the Gemini Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics System are used to investigate the stellar contents of the young outer Galactic disk clusters Haffner 17, NGC 2401, and NGC 3105. Ages estimated from the faint end of the main sequence (MS) and the ridgeline of the pre-main sequence on the (K, J – K) color-magnitude diagrams are consistent with published values that are based on the MS turnoff, with the GSAOI data favoring the younger end of the age range for NGC 2401 in the literature. The mass function (MF) of NGC 2401 is similar to that in the solar neighborhood, and stars spanning a wide range of masses in this cluster have similar clustering properties on the sky. It is concluded that NGC 2401 is not evolved dynamically. In contrast, the MF of Haffner 17 differs significantly from that in the solar neighborhood over all masses covered by these data, while the MF of NGC 3105 is deficient in objects with sub-solar masses when compared with the solar neighborhood. Low-mass objects in Haffner 17 and NGC 3105 are also more uniformly distributed on the sky than brighter, more massive, MS stars. This is consistent with both clusters having experienced significant dynamical evolution.

  8. Towards large-scale calculations with State-Specific Multireference Coupled Cluster methods: Studies on dodecane, naphthynes, and polycarbenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Jiří; Bhaskaran-Neir, K.; Kowalski, K.; Pittner, Jiří; van Dam, H. J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 542, 23 July (2012), s. 128-133 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/2222 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : multireference Coupled Cluster (MRCC) methods * molecular systems * polycarbenes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2012

  9. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    ICAM-1-coupled signaling pathways in astrocytes converge to cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and TNF-alpha secretion. J...D, Apap-Bologna A, Kemp G. A dye-photosensitized reaction that generates stable protein-protein crosslinks. Analytical biochemistry . 1989 May 15;179(1

  10. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    this (Figure 14). Task 2g . Decision on wrap/fixation method for AvanceΤΜ nerve graft studies in rodent model. (Month 16, All PI’s) This decision...completed 3g . Preparation of manuscript based on Task 3 studies and evaluation for recommendation for human studies. This final task will be...significantly reduced mean hospital stay, dressings changes, mean time to epithelialisation, reduced pain, increased mobility . Patient and surgeon 666 N

  11. The state of the warm and cold gas in the extreme starburst at the core of the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Marshall W.; Swinbank, Mark; Edge, Alastair C.; Hogan, Michael T.; Wilner, David J.; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Benson, Bradford A.; Marrone, Daniel P.; McNamara, Brian R.; Wei, Lisa H.

    2014-01-01

    We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (∼800 M ☉ yr –1 ) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy, detected at [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λλ4959, 5007, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, [Ne III]λ3869, and He II λ4686. The total Hα luminosity, assuming Hα/Hβ = 2.85, is L Hα = 7.6 ± 0.4 ×10 43 erg s –1 , making this the most luminous emission-line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hβ) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly discovered highly ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. Throughout the cluster we measure elevated high-ionization line ratios (e.g., He II/Hβ, [O III]/Hβ), coupled with an overall high-velocity width (FWHM ≳ 500 km s –1 ), suggesting that shocks are likely important throughout the interstellar medium of the central galaxy. These shocks are most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of M H 2 = 2.2 ± 0.6 × 10 10 M ☉ , which implies that the starburst will consume its fuel in ∼30 Myr if

  12. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  13. Extreme-value dependence: An application to exchange rate markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Viviana

    2007-04-01

    Extreme value theory (EVT) focuses on modeling the tail behavior of a loss distribution using only extreme values rather than the whole data set. For a sample of 10 countries with dirty/free float regimes, we investigate whether paired currencies exhibit a pattern of asymptotic dependence. That is, whether an extremely large appreciation or depreciation in the nominal exchange rate of one country might transmit to another. In general, after controlling for volatility clustering and inertia in returns, we do not find evidence of extreme-value dependence between paired exchange rates. However, for asymptotic-independent paired returns, we find that tail dependency of exchange rates is stronger under large appreciations than under large depreciations.

  14. Are rheumatoid arthritis patients discernible from other early arthritis patients using 1.5T extremity magnetic resonance imaging? a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomp, Wouter; Krabben, Annemarie; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Bloem, Johan L; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Reijnierse, Monique

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research. A European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force recently suggested that MRI can improve the certainty of RA diagnosis. Because this recommendation may reflect a tendency to use MRI in daily practice, thorough studies on the value of MRI are required. Thus far no large studies have evaluated the accuracy of MRI to differentiate early RA from other patients with early arthritis. We performed a large cross-sectional study to determine whether patients who are clinically classified with RA differ in MRI features compared to patients with other diagnoses. In our study, 179 patients presenting with early arthritis (median symptom duration 15.4 weeks) underwent 1.5T extremity MRI of unilateral wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints according to our arthritis protocol, the foot without contrast. Images were scored according to OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring (RAMRIS) by 2 independent readers. Tenosynovitis was also assessed. The main outcome was fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA. Test characteristics and areas under the receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AUC) were evaluated. In subanalyses, the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria were used as outcome, and analyses were stratified for anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). The ACR 1987 criteria were fulfilled in 43 patients (24.0%). Patients with RA had higher scores for synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bone marrow edema (BME) than patients without RA (p arthritis patients.

  15. Fast clustering algorithm for large ECG data sets based on CS theory in combination with PCA and K-NN methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Long-term recording of Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals plays an important role in health care systems for diagnostic and treatment purposes of heart diseases. Clustering and classification of collecting data are essential parts for detecting concealed information of P-QRS-T waves in the long-term ECG recording. Currently used algorithms do have their share of drawbacks: 1) clustering and classification cannot be done in real time; 2) they suffer from huge energy consumption and load of sampling. These drawbacks motivated us in developing novel optimized clustering algorithm which could easily scan large ECG datasets for establishing low power long-term ECG recording. In this paper, we present an advanced K-means clustering algorithm based on Compressed Sensing (CS) theory as a random sampling procedure. Then, two dimensionality reduction methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Correlation Coefficient (LCC) followed by sorting the data using the K-Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifiers are applied to the proposed algorithm. We show our algorithm based on PCA features in combination with K-NN classifier shows better performance than other methods. The proposed algorithm outperforms existing algorithms by increasing 11% classification accuracy. In addition, the proposed algorithm illustrates classification accuracy for K-NN and PNN classifiers, and a Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) area of 99.98%, 99.83%, and 99.75% respectively.

  16. Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating Extreme Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting extreme events. Extreme earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the extreme events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of extreme seismic events). They provide a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying extreme events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).

  17. Sifting through genomes with iterative-sequence clustering produces a large, phylogenetically diverse protein-family resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, Thomas J; Jospin, Guillaume; Wu, Dongying; Langille, Morgan G I; Pollard, Katherine S; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2012-10-13

    New computational resources are needed to manage the increasing volume of biological data from genome sequencing projects. One fundamental challenge is the ability to maintain a complete and current catalog of protein diversity. We developed a new approach for the identification of protein families that focuses on the rapid discovery of homologous protein sequences. We implemented fully automated and high-throughput procedures to de novo cluster proteins into families based upon global alignment similarity. Our approach employs an iterative clustering strategy in which homologs of known families are sifted out of the search for new families. The resulting reduction in computational complexity enables us to rapidly identify novel protein families found in new genomes and to perform efficient, automated updates that keep pace with genome sequencing. We refer to protein families identified through this approach as "Sifting Families," or SFams. Our analysis of ~10.5 million protein sequences from 2,928 genomes identified 436,360 SFams, many of which are not represented in other protein family databases. We validated the quality of SFam clustering through statistical as well as network topology-based analyses. We describe the rapid identification of SFams and demonstrate how they can be used to annotate genomes and metagenomes. The SFam database catalogs protein-family quality metrics, multiple sequence alignments, hidden Markov models, and phylogenetic trees. Our source code and database are publicly available and will be subject to frequent updates (http://edhar.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/sifting_families/).

  18. Classic beta-amyloid deposits cluster around large diameter blood vessels rather than capillaries in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2006-11-01

    Various hypotheses could explain the relationship between beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition and the vasculature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid deposition may reduce capillary density, affect endothelial cells of blood vessels, result in diffusion from blood vessels, or interfere with the perivascular clearance mechanism. Hence, the spatial pattern of the classic ('cored') type of Abeta deposit was studied in the upper laminae (I,II/III) of the superior frontal gyrus in nine cases of sporadic AD (SAD). Sections were immunostained with antibodies against Abeta and with collagen IV to study the relationships between the spatial distribution of the classic deposits and the blood vessel profiles. Both the classic deposits and blood vessel profiles were distributed in clusters. In all cases, there was a positive spatial correlation between the clusters of the classic deposits and the larger diameter (>10 microm) blood vessel profiles and especially the vertically penetrating arterioles. In only 1 case, was there a significant spatial correlation between the clusters of the classic deposits and the smaller diameter (upper laminae of the frontal cortex. This aggregation could result from diffusion of proteins from blood vessels or from overloading the system of perivascular clearance from the brain.

  19. Irradiation characteristics of metal-cluster-complex ions containing diverse multi-elements with large mass differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Kondou, Kouji; Teranishi, Yoshikazu; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Saito, Naoaki; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Kurokawa, Akira; Ichimura, Shingo; Tomita, Mitsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Tetrairidium dodecacarbonyl, Ir 4 (CO) 12 , is a metal cluster complex which has a molecular weight of 1104.9. Using a metal-cluster-complex ion source, the interaction between Ir 4 (CO) n + ions (n=0-12) and silicon substrates was studied at a beam energy ranging from 2keV to 10keV at normal incidence. By adjusting Wien-filter voltage, the influence of CO ligands was investigated. Experimental results showed that sputtering yield of silicon bombarded with Ir 4 (CO) n + ions at 10keV decreased with the number of CO ligands. In the case of 2keV, deposition tended to be suppressed by removing CO ligands from the impinging cluster ions. The influence of CO ligands was explained by considering changes in surface properties caused by the irradiation of Ir 4 (CO) n + ions. It was also found that the bombardment with Ir 4 (CO) 7 + ions at 2.5keV caused deposition on silicon target

  20. Sifting through genomes with iterative-sequence clustering produces a large, phylogenetically diverse protein-family resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpton Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New computational resources are needed to manage the increasing volume of biological data from genome sequencing projects. One fundamental challenge is the ability to maintain a complete and current catalog of protein diversity. We developed a new approach for the identification of protein families that focuses on the rapid discovery of homologous protein sequences. Results We implemented fully automated and high-throughput procedures to de novo cluster proteins into families based upon global alignment similarity. Our approach employs an iterative clustering strategy in which homologs of known families are sifted out of the search for new families. The resulting reduction in computational complexity enables us to rapidly identify novel protein families found in new genomes and to perform efficient, automated updates that keep pace with genome sequencing. We refer to protein families identified through this approach as “Sifting Families,” or SFams. Our analysis of ~10.5 million protein sequences from 2,928 genomes identified 436,360 SFams, many of which are not represented in other protein family databases. We validated the quality of SFam clustering through statistical as well as network topology–based analyses. Conclusions We describe the rapid identification of SFams and demonstrate how they can be used to annotate genomes and metagenomes. The SFam database catalogs protein-family quality metrics, multiple sequence alignments, hidden Markov models, and phylogenetic trees. Our source code and database are publicly available and will be subject to frequent updates (http://edhar.genomecenter.ucdavis.edu/sifting_families/.

  1. A Novel Joint Spatial-Code Clustered Interference Alignment Scheme for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilu Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference alignment (IA has been put forward as a promising technique which can mitigate interference and effectively increase the throughput of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, the number of users is strictly restricted by the IA feasibility condition, and the interference leakage will become so strong that the quality of service will degrade significantly when there are more users than that IA can support. In this paper, a novel joint spatial-code clustered (JSCC-IA scheme is proposed to solve this problem. In the proposed scheme, the users are clustered into several groups so that feasible IA can be achieved within each group. In addition, each group is assigned a pseudo noise (PN code in order to suppress the inter-group interference via the code dimension. The analytical bit error rate (BER expressions of the proposed JSCC-IA scheme are formulated for the systems with identical and different propagation delays, respectively. To further improve the performance of the JSCC-IA scheme in asymmetric networks, a random grouping selection (RGS algorithm is developed to search for better grouping combinations. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed JSCC-IA scheme is capable of accommodating many more users to communicate simultaneously in the same frequency band with better performance.

  2. Application of the extreme value theory to beam loss estimates in the SPIRAL2 linac based on large scale Monte Carlo computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Duperrier

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of random perturbations of high intensity accelerator elements on the beam losses is considered. This paper presents the error sensitivity study which has been performed for the SPIRAL2 linac in order to define the tolerances for the construction. The proposed driver aims to accelerate a 5 mA deuteron beam up to 20   A MeV and a 1 mA ion beam for q/A=1/3 up to 14.5 A MeV. It is a continuous wave regime linac, designed for a maximum efficiency in the transmission of intense beams and a tunable energy. It consists in an injector (two   ECRs   sources+LEBTs with the possibility to inject from several sources+radio frequency quadrupole followed by a superconducting section based on an array of independently phased cavities where the transverse focalization is performed with warm quadrupoles. The correction scheme and the expected losses are described. The extreme value theory is used to estimate the expected beam losses. The described method couples large scale computations to obtain probability distribution functions. The bootstrap technique is used to provide confidence intervals associated to the beam loss predictions. With such a method, it is possible to measure the risk to loose a few watts in this high power linac (up to 200 kW.

  3. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Phoenix, G.K.; Bjerke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.A.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassing lethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonably warm air (2-10 °C for 2-14 days), but returning to cold winter climate

  4. Sc2O@Cs(126339)-C92: Di-scandium oxide cluster encapsulated into a large fullerene cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yong-Xin; Li, Qiao-Zhi; Li, De-Huai; Zhao, Rui-Sheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2018-04-01

    The geometric, electronic structure and thermodynamic stability of Sc2O@C92 has been characterized by using hybrid density functional theory calculations combined with statistical thermodynamic analyses. Results indicate that the isolated pentagon rule (IPR) isomers Sc2O@Cs(126339)-C92, Sc2O@C1(126367)-C92 and Sc2O@C1(126390)-C92 are favorable. Noteworthy, it is the first time to declare that fullerene isomer Cs(126339)-C92 could be considered as the suitable cage to encapsulate metallic cluster. The electronic properties of these three isomers were performed with frontier molecular orbital (HOMO and LUMO) analyses and bond order calculations. Finally, 13C NMR and UV-vis-NIR spectra were simulated to provide valuable information for future experiments.

  5. Clustering of near clusters versus cluster compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Gao; Yipeng Jing

    1989-01-01

    The clustering properties of near Zwicky clusters are studied by using the two-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation functions for compact and medium compact clusters, for open clusters, and for all near Zwicky clusters are estimated. The results show much stronger clustering for compact and medium compact clusters than for open clusters, and that open clusters have nearly the same clustering strength as galaxies. A detailed study of the compactness-dependence of correlation function strength is worth investigating. (author)

  6. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementations of NAS Parallel Benchmarks SP and BT on Large-Scale Multicore Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, X.; Taylor, V.

    2011-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore clusters provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node, and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use Scalar Pentadiagonal (SP) and Block Tridiagonal (BT) benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore clusters, Intrepid (BlueGene/P) at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76 %, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58 % on up to 10 000 cores on Intrepid and Jaguar. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these clusters to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The British Computer Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementations of NAS Parallel Benchmarks SP and BT on Large-Scale Multicore Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, X.

    2011-07-18

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore clusters provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node, and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use Scalar Pentadiagonal (SP) and Block Tridiagonal (BT) benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore clusters, Intrepid (BlueGene/P) at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76 %, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58 % on up to 10 000 cores on Intrepid and Jaguar. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these clusters to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The British Computer Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Mandelbrot's Extremism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirlant, J.; Schoutens, W.; Segers, J.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In the sixties Mandelbrot already showed that extreme price swings are more likely than some of us think or incorporate in our models.A modern toolbox for analyzing such rare events can be found in the field of extreme value theory.At the core of extreme value theory lies the modelling of maxima

  9. Clustering of risk-related modifiable behaviours and their association with overweight and obesity among a large sample of youth in the COMPASS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Laxer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian youth exhibit a number of risky behaviours, some of which are associated with overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of 15 modifiable risk behaviours in a large sample of Canadian youth, to identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of health behaviours, and to examine the association between identified subgroups and overweight/obesity. Methods Data from 18,587 grades 9–12 students in Year 1 (2012–13 of the COMPASS study and latent class analysis were used to identify patterns and clustering among 15 health behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, unhealthy eating, substance use. A logistic regression model examined the associations between these clusters and overweight/obesity status. Results Four distinct classes were identified: traditional school athletes, inactive screenagers, health conscious, and moderately active substance users. Each behavioural cluster demonstrated a distinct pattern of behaviours, some with a greater number of risk factors than others. Traditional school athletes (odds ratio (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03–1.29, inactive screenagers (OR 1.33; 1.19–1.48, and moderately active substance users (OR 1.27; 1.14–1.43 were all significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to the health conscious group. Conclusions Four distinct subpopulations of youth were identified based on their patterns of health and risk behaviours. The three clusters demonstrating poorer health behaviour were all at an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to their somewhat healthier peers. Obesity-related public health interventions and health promotion efforts might be more effective if consideration is given to population segments with certain behavioural patterns, targeting subgroups at greatest risk of overweight or obesity.

  10. Clustering of risk-related modifiable behaviours and their association with overweight and obesity among a large sample of youth in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Brownson, Ross C; Dubin, Joel A; Cooke, Martin; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-01-21

    Canadian youth exhibit a number of risky behaviours, some of which are associated with overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of 15 modifiable risk behaviours in a large sample of Canadian youth, to identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of health behaviours, and to examine the association between identified subgroups and overweight/obesity. Data from 18,587 grades 9-12 students in Year 1 (2012-13) of the COMPASS study and latent class analysis were used to identify patterns and clustering among 15 health behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, unhealthy eating, substance use). A logistic regression model examined the associations between these clusters and overweight/obesity status. Four distinct classes were identified: traditional school athletes, inactive screenagers, health conscious, and moderately active substance users. Each behavioural cluster demonstrated a distinct pattern of behaviours, some with a greater number of risk factors than others. Traditional school athletes (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95% CI 1.03-1.29), inactive screenagers (OR 1.33; 1.19-1.48), and moderately active substance users (OR 1.27; 1.14-1.43) were all significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to the health conscious group. Four distinct subpopulations of youth were identified based on their patterns of health and risk behaviours. The three clusters demonstrating poorer health behaviour were all at an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to their somewhat healthier peers. Obesity-related public health interventions and health promotion efforts might be more effective if consideration is given to population segments with certain behavioural patterns, targeting subgroups at greatest risk of overweight or obesity.

  11. Does the insertion of more than one wire allow successful excision of large clusters of malignant calcification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordiner, C.M.; Litherland, J.C.; Young, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the insertion of more than one localization wire for larger areas of malignant microcalcification reduces the need for re-excision. METHOD: This is a retrospective study of 101 cases of malignant calcifications preoperatively marked by one or more wires. Surgical and histopathology data were obtained from hospital records. Mammograms and specimen radiographs were evaluated without knowledge of the eventual outcome, i.e., whether further surgery was required or not. All cases had a preoperative diagnosis of malignancy. RESULT: In this study the group of patients in which two or more wires were inserted had mammographically larger lesions (p < 0.000001) but did not have a greater chance of needing re-excision (p = 0.822). Mammograms that demonstrated flecks of microcalcification outlying the main cluster were also more likely to require further surgery (p < 0.01). Calcifications associated with high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) had three times the risk of requiring further surgery (p < 0.01). However, as reported in other studies re-excision was not related to breast size (p = 0.63) [Kollias J, Gill PG, Beamond B, Rossi H, Langlois S, Vernon-Roberts E. Clinical and radiological predictors of complete excision in breast-conserving surgery for primary breast cancer. Aust N Z J Surg 1998;68:702-6]. CONCLUSION: It was previously suggested that the risk of re-excision for DCIS is related to the size of the initial lesion [Cheng L, Al-Kaisi NK, Gordon NH, Liu AY, Gebrail F, Shenk RR. Relationship between the size and margins of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and residual disease. J Nat Cancer Inst 1997;89:1356-60]. However, in the present study larger clusters of microcalcification that have been 'bracketed' by two or more wires do not appear to have a greater requirement for re-excision. Grading of the malignant microcalcifications preoperatively may encourage the surgeon to take a wider margin. Careful examination of the

  12. Optimization with Extremal Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Percus, Allon G.

    2001-01-01

    We explore a new general-purpose heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to hard discrete optimization problems. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively updates extremely undesirable variables of a single suboptimal solution, assigning them new, random values. Large fluctuations ensue, efficiently exploring many local optima. We use extremal optimization to elucidate the phase transition in the 3-coloring problem, and we provide independent confirmation of previously reported extrapolations for the ground-state energy of ±J spin glasses in d=3 and 4

  13. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  14. Chemical Heterogeneity of a Large Cluster IDP: Clues to its Formation History Using X-ray Fluorescence Mapping and XANES Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Chondritic porous IDPs may be among the most primitive objects found in our solar system [1]. They consist of many micron to submicron minerals, glasses and carbonaceous matter [2,3,4,5,6,7] with > 10(exp 4) grains in a 10 micron cluster [8]. Speculation on the environment where these fine grained, porous IDPs formed varies with possible sources being presolar dusty plasma clouds, protostellar condensation, solar asteroids or comets [4,6,9]. Also, fine grained dust forms in our solar system today [10,11]. Isotopic anomalies in some particles in IDPs suggest an interstellar source[4,7,12]. IDPs contain relic particles left from the dusty plasma that existed before the protostellar disk formed and other grains in the IDPs formed later after the cold dense nebula cloud collapsed to form our protostar and other grains formed more recently. Fe and CR XANES spectroscopy is used here to investigate the oxygen environment in a large (>50 10 micron or larger sub-units) IDP. Conclusions: Analyzing large (>50 10 micron or larger sub-units) CP IDPs gives one a view on the environments where these fine dust grains formed which is different from that found by only analyzing the small, 10 micron IDPs. As with cluster IDP L2008#5 [3], L2009R2 cluster #13 appears to be an aggregate of grains that sample a diversity of solar and perhaps presolar environments. Sub-micron, grain by grain measurement of trace element contents and elemental oxidation states determined by XANES spectroscopy offers the possibility of understanding the environments in which these grains formed when compared to standard spectra. By comparing thermodynamic modeling of condensates with analytical data an understanding of transport mechanisms operating in the early solar system may be attained.

  15. A New Family of Consistent and Asymptotically-Normal Estimators for the Extremal Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Olmo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The extremal index (θ is the key parameter for extending extreme value theory results from i.i.d. to stationary sequences. One important property of this parameter is that its inverse determines the degree of clustering in the extremes. This article introduces a novel interpretation of the extremal index as a limiting probability characterized by two Poisson processes and a simple family of estimators derived from this new characterization. Unlike most estimators for θ in the literature, this estimator is consistent, asymptotically normal and very stable across partitions of the sample. Further, we show in an extensive simulation study that this estimator outperforms in finite samples the logs, blocks and runs estimation methods. Finally, we apply this new estimator to test for clustering of extremes in monthly time series of unemployment growth and inflation rates and conclude that runs of large unemployment rates are more prolonged than periods of high inflation.

  16. Tensor-decomposed vibrational coupled-cluster theory: Enabling large-scale, highly accurate vibrational-structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Niels Kristian; Godtliebsen, Ian H.; Losilla, Sergio A.; Christiansen, Ove

    2018-01-01

    A new implementation of vibrational coupled-cluster (VCC) theory is presented, where all amplitude tensors are represented in the canonical polyadic (CP) format. The CP-VCC algorithm solves the non-linear VCC equations without ever constructing the amplitudes or error vectors in full dimension but still formally includes the full parameter space of the VCC[n] model in question resulting in the same vibrational energies as the conventional method. In a previous publication, we have described the non-linear-equation solver for CP-VCC calculations. In this work, we discuss the general algorithm for evaluating VCC error vectors in CP format including the rank-reduction methods used during the summation of the many terms in the VCC amplitude equations. Benchmark calculations for studying the computational scaling and memory usage of the CP-VCC algorithm are performed on a set of molecules including thiadiazole and an array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that the reduced scaling and memory requirements of the CP-VCC algorithm allows for performing high-order VCC calculations on systems with up to 66 vibrational modes (anthracene), which indeed are not possible using the conventional VCC method. This paves the way for obtaining highly accurate vibrational spectra and properties of larger molecules.

  17. Comparison of Nickel XANES Spectra and Elemental Maps from a Ureilite, a LL3.8 Ordinary Chondrite, Two Carbonaceous Chondrites and Two Large Cluster IDPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel in the extraterrestrial world is commonly found in both Fe-Ni sulfide and Fe-Ni met-al forms [1] and in the pure metal state in the interior of iron meteorites where it is not easily oxidized. Ni is also found in olivine, pyroxene and glasses and in some melts the partitioning of Ni between the olivines and glass is controlled by the amount of S in the melt [2]. Its most common valence state is Ni(2+) but Ni also occurs as Ni(0), Ni(+), and Ni(3+) and rarely as Ni(2-), Ni(1-) and Ni(4+) [3]. It's valence state in olivines is Ni(2+) in octa-hedral coordination on the M1 site and rarely on the M2 site.[4]. The chemical sensitivity of X-ray absorp-tion near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is well established and can be used to determine not only va-lence states but also coordination sites [5]. We report here Ni XANES spectroscopy and elemental maps collected from 2 carbonaceous chondrites, 2 large clus-ter IDPs, 1 ureilite and 1 LL3 orginary chondrite.Using XANES it may be possible to find a common trait in the large cluster IDPs that will also be found in mete-orite samples.

  18. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  19. Search for Formation Criteria for Globular Cluster Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuritdinov, S. N.; Mirtadjieva, K. T.; Tadjibaev, I. U.

    2005-01-01

    Star cluster formation is a major mode of star formation in the extreme conditions of interacting galaxies and violent starbursts. By studying ages and metallicities of young metal-enhanced star clusters in mergers / merger remnants we can learn about the violent star formation history of these galaxies and eventually about galaxy formation and evolution. We will present a new set of evolutionary synthesis models of our GALEV code specially developed to account for the gaseous emission of presently forming star clusters and an advanced tool to compare large model grids with multi-color broad-band observations becoming presently available in large amounts. Such observations are an ecomonic way to determine the parameters of young star clusters as will be shown in the presentation. First results of newly-born clusters in mergers and starburst galaxies are presented and compared to the well-studied old globulars and interpreted in the framework of galaxy formation / evolution.

  20. Algoritmo incremental de agrupamiento con traslape para el procesamiento de grandes colecciones de datos (Overlapping clustering incremental algorithm for large data collections processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Janier González-Soler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanish abstract Existen diversos problemas en el Reconocimiento de Patrones y en la Minería de Datos que, por su naturaleza, consideran que los objetos pueden pertenecer a más de una clase o grupo. DClustR es un algoritmo dinámico de agrupamiento con traslape que ha mostrado, en tareas de agrupamiento de documentos, el mejor balance entre calidad de los grupos y eficiencia entre los algoritmos dinámicos de agrupamiento con traslape reportados en la literatura. A pesar de obtener buenos resultados, DClustR puede ser poco útil en aplicaciones que trabajen con grandes colecciones de documentos, debido a que tiene una complejidad computacional y a la cantidad de memoria que utiliza para el procesamiento de las colecciones. En este trabajo se presenta una versión paralela basada en GPU del algoritmo DClustR, llamada CUDA-DClus, para mejorar la eficiencia de DClustR en aplicaciones que lidien con largas colecciones de documentos. Los experimentos fueron realizados sobre varias colecciones estándares de documentos y en ellos se muestra el buen rendimiento de CUDA-DClus en términos de eficiencia y consumo de memoria. English abstract There are several problems in Pattern Recognition and Data Mining that, by its inherent nature, consider that the objects can belong to more than a class or cluster. DClustR is a dynamic overlapping clustering algorithm that has shown, in document clustering tasks, the best trade-off between cluster’s quality and efficiency among existing dynamic overlapping clustering algorithms. However, DClustR could be less useful when working in applications that deal with large data collections, due to its computational complexity and memory demanded for processing them. In this paper, a GPU-based parallel algorithm of DClustR, named CUDA-DClus is suggested to enhance DClustR efficiency in applications dealing with large data collections. The experimental phase conducted over various standard data collections showed that

  1. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  2. RGCA: A Reliable GPU Cluster Architecture for Large-Scale Internet of Things Computing Based on Effective Performance-Energy Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuling; Chen, Qingkui; Xiong, Neal N; Zhao, Deyu; Wang, Jingjuan

    2017-08-04

    This paper aims to develop a low-cost, high-performance and high-reliability computing system to process large-scale data using common data mining algorithms in the Internet of Things (IoT) computing environment. Considering the characteristics of IoT data processing, similar to mainstream high performance computing, we use a GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) cluster to achieve better IoT services. Firstly, we present an energy consumption calculation method (ECCM) based on WSNs. Then, using the CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) Programming model, we propose a Two-level Parallel Optimization Model (TLPOM) which exploits reasonable resource planning and common compiler optimization techniques to obtain the best blocks and threads configuration considering the resource constraints of each node. The key to this part is dynamic coupling Thread-Level Parallelism (TLP) and Instruction-Level Parallelism (ILP) to improve the performance of the algorithms without additional energy consumption. Finally, combining the ECCM and the TLPOM, we use the Reliable GPU Cluster Architecture (RGCA) to obtain a high-reliability computing system considering the nodes' diversity, algorithm characteristics, etc. The results show that the performance of the algorithms significantly increased by 34.1%, 33.96% and 24.07% for Fermi, Kepler and Maxwell on average with TLPOM and the RGCA ensures that our IoT computing system provides low-cost and high-reliability services.

  3. New Perspectives for Old Clusters: Anderson-Evans Anions as Building Blocks of Large Polyoxometalate Frameworks in a Series of Heterometallic 3 d-4 f Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artetxe, Beñat; Reinoso, Santiago; San Felices, Leire; Lezama, Luis; Gutiérrez-Zorrilla, Juan M; Vicent, Cristian; Haso, Fadi; Liu, Tianbo

    2016-03-18

    A series of nine [Sb7W36O133Ln3M2(OAc)(H2O)8](17-) heterometallic anions (Ln3M2; Ln=La-Gd, M=Co; Ln=Ce, M=Ni and Zn) have been obtained by reacting 3 d metal disubstituted Krebs-type tungstoantimonates(III) with early lanthanides. Their unique tetrameric structure contains a novel {MW9O33} capping unit formed by a planar {MW6O24} fragment to which three {WO2} groups are condensed to form a tungstate skeleton identical to that of a hypothetical trilacunary derivative of the ɛ-Keggin cluster. It is shown, for the first time, that classical Anderson-Evans {MW6O24} anions can act as building blocks to construct purely inorganic large frameworks. Unprecedented reactivity in the outer ring of these disk-shaped species is also revealed. The Ln3M2 anions possess chirality owing to a {Sb4O4} cluster being encapsulated in left- or right-handed orientations. Their ability to self-associate in blackberry-type vesicles in solution has been assessed for the Ce3Co2 derivative. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A., E-mail: ahahn@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Mazin, D., E-mail: mazin@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277–8582 (Japan); Bangale, P., E-mail: priya@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Dettlaff, A., E-mail: todettl@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Grundner, F., E-mail: grundner@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Haberer, W., E-mail: haberer@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Maier, R., E-mail: rma@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges. - Highlights: • The design of the first SiPM large-size IACT pixel is described. • The simulation of the light concentrators is presented. • The temperature stability of the detector module is demonstrated. • The calibration procedure of SiPM device in the field is described.

  5. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A.; Mazin, D.; Bangale, P.; Dettlaff, A.; Fink, D.; Grundner, F.; Haberer, W.; Maier, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Podkladkin, S.; Teshima, M.; Wetteskind, H.

    2017-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges.

  6. Embryological outcomes in cycles with human oocytes containing large tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum clusters after conventional in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Asano, Yukiko; Shimizu, Masashi; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    There have been no studies analyzing the effect of large aggregates of tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum (aSERT) after conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether aSERT can be identified after cIVF and the association between the embryological outcomes of oocytes in cycles with aSERT. This is a retrospective study examining embryological data from cIVF cycles showing the presence of aSERT in oocytes 5-6 h after cIVF. To evaluate embryo quality, cIVF cycles with at least one aSERT-metaphase II (MII) oocyte observed (cycles with aSERT) were compared to cycles with normal-MII oocytes (control cycles). Among the 4098 MII oocytes observed in 579 cycles, aSERT was detected in 100 MII oocytes in 51 cycles (8.8%). The fertilization rate, the rate of embryo development on day 3 and day 5-6 did not significantly differ between cycles with aSERT and control group. However, aSERT-MII oocytes had lower rates for both blastocysts and good quality blastocysts (p cycles with aSERT.

  7. Mobility and stability of large vacancy and vacancy-copper clusters in iron: An atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castin, N., E-mail: ncastin@sckcen.be [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etudes de l' energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Unit Structural Materials Modelling and Microstructure-Boeretang 200, B2400 Mol (Belgium); Pascuet, M.I., E-mail: pascuet@cnea.gov.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Malerba, L. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etudes de l' energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Unit Structural Materials Modelling and Microstructure-Boeretang 200, B2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    The formation of Cu-rich precipitates under irradiation is a major cause for changes in the mechanical response to load of reactor pressure vessel steels. In previous works, it has been shown that the mechanism under which precipitation occurs is governed by diffusion of vacancy-copper (VCu) complexes, also in the absence of irradiation. Coarse-grained computer models (such as object kinetic Monte Carlo) aimed at simulating irradiation processes in model alloys or steels should therefore explicitly include the mobility of Cu precipitates, as a consequence of vacancy hops at their surface. For this purpose, in this work we calculate diffusion coefficients and lifetimes for a large variety of VCu complexes. We use an innovative atomistic model, where vacancy migration energies are calculated with little approximations, taking into account all effects of static relaxation and long-range chemical interaction as predicted by an interatomic potential. Our results show that, contrary to what intuition might suggest, saturation in vacancies tend to slow down the transport of Cu atoms.

  8. The complex lives of star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, David

    2015-01-01

    As with the author’s recent books Extreme Explosions and Under a Crimson Sun, the complex topic of star clusters is broken down and made accessible with clear links to other areas of astronomy in a language which the non-specialist can easily read and enjoy. The full range of a star cluster's lifespan is depicted, as both globular and open clusters are tracked from birth to eventual death. Why is it some are dense conglomerates of stars while others are looser associations? Are the young, brilliant clusters seen in neighboring galaxies such as the Large Magellanic Cloud, M33 or M82 analogous to the ancient globulars seen in the Milky Way? How will these clusters change as their stars wane and die? More interestingly, how does living in a dense star cluster affect the fates of the stars and any attendant planets that accompany them?   Star clusters form many of the most dazzling objects in the astronomers’ catalogs. Many amateur astronomers are interested in exploring how these objects are created and wh...

  9. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  10. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Upcoming Sunyaev–. Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to ...

  11. Observations of High Dispersion Clusters of Galaxies: Constraints on Cold Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William R.; Hill, John M.; Fitchett, Michael J.

    1995-07-01

    We have studied the dynamics of several Abell clusters of galaxies, which were previously reported to have large velocity dispersions, and hence very large masses. In particular, we have investigated the assertion of Frenk et al. (1990) that clusters with intrinsic velocity dispersions ~> 1200 km s^-1^ are extremely rare in the universe, and that large observed dispersions are due to projection effects. We report redshifts for 303 galaxies in the fields of A1775, A2029, A2142, and A2319, obtained with the Nessie multifiber spectrograph at the Mayall 4 m telescope. A1775 appears to be two poor, interacting clusters, separated in velocity space by ~3075 km s^-1^ (in the cluster rest frame). A2029 has a velocity dispersion of 1436 km s^-1^, based on 85 cluster member redshifts. There is evidence that a group or poor cluster of galaxies of slightly different redshift is projected onto (or is merging with) the core of A2029. However, the combined kinematic and x-ray data for A2029 argue for an intrinsically large dispersion for this cluster. Based on redshifts for 103 members of A2142, we find a dispersion of 1280 km s^-1^, and evidence for subclustering. With 130 redshifts in the A2319 field, we have isolated a subcluster ~10' NW of the cD galaxy. After its removal, A2319 has a velocity dispersion of 1324 km s^-1^. The data obtained here have been combined with recent optical and X-ray data for other supposedly high-mass clusters to study the cluster velocity dispersion distribution in a sample of Abell clusters. We find that clusters with true velocity dispersions ~> 1200 km s^-1^ are not extremely rare, but account for ~5% of all Abell clusters with R >= 0. If these clusters are in virial equilibrium, then our results are inconsistent with a high-bias (b~>22), high-density CDM model.

  12. VARIABLE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2257. I. RESULTS BASED ON 2007-2008 B, V PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2009-01-01

    The variable stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 2257 are reinvestigated using photometry (to ∼20th mag) of over 400 new B, V CCD images taken with the CTIO 0.9 m telescope on 14 nights in 2007 December and 2008 January. New period searches have been made using two independent algorithms (CLEAN, Period04); the resultant periods of most of the stars are consistent with the pulsation periods derived previously, and where there are discrepancies these have been resolved. For the B and V light curves, accurate Fourier coefficients and parameters are given. Six new variable stars have been discovered (V45-50), including a bright candidate long-period variable star showing secondary oscillations (V45) and two anomalously bright RRc stars (V48 and V50), which are shown to be brightened and reddened by nearby red giant stars. Also discovered among the previously known variable stars are three double-mode RR Lyrae stars (V8, V16, and V34) and several Blazhko variables. Archival Hubble Space Telescope images and the photometry by Johnson et al. have been used to define better the properties of the most crowded variable stars. The total number of cluster variable stars now stands at forty-seven: 23 RRab stars, four of which show Blazhko amplitude variations; 20 RRc stars, one showing clear Blazhko variations and another showing possible Blazhko variations; the three RRd stars, all having the dominant period ∼0.36 day and period ratios P 1 /P 0 ∼0.7450; and an LPV star located near the tip of the red giant branch. A comparison of the RRd stars with those in other environments shows them to be most similar to those in IC4499.

  13. Globular clusters, old and young

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samus', N.N.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of similarity of and difference in the globular and scattered star clusters is considered. Star clusters in astronomy are related either to globular or to scattered ones according to the structure of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram constructed for star clusters, but not according to the appearance. The qlobular clusters in the Galaxy are composed of giants and subgiants, which testifies to the old age of the globular clusters. The Globular clusters in the Magellanic clouds are classified into ''red'' ones - similar to the globular clusters of the Galaxy, and ''blue'' ones - similar to them in appearance but differing extremely by the star composition and so by the age. The old star clusters are suggested to be called globular ones, while another name (''populous'', for example) is suggested to be used for other clusters similar to globular ones only in appearance

  14. Palladium clusters deposited on the heterogeneous substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun, E-mail: cqdxwk@126.com [College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education of PRC, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu, Juanfang, E-mail: juanfang@cqu.edu.cn [College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education of PRC, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, Qinghua, E-mail: qhchen@cqu.edu.cn [College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Ministry of Education of PRC, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The site-exchange between the substrate and cluster atoms can result in the formation of the surface alloys and the reconstruction of the cluster structure before the collision system approaching the thermal equilibrium. The deposited cluster adjusted the atom arrangement as possibly as to match the substrate lattice arrangement from bottom to up. The structural reconstruction is accompanied by the system potential energy minimization. - Highlights: • The deposition process can divide explicitly into three stages: adsorption, collision, relaxation. • The local melt does not emerge inside the substrate during the deposition process. • Surface alloys are formed by the site-exchange between the cluster and substrate atoms. • The cluster reconstructs the atom arrangement following as the substrate lattice arrangement from bottom to up. • The structural reconstruction ability and scope depend on the cluster size and incident energy. - Abstract: To improve the performance of the Pd composite membrane prepared by the cold spraying technology, it is extremely essential to give insights into the deposition process of the cluster and the heterogeneous deposition of the big Pd cluster at the different incident velocities on the atomic level. The deposition behavior, morphologies, energetic and interfacial configuration were examined by the molecular dynamic simulation and characterized by the cluster flattening ratio, the substrate maximum local temperature, the atom-embedded layer number and the surface-alloy formation. According to the morphology evolution, three deposition stages and the corresponding structural and energy evolution were clearly identified. The cluster deformation and penetrating depth increased with the enhancement of the incident velocity, but the increase degree also depended on the substrate hardness. The interfacial interaction between the cluster and the substrate can be improved by the higher substrate local temperature

  15. MASSCLEANage-STELLAR CLUSTER AGES FROM INTEGRATED COLORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Bogdan; Hanson, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the recently updated and expanded MASSCLEANcolors, a database of 70 million Monte Carlo models selected to match the properties (metallicity, ages, and masses) of stellar clusters found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). This database shows the rather extreme and non-Gaussian distribution of integrated colors and magnitudes expected with different cluster age and mass and the enormous age degeneracy of integrated colors when mass is unknown. This degeneracy could lead to catastrophic failures in estimating age with standard simple stellar population models, particularly if most of the clusters are of intermediate or low mass, like in the LMC. Utilizing the MASSCLEANcolors database, we have developed MASSCLEANage, a statistical inference package which assigns the most likely age and mass (solved simultaneously) to a cluster based only on its integrated broadband photometric properties. Finally, we use MASSCLEANage to derive the age and mass of LMC clusters based on integrated photometry alone. First, we compare our cluster ages against those obtained for the same seven clusters using more accurate integrated spectroscopy. We find improved agreement with the integrated spectroscopy ages over the original photometric ages. A close examination of our results demonstrates the necessity of solving simultaneously for mass and age to reduce degeneracies in the cluster ages derived via integrated colors. We then selected an additional subset of 30 photometric clusters with previously well-constrained ages and independently derive their age using the MASSCLEANage with the same photometry with very good agreement. The MASSCLEANage program is freely available under GNU General Public License.

  16. Resonant heating of a cluster plasma by intense laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonsen, Thomas M. Jr.; Taguchi, Toshihiro; Gupta, Ayush; Palastro, John; Milchberg, Howard M.

    2005-01-01

    Gases of atomic clusters are interaction media for laser pulse propagation with properties useful for applications such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and x-ray microscopy, harmonic generation, EUV lithography, and laser plasma acceleration. To understand cluster heating and expansion, a series of two- and three-dimensional electrostatic particle in cell simulations of the explosion of argon clusters of diameter in the range 20 nm-53 nm have been preformed. The studies show that heating is dominated by a nonlinear, resonant absorption process that gives rise to a size-dependent intensity threshold for strong absorption and that controls the dielectric properties of the cluster. Electrons are first accelerated out from the cluster and then driven back into it by the combined effects of the laser field and the electrostatic field produced by the laser-driven charge separation. Above the intensity threshold for strong heating there is a dramatic increase in the production of energetic particles and harmonic radiation. The dielectric properties of a gas of clusters are determined by the ensemble average cluster polarizability. Individual electrons contribute to the polarizability differently depending on whether they are in the core of the cluster or in the outer edge. Consequently, there can be large fluctuations in polarizability during the heating of a cluster

  17. A NEW TEST OF THE STATISTICAL NATURE OF THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    A novel statistic is proposed to examine the hypothesis that all cluster galaxies are drawn from the same luminosity distribution (LD). In such a 'statistical model' of galaxy LD, the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are simply the statistical extreme of the galaxy population. Using a large sample of nearby clusters, we show that BCGs in high luminosity clusters (e.g., L tot ∼> 4 x 10 11 h -2 70 L sun ) are unlikely (probability ≤3 x 10 -4 ) to be drawn from the LD defined by all red cluster galaxies more luminous than M r = -20. On the other hand, BCGs in less luminous clusters are consistent with being the statistical extreme. Applying our method to the second brightest galaxies, we show that they are consistent with being the statistical extreme, which implies that the BCGs are also distinct from non-BCG luminous, red, cluster galaxies. We point out some issues with the interpretation of the classical tests proposed by Tremaine and Richstone (TR) that are designed to examine the statistical nature of BCGs, investigate the robustness of both our statistical test and those of TR against difficulties in photometry of galaxies of large angular size, and discuss the implication of our findings on surveys that use the luminous red galaxies to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation features in the galaxy power spectrum.

  18. A large sample of shear-selected clusters from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A Wide field mass maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune; Hamana, Takashi; Shirasaki, Masato; Koike, Michitaro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Umetsu, Keiichi; Utsumi, Yousuke; Okabe, Nobuhiro; More, Surhud; Medezinski, Elinor; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyatake, Hironao; Murayama, Hitoshi; Ota, Naomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki

    2018-01-01

    We present the result of searching for clusters of galaxies based on weak gravitational lensing analysis of the ˜160 deg2 area surveyed by Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) as a Subaru Strategic Program. HSC is a new prime focus optical imager with a 1.5°-diameter field of view on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. The superb median seeing on the HSC i-band images of 0.56" allows the reconstruction of high angular resolution mass maps via weak lensing, which is crucial for the weak lensing cluster search. We identify 65 mass map peaks with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio larger than 4.7, and carefully examine their properties by cross-matching the clusters with optical and X-ray cluster catalogs. We find that all the 39 peaks with S/N > 5.1 have counterparts in the optical cluster catalogs, and only 2 out of the 65 peaks are probably false positives. The upper limits of X-ray luminosities from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) imply the existence of an X-ray underluminous cluster population. We show that the X-rays from the shear-selected clusters can be statistically detected by stacking the RASS images. The inferred average X-ray luminosity is about half that of the X-ray-selected clusters of the same mass. The radial profile of the dark matter distribution derived from the stacking analysis is well modeled by the Navarro-Frenk-White profile with a small concentration parameter value of c500 ˜ 2.5, which suggests that the selection bias on the orientation or the internal structure for our shear-selected cluster sample is not strong.

  19. Lower extremity injury in female basketball players is related to a large difference in peak eversion torque between barefoot and shod conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Yentes

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: It is possible that a large discrepancy between strength in barefoot and shod conditions can predispose an athlete to injury. Narrowing the difference in peak eversion torque between barefoot and shod could decrease propensity to injury. Future work should investigate the effect of restoration of muscular strength during barefoot and shod exercise on injury rates.

  20. GibbsCluster: unsupervised clustering and alignment of peptide sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreatta, Massimo; Alvarez, Bruno; Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    motif characterizing each cluster. Several parameters are available to customize cluster analysis, including adjustable penalties for small clusters and overlapping groups and a trash cluster to remove outliers. As an example application, we used the server to deconvolute multiple specificities in large......-scale peptidome data generated by mass spectrometry. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/GibbsCluster-2.0....

  1. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Detection of Dust Emission in Multiple Images of a Normal Galaxy at z > 4 Lensed by a Frontier Fields Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Alexandra; Battisti, Andrew; Wilson, Grant W.; Calzetti, Daniela; Cybulski, Ryan; Giavalisco, Mauro; Kirkpatrick, Allison [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Montaña, Alfredo; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, 72840 Puebla (Mexico); Limousin, Marceau [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LAM, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille (France); Marchesini, Danilo; Kado-Fong, Erin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Alberts, Stacey [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Avila-Reese, Vladimir [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, CDMX (Mexico); Bermejo-Climent, José Ramón [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna. Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna 38200, Tenerife (Spain); Brammer, Gabriel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bravo-Alfaro, Hector [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apdo. Postal 144, Guanajuato 36000 (Mexico); Chary, Ranga-Ram [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keller, Erica, E-mail: pope@astro.umass.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    We directly detect dust emission in an optically detected, multiply imaged galaxy lensed by the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0717.5+3745. We detect two images of the same galaxy at 1.1 mm with the AzTEC camera on the Large Millimeter Telescope leaving no ambiguity in the counterpart identification. This galaxy, MACS0717-Az9, is at z > 4 and the strong lensing model ( μ = 7.5) allows us to calculate an intrinsic IR luminosity of 9.7 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ⊙} and an obscured star formation rate of 14.6 ± 4.5 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The unobscured star formation rate from the UV is only 4.1 ± 0.3 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which means the total star formation rate (18.7 ± 4.5 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) is dominated (75%–80%) by the obscured component. With an intrinsic stellar mass of only 6.9 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙}, MACS0717-Az9 is one of only a handful of z > 4 galaxies at these lower masses that is detected in dust emission. This galaxy lies close to the estimated star formation sequence at this epoch. However, it does not lie on the dust obscuration relation (IRX- β ) for local starburst galaxies and is instead consistent with the Small Magellanic Cloud attenuation law. This remarkable lower mass galaxy, showing signs of both low metallicity and high dust content, may challenge our picture of dust production in the early universe.

  2. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: Detection of Dust Emission in Multiple Images of a Normal Galaxy at z > 4 Lensed by a Frontier Fields Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Alexandra; Battisti, Andrew; Wilson, Grant W.; Calzetti, Daniela; Cybulski, Ryan; Giavalisco, Mauro; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Montaña, Alfredo; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Limousin, Marceau; Marchesini, Danilo; Kado-Fong, Erin; Alberts, Stacey; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Bermejo-Climent, José Ramón; Brammer, Gabriel; Bravo-Alfaro, Hector; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Keller, Erica

    2017-01-01

    We directly detect dust emission in an optically detected, multiply imaged galaxy lensed by the Frontier Fields cluster MACSJ0717.5+3745. We detect two images of the same galaxy at 1.1 mm with the AzTEC camera on the Large Millimeter Telescope leaving no ambiguity in the counterpart identification. This galaxy, MACS0717-Az9, is at z > 4 and the strong lensing model ( μ = 7.5) allows us to calculate an intrinsic IR luminosity of 9.7 × 10 10 L ⊙ and an obscured star formation rate of 14.6 ± 4.5 M ⊙ yr −1 . The unobscured star formation rate from the UV is only 4.1 ± 0.3 M ⊙ yr −1 , which means the total star formation rate (18.7 ± 4.5 M ⊙ yr −1 ) is dominated (75%–80%) by the obscured component. With an intrinsic stellar mass of only 6.9 × 10 9 M ⊙ , MACS0717-Az9 is one of only a handful of z > 4 galaxies at these lower masses that is detected in dust emission. This galaxy lies close to the estimated star formation sequence at this epoch. However, it does not lie on the dust obscuration relation (IRX- β ) for local starburst galaxies and is instead consistent with the Small Magellanic Cloud attenuation law. This remarkable lower mass galaxy, showing signs of both low metallicity and high dust content, may challenge our picture of dust production in the early universe.

  3. Analysis of Parallel Algorithms on SMP Node and Cluster of Workstations Using Parallel Programming Models with New Tile-based Method for Large Biological Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimankar, D. D.; Sathe, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Sequence alignment is an important tool for describing the relationships between DNA sequences. Many sequence alignment algorithms exist, differing in efficiency, in their models of the sequences, and in the relationship between sequences. The focus of this study is to obtain an optimal alignment between two sequences of biological data, particularly DNA sequences. The algorithm is discussed with particular emphasis on time, speedup, and efficiency optimizations. Parallel programming presents a number of critical challenges to application developers. Today’s supercomputer often consists of clusters of SMP nodes. Programming paradigms such as OpenMP and MPI are used to write parallel codes for such architectures. However, the OpenMP programs cannot be scaled for more than a single SMP node. However, programs written in MPI can have more than single SMP nodes. But such a programming paradigm has an overhead of internode communication. In this work, we explore the tradeoffs between using OpenMP and MPI. We demonstrate that the communication overhead incurs significantly even in OpenMP loop execution and increases with the number of cores participating. We also demonstrate a communication model to approximate the overhead from communication in OpenMP loops. Our results are astonishing and interesting to a large variety of input data files. We have developed our own load balancing and cache optimization technique for message passing model. Our experimental results show that our own developed techniques give optimum performance of our parallel algorithm for various sizes of input parameter, such as sequence size and tile size, on a wide variety of multicore architectures. PMID:27932868

  4. Analysis of Parallel Algorithms on SMP Node and Cluster of Workstations Using Parallel Programming Models with New Tile-based Method for Large Biological Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimankar, D D; Sathe, S R

    2016-01-01

    Sequence alignment is an important tool for describing the relationships between DNA sequences. Many sequence alignment algorithms exist, differing in efficiency, in their models of the sequences, and in the relationship between sequences. The focus of this study is to obtain an optimal alignment between two sequences of biological data, particularly DNA sequences. The algorithm is discussed with particular emphasis on time, speedup, and efficiency optimizations. Parallel programming presents a number of critical challenges to application developers. Today's supercomputer often consists of clusters of SMP nodes. Programming paradigms such as OpenMP and MPI are used to write parallel codes for such architectures. However, the OpenMP programs cannot be scaled for more than a single SMP node. However, programs written in MPI can have more than single SMP nodes. But such a programming paradigm has an overhead of internode communication. In this work, we explore the tradeoffs between using OpenMP and MPI. We demonstrate that the communication overhead incurs significantly even in OpenMP loop execution and increases with the number of cores participating. We also demonstrate a communication model to approximate the overhead from communication in OpenMP loops. Our results are astonishing and interesting to a large variety of input data files. We have developed our own load balancing and cache optimization technique for message passing model. Our experimental results show that our own developed techniques give optimum performance of our parallel algorithm for various sizes of input parameter, such as sequence size and tile size, on a wide variety of multicore architectures.

  5. Multifractal Conceptualisation of Hydro-Meteorological Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrology and more generally sciences involved in water resources management, technological or operational developments face a fundamental difficulty: the extreme variability of hydro-meteorological fields. It clearly appears today that this variability is a function of the observation scale and yield hydro-meteorological hazards. Throughout the world, the development of multifractal theory offers new techniques for handling such non-classical variability over wide ranges of time and space scales. The resulting stochastic simulations with a very limited number of parameters well reproduce the long range dependencies and the clustering of rainfall extremes often yielding fat tailed (i.e., an algebraic type) probability distributions. The goal of this work was to investigate the ability of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we discuss how to evaluate the uncertainty in the empirical or semi-analytical multifractal outcomes. We consider three main aspects of the evaluation, such as the scaling adequacy, the multifractal parameter estimation error and the quantile estimation error. We first use the multiplicative cascade model to generate long series of multifractal data. The simulated samples had to cover the range of the universal multifractal parameters widely available in the scientific literature for the rainfall and river discharges. Using these long multifractal series and their sub-samples, we defined a metric for parameter estimation error. Then using the sets of estimated parameters, we obtained the quantile values for a range of excedance probabilities from 5% to 0.01%. Plotting the error bars on a quantile plot enable an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of such concept on its application to a large database (more than 16000 selected stations over USA and

  6. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  7. From superdeformation to clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, R R [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1992-08-01

    Much of the discussion at the conference centred on superdeformed states and their study by precise gamma spectrometry. The author suggests that the study of superdeformation by fission fragments and by auto-scattering is of importance, and may become more important. He concludes that there exists clear evidence of shell effects at extreme deformation in light nuclei studied by fission or cluster decay. The connection between the deformed shell model and the multi-center shell model can be exploited to give give insight into the cluster structure of these extremely deformed states, and also gives hope of a spectroscopy based on selection rules for cluster decay. A clear disadvantage at this stage is inability to make this spectroscopy more quantitative through calculation of the decay widths. The introduction of a new generation of high segmentation, high resolution, particle arrays has and will have a major impact on this aspect of the study of highly deformed nuclei. 20 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Massively parallel implementations of coupled-cluster methods for electron spin resonance spectra. I. Isotropic hyperfine coupling tensors in large radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prakash; Morales, Jorge A., E-mail: jorge.morales@ttu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41061, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States); Perera, Ajith [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41061, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    Coupled cluster (CC) methods provide highly accurate predictions of molecular properties, but their high computational cost has precluded their routine application to large systems. Fortunately, recent computational developments in the ACES III program by the Bartlett group [the OED/ERD atomic integral package, the super instruction processor, and the super instruction architecture language] permit overcoming that limitation by providing a framework for massively parallel CC implementations. In that scheme, we are further extending those parallel CC efforts to systematically predict the three main electron spin resonance (ESR) tensors (A-, g-, and D-tensors) to be reported in a series of papers. In this paper inaugurating that series, we report our new ACES III parallel capabilities that calculate isotropic hyperfine coupling constants in 38 neutral, cationic, and anionic radicals that include the {sup 11}B, {sup 17}O, {sup 9}Be, {sup 19}F, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 33}S,{sup 14}N, {sup 31}P, and {sup 67}Zn nuclei. Present parallel calculations are conducted at the Hartree-Fock (HF), second-order many-body perturbation theory [MBPT(2)], CC singles and doubles (CCSD), and CCSD with perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] levels using Roos augmented double- and triple-zeta atomic natural orbitals basis sets. HF results consistently overestimate isotropic hyperfine coupling constants. However, inclusion of electron correlation effects in the simplest way via MBPT(2) provides significant improvements in the predictions, but not without occasional failures. In contrast, CCSD results are consistently in very good agreement with experimental results. Inclusion of perturbative triples to CCSD via CCSD(T) leads to small improvements in the predictions, which might not compensate for the extra computational effort at a non-iterative N{sup 7}-scaling in CCSD(T). The importance of these accurate computations of isotropic hyperfine coupling constants to elucidate

  9. Study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate a large-scale distribution of cook stoves and water filters in Western Province, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Corey L; Kirby, Miles A; Zambrano, Laura D; Rosa, Ghislane; Barstow, Christina K; Thomas, Evan A; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-12-15

    In Rwanda, pneumonia and diarrhea are the first and second leading causes of death, respectively, among children under five. Household air pollution (HAP) resultant from cooking indoors with biomass fuels on traditional stoves is a significant risk factor for pneumonia, while consumption of contaminated drinking water is a primary cause of diarrheal disease. To date, there have been no large-scale effectiveness trials of programmatic efforts to provide either improved cookstoves or household water filters at scale in a low-income country. In this paper we describe the design of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the impact of a national-level program to distribute and promote the use of improved cookstoves and advanced water filters to the poorest quarter of households in Rwanda. We randomly allocated 72 sectors (administratively defined units) in Western Province to the intervention, with the remaining 24 sectors in the province serving as controls. In the intervention sectors, roughly 100,000 households received improved cookstoves and household water filters through a government-sponsored program targeting the poorest quarter of households nationally. The primary outcome measures are the incidence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea among children under five years of age. Over a one-year surveillance period, all cases of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea identified by health workers in the study area will be extracted from records maintained at health facilities and by community health workers (CHW). In addition, we are conducting intensive, longitudinal data collection among a random sample of households in the study area for in-depth assessment of coverage, use, environmental exposures, and additional health measures. Although previous research has examined the impact of providing household water treatment and improved cookstoves on child health, there have been no studies of national-level programs to deliver these interventions

  10. Toward enabling large-scale open-shell equation-of-motion coupled cluster calculations: triplet states of β-carotene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Hanshi; Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Apra, Edoardo; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol

    2014-10-02

    In this paper we discuss the application of novel parallel implementation of the coupled cluster (CC) and equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods (EOMCC) in calculations of excitation energies of triplet states in beta-carotene. Calculated excitation energies are compared with experimental data, where available. We also provide a detailed description of the new parallel algorithms for iterative CC and EOMCC models involving single and doubles excitations.

  11. The evolution of X-ray galaxy clusters as a constraint of Omega(0)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oukbir, J.

    1998-01-01

    redshifts offers a powerful method to constrain the mean density of the universe. Considering its large effective area SODART aboard SPECTRUM-RG is extremely well suited to temperature measurement of distant clusters and the Ohm(0) test we propose is well within the capabilities of the near future X...

  12. AN EXTREME ANALOGUE OF ϵ AURIGAE: AN M-GIANT ECLIPSED EVERY 69 YEARS BY A LARGE OPAQUE DISK SURROUNDING A SMALL HOT SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Conroy, Kyle E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Tang, Sumin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kafka, Stella [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gaudi, B. Scott; Stevens, Daniel J.; Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shappee, Benjamin J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    status. In any case, this system is poised to become an exemplar of a very rare class of systems, even more extreme in several respects than the well studied archetype ϵ Aurigae.

  13. Combined large field-of-view MRA and time-resolved MRA of the lower extremities: Impact of acquisition order on image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riffel, Philipp; Haneder, Stefan; Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Brade, Joachim; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Michaely, Henrik J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Different approaches exist for hybrid MRA of the calf station. So far, the order of the acquisition of the focused calf MRA and the large field-of-view MRA has not been scientifically evaluated. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate if the quality of the combined large field-of-view MRA (CTM MR angiography) and time-resolved MRA with stochastic interleaved trajectories (TWIST MRA) depends on the order of acquisition of the two contrast-enhanced studies. Methods: In this retrospective study, 40 consecutive patients (mean age 68.1 ± 8.7 years, 29 male/11 female) who had undergone an MR angiographic protocol that consisted of CTM-MRA (TR/TE, 2.4/1.0 ms; 21° flip angle; isotropic resolution 1.2 mm; gadolinium dose, 0.07 mmol/kg) and TWIST-MRA (TR/TE 2.8/1.1; 20° flip angle; isotropic resolution 1.1 mm; temporal resolution 5.5 s, gadolinium dose, 0.03 mmol/kg), were included. In the first group (group 1) TWIST-MRA of the calf station was performed 1–2 min after CTM-MRA. In the second group (group 2) CTM-MRA was performed 1–2 min after TWIST-MRA of the calf station. The image quality of CTM-MRA and TWIST-MRA were evaluated by 2 two independent radiologists in consensus according to a 4-point Likert-like rating scale assessing overall image quality on a segmental basis. Venous overlay was assessed per examination. Results: In the CTM-MRA, 1360 segments were included in the assessment of image quality. CTM-MRA was diagnostic in 95% (1289/1360) of segments. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between both groups with regard to the number of segments rated as excellent and moderate. The image quality was rated as excellent in group 1 in 80% (514/640 segments) and in group 2 in 67% (432/649), respectively (p < 0.0001). In contrast, the image quality was rated as moderate in the first group in 5% (33/640) and in the second group in 19% (121/649) respectively (p < 0.0001). The venous overlay was disturbing in 10% in group 1 and 20% in group

  14. Primary prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus and large-for-gestational-age newborns by lifestyle counseling: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Luoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our objective was to examine whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM or newborns' high birthweight can be prevented by lifestyle counseling in pregnant women at high risk of GDM. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster-randomized trial, the NELLI study, in 14 municipalities in Finland, where 2,271 women were screened by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT at 8-12 wk gestation. Euglycemic (n = 399 women with at least one GDM risk factor (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m(2, glucose intolerance or newborn's macrosomia (≥ 4,500 g in any earlier pregnancy, family history of diabetes, age ≥ 40 y were included. The intervention included individual intensified counseling on physical activity and diet and weight gain at five antenatal visits. Primary outcomes were incidence of GDM as assessed by OGTT (maternal outcome and newborns' birthweight adjusted for gestational age (neonatal outcome. Secondary outcomes were maternal weight gain and the need for insulin treatment during pregnancy. Adherence to the intervention was evaluated on the basis of changes in physical activity (weekly metabolic equivalent task (MET minutes and diet (intake of total fat, saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, saccharose, and fiber. Multilevel analyses took into account cluster, maternity clinic, and nurse level influences in addition to age, education, parity, and prepregnancy BMI. 15.8% (34/216 of women in the intervention group and 12.4% (22/179 in the usual care group developed GDM (absolute effect size 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-2.62, p = 0.36. Neonatal birthweight was lower in the intervention than in the usual care group (absolute effect size -133 g, 95% CI -231 to -35, p = 0.008 as was proportion of large-for-gestational-age (LGA newborns (26/216, 12.1% versus 34/179, 19.7%, p = 0.042. Women in the intervention group increased their intake of dietary fiber (adjusted coefficient 1.83, 95% CI 0.30-3.25, p = 0.023 and

  15. A decade of weather extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    The ostensibly large number of recent extreme weather events has triggered intensive discussions, both in- and outside the scientific community, on whether they are related to global warming. Here, we review the evidence and argue that for some types of extreme - notably heatwaves, but also

  16. EXTREMELY LARGE AND HOT MULTILAYER KEPLERIAN DISK AROUND THE O-TYPE PROTOSTAR W51N: THE PRECURSORS OF THE HCH II REGIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Leurini, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    We present sensitive high angular resolution (0.''57-0.''78) SO, SO 2 , CO, C 2 H 5 OH, HC 3 N, and HCOCH 2 OH line observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths of the young O-type protostar W51 North made with the Submillimeter Array. We report the presence of a large (about 8000 AU) and hot molecular circumstellar disk around this object, which connects the inner dusty disk with the molecular ring or toroid reported recently and confirms the existence of a single bipolar outflow emanating from this object. The molecular emission from the large disk is observed in layers with the transitions characterized by high excitation temperatures in their lower energy states (up to 1512 K) being concentrated closer to the central massive protostar. The molecular emission from those transitions with low or moderate excitation temperatures is found in the outermost parts of the disk and exhibits an inner cavity with an angular size of around 0.''7. We modeled all lines with a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) synthetic spectrum. A detailed study of the kinematics of the molecular gas together with an LTE model of a circumstellar disk shows that the innermost parts of the disk are also Keplerian plus a contracting velocity. The emission of the HCOCH 2 OH reveals the possible presence of a warm 'companion' located to the northeast of the disk, however its nature is unclear. The emission of the SO and SO 2 is observed in the circumstellar disk as well as in the outflow. We suggest that the massive protostar W51 North appears to be in a phase before the presence of a hypercompact or an ultracompact H II (HC/UCH II) region and propose a possible sequence on the formation of the massive stars.

  17. When Clusters become Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.W. Phlippen (Sandra); G.A. van der Knaap (Bert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPolicy makers spend large amounts of public resources on the foundation of science parks and other forms of geographically clustered business activities, in order to stimulate regional innovation. Underlying the relation between clusters and innovation is the assumption that co-located

  18. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  19. Research of large-amplitude waves evolution in the framework of shallow water equations and their implication for people's safety in extreme situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Chaikovskaia, Natalya; Rodin, Artem

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the formation and evolution of shock wave in shallow water with no restrictions on its amplitude in the framework of the nonlinear shallow water equations. It is shown that in the case of large-amplitude waves appears a new nonlinear effect of reflection from the shock front of incident wave. These results are important for the assessment of coastal flooding by tsunami waves and storm surges. Very often the largest number of victims was observed on the coastline where the wave moved breaking. Many people, instead of running away, were just looking at the movement of the "raging wall" and lost time. This fact highlights the importance of researching the problem of security and optimal behavior of people in situations with increased risk. Usually there is uncertainty about the exact time, when rogue waves will impact. This fact limits the ability of people to adjust their behavior psychologically to the stressful situations. It concerns specialists, who are busy both in the field of flying activity and marine service as well as adults, young people and children, who live on the coastal zone. The rogue wave research is very important and it demands cooperation of different scientists - mathematicians and physicists, as well as sociologists and psychologists, because the final goal of efforts of all scientists is minimization of the harm, brought by rogue waves to humanity.

  20. Extreme air pollution events in Hokkaido, Japan, traced back to early snowmelt and large-scale wildfires over East Eurasia: Case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Teppei J; Kim, Kyu-Myong; da Silva, Arlindo M; Hayasaki, Masamitsu; Akiyama, Masayuki; Murao, Naoto

    2018-04-25

    To identify the unusual climate conditions and their connections to air pollutions in a remote area due to wildfires, we examine three anomalous large-scale wildfires in May 2003, April 2008, and July 2014 over East Eurasia, as well as how products of those wildfires reached an urban city, Sapporo, in the northern part of Japan (Hokkaido), significantly affecting the air quality. NASA's MERRA-2 (the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2) aerosol re-analysis data closely reproduced the PM 2.5 variations in Sapporo for the case of smoke arrival in July 2014. Results show that all three cases featured unusually early snowmelt in East Eurasia, accompanied by warmer and drier surface conditions in the months leading to the fires, inducing long-lasting soil dryness and producing climate and environmental conditions conducive to active wildfires. Due to prevailing anomalous synoptic-scale atmospheric motions, smoke from those fires eventually reached a remote area, Hokkaido, and worsened the air quality in Sapporo. In future studies, continuous monitoring of the timing of Eurasian snowmelt and the air quality from the source regions to remote regions, coupled with the analysis of atmospheric and surface conditions, may be essential in more accurately predicting the effects of wildfires on air quality.

  1. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  2. OPEN CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY OUTER DISK: NEWLY DISCOVERED AND UNSTUDIED CLUSTERS IN THE SPITZER GLIMPSE-360, CYG-X, AND SMOG SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasowski, G.; Beaton, R. L.; Hamm, K. K.; Majewski, S. R.; Patterson, R. J.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B. A.; Benjamin, R. A.; Watson, C.

    2013-01-01

    Open stellar clusters are extremely valuable probes of Galactic structure, star formation, kinematics, and chemical abundance patterns. Near-infrared (NIR) data have enabled the detection of hundreds of clusters hidden from optical surveys, and mid-infrared (MIR) data are poised to offer an even clearer view into the most heavily obscured parts of the Milky Way. We use new MIR images from the Spitzer GLIMPSE-360, Cyg-X, and SMOG surveys to visually identify a large number of open cluster candidates in the outer disk of the Milky Way (65° < l < 265°). Using NIR color-magnitude diagrams, stellar isochrones, and stellar reddening estimates, we derive cluster parameters (metallicity, distance, reddening) for those objects without previous identification and/or parameters in the literature. In total, we present coordinates and sizes of 20 previously unknown open cluster candidates; for 7 of these we also present metallicity, distance, and reddening values. In addition, we provide the first estimates of these values for nine clusters that had been previously cataloged. We compare our cluster sizes and other derived parameters to those in the open cluster catalog of Dias et al. and find strong similarities except for a higher mean reddening for our objects, which signifies our increased detection sensitivity in regions of high extinction. The results of this cluster search and analysis demonstrate the ability of MIR imaging and photometry to augment significantly the current census of open clusters in the Galaxy

  3. Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation Extremes via Bivariate Extreme Value Theory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce methodology from statistical extreme value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation extremes. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most extreme precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most extreme events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of extreme precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation extremes along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation extremes in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of extremal correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between extreme precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale extreme precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of extreme precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between extreme precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced extreme precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.

  4. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2012-01-01

    High-dimensional data, i.e., data described by a large number of attributes, pose specific challenges to clustering. The so-called ‘curse of dimensionality’, coined originally to describe the general increase in complexity of various computational problems as dimensionality increases, is known...... to render traditional clustering algorithms ineffective. The curse of dimensionality, among other effects, means that with increasing number of dimensions, a loss of meaningful differentiation between similar and dissimilar objects is observed. As high-dimensional objects appear almost alike, new approaches...... for clustering are required. Consequently, recent research has focused on developing techniques and clustering algorithms specifically for high-dimensional data. Still, open research issues remain. Clustering is a data mining task devoted to the automatic grouping of data based on mutual similarity. Each cluster...

  5. Non-extensive statistical aspects of clustering and nuclear multi-fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calboreanu, A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments concerning an application of the non-extensive Tsalis statistics to describe clustering phenomena is briefly presented. Cluster formation is a common feature of a large number of physical phenomena encountered in molecular and nuclear physics, astrophysics, condensed matter and biophysics. Common to all these is the large number of degrees of freedom, thus justifying a statistical approach. However the conventional statistical mechanics paradigm seems to fail in dealing with clustering. Whether this is due to the prevalence of complex dynamical constrains, or it is a manifestation of new statistics is a subject of considerable interest, which was intensively debated during the last few years. Tsalis conjecture has proved extremely appealing due to its rather elegant and transparent basic arguments. We present here evidence for its adequacy for the study of a large class of physical phenomena related to cluster formation. An application to nuclear multi-fragmentation is presented. (author)

  6. A Novel Method to Automatically Detect and Measure the Ages of Star Clusters in Nearby Galaxies: Application to the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bitsakis, J.; Bonfini, P.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, R.A.; Ramirez-Siordia, V.H.; Bruzual, G.; Charlot, S.; Maravelias, Grigorios; Zaritsky, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 845, č. 1 (2017), 56/1-56/12 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-21373S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : catalogs * star clusters * Magellanic Cloud s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  7. X-ray clusters in a cold dark matter + lambda universe: A direct, large-scale, high-resolution, hydrodynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1994-01-01

    A new, three-dimensional, shock-capturing, hydrodynamic code is utilized to determine the distribution of hot gas in a cold dark matter (CDM) + lambda model universe. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed: a box with size 85/h Mpc, having cell size 0.31/h Mpc, is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3) = 10(exp 7.3) cells. We adopt omega = 0.45, lambda = 0.55, h identically equal to H/100 km/s/Mpc = 0.6, and then, from the cosmic background explorer (COBE) and light element nucleosynthesis, sigma(sub 8) = 0.77, omega(sub b) = 0.043. We identify the X-ray emitting clusters in the simulation box, compute the luminosity function at several wavelength bands, the temperature function and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. This open model succeeds in matching local observations of clusters in contrast to the standard omega = 1, CDM model, which fails. It predicts an order of magnitude decline in the number density of bright (h nu = 2-10 keV) clusters from z = 0 to z = 2 in contrast to a slight increase in the number density for standard omega = 1, CDM model. This COBE-normalized CDM + lambda model produces approximately the same number of X-ray clusters having L(sub x) greater than 10(exp 43) erg/s as observed. The background radiation field at 1 keV due to clusters is approximately the observed background which, after correction for numerical effects, again indicates that the model is consistent with observations.

  8. Cluster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1992-11-01

    Cluster management is a management model that fosters decentralization of management, develops leadership potential of staff, and creates ownership of unit-based goals. Unlike shared governance models, there is no formal structure created by committees and it is less threatening for managers. There are two parts to the cluster management model. One is the formation of cluster groups, consisting of all staff and facilitated by a cluster leader. The cluster groups function for communication and problem-solving. The second part of the cluster management model is the creation of task forces. These task forces are designed to work on short-term goals, usually in response to solving one of the unit's goals. Sometimes the task forces are used for quality improvement or system problems. Clusters are groups of not more than five or six staff members, facilitated by a cluster leader. A cluster is made up of individuals who work the same shift. For example, people with job titles who work days would be in a cluster. There would be registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nursing assistants, and unit clerks in the cluster. The cluster leader is chosen by the manager based on certain criteria and is trained for this specialized role. The concept of cluster management, criteria for choosing leaders, training for leaders, using cluster groups to solve quality improvement issues, and the learning process necessary for manager support are described.

  9. The Most Massive Star Clusters: Supermassive Globular Clusters or Dwarf Galaxy Nuclei?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William

    2004-07-01

    Evidence is mounting that the most massive globular clusters, such as Omega Centauri and M31-G1, may be related to the recently discovered "Ultra-Compact Dwarfs" and the dense nuclei of dE, N galaxies. However, no systematic imaging investigation of these supermassive globular clusters - at the level of Omega Cen and beyond - has been done, and we do not know what fraction of them might bear the signatures {such as large effective radii or tidal tails} of having originated as dE nuclei. We propose to use the ACS/WFC to obtain deep images of 18 such clusters in NGC 5128 and M31, the two nearest rich globular cluster systems. These globulars are the richest star clusters that can be found in nature, the biggest of them reaching 10^7 Solar masses, and they are likely to represent the results of star formation under the densest and most extreme conditions known. Using the profiles of the clusters including their faint outer envelopes, we will carry out state-of-the-art dynamical modelling of their structures, and look for any clear evidence which would indicate that they are associated with stripped satellites. This study will build on our previous work with STIS and WFPC2 imaging designed to study the 'Fundamental Plane' of globular clusters. When our new work is combined with Archival WFPC2, STIS, and ACS material, we will also be able to construct the definitive mapping of the Fundamental Plane of globular clusters at its uppermost mass range, and confirm whether or not the UCD and dE, N objects occupy a different structural parameter space.

  10. Extreme seismicity and disaster risks: Hazard versus vulnerability (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2013-12-01

    Although the extreme nature of earthquakes has been known for millennia due to the resultant devastation from many of them, the vulnerability of our civilization to extreme seismic events is still growing. It is partly because of the increase in the number of high-risk objects and clustering of populations and infrastructure in the areas prone to seismic hazards. Today an earthquake may affect several hundreds thousand lives and cause significant damage up to hundred billion dollars; it can trigger an ecological catastrophe if occurs in close vicinity to a nuclear power plant. Two types of extreme natural events can be distinguished: (i) large magnitude low probability events, and (ii) the events leading to disasters. Although the first-type events may affect earthquake-prone countries directly or indirectly (as tsunamis, landslides etc.), the second-type events occur mainly in economically less-developed countries where the vulnerability is high and the resilience is low. Although earthquake hazards cannot be reduced, vulnerability to extreme events can be diminished by monitoring human systems and by relevant laws preventing an increase in vulnerability. Significant new knowledge should be gained on extreme seismicity through observations, monitoring, analysis, modeling, comprehensive hazard assessment, prediction, and interpretations to assist in disaster risk analysis. The advanced disaster risk communication skill should be developed to link scientists, emergency management authorities, and the public. Natural, social, economic, and political reasons leading to disasters due to earthquakes will be discussed.

  11. The split in the ancient cold front in the Perseus cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen A.; ZuHone, John; Fabian, Andy; Sanders, Jeremy

    2018-04-01

    Sloshing cold fronts in clusters, produced as the dense cluster core moves around in the cluster potential in response to in-falling subgroups, provide a powerful probe of the physics of the intracluster medium and the magnetic fields permeating it1,2. These sharp discontinuities in density and temperature rise gradually outwards with age in a characteristic spiral pattern, embedding into the intracluster medium a record of the minor merging activity of clusters: the further from the cluster centre a cold front is, the older it is. Recently, it was discovered that these cold fronts can survive out to extremely large radii in the Perseus cluster3. Here, we report on high-spatial-resolution Chandra observations of the large-scale cold front in Perseus. We find that rather than broadening through diffusion, the cold front remains extremely sharp (consistent with abrupt jumps in density) and instead is split into two sharp edges. These results show that magnetic draping can suppress diffusion for vast periods of time—around 5 Gyr—even as the cold front expands out to nearly half the cluster virial radius.

  12. Measures of serial extremal dependence and their estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Richard A.; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Zhao, Yuwei

    2013-01-01

    extremal dependence is typically characterized by clusters of exceedances of high thresholds in the series. We start by discussing the notion of extremal index of a univariate sequence, i.e. the reciprocal of the expected cluster size, which has attracted major attention in the extremal value literature...... has attracted attention for modeling and statistical purposes. We apply the extremogram to max-stable processes. Finally, we discuss estimation of the extremogram both in the time and frequency domains....

  13. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraedts, J.M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF 6 ) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  14. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a role. Unlike migraine and tension headache, cluster headache generally isn't associated with triggers, such as foods, hormonal changes or stress. Once a cluster period begins, however, drinking alcohol ...

  15. XMM-Newton X-ray and HST weak gravitational lensing study of the extremely X-ray luminous galaxy cluster Cl J120958.9+495352 (z = 0.902)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thölken, Sophia; Schrabback, Tim; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Allen, Steven W.; Hoekstra, Henk; Applegate, Douglas; Buddendiek, Axel; Hicks, Amalia

    2018-03-01

    Context. Observations of relaxed, massive, and distant clusters can provide important tests of standard cosmological models, for example by using the gas mass fraction. To perform this test, the dynamical state of the cluster and its gas properties have to be investigated. X-ray analyses provide one of the best opportunities to access this information and to determine important properties such as temperature profiles, gas mass, and the total X-ray hydrostatic mass. For the last of these, weak gravitational lensing analyses are complementary independent probes that are essential in order to test whether X-ray masses could be biased. Aims: We study the very luminous, high redshift (z = 0.902) galaxy cluster Cl J120958.9+495352 using XMM-Newton data. We measure global cluster properties and study the temperature profile and the cooling time to investigate the dynamical status with respect to the presence of a cool core. We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) weak lensing data to estimate its total mass and determine the gas mass fraction. Methods: We perform a spectral analysis using an XMM-Newton observation of 15 ks cleaned exposure time. As the treatment of the background is crucial, we use two different approaches to account for the background emission to verify our results. We account for point spread function effects and deproject our results to estimate the gas mass fraction of the cluster. We measure weak lensing galaxy shapes from mosaic HST imaging and select background galaxies photometrically in combination with imaging data from the William Herschel Telescope. Results: The X-ray luminosity of Cl J120958.9+495352 in the 0.1-2.4 keV band estimated from our XMM-Newton data is LX = (13.4+1.2-1.0) × 1044 erg/s and thus it is one of the most X-ray luminous clusters known at similarly high redshift. We find clear indications for the presence of a cool core from the temperature profile and the central cooling time, which is very rare at such high redshifts. Based

  16. Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Iris

    1985-01-01

    Cluster headache is the most severe primary headache with recurrent pain attacks described as worse than giving birth. The aim of this paper was to make an overview of current knowledge on cluster headache with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. This paper presents hypotheses of cluster headache pathophysiology, current treatment options and possible future therapy approaches. For years, the hypothalamus was regarded as the key structure in cluster headache, but is now thought to be pa...

  17. Categorias Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Dayane Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as categorias cluster, que foram introduzidas por Aslak Bakke Buan, Robert Marsh, Markus Reineke, Idun Reiten e Gordana Todorov, com o objetivo de categoriíicar as algebras cluster criadas em 2002 por Sergey Fomin e Andrei Zelevinsky. Os autores acima, em [4], mostraram que existe uma estreita relação entre algebras cluster e categorias cluster para quivers cujo grafo subjacente é um diagrama de Dynkin. Para isto desenvolveram uma teoria tilting na estrutura triang...

  18. Simulation of the dynamics of laser-cluster interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiss, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ranging in size from a few atoms to several million atoms, clusters form a link between gases and solids. When irradiating clusters with intense femtosecond laser pulses, the production of energetic and highly charged ions, hot electrons, and extreme UV and X-ray photons, gives evidence of a very efficient energy conversion. The size of the system and the multitude of mechanisms at play provide a considerable challenge for the theoretical treatment of the interaction. In this thesis, we have developed a Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo simulation that gives insight into the particle dynamics during the interaction of laser pulses with large argon clusters (with more than 10000 atoms per cluster). Elastic electron-ion scattering, electron-electron scattering, electron-impact ionization and excitation, as well as three-body recombination and Auger decay are included via stochastic events. In a strongly simplified picture, the dynamics of the laser-cluster interaction can be summarized as follows: the intense laser field ionizes the cluster atoms and drives the population of quasi-free electrons. In collision events, further free electrons and high ionic charge states are created. As some electrons leave the cluster, the ions feel a net positive charge, and the cluster ultimately disintegrates in a Coulomb explosion. Even at moderate laser intensities (approx. 10 15 W/cm 2 ), impact ionization produces inner-shell vacancies in the cluster ions that decay by emitting characteristic X-ray radiation. The small population of fast electrons responsible for these ionization events is produced near the cluster poles, where the combination of polarization and charging of the cluster leads to strongly enhanced field strengths. We achieve a good agreement over large parameter ranges between the simulation and X-ray spectroscopy experiments. We also investigate the dependence of X-ray emission on laser intensity, pulse duration and cluster size. We find that in order to

  19. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  20. Horticultural cluster

    OpenAIRE

    SHERSTIUK S.V.; POSYLAYEVA K.I.

    2013-01-01

    In the article there are the theoretical and methodological approaches to the nature and existence of the cluster. The cluster differences from other kinds of cooperative and integration associations. Was develop by scientific-practical recommendations for forming a competitive horticultur cluster.

  1. Cluster bomb ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

    2012-01-01

    To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  2. Coordination of the Ser2056 and Thr2609 Clusters of DNA-PKcs in Regulating Gamma Rays and Extremely Low Fluencies of Alpha-Particle Irradiation to G0/G1 Phase Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Lin, Yu-Fen; Kato, Takamitsu A; Brogan, John R; Shih, Hung-Ying; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Bedford, Joel S; Chen, Benjamin P C; Little, John B

    2017-02-01

    The catalytic subunit of DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) and its kinase activity are critical for mediation of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in mammalian cells after gamma-ray irradiation. Additionally, DNA-PKcs phosphorylations at the T2609 cluster and the S2056 cluster also affect DSB repair and cellular sensitivity to gamma radiation. Previously we reported that phosphorylations within these two regions affect not only NHEJ but also homologous recombination repair (HRR) dependent DSB repair. In this study, we further examine phenotypic effects on cells bearing various combinations of mutations within either or both regions. Effects studied included cell killing as well as chromosomal aberration induction after 0.5-8 Gy gamma-ray irradiation delivered to synchronized cells during the G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle. Blocking phosphorylation within the T2609 cluster was most critical regarding sensitization and depended on the number of available phosphorylation sites. It was also especially interesting that only one substitution of alanine in each of the two clusters separately abolished the restoration of wild-type sensitivity by DNA-PKcs. Similar patterns were seen for induction of chromosomal aberrations, reflecting their connection to cell killing. To study possible change in coordination between HRR and NHEJ directed repair in these DNA-PKcs mutant cell lines, we compared the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by very low fluencies of alpha particles with mutant cells defective in the HRR pathway that is required for induction of SCEs. Levels of true SCEs induced by very low fluence of alpha-particle irradiation normally seen in wild-type cells were only slightly decreased in the S2056 cluster mutants, but were completely abolished in the T2609 cluster mutants and were indistinguishable from levels seen in HRR deficient cells. Again, a single substitution in the S2056 together with a single

  3. Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover using a large insert BAC library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity in plants is a trait with potential economic, agricultural and environmental impact. In relation to the food industry, PPO-induced browning causes unacceptable discolouration in fruit and vegetables: from an agriculture perspective, PPO can protect plants against pathogens and environmental stress, improve ruminant growth by increasing nitrogen absorption and decreasing nitrogen loss to the environment through the animal's urine. The high PPO legume, red clover, has a significant economic and environmental role in sustaining low-input organic and conventional farms. Molecular markers for a range of important agricultural traits are being developed for red clover and improved knowledge of PPO genes and their structure will facilitate molecular breeding. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library comprising 26,016 BAC clones with an average 135 Kb insert size, was constructed from Trifolium pratense L. (red clover, a diploid legume with a haploid genome size of 440–637 Mb. Library coverage of 6–8 genome equivalents ensured good representation of genes: the library was screened for polyphenol oxidase (PPO genes. Two single copy PPO genes, PPO4 and PPO5, were identified to add to a family of three, previously reported, paralogous genes (PPO1–PPO3. Multiple PPO1 copies were identified and characterised revealing a subfamily comprising three variants PPO1/2, PPO1/4 and PPO1/5. Six PPO genes clustered within the genome: four separate BAC clones could be assembled onto a predicted 190–510 Kb single BAC contig. Conclusion A PPO gene family in red clover resides as a cluster of at least 6 genes. Three of these genes have high homology, suggesting a more recent evolutionary event. This PPO cluster covers a longer region of the genome than clusters detected in rice or previously reported in tomato. Full-length coding sequences from PPO4, PPO5, PPO1/5 and PPO1/4 will facilitate

  4. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2004-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continously increase the knowledge on wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describe the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of high-sampled full-scale time series measurements...... are consistent, given the inevitabel uncertainties associated with model as well as with the extreme value data analysis. Keywords: Statistical model, extreme wind conditions, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, statistical analysis, turbulence, wind loading, wind shear, wind turbines....

  5. Globular clusters and galaxy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1984-01-01

    Using semipartial correlation coefficients and bootstrap techniques, a study is made of the important features of globular clusters with respect to the total number of galaxy clusters and dependence of specific galaxy cluster on parent galaxy type, cluster radii, luminosity functions and cluster ellipticity. It is shown that the ellipticity of LMC clusters correlates significantly with cluster luminosity functions, but not with cluster age. The cluter luminosity value above which globulars are noticeably flattened may differ by a factor of about 100 from galaxy to galaxy. Both in the Galaxy and in M31 globulars with small core radii have a Gaussian distribution over luminosity, whereas clusters with large core radii do not. In the cluster systems surrounding the Galaxy, M31 and NGC 5128 the mean radii of globular clusters was found to increase with the distance from the nucleus. Central galaxies in rich clusters have much higher values for specific globular cluster frequency than do other cluster ellipticals, suggesting that such central galaxies must already have been different from normal ellipticals at the time they were formed

  6. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  7. Electronic structure of metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertheim, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Photoemission spectra of valence electrons in metal clusters, together with threshold ionization potential measurements, provide a coherent picture of the development of the electronic structure from the isolated atom to the large metallic cluster. An insulator-metal transition occurs at an intermediate cluster size, which serves to define the boundary between small and large clusters. Although the outer electrons may be delocalized over the entire cluster, a small cluster remains insulating until the density of states near the Fermi level exceeds 1/kT. In large clusters, with increasing cluster size, the band structure approaches that of the bulk metal. However, the bands remain significantly narrowed even in a 1000-atom cluster, giving an indication of the importance of long-range order. The core-electron binding-energy shifts of supported metal clusters depend on changes in the band structure in the initial state, as well as on various final-state effects, including changes in core hole screening and the coulomb energy of the final-state charge. For cluster supported on amorphous carbon, this macroscopic coulomb shift is often dominant, as evidenced by the parallel shifts of the core-electron binding energy and the Fermi edge. Auger data confirm that final-state effects dominate in cluster of Sn and some other metals. Surface atom core-level shifts provide a valuable guide to the contributions of initial-state changes in band structure to cluster core-electron binding energy shifts, especially for Au and Pt. The available data indicate that the shift observed in supported, metallic clusters arise largely from the charge left on the cluster by photoemission. As the metal-insulator transition is approached from above, metallic screening is suppressed and the shift is determined by the local environment. (orig.)

  8. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  9. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  10. Large-space cluster model calculations for the 3He(3He,2p)4He and 3H(3H,2n)4He reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoto, Attila; Langanke, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    The 3 He( 3 He, 2p) 4 He and 3 H( 3 H, 2n) 4 He reactions are studied in a microscopic cluster model. We search for resonances in the 3 He+ 3 He and 4 He + p + p channels using methods that treat the two- and three-body resonance asymptotics correctly. Our results show that the existence of a low-energy resonance or virtual state, which could influence the 7 Be and 8 B solar neutrino fluxes, is rather unlikely. Our calculated 3 He( 3 He, 2p) 4 He and 3 H( 3 H, 2n) 4 He cross sections are in a good general agreement with the experimental data

  11. On clusters and clustering from atoms to fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PJ

    1993-01-01

    This book attempts to answer why there is so much interest in clusters. Clusters occur on all length scales, and as a result occur in a variety of fields. Clusters are interesting scientifically, but they also have important consequences technologically. The division of the book into three parts roughly separates the field into small, intermediate, and large-scale clusters. Small clusters are the regime of atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. The intermediate regime is the transitional regime, with its characteristics including the onset of bulk-like behavior, growth and aggregation, a

  12. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  13. Cluster evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The galaxy and cluster luminosity functions are constructed from a model of the mass distribution based on hierarchical clustering at an epoch where the matter distribution is non-linear. These luminosity functions are seen to reproduce the present distribution of objects as can be inferred from the observations. They can be used to deduce the redshift dependence of the cluster distribution and to extrapolate the observations towards the past. The predicted evolution of the cluster distribution is quite strong, although somewhat less rapid than predicted by the linear theory

  14. A Massive, Cooling-Flow-Induced Starburst in the Core of a Highly Luminous Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Foley, R. J.; Ruel, J.; Sullivan, P.; Veilleux, S.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In the cores of some galaxy clusters the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster s lifetime, leading to continuous "cooling flows" of gas sinking towards the cluster center, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star formation rates and cool gas masses for these "cool core" clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by astrophysical feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical, and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 at z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (L(sub 2-10 keV) = 8.2 10(exp 45) erg/s) galaxy cluster which hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (M(sub cool) = 3820 +/- 530 Stellar Mass/yr). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (740 +/- 160 Stellar Mass/ yr), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form via accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than the current picture of central galaxies assembling entirely via mergers.

  15. Clustering Measurements of broad-line AGNs: Review and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Krumpe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial effort, the precise physical processes that lead to the growth of super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies are still not well understood. These phases of black hole growth are thought to be of key importance in understanding galaxy evolution. Forthcoming missions such as eROSITA, HETDEX, eBOSS, BigBOSS, LSST, and Pan-STARRS will compile by far the largest ever Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs catalogs which will allow us to measure the spatial distribution of AGNs in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. For the first time, AGN clustering measurements will reach a level of precision that will not only allow for an alternative approach to answering open questions in AGN and galaxy co-evolution but will open a new frontier, allowing us to precisely determine cosmological parameters. This paper reviews large-scale clustering measurements of broad line AGNs. We summarize how clustering is measured and which constraints can be derived from AGN clustering measurements, we discuss recent developments, and we briefly describe future projects that will deliver extremely large AGN samples which will enable AGN clustering measurements of unprecedented accuracy. In order to maximize the scientific return on the research fields of AGN and galaxy evolution and cosmology, we advise that the community develops a full understanding of the systematic uncertainties which will, in contrast to today’s measurement, be the dominant source of uncertainty.

  16. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The origin of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) has posed a long-standing mystery for astronomers. New observations of several of these faint giants with the Hubble Space Telescope are now lending support to one theory.Faint-Galaxy MysteryHubble images of Dragonfly 44 (top) and DFX1 (bottom). The right panels show the data with greater contrast and extended objects masked. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]UDGs large, extremely faint spheroidal objects were first discovered in the Virgo galaxy cluster roughly three decades ago. Modern telescope capabilities have resulted in many more discoveries of similar faint galaxies in recent years, suggesting that they are a much more common phenomenon than we originally thought.Despite the many observations, UDGs still pose a number of unanswered questions. Chief among them: what are UDGs? Why are these objects the size of normal galaxies, yet so dim? There are two primary models that explain UDGs:UDGs were originally small galaxies, hence their low luminosity. Tidal interactions then puffed them up to the large size we observe today.UDGs are effectively failed galaxies. They formed the same way as normal galaxies of their large size, but something truncated their star formation early, preventing them from gaining the brightness that we would expect for galaxies of their size.Now a team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) has made some intriguing observations with Hubble that lend weight to one of these models.Globulars observed in 16 Coma-cluster UDGs by Hubble. The top right panel shows the galaxy identifications. The top left panel shows the derived number of globular clusters in each galaxy. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Globulars GaloreVan Dokkum and collaborators imaged two UDGs with Hubble: Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, both located in the Coma galaxy cluster. These faint galaxies are both smooth and elongated, with no obvious irregular features, spiral arms, star-forming regions, or other indications of tidal interactions

  17. Statistical Model of Extreme Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2005-01-01

    In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... by a model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate...

  18. Spatial dependence of extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Noor Fadhilah Ahmad; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Satari, Siti Zanariah; Azman, Muhammad Az-zuhri

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to model the spatial extreme daily rainfall process using the max-stable model. The max-stable model is used to capture the dependence structure of spatial properties of extreme rainfall. Three models from max-stable are considered namely Smith, Schlather and Brown-Resnick models. The methods are applied on 12 selected rainfall stations in Kelantan, Malaysia. Most of the extreme rainfall data occur during wet season from October to December of 1971 to 2012. This period is chosen to assure the available data is enough to satisfy the assumption of stationarity. The dependence parameters including the range and smoothness, are estimated using composite likelihood approach. Then, the bootstrap approach is applied to generate synthetic extreme rainfall data for all models using the estimated dependence parameters. The goodness of fit between the observed extreme rainfall and the synthetic data is assessed using the composite likelihood information criterion (CLIC). Results show that Schlather model is the best followed by Brown-Resnick and Smith models based on the smallest CLIC's value. Thus, the max-stable model is suitable to be used to model extreme rainfall in Kelantan. The study on spatial dependence in extreme rainfall modelling is important to reduce the uncertainties of the point estimates for the tail index. If the spatial dependency is estimated individually, the uncertainties will be large. Furthermore, in the case of joint return level is of interest, taking into accounts the spatial dependence properties will improve the estimation process.

  19. Self-consistent phonons revisited. I. The role of thermal versus quantum fluctuations on structural transitions in large Lennard-Jones clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Ionuţ; Mandelshtam, Vladimir A

    2012-10-14

    The theory of self-consistent phonons (SCP) was originally developed to address the anharmonic effects in condensed matter systems. The method seeks a harmonic, temperature-dependent Hamiltonian that provides the "best fit" for the physical Hamiltonian, the "best fit" being defined as the one that optimizes the Helmholtz free energy at a fixed temperature. The present developments provide a scalable O(N) unified framework that accounts for anharmonic effects in a many-body system, when it is probed by either thermal (ℏ → 0) or quantum fluctuations (T → 0). In these important limits, the solution of the nonlinear SCP equations can be reached in a manner that requires only the multiplication of 3N × 3N matrices, with no need of diagonalization. For short range potentials, such as Lennard-Jones, the Hessian, and other related matrices are highly sparse, so that the scaling of the matrix multiplications can be reduced from O(N(3)) to ~O(N). We investigate the role of quantum effects by continuously varying the de-Boer quantum delocalization parameter Λ and report the N-Λ (T = 0), and also the classical N-T (Λ = 0) phase diagrams for sizes up to N ~ 10(4). Our results demonstrate that the harmonic approximation becomes inadequate already for such weakly quantum systems as neon clusters, or for classical systems much below the melting temperatures.

  20. Statistical measures of galaxy clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to the large-scale distribution of galaxies and ways in which this distribution may be statistically measured. Galaxy clustering is hierarchical in nature, so that the positions of clusters of galaxies are themselves spatially clustered. A simple identification of groups of galaxies would be an inadequate description of the true richness of galaxy clustering. Current observations of the large-scale structure of the universe and modern theories of cosmology may be studied with a statistical description of the spatial and velocity distributions of galaxies. 8 refs

  1. Star clusters in evolving galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Florent

    2018-04-01

    Their ubiquity and extreme densities make star clusters probes of prime importance of galaxy evolution. Old globular clusters keep imprints of the physical conditions of their assembly in the early Universe, and younger stellar objects, observationally resolved, tell us about the mechanisms at stake in their formation. Yet, we still do not understand the diversity involved: why is star cluster formation limited to 105M⊙ objects in the Milky Way, while some dwarf galaxies like NGC 1705 are able to produce clusters 10 times more massive? Why do dwarfs generally host a higher specific frequency of clusters than larger galaxies? How to connect the present-day, often resolved, stellar systems to the formation of globular clusters at high redshift? And how do these links depend on the galactic and cosmological environments of these clusters? In this review, I present recent advances on star cluster formation and evolution, in galactic and cosmological context. The emphasis is put on the theory, formation scenarios and the effects of the environment on the evolution of the global properties of clusters. A few open questions are identified.

  2. Robust continuous clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sohil Atul; Koltun, Vladlen

    2017-09-12

    Clustering is a fundamental procedure in the analysis of scientific data. It is used ubiquitously across the sciences. Despite decades of research, existing clustering algorithms have limited effectiveness in high dimensions and often require tuning parameters for different domains and datasets. We present a clustering algorithm that achieves high accuracy across multiple domains and scales efficiently to high dimensions and large datasets. The presented algorithm optimizes a smooth continuous objective, which is based on robust statistics and allows heavily mixed clusters to be untangled. The continuous nature of the objective also allows clustering to be integrated as a module in end-to-end feature learning pipelines. We demonstrate this by extending the algorithm to perform joint clustering and dimensionality reduction by efficiently optimizing a continuous global objective. The presented approach is evaluated on large datasets of faces, hand-written digits, objects, newswire articles, sensor readings from the Space Shuttle, and protein expression levels. Our method achieves high accuracy across all datasets, outperforming the best prior algorithm by a factor of 3 in average rank.

  3. Galaxy clusters and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    White, S

    1994-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest coherent objects in Universe. It has been known since 1933 that their dynamical properties require either a modification of the theory of gravity, or the presence of a dominant component of unseen material of unknown nature. Clusters still provide the best laboratories for studying the amount and distribution of this dark matter relative to the material which can be observed directly -- the galaxies themselves and the hot,X-ray-emitting gas which lies between them.Imaging and spectroscopy of clusters by satellite-borne X -ray telescopes has greatly improved our knowledge of the structure and composition of this intergalactic medium. The results permit a number of new approaches to some fundamental cosmological questions,but current indications from the data are contradictory. The observed irregularity of real clusters seems to imply recent formation epochs which would require a universe with approximately the critical density. On the other hand, the large baryon fraction observ...

  4. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  5. THE ASSEMBLY OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the formation of 53 galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10 14.0-14.76 M sun ) formed within a pair of cosmological Λ cold dark matter N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host ∼0.3 L * galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'preprocessing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; less than 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past (∼<6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local cluster processes such as ram pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass, and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with ∼20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and ∼20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate timescale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be ∼6 Gyr.

  6. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  7. Percolation technique for galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    We study percolation in mass and galaxy distributions obtained in 3D simulations of the CDM, C + HDM, and the power law (n = -1) models in the Omega = 1 universe. Percolation statistics is used here as a quantitative measure of the degree to which a mass or galaxy distribution is of a filamentary or cellular type. The very fast code used calculates the statistics of clusters along with the direct detection of percolation. We found that the two parameters mu(infinity), characterizing the size of the largest cluster, and mu-squared, characterizing the weighted mean size of all clusters excluding the largest one, are extremely useful for evaluating the percolation threshold. An advantage of using these parameters is their low sensitivity to boundary effects. We show that both the CDM and the C + HDM models are extremely filamentary both in mass and galaxy distribution. The percolation thresholds for the mass distributions are determined.

  8. Clustering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romli

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K -mean method ' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods

  9. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  10. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side...

  11. Cluster analysis of accelerated molecular dynamics simulations: A case study of the decahedron to icosahedron transition in Pt nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rao; Lo, Li-Ta; Wen, Yuhua; Voter, Arthur F.; Perez, Danny

    2017-10-01

    Modern molecular-dynamics-based techniques are extremely powerful to investigate the dynamical evolution of materials. With the increase in sophistication of the simulation techniques and the ubiquity of massively parallel computing platforms, atomistic simulations now generate very large amounts of data, which have to be carefully analyzed in order to reveal key features of the underlying trajectories, including the nature and characteristics of the relevant reaction pathways. We show that clustering algorithms, such as the Perron Cluster Cluster Analysis, can provide reduced representations that greatly facilitate the interpretation of complex trajectories. To illustrate this point, clustering tools are used to identify the key kinetic steps in complex accelerated molecular dynamics trajectories exhibiting shape fluctuations in Pt nanoclusters. This analysis provides an easily interpretable coarse representation of the reaction pathways in terms of a handful of clusters, in contrast to the raw trajectory that contains thousands of unique states and tens of thousands of transitions.

  12. THE MASS-LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. IV. CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF A GRID OF MODELS FOR OXYGEN-RICH AGB STARS, RED SUPERGIANTS, AND EXTREME AGB STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.

    2011-01-01

    To measure the mass loss from dusty oxygen-rich (O-rich) evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we have constructed a grid of models of spherically symmetric dust shells around stars with constant mass-loss rates using 2Dust. These models will constitute the O-rich model part of the 'Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch star ModelS' (GRAMS). This model grid explores four parameters-stellar effective temperature from 2100 K to 4700 K; luminosity from 10 3 to 10 6 L sun ; dust shell inner radii of 3, 7, 11, and 15 R star ; and 10.0 μm optical depth from 10 -4 to 26. From an initial grid of ∼1200 2Dust models, we create a larger grid of ∼69,000 models by scaling to cover the luminosity range required by the data. These models are available online to the public. The matching in color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to observed O-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) candidate stars from the SAGE and SAGE-Spec LMC samples and a small sample of OH/IR stars is generally very good. The extreme AGB star candidates from SAGE are more consistent with carbon-rich (C-rich) than O-rich dust composition. Our model grid suggests lower limits to the mid-infrared colors of the dustiest AGB stars for which the chemistry could be O-rich. Finally, the fitting of GRAMS models to spectral energy distributions of sources fit by other studies provides additional verification of our grid and anticipates future, more expansive efforts.

  13. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  14. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A symptom is a condition indicating the presence of a disease, especially, when regarded as an aid in diagnosis.Symptoms are the smallest units indicating the existence of a disease. A syndrome on the other hand is an aggregate, set or cluster of concurrent symptoms which together indicate...... and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c......-mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  15. Effects of in-cascade defect clustering on near-term defect evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, H.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The effects of in-cascade defect clustering on the nature of the subsequent defect population are being studied using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results of the simulations illustrates the strong influence of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state on subsequent defect evolution. The large differences in mobility and stability of vacancy and interstitial defects and the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades have been shown to be significant factors affecting the evolution of the defect distribution. In recent work, the effects of initial cluster sizes appear to be extremely important.

  16. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    measured (by obtaining spectra of the arcs and measuring their redshift). The masses of galaxy clusters are important for the determination, for instance of the mean density and distribution of matter in the universe. This is because these clusters are the most massive, clearly defined objects known and as such trace these parameters in the universe on very large scales. Another possibility to derive the cluster mass is offered by X-ray observations, because the distribution of the hot, X-ray emitting gas traces the gravitational field of the cluster. Recently, in some clusters there has been a discrepancy between the mass determined in this way and that found from gravitational lensing effects. The team of astronomers now hopes that follow-up X-ray observations of RXJ1347.5-1145 will help to solve this puzzle. Moreover, the combination of extremely high X-ray brightness and the possibility to perform a rather accurate mass determination by the gravitational lensing effect makes this particular cluster a truly unique object. In view of the exceptional X-ray brightness, a very high mass is expected. The exact determination will be possible, as soon as spectra have been obtained of the two arcs. Contrary to what is the case in other clusters, this will not be so difficult, due to their unusual brightness and their ideal geometrical configuration. [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and the Max-Planck-Society. It is accompanied by a B/W photo. [2] The investigation described in this Press Release is the subject of a Letter to the Editor which will soon appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, with the following authors: Sabine Schindler (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching, Germany), Hans Boehringer, Doris M. Neumann and Ulrich G. Briel (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy), Guido Chincarini

  17. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  18. Cluster Bulleticity

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, such as the bullet cluster (1E 0657−56) and baby bullet (MACS J0025−12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distributions of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary ‘baryonic’ matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by their rarity. C...

  19. Cluster headache

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Elizabeth; Ducros, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes) of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye). It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name) in bouts that can occur ...

  20. Are Nuclear Star Clusters the Precursors of Massive Black Holes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new upper limits for black hole masses in extremely late type spiral galaxies. We confirm that this class of galaxies has black holes with masses less than 106M⊙, if any. We also derive new upper limits for nuclear star cluster masses in massive galaxies with previously determined black hole masses. We use the newly derived upper limits and a literature compilation to study the low mass end of the global-to-nucleus relations. We find the following. (1 The MBH-σ relation cannot flatten at low masses, but may steepen. (2 The MBH-Mbulge relation may well flatten in contrast. (3 The MBH-Sersic n relation is able to account for the large scatter in black hole masses in low-mass disk galaxies. Outliers in the MBH-Sersic n relation seem to be dwarf elliptical galaxies. When plotting MBH versus MNC we find three different regimes: (a nuclear cluster dominated nuclei, (b a transition region, and (c black hole-dominated nuclei. This is consistent with the picture, in which black holes form inside nuclear clusters with a very low-mass fraction. They subsequently grow much faster than the nuclear cluster, destroying it when the ratio MBH/MNC grows above 100. Nuclear star clusters may thus be the precursors of massive black holes in galaxy nuclei.

  1. OBSERVED SCALING RELATIONS FOR STRONG LENSING CLUSTERS: CONSEQUENCES FOR COSMOLOGY AND CLUSTER ASSEMBLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2010-01-01

    Scaling relations of observed galaxy cluster properties are useful tools for constraining cosmological parameters as well as cluster formation histories. One of the key cosmological parameters, σ 8 , is constrained using observed clusters of galaxies, although current estimates of σ 8 from the scaling relations of dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters are limited by the large scatter in the observed cluster mass-temperature (M-T) relation. With a sample of eight strong lensing clusters at 0.3 8 , but combining the cluster concentration-mass relation with the M-T relation enables the inclusion of unrelaxed clusters as well. Thus, the resultant gains in the accuracy of σ 8 measurements from clusters are twofold: the errors on σ 8 are reduced and the cluster sample size is increased. Therefore, the statistics on σ 8 determination from clusters are greatly improved by the inclusion of unrelaxed clusters. Exploring cluster scaling relations further, we find that the correlation between brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) luminosity and cluster mass offers insight into the assembly histories of clusters. We find preliminary evidence for a steeper BCG luminosity-cluster mass relation for strong lensing clusters than the general cluster population, hinting that strong lensing clusters may have had more active merging histories.

  2. G0.253 + 0.016: A MOLECULAR CLOUD PROGENITOR OF AN ARCHES-LIKE CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, Steven N.; Ascenso, Joana; Testi, Leonardo; Bressert, Eli; Rathborne, Jill; Bastian, Nate; Alves, Joao; Meingast, Stefan; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Longmore, Andy; Purcell, Cormac; Walsh, Andrew; Jackson, James; Foster, Jonathan; Molinari, Sergio; Amorim, A.; Lima, J.; Marques, R.; Moitinho, A.

    2012-01-01

    Young massive clusters (YMCs) with stellar masses of 10 4 -10 5 M ☉ and core stellar densities of 10 4 -10 5 stars per cubic pc are thought to be the 'missing link' between open clusters and extreme extragalactic super star clusters and globular clusters. As such, studying the initial conditions of YMCs offers an opportunity to test cluster formation models across the full cluster mass range. G0.253 + 0.016 is an excellent candidate YMC progenitor. We make use of existing multi-wavelength data including recently available far-IR continuum (Herschel/Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey) and mm spectral line (H 2 O Southern Galactic Plane Survey and Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey) data and present new, deep, multiple-filter, near-IR (Very Large Telescope/NACO) observations to study G0.253 + 0.016. These data show that G0.253 + 0.016 is a high-mass (1.3 × 10 5 M ☉ ), low-temperature (T dust ∼ 20 K), high-volume, and column density (n ∼ 8 × 10 4 cm –3 ; N H 2 ∼4×10 23 cm –2 ) molecular clump which is close to virial equilibrium (M dust ∼ M virial ) so is likely to be gravitationally bound. It is almost devoid of star formation and, thus, has exactly the properties expected for the initial conditions of a clump that may form an Arches-like massive cluster. We compare the properties of G0.253 + 0.016 to typical Galactic cluster-forming molecular clumps and find it is extreme, and possibly unique in the Galaxy. This uniqueness makes detailed studies of G0.253 + 0.016 extremely important for testing massive cluster formation models.

  3. Variable ultrasonography findings of extremity lymphangioma: Pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Ki Nam; Kim, Chan Sung; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Dae Chul

    2002-01-01

    The great majority of lymphangiomas occur in the neck (75%) and axilla (20%), but extremity lymphangioma is rare. We correlate variable sonographic features of extremity lymphangioma with pathologic findings. We reviewed the sonographic findings of extremity lymphangioma in 14 patients (M:F=8:6). The all cases were histologically confirmed by operation. The variable sonographic features of extremity lymphangioma were compared to pathologic findings. The multilocular cystic mass with ill defined boundaries was distinctive sonographic appearance of extremity lymphangioma. But there were variable sonographic findings such as heterogeneous echogenic mass or homogeneous echogenic portion. The histologic section of echogenic lesion reveals clusters of abnormal

  4. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  5. What Types of Pornography Do People Find Arousing and Do They Cluster? Assessing Types and Categories of Pornography in a Large-Scale Online Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-09-01

    Previous research on exposure to different types of pornography has primarily relied on analyses of millions of search terms and histories or on user exposure patterns within a given time period rather than the self-reported frequency of consumption. Further, previous research has almost exclusively relied on theoretical or ad hoc overarching categorizations of different types of pornography, when investigating patterns of pornography exposure, rather than latent structure analyses of these exposure patterns. In contrast, using a large sample of 18- to 40-year-old heterosexual and nonheterosexual Croatian men and women, this study investigated the self-reported frequency of using 27 different types of pornography and statistically explored their latent structures. The results showed substantial differences in consumption patterns across gender and sexual orientation. However, latent structure analyses of the 27 different types of pornography assessed suggested that although several categories of consumption were gender and sexual orientation specific, common categories across the different types of pornography could be established. Based on this finding, a five-item scale was proposed to indicate the use of nonmainstream (paraphilic) pornographic content, as this type of pornography has often been targeted in previous research. To the best of our knowledge, no similar measurement tool has been proposed before.

  6. Legacies from extreme drought increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. D.; Knapp, A.; Hoover, D. L.; Avolio, M. L.; Felton, A. J.; Wilcox, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, are increasing in frequency and intensity, and the ecological consequences of these extreme events can be substantial and widespread. Although there is still much to be learned about how ecosystems will respond to an intensification of drought, even less is known about the factors that determine post-drought recovery of ecosystem function. Such knowledge is particularly important because post-drought recovery periods can be protracted depending on the extent to which key plant populations, community structure and biogeochemical processes are affected. These drought legacies may alter ecosystem function for many years post-drought and may impact future sensitivity to climate extremes. We experimentally imposed two extreme growing season droughts in a central US grassland to assess the impacts of repeated droughts on ecosystem resistance (response) and resilience (recovery). We found that this grassland was not resistant to the first extreme drought due to reduced productivity and differential sensitivity of the co-dominant C4 grass (Andropogon gerardii) and C3 forb (Solidago canadensis) species. This differential sensitivity led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Yet, despite this large shift in plant community composition, which persisted post-drought, the grassland was highly resilient post-drought, due to increased abundance of the dominant C4 grass. Because of this shift to increased C4 grass dominance, we expected that previously-droughted grassland would be more resistant to a second extreme drought. However, contrary to these expectations, previously droughted grassland was more sensitive to drought than grassland that had not experienced drought. Thus, our result suggest that legacies of drought (shift in community composition) may increase ecosystem sensitivity to future extreme events.

  7. Energy Aware Clustering Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshan, Noushin; Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Liu, Chenglian

    2011-09-01

    The sensor nodes deployed in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are extremely power constrained, so maximizing the lifetime of the entire networks is mainly considered in the design. In wireless sensor networks, hierarchical network structures have the advantage of providing scalable and energy efficient solutions. In this paper, we investigate different clustering algorithms for WSNs and also compare these clustering algorithms based on metrics such as clustering distribution, cluster's load balancing, Cluster Head's (CH) selection strategy, CH's role rotation, node mobility, clusters overlapping, intra-cluster communications, reliability, security and location awareness.

  8. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  9. Seasonal temperature extremes in Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew; Huang, Shaochun

    2010-12-01

    The awareness of global warming is well established and results from the observations made on thousands of stations. This paper complements the large-scale results by examining a long time-series of high-quality temperature data from the Secular Meteorological Station in Potsdam, where observation records over the last 117 years, i.e., from January 1893 are available. Tendencies of change in seasonal temperature-related climate extremes are demonstrated. "Cold" extremes have become less frequent and less severe than in the past, while "warm" extremes have become more frequent and more severe. Moreover, the interval of the occurrence of frost has been decreasing, while the interval of the occurrence of hot days has been increasing. However, many changes are not statistically significant, since the variability of temperature indices at the Potsdam station has been very strong.

  10. Proteomic properties reveal phyloecological clusters of Archaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Nikolic

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a novel way to describe the variety of environmental adaptations of Archaea. We have clustered 57 Archaea by using a non-redundant set of proteomic features, and verified that the clusters correspond to environmental adaptations to the archaeal habitats. The first cluster consists dominantly of hyperthermophiles and hyperthermoacidophilic aerobes. The second cluster joins together halophilic and extremely halophilic Archaea, while the third cluster contains mesophilic (mostly methanogenic Archaea together with thermoacidophiles. The non-redundant subset of proteomic features was found to consist of five features: the ratio of charged residues to uncharged, average protein size, normalized frequency of beta-sheet, normalized frequency of extended structure and number of hydrogen bond donors. We propose this clustering to be termed phyloecological clustering. This approach could give additional insights into relationships among archaeal species that may be hidden by sole phylogenetic analysis.

  11. Matter Under Extreme Conditions: The Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, R. Norris; Gibson, Carl H.

    2012-03-01

    Extreme conditions in natural flows are examined, starting with a turbulent big bang. A hydro-gravitational-dynamics cosmology model is adopted. Planck-Kerr turbulence instability causes Planck-particle turbulent combustion. Inertial-vortex forces induce a non-turbulent ki- netic energy cascade to Planck-Kolmogorov scales where vorticity is produced, overcoming 10113 Pa Planck-Fortov pressures. The spinning, expanding fireball has a slight deficit of Planck antiparticles. Space and mass-energy powered by gluon viscous stresses expand exponentially at speeds >1025 c. Turbulent temperature and spin fluctuations fossilize at scales larger than ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Because "dark-energy" antigravity forces vanish when infla- tion ceases, and because turbulence produces entropy, the universe is closed and will collapse and rebound. Density and spin fossils of big bang turbulent mixing trigger structure formation in the plasma epoch. Fragmenting protosuperclustervoids and protoclustervoids produce weak tur- bulence until the plasma-gas transition give chains of protogalaxies with the morphology of tur- bulence. Chain galaxy clusters observed at large redshifts ~8.6 support this interpretation. Pro- togalaxies fragment into clumps, each with a trillion Earth-mass H-He gas planets. These make stars, supernovae, the first chemicals, the first oceans and the first life soon after the cosmologi- cal event.

  12. Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchtmeier, W. K.; Richter, O. G.; Materne, J.

    1981-09-01

    The large-scale structure of the universe is dominated by clustering. Most galaxies seem to be members of pairs, groups, clusters, and superclusters. To that degree we are able to recognize a hierarchical structure of the universe. Our local group of galaxies (LG) is centred on two large spiral galaxies: the Andromeda nebula and our own galaxy. Three sr:naller galaxies - like M 33 - and at least 23 dwarf galaxies (KraanKorteweg and Tammann, 1979, Astronomische Nachrichten, 300, 181) can be found in the evironment of these two large galaxies. Neighbouring groups have comparable sizes (about 1 Mpc in extent) and comparable numbers of bright members. Small dwarf galaxies cannot at present be observed at great distances.

  13. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  14. Are BALQSOs extreme accretors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M. J.; Wills, B. J.

    2002-12-01

    Broad Absorption Line (BAL) QSOs are QSOs with massive absorbing outflows up to 0.2c. Two hypothesis have been suggested in the past about the nature of BALQSOs: Every QSO might have BAL outflow with some covering factor. BALQSOs are those which happen to have outflow along our line of sight. BALQSOs have intrinsically different physical properties than non-BALQSOs. Based on BALQSO's optical emission properties and a large set of correlations linking many general QSO emission line and continuum properties, it has been suggested that BALQSOs might accrete at near Eddington limit with abundant of fuel supplies. With new BALQSO Hβ region spectroscopic observation conducted at UKIRT and re-analysis of literature data for low and high redshift non-BALQSOs, We confirm that BALQSOs have extreme Fe II and [O III] emission line properties. Using results derived from the latest QSO Hβ region reverberation mapping, we calculated Eddington ratios (˙ {M}/˙ {M}Edd) for our BAL and non-BALQSOs. The Fe II and [O III] strengths are strongly correlated with Eddington ratios. Those correlations link Eddington ratio to a large set of general QSO properties through the Boroson & Green Eigenvector 1. We find that BALQSOs have Eddington ratios close to 1. However, all high redshift, high luminosity QSOs have rather high Eddington ratios. We argue that this is a side effect from selecting the brightest objects. In fact, our high redshift sample might constitute BALQSO's high Eddington ratio orientation parent population.

  15. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.; Hou, Siqing

    2017-01-01

    baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number

  16. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  17. ESPRIT-Forest: Parallel clustering of massive amplicon sequence data in subquadratic time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yunpeng; Zheng, Wei; Yao, Jin; Yang, Yujie; Mai, Volker; Mao, Qi; Sun, Yijun

    2017-04-01

    The rapid development of sequencing technology has led to an explosive accumulation of genomic sequence data. Clustering is often the first step to perform in sequence analysis, and hierarchical clustering is one of the most commonly used approaches for this purpose. However, it is currently computationally expensive to perform hierarchical clustering of extremely large sequence datasets due to its quadratic time and space complexities. In this paper we developed a new algorithm called ESPRIT-Forest for parallel hierarchical clustering of sequences. The algorithm achieves subquadratic time and space complexity and maintains a high clustering accuracy comparable to the standard method. The basic idea is to organize sequences into a pseudo-metric based partitioning tree for sub-linear time searching of nearest neighbors, and then use a new multiple-pair merging criterion to construct clusters in parallel using multiple threads. The new algorithm was tested on the human microbiome project (HMP) dataset, currently one of the largest published microbial 16S rRNA sequence dataset. Our experiment demonstrated that with the power of parallel computing it is now compu- tationally feasible to perform hierarchical clustering analysis of tens of millions of sequences. The software is available at http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/∼yijunsun/lab/ESPRIT-Forest.html.

  18. Macroeconomic Dimensions in the Clusterization Processes: Lithuanian Biomass Cluster Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navickas Valentinas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Future production systems’ increasing significance will impose work, which maintains not a competitive, but a collaboration basis, with concentrated resources and expertise, which can help to reach the general purpose. One form of collaboration among medium-size business organizations is work in clusters. Clusterization as a phenomenon has been known from quite a long time, but it offers simple benefits to researches at micro and medium levels. The clusterization process evaluation in macroeconomic dimensions has been comparatively little investigated. Thereby, in this article, the clusterization processes is analysed by concentrating our attention on macroeconomic factor researches. The authors analyse clusterization’s influence on country’s macroeconomic growth; they apply a structure research methodology for clusterization’s macroeconomic influence evaluation and propose that clusterization processes benefit macroeconomic analysis. The theoretical model of clusterization processes was validated by referring to a biomass cluster case. Because biomass cluster case is a new phenomenon, currently there are no other scientific approaches to them. The authors’ accomplished researches show that clusterization allows the achievement of a large positive slip in macroeconomics, which proves to lead to a high value added to creation, a faster country economic growth, and social situation amelioration.

  19. New Fast Lane towards Discoveries of Clusters of Galaxies Inaugurated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Space and Ground-Based Telescopes Cooperate to Gain Deep Cosmological Insights Summary Using the ESA XMM-Newton satellite, a team of European and Chilean astronomers [2] has obtained the world's deepest "wide-field" X-ray image of the cosmos to date. This penetrating view, when complemented with observations by some of the largest and most efficient ground-based optical telescopes, including the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), has resulted in the discovery of several large clusters of galaxies. These early results from an ambitious research programme are extremely promising and pave the way for a very comprehensive and thorough census of clusters of galaxies at various epochs. Relying on the foremost astronomical technology and with an unequalled observational efficiency, this project is set to provide new insights into the structure and evolution of the distant Universe. PR Photo 19a/03: First image from the XMM-LSS survey. PR Photo 19b/03: Zoom-in on PR Photo 19b/03. PR Photo 19c/03: XMM-Newton contour map of the probable extent of a cluster of galaxies, superimposed upon a CHFT I-band image. PR Photo 19d/03: Velocity distribution in the cluster field shown in PR Photo 19c/03. The universal web Unlike grains of sand on a beach, matter is not uniformly spread throughout the Universe. Instead, it is concentrated into galaxies which themselves congregate into clusters (and even clusters of clusters). These clusters are "strung" throughout the Universe in a web-like structure, cf. ESO PR 11/01. Our Galaxy, the Milky Way, for example, belongs to the so-called Local Group which also comprises "Messier 31", the Andromeda Galaxy. The Local Group contains about 30 galaxies and measures a few million light-years across. Other clusters are much larger. The Coma cluster contains thousands of galaxies and measures more than 20 million light-years. Another well known example is the Virgo cluster, covering no less than 10 degrees on the sky ! Clusters of galaxies are the most

  20. Stationary and non-stationary extreme value modeling of extreme temperature in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Husna; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd; Kassim, Suraiya

    2014-09-01

    Extreme annual temperature of eighteen stations in Malaysia is fitted to the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. Stationary and non-stationary models with trend are considered for each station and the Likelihood Ratio test is used to determine the best-fitting model. Results show that three out of eighteen stations i.e. Bayan Lepas, Labuan and Subang favor a model which is linear in the location parameter. A hierarchical cluster analysis is employed to investigate the existence of similar behavior among the stations. Three distinct clusters are found in which one of them consists of the stations that favor the non-stationary model. T-year estimated return levels of the extreme temperature are provided based on the chosen models.

  1. Ethical implications of excessive cluster sizes in cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Taljaard, Monica; Forbes, Gordon; Eldridge, Sandra M; Weijer, Charles

    2018-02-20

    The cluster randomised trial (CRT) is commonly used in healthcare research. It is the gold-standard study design for evaluating healthcare policy interventions. A key characteristic of this design is that as more participants are included, in a fixed number of clusters, the increase in achievable power will level off. CRTs with cluster sizes that exceed the point of levelling-off will have excessive numbers of participants, even if they do not achieve nominal levels of power. Excessively large cluster sizes may have ethical implications due to exposing trial participants unnecessarily to the burdens of both participating in the trial and the potential risks of harm associated with the intervention. We explore these issues through the use of two case studies. Where data are routinely collected, available at minimum cost and the intervention poses low risk, the ethical implications of excessively large cluster sizes are likely to be low (case study 1). However, to maximise the social benefit of the study, identification of excessive cluster sizes can allow for prespecified and fully powered secondary analyses. In the second case study, while there is no burden through trial participation (because the outcome data are routinely collected and non-identifiable), the intervention might be considered to pose some indirect risk to patients and risks to the healthcare workers. In this case study it is therefore important that the inclusion of excessively large cluster sizes is justifiable on other grounds (perhaps to show sustainability). In any randomised controlled trial, including evaluations of health policy interventions, it is important to minimise the burdens and risks to participants. Funders, researchers and research ethics committees should be aware of the ethical issues of excessively large cluster sizes in cluster trials. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  2. Coulomb explosion of large penetrating molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1981-01-01

    The main purpose of these Coulomb explosion measurements is to determine what kind of structure these and other complex molecules may have and also to determine what other special phenomena may come into play as these complex molecules pass through matter. Although the first preliminary measurements involving the Coulomb explosion of these molecules was reported at this workshop last year, the results are briefly summarized before going on to the more recent measurements obtained with a completely new kind of detector system. This new image intensifier detector system, coupled with a microcomputer, has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of the Coulomb explosion of complex molecules that penetrate matter. In the future, with some additional improvements in the system, and much better statistics for most of the molecules studied to date, it is expected that much new information will be gained about the structure of many kinds of complex molecular ions including the special effects that may be encountered when these fast molecular ions penetrate matter

  3. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands...... or management. Both the Accelerate Wales and the Accelerate Cluster programmes target this issue by trying to establish networks between companies that can be used to supply knowledge from research institutions to manufacturing companies. The paper concludes that public sector interventions can make...... businesses. The universities were not considered by the participating companies to be important parts of the local business environment and inputs from universities did not appear to be an important source to access knowledge about new product development or new techniques in production, distribution...

  4. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  5. Cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mucha, Hans-Joachim; Sofyan, Hizir

    2000-01-01

    As an explorative technique, duster analysis provides a description or a reduction in the dimension of the data. It classifies a set of observations into two or more mutually exclusive unknown groups based on combinations of many variables. Its aim is to construct groups in such a way that the profiles of objects in the same groups are relatively homogenous whereas the profiles of objects in different groups are relatively heterogeneous. Clustering is distinct from classification techniques, ...

  6. Clustering with Obstacles in Spatial Databases

    OpenAIRE

    El-Zawawy, Mohamed A.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed E.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering large spatial databases is an important problem, which tries to find the densely populated regions in a spatial area to be used in data mining, knowledge discovery, or efficient information retrieval. However most algorithms have ignored the fact that physical obstacles such as rivers, lakes, and highways exist in the real world and could thus affect the result of the clustering. In this paper, we propose CPO, an efficient clustering technique to solve the problem of clustering in ...

  7. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution