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Sample records for cluster sample survey

  1. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Hund

    Full Text Available Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we compare these latter cluster LQAS methodologies and provide recommendations for choosing a cluster LQAS design. We compare technical differences in the three methods and determine situations in which the choice of method results in a substantively different design. We consider two different aspects of the methods: the distributional assumptions and the clustering parameterization. Further, we provide software tools for implementing each method and clarify misconceptions about these designs in the literature. We illustrate the differences in these methods using vaccination and nutrition cluster LQAS surveys as example designs. The cluster methods are not sensitive to the distributional assumptions but can result in substantially different designs (sample sizes depending on the clustering parameterization. However, none of the clustering parameterizations used in the existing methods appears to be consistent with the observed data, and, consequently, choice between the cluster LQAS methods is not straightforward. Further research should attempt to characterize clustering patterns in specific applications and provide suggestions for best-practice cluster LQAS designs on a setting-specific basis.

  2. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Bedrick, Edward J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we compare these latter cluster LQAS methodologies and provide recommendations for choosing a cluster LQAS design. We compare technical differences in the three methods and determine situations in which the choice of method results in a substantively different design. We consider two different aspects of the methods: the distributional assumptions and the clustering parameterization. Further, we provide software tools for implementing each method and clarify misconceptions about these designs in the literature. We illustrate the differences in these methods using vaccination and nutrition cluster LQAS surveys as example designs. The cluster methods are not sensitive to the distributional assumptions but can result in substantially different designs (sample sizes) depending on the clustering parameterization. However, none of the clustering parameterizations used in the existing methods appears to be consistent with the observed data, and, consequently, choice between the cluster LQAS methods is not straightforward. Further research should attempt to characterize clustering patterns in specific applications and provide suggestions for best-practice cluster LQAS designs on a setting-specific basis.

  3. Choosing a Cluster Sampling Design for Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Hund, Lauren; Bedrick, Edward J.; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys are commonly used for monitoring and evaluation in resource-limited settings. Recently several methods have been proposed to combine LQAS with cluster sampling for more timely and cost-effective data collection. For some of these methods, the standard binomial model can be used for constructing decision rules as the clustering can be ignored. For other designs, considered here, clustering is accommodated in the design phase. In this paper, we comp...

  4. The Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey Cluster Sample: Methodology and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, E. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Griffiths, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    We present a new, objectively selected, sample of galaxy overdensities detected in the Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey (MDS). These clusters/groups were found using an automated procedure that involved searching for statistically significant galaxy overdensities. The contrast of the clusters against the field galaxy population is increased when morphological data are used to search around bulge-dominated galaxies. In total, we present 92 overdensities above a probability threshold of 99.5%. We show, via extensive Monte Carlo simulations, that at least 60% of these overdensities are likely to be real clusters and groups and not random line-of-sight superpositions of galaxies. For each overdensity in the MDS cluster sample, we provide a richness and the average of the bulge-to-total ratio of galaxies within each system. This MDS cluster sample potentially contains some of the most distant clusters/groups ever detected, with about 25% of the overdensities having estimated redshifts z > ~0.9. We have made this sample publicly available to facilitate spectroscopic confirmation of these clusters and help more detailed studies of cluster and galaxy evolution. We also report the serendipitous discovery of a new cluster close on the sky to the rich optical cluster Cl l0016+16 at z = 0.546. This new overdensity, HST 001831+16208, may be coincident with both an X-ray source and a radio source. HST 001831+16208 is the third cluster/group discovered near to Cl 0016+16 and appears to strengthen the claims of Connolly et al. of superclustering at high redshift.

  5. Don't spin the pen: two alternative methods for second-stage sampling in urban cluster surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Angela MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In two-stage cluster surveys, the traditional method used in second-stage sampling (in which the first household in a cluster is selected is time-consuming and may result in biased estimates of the indicator of interest. Firstly, a random direction from the center of the cluster is selected, usually by spinning a pen. The houses along that direction are then counted out to the boundary of the cluster, and one is then selected at random to be the first household surveyed. This process favors households towards the center of the cluster, but it could easily be improved. During a recent meningitis vaccination coverage survey in Maradi, Niger, we compared this method of first household selection to two alternatives in urban zones: 1 using a superimposed grid on the map of the cluster area and randomly selecting an intersection; and 2 drawing the perimeter of the cluster area using a Global Positioning System (GPS and randomly selecting one point within the perimeter. Although we only compared a limited number of clusters using each method, we found the sampling grid method to be the fastest and easiest for field survey teams, although it does require a map of the area. Selecting a random GPS point was also found to be a good method, once adequate training can be provided. Spinning the pen and counting households to the boundary was the most complicated and time-consuming. The two methods tested here represent simpler, quicker and potentially more robust alternatives to spinning the pen for cluster surveys in urban areas. However, in rural areas, these alternatives would favor initial household selection from lower density (or even potentially empty areas. Bearing in mind these limitations, as well as available resources and feasibility, investigators should choose the most appropriate method for their particular survey context.

  6. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Hierarchical modeling of cluster size in wildlife surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Clusters or groups of individuals are the fundamental unit of observation in many wildlife sampling problems, including aerial surveys of waterfowl, marine mammals, and ungulates. Explicit accounting of cluster size in models for estimating abundance is necessary because detection of individuals within clusters is not independent and detectability of clusters is likely to increase with cluster size. This induces a cluster size bias in which the average cluster size in the sample is larger than in the population at large. Thus, failure to account for the relationship between delectability and cluster size will tend to yield a positive bias in estimates of abundance or density. I describe a hierarchical modeling framework for accounting for cluster-size bias in animal sampling. The hierarchical model consists of models for the observation process conditional on the cluster size distribution and the cluster size distribution conditional on the total number of clusters. Optionally, a spatial model can be specified that describes variation in the total number of clusters per sample unit. Parameter estimation, model selection, and criticism may be carried out using conventional likelihood-based methods. An extension of the model is described for the situation where measurable covariates at the level of the sample unit are available. Several candidate models within the proposed class are evaluated for aerial survey data on mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

  8. The Extended Northern ROSAT Galaxy Cluster Survey (NORAS II). I. Survey Construction and First Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Trümper, Joachim; Retzlaff, Jörg; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Schartel, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    As the largest, clearly defined building blocks of our universe, galaxy clusters are interesting astrophysical laboratories and important probes for cosmology. X-ray surveys for galaxy clusters provide one of the best ways to characterize the population of galaxy clusters. We provide a description of the construction of the NORAS II galaxy cluster survey based on X-ray data from the northern part of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. NORAS II extends the NORAS survey down to a flux limit of 1.8 × 10 −12 erg s −1 cm −2 (0.1–2.4 keV), increasing the sample size by about a factor of two. The NORAS II cluster survey now reaches the same quality and depth as its counterpart, the southern REFLEX II survey, allowing us to combine the two complementary surveys. The paper provides information on the determination of the cluster X-ray parameters, the identification process of the X-ray sources, the statistics of the survey, and the construction of the survey selection function, which we provide in numerical format. Currently NORAS II contains 860 clusters with a median redshift of z  = 0.102. We provide a number of statistical functions, including the log N –log S and the X-ray luminosity function and compare these to the results from the complementary REFLEX II survey. Using the NORAS II sample to constrain the cosmological parameters, σ 8 and Ω m , yields results perfectly consistent with those of REFLEX II. Overall, the results show that the two hemisphere samples, NORAS II and REFLEX II, can be combined without problems into an all-sky sample, just excluding the zone of avoidance.

  9. The Extended Northern ROSAT Galaxy Cluster Survey (NORAS II). I. Survey Construction and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Trümper, Joachim [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Retzlaff, Jörg [ESO, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schartel, Norbert [ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28692 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-05-01

    As the largest, clearly defined building blocks of our universe, galaxy clusters are interesting astrophysical laboratories and important probes for cosmology. X-ray surveys for galaxy clusters provide one of the best ways to characterize the population of galaxy clusters. We provide a description of the construction of the NORAS II galaxy cluster survey based on X-ray data from the northern part of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. NORAS II extends the NORAS survey down to a flux limit of 1.8 × 10{sup −12} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} (0.1–2.4 keV), increasing the sample size by about a factor of two. The NORAS II cluster survey now reaches the same quality and depth as its counterpart, the southern REFLEX II survey, allowing us to combine the two complementary surveys. The paper provides information on the determination of the cluster X-ray parameters, the identification process of the X-ray sources, the statistics of the survey, and the construction of the survey selection function, which we provide in numerical format. Currently NORAS II contains 860 clusters with a median redshift of z  = 0.102. We provide a number of statistical functions, including the log N –log S and the X-ray luminosity function and compare these to the results from the complementary REFLEX II survey. Using the NORAS II sample to constrain the cosmological parameters, σ {sub 8} and Ω{sub m}, yields results perfectly consistent with those of REFLEX II. Overall, the results show that the two hemisphere samples, NORAS II and REFLEX II, can be combined without problems into an all-sky sample, just excluding the zone of avoidance.

  10. Cluster-sample surveys and lot quality assurance sampling to evaluate yellow fever immunisation coverage following a national campaign, Bolivia, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Pineda, Silvia; Halkyer, Percy; Crespo, Gladys; Andrews, Nick; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2009-03-01

    To estimate the yellow fever (YF) vaccine coverage for the endemic and non-endemic areas of Bolivia and to determine whether selected districts had acceptable levels of coverage (>70%). We conducted two surveys of 600 individuals (25 x 12 clusters) to estimate coverage in the endemic and non-endemic areas. We assessed 11 districts using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS). The lot (district) sample was 35 individuals with six as decision value (alpha error 6% if true coverage 70%; beta error 6% if true coverage 90%). To increase feasibility, we divided the lots into five clusters of seven individuals; to investigate the effect of clustering, we calculated alpha and beta by conducting simulations where each cluster's true coverage was sampled from a normal distribution with a mean of 70% or 90% and standard deviations of 5% or 10%. Estimated coverage was 84.3% (95% CI: 78.9-89.7) in endemic areas, 86.8% (82.5-91.0) in non-endemic and 86.0% (82.8-89.1) nationally. LQAS showed that four lots had unacceptable coverage levels. In six lots, results were inconsistent with the estimated administrative coverage. The simulations suggested that the effect of clustering the lots is unlikely to have significantly increased the risk of making incorrect accept/reject decisions. Estimated YF coverage was high. Discrepancies between administrative coverage and LQAS results may be due to incorrect population data. Even allowing for clustering in LQAS, the statistical errors would remain low. Catch-up campaigns are recommended in districts with unacceptable coverage.

  11. THE SWIFT AGN AND CLUSTER SURVEY. II. CLUSTER CONFIRMATION WITH SDSS DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-01-01

    We study 203 (of 442) Swift AGN and Cluster Survey extended X-ray sources located in the SDSS DR8 footprint to search for galaxy over-densities in three-dimensional space using SDSS galaxy photometric redshifts and positions near the Swift cluster candidates. We find 104 Swift clusters with a >3σ galaxy over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmation as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, and X-ray luminosity. We also detect red sequences in ∼85% of the 104 confirmed clusters. The X-ray luminosity and optical richness for the SDSS confirmed Swift clusters are correlated and follow previously established relations. The distribution of the separations between the X-ray centroids and the most likely BCG is also consistent with expectation. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≲ 0.3 and is still 80% complete up to z ≃ 0.4, consistent with the SDSS survey depth. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further study of cluster evolution and cosmology. We also match our SDSS confirmed Swift clusters to existing cluster catalogs, and find 42, 23, and 1 matches in optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich catalogs, respectively, and so the majority of these clusters are new detections

  12. Performance of small cluster surveys and the clustered LQAS design to estimate local-level vaccination coverage in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Andrea; Riera-Montes, Margarita; Nackers, Fabienne; Roederer, Thomas; Koudika, Marie Hortense; Sekkenes, Johanne; Taconet, Aurore; Fermon, Florence; Touré, Albouhary; Grais, Rebecca F; Checchi, Francesco

    2012-10-12

    Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures are inaccurate. To be feasible, cluster samples need to be small, without losing robustness of results. The clustered LQAS (CLQAS) approach has been proposed as an alternative, as smaller sample sizes are required. We explored (i) the efficiency of cluster surveys of decreasing sample size through bootstrapping analysis and (ii) the performance of CLQAS under three alternative sampling plans to classify local VC, using data from a survey carried out in Mali after mass vaccination against meningococcal meningitis group A. VC estimates provided by a 10 × 15 cluster survey design were reasonably robust. We used them to classify health areas in three categories and guide mop-up activities: i) health areas not requiring supplemental activities; ii) health areas requiring additional vaccination; iii) health areas requiring further evaluation. As sample size decreased (from 10 × 15 to 10 × 3), standard error of VC and ICC estimates were increasingly unstable. Results of CLQAS simulations were not accurate for most health areas, with an overall risk of misclassification greater than 0.25 in one health area out of three. It was greater than 0.50 in one health area out of two under two of the three sampling plans. Small sample cluster surveys (10 × 15) are acceptably robust for classification of VC at local level. We do not recommend the CLQAS method as currently formulated for evaluating vaccination programmes.

  13. THE MASSIVE DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY: THE FIRST DISTANT GALAXY CLUSTER DISCOVERED BY WISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Stanford, S. Adam; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Masci, Frank J.; Papovich, Casey; Tanaka, Ichi; Wright, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a z = 0.99 galaxy cluster discovered using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This is the first z ∼ 1 cluster candidate from the Massive Distant Clusters of WISE Survey to be confirmed. It was selected as an overdensity of probable z ∼> 1 sources using a combination of WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 photometric catalogs. Deeper follow-up imaging data from Subaru and WIYN reveal the cluster to be a rich system of galaxies, and multi-object spectroscopic observations from Keck confirm five cluster members at z = 0.99. The detection and confirmation of this cluster represents a first step toward constructing a uniformly selected sample of distant, high-mass galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky using WISE data.

  14. CLUSTER LENSING PROFILES DERIVED FROM A REDSHIFT ENHANCEMENT OF MAGNIFIED BOSS-SURVEY GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupon, Jean; Umetsu, Keiichi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We report the first detection of a redshift-depth enhancement of background galaxies magnified by foreground clusters. Using 300,000 BOSS survey galaxies with accurate spectroscopic redshifts, we measure their mean redshift depth behind four large samples of optically selected clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveys, totaling 5000-15,000 clusters. A clear trend of increasing mean redshift toward the cluster centers is found, averaged over each of the four cluster samples. In addition, we find similar but noisier behavior for an independent X-ray sample of 158 clusters lying in the foreground of the current BOSS sky area. By adopting the mass-richness relationships appropriate for each survey, we compare our results with theoretical predictions for each of the four SDSS cluster catalogs. The radial form of this redshift enhancement is well fitted by a richness-to-mass weighted composite Navarro-Frenk-White profile with an effective mass ranging between M 200 ∼ 1.4-1.8 × 10 14 M ☉ for the optically detected cluster samples, and M 200 ∼ 5.0 × 10 14 M ☉ for the X-ray sample. This lensing detection helps to establish the credibility of these SDSS cluster surveys, and provides a normalization for their respective mass-richness relations. In the context of the upcoming bigBOSS, Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph, and EUCLID-NISP spectroscopic surveys, this method represents an independent means of deriving the masses of cluster samples for examining the cosmological evolution, and provides a relatively clean consistency check of weak-lensing measurements, free from the systematic limitations of shear calibration

  15. PHAT STELLAR CLUSTER SURVEY. I. YEAR 1 CATALOG AND INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hodge, Paul W.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Beerman, Lori C.; Seth, Anil C.; Caldwell, Nelson; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Larsen, Søren S.; Olsen, Knut A. G.; San Roman, Izaskun; Sarajedini, Ata; Bianchi, Luciana; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Girardi, Léo; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason; Lang, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-cycle program to obtain high spatial resolution imaging of one-third of the M31 disk at ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, we present the first installment of the PHAT stellar cluster catalog. When completed, the PHAT cluster catalog will be among the largest and most comprehensive surveys of resolved star clusters in any galaxy. The exquisite spatial resolution achieved with HST has allowed us to identify hundreds of new clusters that were previously inaccessible with existing ground-based surveys. We identify 601 clusters in the Year 1 sample, representing more than a factor of four increase over previous catalogs within the current survey area (390 arcmin 2 ). This work presents results derived from the first ∼25% of the survey data; we estimate that the final sample will include ∼2500 clusters. For the Year 1 objects, we present a catalog with positions, radii, and six-band integrated photometry. Along with a general characterization of the cluster luminosities and colors, we discuss the cluster luminosity function, the cluster size distributions, and highlight a number of individually interesting clusters found in the Year 1 search.

  16. PHAT STELLAR CLUSTER SURVEY. I. YEAR 1 CATALOG AND INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hodge, Paul W.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Beerman, Lori C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gouliermis, Dimitrios A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, Soren S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Olsen, Knut A. G. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); San Roman, Izaskun; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kalirai, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lang, Dustin, E-mail: lcjohnso@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2012-06-20

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-cycle program to obtain high spatial resolution imaging of one-third of the M31 disk at ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, we present the first installment of the PHAT stellar cluster catalog. When completed, the PHAT cluster catalog will be among the largest and most comprehensive surveys of resolved star clusters in any galaxy. The exquisite spatial resolution achieved with HST has allowed us to identify hundreds of new clusters that were previously inaccessible with existing ground-based surveys. We identify 601 clusters in the Year 1 sample, representing more than a factor of four increase over previous catalogs within the current survey area (390 arcmin{sup 2}). This work presents results derived from the first {approx}25% of the survey data; we estimate that the final sample will include {approx}2500 clusters. For the Year 1 objects, we present a catalog with positions, radii, and six-band integrated photometry. Along with a general characterization of the cluster luminosities and colors, we discuss the cluster luminosity function, the cluster size distributions, and highlight a number of individually interesting clusters found in the Year 1 search.

  17. Performance of small cluster surveys and the clustered LQAS design to estimate local-level vaccination coverage in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minetti Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures are inaccurate. To be feasible, cluster samples need to be small, without losing robustness of results. The clustered LQAS (CLQAS approach has been proposed as an alternative, as smaller sample sizes are required. Methods We explored (i the efficiency of cluster surveys of decreasing sample size through bootstrapping analysis and (ii the performance of CLQAS under three alternative sampling plans to classify local VC, using data from a survey carried out in Mali after mass vaccination against meningococcal meningitis group A. Results VC estimates provided by a 10 × 15 cluster survey design were reasonably robust. We used them to classify health areas in three categories and guide mop-up activities: i health areas not requiring supplemental activities; ii health areas requiring additional vaccination; iii health areas requiring further evaluation. As sample size decreased (from 10 × 15 to 10 × 3, standard error of VC and ICC estimates were increasingly unstable. Results of CLQAS simulations were not accurate for most health areas, with an overall risk of misclassification greater than 0.25 in one health area out of three. It was greater than 0.50 in one health area out of two under two of the three sampling plans. Conclusions Small sample cluster surveys (10 × 15 are acceptably robust for classification of VC at local level. We do not recommend the CLQAS method as currently formulated for evaluating vaccination programmes.

  18. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Upcoming Sunyaev–. Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to ...

  19. Precision of systematic and random sampling in clustered populations: habitat patches and aggregating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Richard; Burch, Paul; Matthews, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations of plants and animals spatially cluster because (1) suitable habitat is patchy, and (2) within suitable habitat, individuals aggregate further into clusters of higher density. We compare the precision of random and systematic field sampling survey designs under these two processes of species clustering. Second, we evaluate the performance of 13 estimators for the variance of the sample mean from a systematic survey. Replicated simulated surveys, as counts from 100 transects, allocated either randomly or systematically within the study region, were used to estimate population density in six spatial point populations including habitat patches and Matérn circular clustered aggregations of organisms, together and in combination. The standard one-start aligned systematic survey design, a uniform 10 x 10 grid of transects, was much more precise. Variances of the 10 000 replicated systematic survey mean densities were one-third to one-fifth of those from randomly allocated transects, implying transect sample sizes giving equivalent precision by random survey would need to be three to five times larger. Organisms being restricted to patches of habitat was alone sufficient to yield this precision advantage for the systematic design. But this improved precision for systematic sampling in clustered populations is underestimated by standard variance estimators used to compute confidence intervals. True variance for the survey sample mean was computed from the variance of 10 000 simulated survey mean estimates. Testing 10 published and three newly proposed variance estimators, the two variance estimators (v) that corrected for inter-transect correlation (ν₈ and ν(W)) were the most accurate and also the most precise in clustered populations. These greatly outperformed the two "post-stratification" variance estimators (ν₂ and ν₃) that are now more commonly applied in systematic surveys. Similar variance estimator performance rankings were found with

  20. The CfA-Rosat Survey of Distant Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Brian

    1998-01-01

    We (Vikhlinin, McNamara, Forman, Jones, Hornstrup, Quintana) have completed a new survey of distant clusters of galaxies, which we use to to study cluster evolution over cosmological timescales. The clusters were identified as extended X-ray sources in 650 ROSAT PSPC images of high Galactic latitude fields. Our catalog of approximately 230 extended X-ray sources covers 160 square degrees on the sky. Ours is the largest of the several ROSAT serendipitous cluster surveys in progress (e.g. SHARC, Rosati, WARPS etc.). Using V,R,I imagery obtained at several observatories, we find that greater than 90% of the X-ray sources are associated with distant clusters of galaxies. We have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for nearly 80 clusters in our catalog, and we have measured photometric redshifts for the remaining clusters. Our sample contains more than 20 clusters at z > 0.5. I will discuss the logN-logS relationship for our clusters. Because our large survey area, we are able to confirm the evolution of the most luminous distant clusters first seen in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. In addition, I will discuss the relationships between optical richness, core radius, and X-ray luminosity for distant, X-ray-selected clusters.

  1. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. Optical study of the DAFT/FADA galaxy cluster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Clowe, D.; Adami, C.

    2013-11-01

    DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a large survey of ˜90 high redshift (0.42×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with HST weak lensing oriented data, plus BVRIZJ 4m ground based follow up to compute photometric redshifts. The main goals of this survey are to constrain dark energy parameters using weak lensing tomography and to study a large homogeneous sample of high redshift massive clusters. We will briefly review the latest results of this optical survey, focusing on two ongoing works: the calculation of galaxy luminosity functions from photometric redshift catalogs and the weak lensing analysis of ground based data.

  3. Weak-lensing mass calibration of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope equatorial Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope stripe 82 survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, N.; Miyatake, H.; Hasselfield, M.; Calabrese, E.; Ferrara, S.; Hložek, R. [Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Leauthaud, A. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Gralla, M.B.; Crichton, D. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Allison, R.; Dunkley, J. [Dept. of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bond, J.R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Devlin, M.J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dünner, R. [Dept. de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Erben, T. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, University of Bonn, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Halpern, M.; Hincks, A.D. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hilton, M. [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Hill, J.C. [Dept. of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Huffenberger, K.M., E-mail: nbatta@astro.princeton.edu [Dept. of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); and others

    2016-08-01

    Mass calibration uncertainty is the largest systematic effect for using clusters of galaxies to constrain cosmological parameters. We present weak lensing mass measurements from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey for galaxy clusters selected through their high signal-to-noise thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) signal measured with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). For a sample of 9 ACT clusters with a tSZ signal-to-noise greater than five the average weak lensing mass is (4.8±0.8) ×10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙}, consistent with the tSZ mass estimate of (4.70±1.0) ×10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙} which assumes a universal pressure profile for the cluster gas. Our results are consistent with previous weak-lensing measurements of tSZ-detected clusters from the Planck satellite. When comparing our results, we estimate the Eddington bias correction for the sample intersection of Planck and weak-lensing clusters which was previously excluded.

  4. Weak-lensing mass calibration of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope equatorial Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope stripe 82 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, N.; Miyatake, H.; Hasselfield, M.; Calabrese, E.; Ferrara, S.; Hložek, R.; Leauthaud, A.; Gralla, M.B.; Crichton, D.; Allison, R.; Dunkley, J.; Bond, J.R.; Devlin, M.J.; Dünner, R.; Erben, T.; Halpern, M.; Hincks, A.D.; Hilton, M.; Hill, J.C.; Huffenberger, K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mass calibration uncertainty is the largest systematic effect for using clusters of galaxies to constrain cosmological parameters. We present weak lensing mass measurements from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey for galaxy clusters selected through their high signal-to-noise thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) signal measured with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). For a sample of 9 ACT clusters with a tSZ signal-to-noise greater than five the average weak lensing mass is (4.8±0.8) ×10 14 M ⊙ , consistent with the tSZ mass estimate of (4.70±1.0) ×10 14 M ⊙ which assumes a universal pressure profile for the cluster gas. Our results are consistent with previous weak-lensing measurements of tSZ-detected clusters from the Planck satellite. When comparing our results, we estimate the Eddington bias correction for the sample intersection of Planck and weak-lensing clusters which was previously excluded.

  5. X-ray and optical substructures of the DAFT/FADA survey clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Durret, F.; Adami, C.; Lima Neto, G. B.

    2013-04-01

    We have undertaken the DAFT/FADA survey with the double aim of setting constraints on dark energy based on weak lensing tomography and of obtaining homogeneous and high quality data for a sample of 91 massive clusters in the redshift range 0.4-0.9 for which there were HST archive data. We have analysed the XMM-Newton data available for 42 of these clusters to derive their X-ray temperatures and luminosities and search for substructures. Out of these, a spatial analysis was possible for 30 clusters, but only 23 had deep enough X-ray data for a really robust analysis. This study was coupled with a dynamical analysis for the 26 clusters having at least 30 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range. Altogether, the X-ray sample of 23 clusters and the optical sample of 26 clusters have 14 clusters in common. We present preliminary results on the coupled X-ray and dynamical analyses of these 14 clusters.

  6. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinchaboy, Peter; O'Connell, Julia; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia; Thompson, Benjamin; Melendez, Matthew; Shetrone, Matthew; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R.; APOGEE TEAM

    2018-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Analysis and Mapping (OCCAM) survey aims to produce a comprehensive, uniform, infrared-based data set forhundreds of open clusters, and constrain key Galactic dynamical and chemical parameters using the SDSS/APOGEE survey and follow-up from the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We report on multi-element radial abundance gradients obtained from a sample of over 30 disk open clusters. The APOGEE chemical abundances were derived automatically by the ASPCAP pipeline and these are part of the SDSS IV Data Release 14, optical follow-up were analyzed using equivalent width analysis and spectral synthesis. We present the current open cluster sample that spans a significant range in age allowing exploration of the evolution of the Galactic abundance gradients. This work is supported by an NSF AAG grants AST-1311835 & AST-1715662.

  7. The C4 clustering algorithm: Clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Nichol, Robert; Reichart, Dan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Evrard, August; Annis, James; McKay, Timothy; Bahcall, Neta; Bernardi, Mariangela; Boehringer,; Connolly, Andrew; Goto, Tomo; Kniazev, Alexie; Lamb, Donald; Postman, Marc; Schneider, Donald; Sheth, Ravi; Voges, Wolfgang; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Portsmouth U.,

    2005-03-01

    We present the ''C4 Cluster Catalog'', a new sample of 748 clusters of galaxies identified in the spectroscopic sample of the Second Data Release (DR2) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The C4 cluster-finding algorithm identifies clusters as overdensities in a seven-dimensional position and color space, thus minimizing projection effects that have plagued previous optical cluster selection. The present C4 catalog covers {approx}2600 square degrees of sky and ranges in redshift from z = 0.02 to z = 0.17. The mean cluster membership is 36 galaxies (with redshifts) brighter than r = 17.7, but the catalog includes a range of systems, from groups containing 10 members to massive clusters with over 200 cluster members with redshifts. The catalog provides a large number of measured cluster properties including sky location, mean redshift, galaxy membership, summed r-band optical luminosity (L{sub r}), velocity dispersion, as well as quantitative measures of substructure and the surrounding large-scale environment. We use new, multi-color mock SDSS galaxy catalogs, empirically constructed from the {Lambda}CDM Hubble Volume (HV) Sky Survey output, to investigate the sensitivity of the C4 catalog to the various algorithm parameters (detection threshold, choice of passbands and search aperture), as well as to quantify the purity and completeness of the C4 cluster catalog. These mock catalogs indicate that the C4 catalog is {approx_equal}90% complete and 95% pure above M{sub 200} = 1 x 10{sup 14} h{sup -1}M{sub {circle_dot}} and within 0.03 {le} z {le} 0.12. Using the SDSS DR2 data, we show that the C4 algorithm finds 98% of X-ray identified clusters and 90% of Abell clusters within 0.03 {le} z {le} 0.12. Using the mock galaxy catalogs and the full HV dark matter simulations, we show that the L{sub r} of a cluster is a more robust estimator of the halo mass (M{sub 200}) than the galaxy line-of-sight velocity dispersion or the richness of the cluster

  8. Weak-Lensing Mass Calibration of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Equatorial Sunyaev-Zeldovich Cluster Sample with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, N.; Leauthaud, A.; Miyatake, H.; Hasseleld, M.; Gralla, M. B.; Allison, R.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Crichton, D.; Devlin, M. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Mass calibration uncertainty is the largest systematic effect for using clustersof galaxies to constrain cosmological parameters. We present weak lensing mass measurements from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey for galaxy clusters selected through their high signal-to-noise thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) signal measured with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). For a sample of 9 ACT clusters with a tSZ signal-to-noise greater than five, the average weak lensing mass is (4.8 plus or minus 0.8) times 10 (sup 14) solar mass, consistent with the tSZ mass estimate of (4.7 plus or minus 1.0) times 10 (sup 14) solar mass, which assumes a universal pressure profile for the cluster gas. Our results are consistent with previous weak-lensing measurements of tSZ-detected clusters from the Planck satellite. When comparing our results, we estimate the Eddington bias correction for the sample intersection of Planck and weak-lensing clusters which was previously excluded.

  9. Studying dark energy with galaxy cluster surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; O'Shea, Brian; Evrard, August E.; Bialek, John; Haiman, Zoltan

    2003-01-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys provide a powerful means of studying the density and nature of the dark energy. The redshift distribution of detected clusters in a deep, large solid angle SZE or X-ray survey is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state. Accurate constraints at the 5% level on the dark energy equation of state require that systematic biases in the mass estimators must be controlled at better than the ∼10% level. Observed regularity in the cluster population and the availability of multiple, independent mass estimators suggests these precise measurements are possible. Using hydrodynamical simulations that include preheating, we show that the level of preheating required to explain local galaxy cluster structure has a dramatic effect on X-ray cluster surveys, but only a mild effect on SZE surveys. This suggests that SZE surveys may be optimal for cosmology while X-ray surveys are well suited for studies of the thermal history of the intracluster medium

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. VI. (den Brok+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Balcells, M.; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Graham, A. W.; Hammer, D.; Lucey, J. R.; Trentham, N.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Jogee, S.; Karick, A. M.; Marinova, I.; Mouhcine, M.; Weinzirl, T.

    2018-01-01

    We have used the data from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey, a deep two-passband imaging survey of the Coma cluster. A full description of the observations and data reduction can be found in Paper I (Carter et al., 2008ApJS..176..424C). We have derived colour gradients for a sample of confirmed or very likely Coma cluster members. (2 data files).

  11. Systematic Sampling and Cluster Sampling of Packet Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Lindh, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Based on experiences of a traffic flow performance meter this papersuggests and evaluates cluster sampling and systematic sampling as methods toestimate average packet delays. Systematic sampling facilitates for exampletime analysis, frequency analysis and jitter measurements. Cluster samplingwith repeated trains of periodically spaced sampling units separated by randomstarting periods, and systematic sampling are evaluated with respect to accuracyand precision. Packet delay traces have been ...

  12. Extending cluster Lot Quality Assurance Sampling designs for surveillance programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance based on the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than ...

  13. Optimising cluster survey design for planning schistosomiasis preventive chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C L Knowles

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of current schistosomiasis control programmes is delivery of praziquantel to at-risk populations. Such preventive chemotherapy requires accurate information on the geographic distribution of infection, yet the performance of alternative survey designs for estimating prevalence and converting this into treatment decisions has not been thoroughly evaluated.We used baseline schistosomiasis mapping surveys from three countries (Malawi, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia to generate spatially realistic gold standard datasets, against which we tested alternative two-stage cluster survey designs. We assessed how sampling different numbers of schools per district (2-20 and children per school (10-50 influences the accuracy of prevalence estimates and treatment class assignment, and we compared survey cost-efficiency using data from Malawi. Due to the focal nature of schistosomiasis, up to 53% simulated surveys involving 2-5 schools per district failed to detect schistosomiasis in low endemicity areas (1-10% prevalence. Increasing the number of schools surveyed per district improved treatment class assignment far more than increasing the number of children sampled per school. For Malawi, surveys of 15 schools per district and 20-30 children per school reliably detected endemic schistosomiasis and maximised cost-efficiency. In sensitivity analyses where treatment costs and the country considered were varied, optimal survey size was remarkably consistent, with cost-efficiency maximised at 15-20 schools per district.Among two-stage cluster surveys for schistosomiasis, our simulations indicated that surveying 15-20 schools per district and 20-30 children per school optimised cost-efficiency and minimised the risk of under-treatment, with surveys involving more schools of greater cost-efficiency as treatment costs rose.

  14. A two-stage cluster sampling method using gridded population data, a GIS, and Google EarthTM imagery in a population-based mortality survey in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galway LP

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality estimates can measure and monitor the impacts of conflict on a population, guide humanitarian efforts, and help to better understand the public health impacts of conflict. Vital statistics registration and surveillance systems are rarely functional in conflict settings, posing a challenge of estimating mortality using retrospective population-based surveys. Results We present a two-stage cluster sampling method for application in population-based mortality surveys. The sampling method utilizes gridded population data and a geographic information system (GIS to select clusters in the first sampling stage and Google Earth TM imagery and sampling grids to select households in the second sampling stage. The sampling method is implemented in a household mortality study in Iraq in 2011. Factors affecting feasibility and methodological quality are described. Conclusion Sampling is a challenge in retrospective population-based mortality studies and alternatives that improve on the conventional approaches are needed. The sampling strategy presented here was designed to generate a representative sample of the Iraqi population while reducing the potential for bias and considering the context specific challenges of the study setting. This sampling strategy, or variations on it, are adaptable and should be considered and tested in other conflict settings.

  15. RELICS: Strong Lens Models for Five Galaxy Clusters from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Catherine; Sharon, Keren; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Avila, Roberto J.; Bradač, Maruša; Bradley, Larry D.; Carrasco, Daniela; Coe, Dan; Czakon, Nicole G.; Dawson, William A.; Frye, Brenda L.; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuang-Han; Johnson, Traci L.; Jones, Christine; Lam, Daniel; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Mainali, Ramesh; Oesch, Pascal A.; Ogaz, Sara; Past, Matthew; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Peterson, Avery; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steven A.; Ryan, Russell E.; Salmon, Brett; Sendra-Server, Irene; Stark, Daniel P.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Trenti, Michele; Umetsu, Keiichi; Vulcani, Benedetta; Zitrin, Adi

    2018-06-01

    Strong gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters magnifies background galaxies, enhancing our ability to discover statistically significant samples of galaxies at {\\boldsymbol{z}}> 6, in order to constrain the high-redshift galaxy luminosity functions. Here, we present the first five lens models out of the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS) Hubble Treasury Program, based on new HST WFC3/IR and ACS imaging of the clusters RXC J0142.9+4438, Abell 2537, Abell 2163, RXC J2211.7–0349, and ACT-CLJ0102–49151. The derived lensing magnification is essential for estimating the intrinsic properties of high-redshift galaxy candidates, and properly accounting for the survey volume. We report on new spectroscopic redshifts of multiply imaged lensed galaxies behind these clusters, which are used as constraints, and detail our strategy to reduce systematic uncertainties due to lack of spectroscopic information. In addition, we quantify the uncertainty on the lensing magnification due to statistical and systematic errors related to the lens modeling process, and find that in all but one cluster, the magnification is constrained to better than 20% in at least 80% of the field of view, including statistical and systematic uncertainties. The five clusters presented in this paper span the range of masses and redshifts of the clusters in the RELICS program. We find that they exhibit similar strong lensing efficiencies to the clusters targeted by the Hubble Frontier Fields within the WFC3/IR field of view. Outputs of the lens models are made available to the community through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

  16. SPT-GMOS: A GEMINI/GMOS-SOUTH SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Capasso, R.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H-M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crites, A. T.; Haan, T. de

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 deg 2 of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between 2011 January and 2015 December, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goal of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic data set and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts, and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W , of [O ii] λλ 3727, 3729 and H- δ , and the 4000 Å break strength, D4000. We use the spectral indices to classify galaxies by spectral type (i.e., passive, post-starburst, star-forming), and we match the spectra against photometric catalogs to characterize spectroscopically observed cluster members as a function of brightness (relative to m ⋆ ). Finally, we report several new measurements of redshifts for ten bright, strongly lensed background galaxies in the cores of eight galaxy clusters. Combining the SPT-GMOS data set with previous spectroscopic follow-up of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters results in spectroscopic measurements for >100 clusters, or ∼20% of the full SPT-SZ sample.

  17. SPT-GMOS: A Gemini/GMOS-South Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxy Clusters in the SPT-SZ Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Capasso, R.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H.-M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Doucouliagos, A. N.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G. P.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gupta, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; von der Linden, A.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 deg2 of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between 2011 January and 2015 December, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goal of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic data set and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts, and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W, of [O II] λλ3727, 3729 and H-δ, and the 4000 Å break strength, D4000. We use the spectral indices to classify galaxies by spectral type (i.e., passive, post-starburst, star-forming), and we match the spectra against photometric catalogs to characterize spectroscopically observed cluster members as a function of brightness (relative to m⋆). Finally, we report several new measurements of redshifts for ten bright, strongly lensed background galaxies in the cores of eight galaxy clusters. Combining the SPT-GMOS data set with previous spectroscopic follow-up of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters results in spectroscopic measurements for >100 clusters, or ∼20% of the full SPT-SZ sample.

  18. AGN Clustering in the BAT Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Meredith; Cappelluti, Nico; Urry, Meg; Koss, Michael; BASS Team

    2018-01-01

    We characterize the environments of local growing supermassive black holes by measuring the clustering of AGN in the Swift-BAT Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). With 548 AGN in the redshift range 0.012MASS galaxies, we constrain the halo occupation distribution (HOD) of the full sample with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as in bins of obscuration with matched luminosity distributions. In doing so, we find that AGN tend to reside in galaxy groups, agreeing with previous studies of AGN throughout a large range of luminosity and redshift. We also find evidence that obscured AGN tend to reside in denser environments than unobscured AGN.

  19. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Galactic Neutron CaptureAbundance Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Melendez, Matthew; Cunha, Katia; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; APOGEE Team

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of elements, as a function or age, throughout the Milky Way disk provides a key constraint for galaxy evolution models. In an effort to provide these constraints, we have conducted an investigation into the r- and s- process elemental abundances for a large sample of open clusters as part of an optical follow-up to the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. Stars were identified as cluster members by the Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey, which culls member candidates by radial velocity, metallicity and proper motion from the observed APOGEE sample. To obtain data for neutron capture elements in these clusters, we conducted a long-term observing campaign covering three years (2013-2016) using the McDonald Observatory Otto Struve 2.1-m telescope and Sandiford Cass Echelle Spectrograph (R ~ 60,000). We present Galactic neutron capture abundance gradients using 30+ clusters, within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a range of ages from ~80 Myr to ~10 Gyr .

  20. Cluster cosmology with next-generation surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, B.

    2017-03-01

    The advent of next-generation surveys will provide a large number of cluster detections that will serve the basis for constraining cos mological parameters using cluster counts. The main two observational ingredients needed are the cluster selection function and the calibration of the mass-observable relation. In this talk, we present the methodology designed to obtain robust predictions of both ingredients based on realistic cosmological simulations mimicking the following next-generation surveys: J-PAS, LSST and Euclid. We display recent results on the selection functions for these mentioned surveys together with others coming from other next-generation surveys such as eROSITA, ACTpol and SPTpol. We notice that the optical and IR surveys will reach the lowest masses between 0.3surveys and introduce very preliminary results.

  1. Stochastic coupled cluster theory: Efficient sampling of the coupled cluster expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles J. C.; Thom, Alex J. W.

    2017-09-01

    We consider the sampling of the coupled cluster expansion within stochastic coupled cluster theory. Observing the limitations of previous approaches due to the inherently non-linear behavior of a coupled cluster wavefunction representation, we propose new approaches based on an intuitive, well-defined condition for sampling weights and on sampling the expansion in cluster operators of different excitation levels. We term these modifications even and truncated selections, respectively. Utilising both approaches demonstrates dramatically improved calculation stability as well as reduced computational and memory costs. These modifications are particularly effective at higher truncation levels owing to the large number of terms within the cluster expansion that can be neglected, as demonstrated by the reduction of the number of terms to be sampled when truncating at triple excitations by 77% and hextuple excitations by 98%.

  2. Evolution of cluster X-ray luminosities and radii: Results from the 160 square degree rosat survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; McNamara, B.R.; Forman, W.

    1998-01-01

    We searched for cluster X-ray luminosity and radius evolution using our sample of 203 galaxy clusters detected in the 160 deg(2) survey with the ROSAT PSPC (Vikhlinin et al.). With such a large area survey, it is possible, for the first time with ROSAT, to test the evolution of luminous clusters, L......-X > 3 x 10(44) ergs s(-1) in the 0.5-2 keV band. We detect a factor of 3-4 deficit of such luminous clusters at z > 0.3 compared with the present. The evolution is much weaker or absent at modestly lower luminosities, (1-3) x 10(44) ergs s(-1). At still lower luminosities, we find no evolution from...... the analysis of the log N-log S relation. The results in the two upper L, bins are in agreement with the Einstein Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey evolution result (Gioia et al.; Henry ct al.), which was obtained using a completely independent cluster sample. The low-L-X results are in agreement with other...

  3. Spatially explicit population estimates for black bears based on cluster sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, J.; McCown, J. Walter; Scheick, B.K.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated abundance and density of the 5 major black bear (Ursus americanus) subpopulations (i.e., Eglin, Apalachicola, Osceola, Ocala-St. Johns, Big Cypress) in Florida, USA with spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture (SCR) by extracting DNA from hair samples collected at barbed-wire hair sampling sites. We employed a clustered sampling configuration with sampling sites arranged in 3 × 3 clusters spaced 2 km apart within each cluster and cluster centers spaced 16 km apart (center to center). We surveyed all 5 subpopulations encompassing 38,960 km2 during 2014 and 2015. Several landscape variables, most associated with forest cover, helped refine density estimates for the 5 subpopulations we sampled. Detection probabilities were affected by site-specific behavioral responses coupled with individual capture heterogeneity associated with sex. Model-averaged bear population estimates ranged from 120 (95% CI = 59–276) bears or a mean 0.025 bears/km2 (95% CI = 0.011–0.44) for the Eglin subpopulation to 1,198 bears (95% CI = 949–1,537) or 0.127 bears/km2 (95% CI = 0.101–0.163) for the Ocala-St. Johns subpopulation. The total population estimate for our 5 study areas was 3,916 bears (95% CI = 2,914–5,451). The clustered sampling method coupled with information on land cover was efficient and allowed us to estimate abundance across extensive areas that would not have been possible otherwise. Clustered sampling combined with spatially explicit capture-recapture methods has the potential to provide rigorous population estimates for a wide array of species that are extensive and heterogeneous in their distribution.

  4. Space density and clustering properties of a new sample of emission-line galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewski, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    A moderate-dispersion objective-prism survey for low-redshift emission-line galaxies has been carried out in an 825 sq. deg. region of sky with the Burrell Schmidt telescope of Case Western Reserve University. A 4 0 prism (300 A/mm at H#betta#) was used with the Illa-J emulsion to show that a new sample of emission-line galaxies is available even in areas already searched with the excess uv-continuum technique. The new emission-line galaxies occur quite commonly in systems with peculiar morphology indicating gravitational interaction with a close companion or other disturbance. About 10 to 15% of the sample are Seyfert galaxies. It is suggested that tidal interaction involving matter infall play a significant role in the generation of an emission-line spectrum. The space density of the new galaxies is found to be similar to the space density of the Makarian galaxies. Like the Markarian sample, the galaxies in the present survey represent about 10% of all galaxies in the absolute magnitude range M/sub p/ = -16 to -22. The observations also indicate that current estimates of dwarf galaxy space densities may be too low. The clustering properties of the new galaxies have been investigated using two approaches: cluster contour maps and the spatial correlation function. These tests suggest that there is weak clustering and possibly superclustering within the sample itself and that the galaxies considered here are about as common in clusters of ordinary galaxies as in the field

  5. LENSING NOISE IN MILLIMETER-WAVE GALAXY CLUSTER SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaveh, Yashar; Vanderlinde, Keith; Holder, Gilbert; De Haan, Tijmen

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters of the background of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and examine the implications for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-based (SZ) galaxy cluster surveys. At the locations of galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing modifies the probability distribution of the background flux of the DSFGs as well as the CMB. We find that, in the case of a single-frequency 150 GHz survey, lensing of DSFGs leads both to a slight increase (∼10%) in detected cluster number counts (due to a ∼50% increase in the variance of the DSFG background, and hence an increased Eddington bias) and a rare (occurring in ∼2% of clusters) 'filling-in' of SZ cluster signals by bright strongly lensed background sources. Lensing of the CMB leads to a ∼55% reduction in CMB power at the location of massive galaxy clusters in a spatially matched single-frequency filter, leading to a net decrease in detected cluster number counts. We find that the increase in DSFG power and decrease in CMB power due to lensing at cluster locations largely cancel, such that the net effect on cluster number counts for current SZ surveys is subdominant to Poisson errors

  6. Relative efficiency and sample size for cluster randomized trials with variable cluster sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiying; Williams, O Dale; Aban, Inmaculada; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Tiwari, Hemant K; Cutter, Gary

    2011-02-01

    The statistical power of cluster randomized trials depends on two sample size components, the number of clusters per group and the numbers of individuals within clusters (cluster size). Variable cluster sizes are common and this variation alone may have significant impact on study power. Previous approaches have taken this into account by either adjusting total sample size using a designated design effect or adjusting the number of clusters according to an assessment of the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes. This article defines a relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes using noncentrality parameters, investigates properties of this measure, and proposes an approach for adjusting the required sample size accordingly. We focus on comparing two groups with normally distributed outcomes using t-test, and use the noncentrality parameter to define the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes and show that statistical power depends only on this parameter for a given number of clusters. We calculate the sample size required for an unequal cluster sizes trial to have the same power as one with equal cluster sizes. Relative efficiency based on the noncentrality parameter is straightforward to calculate and easy to interpret. It connects the required mean cluster size directly to the required sample size with equal cluster sizes. Consequently, our approach first determines the sample size requirements with equal cluster sizes for a pre-specified study power and then calculates the required mean cluster size while keeping the number of clusters unchanged. Our approach allows adjustment in mean cluster size alone or simultaneous adjustment in mean cluster size and number of clusters, and is a flexible alternative to and a useful complement to existing methods. Comparison indicated that we have defined a relative efficiency that is greater than the relative efficiency in the literature under some conditions. Our measure

  7. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrabback, T.; Applegate, D.; Dietrich, J. P.; Hoekstra, H.; Bocquet, S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; der Linden, A. von; McDonald, M.; Morrison, C. B.; Raihan, S. F.; Allen, S. W.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S.; Foley, R. J.; de Haan, T.; High, F. W.; Hilbert, S.; Mantz, A. B.; Massey, R.; Mohr, J.; Reichardt, C. L.; Saro, A.; Simon, P.; Stern, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zenteno, A.

    2017-10-14

    We present an HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z(median) = 0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V - I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the concentration-mass relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalization of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln (E(z) M-500c/10(14)M(circle dot)) = A + 1.5ln (kT/7.2 keV) to A = 1.81(-0.14)(+0.24)(stat.)+/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c(200c) = 5.6(-1.8)(+3.7).

  8. Cluster mass calibration at high redshift: HST weak lensing analysis of 13 distant galaxy clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrabback, T.; Applegate, D.; Dietrich, J. P.; Hoekstra, H.; Bocquet, S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; von der Linden, A.; McDonald, M.; Morrison, C. B.; Raihan, S. F.; Allen, S. W.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S.; Foley, R. J.; de Haan, T.; High, F. W.; Hilbert, S.; Mantz, A. B.; Massey, R.; Mohr, J.; Reichardt, C. L.; Saro, A.; Simon, P.; Stern, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zenteno, A.

    2018-02-01

    We present an HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (zmedian = 0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V - I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the concentration-mass relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalization of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln (E(z)M500c/1014 M⊙) = A + 1.5ln (kT/7.2 keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) {± } 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  9. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY (NGVS). I. INTRODUCTION TO THE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Gwyn, S. D. J.; MacArthur, Lauren A.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Blakeslee, John P.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Peng, Eric W.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Boselli, A.; Mei, Simona; Erben, Thomas; Durrell, Patrick R.; Christopher Mihos, J.; Jordán, Andrés; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Emsellem, Eric; Balogh, Michael L.; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a program that uses the 1 deg 2 MegaCam instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to carry out a comprehensive optical imaging survey of the Virgo cluster, from its core to its virial radius—covering a total area of 104 deg 2 —in the u*griz bandpasses. Thanks to a dedicated data acquisition strategy and processing pipeline, the NGVS reaches a point-source depth of g ≈ 25.9 mag (10σ) and a surface brightness limit of μ g ∼ 29 mag arcsec –2 (2σ above the mean sky level), thus superseding all previous optical studies of this benchmark galaxy cluster. In this paper, we give an overview of the technical aspects of the survey, such as areal coverage, field placement, choice of filters, limiting magnitudes, observing strategies, data processing and calibration pipelines, survey timeline, and data products. We also describe the primary scientific topics of the NGVS, which include: the galaxy luminosity and mass functions; the color-magnitude relation; galaxy scaling relations; compact stellar systems; galactic nuclei; the extragalactic distance scale; the large-scale environment of the cluster and its relationship to the Local Supercluster; diffuse light and the intracluster medium; galaxy interactions and evolutionary processes; and extragalactic star clusters. In addition, we describe a number of ancillary programs dealing with 'foreground' and 'background' science topics, including the study of high-inclination trans-Neptunian objects; the structure of the Galactic halo in the direction of the Virgo Overdensity and Sagittarius Stream; the measurement of cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy, and cluster lensing; and the identification of distant galaxy clusters, and strong-lensing events.

  10. X-Ray Temperatures, Luminosities, and Masses from XMM-Newton Follow-up of the First Shear-selected Galaxy Cluster Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Amruta J.; Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Wittman, David, E-mail: amrejd@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: dwittman@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    We continue the study of the first sample of shear-selected clusters from the initial 8.6 square degrees of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS); a sample with well-defined selection criteria corresponding to the highest ranked shear peaks in the survey area. We aim to characterize the weak lensing selection by examining the sample’s X-ray properties. There are multiple X-ray clusters associated with nearly all the shear peaks: 14 X-ray clusters corresponding to seven DLS shear peaks. An additional three X-ray clusters cannot be definitively associated with shear peaks, mainly due to large positional offsets between the X-ray centroid and the shear peak. Here we report on the XMM-Newton properties of the 17 X-ray clusters. The X-ray clusters display a wide range of luminosities and temperatures; the L {sub X} − T {sub X} relation we determine for the shear-associated X-ray clusters is consistent with X-ray cluster samples selected without regard to dynamical state, while it is inconsistent with self-similarity. For a subset of the sample, we measure X-ray masses using temperature as a proxy, and compare to weak lensing masses determined by the DLS team. The resulting mass comparison is consistent with equality. The X-ray and weak lensing masses show considerable intrinsic scatter (∼48%), which is consistent with X-ray selected samples when their X-ray and weak lensing masses are independently determined.

  11. A catalogue of clusters of galaxies identified from all sky surveys of 2MASS, WISE, and SuperCOSMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.; Yang, F.

    2018-03-01

    We identify 47 600 clusters of galaxies from photometric data of Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and SuperCOSMOS, among which 26 125 clusters are recognized for the first time and mostly in the sky outside the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) area. About 90 per cent of massive clusters of M500 > 3 × 1014 M⊙ in the redshift range of 0.025 < z < 0.3 have been detected from such survey data, and the detection rate drops down to 50 per cent for clusters with a mass of M500 ˜ 1 × 1014 M⊙. Monte Carlo simulations show that the false detection rate for the whole cluster sample is less than 5 per cent. By cross-matching with ROSAT and XMM-Newton sources, we get 779 new X-ray cluster candidates which have X-ray counterparts within a projected offset of 0.2 Mpc.

  12. Planck/SDSS Cluster Mass and Gas Scaling Relations for a Volume-Complete redMaPPer Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno, Pablo; Diego, Jose M.; Broadhurst, Tom; De Martino, I.; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    Using Planck satellite data, we construct Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) gas pressure profiles for a large, volume-complete sample of optically selected clusters. We have defined a sample of over 8,000 redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), within the volume-complete redshift region 0.100 trend towards larger break radius with increasing cluster mass. Our SZ-based masses fall ˜16% below the mass-richness relations from weak lensing, in a similar fashion as the "hydrostatic bias" related with X-ray derived masses. Finally, we derive a tight Y500-M500 relation over a wide range of cluster mass, with a power law slope equal to 1.70 ± 0.07, that agrees well with the independent slope obtained by the Planck team with an SZ-selected cluster sample, but extends to lower masses with higher precision.

  13. Re-estimating sample size in cluster randomized trials with active recruitment within clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, Sander; Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Often only a limited number of clusters can be obtained in cluster randomised trials, although many potential participants can be recruited within each cluster. Thus, active recruitment is feasible within the clusters. To obtain an efficient sample size in a cluster randomised trial, the cluster

  14. The SUMO project I. A survey of multiple populations in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monelli, M.; Milone, A. P.; Stetson, P. B.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; del Pino Molina, A.; Salaris, M.; Aparicio, A.; Asplund, M.; Grundahl, F.; Piotto, G.; Weiss, A.; Carrera, R.; Cebrián, M.; Murabito, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Sbordone, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present a general overview and the first results of the SUMO project (a SUrvey of Multiple pOpulations in Globular Clusters). The objective of this survey is the study of multiple stellar populations in the largest sample of globular clusters homogeneously analysed to date. To this aim we obtained high signal-to-noise (S/N > 50) photometry for main sequence stars with mass down to ˜0.5 M⊙ in a large sample of clusters using both archival and proprietary U, B, V and I data from ground-based telescopes. In this paper, we focus on the occurrence of multiple stellar populations in 23 clusters. We define a new photometric index, cU, B, I = (U - B) - (B - I), which turns out to be very effective for identifying multiple sequences along the red giant branch (RGB). We found that in the V-cU, B, I diagram all clusters presented in this paper show broadened or multimodal RGBs, with the presence of two or more components. We found a direct connection with the chemical properties of different sequences, which display different abundances of light elements (O, Na, C, N and Al). The cU, B, I index is also a powerful tool for identifying distinct sequences of stars along the horizontal branch and, for the first time in the case of NGC 104 (47 Tuc), along the asymptotic giant branch. Our results demonstrate that (i) the presence of more than two stellar populations is a common feature amongst globular clusters, as already highlighted in previous work; (ii) multiple sequences with different chemical contents can be easily identified by using standard Johnson photometry obtained with ground-based facilities; (iii) in the study of globular cluster multiple stellar populations the cU, B, I index is an alternative to spectroscopy, and has the advantage of larger statistics.

  15. Confronting the sound speed of dark energy with future cluster surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hannestad, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that, in combin......Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that......, in combination with Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations from Planck, cluster surveys such as that in the ESA Euclid project will be able to determine a time-independent w with subpercent precision. Likewise, if the dark energy sound horizon falls within the length scales probed by the cluster survey......, then c_s^2 can be pinned down to within an order of magnitude. In the course of this work, we also investigate the process of dark energy virialisation in the presence of an arbitrary sound speed. We find that dark energy clustering and virialisation can lead to dark energy contributing to the total...

  16. THE SNAPSHOT HUBBLE U-BAND CLUSTER SURVEY (SHUCS). I. SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND FIRST APPLICATION TO THE MIXED STAR CLUSTER POPULATION OF NGC 4041

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Adamo, A. [Max-Planck-Institut for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Silva-Villa, E. [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, and Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Quebec (CRAQ), Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Gallagher, J. S.; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling, 475 North Charter Street, Madison WI 53706 (United States); Bastian, N. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Westmoquette, M. S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Zackrisson, E. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Oscar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden); Larsen, S. S. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Weisz, D. R. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Charlton, J. C., E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We present the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS), a project aimed at characterizing the star cluster populations of 10 nearby galaxies (d < 23 Mpc, half within Almost-Equal-To 12 Mpc) through new F336W (U-band equivalent) imaging from Wide Field Camera 3, and archival BVI-equivalent data with the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing the UBVI baseline reduces the age-extinction degeneracy of optical colors, thus enabling the measurement of reliable ages and masses for the thousands of clusters covered by our survey. The sample consists chiefly of face-on spiral galaxies at low inclination, in various degrees of isolation (isolated, in group, merging), and includes two active galactic nucleus hosts. This first paper outlines the survey itself, the observational datasets, the analysis methods, and presents a proof-of-concept study of the large-scale properties and star cluster population of NGC 4041, a massive SAbc galaxy at a distance of Almost-Equal-To 23 Mpc, and part of a small grouping of six giant members. We resolve two structural components with distinct stellar populations, a morphology more akin to merging and interacting systems. We also find strong evidence of a truncated, Schechter-type mass function, and a similarly segmented luminosity function. These results indicate that binning must erase much of the substructure present in the mass and luminosity functions, and might account for the conflicting reports on the intrinsic shape of these functions in the literature. We also note a tidal feature in the outskirts of the galaxy in Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging, and follow it up with a comprehensive multi-wavelength study of NGC 4041 and its parent group. We deduce a minor merger as a likely cause of its segmented structure and the observed pattern of a radially decreasing star formation rate. We propose that combining the study of star cluster populations with broadband metrics is not only advantageous, but often easily achievable thorough

  17. The IMACS Cluster Building Survey. I. Description of the Survey and Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oemler Jr., Augustus; Dressler, Alan; Gladders, Michael G.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bai, Lei; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward; Fritz, Jacopo; Rieke, George; Poggianti, Bianca M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines.With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

  18. THE IMACS CLUSTER BUILDING SURVEY. I. DESCRIPTION OF THE SURVEY AND ANALYSIS METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oemler, Augustus Jr.; Dressler, Alan; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); Gladders, Michael G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Observational Cosmology Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bai Lei [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Fritz, Jacopo [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Rieke, George [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 8572 (United States); Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta, E-mail: oemler@obs.carnegiescience.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2013-06-10

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines. With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

  19. The Swift/BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey. IX. The Clustering Environments of an Unbiased Sample of Local AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M. C.; Cappelluti, N.; Urry, C. M.; Koss, M.; Finoguenov, A.; Ricci, C.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Allevato, V.; Ajello, M.; Oh, K.; Schawinski, K.; Secrest, N.

    2018-05-01

    We characterize the environments of local accreting supermassive black holes by measuring the clustering of AGNs in the Swift/BAT Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). With 548 AGN in the redshift range 0.01 2MASS galaxies, and interpreting it via halo occupation distribution and subhalo-based models, we constrain the occupation statistics of the full sample, as well as in bins of absorbing column density and black hole mass. We find that AGNs tend to reside in galaxy group environments, in agreement with previous studies of AGNs throughout a large range of luminosity and redshift, and that on average they occupy their dark matter halos similar to inactive galaxies of comparable stellar mass. We also find evidence that obscured AGNs tend to reside in denser environments than unobscured AGNs, even when samples were matched in luminosity, redshift, stellar mass, and Eddington ratio. We show that this can be explained either by significantly different halo occupation distributions or statistically different host halo assembly histories. Lastly, we see that massive black holes are slightly more likely to reside in central galaxies than black holes of smaller mass.

  20. The HectoMAP Cluster Survey. I. redMaPPer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jubee; Geller, Margaret J.; Rines, Kenneth J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Utsumi, Yousuke; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2018-04-01

    We use the dense HectoMAP redshift survey to explore the properties of 104 redMaPPer cluster candidates. The redMaPPer systems in HectoMAP cover the full range of richness and redshift (0.08 systems included in the Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam public data release are bona fide clusters. The median number of spectroscopic members per cluster is ∼20. We include redshifts of 3547 member candidates listed in the redMaPPer catalog whether they are cluster members or not. We evaluate the redMaPPer membership probability spectroscopically. The purity (number of real systems) in redMaPPer exceeds 90% even at the lowest richness. Three massive galaxy clusters (M ∼ 2 × 1013 M ⊙) associated with X-ray emission in the HectoMAP region are not included in the public redMaPPer catalog with λ rich > 20, because they lie outside the cuts for this catalog.

  1. Substructures in DAFT/FADA survey clusters based on XMM and optical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durret, F.; DAFT/FADA Team

    2014-07-01

    The DAFT/FADA survey was initiated to perform weak lensing tomography on a sample of 90 massive clusters in the redshift range [0.4,0.9] with HST imaging available. The complementary deep multiband imaging constitutes a high quality imaging data base for these clusters. In X-rays, we have analysed the XMM-Newton and/or Chandra data available for 32 clusters, and for 23 clusters we fit the X-ray emissivity with a beta-model and subtract it to search for substructures in the X-ray gas. This study was coupled with a dynamical analysis for the 18 clusters with at least 15 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range, based on a Serna & Gerbal (SG) analysis. We detected ten substructures in eight clusters by both methods (X-rays and SG). The percentage of mass included in substructures is found to be roughly constant with redshift, with values of 5-15%. Most of the substructures detected both in X-rays and with the SG method are found to be relatively recent infalls, probably at their first cluster pericenter approach.

  2. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  3. Evaluation of immunization coverage by lot quality assurance sampling compared with 30-cluster sampling in a primary health centre in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Jain, D C; Sharma, R S; Verghese, T

    1996-01-01

    The immunization coverage of infants, children and women residing in a primary health centre (PHC) area in Rajasthan was evaluated both by lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) and by the 30-cluster sampling method recommended by WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The LQAS survey was used to classify 27 mutually exclusive subunits of the population, defined as residents in health subcentre areas, on the basis of acceptable or unacceptable levels of immunization coverage among infants and their mothers. The LQAS results from the 27 subcentres were also combined to obtain an overall estimate of coverage for the entire population of the primary health centre, and these results were compared with the EPI cluster survey results. The LQAS survey did not identify any subcentre with a level of immunization among infants high enough to be classified as acceptable; only three subcentres were classified as having acceptable levels of tetanus toxoid (TT) coverage among women. The estimated overall coverage in the PHC population from the combined LQAS results showed that a quarter of the infants were immunized appropriately for their ages and that 46% of their mothers had been adequately immunized with TT. Although the age groups and the periods of time during which the children were immunized differed for the LQAS and EPI survey populations, the characteristics of the mothers were largely similar. About 57% (95% CI, 46-67) of them were found to be fully immunized with TT by 30-cluster sampling, compared with 46% (95% CI, 41-51) by stratified random sampling. The difference was not statistically significant. The field work to collect LQAS data took about three times longer, and cost 60% more than the EPI survey. The apparently homogeneous and low level of immunization coverage in the 27 subcentres makes this an impractical situation in which to apply LQAS, and the results obtained were therefore not particularly useful. However, if LQAS had been applied by local

  4. Cosmological analysis of galaxy clusters surveys in X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, N.

    2012-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies are the most massive objects in equilibrium in our Universe. Their study allows to test cosmological scenarios of structure formation with precision, bringing constraints complementary to those stemming from the cosmological background radiation, supernovae or galaxies. They are identified through the X-ray emission of their heated gas, thus facilitating their mapping at different epochs of the Universe. This report presents two surveys of galaxy clusters detected in X-rays and puts forward a method for their cosmological interpretation. Thanks to its multi-wavelength coverage extending over 10 sq. deg. and after one decade of expertise, the XMM-LSS allows a systematic census of clusters in a large volume of the Universe. In the framework of this survey, the first part of this report describes the techniques developed to the purpose of characterizing the detected objects. A particular emphasis is placed on the most distant ones (z ≥ 1) through the complementarity of observations in X-ray, optical and infrared bands. Then the X-CLASS survey is fully described. Based on XMM archival data, it provides a new catalogue of 800 clusters detected in X-rays. A cosmological analysis of this survey is performed thanks to 'CR-HR' diagrams. This new method self-consistently includes selection effects and scaling relations and provides a means to bypass the computation of individual cluster masses. Propositions are made for applying this method to future surveys as XMM-XXL and eRosita. (author) [fr

  5. Further observations on comparison of immunization coverage by lot quality assurance sampling and 30 cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Jain, D C; Sharma, R S; Verghese, T

    1996-06-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and standard EPI methodology (30 cluster sampling) were used to evaluate immunization coverage in a Primary Health Center (PHC) where coverage levels were reported to be more than 85%. Of 27 sub-centers (lots) evaluated by LQAS, only 2 were accepted for child coverage, whereas none was accepted for tetanus toxoid (TT) coverage in mothers. LQAS data were combined to obtain an estimate of coverage in the entire population; 41% (95% CI 36-46) infants were immunized appropriately for their ages, while 42% (95% CI 37-47) of their mothers had received a second/ booster dose of TT. TT coverage in 149 contemporary mothers sampled in EPI survey was also 42% (95% CI 31-52). Although results by the two sampling methods were consistent with each other, a big gap was evident between reported coverage (in children as well as mothers) and survey results. LQAS was found to be operationally feasible, but it cost 40% more and required 2.5 times more time than the EPI survey. LQAS therefore, is not a good substitute for current EPI methodology to evaluate immunization coverage in a large administrative area. However, LQAS has potential as method to monitor health programs on a routine basis in small population sub-units, especially in areas with high and heterogeneously distributed immunization coverage.

  6. SPATIAL ANISOTROPY OF GALAXY KINEMATICS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skielboe, Andreas; Wojtak, Radosław; Pedersen, Kristian; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of galaxy cluster kinematics are important in understanding the dynamical state and evolution of clusters of galaxies, as well as constraining cosmological models. While it is well established that clusters exhibit non-spherical geometries, evident in the distribution of galaxies on the sky, azimuthal variations of galaxy kinematics within clusters have yet to be observed. Here we measure the azimuthal dependence of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion profile in a stacked sample of 1743 galaxy clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The clusters are drawn from the SDSS DR8 redMaPPer catalog. We find that the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of galaxies lying along the major axis of the central galaxy is larger than those that lie along the minor axis. This is the first observational detection of anisotropic kinematics of galaxies in clusters. We show that the result is consistent with predictions from numerical simulations. Furthermore, we find that the degree of projected anisotropy is strongly dependent on the line-of-sight orientation of the galaxy cluster, opening new possibilities for assessing systematics in optical cluster finding.

  7. Spectral embedded clustering: a framework for in-sample and out-of-sample spectral clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Feiping; Zeng, Zinan; Tsang, Ivor W; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Changshui

    2011-11-01

    Spectral clustering (SC) methods have been successfully applied to many real-world applications. The success of these SC methods is largely based on the manifold assumption, namely, that two nearby data points in the high-density region of a low-dimensional data manifold have the same cluster label. However, such an assumption might not always hold on high-dimensional data. When the data do not exhibit a clear low-dimensional manifold structure (e.g., high-dimensional and sparse data), the clustering performance of SC will be degraded and become even worse than K -means clustering. In this paper, motivated by the observation that the true cluster assignment matrix for high-dimensional data can be always embedded in a linear space spanned by the data, we propose the spectral embedded clustering (SEC) framework, in which a linearity regularization is explicitly added into the objective function of SC methods. More importantly, the proposed SEC framework can naturally deal with out-of-sample data. We also present a new Laplacian matrix constructed from a local regression of each pattern and incorporate it into our SEC framework to capture both local and global discriminative information for clustering. Comprehensive experiments on eight real-world high-dimensional datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of our SEC framework over existing SC methods and K-means-based clustering methods. Our SEC framework significantly outperforms SC using the Nyström algorithm on unseen data.

  8. Comparing the performance of cluster random sampling and integrated threshold mapping for targeting trachoma control, using computer simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Smith

    Full Text Available Implementation of trachoma control strategies requires reliable district-level estimates of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF, generally collected using the recommended gold-standard cluster randomized surveys (CRS. Integrated Threshold Mapping (ITM has been proposed as an integrated and cost-effective means of rapidly surveying trachoma in order to classify districts according to treatment thresholds. ITM differs from CRS in a number of important ways, including the use of a school-based sampling platform for children aged 1-9 and a different age distribution of participants. This study uses computerised sampling simulations to compare the performance of these survey designs and evaluate the impact of varying key parameters.Realistic pseudo gold standard data for 100 districts were generated that maintained the relative risk of disease between important sub-groups and incorporated empirical estimates of disease clustering at the household, village and district level. To simulate the different sampling approaches, 20 clusters were selected from each district, with individuals sampled according to the protocol for ITM and CRS. Results showed that ITM generally under-estimated the true prevalence of TF over a range of epidemiological settings and introduced more district misclassification according to treatment thresholds than did CRS. However, the extent of underestimation and resulting misclassification was found to be dependent on three main factors: (i the district prevalence of TF; (ii the relative risk of TF between enrolled and non-enrolled children within clusters; and (iii the enrollment rate in schools.Although in some contexts the two methodologies may be equivalent, ITM can introduce a bias-dependent shift as prevalence of TF increases, resulting in a greater risk of misclassification around treatment thresholds. In addition to strengthening the evidence base around choice of trachoma survey methodologies, this study illustrates

  9. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. II. Discovery of six clusters with Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chené, A.-N.; Borissova, J.; Bonatto, C.; Majaess, D. J.; Baume, G.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Kurtev, R.; Schnurr, O.; Bouret, J.-C.; Catelan, M.; Emerson, J. P.; Feinstein, C.; Geisler, D.; de Grijs, R.; Hervé, A.; Ivanov, V. D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Lucas, P.; Mahy, L.; Martins, F.; Mauro, F.; Minniti, D.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The ESO Public Survey "VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea" (VVV) provides deep multi-epoch infrared observations for an unprecedented 562 sq. degrees of the Galactic bulge, and adjacent regions of the disk. Nearly 150 new open clusters and cluster candidates have been discovered in this survey. Aims: This is the second in a series of papers about young, massive open clusters observed using the VVV survey. We present the first study of six recently discovered clusters. These clusters contain at least one newly discovered Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. Methods: Following the methodology presented in the first paper of the series, wide-field, deep JHKs VVV observations, combined with new infrared spectroscopy, are employed to constrain fundamental parameters for a subset of clusters. Results: We find that the six studied stellar groups are real young (2-7 Myr) and massive (between 0.8 and 2.2 × 103 M⊙) clusters. They are highly obscured (AV ~ 5-24 mag) and compact (1-2 pc). In addition to WR stars, two of the six clusters also contain at least one red supergiant star, and one of these two clusters also contains a blue supergiant. We claim the discovery of 8 new WR stars, and 3 stars showing WR-like emission lines which could be classified WR or OIf. Preliminary analysis provides initial masses of ~30-50 M⊙ for the WR stars. Finally, we discuss the spiral structure of the Galaxy using the six new clusters as tracers, together with the previously studied VVV clusters. Based on observations with ISAAC, VLT, ESO (programme 087.D-0341A), New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory (programme 087.D-0490A) and with the Clay telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory (programme CN2011A-086). Also based on data from the VVV survey (programme 172.B-2002).

  10. Sampling in health geography: reconciling geographical objectives and probabilistic methods. An example of a health survey in Vientiane (Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bochaton Audrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical objectives and probabilistic methods are difficult to reconcile in a unique health survey. Probabilistic methods focus on individuals to provide estimates of a variable's prevalence with a certain precision, while geographical approaches emphasise the selection of specific areas to study interactions between spatial characteristics and health outcomes. A sample selected from a small number of specific areas creates statistical challenges: the observations are not independent at the local level, and this results in poor statistical validity at the global level. Therefore, it is difficult to construct a sample that is appropriate for both geographical and probability methods. Methods We used a two-stage selection procedure with a first non-random stage of selection of clusters. Instead of randomly selecting clusters, we deliberately chose a group of clusters, which as a whole would contain all the variation in health measures in the population. As there was no health information available before the survey, we selected a priori determinants that can influence the spatial homogeneity of the health characteristics. This method yields a distribution of variables in the sample that closely resembles that in the overall population, something that cannot be guaranteed with randomly-selected clusters, especially if the number of selected clusters is small. In this way, we were able to survey specific areas while minimising design effects and maximising statistical precision. Application We applied this strategy in a health survey carried out in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. We selected well-known health determinants with unequal spatial distribution within the city: nationality and literacy. We deliberately selected a combination of clusters whose distribution of nationality and literacy is similar to the distribution in the general population. Conclusion This paper describes the conceptual reasoning behind

  11. Sampling in health geography: reconciling geographical objectives and probabilistic methods. An example of a health survey in Vientiane (Lao PDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Julie; Souris, Marc; Fournet, Florence; Bochaton, Audrey; Mobillion, Virginie; Peyronnie, Karine; Salem, Gérard

    2007-06-01

    Geographical objectives and probabilistic methods are difficult to reconcile in a unique health survey. Probabilistic methods focus on individuals to provide estimates of a variable's prevalence with a certain precision, while geographical approaches emphasise the selection of specific areas to study interactions between spatial characteristics and health outcomes. A sample selected from a small number of specific areas creates statistical challenges: the observations are not independent at the local level, and this results in poor statistical validity at the global level. Therefore, it is difficult to construct a sample that is appropriate for both geographical and probability methods. We used a two-stage selection procedure with a first non-random stage of selection of clusters. Instead of randomly selecting clusters, we deliberately chose a group of clusters, which as a whole would contain all the variation in health measures in the population. As there was no health information available before the survey, we selected a priori determinants that can influence the spatial homogeneity of the health characteristics. This method yields a distribution of variables in the sample that closely resembles that in the overall population, something that cannot be guaranteed with randomly-selected clusters, especially if the number of selected clusters is small. In this way, we were able to survey specific areas while minimising design effects and maximising statistical precision. We applied this strategy in a health survey carried out in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. We selected well-known health determinants with unequal spatial distribution within the city: nationality and literacy. We deliberately selected a combination of clusters whose distribution of nationality and literacy is similar to the distribution in the general population. This paper describes the conceptual reasoning behind the construction of the survey sample and shows that it can be

  12. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrabback, T.; et al.

    2016-11-11

    We present an HST/ACS weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z_median=0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V-I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on CANDELS data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the mass-concentration relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalisation of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln(E(z) M_500c/10^14 M_sun)=A+1.5 ln(kT/7.2keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) +/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  13. Evaluation of immunization coverage by lot quality assurance sampling compared with 30-cluster sampling in a primary health centre in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, J.; Jain, D. C.; Sharma, R. S.; Verghese, T.

    1996-01-01

    The immunization coverage of infants, children and women residing in a primary health centre (PHC) area in Rajasthan was evaluated both by lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) and by the 30-cluster sampling method recommended by WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The LQAS survey was used to classify 27 mutually exclusive subunits of the population, defined as residents in health subcentre areas, on the basis of acceptable or unacceptable levels of immunization coverage among inf...

  14. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2013-01-01

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a ΛCDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 200 , a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M 200 and in L X demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  15. New open cluster candidates discovered in the XSTPS-GAC survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Hui-Hua; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Huang, Yang; Wang, Song; Chen, Li; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Liu, Ji-Feng; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Tian, Zhi-Jia; Huo, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    The Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (XSTPS-GAC) is a photometric sky survey that covers nearly 6000 deg2 towards the Galactic Anti-center (GAC) in the g, r, i bands. Half of its survey field is located on the Galactic Anti-center disk, which makes XSTPS-GAC highly suitable to search for new open clusters in the GAC region. In this paper, we report new open cluster candidates discovered in this survey, as well as properties of these open cluster candidates, such as age, distance and reddening, derived by isochrone fitting in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). These open cluster candidates are stellar density peaks detected in the star density maps by applying the method from Koposov et al. Each candidate is inspected in terms of its true color image composed from three XSTPS-GAC band images. Then its CMD is checked, in order to identify whether the central region stars have a clear isochrone-like trend differing from background stars. The parameters derived from isochrone fitting for these candidates are mainly based on three band photometry of XSTPS-GAC. Moreover, when these new candidates are able to be seen clearly in 2MASS data, their parameters are also derived based on the 2MASS (J – H, J) CMD. There are a total of 320 known open clusters rediscovered and 24 new open cluster candidates discovered in this work. Furthermore, the parameters of these new candidates, as well as another 11 previously known open clusters, are properly determined for the first time.

  16. The Gaia-ESO Survey: open clusters in Gaia-DR1 . A way forward to stellar age calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randich, S.; Tognelli, E.; Jackson, R.; Jeffries, R. D.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Pancino, E.; Re Fiorentin, P.; Spagna, A.; Sacco, G.; Bragaglia, A.; Magrini, L.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Alfaro, E.; Franciosini, E.; Morbidelli, L.; Roccatagliata, V.; Bouy, H.; Bravi, L.; Jiménez-Esteban, F. M.; Jordi, C.; Zari, E.; Tautvaišiene, G.; Drazdauskas, A.; Mikolaitis, S.; Gilmore, G.; Feltzing, S.; Vallenari, A.; Bensby, T.; Koposov, S.; Korn, A.; Lanzafame, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Heiter, U.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Determination and calibration of the ages of stars, which heavily rely on stellar evolutionary models, are very challenging, while representing a crucial aspect in many astrophysical areas. Aims: We describe the methodologies that, taking advantage of Gaia-DR1 and the Gaia-ESO Survey data, enable the comparison of observed open star cluster sequences with stellar evolutionary models. The final, long-term goal is the exploitation of open clusters as age calibrators. Methods: We perform a homogeneous analysis of eight open clusters using the Gaia-DR1 TGAS catalogue for bright members and information from the Gaia-ESO Survey for fainter stars. Cluster membership probabilities for the Gaia-ESO Survey targets are derived based on several spectroscopic tracers. The Gaia-ESO Survey also provides the cluster chemical composition. We obtain cluster parallaxes using two methods. The first one relies on the astrometric selection of a sample of bona fide members, while the other one fits the parallax distribution of a larger sample of TGAS sources. Ages and reddening values are recovered through a Bayesian analysis using the 2MASS magnitudes and three sets of standard models. Lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages are also determined using literature observations and the same models employed for the Bayesian analysis. Results: For all but one cluster, parallaxes derived by us agree with those presented in Gaia Collaboration (2017, A&A, 601, A19), while a discrepancy is found for NGC 2516; we provide evidence supporting our own determination. Inferred cluster ages are robust against models and are generally consistent with literature values. Conclusions: The systematic parallax errors inherent in the Gaia DR1 data presently limit the precision of our results. Nevertheless, we have been able to place these eight clusters onto the same age scale for the first time, with good agreement between isochronal and LDB ages where there is overlap. Our approach appears promising

  17. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A MASSIVE RED-SEQUENCE-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.34 IN THE SpARCS-SOUTH CLUSTER SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Gillian; Demarco, Ricardo; Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H. K. C.; Lacy, Mark; Surace, Jason; Gilbank, David; Blindert, Kris; Hoekstra, Henk; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gladders, Michael D.; Lonsdale, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS) is a z'-passband imaging survey, consisting of deep (z' ≅ 24 AB) observations made from both hemispheres using the CFHT 3.6 m and CTIO 4 m telescopes. The survey was designed with the primary aim of detecting galaxy clusters at z > 1. In tandem with pre-existing 3.6 μm observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope SWIRE Legacy Survey, SpARCS detects clusters using an infrared adaptation of the two-filter red-sequence cluster technique. The total effective area of the SpARCS cluster survey is 41.9 deg 2 . In this paper, we provide an overview of the 13.6 deg 2 Southern CTIO/MOSAIC II observations. The 28.3 deg 2 Northern CFHT/MegaCam observations are summarized in a companion paper by Muzzin et al. In this paper, we also report spectroscopic confirmation of SpARCS J003550-431224, a very rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.335, discovered in the ELAIS-S1 field. To date, this is the highest spectroscopically confirmed redshift for a galaxy cluster discovered using the red-sequence technique. Based on nine confirmed members, SpARCS J003550-431224 has a preliminary velocity dispersion of 1050 ± 230 km s -1 . With its proven capability for efficient cluster detection, SpARCS is a demonstration that we have entered an era of large, homogeneously selected z > 1 cluster surveys.

  18. The cosmological analysis of X-ray cluster surveys - I. A new method for interpreting number counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, N.; Pierre, M.; Pacaud, F.; Sadibekova, T.

    2012-07-01

    We present a new method aimed at simplifying the cosmological analysis of X-ray cluster surveys. It is based on purely instrumental observable quantities considered in a two-dimensional X-ray colour-magnitude diagram (hardness ratio versus count rate). The basic principle is that even in rather shallow surveys, substantial information on cluster redshift and temperature is present in the raw X-ray data and can be statistically extracted; in parallel, such diagrams can be readily predicted from an ab initio cosmological modelling. We illustrate the methodology for the case of a 100-deg2XMM survey having a sensitivity of ˜10-14 erg s-1 cm-2 and fit at the same time, the survey selection function, the cluster evolutionary scaling relations and the cosmology; our sole assumption - driven by the limited size of the sample considered in the case study - is that the local cluster scaling relations are known. We devote special attention to the realistic modelling of the count-rate measurement uncertainties and evaluate the potential of the method via a Fisher analysis. In the absence of individual cluster redshifts, the count rate and hardness ratio (CR-HR) method appears to be much more efficient than the traditional approach based on cluster counts (i.e. dn/dz, requiring redshifts). In the case where redshifts are available, our method performs similar to the traditional mass function (dn/dM/dz) for the purely cosmological parameters, but constrains better parameters defining the cluster scaling relations and their evolution. A further practical advantage of the CR-HR method is its simplicity: this fully top-down approach totally bypasses the tedious steps consisting in deriving cluster masses from X-ray temperature measurements.

  19. National sample survey to assess the new case disease burden of leprosy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Katoch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A national sample survey of leprosy was undertaken in partnership with Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR institutions, National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP, Panchayati Raj members, and treated leprosy patients to detect new cases of leprosy in India. The objectives of the survey were to estimate the new leprosy case load; record both Grade 1 and Grade 2 disabilities in the new cases; and to assess the magnitude of stigma and discrimination prevalent in the society. A cluster based, cross-sectional survey involving all States was used for the door-to-door survey using inverse sampling methodology. Rural and urban clusters were sampled separately. The population screened for detecting 28 new cases in rural and 30 in urban clusters was enumerated, recorded and analyzed. Data capture and analysis in different schedules were the main tools used. For quality control three tiers of experts were utilized for the confirmation of cases and disabilities. Self-stigma was assessed in more than half of the total new patients detected with disabilities by the approved questionnaire. A different questionnaire was used to assess the stigma in the community. A population of 14,725,525 (10,302,443 rural; 4,423,082 urban was screened and 2161 new cases - 1300 paucibacillary (PB and 861 multibacillary (MB were detected. New case estimates for leprosy was 330,346 (95% Confidence limits, 287,445-380,851. Disabilities observed in these cases were 2.05/100,000 population and 13.9 per cent (302/2161 in new cases. Self-stigma in patients with disabilities was reduced, and the patients were well accepted by the spouse, neighbour, at workplace and in social functions.

  20. Evolution of galaxies clustering in the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneux, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    The recent surveys of the Universe highlighted the presence of structures in the matter distribution, such as filaments and voids. To study the evolution of the galaxy spatial distribution, it is necessary to know their accurate position in a three dimensional space. This thesis took place within the framework of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). Its goal is to measure some 100000 redshifts to study the formation and evolution of the galaxies and large scale structures of the Universe up to z∼5. After having made a review of our knowledge of the galaxies distribution, then introduced the VVDS, I present the measurement and the evolution of the real-space two-point correlation function from the first epoch data of the VVDS, the largest sample of 10759 spectra ever acquired up to I_A_B = 24. I developed a whole set of programs made available to the VVDS consortium to easily measure the clustering length of galaxies in a given redshift range, with its associated errors, correcting the effects of the VVDS observing strategy. This tool enabled to measure the evolution of the real space correlation function of the global galaxies population up to z=2. I then extended this study dividing the full galaxies sample by spectral type and color. Finally, combining the GALEX data to the VVDS has allowed me to measure the clustering of an ultraviolet-selected sample of galaxies up to z∼1. This is the first time that such measurements are carried out on such a so long range of cosmic time. The results presented in this thesis are thus establishing a new reference in the field. (author) [fr

  1. Modern survey sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to SamplingAbstract Introduction Concepts of Population, Sample, and SamplingInitial RamificationsAbstract Introduction Sampling Design, Sampling SchemeRandom Numbers and Their Uses in Simple RandomSampling (SRS)Drawing Simple Random Samples with and withoutReplacementEstimation of Mean, Total, Ratio of Totals/Means:Variance and Variance EstimationDetermination of Sample SizesA.2 Appendix to Chapter 2 A.More on Equal Probability Sampling A.Horvitz-Thompson EstimatorA.SufficiencyA.LikelihoodA.Non-Existence Theorem More Intricacies Abstract Introduction Unequal Probability Sampling StrategiesPPS Sampling Exploring Improved WaysAbstract Introduction Stratified Sampling Cluster SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingMulti-Phase Sampling: Ratio and RegressionEstimationviiviii ContentsControlled SamplingModeling Introduction Super-Population ModelingPrediction Approach Model-Assisted Approach Bayesian Methods Spatial SmoothingSampling on Successive Occasions: Panel Rotation Non-Response and Not-at-Homes Weighting Adj...

  2. A DEEP, WIDE-FIELD Hα SURVEY OF NEARBY CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Shoko; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Moss, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a wide-field Hα imaging survey of eight nearby (z = 0.02-0.03) Abell clusters. We have measured Hα fluxes and equivalent widths for 465 galaxies, of which 360 are new detections. The survey was designed to obtain complete emission-line-selected inventories of star-forming galaxies in the inner regions of these clusters, extending to star formation rates below 0.1 M ☉ yr –1 . This paper describes the observations, data processing, and source identification procedures, and presents an Hα and R-band catalog of detected cluster members and other candidates. Future papers in the series will use these data to study the completeness of spectroscopically based star formation surveys, and to quantify the effects of cluster environment on the present-day populations of star-forming galaxies. The data will also provide a valuable foundation for imaging surveys of redshifted Hα emission in more distant clusters.

  3. The clustering of quasars from an objective-prism survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.

    1982-01-01

    The positions and redshifts of 108 quasars from the Cerro Tololo objective-prism survey are subjected to Fourier Power Spectrum Analysis in a search for clustering in their spatial distribution. It is found that, on the whole, these quasars are not clustered but are scattered in space independently at random. The sole exception is a group of four quasars at z = 0.37 which has a low probability of being a chance event and which, with a size of about 100 Mpc, may therefore be the largest known structure in the Universe. The conclusions disagree with Arp's analysis of this catalogue: his 'clouds of quasars' ejected by certain low-redshift galaxies, for example, are attributable to sensitivity variations among the different plates of the survey. It is shown that analysis of deeper surveys is likely to show up quasar clusters even at high redshift, and could therefore provide a useful new cosmological probe. (author)

  4. An assessment of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to evaluate malaria outcome indicators: extending malaria indicator surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Caitlin; Pagano, Marcello; Hedt, Bethany L; Kilian, Albert; Ratcliffe, Amy; Mabunda, Samuel; Valadez, Joseph J

    2010-02-01

    Large investments and increased global prioritization of malaria prevention and treatment have resulted in greater emphasis on programme monitoring and evaluation (M&E) in many countries. Many countries currently use large multistage cluster sample surveys to monitor malaria outcome indicators on a regional and national level. However, these surveys often mask local-level variability important to programme management. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) has played a valuable role for local-level programme M&E. If incorporated into these larger surveys, it would provide a comprehensive M&E plan at little, if any, extra cost. The Mozambique Ministry of Health conducted a Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) in June and July 2007. We applied LQAS classification rules to the 345 sampled enumeration areas to demonstrate identifying high- and low-performing areas with respect to two malaria program indicators-'household possession of any bednet' and 'household possession of any insecticide-treated bednet (ITN)'. As shown by the MIS, no province in Mozambique achieved the 70% coverage target for household possession of bednets or ITNs. By applying LQAS classification rules to the data, we identify 266 of the 345 enumeration areas as having bednet coverage severely below the 70% target. An additional 73 were identified with low ITN coverage. This article demonstrates the feasibility of integrating LQAS into multistage cluster sampling surveys and using these results to support a comprehensive national, regional and local programme M&E system. Furthermore, in the recommendations we outlined how to integrate the Large Country-LQAS design into macro-surveys while still obtaining results available through current sampling practices.

  5. A Unique Sample of Extreme-BCG Clusters at 0.2 < z < 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Gordon

    2017-09-01

    The recently-discovered Phoenix cluster harbors the most extreme BCG in the known universe. Despite the cluster's high mass and X-ray luminosity, it was consistently identified by surveys as an isolated AGN, due to the bright central point source and the compact cool core. Armed with hindsight, we have undertaken an all-sky survey based on archival X-ray, OIR, and radio data to identify other similarly-extreme systems that were likewise missed. A pilot study demonstrated that this strategy works, leading to the discovery of a new, massive cluster at z 0.2 which was missed by previous X-ray surveys due to the presence of a bright central QSO. We propose here to observe 6 new clusters from our complete northern-sky survey, which harbor some of the most extreme central galaxies known.

  6. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). 0. Target Selection and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hwankyung; Lim, Beomdu; Bessell, Michael S.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Hur, Hyeonoh; Chun, Moo-Young; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2013-06-01

    Star clusters are superb astrophysical laboratories containing cospatial and coeval samples of stars with similar chemical composition. We initiate the Sejong Open cluster Survey (SOS) - a project dedicated to providing homogeneous photometry of a large number of open clusters in the SAAO Johnson-Cousins' UBVI system. To achieve our main goal, we pay much attention to the observation of standard stars in order to reproduce the SAAO standard system. Many of our targets are relatively small sparse clusters that escaped previous observations. As clusters are considered building blocks of the Galactic disk, their physical properties such as the initial mass function, the pattern of mass segregation, etc. give valuable information on the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk. The spatial distribution of young open clusters will be used to revise the local spiral arm structure of the Galaxy. In addition, the homogeneous data can also be used to test stellar evolutionary theory, especially concerning rare massive stars. In this paper we present the target selection criteria, the observational strategy for accurate photometry, and the adopted calibrations for data analysis such as color-color relations, zero-age main sequence relations, Sp - M_V relations, Sp - T_{eff} relations, Sp - color relations, and T_{eff} - BC relations. Finally we provide some data analysis such as the determination of the reddening law, the membership selection criteria, and distance determination.

  7. PROSPECTS FOR MEASURING THE RELATIVE VELOCITIES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS IN PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS USING THE KINETIC SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, Ryan; Schmidt, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We consider the prospects for measuring the pairwise kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) signal from galaxy clusters discovered in large photometric surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We project that the DES cluster sample will, in conjunction with existing mm-wave data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT), yield a detection of the pairwise kSZ signal at the 8σ-13σ level, with sensitivity peaking for clusters separated by ∼100 Mpc distances. A next-generation version of SPT would allow for a 18σ-30σ detection and would be limited by variance from the kSZ signal itself and the residual thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) signal. Throughout our analysis, we assume photometric redshift errors that wash out the signal for clusters separated by ∼<50 Mpc; a spectroscopic survey of the DES sample would recover this signal and allow for a 26σ-43σ detection, and would again be limited by kSZ/tSZ variance. Assuming a standard model of structure formation, these high-precision measurements of the pairwise kSZ signal will yield detailed information on the gas content of the galaxy clusters. Alternatively, if the gas can be sufficiently characterized by other means (e.g., using tSZ, X-ray, or weak lensing), then the relative velocities of the galaxy clusters can be isolated, thereby providing a precision measurement of gravity on 100 Mpc scales. We briefly consider the utility of these measurements for constraining theories of modified gravity.

  8. New Galactic star clusters discovered in the VVV survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borissova, J.; Bonatto, C.; Kurtev, R.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Peñaloza, F.; Sale, S. E.; Minniti, D.; Alonso-García, J.; Artigau, E.; Barbá, R.; Bica, E.; Baume, G. L.; Catelan, M.; Chenè, A. N.; Dias, B.; Folkes, S. L.; Froebrich, D.; Geisler, D.; de Grijs, R.; Hanson, M. M.; Hempel, M.; Ivanov, V. D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Lucas, P.; Mauro, F.; Moni Bidin, C.; Rejkuba, M.; Saito, R. K.; Tamura, M.; Toledo, I.

    2011-08-01

    Context. VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) is one of the six ESO Public Surveys operating on the new 4-m Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). VVV is scanning the Milky Way bulge and an adjacent section of the disk, where star formation activity is high. One of the principal goals of the VVV Survey is to find new star clusters of differentages. Aims: In order to trace the early epochs of star cluster formation we concentrated our search in the directions to those of known star formation regions, masers, radio, and infrared sources. Methods: The disk area covered by VVV was visually inspected using the pipeline processed and calibrated KS-band tile images for stellar overdensities. Subsequently, we examined the composite JHKS and ZJKS color images of each candidate. PSF photometry of 15 × 15 arcmin fields centered on the candidates was then performed on the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit reduced images. After statistical field-star decontamination, color-magnitude and color-color diagrams were constructed and analyzed. Results: We report the discovery of 96 new infrared open clusters and stellar groups. Most of the new cluster candidates are faint and compact (with small angular sizes), highly reddened, and younger than 5 Myr. For relatively well populated cluster candidates we derived their fundamental parameters such as reddening, distance, and age by fitting the solar-metallicity Padova isochrones to the color-magnitude diagrams. Based on observations gathered with VIRCAM, VISTA of the ESO as part of observing programs 172.B-2002Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTable 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/532/A131

  9. The Effects of Halo Assembly Bias on Self-Calibration in Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Rozo, Eduardo; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-08-07

    Self-calibration techniques for analyzing galaxy cluster counts utilize the abundance and the clustering amplitude of dark matter halos. These properties simultaneously constrain cosmological parameters and the cluster observable-mass relation. It was recently discovered that the clustering amplitude of halos depends not only on the halo mass, but also on various secondary variables, such as the halo formation time and the concentration; these dependences are collectively termed 'assembly bias'. Applying modified Fisher matrix formalism, we explore whether these secondary variables have a significant impact on the study of dark energy properties using the self-calibration technique in current (SDSS) and the near future (DES, SPT, and LSST) cluster surveys. The impact of the secondary dependence is determined by (1) the scatter in the observable-mass relation and (2) the correlation between observable and secondary variables. We find that for optical surveys, the secondary dependence does not significantly influence an SDSS-like survey; however, it may affect a DES-like survey (given the high scatter currently expected from optical clusters) and an LSST-like survey (even for low scatter values and low correlations). For an SZ survey such as SPT, the impact of secondary dependence is insignificant if the scatter is 20% or lower but can be enhanced by the potential high scatter values introduced by a highly-correlated background. Accurate modeling of the assembly bias is necessary for cluster self-calibration in the era of precision cosmology.

  10. Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

  11. COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY MaxBCG CLUSTER CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozo, Eduardo; Weinberg, David H.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Annis, James T.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Evrard, August E.; Hao Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; Hansen, Sarah M.; Johnston, David E.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sheldon, Erin S.

    2010-01-01

    We use the abundance and weak-lensing mass measurements of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey maxBCG cluster catalog to simultaneously constrain cosmology and the richness-mass relation of the clusters. Assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology, we find σ 8 (Ω m /0.25) 0.41 = 0.832 ± 0.033 after marginalization over all systematics. In common with previous studies, our error budget is dominated by systematic uncertainties, the primary two being the absolute mass scale of the weak-lensing masses of the maxBCG clusters, and uncertainty in the scatter of the richness-mass relation. Our constraints are fully consistent with the WMAP five-year data, and in a joint analysis we find σ 8 = 0.807 ± 0.020 and Ω m = 0.265 ± 0.016, an improvement of nearly a factor of 2 relative to WMAP5 alone. Our results are also in excellent agreement with and comparable in precision to the latest cosmological constraints from X-ray cluster abundances. The remarkable consistency among these results demonstrates that cluster abundance constraints are not only tight but also robust, and highlight the power of optically selected cluster samples to produce precision constraints on cosmological parameters.

  12. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of the Disk Cluster Population of M31. II. Advanced Camera for Surveys Pointings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienke, O. K.; Hodge, P. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of star clusters in M31 based on archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Paper I reported results from images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and this paper reports results from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The ACS survey has yielded a total of 339 star clusters, 52 of which—mostly globular clusters—were found to have been cataloged previously. As for the previous survey, the luminosity function of the clusters drops steeply for absolute magnitudes fainter than MV = -3 the implied cluster mass function has a turnover for masses less than a few hundred solar masses. The color-integrated magnitude diagram of clusters shows three significant features: (1) a group of very red, luminous objects: the globular clusters, (2) a wide range in color for the fainter clusters, representing a considerable range in age and reddening, and (3) a maximum density of clusters centered approximately at V = 21, B - V = 0.30, V - I = 0.50, where there are intermediate-age, intermediate-mass clusters with ages close to 500 million years and masses of about 2000 solar masses. We give a brief qualitative interpretation of the distribution of clusters in the CMDs in terms of their formation and destruction rates. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for research in astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. A faint galaxy redshift survey behind massive clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Brenda Louise [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    This thesis is concerned with the gravitational lensing effect by massive galaxy clusters. We have explored a new technique for measuring galaxy masses and for detecting high-z galaxies by their optical colors. A redshift survey has been obtained at the Keck for a magnitude limited sample of objects (I<23) behind three clusters, A1689, A2390, and A2218 within a radius of 0.5M pc. For each cluster we see both a clear trend of increasing flux and redshift towards the center. This behavior is the result of image magnifications, such that at fixed redshift one sees further down the luminosity function. The gradient of this magnification is, unlike measurements of image distortion, sensitive to the mass profile, and found to depart strongly from a pure isothermal halo. We have found that V RI color selection can be used effectively as a discriminant for finding high-z galaxies behind clusters and present five 4.1 < z < 5.1 spectra which are of very high quality due to their high mean magnification of ~20, showing strong, visibly-saturated interstellar metal lines in some cases. We have also investigated the radio ring lens PKS 1830-211, locating the source and multiple images and detected molecular absorption at mm wavelengths. Broad molecular absorption of width 1/40kms is found toward the southwest component only, where surprisingly it does not reach the base of the continuum, which implies incomplete coverage of the SW component by molecular gas, despite the small projected size of the source, less than 1/8h pc at the absorption redshift.

  14. The “UV-route” to Search for Blue Straggler Stars in Globular Clusters: First Results from the HST UV Legacy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, S.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, Bologna (Italy); Dalessandro, E. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna (Italy); Nardiello, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bellini, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vesperini, E. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47401 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We used data from the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters to select the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population in four intermediate/high density systems (namely NGC 2808, NGC 6388, NGC 6541, and NGC 7078) through a “UV-guided search.” This procedure consists of using the F275W images in each cluster to construct the master list of detected sources, and then force it to the images acquired in the other filters. Such an approach optimizes the detection of relatively hot stars and allows the detection of a complete sample of BSSs even in the central region of high-density clusters, because the light from the bright cool giants, which dominates the optical emission in old stellar systems, is sensibly reduced at UV wavelengths. Our UV-guided selections of BSSs have been compared to the samples obtained in previous, optical-driven surveys, clearly demonstrating the efficiency of the UV approach. In each cluster we also measured the parameter A {sup +}, defined as the area enclosed between the cumulative radial distribution of BSSs and that of a reference population, which traces the level of BSS central segregation and the level of dynamical evolution suffered by the system. The values measured for the four clusters studied in this paper nicely fall along the dynamical sequence recently presented for a sample of 25 clusters.

  15. Optimal sampling designs for large-scale fishery sample surveys in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BAZIGOS

    2007-12-01

    The paper deals with the optimization of the following three large scale sample surveys: biological sample survey of commercial landings (BSCL, experimental fishing sample survey (EFSS, and commercial landings and effort sample survey (CLES.

  16. A CFH12k lensing survey of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters - II. Weak lensing analysis and global correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardeau, S.; Soucail, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Czoske, O.; Ebeling, H.; Hudelot, P.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.

    Aims. We present a wide-field multi-color survey of a homogeneous sample of eleven clusters of galaxies for which we measure total masses and mass distributions from weak lensing. This sample, spanning a small range in both X-ray luminosity and redshift, is ideally suited to determining the

  17. Occurrence of Radio Minihalos in a Mass-limited Sample of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacintucci, Simona; Clarke, Tracy E. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Code 7213, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Markevitch, Maxim [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cassano, Rossella; Venturi, Tiziana; Brunetti, Gianfranco, E-mail: simona.giacintucci@nrl.navy.mil [INAF—Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the occurrence of radio minihalos—diffuse radio sources of unknown origin observed in the cores of some galaxy clusters—in a statistical sample of 58 clusters drawn from the Planck Sunyaev–Zel’dovich cluster catalog using a mass cut ( M {sub 500} > 6 × 10{sup 14} M {sub ⊙}). We supplement our statistical sample with a similarly sized nonstatistical sample mostly consisting of clusters in the ACCEPT X-ray catalog with suitable X-ray and radio data, which includes lower-mass clusters. Where necessary (for nine clusters), we reanalyzed the Very Large Array archival radio data to determine whether a minihalo is present. Our total sample includes all 28 currently known and recently discovered radio minihalos, including six candidates. We classify clusters as cool-core or non-cool-core according to the value of the specific entropy floor in the cluster center, rederived or newly derived from the Chandra X-ray density and temperature profiles where necessary (for 27 clusters). Contrary to the common wisdom that minihalos are rare, we find that almost all cool cores—at least 12 out of 15 (80%)—in our complete sample of massive clusters exhibit minihalos. The supplementary sample shows that the occurrence of minihalos may be lower in lower-mass cool-core clusters. No minihalos are found in non-cool cores or “warm cores.” These findings will help test theories of the origin of minihalos and provide information on the physical processes and energetics of the cluster cores.

  18. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Physical Properties and Purity of a Galaxy Cluster Sample Selected Via the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau, Felipe; Gonzalez, Jorge; Juin, Jean-Baptiste; Marriage, Tobias; Reese, Erik D.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John Willam; Baker, Andrew J.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present optical and X-ray properties for the first confirmed galaxy cluster sample selected by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect from 148 GHz maps over 455 square degrees of sky made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. These maps. coupled with multi-band imaging on 4-meter-class optical telescopes, have yielded a sample of 23 galaxy clusters with redshifts between 0.118 and 1.066. Of these 23 clusters, 10 are newly discovered. The selection of this sample is approximately mass limited and essentially independent of redshift. We provide optical positions, images, redshifts and X-ray fluxes and luminosities for the full sample, and X-ray temperatures of an important subset. The mass limit of the full sample is around 8.0 x 10(exp 14) Stellar Mass. with a number distribution that peaks around a redshift of 0.4. For the 10 highest significance SZE-selected cluster candidates, all of which are optically confirmed, the mass threshold is 1 x 10(exp 15) Stellar Mass and the redshift range is 0.167 to 1.066. Archival observations from Chandra, XMM-Newton. and ROSAT provide X-ray luminosities and temperatures that are broadly consistent with this mass threshold. Our optical follow-up procedure also allowed us to assess the purity of the ACT cluster sample. Eighty (one hundred) percent of the 148 GHz candidates with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 5.1 (5.7) are confirmed as massive clusters. The reported sample represents one of the largest SZE-selected sample of massive clusters over all redshifts within a cosmologically-significant survey volume, which will enable cosmological studies as well as future studies on the evolution, morphology, and stellar populations in the most massive clusters in the Universe.

  19. Clustered lot quality assurance sampling to assess immunisation coverage: increasing rapidity and maintaining precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Andrews, Nick; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Vaccination programmes targeting disease elimination aim to achieve very high coverage levels (e.g. 95%). We calculated the precision of different clustered lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) designs in computer-simulated surveys to provide local health officers in the field with preset LQAS plans to simply and rapidly assess programmes with high coverage targets. We calculated sample size (N), decision value (d) and misclassification errors (alpha and beta) of several LQAS plans by running 10 000 simulations. We kept the upper coverage threshold (UT) at 90% or 95% and decreased the lower threshold (LT) progressively by 5%. We measured the proportion of simulations with d unvaccinated individuals if the coverage was LT% (pLT) to calculate alpha (1-pLT). We divided N in clusters (between 5 and 10) and recalculated the errors hypothesising that the coverage would vary in the clusters according to a binomial distribution with preset standard deviations of 0.05 and 0.1 from the mean lot coverage. We selected the plans fulfilling these criteria: alpha LQAS plans dividing the lot in five clusters with N = 50 (5 x 10) and d = 4 to evaluate programmes with 95% coverage target and d = 7 to evaluate programmes with 90% target. These plans will considerably increase the feasibility and the rapidity of conducting the LQAS in the field.

  20. Development and enrolee satisfaction with basic medical insurance in China: A systematic review and stratified cluster sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Limei; Chen, Ru; Jing, Lisa; Qiao, Yun; Lou, Jiquan; Xu, Jing; Wang, Junwei; Chen, Wen; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    Basic Medical Insurance (BMI) has changed remarkably over time in China because of health reforms that aim to achieve universal coverage and better health care with adequate efforts by increasing subsidies, reimbursement, and benefits. In this paper, we present the development of BMI, including financing and operation, with a systematic review. Meanwhile, Pudong New Area in Shanghai was chosen as a typical BMI sample for its coverage and management; a stratified cluster sampling survey together with an ordinary logistic regression model was used for the analysis. Enrolee satisfaction and the factors associated with enrolee satisfaction with BMI were analysed. We found that the reenrolling rate superficially improved the BMI coverage and nearly achieved universal coverage. However, BMI funds still faced dual contradictions of fund deficit and insured under compensation, and a long-term strategy is needed to realize the integration of BMI schemes with more homogeneous coverage and benefits. Moreover, Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance participants reported a higher rate of dissatisfaction than other participants. The key predictors of the enrolees' satisfaction were awareness of the premium and compensation, affordability of out-of-pocket costs, and the proportion of reimbursement. These results highlight the importance that the Chinese government takes measures, such as strengthening BMI fund management, exploring mixed payment methods, and regulating sequential medical orders, to develop an integrated medical insurance system of universal coverage and vertical equity while simultaneously improving enrolee satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The Gemini/HST Galaxy Cluster Project: Redshift 0.2–1.0 Cluster Sample, X-Ray Data, and Optical Photometry Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Inger; Chiboucas, Kristin; Hibon, Pascale; Nielsen, Louise D.; Takamiya, Marianne

    2018-04-01

    The Gemini/HST Galaxy Cluster Project (GCP) covers 14 z = 0.2–1.0 clusters with X-ray luminosity of {L}500≥slant {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.1–2.4 keV band. In this paper, we provide homogeneously calibrated X-ray luminosities, masses, and radii, and we present the complete catalog of the ground-based photometry for the GCP clusters. The clusters were observed with either Gemini North or South in three or four of the optical passbands g‧, r‧, i‧, and z‧. The photometric catalog includes consistently calibrated total magnitudes, colors, and geometrical parameters. The photometry reaches ≈25 mag in the passband closest to the rest-frame B band. We summarize comparisons of our photometry with data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We describe the sample selection for our spectroscopic observations, and establish the calibrations to obtain rest-frame magnitudes and colors. Finally, we derive the color–magnitude relations for the clusters, and briefly discuss these in the context of evolution with redshift. Consistent with our results based on spectroscopic data, the color–magnitude relations support passive evolution of the red sequence galaxies. The absence of change in the slope with redshift constrains the allowable age variation along the red sequence to <0.05 dex between the brightest cluster galaxies and those four magnitudes fainter. This paper serves as the main reference for the GCP cluster and galaxy selection, X-ray data, and ground-based photometry.

  2. Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project. II. Samples and X-Ray Data Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Burenin, R. A.; Ebeling, H.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the measurements of the galaxy cluster mass functions at z ≈ 0.05 and z ≈ 0.5 using high-quality Chandra observations of samples derived from the ROSAT PSPC All-Sky and 400 deg2 surveys. We provide a full reference for the data analysis procedures, present updated calibration of relati...... at a fixed mass threshold, e.g., by a factor of 5.0 ± 1.2 at M 500 = 2.5 × 1014 h –1 M sun between z = 0 and 0.5. This evolution reflects the growth of density perturbations, and can be used for the cosmological constraints complementing those from the distance-redshift relation....

  3. Clustering of galaxies around AGNs in the HSC Wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yuji; Akiyama, Masayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Toba, Yoshiki; He, Wanqiu; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Usuda, Tomonori

    2018-01-01

    We have measured the clustering of galaxies around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for which single-epoch virial masses of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) are available to investigate the relation between the large-scale environment of AGNs and the evolution of SMBHs. The AGN samples used in this work were derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) observations and the galaxy samples were from the 240 deg2 S15b data of the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP). The investigated redshift range is 0.6-3.0, and the masses of the SMBHs lie in the range 107.5-1010 M⊙. The absolute magnitude of the galaxy samples reaches to Mλ310 ˜ -18 at rest-frame wavelength 310 nm for the low-redshift end of the samples. More than 70% of the galaxies in the analysis are blue. We found a significant dependence of the cross-correlation length on redshift, which primarily reflects the brightness-dependence of the galaxy clustering. At the lowest redshifts the cross-correlation length increases from 7 h-1 Mpc around Mλ310 = -19 mag to >10 h-1 Mpc beyond Mλ310 = -20 mag. No significant dependence of the cross-correlation length on BH mass was found for whole galaxy samples dominated by blue galaxies, while there was an indication of BH mass dependence in the cross-correlation with red galaxies. These results provides a picture of the environment of AGNs studied in this paper being enriched with blue star-forming galaxies, and a fraction of the galaxies are evolving into red galaxies along with the evolution of SMBHs in that system.

  4. Interpreting results of cluster surveys in emergency settings: is the LQAS test the best option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Blanton, Curtis

    2008-12-09

    Cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies to measure health and nutrition indicators. Deitchler et al. have proposed to use Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) hypothesis testing in cluster surveys to classify the prevalence of global acute malnutrition as exceeding or not exceeding the pre-established thresholds. Field practitioners and decision-makers must clearly understand the meaning and implications of using this test in interpreting survey results to make programmatic decisions. We demonstrate that the LQAS test--as proposed by Deitchler et al.--is prone to producing false-positive results and thus is likely to suggest interventions in situations where interventions may not be needed. As an alternative, to provide more useful information for decision-making, we suggest reporting the probability of an indicator's exceeding the threshold as a direct measure of "risk". Such probability can be easily determined in field settings by using a simple spreadsheet calculator. The "risk" of exceeding the threshold can then be considered in the context of other aggravating and protective factors to make informed programmatic decisions.

  5. Interpreting results of cluster surveys in emergency settings: is the LQAS test the best option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanton Curtis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies to measure health and nutrition indicators. Deitchler et al. have proposed to use Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS hypothesis testing in cluster surveys to classify the prevalence of global acute malnutrition as exceeding or not exceeding the pre-established thresholds. Field practitioners and decision-makers must clearly understand the meaning and implications of using this test in interpreting survey results to make programmatic decisions. We demonstrate that the LQAS test–as proposed by Deitchler et al. – is prone to producing false-positive results and thus is likely to suggest interventions in situations where interventions may not be needed. As an alternative, to provide more useful information for decision-making, we suggest reporting the probability of an indicator's exceeding the threshold as a direct measure of "risk". Such probability can be easily determined in field settings by using a simple spreadsheet calculator. The "risk" of exceeding the threshold can then be considered in the context of other aggravating and protective factors to make informed programmatic decisions.

  6. Beyond MACS: A Snapshot Survey of the Most Massive Clusters of Galaxies at z>0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Harald

    2017-08-01

    Truly massive galaxy clusters play a pivotal role for a wealth of extragalactic and cosmological research topics, and SNAPshot observations of these systems are ideally suited to identify the most promising cluster targets for further, in-depth study. The power of this approach was demonstrated by ACS/WFC3 SNAPshots of X-ray selected MACS and eMACS clusters at z>0.3 obtained by us in previous Cycles (44 of them in all of F606W, F814W, F110W, and F140W). Based on these data, the CLASH MCT program selected 16 out of 25 of their targets to be MACS clusters. Similarly, all but one of the six most powerful cluster lenses selected for in-depth study by the HST Frontier Fields initiative are MACS detections, and so are 16 of the 29 z>0.3 clusters targeted by the RELICS legacy program.We propose to extend our spectacularly successful SNAPshot survey of the most X-ray luminous distant clusters to a redshift-mass regime that is poorly sampled by any other project. Targeting only extremely massive clusters at z>0.5 from the X-ray selected eMACS sample (median velocity dispersion: 1180 km/s), the proposed program will (a) identify the most powerful gravitational telescopes at yet higher redshift for the next generation of in-depth studies of the distant Universe with HST and JWST, (b) provide constraints on the mass distribution within these extreme systems, (c) help improve our understanding of the physical nature of galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-gas interactions in cluster cores, and (d) unveil Balmer Break Galaxies at z 2 and Lyman-break galaxies at z>6 as F814W dropouts.Acknowledging the broad community interest in our sample we waive our data rights for these observations.

  7. Dependence of the clustering properties of galaxies on stellar velocity dispersion in the Main galaxy sample of SDSS DR10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin-Fa; Song, Jun; Chen, Yi-Qing; Jiang, Peng; Ding, Ying-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Using two volume-limited Main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), we investigate the dependence of the clustering properties of galaxies on stellar velocity dispersion by cluster analysis. It is found that in the luminous volume-limited Main galaxy sample, except at r=1.2, richer and larger systems can be more easily formed in the large stellar velocity dispersion subsample, while in the faint volume-limited Main galaxy sample, at r≥0.9, an opposite trend is observed. According to statistical analyses of the multiplicity functions, we conclude in two volume-limited Main galaxy samples: small stellar velocity dispersion galaxies preferentially form isolated galaxies, close pairs and small group, while large stellar velocity dispersion galaxies preferentially inhabit the dense groups and clusters. However, we note the difference between two volume-limited Main galaxy samples: in the faint volume-limited Main galaxy sample, at r≥0.9, the small stellar velocity dispersion subsample has a higher proportion of galaxies in superclusters ( n≥200) than the large stellar velocity dispersion subsample.

  8. THE CLUSTERING OF ALFALFA GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON H I MASS, RELATIONSHIP WITH OPTICAL SAMPLES, AND CLUES OF HOST HALO PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael G. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo, E-mail: papastergis@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jonesmg@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: apuebla@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-264, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-10

    We use a sample of ≈6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to measure the clustering properties of H I-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on galactic atomic hydrogen (H I) mass, over the range M{sub H{sub I}} ≈ 10{sup 8.5}-10{sup 10.5} M{sub ☉}. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low H I mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that H I-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of H I-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than H I-selected galaxies, a fact that is evident in both the projected as well as the full two-dimensional correlation function. A cross-correlation analysis further reveals that gas-rich galaxies 'avoid' being located within ≈3 Mpc of optical galaxies with red colors. Next, we consider the clustering properties of halo samples selected from the Bolshoi ΛCDM simulation. A comparison with the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies suggests that galactic H I mass is not tightly related to host halo mass and that a sizable fraction of subhalos do not host H I galaxies. Lastly, we find that we can recover fairly well the correlation function of H I galaxies by just excluding halos with low spin parameter. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that halo spin plays a key role in determining the gas content of galaxies.

  9. New VVV Survey Globular Cluster Candidates in the Milky Way Bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minniti, Dante; Gómez, Matías [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Geisler, Douglas; Fernández-Trincado, Jose G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alonso-García, Javier; Beamín, Juan Carlos; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Marcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Kurtev, Radostin; Pullen, Joyce [Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica, Santiago (Chile); Palma, Tali; Clariá, Juan J. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba (Argentina); Cohen, Roger E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 2700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore (United States); Dias, Bruno [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Hempel, Maren [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Ivanov, Valentin D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarszchild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Lucas, Phillip W. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire (United Kingdom); Moni-Bidin, Christian; Alegría, Sebastian Ramírez [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile); and others

    2017-11-10

    It is likely that a number of Galactic globular clusters remain to be discovered, especially toward the Galactic bulge. High stellar density combined with high and differential interstellar reddening are the two major problems for finding globular clusters located toward the bulge. We use the deep near-IR photometry of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey to search for globular clusters projected toward the Galactic bulge, and hereby report the discovery of 22 new candidate globular clusters. These objects, detected as high density regions in our maps of bulge red giants, are confirmed as globular cluster candidates by their color–magnitude diagrams. We provide their coordinates as well as their near-IR color–magnitude diagrams, from which some basic parameters are derived, such as reddenings and heliocentric distances. The color–magnitude diagrams reveal well defined red giant branches in all cases, often including a prominent red clump. The new globular cluster candidates exhibit a variety of extinctions (0.06 < A {sub Ks} < 2.77) and distances (5.3 < D < 9.5 kpc). We also classify the globular cluster candidates into 10 metal-poor and 12 metal-rich clusters, based on the comparison of their color–magnitude diagrams with those of known globular clusters also observed by the VVV Survey. Finally, we argue that the census for Galactic globular clusters still remains incomplete, and that many more candidate globular clusters (particularly the low luminosity ones) await to be found and studied in detail in the central regions of the Milky Way.

  10. THE CLUSTERING OF GALAXIES IN THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: LUMINOSITY AND COLOR DEPENDENCE AND REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hong; Zehavi, Idit [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, OH 44106 (United States); Zheng Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT 84112 (United States); Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy and CCAPP, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Berlind, Andreas A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Chen Yanmei [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Eisenstein, Daniel J.; McBride, Cameron K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ho, Shirley; Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kazin, Eyal [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Samushia, Lado [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Nuza, Sebastian E. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Parejko, John K. [Department of Physics, Yale University, 260 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2013-04-20

    We measure the luminosity and color dependence and the redshift evolution of galaxy clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Ninth Data Release. We focus on the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of subsets of its CMASS sample, which includes about 260,000 galaxies over {approx}3300 deg{sup 2} in the redshift range 0.43 < z < 0.7. To minimize the selection effect on galaxy clustering, we construct well-defined luminosity and color subsamples by carefully accounting for the CMASS galaxy selection cuts. The 2PCF of the whole CMASS sample, if approximated by a power-law, has a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 7.93 {+-} 0.06 h {sup -1} Mpc and an index of {gamma} = 1.85 {+-} 0.01. Clear dependences on galaxy luminosity and color are found for the projected 2PCF in all redshift bins, with more luminous and redder galaxies generally exhibiting stronger clustering and steeper 2PCF. The color dependence is also clearly seen for galaxies within the red sequence, consistent with the behavior of SDSS-II main sample galaxies at lower redshifts. At a given luminosity (k + e corrected), no significant evolution of the projected 2PCFs with redshift is detected for red sequence galaxies. We also construct galaxy samples of fixed number density at different redshifts, using redshift-dependent magnitude thresholds. The clustering of these galaxies in the CMASS redshift range is found to be consistent with that predicted by passive evolution. Our measurements of the luminosity and color dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy clustering will allow for detailed modeling of the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos and new constraints on galaxy formation and evolution.

  11. Hα star formation rates of z > 1 galaxy clusters in the IRAC shallow cluster survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, Mark; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter; Dey, Arjun; Moustakas, John

    2013-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope near-IR spectroscopy for 18 galaxy clusters at 1.0 Cluster Survey. We use Wide Field Camera 3 grism data to spectroscopically identify Hα emitters in both the cores of galaxy clusters as well as in field galaxies. We find a large cluster-to-cluster scatter in the star formation rates within a projected radius of 500 kpc, and many of our clusters (∼60%) have significant levels of star formation within a projected radius of 200 kpc. A stacking analysis reveals that dust reddening in these star-forming galaxies is positively correlated with stellar mass and may be higher in the field than the cluster at a fixed stellar mass. This may indicate a lower amount of gas in star-forming cluster galaxies than in the field population. Also, Hα equivalent widths of star-forming galaxies in the cluster environment are still suppressed below the level of the field. This suppression is most significant for lower mass galaxies (log M * < 10.0 M ☉ ). We therefore conclude that environmental effects are still important at 1.0 clusters with log M * ≲ 10.0 M ☉ .

  12. THE MASSIVE AND DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY. II. INITIAL SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF z ∼ 1 GALAXY CLUSTERS SELECTED FROM 10,000 deg2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, S. A.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Gettings, Daniel P.; Brodwin, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    We present optical and infrared imaging and optical spectroscopy of galaxy clusters which were identified as part of an all-sky search for high-redshift galaxy clusters, the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The initial phase of MaDCoWS combined infrared data from the all-sky data release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to select probable z ∼ 1 clusters of galaxies over an area of 10,000 deg 2 . Our spectroscopy confirms 19 new clusters at 0.7 < z < 1.3, half of which are at z > 1, demonstrating the viability of using WISE to identify high-redshift galaxy clusters. The next phase of MaDCoWS will use the greater depth of the AllWISE data release to identify even higher redshift cluster candidates

  13. The ALHAMBRA survey: evolution of galaxy clustering since z ˜ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalte-Mur, P.; Martínez, V. J.; Norberg, P.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Ascaso, B.; Merson, A. I.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Castander, F. J.; Hurtado-Gil, L.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Molino, A.; Montero-Dorta, A. D.; Stefanon, M.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Perea, J.; Pović, M.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    We study the clustering of galaxies as function of luminosity and redshift in the range 0.35 work cover 2.38 deg2 in seven independent fields, after applying a detailed angular selection mask, with accurate photometric redshifts, σz ≲ 0.014(1 + z), down to IAB accounting for photometric redshifts uncertainties. We infer the galaxy bias, and study its evolution with luminosity. We study the effect of sample variance, and confirm earlier results that the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) and European Large Area ISO Survey North 1 (ELAIS-N1) fields are dominated by the presence of large structures. For the intermediate and bright samples, Lmed ≳ 0.6L*, we obtain a strong dependence of bias on luminosity, in agreement with previous results at similar redshift. We are able to extend this study to fainter luminosities, where we obtain an almost flat relation, similar to that observed at low redshift. Regarding the evolution of bias with redshift, our results suggest that the different galaxy populations studied reside in haloes covering a range in mass between log10[Mh/( h-1 M⊙)] ≳ 11.5 for samples with Lmed ≃ 0.3L* and log10[Mh/( h-1 M⊙)] ≳ 13.0 for samples with Lmed ≃ 2L*, with typical occupation numbers in the range of ˜1-3 galaxies per halo.

  14. A Bayesian Justification for Random Sampling in Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Meeden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the usual Bayesian approach to survey sampling the sampling design, plays a minimal role, at best. Although a close relationship between exchangeable prior distributions and simple random sampling has been noted; how to formally integrate simple random sampling into the Bayesian paradigm is not clear. Recently it has been argued that the sampling design can be thought of as part of a Bayesian's prior distribution. We will show here that under this scenario simple random sample can be given a Bayesian justification in survey sampling.

  15. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: THE STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY OF FOSSIL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Craig D.; Miller, Christopher J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Richards, Joseph W.; Deadman, Paul-James [Center for Time Domain Informatics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lloyd-Davies, E. J.; Kathy Romer, A.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Liddle, Andrew R. [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Hoyle, Ben [Institute of Sciences of the Cosmos (ICCUB) and IEEC, Physics Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08024 (Spain); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Stott, John P.; Capozzi, Diego; Collins, Chris A. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Sahlen, Martin [Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Stanford, S. Adam [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Viana, Pedro T. P., E-mail: craigha@umich.edu [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-06-10

    This paper presents both the result of a search for fossil systems (FSs) within the XMM Cluster Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the results of a study of the stellar mass assembly and stellar populations of their fossil galaxies. In total, 17 groups and clusters are identified at z < 0.25 with large magnitude gaps between the first and fourth brightest galaxies. All the information necessary to classify these systems as fossils is provided. For both groups and clusters, the total and fractional luminosity of the brightest galaxy is positively correlated with the magnitude gap. The brightest galaxies in FSs (called fossil galaxies) have stellar populations and star formation histories which are similar to normal brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). However, at fixed group/cluster mass, the stellar masses of the fossil galaxies are larger compared to normal BCGs, a fact that holds true over a wide range of group/cluster masses. Moreover, the fossil galaxies are found to contain a significant fraction of the total optical luminosity of the group/cluster within 0.5 R{sub 200}, as much as 85%, compared to the non-fossils, which can have as little as 10%. Our results suggest that FSs formed early and in the highest density regions of the universe and that fossil galaxies represent the end products of galaxy mergers in groups and clusters.

  16. The Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey - IX. Galaxy evolution to z ~ 2 from optically selected catalogues†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feulner, Georg; Goranova, Yuliana; Hopp, Ulrich; Gabasch, Armin; Bender, Ralf; Botzler, Christine S.; Drory, Niv

    2007-06-01

    We present B-, R- and I-band-selected galaxy catalogues based on the Munich Near-Infrared Cluster Survey (MUNICS) which, together with the previously used K-selected sample, serve as an important probe of galaxy evolution in the redshift range 0 Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei München, Germany.

  17. THE CLUSTERING CHARACTERISTICS OF H I-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM THE 40% ALFALFA SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ann M. [NASA Postdoctoral Program, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23618 (United States); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Guzzo, Luigi, E-mail: ann.m.martin@nasa.gov, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: luigi.guzzo@brera.inaf.it [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milan (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    The 40% Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog ({alpha}.40) of {approx}10,150 H I-selected galaxies is used to analyze the clustering properties of gas-rich galaxies. By employing the Landy-Szalay estimator and a full covariance analysis for the two-point galaxy-galaxy correlation function, we obtain the real-space correlation function and model it as a power law, {xi}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}}, on scales <10 h{sup -1} Mpc. As the largest sample of blindly H I-selected galaxies to date, {alpha}.40 provides detailed understanding of the clustering of this population. We find {gamma} = 1.51 {+-} 0.09 and r{sub 0} = 3.3 + 0.3, -0.2 h{sup -1} Mpc, reinforcing the understanding that gas-rich galaxies represent the most weakly clustered galaxy population known; we also observe a departure from a pure power-law shape at intermediate scales, as predicted in {Lambda}CDM halo occupation distribution models. Furthermore, we measure the bias parameter for the {alpha}.40 galaxy sample and find that H I galaxies are severely antibiased on small scales, but only weakly antibiased on large scales. The robust measurement of the correlation function for gas-rich galaxies obtained via the {alpha}.40 sample constrains models of the distribution of H I in simulated galaxies, and will be employed to better understand the role of gas in environmentally dependent galaxy evolution.

  18. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DYNAMICAL MASSES AND SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF MASSIVE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifón, Cristóbal; Barrientos, L. Felipe; González, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Dünner, Rolando; Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Baker, Andrew J.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Marriage, Tobias A.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan B.; Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Hilton, Matt

    2013-01-01

    We present the first dynamical mass estimates and scaling relations for a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. The sample consists of 16 massive clusters detected with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) over a 455 deg 2 area of the southern sky. Deep multi-object spectroscopic observations were taken to secure intermediate-resolution (R ∼ 700-800) spectra and redshifts for ≈60 member galaxies on average per cluster. The dynamical masses M 200c of the clusters have been calculated using simulation-based scaling relations between velocity dispersion and mass. The sample has a median redshift z = 0.50 and a median mass M 200c ≅12×10 14 h 70 -1 M sun with a lower limit M 200c ≅6×10 14 h 70 -1 M sun , consistent with the expectations for the ACT southern sky survey. These masses are compared to the ACT SZE properties of the sample, specifically, the match-filtered central SZE amplitude y 0 -tilde, the central Compton parameter y 0 , and the integrated Compton signal Y 200c , which we use to derive SZE-mass scaling relations. All SZE estimators correlate with dynamical mass with low intrinsic scatter (∼< 20%), in agreement with numerical simulations. We explore the effects of various systematic effects on these scaling relations, including the correlation between observables and the influence of dynamically disturbed clusters. Using the three-dimensional information available, we divide the sample into relaxed and disturbed clusters and find that ∼50% of the clusters are disturbed. There are hints that disturbed systems might bias the scaling relations, but given the current sample sizes, these differences are not significant; further studies including more clusters are required to assess the impact of these clusters on the scaling relations

  19. The effect of clustering on lot quality assurance sampling: a probabilistic model to calculate sample sizes for quality assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Mitsunaga, Tisha; Hund, Lauren; Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello

    2013-10-26

    Traditional Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) designs assume observations are collected using simple random sampling. Alternatively, randomly sampling clusters of observations and then individuals within clusters reduces costs but decreases the precision of the classifications. In this paper, we develop a general framework for designing the cluster(C)-LQAS system and illustrate the method with the design of data quality assessments for the community health worker program in Rwanda. To determine sample size and decision rules for C-LQAS, we use the beta-binomial distribution to account for inflated risk of errors introduced by sampling clusters at the first stage. We present general theory and code for sample size calculations.The C-LQAS sample sizes provided in this paper constrain misclassification risks below user-specified limits. Multiple C-LQAS systems meet the specified risk requirements, but numerous considerations, including per-cluster versus per-individual sampling costs, help identify optimal systems for distinct applications. We show the utility of C-LQAS for data quality assessments, but the method generalizes to numerous applications. This paper provides the necessary technical detail and supplemental code to support the design of C-LQAS for specific programs.

  20. Female cluster headache in the United States of America: what are the gender differences? Results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D; Fishman, Royce S

    2012-06-15

    To present results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey regarding gender differences in cluster headache demographics, clinical characteristics, diagnostic delay, triggers, treatment response and personal burden. Very few studies have looked at the gender differences in cluster headache presentation. The United States Cluster Headache Survey is the largest study of cluster headache sufferers ever completed in the United States and it is also the largest study of female cluster headache patients ever presented. The total survey consisted of 187 multiple choice questions which dealt with various issues related to cluster headache including: demographics, clinical characteristics, concomitant medical conditions, family history, triggers, smoking history, diagnosis, treatment response and personal burden. A group of questions were specifically targeted to female cluster headache patients. The survey was placed on a website from October to December 2008. For all survey responders the diagnosis of cluster headache needed to be made by a neurologist but there was no validation of the headache diagnosis by the authors. 1134 individuals completed the survey (816 male, 318 female). Key Points that define the differences between female and male cluster headache include: a. Age of onset: women develop cluster headache at an earlier age than men and are more likely to develop a second peak of cluster headache onset after 50 years of age. b. Family history: woman cluster headache sufferers are more likely to have a family history of both cluster headache and migraine and have an increased familial risk of Parkinson's disease. c. Comorbid conditions: female cluster headaches sufferers are significantly more likely to experience depression and have asthma than males. d. Aura issues: aura with cluster headache is equally common in both sexes, but aura duration is shorter in women. Women are much more likely to experience sensory, language and brainstem auras. e. Pain

  1. The next generation Virgo cluster survey. VIII. The spatial distribution of globular clusters in the Virgo cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrell, Patrick R.; Accetta, Katharine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; McConnachie, Alan; Gwyn, Stephen [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mihos, J. Christopher [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Puzia, Thomas H.; Jordán, Andrés [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Av. Vicu' a Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Duc, Pierre-Alain [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu, Université Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Emsellem, Eric [Université de Lyon 1, CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 av. Charles André, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval (France); CNRS, UMR 5574, ENS de Lyon (France); and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a large-scale study of the distribution of globular clusters (GCs) throughout the Virgo cluster, based on photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a large imaging survey covering Virgo's primary subclusters (Virgo A = M87 and Virgo B = M49) out to their virial radii. Using the g{sub o}{sup ′}, (g' – i') {sub o} color-magnitude diagram of unresolved and marginally resolved sources within the NGVS, we have constructed two-dimensional maps of the (irregular) GC distribution over 100 deg{sup 2} to a depth of g{sub o}{sup ′} = 24. We present the clearest evidence to date showing the difference in concentration between red and blue GCs over the full extent of the cluster, where the red (more metal-rich) GCs are largely located around the massive early-type galaxies in Virgo, while the blue (metal-poor) GCs have a much more extended spatial distribution with significant populations still present beyond 83' (∼215 kpc) along the major axes of both M49 and M87. A comparison of our GC maps to the diffuse light in the outermost regions of M49 and M87 show remarkable agreement in the shape, ellipticity, and boxiness of both luminous systems. We also find evidence for spatial enhancements of GCs surrounding M87 that may be indicative of recent interactions or an ongoing merger history. We compare the GC map to that of the locations of Virgo galaxies and the X-ray intracluster gas, and find generally good agreement between these various baryonic structures. We calculate the Virgo cluster contains a total population of N {sub GC} = 67, 300 ± 14, 400, of which 35% are located in M87 and M49 alone. For the first time, we compute a cluster-wide specific frequency S {sub N,} {sub CL} = 2.8 ± 0.7, after correcting for Virgo's diffuse light. We also find a GC-to-baryonic mass fraction ε {sub b} = 5.7 ± 1.1 × 10{sup –4} and a GC-to-total cluster mass formation efficiency ε {sub t} = 2.9 ± 0.5 × 10{sup –5

  2. GALAXY CLUSTERS DISCOVERED VIA THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT IN THE 2500-SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleem, L. E.; Stalder, B.; de Haan, T.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hennig, C.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Stubbs, C. W.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2015-01-29

    We present a catalog of galaxy clusters selected via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature from 2500 deg(2) of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. This work represents the complete sample of clusters detected at high significance in the 2500 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey, which was completed in 2011. A total of 677 (409) cluster candidates are identified above a signal-to-noise threshold of ξ = 4.5 (5.0). Ground- and space-based optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging confirms overdensities of similarly colored galaxies in the direction of 516 (or 76%) of the ξ > 4.5 candidates and 387 (or 95%) of the ξ > 5 candidates, the measured purity is consistent with expectations from simulations. Of these confirmed clusters, 415 were first identified in SPT data, including 251 new discoveries reported in this work. We estimate photometric redshifts for all candidates with identified optical and/or NIR counterparts, we additionally report redshifts derived from spectroscopic observations for 141 of these systems. The mass threshold of the catalog is roughly independent of redshift above z ~ 0.25 leading to a sample of massive clusters that extends to high redshift. The median mass of the sample is M (500c)(ρ(crit)) $\\sim 3.5\\times 10^{14}\\,M_\\odot \\,h_{70}^{-1}$, the median redshift is z (med) = 0.55, and the highest-redshift systems are at z > 1.4. The combination of large redshift extent, clean selection, and high typical mass makes this cluster sample of particular interest for cosmological analyses and studies of cluster formation and evolution.

  3. TESTING STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS MODELS WITH SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY COLORS OF M31's GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav

    2011-01-01

    Accurate stellar population synthesis models are vital in understanding the properties and formation histories of galaxies. In order to calibrate and test the reliability of these models, they are often compared with observations of star clusters. However, relatively little work has compared these models in the ugriz filters, despite the recent widespread use of this filter set. In this paper, we compare the integrated colors of globular clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with those predicted from commonly used simple stellar population (SSP) models. The colors are based on SDSS observations of M31's clusters and provide the largest population of star clusters with accurate photometry available from the survey. As such, it is a unique sample with which to compare SSP models with SDSS observations. From this work, we identify a significant offset between the SSP models and the clusters' g - r colors, with the models predicting colors which are too red by g - r ∼ 0.1. This finding is consistent with previous observations of luminous red galaxies in the SDSS, which show a similar discrepancy. The identification of this offset in globular clusters suggests that it is very unlikely to be due to a minority population of young stars. The recently updated SSP model of Maraston and Stroembaeck better represents the observed g - r colors. This model is based on the empirical MILES stellar library, rather than theoretical libraries, suggesting an explanation for the g - r discrepancy.

  4. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. X. COLOR GRADIENTS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengze; Peng, Eric W.; Jordan, Andres; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Mei, Simona

    2011-01-01

    We use the largest homogeneous sample of globular clusters (GCs), drawn from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) and ACS Fornax Cluster Survey (ACSFCS), to investigate the color gradients of GC systems in 76 early-type galaxies. We find that most GC systems possess an obvious negative gradient in (g-z) color with radius (bluer outward), which is consistent with previous work. For GC systems displaying color bimodality, both metal-rich and metal-poor GC subpopulations present shallower but significant color gradients on average, and the mean color gradients of these two subpopulations are of roughly equal strength. The field of view of ACS mainly restricts us to measuring the inner gradients of the studied GC systems. These gradients, however, can introduce an aperture bias when measuring the mean colors of GC subpopulations from relatively narrow central pointings. Inferred corrections to previous work imply a reduced significance for the relation between the mean color of metal-poor GCs and their host galaxy luminosity. The GC color gradients also show a dependence with host galaxy mass where the gradients are weakest at the ends of the mass spectrum-in massive galaxies and dwarf galaxies-and strongest in galaxies of intermediate mass, around a stellar mass of M * ∼10 10 M sun . We also measure color gradients for field stars in the host galaxies. We find that GC color gradients are systematically steeper than field star color gradients, but the shape of the gradient-mass relation is the same for both. If gradients are caused by rapid dissipational collapse and weakened by merging, these color gradients support a picture where the inner GC systems of most intermediate-mass and massive galaxies formed early and rapidly with the most massive galaxies having experienced greater merging. The lack of strong gradients in the GC systems of dwarfs, which probably have not experienced many recent major mergers, suggests that low-mass halos were inefficient at retaining

  5. Galaxy redshift surveys with sparse sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Wullstein, Philipp; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Jee, Inh; Jeong, Donghui; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P.; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Landriau, Martin; Finkelstein, Steven; Jogee, Shardha; Cooper, Erin Mentuch; Tuttle, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Survey observations of the three-dimensional locations of galaxies are a powerful approach to measure the distribution of matter in the universe, which can be used to learn about the nature of dark energy, physics of inflation, neutrino masses, etc. A competitive survey, however, requires a large volume (e.g., V survey ∼ 10Gpc 3 ) to be covered, and thus tends to be expensive. A ''sparse sampling'' method offers a more affordable solution to this problem: within a survey footprint covering a given survey volume, V survey , we observe only a fraction of the volume. The distribution of observed regions should be chosen such that their separation is smaller than the length scale corresponding to the wavenumber of interest. Then one can recover the power spectrum of galaxies with precision expected for a survey covering a volume of V survey (rather than the volume of the sum of observed regions) with the number density of galaxies given by the total number of observed galaxies divided by V survey (rather than the number density of galaxies within an observed region). We find that regularly-spaced sampling yields an unbiased power spectrum with no window function effect, and deviations from regularly-spaced sampling, which are unavoidable in realistic surveys, introduce calculable window function effects and increase the uncertainties of the recovered power spectrum. On the other hand, we show that the two-point correlation function (pair counting) is not affected by sparse sampling. While we discuss the sparse sampling method within the context of the forthcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, the method is general and can be applied to other galaxy surveys

  6. ATCA observations of the MACS-Planck Radio Halo Cluster Project. II. Radio observations of an intermediate redshift cluster sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Aviles, G.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Ferrari, C.; Venturi, T.; Democles, J.; Dallacasa, D.; Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Arnaud, M.; Aghanim, N.; Brown, S.; Douspis, M.; Hurier, J.; Intema, H. T.; Langer, M.; Macario, G.; Pointecouteau, E.

    2018-04-01

    Aim. A fraction of galaxy clusters host diffuse radio sources whose origins are investigated through multi-wavelength studies of cluster samples. We investigate the presence of diffuse radio emission in a sample of seven galaxy clusters in the largely unexplored intermediate redshift range (0.3 http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A94

  7. YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTERS CONTAINING MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE VVV SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borissova, J.; Alegría, S. Ramírez; Kurtev, R.; Medina, N.; Navarro, C.; Kuhn, M.; Gromadzki, M.; Retamales, G.; Fernandez, M. A.; Agurto-Gangas, C.; Amigo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 5030 (Chile); Alonso, J.; Decany, I. [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago (Chile); Lucas, P. W.; Pena, C. Contreras; Thompson, M. A. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Chené, A.-N. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Minniti, D. [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Catelan, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Morales, E. F. E., E-mail: jura.borissova@uv.cl [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the connections of the global properties of eight young stellar clusters projected in the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) ESO Large Public Survey disk area and their young stellar object (YSO) populations. The analysis is based on the combination of spectroscopic parallax-based reddening and distance determinations with main-sequence and pre-main-sequence ishochrone fitting to determine the basic parameters (reddening, age, distance) of the sample clusters. The lower mass limit estimations show that all clusters are low or intermediate mass (between 110 and 1800  M {sub ⊙}), the slope Γ of the obtained present-day mass functions of the clusters is close to the Kroupa initial mass function. The YSOs in the cluster’s surrounding fields are classified using low resolution spectra, spectral energy distribution fits with theoretical predictions, and variability, taking advantage of multi-epoch VVV observations. All spectroscopically confirmed YSOs (except one) are found to be massive (more than 8 M {sub ⊙}). Using VVV and GLIMPSE color–color cuts we have selected a large number of new YSO candidates, which are checked for variability and 57% are found to show at least low-amplitude variations. In few cases it was possible to distinguish between YSO and AGB classifications on the basis of light curves.

  8. Innovation in Industrial Clusters: a Survey of Footwear Companies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio Martins Tristão

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize the relationships in innovation and business clustering processes in the productive chain of small and medium enterprises (SME of Brazil. The object of study are SMEs the local procuctive cluster of the shoes in Franca, State of São Paulo. The conceptual model developed is based on the following constructs: vertical integration, innovation and characteristics of the cluster, and it is focused on identifying the agents that act predominantly in product innovation processes in the cluster. A survey was conducted. It was found that there is cooperation between the companies in the productive arrangement studied, and that shoe manufacturers are those who, predominantly, stimulate innovation within the cluster.

  9. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Galaxy Sample for BAO Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocce, M.; et al.

    2017-12-17

    We define and characterise a sample of 1.3 million galaxies extracted from the first year of Dark Energy Survey data, optimised to measure Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the presence of significant redshift uncertainties. The sample is dominated by luminous red galaxies located at redshifts $z \\gtrsim 0.6$. We define the exact selection using color and magnitude cuts that balance the need of high number densities and small photometric redshift uncertainties, using the corresponding forecasted BAO distance error as a figure-of-merit in the process. The typical photo-$z$ uncertainty varies from $2.3\\%$ to $3.6\\%$ (in units of 1+$z$) from $z=0.6$ to $1$, with number densities from $200$ to $130$ galaxies per deg$^2$ in tomographic bins of width $\\Delta z = 0.1$. Next we summarise the validation of the photometric redshift estimation. We characterise and mitigate observational systematics including stellar contamination, and show that the clustering on large scales is robust in front of those contaminants. We show that the clustering signal in the auto-correlations and cross-correlations is generally consistent with theoretical models, which serves as an additional test of the redshift distributions.

  10. A community-based cluster randomized survey of noncommunicable disease and risk factors in a peri-urban shantytown in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Montano, Silvia M; Hawes, Stephen E; Alarcón, Jorge O; Zunt, Joseph R

    2014-05-21

    An estimated 863 million people-a third of the world's urban population-live in slums, yet there is little information on the disease burden in these settings, particularly regarding chronic preventable diseases. From March to May 2012, we conducted a cluster randomized survey to estimate the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and associated risk factors in a peri-urban shantytown north of Lima, Peru. Field workers administered a questionnaire that included items from the WHO World Health Survey and the WHO STEPS survey of chronic disease risk factors. We used logistic regression to assess the associations of NCDs and related risk factors with age and gender. We accounted for sampling weights and the clustered sampling design using statistical survey methods. A total of 142 adults were surveyed and had a weighted mean age of 36 years (range 18-81). The most prevalent diseases were depression (12%) and chronic respiratory disease (8%), while lifetime prevalence of cancer, arthritis, myocardial infarction, and diabetes were all less than 5%. Fifteen percent of respondents were hypertensive and the majority (67%) was unaware of their condition. Being overweight or obese was common for both genders (53%), but abdominal obesity was more prevalent in women (54% vs. 10% in men, p Peru and suggests that prevention and treatment interventions could be optimized according to age and gender.

  11. Optimizing measurements of cluster velocities and temperatures for CCAT-prime and future surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Avirukt; de Bernardis, Francesco; Niemack, Michael D.

    2018-02-01

    Galaxy cluster velocity correlations and mass distributions are sensitive probes of cosmology and the growth of structure. Upcoming microwave surveys will enable extraction of velocities and temperatures from many individual clusters for the first time. We forecast constraints on peculiar velocities, electron temperatures, and optical depths of galaxy clusters obtainable with upcoming multi-frequency measurements of the kinematic, thermal, and relativistic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effects. The forecasted constraints are compared for different measurement configurations with frequency bands between 90 GHz and 1 THz, and for different survey strategies for the 6-meter CCAT-prime telescope. We study methods for improving cluster constraints by removing emission from dusty star forming galaxies, and by using X-ray temperature priors from eROSITA. Cluster constraints are forecast for several model cluster masses. A sensitivity optimization for seven frequency bands is presented for a CCAT-prime first light instrument and a next generation instrument that takes advantage of the large optical throughput of CCAT-prime. We find that CCAT-prime observations are expected to enable measurement and separation of the SZ effects to characterize the velocity, temperature, and optical depth of individual massive clusters (~1015 Msolar). Submillimeter measurements are shown to play an important role in separating these components from dusty galaxy contamination. Using a modular instrument configuration with similar optical throughput for each detector array, we develop a rule of thumb for the number of detector arrays desired at each frequency to optimize extraction of these signals. Our results are relevant for a future "Stage IV" cosmic microwave background survey, which could enable galaxy cluster measurements over a larger range of masses and redshifts than will be accessible by other experiments.

  12. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Optical Extension for Neutron Capture Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Matthew; O'Connell, Julia; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Donor, John; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Stassun, Keivan G.; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Abundance & Mapping (OCCAM) survey is a systematic survey of Galactic open clusters using data primarily from the SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 survey. However, neutron capture elements are very limited in the IR region covered by APOGEE. In an effort to fully study detailed Galactic chemical evolution, we are conducting a high resolution (R~60,000) spectroscopic abundance analysis of neutron capture elements for OCCAM clusters in the optical regime to complement the APOGEE results. As part of this effort, we present Ba II, La II, Ce II and Eu II results for a few open clusters without previous abundance measurements using data obtained at McDonald Observatory with the 2.1m Otto Struve telescope and Sandiford Echelle Spectrograph.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  13. Cluster lot quality assurance sampling: effect of increasing the number of clusters on classification precision and operational feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, Hiromasa; Brown, Alexandra E; Nzioki, Michael M; Gasasira, Alex N; Takane, Marina; Mkanda, Pascal; Wassilak, Steven G F; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    To assess the quality of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has used cluster lot quality assurance sampling (C-LQAS) methods since 2009. However, since the inception of C-LQAS, questions have been raised about the optimal balance between operational feasibility and precision of classification of lots to identify areas with low SIA quality that require corrective programmatic action. To determine if an increased precision in classification would result in differential programmatic decision making, we conducted a pilot evaluation in 4 local government areas (LGAs) in Nigeria with an expanded LQAS sample size of 16 clusters (instead of the standard 6 clusters) of 10 subjects each. The results showed greater heterogeneity between clusters than the assumed standard deviation of 10%, ranging from 12% to 23%. Comparing the distribution of 4-outcome classifications obtained from all possible combinations of 6-cluster subsamples to the observed classification of the 16-cluster sample, we obtained an exact match in classification in 56% to 85% of instances. We concluded that the 6-cluster C-LQAS provides acceptable classification precision for programmatic action. Considering the greater resources required to implement an expanded C-LQAS, the improvement in precision was deemed insufficient to warrant the effort. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Hot Zone Identification: Analyzing Effects of Data Sampling on Spam Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasib Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Email is the most common and comparatively the most efficient means of exchanging information in today's world. However, given the widespread use of emails in all sectors, they have been the target of spammers since the beginning. Filtering spam emails has now led to critical actions such as forensic activities based on mining spam email. The data mine for spam emails at the University of Alabama at Birmingham is considered to be one of the most prominent resources for mining and identifying spam sources. It is a widely researched repository used by researchers from different global organizations. The usual process of mining the spam data involves going through every email in the data mine and clustering them based on their different attributes. However, given the size of the data mine, it takes an exceptionally long time to execute the clustering mechanism each time. In this paper, we have illustrated sampling as an efficient tool for data reduction, while preserving the information within the clusters, which would thus allow the spam forensic experts to quickly and effectively identify the ‘hot zone’ from the spam campaigns. We have provided detailed comparative analysis of the quality of the clusters after sampling, the overall distribution of clusters on the spam data, and timing measurements for our sampling approach. Additionally, we present different strategies which allowed us to optimize the sampling process using data-preprocessing and using the database engine's computational resources, and thus improving the performance of the clustering process.

  15. Hydration of Atmospheric Molecular Clusters: Systematic Configurational Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildgaard, Jens; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Bilde, Merete; Elm, Jonas

    2018-05-09

    We present a new systematic configurational sampling algorithm for investigating the potential energy surface of hydrated atmospheric molecular clusters. The algo- rithm is based on creating a Fibonacci sphere around each atom in the cluster and adding water molecules to each point in 9 different orientations. To allow the sam- pling of water molecules to existing hydrogen bonds, the cluster is displaced along the hydrogen bond and a water molecule is placed in between in three different ori- entations. Generated redundant structures are eliminated based on minimizing the root mean square distance (RMSD) of different conformers. Initially, the clusters are sampled using the semiempirical PM6 method and subsequently using density func- tional theory (M06-2X and ωB97X-D) with the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. Applying the developed algorithm we study the hydration of sulfuric acid with up to 15 water molecules. We find that the additions of the first four water molecules "saturate" the sulfuric acid molecule and are more thermodynamically favourable than the addition of water molecule 5-15. Using the large generated set of conformers, we assess the performance of approximate methods (ωB97X-D, M06-2X, PW91 and PW6B95-D3) in calculating the binding energies and assigning the global minimum conformation compared to high level CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 reference calculations. The tested DFT functionals systematically overestimates the binding energies compared to cou- pled cluster calculations, and we find that this deficiency can be corrected by a simple scaling factor.

  16. A clustering algorithm for sample data based on environmental pollution characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Wang, Pengfei; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Jiadong; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution has become an issue of serious international concern in recent years. Among the receptor-oriented pollution models, CMB, PMF, UNMIX, and PCA are widely used as source apportionment models. To improve the accuracy of source apportionment and classify the sample data for these models, this study proposes an easy-to-use, high-dimensional EPC algorithm that not only organizes all of the sample data into different groups according to the similarities in pollution characteristics such as pollution sources and concentrations but also simultaneously detects outliers. The main clustering process consists of selecting the first unlabelled point as the cluster centre, then assigning each data point in the sample dataset to its most similar cluster centre according to both the user-defined threshold and the value of similarity function in each iteration, and finally modifying the clusters using a method similar to k-Means. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm are tested using both real and synthetic datasets, which makes the EPC algorithm practical and effective for appropriately classifying sample data for source apportionment models and helpful for better understanding and interpreting the sources of pollution.

  17. Global survey of star clusters in the Milky Way. VI. Age distribution and cluster formation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, A. E.; Just, A.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Berczik, P.; Scholz, R.-D.; Reffert, S.; Yen, S. X.

    2018-06-01

    Context. The all-sky Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) survey provides uniform and precise ages, along with other relevant parameters, for a wide variety of clusters in the extended solar neighbourhood. Aims: In this study we aim to construct the cluster age distribution, investigate its spatial variations, and discuss constraints on cluster formation scenarios of the Galactic disk during the last 5 Gyrs. Methods: Due to the spatial extent of the MWSC, we have considered spatial variations of the age distribution along galactocentric radius RG, and along Z-axis. For the analysis of the age distribution we used 2242 clusters, which all lie within roughly 2.5 kpc of the Sun. To connect the observed age distribution to the cluster formation history we built an analytical model based on simple assumptions on the cluster initial mass function and on the cluster mass-lifetime relation, fit it to the observations, and determined the parameters of the cluster formation law. Results: Comparison with the literature shows that earlier results strongly underestimated the number of evolved clusters with ages t ≳ 100 Myr. Recent studies based on all-sky catalogues agree better with our data, but still lack the oldest clusters with ages t ≳ 1 Gyr. We do not observe a strong variation in the age distribution along RG, though we find an enhanced fraction of older clusters (t > 1 Gyr) in the inner disk. In contrast, the distribution strongly varies along Z. The high altitude distribution practically does not contain clusters with t < 1 Gyr. With simple assumptions on the cluster formation history, the cluster initial mass function and the cluster lifetime we can reproduce the observations. The cluster formation rate and the cluster lifetime are strongly degenerate, which does not allow us to disentangle different formation scenarios. In all cases the cluster formation rate is strongly declining with time, and the cluster initial mass function is very shallow at the high mass end.

  18. Next Generation Virgo Survey Photometry and Keck/DEIMOS Spectroscopy of Globular Cluster Satellites of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Toloba, Elisa; Peng, Eric W.; Li, Biao; Gwyn, Stephen; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Chu, Jason; Sparkman, Lea; Chen, Stephanie; Yagati, Samyukta; Muller, Meredith; Next Generation Virgo Survey Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present results from an ongoing study of globular cluster (GC) satellites of low-luminosity dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Our 21 dE targets and candidate GC satellites around them in the apparent magnitude range g ~ 20-24 were selected from the Next Generation Virgo Survey (NGVS) and followed up with medium-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy (resolving power: R ~ 2000; wavelength coverage: 4800-9500 Angstrom). In addition, the remaining space available on the nine DEIMOS multi-slit masks were populated with "filler" targets in the form of distant Milky Way halo star candidates in a comparable apparent magnitude range. A combination of radial velocity information (measured from the Keck/DEIMOS spectra), color-color information (from four-band NGVS photometry), and sky position information was used to sort the sample into the following categories: (1) GC satellites of dEs, (2) other non-satellite GCs in the Virgo cluster (we dub them "orphan" GCs), (3) foreground Milky Way stars that are members of the Sagittarius stream, the Virgo overdensity, or the field halo population, and (4) distant background galaxies. We stack the GC satellite population across all 21 host dEs and carry out dynamical modeling of the stacked sample in order to constrain the average mass of dark matter halos that these dEs are embedded in. We study rotation in the system of GC satellites of dEs in the handful of more populated systems in our sample - i.e., those that contain 10 or more GC satellites per dE. A companion AAS poster presented at this meeting (Chu, J. et al. 2015) presents chemical composition and age constraints for these GC satellites relative to the nuclei of the host dEs based on absorption line strengths in co-added spectra. The orphan GCs are likely to be intergalactic GCs within the Virgo cluster (or, equivalently, GCs in the remote outer envelope of the cluster's central galaxy, the giant elliptical M87).This project is funded in part by the

  19. GENERALISED MODEL BASED CONFIDENCE INTERVALS IN TWO STAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ouma Onyango

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chambers and Dorfman (2002 constructed bootstrap confidence intervals in model based estimation for finite population totals assuming that auxiliary values are available throughout a target population and that the auxiliary values are independent. They also assumed that the cluster sizes are known throughout the target population. We now extend to two stage sampling in which the cluster sizes are known only for the sampled clusters, and we therefore predict the unobserved part of the population total. Jan and Elinor (2008 have done similar work, but unlike them, we use a general model, in which the auxiliary values are not necessarily independent. We demonstrate that the asymptotic properties of our proposed estimator and its coverage rates are better than those constructed under the model assisted local polynomial regression model.

  20. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XV. THE PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ESTIMATION FOR BACKGROUND SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M.; Licitra, R.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Ilbert, O.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Ball, N. M.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Chen, Y.-T.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P. A.; Durrell, P. R.; Guhathakurta, P.; Lançon, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg 2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz bands and one third in the r band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point-spread function homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior that extends to i AB = 12.5 mag. When using the u* griz bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 mag ≤ i ≲ 23 mag or z phot ≲ 1 galaxies have a bias |Δz| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, a scatter σ outl.rej. , and an individual error on z phot that increases with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 ≲ z phot ≲ 0.8 range (–0.05 < Δz < –0.02, σ outl.rej ∼ 0.06, 10%-15% outliers, and z phot.err. ∼ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(θ) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations

  1. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XV. THE PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ESTIMATION FOR BACKGROUND SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M.; Licitra, R. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ilbert, O.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Ball, N. M.; Côté, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kavelaars, J. J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Chen, Y.-T. [Insitute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Cuillandre, J.-C. [Canada-France-Hawaïi Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Duc, P. A. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lançon, A., E-mail: anand.raichoor@obspm.fr [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); and others

    2014-12-20

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg{sup 2} centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz bands and one third in the r band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point-spread function homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior that extends to i {sub AB} = 12.5 mag. When using the u* griz bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 mag ≤ i ≲ 23 mag or z {sub phot} ≲ 1 galaxies have a bias |Δz| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, a scatter σ{sub outl.rej.}, and an individual error on z {sub phot} that increases with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 ≲ z {sub phot} ≲ 0.8 range (–0.05 < Δz < –0.02, σ{sub outl.rej} ∼ 0.06, 10%-15% outliers, and z {sub phot.err.} ∼ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(θ) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.

  2. Systematic adaptive cluster sampling for the assessment of rare tree species in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, B.; Bhattarai, G.; Gier, de A.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    Sampling to assess rare tree species poses methodic problems, because they may cluster and many plots with no such trees are to be expected. We used systematic adaptive cluster sampling (SACS) to sample three rare tree species in a forest area of about 40 ha in Nepal. We checked its applicability

  3. Centre-excised X-ray luminosity as an efficient mass proxy for future galaxy cluster surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; von der Linden, Anja

    2018-01-01

    The cosmological constraining power of modern galaxy cluster catalogues can be improved by obtaining low-scatter mass proxy measurements for even a small fraction of sources. In the context of large upcoming surveys that will reveal the cluster population down to the group scale and out to high redshifts, efficient strategies for obtaining such mass proxies will be valuable. In this work, we use high-quality weak-lensing and X-ray mass estimates for massive clusters in current X-ray-selected catalogues to revisit the scaling relations of the projected, centre-excised X-ray luminosity (Lce), which previous work suggests correlates tightly with total mass. Our data confirm that this is the case with Lce having an intrinsic scatter at fixed mass comparable to that of gas mass, temperature or YX. Compared to the other proxies, however, Lce is less susceptible to systematic uncertainties due to background modelling, and can be measured precisely with shorter exposures. This opens up the possibility of using Lce to estimate masses for large numbers of clusters discovered by new X-ray surveys (e.g. eROSITA) directly from the survey data, as well as for clusters discovered at other wavelengths with relatively short follow-up observations. We describe a simple procedure for making such estimates from X-ray surface brightness data, and comment on the spatial resolution required to apply this method as a function of cluster mass and redshift. We also explore the potential impact of Chandra and XMM-Newton follow-up observations over the next decade on dark energy constraints from new cluster surveys.

  4. Clustering for high-dimension, low-sample size data using distance vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In high-dimension, low-sample size (HDLSS) data, it is not always true that closeness of two objects reflects a hidden cluster structure. We point out the important fact that it is not the closeness, but the "values" of distance that contain information of the cluster structure in high-dimensional space. Based on this fact, we propose an efficient and simple clustering approach, called distance vector clustering, for HDLSS data. Under the assumptions given in the work of Hall et al. (2005), w...

  5. A HIGH FIDELITY SAMPLE OF COLD FRONT CLUSTERS FROM THE CHANDRA ARCHIVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owers, Matt S.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Markevitch, Maxim; Couch, Warrick J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sample of 'cold front' clusters selected from the Chandra archive. The clusters are selected based purely on the existence of surface brightness edges in their Chandra images which are modeled as density jumps. A combination of the derived density and temperature jumps across the fronts is used to select nine robust examples of cold front clusters: 1ES0657 - 558, Abell 1201, Abell 1758N, MS1455.0+2232, Abell 2069, Abell 2142, Abell 2163, RXJ1720.1+2638, and Abell 3667. This sample is the subject of an ongoing study aimed at relating cold fronts to cluster merger activity, and understanding how the merging environment affects the cluster constituents. Here, temperature maps are presented along with the Chandra X-ray images. A dichotomy is found in the sample in that there exists a subsample of cold front clusters which are clearly mergers based on their X-ray morphologies, and a second subsample of clusters which harbor cold fronts, but have surprisingly relaxed X-ray morphologies, and minimal evidence for merger activity at other wavelengths. For this second subsample, the existence of a cold front provides the sole evidence for merger activity at X-ray wavelengths. We discuss how cold fronts can provide additional information which may be used to constrain merger histories, and also the possibility of using cold fronts to distinguish major and minor mergers.

  6. COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM GALAXY CLUSTERING AND THE MASS-TO-NUMBER RATIO OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Blanton, Michael R.; Sheldon, Erin S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Becker, Matthew R.; Rozo, Eduardo; Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H.; Zehavi, Idit; Busha, Michael T.; Koester, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    We place constraints on the average density (Ω m ) and clustering amplitude (σ 8 ) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, w p (r p ), and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our w p (r p ) measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct nonlinear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both w p (r p ) and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when Ω m or σ 8 is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, without the use of abundance information. Using w p (r p ) and M/N alone, we find Ω 0.5 m σ 8 = 0.465 ± 0.026, with individual constraints of Ω m = 0.29 ± 0.03 and σ 8 = 0.85 ± 0.06. Combined with current cosmic microwave background data, these constraints are Ω m = 0.290 ± 0.016 and σ 8 = 0.826 ± 0.020. All errors are 1σ. The systematic uncertainties that the M/N technique are most sensitive to are the amplitude of the bias function of dark matter halos and the possibility of redshift evolution between the SDSS Main sample and the maxBCG cluster sample. Our derived constraints are insensitive to the current level of uncertainties in the halo mass function and in the mass-richness relation of clusters and its scatter, making the M/N technique complementary to cluster abundances as a method for constraining cosmology with future galaxy surveys.

  7. COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM GALAXY CLUSTERING AND THE MASS-TO-NUMBER RATIO OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10013 (United States); Sheldon, Erin S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Becker, Matthew R.; Rozo, Eduardo [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Zehavi, Idit [Department of Astronomy and CERCA, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Busha, Michael T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Koester, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 6037 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    We place constraints on the average density ({Omega}{sub m}) and clustering amplitude ({sigma}{sub 8}) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, w{sub p} (r{sub p} ), and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct nonlinear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when {Omega}{sub m} or {sigma}{sub 8} is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, without the use of abundance information. Using w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) and M/N alone, we find {Omega}{sup 0.5}{sub m}{sigma}{sub 8} = 0.465 {+-} 0.026, with individual constraints of {Omega}{sub m} = 0.29 {+-} 0.03 and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.85 {+-} 0.06. Combined with current cosmic microwave background data, these constraints are {Omega}{sub m} = 0.290 {+-} 0.016 and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.826 {+-} 0.020. All errors are 1{sigma}. The systematic uncertainties that the M/N technique are most sensitive to are the amplitude of the bias function of dark matter halos and the possibility of redshift evolution between the SDSS Main sample and the maxBCG cluster sample. Our derived constraints are insensitive to the current level of uncertainties in the halo mass function and in the mass-richness relation of clusters and its scatter, making the M/N technique complementary to cluster abundances as a method for constraining cosmology with future galaxy

  8. A NEW Hα EMISSION-LINE SURVEY IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegedi-Elek, E.; Kun, M.; Pál, A.; Balázs, L. G.; Reipurth, B.; Willman, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from an Hα emission line survey in a 1 deg 2 area centered on the Orion Nebula Cluster, obtained with the Wide Field Grism Spectrograph 2 on the 2.2 m telescope of the University of Hawaii. We identified 587 stars with Hα emission, 99 of which, located mainly in the outer regions of the observed area, have not appeared in previous Hα surveys. We determined the equivalent width (EW) of the line and, based on this, classified 372 stars as classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and 187 as weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs). Simultaneous r', i' photometry indicates a limiting magnitude of r' ∼ 20 mag, but the sample is incomplete at r' > 17 mag. The surface distribution of the Hα emission stars reveals a clustered population and a dispersed population, the former consisting of younger and more massive young stars than the latter. Comparison of the derived EWs with those found in the literature indicates variability of the Hα line. We found that the typical amplitudes of the variability are not greater than a factor of two to three in most cases. We identified a subgroup of low-EW stars with infrared signatures indicative of optically thick accretion disks. We studied the correlations between the EW and other properties of the stars. Based on literature data, we examined several properties of our CTTS and WTTS subsamples and found significant differences in mid-infrared color indices, average rotational periods, and spectral energy distribution characteristics of the subsamples

  9. A NEW Hα EMISSION-LINE SURVEY IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szegedi-Elek, E.; Kun, M.; Pál, A.; Balázs, L. G. [Konkoly Observatory, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege út 15-17 (Hungary); Reipurth, B.; Willman, M., E-mail: eelza@konkoly.hu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present results from an Hα emission line survey in a 1 deg{sup 2} area centered on the Orion Nebula Cluster, obtained with the Wide Field Grism Spectrograph 2 on the 2.2 m telescope of the University of Hawaii. We identified 587 stars with Hα emission, 99 of which, located mainly in the outer regions of the observed area, have not appeared in previous Hα surveys. We determined the equivalent width (EW) of the line and, based on this, classified 372 stars as classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and 187 as weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs). Simultaneous r', i' photometry indicates a limiting magnitude of r' ∼ 20 mag, but the sample is incomplete at r' > 17 mag. The surface distribution of the Hα emission stars reveals a clustered population and a dispersed population, the former consisting of younger and more massive young stars than the latter. Comparison of the derived EWs with those found in the literature indicates variability of the Hα line. We found that the typical amplitudes of the variability are not greater than a factor of two to three in most cases. We identified a subgroup of low-EW stars with infrared signatures indicative of optically thick accretion disks. We studied the correlations between the EW and other properties of the stars. Based on literature data, we examined several properties of our CTTS and WTTS subsamples and found significant differences in mid-infrared color indices, average rotational periods, and spectral energy distribution characteristics of the subsamples.

  10. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (NSSRN) Download makes data from the survey readily available to users in a one-stop download. The Survey has been...

  11. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Berry, D. S.; Jenness, T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  12. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: DENSE CORE CLUSTERS IN ORION A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Mairs, S.; Francesco, J. Di [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sadavoy, S. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatchell, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Berry, D. S. [East Asian Observatory, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Hogerheijde, M. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ward-Thompson, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-12-10

    The Orion A molecular cloud is one of the most well-studied nearby star-forming regions, and includes regions of both highly clustered and more dispersed star formation across its full extent. Here, we analyze dense, star-forming cores identified in the 850 and 450 μ m SCUBA-2 maps from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify dense cores in a uniform manner across the Orion A cloud and analyze their clustering properties. Using two independent lines of analysis, we find evidence that clusters of dense cores tend to be mass segregated, suggesting that stellar clusters may have some amount of primordial mass segregation already imprinted in them at an early stage. We also demonstrate that the dense core clusters have a tendency to be elongated, perhaps indicating a formation mechanism linked to the filamentary structure within molecular clouds.

  13. THE EVOLUTION OF DUSTY STAR FORMATION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS TO z = 1: SPITZER INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE FIRST RED-SEQUENCE CLUSTER SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T. M. A.; O'Donnell, D.; Coppin, Kristen; Faloon, Ashley; Geach, James E.; Noble, Allison; Yee, H. K. C.; Gilbank, David; Ellingson, Erica; Gladders, Mike; Muzzin, Adam; Wilson, Gillian; Yan, Renbin

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of an infrared (IR) study of high-redshift galaxy clusters with the MIPS camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have assembled a sample of 42 clusters from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey-1 over the redshift range 0.3 14-15 M ☉ . We statistically measure the number of IR-luminous galaxies in clusters above a fixed inferred IR luminosity of 2 × 10 11 M ☉ , assuming a star forming galaxy template, per unit cluster mass and find it increases to higher redshift. Fitting a simple power-law we measure evolution of (1 + z) 5.1±1.9 over the range 0.3 cluster ). The evolution is similar, with ΣSFR/M cluster ∼ (1 + z) 5.4±1.9 . We show that this can be accounted for by the evolution of the IR-bright field population over the same redshift range; that is, the evolution can be attributed entirely to the change in the in-falling field galaxy population. We show that the ΣSFR/M cluster (binned over all redshift) decreases with increasing cluster mass with a slope (ΣSFR/M cluster ∼M cluster -1.5±0.4 ) consistent with the dependence of the stellar-to-total mass per unit cluster mass seen locally. The inferred star formation seen here could produce ∼5%-10% of the total stellar mass in massive clusters at z = 0, but we cannot constrain the descendant population, nor how rapidly the star-formation must shut-down once the galaxies have entered the cluster environment. Finally, we show a clear decrease in the number of IR-bright galaxies per unit optical galaxy in the cluster cores, confirming star formation continues to avoid the highest density regions of the universe at z ∼ 0.75 (the average redshift of the high-redshift clusters). While several previous studies appear to show enhanced star formation in high-redshift clusters relative to the field we note that these papers have not accounted for the overall increase in galaxy or dark matter density at the location of clusters. Once this is done, clusters at z ∼ 0.75 have the same

  14. Sample size adjustments for varying cluster sizes in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes analyzed with second-order PQL mixed logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Math J J M; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P

    2010-06-30

    Adjustments of sample size formulas are given for varying cluster sizes in cluster randomized trials with a binary outcome when testing the treatment effect with mixed effects logistic regression using second-order penalized quasi-likelihood estimation (PQL). Starting from first-order marginal quasi-likelihood (MQL) estimation of the treatment effect, the asymptotic relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes is derived. A Monte Carlo simulation study shows this asymptotic relative efficiency to be rather accurate for realistic sample sizes, when employing second-order PQL. An approximate, simpler formula is presented to estimate the efficiency loss due to varying cluster sizes when planning a trial. In many cases sampling 14 per cent more clusters is sufficient to repair the efficiency loss due to varying cluster sizes. Since current closed-form formulas for sample size calculation are based on first-order MQL, planning a trial also requires a conversion factor to obtain the variance of the second-order PQL estimator. In a second Monte Carlo study, this conversion factor turned out to be 1.25 at most. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VIII. PRELIMINARY PUBLIC CATALOG RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Brown, T. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, San Martin Drive 3700, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Piotto, G.; Granata, V.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Cool, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); King, I. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cassisi, S. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S., E-mail: mario.soto@uda.cl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey’s 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.

  16. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : VI. Colour gradients in giant and dwarf early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Balcells, Marc; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Graham, A. W.; Hammer, D.; Lucey, J. R.; Trentham, N.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Kleijn, G. Verdoes; Jogee, S.; Karick, A. M.; Marinova, I.; Mouhcine, M.; Weinzirl, T.

    Using deep, high-spatial-resolution imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we determine colour profiles of early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster. From 176 galaxies brighter than M-F814W(AB) = -15 mag that are either

  17. Mahalanobis' Contributions to Sample Surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sample Survey started its operations in October 1950 under the ... and adopted random cuts for estimating the acreage under jute ... demographic factors relating to indebtedness, unemployment, ... traffic surveys, demand for currency coins and average life of .... Mahalanobis derived the optimum allocation in stratified.

  18. Using Linked Survey Paradata to Improve Sampling Strategies in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirel Lisa B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using paradata from a prior survey that is linked to a new survey can help a survey organization develop more effective sampling strategies. One example of this type of linkage or subsampling is between the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS. MEPS is a nationally representative sample of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population based on a complex multi-stage sample design. Each year a new sample is drawn as a subsample of households from the prior year’s NHIS. The main objective of this article is to examine how paradata from a prior survey can be used in developing a sampling scheme in a subsequent survey. A framework for optimal allocation of the sample in substrata formed for this purpose is presented and evaluated for the relative effectiveness of alternative substratification schemes. The framework is applied, using real MEPS data, to illustrate how utilizing paradata from the linked survey offers the possibility of making improvements to the sampling scheme for the subsequent survey. The improvements aim to reduce the data collection costs while maintaining or increasing effective responding sample sizes and response rates for a harder to reach population.

  19. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DYNAMICAL MASSES AND SCALING RELATIONS FOR A SAMPLE OF MASSIVE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTERS {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifon, Cristobal; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Gonzalez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Duenner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Marriage, Tobias A.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hilton, Matt [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-20

    We present the first dynamical mass estimates and scaling relations for a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) selected galaxy clusters. The sample consists of 16 massive clusters detected with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) over a 455 deg{sup 2} area of the southern sky. Deep multi-object spectroscopic observations were taken to secure intermediate-resolution (R {approx} 700-800) spectra and redshifts for Almost-Equal-To 60 member galaxies on average per cluster. The dynamical masses M{sub 200c} of the clusters have been calculated using simulation-based scaling relations between velocity dispersion and mass. The sample has a median redshift z = 0.50 and a median mass M{sub 200c}{approx_equal}12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub sun} with a lower limit M{sub 200c}{approx_equal}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub sun}, consistent with the expectations for the ACT southern sky survey. These masses are compared to the ACT SZE properties of the sample, specifically, the match-filtered central SZE amplitude y{sub 0}-tilde, the central Compton parameter y{sub 0}, and the integrated Compton signal Y{sub 200c}, which we use to derive SZE-mass scaling relations. All SZE estimators correlate with dynamical mass with low intrinsic scatter ({approx}< 20%), in agreement with numerical simulations. We explore the effects of various systematic effects on these scaling relations, including the correlation between observables and the influence of dynamically disturbed clusters. Using the three-dimensional information available, we divide the sample into relaxed and disturbed clusters and find that {approx}50% of the clusters are disturbed. There are hints that disturbed systems might bias the scaling relations, but given the current sample sizes, these differences are not significant; further studies including more clusters are required to assess the impact of these clusters on the scaling relations.

  20. Clustering of samples and elements based on multi-variable chemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op de Beeck, J.

    1984-01-01

    Clustering and classification are defined in the context of multivariable chemical analysis data. Classical multi-variate techniques, commonly used to interpret such data, are shown to be based on probabilistic and geometrical principles which are not justified for analytical data, since in that case one assumes or expects a system of more or less systematically related objects (samples) as defined by measurements on more or less systematically interdependent variables (elements). For the specific analytical problem of data set concerning a large number of trace elements determined in a large number of samples, a deterministic cluster analysis can be used to develop the underlying classification structure. Three main steps can be distinguished: diagnostic evaluation and preprocessing of the raw input data; computation of a symmetric matrix with pairwise standardized dissimilarity values between all possible pairs of samples and/or elements; and ultrametric clustering strategy to produce the final classification as a dendrogram. The software packages designed to perform these tasks are discussed and final results are given. Conclusions are formulated concerning the dangers of using multivariate, clustering and classification software packages as a black-box

  1. AMICO: optimized detection of galaxy clusters in photometric surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagamba, Fabio; Roncarelli, Mauro; Maturi, Matteo; Moscardini, Lauro

    2018-02-01

    We present Adaptive Matched Identifier of Clustered Objects (AMICO), a new algorithm for the detection of galaxy clusters in photometric surveys. AMICO is based on the Optimal Filtering technique, which allows to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the clusters. In this work, we focus on the new iterative approach to the extraction of cluster candidates from the map produced by the filter. In particular, we provide a definition of membership probability for the galaxies close to any cluster candidate, which allows us to remove its imprint from the map, allowing the detection of smaller structures. As demonstrated in our tests, this method allows the deblending of close-by and aligned structures in more than 50 per cent of the cases for objects at radial distance equal to 0.5 × R200 or redshift distance equal to 2 × σz, being σz the typical uncertainty of photometric redshifts. Running AMICO on mocks derived from N-body simulations and semi-analytical modelling of the galaxy evolution, we obtain a consistent mass-amplitude relation through the redshift range of 0.3 slope of ∼0.55 and a logarithmic scatter of ∼0.14. The fraction of false detections is steeply decreasing with S/N and negligible at S/N > 5.

  2. The rise of survey sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about the history of survey sampling. It describes how sampling became an accepted scientific method. From the first ideas in 1895 it took some 50 years before the principles of probability sampling were widely accepted. This papers has a focus on developments in official statistics in

  3. Type-Ia supernova rates to redshift 2.4 from clash: The cluster lensing and supernova survey with Hubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Riess, A. G.; Medezinski, E.; Maoz, D.; Jha, S. W.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Strolger, L.-G.; Coe, D.; Bradley, L.; Koekemoer, A.; Benítez, N.; Molino, A.; Jouvel, S.; Nonino, M.; Balestra, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, ∼13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z > 1.2. We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range 1.8 < z < 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys. We model these results together with previous measurements at z < 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of −1.00 −0.06(0.10) +0.06(0.09) (statistical) −0.08 +0.12 (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at >99% significance level.

  4. Identifying Patient Attitudinal Clusters Associated with Asthma Control: The European REALISE Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Thys; Fletcher, Monica; Price, David

    Asthma is a highly heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical phenotypes, and treatment may be tailored accordingly. However, factors beyond purely clinical traits, such as patient attitudes and behaviors, can also have a marked impact on treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to further analyze data from the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) Europe survey, to identify distinct patient groups sharing common attitudes toward asthma and its management. Factor analysis of respondent data (N = 7,930) from the REALISE Europe survey consolidated the 34 attitudinal variables provided by the study population into a set of 8 summary factors. Cluster analyses were used to identify patient clusters that showed similar attitudes and behaviors toward each of the 8 summary factors. Five distinct patient clusters were identified and named according to the key characteristics comprising that cluster: "Confident and self-managing," "Confident and accepting of their asthma," "Confident but dependent on others," "Concerned but confident in their health care professional (HCP)," and "Not confident in themselves or their HCP." Clusters showed clear variability in attributes such as degree of confidence in managing their asthma, use of reliever and preventer medication, and level of asthma control. The 5 patient clusters identified in this analysis displayed distinctly different personal attitudes that would require different approaches in the consultation room certainly for asthma but probably also for other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HICOSMO - cosmology with a complete sample of galaxy clusters - I. Data analysis, sample selection and luminosity-mass scaling relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.

    2017-08-01

    The X-ray regime, where the most massive visible component of galaxy clusters, the intracluster medium, is visible, offers directly measured quantities, like the luminosity, and derived quantities, like the total mass, to characterize these objects. The aim of this project is to analyse a complete sample of galaxy clusters in detail and constrain cosmological parameters, like the matter density, Ωm, or the amplitude of initial density fluctuations, σ8. The purely X-ray flux-limited sample (HIFLUGCS) consists of the 64 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters, which are excellent targets to study the systematic effects, that can bias results. We analysed in total 196 Chandra observations of the 64 HIFLUGCS clusters, with a total exposure time of 7.7 Ms. Here, we present our data analysis procedure (including an automated substructure detection and an energy band optimization for surface brightness profile analysis) that gives individually determined, robust total mass estimates. These masses are tested against dynamical and Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) derived masses of the same clusters, where good overall agreement is found with the dynamical masses. The Planck SZ masses seem to show a mass-dependent bias to our hydrostatic masses; possible biases in this mass-mass comparison are discussed including the Planck selection function. Furthermore, we show the results for the (0.1-2.4) keV luminosity versus mass scaling relation. The overall slope of the sample (1.34) is in agreement with expectations and values from literature. Splitting the sample into galaxy groups and clusters reveals, even after a selection bias correction, that galaxy groups exhibit a significantly steeper slope (1.88) compared to clusters (1.06).

  6. Dietary habits and physical activity patterns among Slovenian elderly: cross-sectional survey with cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joca Zurc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and a healthy diet are significant predictors of healthy ageing—they help the elderly maintain their physical and mental health, and prevent chronic diseases. Methods: The data for the empirical quantitative survey were collected on the sample of 218 elderly community-dwelling participants (aged 65 years or more, using a structured questionnaire for self-reporting. Data analyses were proceed with the bivariate statistics, and multivariate hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Most respondents reported good dietary habits (83.1% and a satisfactory physical activity level (60.5%. On average, the elderly eat 3-4 meals per day (59.8% and engage in physical activity at least three times a week (58.6%, with interventions lasting 15 minutes or more (84.4 % and non-organized activity prevailing (96.2%. Ward’s method yielded three clusters with homogenous dietary and physical activity patterns: ‘Health Conscious’ (30.8%, ‘At Risk’ (42.7% and ‘Special Requirements’ (26.5%. Significant differences were identified between clusters and educational level (p = 0.001. Discussion and conclusions: In the future, special attention should be placed on the elderly group with a lower educational level and special dietary and physical activity requirements. Additional studies on representative samples are required for a comprehensive investigation into the lifestyle behaviours of elderly individuals.

  7. The Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey II - Planetary Nebulae kinematics within 200 kpc of the cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Tortora, C.; Coccato, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gerhard, O.; Iodice, E.; Spavone, M.; Cantiello, M.; Peletier, R.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.

    2018-06-01

    We present the largest and most spatially extended planetary nebulae (PNe) catalogue ever obtained for the Fornax cluster. We measured velocities of 1452 PNe out to 200 kpc in the cluster core using a counter-dispersed slitless spectroscopic technique with data from FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). With such an extended spatial coverage, we can study separately the stellar haloes of some of the cluster main galaxies and the intracluster light. In this second paper of the Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey, we identify and classify the emission-line sources, describe the method to select PNe, and calculate their coordinates and velocities from the dispersed slitless images. From the PN 2D velocity map, we identify stellar streams that are possibly tracing the gravitational interaction of NGC 1399 with NGC 1404 and NGC 1387. We also present the velocity dispersion profile out to ˜200 kpc radii, which shows signatures of a superposition of the bright central galaxy and the cluster potential, with the latter clearly dominating the regions outside R ˜ 1000 arcsec (˜100 kpc).

  8. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XXVI. The Issues of Photometric Age and Metallicity Estimates for Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Lançon, Ariane; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Puzia, Thomas H.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Zhang, Hongxin [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Roediger, Joel; Gwyn, S. D. J. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Program, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sánchez-Janssen, Rúben [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Durrell, Patrick R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH (United States); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu,Université Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hudelot, Patrick, E-mail: mathieu.powalka@astro.unistra.fr [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2017-08-01

    Large samples of globular clusters (GC) with precise multi-wavelength photometry are becoming increasingly available and can be used to constrain the formation history of galaxies. We present the results of an analysis of Milky Way (MW) and Virgo core GCs based on 5 optical-near-infrared colors and 10 synthetic stellar population models. For the MW GCs, the models tend to agree on photometric ages and metallicities, with values similar to those obtained with previous studies. When used with Virgo core GCs, for which photometry is provided by the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), the same models generically return younger ages. This is a consequence of the systematic differences observed between the locus occupied by Virgo core GCs and models in panchromatic color space. Only extreme fine-tuning of the adjustable parameters available to us can make the majority of the best-fit ages old. Although we cannot exclude that the formation history of the Virgo core may lead to more conspicuous populations of relatively young GCs than in other environments, we emphasize that the intrinsic properties of the Virgo GCs are likely to differ systematically from those assumed in the models. Thus, the large wavelength coverage and photometric quality of modern GC samples, such as those used here, is not by itself sufficient to better constrain the GC formation histories. Models matching the environment-dependent characteristics of GCs in multi-dimensional color space are needed to improve the situation.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dengue Infection in Khanh Hoa Province, Viet Nam: A Stratified Cluster Sampling Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Vien Quang; Mai, Trịnh Thị Xuan; Tam, Ngo Le Minh; Nghia, Le Trung; Komada, Kenichi; Murakami, Hitoshi

    2018-05-19

    Dengue is a clinically important arthropod-borne viral disease with increasing global incidence. Here we aimed to estimate the prevalence of dengue infections in Khanh Hoa Province, central Viet Nam, and to identify risk factors for infection. We performed a stratified cluster sampling survey including residents of 3-60 years of age in Nha Trang City, Ninh Hoa District and Dien Khanh District, Khanh Hoa Province, in October 2011. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) against dengue were analyzed using a rapid test kit. Participants completed a questionnaire exploring clinical dengue incidence, socio-economic status, and individual behavior. A household checklist was used to examine environment, mosquito larvae presence, and exposure to public health interventions. IgG positivity was 20.5% (urban, 16.3%; rural, 23.0%), IgM positivity was 6.7% (urban, 6.4%; rural, 6.9%), and incidence of clinically compatible dengue during the prior 3 months was 2.8 per 1,000 persons (urban, 1.7; rural, 3.4). For IgG positivity, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-5.81) for mosquito larvae presence in water pooled in old tires and was 3.09 (95% CI, 1.75-5.46) for proximity to a densely inhabited area. For IgM positivity, the AOR was 3.06 (95% CI, 1.50-6.23) for proximity to a densely inhabited area. Our results indicated rural penetration of dengue infections. Control measures should target densely inhabited areas, and may include clean-up of discarded tires and water-collecting waste.

  10. OPEN CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY OUTER DISK: NEWLY DISCOVERED AND UNSTUDIED CLUSTERS IN THE SPITZER GLIMPSE-360, CYG-X, AND SMOG SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasowski, G.; Beaton, R. L.; Hamm, K. K.; Majewski, S. R.; Patterson, R. J.; Babler, B.; Churchwell, E.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B. A.; Benjamin, R. A.; Watson, C.

    2013-01-01

    Open stellar clusters are extremely valuable probes of Galactic structure, star formation, kinematics, and chemical abundance patterns. Near-infrared (NIR) data have enabled the detection of hundreds of clusters hidden from optical surveys, and mid-infrared (MIR) data are poised to offer an even clearer view into the most heavily obscured parts of the Milky Way. We use new MIR images from the Spitzer GLIMPSE-360, Cyg-X, and SMOG surveys to visually identify a large number of open cluster candidates in the outer disk of the Milky Way (65° < l < 265°). Using NIR color-magnitude diagrams, stellar isochrones, and stellar reddening estimates, we derive cluster parameters (metallicity, distance, reddening) for those objects without previous identification and/or parameters in the literature. In total, we present coordinates and sizes of 20 previously unknown open cluster candidates; for 7 of these we also present metallicity, distance, and reddening values. In addition, we provide the first estimates of these values for nine clusters that had been previously cataloged. We compare our cluster sizes and other derived parameters to those in the open cluster catalog of Dias et al. and find strong similarities except for a higher mean reddening for our objects, which signifies our increased detection sensitivity in regions of high extinction. The results of this cluster search and analysis demonstrate the ability of MIR imaging and photometry to augment significantly the current census of open clusters in the Galaxy

  11. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; Smith, Russell J.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lucey, John R.; Jogee, Shardha; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Chiboucas, Kristin; Davies, Jonathan I.; del Burgo, Carlos; Erwin, Peter; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jenkins, Leigh; Karick, Arna; Khosroshahi, Habib; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Marzke, Ronald O.; Marinova, Irina; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Percival, Sue; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Price, James; Sharples, Ray M.; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ~50% of the core high-density region in

  12. HICOSMO - X-ray analysis of a complete sample of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T.

    2017-10-01

    Galaxy clusters are known to be the largest virialized objects in the Universe. Based on the theory of structure formation one can use them as cosmological probes, since they originate from collapsed overdensities in the early Universe and witness its history. The X-ray regime provides the unique possibility to measure in detail the most massive visible component, the intra cluster medium. Using Chandra observations of a local sample of 64 bright clusters (HIFLUGCS) we provide total (hydrostatic) and gas mass estimates of each cluster individually. Making use of the completeness of the sample we quantify two interesting cosmological parameters by a Bayesian cosmological likelihood analysis. We find Ω_{M}=0.3±0.01 and σ_{8}=0.79±0.03 (statistical uncertainties) using our default analysis strategy combining both, a mass function analysis and the gas mass fraction results. The main sources of biases that we discuss and correct here are (1) the influence of galaxy groups (higher incompleteness in parent samples and a differing behavior of the L_{x} - M relation), (2) the hydrostatic mass bias (as determined by recent hydrodynamical simulations), (3) the extrapolation of the total mass (comparing various methods), (4) the theoretical halo mass function and (5) other cosmological (non-negligible neutrino mass), and instrumental (calibration) effects.

  13. Source selection for cluster weak lensing measurements in the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Oguri, Masamune; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Speagle, Joshua S.; Miyatake, Hironao; Umetsu, Keiichi; Leauthaud, Alexie; Murata, Ryoma; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Strauss, Michael A.; Huang, Song; Simet, Melanie; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Masayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2018-03-01

    We present optimized source galaxy selection schemes for measuring cluster weak lensing (WL) mass profiles unaffected by cluster member dilution from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program (HSC-SSP). The ongoing HSC-SSP survey will uncover thousands of galaxy clusters to z ≲ 1.5. In deriving cluster masses via WL, a critical source of systematics is contamination and dilution of the lensing signal by cluster members, and by foreground galaxies whose photometric redshifts are biased. Using the first-year CAMIRA catalog of ˜900 clusters with richness larger than 20 found in ˜140 deg2 of HSC-SSP data, we devise and compare several source selection methods, including selection in color-color space (CC-cut), and selection of robust photometric redshifts by applying constraints on their cumulative probability distribution function (P-cut). We examine the dependence of the contamination on the chosen limits adopted for each method. Using the proper limits, these methods give mass profiles with minimal dilution in agreement with one another. We find that not adopting either the CC-cut or P-cut methods results in an underestimation of the total cluster mass (13% ± 4%) and the concentration of the profile (24% ± 11%). The level of cluster contamination can reach as high as ˜10% at R ≈ 0.24 Mpc/h for low-z clusters without cuts, while employing either the P-cut or CC-cut results in cluster contamination consistent with zero to within the 0.5% uncertainties. Our robust methods yield a ˜60 σ detection of the stacked CAMIRA surface mass density profile, with a mean mass of M200c = [1.67 ± 0.05(stat)] × 1014 M⊙/h.

  14. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: cosmological analysis of the DR12 galaxy sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadab; Ata, Metin; Bailey, Stephen; Beutler, Florian; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blazek, Jonathan A.; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burden, Angela; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Comparat, Johan; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Escoffier, Stephanie; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Hand, Nick; Ho, Shirley; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Maraston, Claudia; McBride, Cameron K.; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Reid, Beth A.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossi, Graziano; Rubiño-Martín, Jose Alberto; Saito, Shun; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Satpathy, Siddharth; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Scóccola, Claudia G.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Sheldon, Erin S.; Simmons, Audrey; Slosar, Anže; Strauss, Michael A.; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Magaña, Mariana Vargas; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Verde, Licia; Wake, David A.; Wang, Yuting; Weinberg, David H.; White, Martin; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Yèche, Christophe; Zehavi, Idit; Zhai, Zhongxu; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2017-09-01

    We present cosmological results from the final galaxy clustering data set of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III. Our combined galaxy sample comprises 1.2 million massive galaxies over an effective area of 9329 deg2 and volume of 18.7 Gpc3, divided into three partially overlapping redshift slices centred at effective redshifts 0.38, 0.51 and 0.61. We measure the angular diameter distance DM and Hubble parameter H from the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) method, in combination with a cosmic microwave background prior on the sound horizon scale, after applying reconstruction to reduce non-linear effects on the BAO feature. Using the anisotropic clustering of the pre-reconstruction density field, we measure the product DMH from the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) effect and the growth of structure, quantified by fσ8(z), from redshift-space distortions (RSD). We combine individual measurements presented in seven companion papers into a set of consensus values and likelihoods, obtaining constraints that are tighter and more robust than those from any one method; in particular, the AP measurement from sub-BAO scales sharpens constraints from post-reconstruction BAOs by breaking degeneracy between DM and H. Combined with Planck 2016 cosmic microwave background measurements, our distance scale measurements simultaneously imply curvature ΩK = 0.0003 ± 0.0026 and a dark energy equation-of-state parameter w = -1.01 ± 0.06, in strong affirmation of the spatially flat cold dark matter (CDM) model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Our RSD measurements of fσ8, at 6 per cent precision, are similarly consistent with this model. When combined with supernova Ia data, we find H0 = 67.3 ± 1.0 km s-1 Mpc-1 even for our most general dark energy model, in tension with some direct measurements. Adding extra relativistic species as a degree of freedom loosens the constraint only slightly, to H0 = 67.8 ± 1.2 km s-1 Mpc-1. Assuming flat

  15. THE DYNAMICAL STATE OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AND THE FORMATION OF CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coziol, R.; Andernach, H.; Caretta, C. A.; Alamo-MartInez, K. A.; Tago, E.

    2009-01-01

    A large sample of Abell clusters of galaxies, selected for the likely presence of a dominant galaxy, is used to study the dynamical properties of the brightest cluster members (BCMs). From visual inspection of Digitized Sky Survey images combined with redshift information we identify 1426 candidate BCMs located in 1221 different redshift components associated with 1169 different Abell clusters. This is the largest sample published so far of such galaxies. From our own morphological classification we find that ∼92% of the BCMs in our sample are early-type galaxies and 48% are of cD type. We confirm what was previously observed based on much smaller samples, namely, that a large fraction of BCMs have significant peculiar velocities. From a subsample of 452 clusters having at least 10 measured radial velocities, we estimate a median BCM peculiar velocity of 32% of their host clusters' radial velocity dispersion. This suggests that most BCMs are not at rest in the potential well of their clusters. This phenomenon is common to galaxy clusters in our sample, and not a special trait of clusters hosting cD galaxies. We show that the peculiar velocity of the BCM is independent of cluster richness and only slightly dependent on the Bautz-Morgan type. We also find a weak trend for the peculiar velocity to rise with the cluster velocity dispersion. The strongest dependence is with the morphological type of the BCM: cD galaxies tend to have lower relative peculiar velocities than elliptical galaxies. This result points to a connection between the formation of the BCMs and that of their clusters. Our data are qualitatively consistent with the merging-groups scenario, where BCMs in clusters formed first in smaller subsystems comparable to compact groups of galaxies. In this scenario, clusters would have formed recently from the mergers of many such groups and would still be in a dynamically unrelaxed state.

  16. The GALAH survey: chemical tagging of star clusters and new members in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Janez; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Freeman, Ken; Buder, Sven; Traven, Gregor; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Sharma, Sanjib; Asplund, Martin; Duong, Ly; Lin, Jane; Lind, Karin; Martell, Sarah; Simpson, Jeffrey D.; Stello, Dennis; Zucker, Daniel B.; Zwitter, Tomaž; Anguiano, Borja; Da Costa, Gary; D'Orazi, Valentina; Horner, Jonathan; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Lewis, Geraint; Munari, Ulisse; Nataf, David M.; Ness, Melissa; Reid, Warren; Schlesinger, Katie; Ting, Yuan-Sen; Wyse, Rosemary

    2018-02-01

    The technique of chemical tagging uses the elemental abundances of stellar atmospheres to 'reconstruct' chemically homogeneous star clusters that have long since dispersed. The GALAH spectroscopic survey - which aims to observe one million stars using the Anglo-Australian Telescope - allows us to measure up to 30 elements or dimensions in the stellar chemical abundance space, many of which are not independent. How to find clustering reliably in a noisy high-dimensional space is a difficult problem that remains largely unsolved. Here, we explore t-distributed stochastic neighbour embedding (t-SNE) - which identifies an optimal mapping of a high-dimensional space into fewer dimensions - whilst conserving the original clustering information. Typically, the projection is made to a 2D space to aid recognition of clusters by eye. We show that this method is a reliable tool for chemical tagging because it can: (i) resolve clustering in chemical space alone, (ii) recover known open and globular clusters with high efficiency and low contamination, and (iii) relate field stars to known clusters. t-SNE also provides a useful visualization of a high-dimensional space. We demonstrate the method on a data set of 13 abundances measured in the spectra of 187 000 stars by the GALAH survey. We recover seven of the nine observed clusters (six globular and three open clusters) in chemical space with minimal contamination from field stars and low numbers of outliers. With chemical tagging, we also identify two Pleiades supercluster members (which we confirm kinematically), one as far as 6° - one tidal radius away from the cluster centre.

  17. A large sample of shear-selected clusters from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A Wide field mass maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune; Hamana, Takashi; Shirasaki, Masato; Koike, Michitaro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Umetsu, Keiichi; Utsumi, Yousuke; Okabe, Nobuhiro; More, Surhud; Medezinski, Elinor; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyatake, Hironao; Murayama, Hitoshi; Ota, Naomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki

    2018-01-01

    We present the result of searching for clusters of galaxies based on weak gravitational lensing analysis of the ˜160 deg2 area surveyed by Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) as a Subaru Strategic Program. HSC is a new prime focus optical imager with a 1.5°-diameter field of view on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. The superb median seeing on the HSC i-band images of 0.56" allows the reconstruction of high angular resolution mass maps via weak lensing, which is crucial for the weak lensing cluster search. We identify 65 mass map peaks with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio larger than 4.7, and carefully examine their properties by cross-matching the clusters with optical and X-ray cluster catalogs. We find that all the 39 peaks with S/N > 5.1 have counterparts in the optical cluster catalogs, and only 2 out of the 65 peaks are probably false positives. The upper limits of X-ray luminosities from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) imply the existence of an X-ray underluminous cluster population. We show that the X-rays from the shear-selected clusters can be statistically detected by stacking the RASS images. The inferred average X-ray luminosity is about half that of the X-ray-selected clusters of the same mass. The radial profile of the dark matter distribution derived from the stacking analysis is well modeled by the Navarro-Frenk-White profile with a small concentration parameter value of c500 ˜ 2.5, which suggests that the selection bias on the orientation or the internal structure for our shear-selected cluster sample is not strong.

  18. HOW TO FIND YOUNG MASSIVE CLUSTER PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressert, E.; Longmore, S.; Testi, L. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Ginsburg, A.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2012-10-20

    We propose that bound, young massive stellar clusters form from dense clouds that have escape speeds greater than the sound speed in photo-ionized gas. In these clumps, radiative feedback in the form of gas ionization is bottled up, enabling star formation to proceed to sufficiently high efficiency so that the resulting star cluster remains bound even after gas removal. We estimate the observable properties of the massive proto-clusters (MPCs) for existing Galactic plane surveys and suggest how they may be sought in recent and upcoming extragalactic observations. These surveys will potentially provide a significant sample of MPC candidates that will allow us to better understand extreme star-formation and massive cluster formation in the Local Universe.

  19. Too Little, Too Late: How the Tidal Evolution of Hot Jupiters Affects Transit Surveys of Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, John H.; Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The tidal evolution of hot Jupiters may change the efficiency of transit surveys of stellar clusters. The orbital decay that hot Jupiters suffer may result in their destruction, leaving fewer transiting planets in older clusters. We calculate the impact tidal evolution has for different assumed stellar populations, including that of 47 Tuc, a globular cluster that was the focus of an intense HST search for transits. We find that in older clusters one expects to detect fewer transiting planets by a factor of two for surveys sensitive to Jupiter-like planets in orbits out to 0.5 AU, and up to a factor of 25 for surveys sensitive to Jupiter-like planets in orbits out to 0.08 AU. Additionally, tidal evolution affects the distribution of transiting planets as a function of semi-major axis, producing larger orbital period gaps for transiting planets as the age of the cluster increases. Tidal evolution can explain the lack of detected exoplanets in 47 Tuc without invoking other mechanisms. Four open clusters residing within the Kepler fields of view have ages that span 0.4-8 Gyr-if Kepler can observe a significant number of planets in these clusters, it will provide key tests for our tidal evolution hypothesis. Finally, our results suggest that observers wishing to discover transiting planets in clusters must have sufficient accuracy to detect lower mass planets, search larger numbers of cluster members, or have longer observation windows to be confident that a significant number of transits will occur for a population of stars.

  20. Testing the accuracy of clustering redshifts with simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottez, V.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Coupon, J.; Ilbert, O.; Mellier, Y.

    2018-03-01

    We explore the accuracy of clustering-based redshift inference within the MICE2 simulation. This method uses the spatial clustering of galaxies between a spectroscopic reference sample and an unknown sample. This study give an estimate of the reachable accuracy of this method. First, we discuss the requirements for the number objects in the two samples, confirming that this method does not require a representative spectroscopic sample for calibration. In the context of next generation of cosmological surveys, we estimated that the density of the Quasi Stellar Objects in BOSS allows us to reach 0.2 per cent accuracy in the mean redshift. Secondly, we estimate individual redshifts for galaxies in the densest regions of colour space ( ˜ 30 per cent of the galaxies) without using the photometric redshifts procedure. The advantage of this procedure is threefold. It allows: (i) the use of cluster-zs for any field in astronomy, (ii) the possibility to combine photo-zs and cluster-zs to get an improved redshift estimation, (iii) the use of cluster-z to define tomographic bins for weak lensing. Finally, we explore this last option and build five cluster-z selected tomographic bins from redshift 0.2 to 1. We found a bias on the mean redshift estimate of 0.002 per bin. We conclude that cluster-z could be used as a primary redshift estimator by next generation of cosmological surveys.

  1. THE EVOLUTION OF DUSTY STAR FORMATION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS TO z = 1: SPITZER INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE FIRST RED-SEQUENCE CLUSTER SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T. M. A.; O' Donnell, D.; Coppin, Kristen; Faloon, Ashley; Geach, James E.; Noble, Allison [McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Yee, H. K. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Gilbank, David [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Ellingson, Erica [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Gladders, Mike [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA, Leiden (Netherlands); Wilson, Gillian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Yan, Renbin [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of an infrared (IR) study of high-redshift galaxy clusters with the MIPS camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have assembled a sample of 42 clusters from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey-1 over the redshift range 0.3 < z < 1.0 and spanning an approximate range in mass of 10{sup 14-15} M {sub ☉}. We statistically measure the number of IR-luminous galaxies in clusters above a fixed inferred IR luminosity of 2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, assuming a star forming galaxy template, per unit cluster mass and find it increases to higher redshift. Fitting a simple power-law we measure evolution of (1 + z){sup 5.1±1.9} over the range 0.3 < z < 1.0. These results are tied to the adoption of a single star forming galaxy template; the presence of active galactic nuclei, and an evolution in their relative contribution to the mid-IR galaxy emission, will alter the overall number counts per cluster and their rate of evolution. Under the star formation assumption we infer the approximate total star formation rate per unit cluster mass (ΣSFR/M {sub cluster}). The evolution is similar, with ΣSFR/M {sub cluster} ∼ (1 + z){sup 5.4±1.9}. We show that this can be accounted for by the evolution of the IR-bright field population over the same redshift range; that is, the evolution can be attributed entirely to the change in the in-falling field galaxy population. We show that the ΣSFR/M {sub cluster} (binned over all redshift) decreases with increasing cluster mass with a slope (ΣSFR/M{sub cluster}∼M{sub cluster}{sup -1.5±0.4}) consistent with the dependence of the stellar-to-total mass per unit cluster mass seen locally. The inferred star formation seen here could produce ∼5%-10% of the total stellar mass in massive clusters at z = 0, but we cannot constrain the descendant population, nor how rapidly the star-formation must shut-down once the galaxies have entered the cluster environment. Finally, we show a clear decrease in the number of IR

  2. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey: Detailed Age and Abundance Gradients using DR12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Thompson, Benjamin A.; O'Connell, Julia; Meyer, Brianne; Donor, John; Majewski, Steven R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Zasowski, Gail; Beers, Timothy C.; Beaton, Rachael; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Hearty, Fred; Nidever, David L.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Smith, Verne V.; Hayden, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed abundance results for Galactic open clusters as part of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey, which is based primarily on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/ Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment. Using 100 open clusters from the uniformly observed complete SDSS-III/APOGEE-1 DR12 dataset, we present age and multi-element abundance gradients for the disk of the Milky Way.This work is supported by an NSF AAG grant AST-1311835.

  3. THE TYPE II SUPERNOVA RATE IN z {approx} 0.1 GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE MULTI-EPOCH NEARBY CLUSTER SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, M. L.; Sand, D. J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bildfell, C. J.; Pritchet, C. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Zaritsky, D.; Just, D. W.; Herbert-Fort, S. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hoekstra, H. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sivanandam, S. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Foley, R. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present seven spectroscopically confirmed Type II cluster supernovae (SNe II) discovered in the Multi-Epoch Nearby Cluster Survey, a supernova survey targeting 57 low-redshift 0.05 < z < 0.15 galaxy clusters with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find the rate of Type II supernovae within R{sub 200} of z {approx} 0.1 galaxy clusters to be 0.026{sup +0.085}{sub -0.018}(stat){sup +0.003}{sub -0.001}(sys) SNuM. Surprisingly, one SN II is in a red-sequence host galaxy that shows no clear evidence of recent star formation (SF). This is unambiguous evidence in support of ongoing, low-level SF in at least some cluster elliptical galaxies, and illustrates that galaxies that appear to be quiescent cannot be assumed to host only Type Ia SNe. Based on this single SN II we make the first measurement of the SN II rate in red-sequence galaxies, and find it to be 0.007{sup +0.014}{sub -0.007}(stat){sup +0.009}{sub -0.001}(sys) SNuM. We also make the first derivation of cluster specific star formation rates (sSFR) from cluster SN II rates. We find that for all galaxy types the sSFR is 5.1{sup +15.8}{sub -3.1}(stat) {+-} 0.9(sys) M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} (10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }){sup -1}, and for red-sequence galaxies only it is 2.0{sup +4.2}{sub -0.9}(stat) {+-} 0.4(sys) M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} (10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }){sup -1}. These values agree with SFRs measured from infrared and ultraviolet photometry, and H{alpha} emission from optical spectroscopy. Additionally, we use the SFR derived from our SNII rate to show that although a small fraction of cluster Type Ia SNe may originate in the young stellar population and experience a short delay time, these results do not preclude the use of cluster SN Ia rates to derive the late-time delay time distribution for SNe Ia.

  4. Sensitivity Sampling Over Dynamic Geometric Data Streams with Applications to $k$-Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Zhao; Yang, Lin F.; Zhong, Peilin

    2018-01-01

    Sensitivity based sampling is crucial for constructing nearly-optimal coreset for $k$-means / median clustering. In this paper, we provide a novel data structure that enables sensitivity sampling over a dynamic data stream, where points from a high dimensional discrete Euclidean space can be either inserted or deleted. Based on this data structure, we provide a one-pass coreset construction for $k$-means %and M-estimator clustering using space $\\widetilde{O}(k\\mathrm{poly}(d))$ over $d$-dimen...

  5. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XVIII. Measurement and Calibration of Surface Brightness Fluctuation Distances for Bright Galaxies in Virgo (and Beyond)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Michele; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Roediger, Joel C.; Raimondo, Gabriella; Peng, Eric W.; Gwyn, Stephen; Durrell, Patrick R.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2018-04-01

    We describe a program to measure surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) distances to galaxies observed in the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a photometric imaging survey covering 104 deg2 of the Virgo cluster in the u*, g, i, and z bandpasses with the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope. We describe the selection of the sample galaxies, the procedures for measuring the apparent i-band SBF magnitude {\\overline{m}}i, and the calibration of the absolute Mibar as a function of observed stellar population properties. The multiband NGVS data set provides multiple options for calibrating the SBF distances, and we explore various calibrations involving individual color indices as well as combinations of two different colors. Within the color range of the present sample, the two-color calibrations do not significantly improve the scatter with respect to wide-baseline, single-color calibrations involving u*. We adopt the ({u}* -z) calibration as a reference for the present galaxy sample, with an observed scatter of 0.11 mag. For a few cases that lack good u* photometry, we use an alternative relation based on a combination of (g-i) and (g-z) colors, with only a slightly larger observed scatter of 0.12 mag. The agreement of our measurements with the best existing distance estimates provides confidence that our measurements are accurate. We present a preliminary catalog of distances for 89 galaxies brighter than B T ≈ 13.0 mag within the survey footprint, including members of the background M and W Clouds at roughly twice the distance of the main body of the Virgo cluster. The extension of the present work to fainter and bluer galaxies is in progress.

  6. Discovering Massive z > 1 Galaxy Clusters with Spitzer and SPTpol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleem, Lindsey; Brodwin, Mark; Ashby, Matthew; Stalder, Brian; Klein, Matthias; Gladders, Michael; Stanford, Spencer; Canning, Rebecca

    2018-05-01

    We propose to obtain Spitzer/IRAC imaging of 50 high-redshift galaxy cluster candidates derived from two new completed SZ cluster surveys by the South Pole Telescope. Clusters from the deep SPTpol 500-square-deg main survey will extend high-redshift SZ cluster science to lower masses (median M500 2x10^14Msun) while systems drawn from the wider 2500-sq-deg SPTpol Extended Cluster Survey are some of the rarest most massive high-z clusters in the observable universe. The proposed small 10 h program will enable (1) confirmation of these candidates as high-redshift clusters, (2) measurements of the cluster redshifts (sigma_z/(1+z) 0.03), and (3) estimates of the stellar masses of the brightest cluster members. These observations will yield exciting and timely targets for the James Webb Space Telescope--and, combined with lower-z systems--will both extend cluster tests of dark energy to z>1 as well as enable studies of galaxy evolution in the richest environments for a mass-limited cluster sample from 0

  7. AN EXAMINATION OF THE OPTICAL SUBSTRUCTURE OF GALAXY CLUSTERS HOSTING RADIO SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, Joshua D.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    Using radio sources from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey, and optical counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have identified a large number of galaxy clusters. The radio sources within these clusters are driven by active galactic nuclei, and our cluster samples include clusters with bent, and straight, double-lobed radio sources. We also included a single-radio-component comparison sample. We examine these galaxy clusters for evidence of optical substructure, testing the possibility that bent double-lobed radio sources are formed as a result of large-scale cluster mergers. We use a suite of substructure analysis tools to determine the location and extent of substructure visible in the optical distribution of cluster galaxies, and compare the rates of substructure in clusters with different types of radio sources. We found no preference for significant substructure in clusters hosting bent double-lobed radio sources compared to those with other types of radio sources.

  8. BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AND CORE GAS DENSITY IN REXCESS CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, Luke; Donahue, Megan; Bruch, Seth; Voit, G. Mark; Boehringer, Hans; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Pierini, Daniele; Croston, Judith H.; Arnaud, Monique

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and their host clusters using a sample of nearby galaxy clusters from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey. The sample was imaged with the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research in R band to investigate the mass of the old stellar population. Using a metric radius of 12 h -1 kpc, we found that the BCG luminosity depends weakly on overall cluster mass as L BCG ∝ M 0.18±0.07 cl , consistent with previous work. We found that 90% of the BCGs are located within 0.035 r 500 of the peak of the X-ray emission, including all of the cool core (CC) clusters. We also found an unexpected correlation between the BCG metric luminosity and the core gas density for non-cool-core (non-CC) clusters, following a power law of n e ∝ L 2.7±0.4 BCG (where n e is measured at 0.008 r 500 ). The correlation is not easily explained by star formation (which is weak in non-CC clusters) or overall cluster mass (which is not correlated with core gas density). The trend persists even when the BCG is not located near the peak of the X-ray emission, so proximity is not necessary. We suggest that, for non-CC clusters, this correlation implies that the same process that sets the central entropy of the cluster gas also determines the central stellar density of the BCG, and that this underlying physical process is likely to be mergers.

  9. A survey for low-mass stellar and substellar members of the Hyades open cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Stanislav; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2018-03-01

    Context. Unlike young open clusters (with ages 2MASS JHKs photometry Results: We present a photometric and proper motion survey covering 23.4 deg2 in the Hyades cluster core region. Using optical/IR colour-magnitude diagrams, we identify 66 photometric cluster member candidates in the magnitude range 14.m7 < I < 20.m5. The proper motion measurements are based on several all-sky surveys with an epoch difference of 60-70 yr for the bright objects. The proper motions allowed us to discriminate the cluster members from field objects and resulted in 14 proper motion members of the Hyades. We rediscover Hy 6 as a proper motion member and classify it as a substellar object candidate (BD) based on the comparison of the observed colour-magnitude diagram with theoretical model isochrones. Conclusions: With our results, the mass function of the Hyades continues to be shallow below 0.15 M⊙ indicating that the Hyades have probably lost their lowest mass members by means of dynamical evolution. We conclude that the Hyades core represents the "VLM/BD desert" and that most of the substeller objects may have already left the volume of the cluster.

  10. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  11. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  12. The swift UVOT stars survey. I. Methods and test clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Linevsky, Jacquelyn S.; Bond, Howard E.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Berrier, Joshua L.; Gronwall, Caryl A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holland, Stephen T. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Breeveld, Alice A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Brown, Peter J., E-mail: siegel@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: blp14@psu.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: sholland@stsci.edu, E-mail: aab@mssl.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: grbpeter@yahoo.com [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We describe the motivations and background of a large survey of nearby stellar populations using the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. UVOT, with its wide field, near-UV sensitivity, and 2.″3 spatial resolution, is uniquely suited to studying nearby stellar populations and providing insight into the near-UV properties of hot stars and the contribution of those stars to the integrated light of more distant stellar populations. We review the state of UV stellar photometry, outline the survey, and address problems specific to wide- and crowded-field UVOT photometry. We present color–magnitude diagrams of the nearby open clusters M67, NGC 188, and NGC 2539, and the globular cluster M79. We demonstrate that UVOT can easily discern the young- and intermediate-age main sequences, blue stragglers, and hot white dwarfs, producing results consistent with previous studies. We also find that it characterizes the blue horizontal branch of M79 and easily identifies a known post-asymptotic giant branch star.

  13. The swift UVOT stars survey. I. Methods and test clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Linevsky, Jacquelyn S.; Bond, Howard E.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Berrier, Joshua L.; Gronwall, Caryl A.; Holland, Stephen T.; Breeveld, Alice A.; Brown, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the motivations and background of a large survey of nearby stellar populations using the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. UVOT, with its wide field, near-UV sensitivity, and 2.″3 spatial resolution, is uniquely suited to studying nearby stellar populations and providing insight into the near-UV properties of hot stars and the contribution of those stars to the integrated light of more distant stellar populations. We review the state of UV stellar photometry, outline the survey, and address problems specific to wide- and crowded-field UVOT photometry. We present color–magnitude diagrams of the nearby open clusters M67, NGC 188, and NGC 2539, and the globular cluster M79. We demonstrate that UVOT can easily discern the young- and intermediate-age main sequences, blue stragglers, and hot white dwarfs, producing results consistent with previous studies. We also find that it characterizes the blue horizontal branch of M79 and easily identifies a known post-asymptotic giant branch star.

  14. The VMC survey. XI. Radial stellar population gradients in the galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Rubele, Stefano; Girardi, Leo; Gullieuszik, Marco [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Wang, Chuchu [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Bekki, Kenji; For, Bi-Qing [ICRAR M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Cioni, Maria-Rosa L. [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Clementini, Gisella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Emerson, Jim [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, Martin A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Ukkel (Belgium); Guandalini, Roald [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D 2401, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Piatti, Andrés E. [Observatorio Astrońomico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: joshuali@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-20

    We present a deep near-infrared color-magnitude diagram of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) as part of the VISTA near-infrared Y, J, K{sub s} survey of the Magellanic System (VMC). The cluster stars comprising both the subgiant and red giant branches exhibit apparent, continuous variations in color-magnitude space as a function of radius. Subgiant branch stars at larger radii are systematically brighter than their counterparts closer to the cluster core; similarly, red-giant-branch stars in the cluster's periphery are bluer than their more centrally located cousins. The observations can very well be described by adopting an age spread of ∼0.5 Gyr as well as radial gradients in both the cluster's helium abundance (Y) and metallicity (Z), which change gradually from (Y = 0.28, Z = 0.005) in the cluster core to (Y = 0.25, Z = 0.003) in its periphery. We conclude that the cluster's inner regions host a significant fraction of second-generation stars, which decreases with increasing radius; the stellar population in the 47 Tuc periphery is well approximated by a simple stellar population.

  15. Statistical literacy and sample survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlevey, Lynn; Sullivan, Charles

    2010-10-01

    Sample surveys are widely used in the social sciences and business. The news media almost daily quote from them, yet they are widely misused. Using students with prior managerial experience embarking on an MBA course, we show that common sample survey results are misunderstood even by those managers who have previously done a statistics course. In general, they fare no better than managers who have never studied statistics. There are implications for teaching, especially in business schools, as well as for consulting.

  16. MASS CALIBRATION AND COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SPT-SZ GALAXY CLUSTER SAMPLE USING VELOCITY DISPERSION σ v AND X-RAY Y X MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, S.; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Bazin, G.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Brodwin, M.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; De Haan, T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a velocity-dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg 2 of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion (σ v ) and 16 X-ray Y X measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. Our method accounts for cluster selection, cosmological sensitivity, and uncertainties in the mass calibrators. The calibrations using σ v and Y X are consistent at the 0.6σ level, with the σ v calibration preferring ∼16% higher masses. We use the full SPT CL data set (SZ clusters+σ v +Y X ) to measure σ 8 (Ω m /0.27) 0.3 = 0.809 ± 0.036 within a flat ΛCDM model. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming that the sum of the neutrino masses is ∑m ν = 0.06 eV, we find the data sets to be consistent at the 1.0σ level for WMAP9 and 1.5σ for Planck+WP. Allowing for larger ∑m ν further reconciles the results. When we combine the SPT CL and Planck+WP data sets with information from baryon acoustic oscillations and Type Ia supernovae, the preferred cluster masses are 1.9σ higher than the Y X calibration and 0.8σ higher than the σ v calibration. Given the scale of these shifts (∼44% and ∼23% in mass, respectively), we execute a goodness-of-fit test; it reveals no tension, indicating that the best-fit model provides an adequate description of the data. Using the multi-probe data set, we measure Ω m = 0.299 ± 0.009 and σ 8 = 0.829 ± 0.011. Within a νCDM model we find ∑m ν = 0.148 ± 0.081 eV. We present a consistency test of the cosmic growth rate using SPT clusters. Allowing both the growth index γ and the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w to vary, we find γ = 0.73 ± 0.28 and w = –1.007 ± 0.065, demonstrating that the

  17. A NEW DISTANT MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN THE PAN-STARRS1 3π SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schlafly, Edward F.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Denneau, Larry; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Sweeney, William E.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Price, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new satellite in the outer halo of the Galaxy, the first Milky Way satellite found in the stacked photometric catalog of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1) Survey. From follow-up photometry obtained with WFI on the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope, we argue that the object, located at a heliocentric distance of 145 ± 17 kpc, is the most distant Milky Way globular cluster yet known. With a total magnitude of M V = –4.3 ± 0.2 and a half-light radius of 20 ± 2 pc, it shares the properties of extended globular clusters found in the outer halo of our Galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy. The discovery of this distant cluster shows that the full spatial extent of the Milky Way globular cluster system has not yet been fully explored

  18. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J.E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D.O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Whitmore, B.C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L.J.; Bright, S.N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; Dale, D.A.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify

  19. THE MULTI-EPOCH NEARBY CLUSTER SURVEY: TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE MEASUREMENT IN z ∼ 0.1 CLUSTERS AND THE LATE-TIME DELAY TIME DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, David J.; Graham, Melissa L.; Bildfell, Chris; Pritchet, Chris; Zaritsky, Dennis; Just, Dennis W.; Herbert-Fort, Stéphane; Hoekstra, Henk; Sivanandam, Suresh; Foley, Ryan J.; Mahdavi, Andisheh

    2012-01-01

    We describe the Multi-Epoch Nearby Cluster Survey, designed to measure the cluster Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in a sample of 57 X-ray selected galaxy clusters, with redshifts of 0.05 200 (1 Mpc) of 0.042 +0.012 –0.010 +0.010 –0.008 SNuM (0.049 +0.016 –0.014 +0.005 –0.004 SNuM) and an SN Ia rate within red-sequence galaxies of 0.041 +0.015 –0.015 +0.005 –0.010 SNuM (0.041 +0.019 –0.015 +0.005 –0.004 SNuM). The red-sequence SN Ia rate is consistent with published rates in early-type/elliptical galaxies in the 'field'. Using our red-sequence SN Ia rate, and other cluster SN measurements in early-type galaxies up to z ∼ 1, we derive the late-time (>2 Gyr) delay time distribution (DTD) of SN Ia assuming a cluster early-type galaxy star formation epoch of z f = 3. Assuming a power-law form for the DTD, Ψ(t)∝t s , we find s = –1.62 ± 0.54. This result is consistent with predictions for the double degenerate SN Ia progenitor scenario (s ∼ –1) and is also in line with recent calculations for the double detonation explosion mechanism (s ∼ –2). The most recent calculations of the single degenerate scenario DTD predicts an order-of-magnitude drop-off in SN Ia rate ∼6-7 Gyr after stellar formation, and the observed cluster rates cannot rule this out.

  20. Type-Ia Supernova Rates to Redshift 2.4 from Clash: The Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Maoz, D.; Riess, A. G.; Jha, S. W.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, approximately 13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z greater than 1.2.We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range z greater than 1.8 and less than 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/ GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys.We model these results together with previous measurements at z less than 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of 1.00 (+0.06(0.09))/(-0.06(0.10)) (statistical) (+0.12/-0.08) (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at greater than 99% significance level.

  1. THE MULTI-EPOCH NEARBY CLUSTER SURVEY: TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA RATE MEASUREMENT IN z {approx} 0.1 CLUSTERS AND THE LATE-TIME DELAY TIME DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, David J.; Graham, Melissa L. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bildfell, Chris; Pritchet, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Zaritsky, Dennis; Just, Dennis W.; Herbert-Fort, Stephane [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hoekstra, Henk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sivanandam, Suresh [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Foley, Ryan J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mahdavi, Andisheh, E-mail: dsand@lcogt.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We describe the Multi-Epoch Nearby Cluster Survey, designed to measure the cluster Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in a sample of 57 X-ray selected galaxy clusters, with redshifts of 0.05 < z < 0.15. Utilizing our real-time analysis pipeline, we spectroscopically confirmed twenty-three cluster SNe Ia, four of which were intracluster events. Using our deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam imaging, we measured total stellar luminosities in each of our galaxy clusters, and we performed detailed supernova (SN) detection efficiency simulations. Bringing these ingredients together, we measure an overall cluster SN Ia rate within R{sub 200} (1 Mpc) of 0.042{sup +0.012}{sub -0.010}{sup +0.010}{sub -0.008} SNuM (0.049{sup +0.016}{sub -0.014}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.004} SNuM) and an SN Ia rate within red-sequence galaxies of 0.041{sup +0.015}{sub -0.015}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.010} SNuM (0.041{sup +0.019}{sub -0.015}{sup +0.005}{sub -0.004} SNuM). The red-sequence SN Ia rate is consistent with published rates in early-type/elliptical galaxies in the 'field'. Using our red-sequence SN Ia rate, and other cluster SN measurements in early-type galaxies up to z {approx} 1, we derive the late-time (>2 Gyr) delay time distribution (DTD) of SN Ia assuming a cluster early-type galaxy star formation epoch of z{sub f} = 3. Assuming a power-law form for the DTD, {Psi}(t){proportional_to}t{sup s} , we find s = -1.62 {+-} 0.54. This result is consistent with predictions for the double degenerate SN Ia progenitor scenario (s {approx} -1) and is also in line with recent calculations for the double detonation explosion mechanism (s {approx} -2). The most recent calculations of the single degenerate scenario DTD predicts an order-of-magnitude drop-off in SN Ia rate {approx}6-7 Gyr after stellar formation, and the observed cluster rates cannot rule this out.

  2. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. INTERGALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND THE MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM AT THE CORE OF THE COMA GALAXY CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Eric W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Bridges, Terry; Chiboucas, Kristin; Del Burgo, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Guzman, Rafael; Hudson, Michael J.; Matkovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster of galaxies is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters and is host to a correspondingly large system of globular clusters (GCs). We use imaging from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey to present the first definitive detection of a large population of intracluster GCs (IGCs) that fills the Coma cluster core and is not associated with individual galaxies. The GC surface density profile around the central massive elliptical galaxy, NGC 4874, is dominated at large radii by a population of IGCs that extend to the limit of our data (R +4000 -5000 (systematic) IGCs out to this radius, and that they make up ∼70% of the central GC system, making this the largest GC system in the nearby universe. Even including the GC systems of other cluster galaxies, the IGCs still make up ∼30%-45% of the GCs in the cluster core. Observational limits from previous studies of the intracluster light (ICL) suggest that the IGC population has a high specific frequency. If the IGC population has a specific frequency similar to high-S N dwarf galaxies, then the ICL has a mean surface brightness of μ V ∼ 27 mag arcsec -2 and a total stellar mass of roughly 10 12 M sun within the cluster core. The ICL makes up approximately half of the stellar luminosity and one-third of the stellar mass of the central (NGC 4874+ICL) system. The color distribution of the IGC population is bimodal, with blue, metal-poor GCs outnumbering red, metal-rich GCs by a ratio of 4:1. The inner GCs associated with NGC 4874 also have a bimodal distribution in color, but with a redder metal-poor population. The fraction of red IGCs (20%), and the red color of those GCs, implies that IGCs can originate from the halos of relatively massive, L* galaxies, and not solely from the disruption of

  3. Subaru Weak-Lensing Survey II: Multi-Object Spectroscopy and Cluster Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamana, Takashi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ellis, Richard S.; Massey, Richard J.; Refregier, Alexandre; Taylor, James E.

    2009-08-01

    We present the first results of a multi-object spectroscopic campaign to follow up cluster candidates located via weak lensing. Our main goals are to search for spatial concentrations of galaxies that are plausible optical counterparts of the weak-lensing signals, and to determine the cluster redshifts from those of member galaxies. Around each of 36 targeted cluster candidates, we obtained 15-32 galaxy redshifts. For 28 of these targets, we confirmed a secure cluster identification, with more than five spectroscopic galaxies within a velocity of ±3000km s-1. This includes three cases where two clusters at different redshifts are projected along the same line-of-sight. In 6 of the 8 unconfirmed targets, we found multiple small galaxy concentrations at different redshifts, each containing at least three spectroscopic galaxies. The weak-lensing signal around those systems was thus probably created by the projection of groups or small clusters along the same line-of-sight. In both of the remaining two targets, a single small galaxy concentration was found. In some candidate super-cluster systems, we found additional evidence of filaments connecting the main density peak to an additional nearby structure. For a subsample of our most cleanly measured clusters, we investigated the statistical relation between their weak-lensing mass (MNFW, σSIS) and the velocity dispersion of their member galaxies (σv), comparing our sample with optically and X-ray selected samples from the literature. Our lensing-selected clusters are consistent with σv = σSIS, with a similar scatter to that of optically and X-ray selected clusters. We also derived an empirical relation between the cluster mass and the galaxy velocity dispersion, M200E(z) = 11.0 × 1014 × (σv/1000km s-1)3.0 h-1 Modot, which is in reasonable agreement with predictions of N-body simulations in the Λ CDM cosmology.

  4. Baryon Content in a Sample of 91 Galaxy Clusters Selected by the South Pole Telescope at 0.2 < z < 1.25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, I.; et al.

    2017-11-02

    We estimate total mass ($M_{500}$), intracluster medium (ICM) mass ($M_{\\mathrm{ICM}}$) and stellar mass ($M_{\\star}$) in a Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) selected sample of 91 galaxy clusters with masses $M_{500}\\gtrsim2.5\\times10^{14}M_{\\odot}$ and redshift $0.2 < z < 1.25$ from the 2500 deg$^2$ South Pole Telescope SPT-SZ survey. The total masses $M_{500}$ are estimated from the SZE observable, the ICM masses $M_{\\mathrm{ICM}}$ are obtained from the analysis of $Chandra$ X-ray observations, and the stellar masses $M_{\\star}$ are derived by fitting spectral energy distribution templates to Dark Energy Survey (DES) $griz$ optical photometry and $WISE$ or $Spitzer$ near-infrared photometry. We study trends in the stellar mass, the ICM mass, the total baryonic mass and the cold baryonic fraction with cluster mass and redshift. We find significant departures from self-similarity in the mass scaling for all quantities, while the redshift trends are all statistically consistent with zero, indicating that the baryon content of clusters at fixed mass has changed remarkably little over the past $\\approx9$ Gyr. We compare our results to the mean baryon fraction (and the stellar mass fraction) in the field, finding that these values lie above (below) those in cluster virial regions in all but the most massive clusters at low redshift. Using a simple model of the matter assembly of clusters from infalling groups with lower masses and from infalling material from the low density environment or field surrounding the parent halos, we show that the strong mass and weak redshift trends in the stellar mass scaling relation suggest a mass and redshift dependent fractional contribution from field material. Similar analyses of the ICM and baryon mass scaling relations provide evidence for the so-called 'missing baryons' outside cluster virial regions.

  5. MOCCA-SURVEY Database I: Is NGC 6535 a dark star cluster harbouring an IMBH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Abbas; Bianchini, Paolo; de Vita, Ruggero; Giersz, Mirek; Hypki, Arkadiusz; Kamann, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe the dynamical evolution of a unique type of dark star cluster model in which the majority of the cluster mass at Hubble time is dominated by an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). We analysed results from about 2000 star cluster models (Survey Database I) simulated using the Monte Carlo code MOnte Carlo Cluster simulAtor and identified these dark star cluster models. Taking one of these models, we apply the method of simulating realistic `mock observations' by utilizing the Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions (COCOA) and Simulating Stellar Cluster Observation (SISCO) codes to obtain the photometric and kinematic observational properties of the dark star cluster model at 12 Gyr. We find that the perplexing Galactic globular cluster NGC 6535 closely matches the observational photometric and kinematic properties of the dark star cluster model presented in this paper. Based on our analysis and currently observed properties of NGC 6535, we suggest that this globular cluster could potentially harbour an IMBH. If it exists, the presence of this IMBH can be detected robustly with proposed kinematic observations of NGC 6535.

  6. Sample design for the residential energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide detailed information about the multistage area-probability sample design used for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is intended as a technical report, for use by statisticians, to better understand the theory and procedures followed in the creation of the RECS sample frame. For a more cursory overview of the RECS sample design, refer to the appendix entitled ``How the Survey was Conducted,`` which is included in the statistical reports produced for each RECS survey year.

  7. Evaluation of primary immunization coverage of infants under universal immunization programme in an urban area of bangalore city using cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Punith; K, Lalitha; G, Suman; Bs, Pradeep; Kumar K, Jayanth

    2008-07-01

    Is LQAS technique better than cluster sampling technique in terms of resources to evaluate the immunization coverage in an urban area? To assess and compare the lot quality assurance sampling against cluster sampling in the evaluation of primary immunization coverage. Population-based cross-sectional study. Areas under Mathikere Urban Health Center. Children aged 12 months to 23 months. 220 in cluster sampling, 76 in lot quality assurance sampling. Percentages and Proportions, Chi square Test. (1) Using cluster sampling, the percentage of completely immunized, partially immunized and unimmunized children were 84.09%, 14.09% and 1.82%, respectively. With lot quality assurance sampling, it was 92.11%, 6.58% and 1.31%, respectively. (2) Immunization coverage levels as evaluated by cluster sampling technique were not statistically different from the coverage value as obtained by lot quality assurance sampling techniques. Considering the time and resources required, it was found that lot quality assurance sampling is a better technique in evaluating the primary immunization coverage in urban area.

  8. Joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering: Methodology and forecasts for Dark Energy Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Krause, E.; Dodelson, S.; Jain, B.; Amara, A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth function of large-scale structure. Anticipating a near future application of this analysis to Dark Energy Survey (DES) measurements of galaxy positions and shapes, we develop a practical approach to modeling the assumptions and systematic effects affecting the joint analysis of small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing and large-scale galaxy clustering. Introducing parameters that characterize the halo occupation distribution (HOD), photometric redshift uncertainties, and shear measurement errors, we study how external priors on different subsets of these parameters affect our growth constraints. Degeneracies within the HOD model, as well as between the HOD and the growth function, are identified as the dominant source of complication, with other systematic effects being subdominant. The impact of HOD parameters and their degeneracies necessitate the detailed joint modeling of the galaxy sample that we employ. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the Universe, conservatively/optimistically constraining the growth function to 7.9%/4.8% with its first-year data that cover over 1000 square degrees, and to 3.9%/2.3% with its full five-year data that will survey 5000 square degrees, including both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  9. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmology from Galaxy Clusters Detected Via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Neelima; Trac, Hy; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present constraints on cosmological parameters based on a sample of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected galaxy clusters detected in a millimeter-wave survey by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The cluster sample used in this analysis consists of 9 optically-confirmed high-mass clusters comprising the high-significance end of the total cluster sample identified in 455 square degrees of sky surveyed during 2008 at 148 GHz. We focus on the most massive systems to reduce the degeneracy between unknown cluster astrophysics and cosmology derived from SZ surveys. We describe the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal with a 4-parameter fit. Marginalizing over the values of the parameters in this fit with conservative priors gives (sigma)8 = 0.851 +/- 0.115 and w = -1.14 +/- 0.35 for a spatially-flat wCDM cosmological model with WMAP 7-year priors on cosmological parameters. This gives a modest improvement in statistical uncertainty over WMAP 7-year constraints alone. Fixing the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal to a fiducial relation obtained from numerical simulations and calibrated by X-ray observations, we find (sigma)8 + 0.821 +/- 0.044 and w = -1.05 +/- 0.20. These results are consistent with constraints from WMAP 7 plus baryon acoustic oscillations plus type Ia supernova which give (sigma)8 = 0.802 +/- 0.038 and w = -0.98 +/- 0.053. A stacking analysis of the clusters in this sample compared to clusters simulated assuming the fiducial model also shows good agreement. These results suggest that, given the sample of clusters used here, both the astrophysics of massive clusters and the cosmological parameters derived from them are broadly consistent with current models.

  10. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmology from Galaxy Clusters Detected via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present constraints on cosmological parameters based on a sample of Sunyaev-Zeldovich-selected galaxy clusters detected in a millimeter-wave survey by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The cluster sample used in this analysis consists of 9 optically-confirmed high-mass clusters comprising the high-significance end of the total cluster sample identified in 455 square degrees of sky surveyed during 2008 at 148GHz. We focus on the most massive systems to reduce the degeneracy between unknown cluster astrophysics and cosmology derived from SZ surveys. We describe the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal with a 4-parameter fit. Marginalizing over the values of the parameters in this fit with conservative priors gives σ 8 = 0.851 ± 0.115 and w = -1.14 ± 0.35 for a spatially-flat wCDM cosmological model with WMAP 7-year priors on cosmological parameters. This gives a modest improvement in statistical uncertainty over WMAP 7-year constraints alone. Fixing the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal to a fiducial relation obtained from numerical simulations and calibrated by X-ray observations, we find σ 8 = 0.821 ± 0.044 and w = -1.05 ± 0.20. These results are consistent with constraints from WMAP 7 plus baryon acoustic oscillations plus type Ia supernoava which give σ 8 = 0.802 ± 0.038 and w = -0.98 ± 0.053. A stacking analysis of the clusters in this sample compared to clusters simulated assuming the fiducial model also shows good agreement. These results suggest that, given the sample of clusters used here, both the astrophysics of massive clusters and the cosmological parameters derived from them are broadly consistent with current models.

  11. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  12. The quality of sample surveys in a developing nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Neva South-Bourne4, Chloe Morris1, Denise Eldemire-Shearer1, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell51Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York, USA; 4Research assistant for Paul A Bourne; 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, JamaicaBackground: In Jamaica, population census began in 1844, and many intercensal ratios obtained from the census data showed that there is a general high degree of accuracy of the data. However, statistics from the Jamaican Ministry of Health showed that there are inaccuracies in health data collected from males using sample surveys.Objectives: The objectives of the present research are to 1 investigate the accuracy of a national sample survey, 2 explore the feasibility and quality of using a subnational sample survey to represent a national survey, 3 aid other scholars in understanding the probability of using national sample surveys and subnational sample surveys, 4 assess older men’s ­evaluation of their health status, and 5 determine whether dichotomization changes self-evaluated health status.Methods: For the current study, the data used in the analysis were originally collected from 2 different sources: 1 the Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions (JSLC and 2 Survey of Older Men (SOM. Cross validation of self-evaluated data of men in Jamaica was done with comparable samples of the complete JSLC data and the SOM data, where men older than 55 years were selected from each sample.Results: In study 1, 50.2% of respondents indicated at least good self-evaluated health status compared with 74.0% in study 2. Statistical associations were found between health status and survey sample (Χ2 [df = 5

  13. Evaluation of primary immunization coverage of infants under universal immunization programme in an urban area of Bangalore city using cluster sampling and lot quality assurance sampling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punith K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Is LQAS technique better than cluster sampling technique in terms of resources to evaluate the immunization coverage in an urban area? Objective: To assess and compare the lot quality assurance sampling against cluster sampling in the evaluation of primary immunization coverage. Study Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Study Setting: Areas under Mathikere Urban Health Center. Study Subjects: Children aged 12 months to 23 months. Sample Size: 220 in cluster sampling, 76 in lot quality assurance sampling. Statistical Analysis: Percentages and Proportions, Chi square Test. Results: (1 Using cluster sampling, the percentage of completely immunized, partially immunized and unimmunized children were 84.09%, 14.09% and 1.82%, respectively. With lot quality assurance sampling, it was 92.11%, 6.58% and 1.31%, respectively. (2 Immunization coverage levels as evaluated by cluster sampling technique were not statistically different from the coverage value as obtained by lot quality assurance sampling techniques. Considering the time and resources required, it was found that lot quality assurance sampling is a better technique in evaluating the primary immunization coverage in urban area.

  14. STAR FORMATION AND RELAXATION IN 379 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and level of relaxation in a sample of 379 galaxy clusters at z < 0.2. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure cluster membership and level of relaxation, and to select star-forming galaxies based on mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. For galaxies with absolute magnitudes M r < −19.5, we find an inverse correlation between SF fraction and cluster relaxation: as a cluster becomes less relaxed, its SF fraction increases. Furthermore, in general, the subtracted SF fraction in all unrelaxed clusters (0.117 ± 0.003) is higher than that in all relaxed clusters (0.097 ± 0.005). We verify the validity of our SF calculation methods and membership criteria through analysis of previous work. Our results agree with previous findings that a weak correlation exists between cluster SF and dynamical state, possibly because unrelaxed clusters are less evolved relative to relaxed clusters

  15. The Nature and Origin of UCDs in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Tully, R. Brent; Madrid, Juan; Phillipps, Steven; Carter, David; Peng, Eric

    2018-01-01

    UCDs are super massive star clusters found largely in dense regions but have also been found around individual galaxies and in smaller groups. Their origin is still under debate but currently favored scenarios include formation as giant star clusters, either as the brightest globular clusters or through mergers of super star clusters, themselves formed during major galaxy mergers, or as remnant nuclei from tidal stripping of nucleated dwarf ellipticals. Establishing the nature of these enigmatic objects has important implications for our understanding of star formation, star cluster formation, the missing satellite problem, and galaxy evolution. We are attempting to disentangle these competing formation scenarios with a large survey of UCDs in the Coma cluster. Using ACS two-passband imaging from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we are using colors and sizes to identify the UCD cluster members. With a large size limited sample of the UCD population within the core region of the Coma cluster, we are investigating the population size, properties, and spatial distribution, and comparing that with the Coma globular cluster and nuclear star cluster populations to discriminate between the threshing and globular cluster scenarios. In previous work, we had found a possible correlation of UCD colors with host galaxy and a possible excess of UCDs around a non-central giant galaxy with an unusually large globular cluster population, both suggestive of a globular cluster origin. With a larger sample size and additional imaging fields that encompass the regions around these giant galaxies, we have found that the color correlation with host persists and the giant galaxy with unusually large globular cluster population does appear to host a large UCD population as well. We present the current status of the survey.

  16. Cluster chemical ionization for improved confidence level in sample identification by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2003-01-01

    Upon the supersonic expansion of helium mixed with vapor from an organic solvent (e.g. methanol), various clusters of the solvent with the sample molecules can be formed. As a result of 70 eV electron ionization of these clusters, cluster chemical ionization (cluster CI) mass spectra are obtained. These spectra are characterized by the combination of EI mass spectra of vibrationally cold molecules in the supersonic molecular beam (cold EI) with CI-like appearance of abundant protonated molecules, together with satellite peaks corresponding to protonated or non-protonated clusters of sample compounds with 1-3 solvent molecules. Like CI, cluster CI preferably occurs for polar compounds with high proton affinity. However, in contrast to conventional CI, for non-polar compounds or those with reduced proton affinity the cluster CI mass spectrum converges to that of cold EI. The appearance of a protonated molecule and its solvent cluster peaks, plus the lack of protonation and cluster satellites for prominent EI fragments, enable the unambiguous identification of the molecular ion. In turn, the insertion of the proper molecular ion into the NIST library search of the cold EI mass spectra eliminates those candidates with incorrect molecular mass and thus significantly increases the confidence level in sample identification. Furthermore, molecular mass identification is of prime importance for the analysis of unknown compounds that are absent in the library. Examples are given with emphasis on the cluster CI analysis of carbamate pesticides, high explosives and unknown samples, to demonstrate the usefulness of Supersonic GC/MS (GC/MS with supersonic molecular beam) in the analysis of these thermally labile compounds. Cluster CI is shown to be a practical ionization method, due to its ease-of-use and fast instrumental conversion between EI and cluster CI, which involves the opening of only one valve located at the make-up gas path. The ease-of-use of cluster CI is analogous

  17. Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We propose WFC3/UVIS snapshot observations of a sample of 75 isolated early type galaxiesresiding in cosmic voids or extremely low density regions. The primary aim is to usetheir globular cluster populations to reconstruct their evolutionary history, revealingif, how, and why void ellipticals differ from cluster ellipticals. The galaxies span arange of luminosities, providing a varied sample for comparison with the well-documentedglobular cluster populations in denser environments. This proposed WFC3 study of isolatedearly type galaxies breaks new ground by targeting a sample which has thus far receivedlittle attention, and, significantly, this will be the first such study with HST.Characterizing early type galaxies in voids and their GC systems promises to increase ourunderstanding of galaxy formation and evolution of galaxies in general because isolatedobjects are the best approximation to a control sample that we have for understanding theinfluence of environment on formation and evolution. Whether these isolated objects turnout to be identical to or distinct from counterparts in other regions of the Universe,they will supply insight into the formation and evolution of all galaxies. Parallel ACSimaging will help to characterize the near field environments of the sample.

  18. Sample design considerations of indoor air exposure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.G.; Mage, D.T.; Immerman, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Concern about the potential for indoor air pollution has prompted recent surveys of radon and NO 2 concentrations in homes and personal exposure studies of volatile organics, carbon monoxide and pesticides, to name a few. The statistical problems in designing sample surveys that measure the physical environment are diverse and more complicated than those encountered in traditional surveys of human attitudes and attributes. This paper addresses issues encountered when designing indoor air quality (IAQ) studies. General statistical concepts related to target population definition, frame creation, and sample selection for area household surveys and telephone surveys are presented. The implications of different measurement approaches are discussed, and response rate considerations are described

  19. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. I. Presentation of the data and description of the approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chené, A.-N.; Borissova, J.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Bonatto, C.; Majaess, D. J.; Moni Bidin, C.; Sale, S. E.; Mauro, F.; Kurtev, R.; Baume, G.; Feinstein, C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Geisler, D.; Catelan, M.; Minniti, D.; Lucas, P.; de Grijs, R.; Kumar, M. S. N.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The ESO Public Survey "VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea" (VVV) provides deep multi-epoch infrared observations for unprecedented 562 sq. degrees of the Galactic bulge, and adjacent regions of the disk. Aims: The VVV observations will foster the construction of a sample of Galactic star clusters with reliable and homogeneously derived physical parameters (e.g., age, distance, and mass, etc.). In this first paper in a series, the methodology employed to establish cluster parameters for the envisioned database are elaborated upon by analysing four known young open clusters: Danks 1, Danks 2, RCW 79, and DBS 132. The analysis offers a first glimpse of the information that can be gleaned from the VVV observations for clusters in the final database. Methods: Wide-field, deep JHKs VVV observations, combined with new infrared spectroscopy, are employed to constrain fundamental parameters for a subset of clusters. Results: Results are inferred from VVV near-infrared photometry and numerous low resolution spectra (typically more than 10 per cluster). The high quality of the spectra and the deep wide-field VVV photometry enables us to precisely and independently determine the characteristics of the clusters studied, which we compare to previous determinations. An anomalous reddening law in the direction of the Danks clusters is found, specifically E(J - H)/E(H - Ks) = 2.20 ± 0.06, which exceeds published values for the inner Galaxy. The G305 star forming complex, which includes the Danks clusters, lies beyond the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm and occupies the Centaurus arm. Finally, the first deep infrared colour-magnitude diagram of RCW 79 is presented, which reveals a sizeable pre-main sequence population. A list of candidate variable stars in G305 region is reported. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the strength of the dataset and methodology employed, and constitutes the first step of a broader study which shall include reliable parameters for a sizeable

  20. Observation of the Coma cluster of galaxies with ROSAT during the all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, U. G.; Henry, J. P.; Boehringer, H.

    1992-01-01

    The Coma cluster of galaxies was observed with the position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) during the ROSAT all sky survey. We find evidence for substructure in this cluster. Diffuse X-ray emission is detected from the regions of the NGC 4839 and 4911 subgroups at 6 percent and 1 percent of the total cluster emission respectively. There may be emission associated with the NGC 4874 and 4889 subgroups as well. The NGC 4839 group appears to be in the process of merging with the cluster. These X-ray data show that at least some of the groups previously found in projection are in fact physical objects possessing potential wells deep enough to trap their own X-ray gas. Because of the unlimited field of view of the all sky survey and the low background of the PSPC, we were able to measure the azimuthally averaged surface brightness of Coma out to approximately 100 arcmin, twice as far as was previously possible. Given the validity of our mass models, these new X-ray data imply that within 5/h(50) Mpc the binding mass of the Coma cluster is 1.8 +/- 0.6 x 10 exp 15/h(50) solar mass, and the fraction of cluster mass contained in hot gas is 0.30 +/- 0.14h(50) exp -3/2. Furthermore, the binding mass is more centrally concentrated than is the X-ray gas.

  1. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio, E-mail: fabien@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: rosenfel@ift.unesp.br [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  2. Rapid Active Sampling Surveys as a Tool to Evaluate Factors Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis and Norovirus Infection among Children in Rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel; Lamb, Molly M; Lopez, Maria R; Paniagua-Avila, Maria A; Zacarias, Alma; Samayoa-Reyes, Gabriela; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Asturias, Edwin J

    2017-09-01

    We examined burden and factors associated with norovirus (NoV) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among children in rural Guatemala. Children age 6 weeks to 17 years were enrolled into three AGE surveillance groups, using two-stage cluster sampling: a prospective participatory syndromic surveillance (PSS) cohort and two cross-sectional rapid active sampling (RAS) surveys, conducted from April 2015 to February 2016. Epidemiologic and NoV testing data were used to identify factors associated with NoV infection, AGE, and NoV+ AGE. The three cross-sectional surveys (PSS enrollment visit, RAS Survey 1, and RAS Survey 2) enrolled 1,239 children, who reported 134 (11%) AGE cases, with 20% of AGE and 11% of non-AGE samples positive for NoV. Adjusted analyses identified several modifiable factors associated with AGE and NoV infection. The cross-sectional RAS surveys were practical and cost-effective in identifying population-level risk factors for AGE and NoV, supporting their use as a tool to direct limited public health resources toward high-risk populations.

  3. Dynamics, Chemical Abundances, and ages of Globular Clusters in the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; NGVS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the dynamics, metallicities, and ages of globular clusters (GCs) in the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), a deep, multi-band (u, g, r, i, z, and Ks), wide-field (104 deg2) imaging survey carried out using the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and MegaCam imager. GC candidates were selected from the NGVS survey using photometric and image morphology criteria and these were followed up with deep, medium-resolution, multi-object spectroscopy using the Keck II 10-m telescope and DEIMOS spectrograph. The primary spectroscopic targets were candidate GC satellites of dwarf elliptical (dE) and ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Virgo cluster. While many objects were confirmed as GC satellites of Virgo dEs and UDGs, many turned out to be non-satellites based on their radial velocity and/or positional mismatch any identifiable Virgo cluster galaxy. We have used a combination of spectral characteristics (e.g., presence of absorption vs. emission lines), new Gaussian mixture modeling of radial velocity and sky position data, and a new extreme deconvolution analysis of ugrizKs photometry and image morphology, to classify all the objects in our sample into: (1) GC satellites of dE galaxies, (2) GC satellites of UDGs, (3) intra-cluster GCs (ICGCs) in the Virgo cluster, (4) GCs in the outer halo of the central cluster galaxy M87, (5) foreground Milky Way stars, and (6) distant background galaxies. We use these data to study the dynamics and dark matter content of dE and UDGs in the Virgo cluster, place important constraints on the nature of dE nuclei, and study the origin of ICGCs versus GCs in the remote M87 halo.We are grateful for financial support from the NSF and NASA/STScI.

  4. The ellipticities of a sample of globular clusters in M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Images for a sample of 18 globular clusters in M31 have been obtained. The mean ellipticity on the sky in the range 7-14 pc (2-4 arcsec) is 0.08 + or - 0.02 and 0.12 + or - 0.01 in the range 14-21 pc (4-6 arcsec), with corresponding true ellipticities of 0.12 and 0.18. The difference between the inner and outer parts is significant at a 99 percent level. The flattening of the inner parts is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Galactic globular clusters, while the outer parts are flatter than the Galactic clusters at a 99.8 percent confidence level. There is a significant anticorrelation of ellipticity with line strength; such a correlation may in retrospect also be seen in the Galactic globular cluster system. For the M31 data, this anticorrelation is stronger in the inner parts of the galaxy. 30 refs

  5. The clustering of the SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR14 quasar sample: measurement of the growth rate of structure from the anisotropic correlation function between redshift 0.8 and 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Pauline; Burtin, Etienne; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J.; Tojeiro, Rita; Pâris, Isabelle; Dawson, Kyle S.; Myers, Adam D.; Percival, Will J.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Bautista, Julian; Comparat, Johan; González-Pérez, Violeta; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Hou, Jiamin; Laurent, Pierre; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruggeri, Rossana; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schneider, Donald P.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wang, Yuting; Yèche, Christophe; Baumgarten, Falk; Brownstein, Joel R.; de la Torre, Sylvain; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Mariappan, Vivek; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Peacock, John; Petitjean, Patrick; Seo, Hee-Jong; Zhao, Cheng

    2018-06-01

    We present the clustering measurements of quasars in configuration space based on the Data Release 14 (DR14) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS). This data set includes 148 659 quasars spread over the redshift range 0.8 ≤ z ≤ 2.2 and spanning 2112.9 deg2. We use the Convolution Lagrangian Perturbation Theory approach with a Gaussian Streaming model for the redshift space distortions of the correlation function and demonstrate its applicability for dark matter haloes hosting eBOSS quasar tracers. At the effective redshift zeff = 1.52, we measure the linear growth rate of structure fσ8(zeff) = 0.426 ± 0.077, the expansion rate H(z_eff)= 159^{+12}_{-13}(rs^fid/r_s) {{}km s}^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, and the angular diameter distance DA(z_eff)=1850^{+90}_{-115} (r_s/rs^fid) {}Mpc, where rs is the sound horizon at the end of the baryon drag epoch and rs^fid is its value in the fiducial cosmology. The quoted uncertainties include both systematic and statistical contributions. The results on the evolution of distances are consistent with the predictions of flat Λ-cold dark matter cosmology with Planck parameters, and the measurement of fσ8 extends the validity of General Relativity to higher redshifts (z > 1). This paper is released with companion papers using the same sample. The results on the cosmological parameters of the studies are found to be in very good agreement, providing clear evidence of the complementarity and of the robustness of the first full-shape clustering measurements with the eBOSS DR14 quasar sample.

  6. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  7. Evaluating Tests of Virialization and Substructure Using Galaxy Clusters in the ORELSE Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, N.; Lemaux, B. C.; Tomczak, A. R.; Shen, L.; Pelliccia, D.; Lubin, L. M.; Kocevski, D. D.; Wu, P.-F.; Gal, R. R.; Mei, S.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Squires, G. K.

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of different indicators of cluster virialization using 12 large-scale structures in the ORELSE survey spanning from 0.7 distributions of galaxy populations, and centroiding differences. For comparison to a wide range of studies, we used two sets of tests: ones that did and did not use spectral energy distribution fitting to obtain rest-frame colours, stellar masses, and photometric redshifts of galaxies. Our results indicated that the difference between the stellar mass or light mean-weighted center and the X-ray center, as well as the projected offset of the most-massive/brightest cluster galaxy from other cluster centroids had the strongest correlations with scaling relation offsets, implying they are the most robust indicators of cluster virialization and can be used for this purpose when X-ray data is insufficiently deep for reliable LX and TX measurements.

  8. Cluster Headache Clinical Phenotypes: Tobacco Nonexposed (Never Smoker and No Parental Secondary Smoke Exposure as a Child) versus Tobacco-Exposed: Results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D

    2018-05-01

    To present results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey comparing the clinical presentation of tobacco nonexposed and tobacco-exposed cluster headache patients. Cluster headache is uniquely tied to a personal history of tobacco usage/cigarette smoking and, if the individual cluster headache sufferer did not smoke, it has been shown that their parent(s) typically did and that individual had significant secondary smoke exposure as a child. The true nontobacco exposed (no personal or secondary exposure) cluster headache sufferer has never been fully studied. The United States Cluster Headache Survey consisted of 187 multiple choice questions related to cluster headache including: patient demographics, clinical headache characteristics, family history, triggers, smoking history (personal and secondary), and headache-related disability. The survey was placed on a website from October through December 2008. One thousand one hundred thirty-four individuals completed the survey. One hundred thirty-three subjects or 12% of the surveyed population had no personal smoking/tobacco use history and no secondary smoke exposure as an infant/child, thus a nontobacco exposed population. In the nonexposed population, there were 87 males and 46 females with a gender ratio of 1.9:1. Episodic cluster headache occurred in 80% of nonexposed subjects. One thousand and one survey responders or 88% were tobacco-exposed (729 males and 272 females) with a gender ratio of 2.7:1. Eighty-three percent had a personal smoking history, while only 17% just had parents who smoked with secondary smoke exposure. Eighty-five percent of smokers had double exposure with a personal smoking history and secondary exposure as a child. Nonexposed cluster headache subjects are significantly more likely to develop cluster headache at ages 40 years and younger, while the exposed sufferers are significantly more likely to develop cluster headache at 40 years of age and older. Nonexposed patients have a

  9. Prevalence of dementia-associated disability among Chinese older adults: results from a national sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-03-01

    Due to rapid population aging and a tidal wave of dementia, dementia has become an urgent public health issue in China. Few large-scale surveys on dementia have been conducted in China and little was known about the magnitude of dysfunction and disability caused by dementia. In this study, using national sample survey data, we aimed to describe the prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability, its associated factors, and daily activities and social functions of people with dementia-associated disability in Chinese older adults. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification for dementia was based on consensus manuals. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted numbers, weighted prevalence, and the odd ratios (ORs) were calculated. The prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability was 4.64% (95% CI: 4.26-5.01) and it accounted for 41.03% of mental disability among Chinese older adults. Urban residence (OR: 1.33 [1.12-1.57]), older age (80+ years) (OR: 4.12 [3.38-.03]), illiteracy (OR: 1.79 [1.27-2.53]), and currently not married (OR: 1.15 [1.00-1.32]) were associated with increased risk of dementia-associated disability. Compared with those with mental disability of other causes and those with other types of disabilities, older adults with dementia-asscoiated disability were more likely to have severe or extreme difficulty in daily activities and social functions. Countermeasures are warranted to obtain a more precise overview of dementia in China, and strategies on enhancing early identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed for people with dementia. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmology from Galaxy Clusters Detected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, Neelima; Trac, Hy; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A.R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L.Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J.Richard; Brown, Ben; Burger, Bryce; Chervenak, Jay; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Doriese, W.Bertrand; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fisher, Ryan P.

    2011-08-18

    We present constraints on cosmological parameters based on a sample of Sunyaev-Zeldovich-selected galaxy clusters detected in a millimeter-wave survey by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The cluster sample used in this analysis consists of 9 optically-confirmed high-mass clusters comprising the high-significance end of the total cluster sample identified in 455 square degrees of sky surveyed during 2008 at 148GHz. We focus on the most massive systems to reduce the degeneracy between unknown cluster astrophysics and cosmology derived from SZ surveys. We describe the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal with a 4-parameter fit. Marginalizing over the values of the parameters in this fit with conservative priors gives {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.851 {+-} 0.115 and w = -1.14 {+-} 0.35 for a spatially-flat wCDM cosmological model with WMAP 7-year priors on cosmological parameters. This gives a modest improvement in statistical uncertainty over WMAP 7-year constraints alone. Fixing the scaling relation between cluster mass and SZ signal to a fiducial relation obtained from numerical simulations and calibrated by X-ray observations, we find {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.821 {+-} 0.044 and w = -1.05 {+-} 0.20. These results are consistent with constraints from WMAP 7 plus baryon acoustic oscillations plus type Ia supernoava which give {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.802 {+-} 0.038 and w = -0.98 {+-} 0.053. A stacking analysis of the clusters in this sample compared to clusters simulated assuming the fiducial model also shows good agreement. These results suggest that, given the sample of clusters used here, both the astrophysics of massive clusters and the cosmological parameters derived from them are broadly consistent with current models.

  11. Chapter 27: Deja vu All Over Again: Using NVO Tools to Re-Investigate a Complete Sample of Texas Radio Survey Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ray A.; Rohde, David; Tamura, Takayuki; van Dyne, Jeffrey

    At the first NVO Summer School in September 2004, a complete sample of Texas Radio Survey sources, first derived in 1989 and subsequently observed with the VLA in A-array snapshot mode in 1990, was revisited. The original investigators had never had the occasion to reduce the A-array 5-minute snapshot data, nor to do any other significant follow-up, though the sample still seemed a possibly useful but relatively small study of radio galaxies, AGN, quasars, extragalactic sources, and galaxy clusters, etc. At the time of the original sample definition in late 1989, the best optical material available for the region was the SRC-J plate from the UK Schmidt Telescope in Australia. In much more recent times, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has included the region in its DR2 data release, so good multicolor optical imaging in a number of standard bandpasses has finally become available. These data, along with other material in the radio, infrared, and (where available) were used to get a better preliminary idea of the nature of the objects in the 1989 sample. We also investigated one of the original questions: whether these radio sources with steeper (or at least non-flat) radio spectra were associated with galaxy clusters, and in some cases higher-redshift galaxy clusters and AGN. A rudimentary web service was created which allowed the user to perform simple cone searches and SIAP image extractions of specified field sizes for multiwavelength data across the electromagnetic spectrum, and a prototype web page was set up which would display the resulting images in wavelength order across the page for sources in the sample. Finally, as an additional investigation, using radio and X-ray IDs as a proxy for AGN which might be associated with large, central cluster galaxies, positional matches of radio and X-ray sources from two much larger catalogs were done using the tool TOPCAT in order to search for the degree of correlation between ID positions, radio luminosity, and cluster

  12. Connecting optical and X-ray tracers of galaxy cluster relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian D.; Parker, Laura C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie

    2018-04-01

    Substantial effort has been devoted in determining the ideal proxy for quantifying the morphology of the hot intracluster medium in clusters of galaxies. These proxies, based on X-ray emission, typically require expensive, high-quality X-ray observations making them difficult to apply to large surveys of groups and clusters. Here, we compare optical relaxation proxies with X-ray asymmetries and centroid shifts for a sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey clusters with high-quality, archival X-ray data from Chandra and XMM-Newton. The three optical relaxation measures considered are the shape of the member-galaxy projected velocity distribution - measured by the Anderson-Darling (AD) statistic, the stellar mass gap between the most-massive and second-most-massive cluster galaxy, and the offset between the most-massive galaxy (MMG) position and the luminosity-weighted cluster centre. The AD statistic and stellar mass gap correlate significantly with X-ray relaxation proxies, with the AD statistic being the stronger correlator. Conversely, we find no evidence for a correlation between X-ray asymmetry or centroid shift and the MMG offset. High-mass clusters (Mhalo > 1014.5 M⊙) in this sample have X-ray asymmetries, centroid shifts, and Anderson-Darling statistics which are systematically larger than for low-mass systems. Finally, considering the dichotomy of Gaussian and non-Gaussian clusters (measured by the AD test), we show that the probability of being a non-Gaussian cluster correlates significantly with X-ray asymmetry but only shows a marginal correlation with centroid shift. These results confirm the shape of the radial velocity distribution as a useful proxy for cluster relaxation, which can then be applied to large redshift surveys lacking extensive X-ray coverage.

  13. Quantification of physical activity using the QAPACE Questionnaire: a two stage cluster sample design survey of children and adolescents attending urban school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Nicolas; Sanchez, Carlos E; Patino, Efrain; Lozano, Benigno; Thalabard, Jean C; LE Bozec, Serge; Rieu, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Quantification of physical activity as energy expenditure is important since youth for the prevention of chronic non communicable diseases in adulthood. It is necessary to quantify physical activity expressed in daily energy expenditure (DEE) in school children and adolescents between 8-16 years, by age, gender and socioeconomic level (SEL) in Bogotá. This is a Two Stage Cluster Survey Sample. From a universe of 4700 schools and 760000 students from three existing socioeconomic levels in Bogotá (low, medium and high). The random sample was 20 schools and 1840 students (904 boys and 936 girls). Foreshadowing desertion of participants and inconsistency in the questionnaire responses, the sample size was increased. Thus, 6 individuals of each gender for each of the nine age groups were selected, resulting in a total sample of 2160 individuals. Selected students filled the QAPACE questionnaire under supervision. The data was analyzed comparing means with multivariate general linear model. Fixed factors used were: gender (boys and girls), age (8 to 16 years old) and tri-strata SEL (low, medium and high); as independent variables were assessed: height, weight, leisure time, expressed in hours/day and dependent variable: daily energy expenditure DEE (kJ.kg-1.day-1): during leisure time (DEE-LT), during school time (DEE-ST), during vacation time (DEE-VT), and total mean DEE per year (DEEm-TY) RESULTS: Differences in DEE by gender, in boys, LT and all DEE, with the SEL all variables were significant; but age-SEL was only significant in DEE-VT. In girls, with the SEL all variables were significant. The post hoc multiple comparisons tests were significant with age using Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) test in all variables. For both genders and for all SELs the values in girls had the higher value except SEL high (5-6) The boys have higher values in DEE-LT, DEE-ST, DEE-VT; except in DEEm-TY in SEL (5-6) In SEL (5-6) all DEEs for both genders are highest. For SEL

  14. GEMINI/GMOS SPECTROSCOPY OF 26 STRONG-LENSING-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon; Oguri, Masamune

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic program targeting 26 strong-lensing cluster cores that were visually identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-2). The 26 galaxy cluster lenses span a redshift range of 0.2 Vir = 7.84 x 10 14 M sun h -1 0.7 , which is somewhat higher than predictions for strong-lensing-selected clusters in simulations. The disagreement is not significant considering the large uncertainty in our dynamical data, systematic uncertainties in the velocity dispersion calibration, and limitations of the theoretical modeling. Nevertheless our study represents an important first step toward characterizing large samples of clusters that are identified in a systematic way as systems exhibiting dramatic strong-lensing features.

  15. Weak-lensing mass calibration of redMaPPer galaxy clusters in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, P.; Gruen, D.; McClintock, T.; Varga, T. N.; Sheldon, E.; Rozo, E.; Amara, A.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Bermeo, A.; Bridle, S. L.; Clampitt, J.; Dietrich, J. P.; Hartley, W. G.; Hollowood, D.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Kacprzak, T.; MacCrann, N.; Rykoff, E. S.; Saro, A.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Zuntz, J.; Bonnett, C.; Plazas, A. A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-05-16

    We use weak-lensing shear measurements to determine the mean mass of optically selected galaxy clusters in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data. In a blinded analysis, we split the sample of more than 8,000 redMaPPer clusters into 15 subsets, spanning ranges in the richness parameter $5 \\leq \\lambda \\leq 180$ and redshift $0.2 \\leq z \\leq 0.8$, and fit the averaged mass density contrast profiles with a model that accounts for seven distinct sources of systematic uncertainty: shear measurement and photometric redshift errors; cluster-member contamination; miscentering; deviations from the NFW halo profile; halo triaxiality; and line-of-sight projections. We combine the inferred cluster masses to estimate the joint scaling relation between mass, richness and redshift, $\\mathcal{M}(\\lambda,z) \\varpropto M_0 \\lambda^{F} (1+z)^{G}$. We find $M_0 \\equiv \\langle M_{200\\mathrm{m}}\\,|\\,\\lambda=30,z=0.5\\rangle=\\left[ 2.35 \\pm 0.22\\ \\rm{(stat)} \\pm 0.12\\ \\rm{(sys)} \\right] \\cdot 10^{14}\\ M_\\odot$, with $F = 1.12\\,\\pm\\,0.20\\ \\rm{(stat)}\\, \\pm\\, 0.06\\ \\rm{(sys)}$ and $G = 0.18\\,\\pm\\, 0.75\\ \\rm{(stat)}\\, \\pm\\, 0.24\\ \\rm{(sys)}$. The amplitude of the mass-richness relation is in excellent agreement with the weak-lensing calibration of redMaPPer clusters in SDSS by Simet et al. (2016) and with the Saro et al. (2015) calibration based on abundance matching of SPT-detected clusters. Our results extend the redshift range over which the mass-richness relation of redMaPPer clusters has been calibrated with weak lensing from $z\\leq 0.3$ to $z\\leq0.8$. Calibration uncertainties of shear measurements and photometric redshift estimates dominate our systematic error budget and require substantial improvements for forthcoming studies.

  16. Planck early results. VIII. The all-sky early Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first all-sky sample of galaxy clusters detected blindly by the Planck satellite through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect from its six highest frequencies. This early SZ (ESZ) sample is comprised of 189 candidates, which have a high signal-to-noise ratio ranging from 6 to 29. Its ...

  17. Alma Survey of Circumstellar Disks in the Young Stellar Cluster IC 348

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Rodríguez, D.; Cieza, L. A.; Williams, J. P.; Andrews, S. M.; Principe, D. A.; Caceres, C.; Canovas, H.; Casassus, S.; Schreiber, M. R.; Kastner, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    We present a 1.3 mm continuum survey of the young (2-3 Myr) stellar cluster IC 348, which lies at a distance of 310 pc, and is dominated by low-mass stars (M⋆ ˜ 0.1-0.6 M⊙). We observed 136 Class II sources (disks that are optically thick in the infrared) at 0.8″ (200 au) resolution with a 3σ sensitivity of ˜ 0.45 mJy (Mdust ˜ 1.3 M⊕). We detect 40 of the targets and construct a mm-continuum luminosity function. We compare the disk mass distribution in IC 348 to those of younger and older regions, taking into account the dependence on stellar mass. We find a clear evolution in disk masses from 1 to 5-10 Myr. The disk masses in IC 348 are significantly lower than those in Taurus (1-3 Myr) and Lupus (1-3 Myr), similar to those of Chamaleon I, (2-3 Myr) and σ Ori (3-5 Myr) and significantly higher than in Upper Scorpius (5-10 Myr). About 20 disks in our sample (˜5% of the cluster members) have estimated masses (dust + gas) >1 MJup and hence might be the precursors of giant planets in the cluster. Some of the most massive disks include transition objects with inner opacity holes based on their infrared SEDs. From a stacking analysis of the 96 non-detections, we find that these disks have a typical dust mass of just ≲ 0.4 M⊕, even though the vast majority of their infrared SEDs remain optically thick and show little signs of evolution. Such low-mass disks may be the precursors of the small rocky planets found by Kepler around M-type stars.

  18. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey - VII. Structure and assembly of massive galaxies in the centre of the Coma cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinzirl, Tim; Jogee, Shardha; Neistein, Eyal; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kormendy, John; Marinova, Irina; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; den Brok, Mark; Hammer, Derek; Peletier, Reynier F.; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Carter, David; Goudfrooij, Paul; Lucey, John R.; Mobasher, Bahram; Trentham, Neil; Erwin, Peter; Puzia, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We constrain the assembly history of galaxies in the projected central 0.5 Mpc of the Coma cluster by performing structural decomposition on 69 massive (M⋆ ≥ 109 M⊙) galaxies using high-resolution F814W images from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Treasury Survey of Coma. Each galaxy is modelled

  19. HST Grism Confirmation of 16 Structures at 1.4 < z < 2.8 from the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirot, Gaël; Stern, Daniel; Mei, Simona; Wylezalek, Dominika; Cooke, Elizabeth A.; De Breuck, Carlos; Galametz, Audrey; Hatch, Nina A.; Vernet, Joël; Brodwin, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jarvis, Matt; Rettura, Alessandro; Seymour, Nick; Stanford, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    We report spectroscopic results from our 40-orbit Hubble Space Telescope slitless grism spectroscopy program observing the 20 densest Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) candidate galaxy clusters at 1.4 targeting 420 distant radio-loud AGN. We report the spectroscopic confirmation of 16 distant structures at 1.4 targeted powerful high-redshift radio-loud AGN. We also report the serendipitous discovery and spectroscopic confirmation of seven additional structures at 0.87 targeted radio-loud AGN. We find that 1010–1011 M ⊙ member galaxies of our confirmed CARLA structures form significantly fewer stars than their field counterparts at all redshifts within 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 2. We also observe higher star-forming activity in the structure cores up to z = 2, finding similar trends as cluster surveys at slightly lower redshifts (1.0 strategy of obtaining just two grism orbits per field only obtains spectroscopic confirmation of emission line galaxies. Deeper spectroscopy will be required to study the population of evolved, massive galaxies in these (forming) clusters. Lacking multi-band coverage of the fields, we adopt a very conservative approach of calling all confirmations “structures,” although we note that a number of features are consistent with some of them being bona fide galaxy clusters. Together this survey represents a unique and large homogenous sample of spectroscopically confirmed structures at high redshifts, potentially more than doubling the census of confirmed, massive clusters at z > 1.4.

  20. Cosmology with EMSS Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Megan; Voit, G. Mark

    1999-01-01

    We use ASCA observations of the Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey sample of clusters of galaxies to construct the first z = 0.5 - 0.8 cluster temperature function. This distant cluster temperature function, when compared to local z approximately 0 and to a similar moderate redshift (z = 0.3 - 0.4) temperature function strongly constrains the matter density of the universe. Best fits to the distributions of temperatures and redshifts of these cluster samples results in Omega(sub M) = 0.45 +/- 0.1 if Lambda = 0 and Omega = 0.27 +/- 0.1 if Lambda + Omega(sub M) = 1. The uncertainties are 1sigma statistical. We examine the systematics of our approach and find that systematics, stemming mainly from model assumptions and not measurement errors, are about the same size as the statistical uncertainty +/- 0.1. In this poster proceedings, we clarify the issue of a8 as reported in our paper Donahue & Voit (1999), since this was a matter of discussion at the meeting.

  1. MASSIVE+: The Growth Histories of MASSIVE Survey Galaxies from their Globular Cluster Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, John

    2017-08-01

    The MASSIVE survey is targeting the 100 most massive galaxies within 108 Mpc that are visible in the northern sky. These most massive galaxies in the present-day universe reside in a surprisingly wide variety of environments, from rich clusters to fossil groups to near isolation. We propose to use WFC3/UVIS and ACS to carry out a deep imaging study of the globular cluster populations around a selected subset of the MASSIVE targets. Though much is known about GC systems of bright galaxies in rich clusters, we know surprisingly little about the effects of environment on these systems. The MASSIVE sample provides a golden opportunity to learn about the systematics of GC systems and what they can tell us about environmental drivers on the evolution of the highest mass galaxies. The most pressing questions to be addressed include: (1) Do isolated giants have the same constant mass fraction of GCs to total halo mass as BCGs of similar luminosity? (2) Do their GC systems show the same color (metallicity) distribution, which is an outcome of the mass spectrum of gas-rich halos during hierarchical growth? (3) Do the GCs in isolated high-mass galaxies follow the same radial distribution versus metallicity as in rich environments (a test of the relative importance of growth by accretion)? (4) Do the GCs of galaxies in sparse environments follow the same mass function? Our proposed second-band imaging will enable us to secure answers to these questions and add enormously to the legacy value of existing HST imaging of the highest mass galaxies in the universe.

  2. MASS CALIBRATION AND COSMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SPT-SZ GALAXY CLUSTER SAMPLE USING VELOCITY DISPERSION σ {sub v} AND X-RAY Y {sub X} MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, S.; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Bazin, G.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); De Haan, T., E-mail: bocquet@usm.lmu.de [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present a velocity-dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg{sup 2} of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion (σ {sub v}) and 16 X-ray Y {sub X} measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. Our method accounts for cluster selection, cosmological sensitivity, and uncertainties in the mass calibrators. The calibrations using σ {sub v} and Y {sub X} are consistent at the 0.6σ level, with the σ {sub v} calibration preferring ∼16% higher masses. We use the full SPT{sub CL} data set (SZ clusters+σ {sub v}+Y {sub X}) to measure σ{sub 8}(Ω{sub m}/0.27){sup 0.3} = 0.809 ± 0.036 within a flat ΛCDM model. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming that the sum of the neutrino masses is ∑m {sub ν} = 0.06 eV, we find the data sets to be consistent at the 1.0σ level for WMAP9 and 1.5σ for Planck+WP. Allowing for larger ∑m {sub ν} further reconciles the results. When we combine the SPT{sub CL} and Planck+WP data sets with information from baryon acoustic oscillations and Type Ia supernovae, the preferred cluster masses are 1.9σ higher than the Y {sub X} calibration and 0.8σ higher than the σ {sub v} calibration. Given the scale of these shifts (∼44% and ∼23% in mass, respectively), we execute a goodness-of-fit test; it reveals no tension, indicating that the best-fit model provides an adequate description of the data. Using the multi-probe data set, we measure Ω{sub m} = 0.299 ± 0.009 and σ{sub 8} = 0.829 ± 0.011. Within a νCDM model we find ∑m {sub ν} = 0.148 ± 0.081 eV. We present a consistency test of the cosmic growth rate using SPT clusters. Allowing both the growth index γ and the dark energy equation

  3. The use of cluster sampling to determine aid needs in Grozny, Chechnya in 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, S; Howarth, J; Powell, V; Healing, T

    2000-09-01

    War broke out in Chechnya in November 1994 following a three-year economic blockade. It caused widespread destruction in the capital Grozny. In April 1995 Medical Relief International--or Merlin, a British medical non-governmental organisation (NGO)--began a programme to provide medical supplies, support health centres, control communicable disease and promote preventive health-care in Grozny. In July 1995 the agency undertook a city-wide needs assessment using a modification of the cluster sampling technique developed by the Expanded Programme on Immunisation. This showed that most people had enough drinking-water, food and fuel but that provision of medical care was inadequate. The survey allowed Merlin to redirect resources earmarked for a clean water programme towards health education and improving primary health-care services. It also showed that rapid assessment by a statistically satisfactory method is both possible and useful in such a situation.

  4. MOCCA-SURVEY Database. I. Eccentric Black Hole Mergers during Binary–Single Interactions in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsing, Johan; Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek

    2018-03-01

    We estimate the population of eccentric gravitational wave (GW) binary black hole (BBH) mergers forming during binary–single interactions in globular clusters (GCs), using ∼800 GC models that were evolved using the MOCCA code for star cluster simulations as part of the MOCCA-Survey Database I project. By re-simulating BH binary–single interactions extracted from this set of GC models using an N-body code that includes GW emission at the 2.5 post-Newtonian level, we find that ∼10% of all the BBHs assembled in our GC models that merge at present time form during chaotic binary–single interactions, and that about half of this sample have an eccentricity >0.1 at 10 Hz. We explicitly show that this derived rate of eccentric mergers is ∼100 times higher than one would find with a purely Newtonian N-body code. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the eccentric fraction can be accurately estimated using a simple analytical formalism when the interacting BHs are of similar mass, a result that serves as the first successful analytical description of eccentric GW mergers forming during three-body interactions in realistic GCs.

  5. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. II. DATA DESCRIPTION AND SOURCE CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Derek; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Hoyos, Carlos; Balcells, Marc; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.; Graham, Alister W.; Trentham, Neil; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Jogee, Shardha; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of an HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially completed survey still covers ∼50% of the core high-density region in Coma. Observations were performed for 25 fields that extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (∼1.75 Mpc or 1 0 ) with a total coverage area of 274 arcmin 2 . The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the southwest region of the cluster. In this paper, we present reprocessed images and SEXTRACTOR source catalogs for our survey fields, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for ∼73,000 unique objects; approximately one-half of our detections are brighter than the 10σ point-source detection limit at F814W = 25.8 mag (AB). The slight majority of objects (60%) are unresolved or only marginally resolved by ACS. We estimate that Coma members are 5%-10% of all source detections, which consist of a large population of unresolved compact sources (primarily globular clusters but also ultra-compact dwarf galaxies) and a wide variety of extended galaxies from a cD galaxy to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The red sequence of Coma member galaxies has a color-magnitude relation with a constant slope and dispersion over 9 mag (-21 F814W < -13). The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in 2008 August. The images and catalogs described

  6. Can Weighting Compensate for Sampling Issues in Internet Surveys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.; Beaman, J.

    2011-01-01

    While Internet surveys have increased in popularity, results may not be representative of target populations. Weighting is commonly used to compensate for sampling issues. This article compared two surveys conducted in the Netherlands—a random mail survey (n = 353) and a convenience Internet survey

  7. Medical Image Retrieval Based On the Parallelization of the Cluster Sampling Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hesham Arafat; Attiya, Salah; El-henawy, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we develop parallel cluster sampling algorithms and show that a multi-chain version is embarrassingly parallel and can be used efficiently for medical image retrieval among other applications.

  8. Identification of Clusters of Foot Pain Location in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tiffany K; Menz, Hylton B; Landorf, Karl B; Arnold, John B; Taylor, Anne W; Hill, Catherine L

    2017-12-01

    To identify foot pain clusters according to pain location in a community-based sample of the general population. This study analyzed data from the North West Adelaide Health Study. Data were obtained between 2004 and 2006, using computer-assisted telephone interviewing, clinical assessment, and self-completed questionnaire. The location of foot pain was assessed using a diagram during the clinical assessment. Hierarchical cluster analysis was undertaken to identify foot pain location clusters, which were then compared in relation to demographics, comorbidities, and podiatry services utilization. There were 558 participants with foot pain (mean age 54.4 years, 57.5% female). Five clusters were identified: 1 with predominantly arch and ball pain (26.8%), 1 with rearfoot pain (20.9%), 1 with heel pain (13.3%), and 2 with predominantly forefoot, toe, and nail pain (28.3% and 10.7%). Each cluster was distinct in age, sex, and comorbidity profile. Of the two clusters with predominantly forefoot, toe, and nail pain, one of them had a higher proportion of men and those classified as obese, had diabetes mellitus, and used podiatry services (30%), while the other was comprised of a higher proportion of women who were overweight and reported less use of podiatry services (17.5%). Five clusters of foot pain according to pain location were identified, all with distinct age, sex, and comorbidity profiles. These findings may assist in the identification of individuals at risk for developing foot pain and in the development of targeted preventive strategies and treatments. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. The SOAR Gravitational Arc Survey – I. Survey overview and photometric catalogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlanetto, Cristina; Santiago, Basílio X.; Makler, Martín; Cypriano, Eduardo S.; Caminha, Gabriel B.; Pereira, Maria E. S.; Neto, Angelo Fausti; Estrada, Juan; Lin, Huan; Hao, Jiangang; McKay, Timothy A.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.

    2013-04-11

    We present the first results of the SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research) Gravitational Arc Survey (SOGRAS). The survey imaged 47 clusters in two redshift intervals centered at $z=0.27$ and $z=0.55$, targeting the richest clusters in each interval. Images were obtained in the $g'$, $r'$ and $i'$ bands using the SOAR Optical Imager (SOI), with a median seeing of 0.83, 0.76 and 0.71 arcsec, respectively, in these filters. Most of the survey clusters are located within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 region and all of them are in the SDSS footprint. Photometric calibration was therefore performed using SDSS stars located in our SOI fields. We reached for galaxies in all fields the detection limits of $g \\sim 23.5$, $r \\sim 23$ and $i \\sim 22.5$ for a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3. As a by-product of the image processing, we generated a source catalogue with 19760 entries, the vast majority of which are galaxies, where we list their positions, magnitudes and shape parameters. We compared our galaxy shape measurements to those of local galaxies and concluded that they were not strongly affected by seeing. From the catalogue data, we are able to identify a red sequence of galaxies in most clusters in the lower $z$ range. We found 16 gravitational arc candidates around 8 clusters in our sample. They tend to be bluer than the central galaxies in the lensing cluster. A preliminary analysis indicates that $\\sim 10%$ of the clusters have arcs around them, with a possible indication of a larger efficiency associated to the high-$z$ systems when compared to the low-$z$ ones. Deeper follow-up images with Gemini strengthen the case for the strong lensing nature of the candidates found in this survey.

  10. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R

    2017-09-14

    While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey. ©Elizabeth Fearon, Sungai T Chabata, Jennifer A Thompson, Frances M Cowan, James R Hargreaves. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 14.09.2017.

  11. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviours in female seasonal farm workers in Souss Massa Draa, Morocco: results from a cross-sectional survey using cluster-based sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Guezzar, Fatiha; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Bennani, Aziza; Handanagic, Senad; Barbaric, Jelena; El Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Khattabi, Hamida; Riedner, Gabriele; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2017-06-08

    To determine prevalence of HIV and HIV-related behaviours in female seasonal farm workers (FSFWs) in two provinces of Souss Massa Draa (SMD) region in Morocco. SMD has a higher burden of HIV compared with other parts of Morocco and is characterised by a substantial aggregation of FSFW. We carried out a cross-sectional HIV biobehavioural survey using cluster-based sampling of farms in the provinces Chtouka Aït Baha and Taroudant Ouled Teïma in 2014. HIV testing was done using the Determine HIV-1/2 rapid test and reactive specimens were tested using ELISA and western blot. Collected data were post hoc weighted for region-based stratification and adjusted for clustering effects using complex survey functions of SPSS (V.21). Among those eligible to participate, the response rate was 92.8%. HIV prevalence was 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 2.4%) among 520 recruited participants. A high proportion of respondents (67.7%) had no education. Ever having sex was reported by 79.8% and among these, 12.7% ever exchanged sex for money or goods. Sixty-one per cent reported condom use at most recent commercial vaginal sex in the past 12 months. STI symptom recognition was found to be low because 62.4% and 46.8% of FSFW could not report any STI symptoms in men and women, respectively. Twenty-seven per cent of respondents had an HIV test in the past 12 months. In multivariable analysis, those with primary or higher education (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.38, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.27) and those who participated in an HIV educational session at their workplace (aOR=11.00, 95% CI 3.99 to 30.31) had higher odds of ever been tested for HIV. Although we found a relatively low HIV prevalence among FSFW in SMD, HIV interventions should be intensified, in particular, in a subgroup of women who are involved in sex work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. A PARAMETERIZED GALAXY CATALOG SIMULATOR FOR TESTING CLUSTER FINDING, MASS ESTIMATION, AND PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ESTIMATION IN OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jeeseon; Mohr, Joseph J.; Barkhouse, Wayne A.; Rude, Cody; Warren, Michael S.; Dolag, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We present a galaxy catalog simulator that converts N-body simulations with halo and subhalo catalogs into mock, multiband photometric catalogs. The simulator assigns galaxy properties to each subhalo in a way that reproduces the observed cluster galaxy halo occupation distribution, the radial and mass-dependent variation in fractions of blue galaxies, the luminosity functions in the cluster and the field, and the color-magnitude relation in clusters. Moreover, the evolution of these parameters is tuned to match existing observational constraints. Parameterizing an ensemble of cluster galaxy properties enables us to create mock catalogs with variations in those properties, which in turn allows us to quantify the sensitivity of cluster finding to current observational uncertainties in these properties. Field galaxies are sampled from existing multiband photometric surveys of similar depth. We present an application of the catalog simulator to characterize the selection function and contamination of a galaxy cluster finder that utilizes the cluster red sequence together with galaxy clustering on the sky. We estimate systematic uncertainties in the selection to be at the ≤15% level with current observational constraints on cluster galaxy populations and their evolution. We find the contamination in this cluster finder to be ∼35% to redshift z ∼ 0.6. In addition, we use the mock galaxy catalogs to test the optical mass indicator B gc and a red-sequence redshift estimator. We measure the intrinsic scatter of the B gc -mass relation to be approximately log normal with σ log10M ∼0.25 and we demonstrate photometric redshift accuracies for massive clusters at the ∼3% level out to z ∼ 0.7.

  13. Combining Cluster Analysis and Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) for Accurate and Low-cost Bathymetric Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, B. L.; Alvarez, L. V.; Moreno, H. A.; Chilson, P. B.; Segales, A.

    2017-12-01

    Given that classical in-situ direct surveying for geomorphological subsurface information in rivers is time-consuming, labor-intensive, costly, and often involves high-risk activities, it is obvious that non-intrusive technologies, like UAS-based, LIDAR-based remote sensing, have a promising potential and benefits in terms of efficient and accurate measurement of channel topography over large areas within a short time; therefore, a tremendous amount of attention has been paid to the development of these techniques. Over the past two decades, efforts have been undertaken to develop a specialized technique that can penetrate the water body and detect the channel bed to derive river and coastal bathymetry. In this research, we develop a low-cost effective technique for water body bathymetry. With the use of a sUAS and a light-weight sonar, the bathymetry and volume of a small reservoir have been surveyed. The sUAS surveying approach is conducted under low altitudes (2 meters from the water) using the sUAS to tow a small boat with the sonar attached. A cluster analysis is conducted to optimize the sUAS data collection and minimize the standard deviation created by under-sampling in areas of highly variable bathymetry, so measurements are densified in regions featured by steep slopes and drastic changes in the reservoir bed. This technique provides flexibility, efficiency, and free-risk to humans while obtaining high-quality information. The irregularly-spaced bathymetric survey is then interpolated using unstructured Triangular Irregular Network (TIN)-based maps to avoid re-gridding or re-sampling issues.

  14. Air sampling system for airborne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupiter, C.; Tipton, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    An air sampling system has been designed for installation on the Beechcraft King Air A-100 aircraft as a part of the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS). It is intended for both particle and whole gas sampling. The sampling probe is designed for isokinetic sampling and is mounted on a removable modified escape hatch cover, behind the co-pilot's seat, and extends about two feet forward of the hatch cover in the air stream lines. Directly behind the sampling probe inside the modified hatch cover is an expansion chamber, space for a 5-inch diameter filter paper cassette, and an optional four-stage cascade impactor for particle size distribution measurements. A pair of motors and blower pumps provide the necessary 0.5 atmosphere pressure across the type MSA 1106 B glass fiber filter paper to allow a flow rate of 50 cfm. The MSA 1106 B filter paper is designed to trap sub-micrometer particles with a high efficiency; it was chosen to enable a quantitative measurement of airborne radon daughters, one of the principal sources of background signals when radiological surveys are being performed. A venturi section and pressure gauges allow air flow rate measurements so that airborne contaminant concentrations may be quantified. A whole gas sampler capable of sampling a cubic meter of air is mounted inside the aircraft cabin. A nuclear counting system on board the aircraft provides capability for α, β and γ counting of filter paper samples. Design data are presented and types of survey missions which may be served by this system are described

  15. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. Materials and methods The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. Results The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. Conclusions The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in

  16. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly; Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit dialing of mobile

  17. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L'Engle

    Full Text Available Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample.The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census.The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample.The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit

  18. Environment-based selection effects of Planck clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosyra, R.; Gruen, D.; Seitz, S.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sanchez, A.; Bender, R.

    2015-07-24

    We investigate whether the large-scale structure environment of galaxy clusters imprints a selection bias on Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) catalogues. Such a selection effect might be caused by line of sight (LoS) structures that add to the SZ signal or contain point sources that disturb the signal extraction in the SZ survey. We use the Planck PSZ1 union catalogue in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) region as our sample of SZ-selected clusters. We calculate the angular two-point correlation function (2pcf) for physically correlated, foreground and background structure in the RedMaPPer SDSS DR8 catalogue with respect to each cluster. We compare our results with an optically selected comparison cluster sample and with theoretical predictions. In contrast to the hypothesis of no environment-based selection, we find a mean 2pcf for background structures of -0.049 on scales of ≲40 arcmin, significantly non-zero at ~4σ, which means that Planck clusters are more likely to be detected in regions of low background density. We hypothesize this effect arises either from background estimation in the SZ survey or from radio sources in the background. We estimate the defect in SZ signal caused by this effect to be negligibly small, of the order of ~10-4 of the signal of a typical Planck detection. Analogously, there are no implications on X-ray mass measurements. However, the environmental dependence has important consequences for weak lensing follow up of Planck galaxy clusters: we predict that projection effects account for half of the mass contained within a 15 arcmin radius of Planck galaxy clusters. We did not detect a background underdensity of CMASS LRGs, which also leaves a spatially varying redshift dependence of the Planck SZ selection function as a possible cause for our findings.

  19. Using lot quality-assurance sampling and area sampling to identify priority areas for trachoma control: Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Mark; Mai, Nguyen Phuong; Quynh, Nguyen Quang; Nga, Nguyen Huy; Tai, Ha Huy; Long, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tran Hung; Limburg, Hans

    2005-10-01

    To report on the use of lot quality-assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys undertaken within an area-sampling framework to identify priority areas for intervention with trachoma control activities in Viet Nam. The LQAS survey method for the rapid assessment of the prevalence of active trachoma was adapted for use in Viet Nam with the aim of classifying individual communes by the prevalence of active trachoma among children in primary school. School-based sampling was used; school sites to be sampled were selected using an area-sampling approach. A total of 719 communes in 41 districts in 18 provinces were surveyed. Survey staff found the LQAS survey method both simple and rapid to use after initial problems with area-sampling methods were identified and remedied. The method yielded a finer spatial resolution of prevalence than had been previously achieved in Viet Nam using semiquantitative rapid assessment surveys and multistage cluster-sampled surveys. When used with area-sampling techniques, the LQAS survey method has the potential to form the basis of survey instruments that can be used to efficiently target resources for interventions against active trachoma. With additional work, such methods could provide a generally applicable tool for effective programme planning and for the certification of the elimination of trachoma as a blinding disease.

  20. IS THE TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY CLUSTERING DIPOLE CONVERGENT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilicki, Maciej; Chodorowski, Michal; Jarrett, Thomas; Mamon, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing controversy about the convergence of the dipole moment of the galaxy angular distribution (the so-called clustering dipole). Is the dipole convergent at all, and if so, what is the scale of the convergence? We study the growth of the clustering dipole of galaxies as a function of the limiting flux of the sample from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Contrary to some earlier claims, we find that the dipole does not converge before the completeness limit of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, i.e., up to 13.5 mag in the near-infrared K s band (equivalent to an effective distance of 300 Mpc h -1 ). We compare the observed growth of the dipole with the theoretically expected, conditional one (i.e., given the velocity of the Local Group relative to the cosmic microwave background), for the ΛCDM power spectrum and cosmological parameters constrained by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The observed growth turns out to be within 1σ confidence level of its theoretical counterpart once the proper observational window of the 2MASS flux-limited catalog is included. For a contrast, if the adopted window is a top hat, then the predicted dipole grows significantly faster and converges (within the errors) to its final value for a distance of about 300 Mpc h -1 . By comparing the observational windows, we show that for a given flux limit and a corresponding distance limit, the 2MASS flux-weighted window passes less large-scale signal than the top-hat one. We conclude that the growth of the 2MASS dipole for effective distances greater than 200 Mpc h -1 is only apparent. On the other hand, for a distance of 80 Mpc h -1 (mean depth of the 2MASS Redshift Survey) and the ΛCDM power spectrum, the true dipole is expected to reach only ∼80% of its final value. Eventually, since for the window function of 2MASS the predicted growth is consistent with the observed one, we can compare the two to evaluate β ≡ Ω m 0.55 /b. The result is β = 0.38

  1. X-ray aspects of the DAFT/FADA clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Durret, F.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Adami, C.

    2012-12-01

    We have undertaken the DAFT/FADA survey with the aim of applying constraints on dark energy based on weak lensing tomography as well as obtaining homogeneous and high quality data for a sample of 91 massive clusters in the redshift range [0.4,0.9] for which there are HST archive data. We have analysed the XMM-Newton data available for 42 of these clusters to derive their X-ray temperatures and luminosities and search for substructures. This study was coupled with a dynamical analysis for the 26 clusters having at least 30 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range. We present preliminary results on the coupled X-ray and dynamical analyses of these clusters.

  2. THE REST-FRAME OPTICAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF CLUSTER GALAXIES AT z < 0.8 AND THE ASSEMBLY OF THE CLUSTER RED SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, Gregory; Von der Linden, Anja; De Lucia, Gabriella; White, Simon; Pello, Roser; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Marchesini, Danilo; Clowe, Douglas; Halliday, Claire; Jablonka, Pascale; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Poggianti, Bianca; Saglia, Roberto; Simard, Luc; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We present the rest-frame optical luminosity function (LF) of red-sequence galaxies in 16 clusters at 0.4 < z < 0.8 drawn from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS). We compare our clusters to an analogous sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and match the EDisCS clusters to their most likely descendants. We measure all LFs down to M ∼ M * + (2.5-3.5). At z < 0.8, the bright end of the LF is consistent with passive evolution but there is a significant buildup of the faint end of the red sequence toward lower redshift. There is a weak dependence of the LF on cluster velocity dispersion for EDisCS but no such dependence for the SDSS clusters. We find tentative evidence that red-sequence galaxies brighter than a threshold magnitude are already in place, and that this threshold evolves to fainter magnitudes toward lower redshifts. We compare the EDisCS LFs with the LF of coeval red-sequence galaxies in the field and find that the bright end of the LFs agree. However, relative to the number of bright red galaxies, the field has more faint red galaxies than clusters at 0.6 < z < 0.8 but fewer at 0.4 < z < 0.6, implying differential evolution. We compare the total light in the EDisCS cluster red sequences to the total red-sequence light in our SDSS cluster sample. Clusters at 0.4 < z < 0.8 must increase their luminosity on the red sequence (and therefore stellar mass in red galaxies) by a factor of 1-3 by z = 0. The necessary processes that add mass to the red sequence in clusters predict local clusters that are overluminous as compared to those observed in the SDSS. The predicted cluster luminosities can be reconciled with observed local cluster luminosities by combining multiple previously known effects.

  3. Analysis of low birth weight and its co-variants in Bangladesh based on a sub-sample from nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahidur Rahman; Islam, Md Mazharul; Awan, Nabil; Muurlink, Olav

    2018-03-06

    Low birth weight (LBW) remains a leading global cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. This study leverages a large national survey to determine current prevalence and socioeconomic, demographic and heath related factors associated with LBW in Bangladesh. Data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2012-13 of Bangladesh were analyzed. A total of 2319 women for whom contemporaneous birth weight data was available and who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey were sampled for this study. However, this analysis only was able to take advantage of 29% of the total sample with 71% missing birth weight for newborns. The indicator, LBW (rates observed in Rajshahi (11%) and highest rates in Rangpur (28%). Education of mothers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.68 for secondary or higher educated mother) and poor antenatal care (ANC) (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.90) were associated with LBW after adjusting for mother's age, parity and cluster effects. Mothers from wealthier families were less likely to give birth to an LBW infant. Further indicators that wealth continues to play a role in LBW were that place of delivery, ANC and delivery assistance by quality health workers were significantly associated with LBW. However there has been a notable fall in LBW prevalence in Bangladesh since the last comparable survey (prevalence 36%), and an evidence of possible elimination of rural/urban disparities. Low birth weight remains associated with key indicators not just of maternal poverty (notably adequate maternal education) but also markers of structural poverty in health care (notably quality ANC). Results based on this sub-sample indicate LBW is still a public health concern in Bangladesh and an integrated effort from all stakeholders should be continued and interventions based on the study findings should be devised to further reduce the risk of LBW.

  4. Intrinsic alignment of redMaPPer clusters: cluster shape-matter density correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Edo; Joachimi, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    We measure the alignment of the shapes of galaxy clusters, as traced by their satellite distributions, with the matter density field using the public redMaPPer catalogue based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey-Data Release 8 (SDSS-DR8), which contains 26 111 clusters up to z ˜ 0.6. The clusters are split into nine redshift and richness samples; in each of them, we detect a positive alignment, showing that clusters point towards density peaks. We interpret the measurements within the tidal alignment paradigm, allowing for a richness and redshift dependence. The intrinsic alignment (IA) amplitude at the pivot redshift z = 0.3 and pivot richness λ = 30 is A_IA^gen=12.6_{-1.2}^{+1.5}. We obtain tentative evidence that the signal increases towards higher richness and lower redshift. Our measurements agree well with results of maxBCG clusters and with dark-matter-only simulations. Comparing our results to the IA measurements of luminous red galaxies, we find that the IA amplitude of galaxy clusters forms a smooth extension towards higher mass. This suggests that these systems share a common alignment mechanism, which can be exploited to improve our physical understanding of IA.

  5. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  6. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for 241 Am, 6569 for 137 Cs, 4535 for 239+240 Pu, 4431 for 90 Sr, 1146 for 238 Pu, 269 for 241 Pu, and 114 each for 239 Pu and 240 Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included

  7. FOSSIL SYSTEMS IN THE 400d CLUSTER CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodkin, Alexey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Mescheryakov, Alexander; Burenin, Rodion; Hornstrup, Allan

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of seven new fossil systems in the 400d cluster survey. Our search targets nearby, z ≤ 0.2, and X-ray bright, L X ≥ 10 43 erg s -1 , clusters of galaxies. Where available, we measure the optical luminosities from Sloan Digital Sky Survey images, thereby obtaining uniform sets of both X-ray and optical data. Our selection criteria identify 12 fossil systems, out of which five are known from previous studies. While in general agreement with earlier results, our larger sample size allows us to put tighter constraints on the number density of fossil clusters. It has been previously reported that fossil groups are more X-ray bright than other X-ray groups of galaxies for the same optical luminosity. We find, however, that the X-ray brightness of massive fossil systems is consistent with that of the general population of galaxy clusters and follows the same L X -L opt scaling relation.

  8. HOMOGENEOUS UGRIZ PHOTOMETRY FOR ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY GALAXIES: A NON-PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS FROM SDSS IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Wei; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; West, Andrew A.; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    We present photometric and structural parameters for 100 ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) galaxies based on homogeneous, multi-wavelength (ugriz), wide-field SDSS (DR5) imaging. These early-type galaxies, which trace out the red sequence in the Virgo Cluster, span a factor of nearly ∼10 3 in g-band luminosity. We describe an automated pipeline that generates background-subtracted mosaic images, masks field sources and measures mean shapes, total magnitudes, effective radii, and effective surface brightnesses using a model-independent approach. A parametric analysis of the surface brightness profiles is also carried out to obtain Sersic-based structural parameters and mean galaxy colors. We compare the galaxy parameters to those in the literature, including those from the ACSVCS, finding good agreement in most cases, although the sizes of the brightest, and most extended, galaxies are found to be most uncertain and model dependent. Our photometry provides an external measurement of the random errors on total magnitudes from the widely used Virgo Cluster Catalog, which we estimate to be σ(B T )∼ 0.13 mag for the brightest galaxies, rising to ∼ 0.3 mag for galaxies at the faint end of our sample (B T ∼ 16). The distribution of axial ratios of low-mass ( d warf ) galaxies bears a strong resemblance to the one observed for the higher-mass ( g iant ) galaxies. The global structural parameters for the full galaxy sample-profile shape, effective radius, and mean surface brightness-are found to vary smoothly and systematically as a function of luminosity, with unmistakable evidence for changes in structural homology along the red sequence. As noted in previous studies, the ugriz galaxy colors show a nonlinear but smooth variation over a ∼7 mag range in absolute magnitude, with an enhanced scatter for the faintest systems that is likely the signature of their more diverse star formation histories.

  9. Probing BL Lac and Cluster Evolution via a Wide-angle, Deep X-ray Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, E.; Jones, L.; White, N.; Angelini, L.; Giommi, P.; McHardy, I.; Wegner, G.

    1994-12-01

    The WARPS survey (Wide-Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey) has been constructed from the archive of all public ROSAT PSPC observations, and is a subset of the WGACAT catalog. WARPS will include a complete sample of >= 100 BL Lacs at F_x >= 10(-13) erg s(-1) cm(-2) . A second selection technique will identify ~ 100 clusters at 0.15 = 0.304 +/- 0.062 for XBLs but = 0.60 +/- 0.05 for RBLs. Models of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) are also poorly constrained. WARPS will allow us to compute an accurate XLF, decreasing the error bars above by over a factor of two. We will also test for low-luminosity BL Lacs, whose non-thermal nuclear sources are dim compared to the host galaxy. Browne and Marcha (1993) claim the EMSS missed most of these objects and is incomplete. If their predictions are correct, 20-40% of the BL Lacs we find will fall in this category, enabling us to probe the evolution and internal workings of BL Lacs at lower luminosities than ever before. By removing likely QSOs before optical spectroscopy, WARPS requires only modest amounts of telescope time. It will extend measurement of the cluster XLF both to higher redshifts (z>0.5) and lower luminosities (LX<1x10(44) erg s(-1) ) than previous measurements, confirming or rejecting the 3sigma detection of negative evolution found in the EMSS, and constraining Cold Dark Matter cosmologies. Faint NELGs are a recently discovered major contributor to the X-ray background. They are a mixture of Sy2s, starbursts and galaxies of unknown type. Detailed classification and evolution of their XLF will be determined for the first time.

  10. LoCuSS: weak-lensing mass calibration of galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Smith, Graham P.

    2016-10-01

    We present weak-lensing mass measurements of 50 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters at 0.15 ≤ z ≤ 0.3, based on uniform high-quality observations with Suprime-Cam mounted on the 8.2-m Subaru telescope. We pay close attention to possible systematic biases, aiming to control them at the ≲4 per cent level. The dominant source of systematic bias in weak-lensing measurements of the mass of individual galaxy clusters is contamination of background galaxy catalogues by faint cluster and foreground galaxies. We extend our conservative method for selecting background galaxies with (V - I') colours redder than the red sequence of cluster members to use a colour-cut that depends on cluster-centric radius. This allows us to define background galaxy samples that suffer ≤1 per cent contamination, and comprise 13 galaxies per square arcminute. Thanks to the purity of our background galaxy catalogue, the largest systematic that we identify in our analysis is a shape measurement bias of 3 per cent, that we measure using simulations that probe weak shears up to g = 0.3. Our individual cluster mass and concentration measurements are in excellent agreement with predictions of the mass-concentration relation. Equally, our stacked shear profile is in excellent agreement with the Navarro Frenk and White profile. Our new Local Cluster Substructure Survey mass measurements are consistent with the Canadian Cluster Cosmology Project and Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble surveys, and in tension with the Weighing the Giants at ˜1σ-2σ significance. Overall, the consensus at z ≤ 0.3 that is emerging from these complementary surveys represents important progress for cluster mass calibration, and augurs well for cluster cosmology.

  11. Understanding the cluster randomised crossover design: a graphical illustraton of the components of variation and a sample size tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnup, Sarah J; McKenzie, Joanne E; Hemming, Karla; Pilcher, David; Forbes, Andrew B

    2017-08-15

    In a cluster randomised crossover (CRXO) design, a sequence of interventions is assigned to a group, or 'cluster' of individuals. Each cluster receives each intervention in a separate period of time, forming 'cluster-periods'. Sample size calculations for CRXO trials need to account for both the cluster randomisation and crossover aspects of the design. Formulae are available for the two-period, two-intervention, cross-sectional CRXO design, however implementation of these formulae is known to be suboptimal. The aims of this tutorial are to illustrate the intuition behind the design; and provide guidance on performing sample size calculations. Graphical illustrations are used to describe the effect of the cluster randomisation and crossover aspects of the design on the correlation between individual responses in a CRXO trial. Sample size calculations for binary and continuous outcomes are illustrated using parameters estimated from the Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Society - Adult Patient Database (ANZICS-APD) for patient mortality and length(s) of stay (LOS). The similarity between individual responses in a CRXO trial can be understood in terms of three components of variation: variation in cluster mean response; variation in the cluster-period mean response; and variation between individual responses within a cluster-period; or equivalently in terms of the correlation between individual responses in the same cluster-period (within-cluster within-period correlation, WPC), and between individual responses in the same cluster, but in different periods (within-cluster between-period correlation, BPC). The BPC lies between zero and the WPC. When the WPC and BPC are equal the precision gained by crossover aspect of the CRXO design equals the precision lost by cluster randomisation. When the BPC is zero there is no advantage in a CRXO over a parallel-group cluster randomised trial. Sample size calculations illustrate that small changes in the specification of

  12. Non-response weighting adjustment approach in survey sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence the discussion is illustrated with real examples from surveys (in particular 2003 KDHS) conducted by Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) - Kenya. Some suggestions are made for improving the quality of non-response weighting. Keywords: Survey non-response; non-response adjustment factors; weighting; sampling ...

  13. Cluster designs to assess the prevalence of acute malnutrition by lot quality assurance sampling: a validation study by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello; Deitchler, Megan; Hedt, Bethany L; Egge, Kari; Valadez, Joseph J

    2009-04-01

    Traditional lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methods require simple random sampling to guarantee valid results. However, cluster sampling has been proposed to reduce the number of random starting points. This study uses simulations to examine the classification error of two such designs, a 67x3 (67 clusters of three observations) and a 33x6 (33 clusters of six observations) sampling scheme to assess the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM). Further, we explore the use of a 67x3 sequential sampling scheme for LQAS classification of GAM prevalence. Results indicate that, for independent clusters with moderate intracluster correlation for the GAM outcome, the three sampling designs maintain approximate validity for LQAS analysis. Sequential sampling can substantially reduce the average sample size that is required for data collection. The presence of intercluster correlation can impact dramatically the classification error that is associated with LQAS analysis.

  14. A VLT/MUSE galaxy survey towards QSO Q1410: looking for a WHIM traced by BLAs in inter-cluster filaments†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessa, Ismael; Tejos, Nicolas; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Werk, Jessica; Bielby, Richard; Padilla, Nelson; Morris, Simon L.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Lopez, Sebastian; Hummels, Cameron

    2018-03-01

    Cosmological simulations predict that a significant fraction of the low-z baryon budget resides in large-scale filaments in the form of a diffuse plasma at temperatures T ˜ 105 - 107 K. However, direct observation of this so-called warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) has been elusive. In the ΛCDM paradigm, galaxy clusters correspond to the nodes of the cosmic web at the intersection of several large-scale filamentary threads. In previous work, we used HST/COS data to conduct the first survey of broad H I Lyα absorbers (BLAs) potentially produced by WHIM in inter-cluster filaments. We targeted a single QSO, namely Q1410, whose sight-line intersects 7 independent inter-cluster axes at impact parameters cluster axes, we found 3 without any galaxy counterpart to stringent luminosity limits (˜4 × 108 L⊙ ˜0.01 L*), providing further evidence that these BLAs may represent genuine WHIM detections. We combined this sample with other suitable BLAs from the literature and inferred the corresponding baryon mean density for these filaments in the range Ω ^fil_bar= 0.02-0.04. Our rough estimates are consistent with the predictions from numerical simulations but still subject to large systematic uncertainties, mostly from the adopted geometry, ionization corrections and density profile.

  15. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short-term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature...

  16. Surveying immigrants without sampling frames - evaluating the success of alternative field methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, David; Morales, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the sampling methods of an international survey, the Immigrant Citizens Survey, which aimed at surveying immigrants from outside the European Union (EU) in 15 cities in seven EU countries. In five countries, no sample frame was available for the target population. Consequently, alternative ways to obtain a representative sample had to be found. In three countries 'location sampling' was employed, while in two countries traditional methods were used with adaptations to reach the target population. The paper assesses the main methodological challenges of carrying out a survey among a group of immigrants for whom no sampling frame exists. The samples of the survey in these five countries are compared to results of official statistics in order to assess the accuracy of the samples obtained through the different sampling methods. It can be shown that alternative sampling methods can provide meaningful results in terms of core demographic characteristics although some estimates differ to some extent from the census results.

  17. The clustering evolution of distant red galaxies in the GOODS-MUSIC sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Moscardini, L.; Salimbeni, S.; Menci, N.; Giallongo, E.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Nonino, M.; Cristiani, S.; Vanzella, E.

    2006-07-01

    Aims.We study the clustering properties of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs) to test whether they are the progenitors of local massive galaxies. Methods.We use the GOODS-MUSIC sample, a catalog of ~3000 Ks-selected galaxies based on VLT and HST observation of the GOODS-South field with extended multi-wavelength coverage (from 0.3 to 8~μm) and accurate estimates of the photometric redshifts to select 179 DRGs with J-Ks≥ 1.3 in an area of 135 sq. arcmin.Results.We first show that the J-Ks≥ 1.3 criterion selects a rather heterogeneous sample of galaxies, going from the targeted high-redshift luminous evolved systems, to a significant fraction of lower redshift (1mass, like groups or small galaxy clusters. Low-z DRGs, on the other hand, will likely evolve into slightly less massive field galaxies.

  18. Star clusters and K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Jessie; Barentsen, Geert; Cody, Ann Marie

    2018-01-01

    The K2 survey has expanded the Kepler legacy by using the repurposed spacecraft to observe over 20 star clusters. The sample includes open and globular clusters at all ages, including very young (1-10 Myr, e.g. Taurus, Upper Sco, NGC 6530), moderately young (0.1-1 Gyr, e.g. M35, M44, Pleiades, Hyades), middle-aged (e.g. M67, Ruprecht 147, NGC 2158), and old globular clusters (e.g. M9, M19, Terzan 5). K2 observations of stellar clusters are exploring the rotation period-mass relationship to significantly lower masses than was previously possible, shedding light on the angular momentum budget and its dependence on mass and circumstellar disk properties, and illuminating the role of multiplicity in stellar angular momentum. Exoplanets discovered by K2 in stellar clusters provides planetary systems ripe for modeling given the extensive information available about their ages and environment. I will review the star clusters sampled by K2 across 16 fields so far, highlighting several characteristics, caveats, and unexplored uses of the public data set along the way. With fuel expected to run out in 2018, I will discuss the closing Campaigns, highlight the final target selection opportunities, and explain the data archive and TESS-compatible software tools the K2 mission intends to leave behind for posterity.

  19. Methods of the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Resano-Pérez, Elsa; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera, Juan A; Sepúlveda-Amor, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99) is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. The NNS-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of Mexico. The last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. The study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years), and women of chi...

  20. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose...

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of galaxy clusters in RCS-1: spectroscopic confirmation, redshift accuracy, and dynamical mass-richness relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbank, David G.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Ellingson, Erica; Blindert, Kris; Yee, H. K. C.; Anguita, T.; Gladders, M. D.; Hall, P. B.; Hertling, G.; Infante, L.; Yan, R.; Carrasco, M.; Garcia-Vergara, Cristina; Dawson, K. S.; Lidman, C.; Morokuma, T.

    2018-05-01

    We present follow-up spectroscopic observations of galaxy clusters from the first Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-1). This work focuses on two samples, a lower redshift sample of ˜30 clusters ranging in redshift from z ˜ 0.2-0.6 observed with multiobject spectroscopy (MOS) on 4-6.5-m class telescopes and a z ˜ 1 sample of ˜10 clusters 8-m class telescope observations. We examine the detection efficiency and redshift accuracy of the now widely used red-sequence technique for selecting clusters via overdensities of red-sequence galaxies. Using both these data and extended samples including previously published RCS-1 spectroscopy and spectroscopic redshifts from SDSS, we find that the red-sequence redshift using simple two-filter cluster photometric redshifts is accurate to σz ≈ 0.035(1 + z) in RCS-1. This accuracy can potentially be improved with better survey photometric calibration. For the lower redshift sample, ˜5 per cent of clusters show some (minor) contamination from secondary systems with the same red-sequence intruding into the measurement aperture of the original cluster. At z ˜ 1, the rate rises to ˜20 per cent. Approximately ten per cent of projections are expected to be serious, where the two components contribute significant numbers of their red-sequence galaxies to another cluster. Finally, we present a preliminary study of the mass-richness calibration using velocity dispersions to probe the dynamical masses of the clusters. We find a relation broadly consistent with that seen in the local universe from the WINGS sample at z ˜ 0.05.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ETGs sample for the Coma cluster (Riguccini+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riguccini, L.; Temi, P.; Amblard, A.; Fanelli, M.; Brighenti, F.

    2017-10-01

    For the Coma Cluster, we utilize the work of Mahajan et al. (2010, J/MNRAS/404/1745) to build our ETG sample. Mahajan et al. (2010, J/MNRAS/404/1745) used a combination of MIPS 24 μm observations and SDSS photometry and spectra to investigate the star formation history of galaxies in the Coma supercluster. All of their galaxies from the SDSS data in the Coma supercluster region are brighter than r~17.77, the completeness limit of the SDSS spectroscopic galaxy catalog. Their 24 μm fluxes are obtained from archival data covering 2x2 deg2 for Coma Cluster. Our final sample of 124 sources is composed of 49 ellipticals and 75 lenticulars. (1 data file).

  3. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

  4. Evolution of the cluster X-ray luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullis, C.R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Henry, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements of the cluster X-ray luminosity function out to z = 0.8 based on the final sample of 201 galaxy systems from the 160 Square Degree ROSAT Cluster Survey. There is little evidence for any measurable change in cluster abundance out to z similar to 0.6 at luminosities of less...... than a few times 10(44) h(50)(-2) ergs s(-1) (0.5 - 2.0 keV). However, for 0.6 cluster deficit using integrated number counts...... independently confirm the presence of evolution. Whereas the bulk of the cluster population does not evolve, the most luminous and presumably most massive structures evolve appreciably between z = 0.8 and the present. Interpreted in the context of hierarchical structure formation, we are probing sufficiently...

  5. Finding Clusters of Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using Voronoi Tessellation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rita S.J., Kim

    2001-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has obtained 450 square degrees of photometric scan data, in five bands (u', g', r', i', z'), which the authors use to identify clusters of galaxies. They illustrate how they do star-galaxy separation, and present a simple and elegant method of detecting over-densities in the galaxy distribution, using the Voronoi Tessellation

  6. Hierarchical Bayesian modelling of gene expression time series across irregularly sampled replicates and clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensman, James; Lawrence, Neil D; Rattray, Magnus

    2013-08-20

    Time course data from microarrays and high-throughput sequencing experiments require simple, computationally efficient and powerful statistical models to extract meaningful biological signal, and for tasks such as data fusion and clustering. Existing methodologies fail to capture either the temporal or replicated nature of the experiments, and often impose constraints on the data collection process, such as regularly spaced samples, or similar sampling schema across replications. We propose hierarchical Gaussian processes as a general model of gene expression time-series, with application to a variety of problems. In particular, we illustrate the method's capacity for missing data imputation, data fusion and clustering.The method can impute data which is missing both systematically and at random: in a hold-out test on real data, performance is significantly better than commonly used imputation methods. The method's ability to model inter- and intra-cluster variance leads to more biologically meaningful clusters. The approach removes the necessity for evenly spaced samples, an advantage illustrated on a developmental Drosophila dataset with irregular replications. The hierarchical Gaussian process model provides an excellent statistical basis for several gene-expression time-series tasks. It has only a few additional parameters over a regular GP, has negligible additional complexity, is easily implemented and can be integrated into several existing algorithms. Our experiments were implemented in python, and are available from the authors' website: http://staffwww.dcs.shef.ac.uk/people/J.Hensman/.

  7. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth; Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seo, Hee-Jong; De Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Saito, Shun; Schlafly, Eddie; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg 2 , and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg 2 and probes a volume of 3 h –3 Gpc 3 , making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼15%, with a bin size of δ l = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l ∼ 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat ΛCDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H 0 constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find Ω Λ = 0.73 ± 0.019 and H 0 to be 70.5 ± 1.6 s –1 Mpc –1 km. For an open ΛCDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find Ω K = 0.0035 ± 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = –1.071 ± 0.078, and H 0 to be 71.3 ± 1.7 s –1 Mpc –1 km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic surveys such as the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) and WiggleZ. We also find that systematic-corrected power

  8. Star formation and substructure in galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and substructure in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Several past studies of individual galaxy clusters have suggested that cluster mergers enhance cluster SF, while others find no such relationship. The SF fraction in multi-component clusters (0.228 ± 0.007) is higher than that in single-component clusters (0.175 ± 0.016) for galaxies with M r 0.1 <−20.5. In both single- and multi-component clusters, the fraction of star-forming galaxies increases with clustercentric distance and decreases with local galaxy number density, and multi-component clusters show a higher SF fraction than single-component clusters at almost all clustercentric distances and local densities. Comparing the SF fraction in individual clusters to several statistical measures of substructure, we find weak, but in most cases significant at greater than 2σ, correlations between substructure and SF fraction. These results could indicate that cluster mergers may cause weak but significant SF enhancement in clusters, or unrelaxed clusters exhibit slightly stronger SF due to their less evolved states relative to relaxed clusters.

  9. THE SLOAN BRIGHT ARCS SURVEY: TEN STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING CLUSTERS AND EVIDENCE OF OVERCONCENTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Matthew P. [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Lin, Huan; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H. Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Tucker, Douglas [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    We describe 10 strong lensing galaxy clusters of redshift 0.26 {<=} z {<=} 0.56 that were found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We present measurements of richness (N{sub 200}), mass (M{sub 200}), and velocity dispersion for the clusters. We find that in order to use the mass-richness relation from Johnston et al., which was established at mean redshift of 0.25, it is necessary to scale measured richness values up by 1.47. Using this scaling, we find richness values for these clusters to be in the range of 22 {<=} N{sub 200} {<=} 317 and mass values to be in the range of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} {<=} M{sub 200} {<=} 30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun }. We also present measurements of Einstein radius, mass, and velocity dispersion for the lensing systems. The Einstein radii ({theta}{sub E}) are all relatively small, with 5.''4 {<=} {theta}{sub E} {<=} 13''. Finally, we consider if there is evidence that our clusters are more concentrated than {Lambda}CDM would predict. We find that six of our clusters do not show evidence of overconcentration, while four of our clusters do. We note a correlation between overconcentration and mass, as the four clusters showing evidence of overconcentration are all lower-mass clusters. For the four lowest mass clusters the average value of the concentration parameter c{sub 200} is 11.6, while for the six higher-mass clusters the average value of c{sub 200} is 4.4. {Lambda}CDM would place c{sub 200} between 3.4 and 5.7.

  10. Measuring the Scatter of the Mass–Richness Relation in Galaxy Clusters in Photometric Imaging Surveys by Means of Their Correlation Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campa, Julia; Estrada, Juan; Flaugher, Brenna

    2017-02-03

    The knowledge of the scatter in the mass-observable relation is a key ingredient for a cosmological analysis based on galaxy clusters in a photometric survey. We demonstrate here how the linear bias measured in the correlation function for clusters can be used to determine the value of the scatter. The new method is tested in simulations of a 5.000 square degrees optical survey up to z~1, similar to the ongoing Dark Energy Survey. The results indicate that the scatter can be measured with a precision of 5% using this technique.

  11. Survey of quasi-free cluster knockout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, P.G.; Chant, N.S.

    1975-01-01

    The investigation of quasi-free knockout reactions has been proceeding for many years now, since the first experiments studying (p,2p) reactions on light nuclei. These experiments clearly showed the dominance of quasi-free proton knockout, and have provided information on the proton holes states in nuclei. From very early in the game people extended these studies to the knock-out of clusters, in an attempt to obtain nuclear structure information about clustering in nuclei. These cluster knockout reactions, excluding the nucleon knockout work, are examined. 20 figures, 16 references

  12. A deep X-ray spectroscopic survey of the ESO imaging survey fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.; Hansen, Lene

    1998-01-01

    The deepest ROSAT surveys have shown, that, in the energy range 0.5-2.0 keV, QSO's can account for similar to 30 per cent of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB), and Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELG) and clusters of galaxies for about 10 per cent each. But, by assuming characteristic spectral ...... provide new insight into the evolution of galaxies, clusters of galaxies and AGN's.......The deepest ROSAT surveys have shown, that, in the energy range 0.5-2.0 keV, QSO's can account for similar to 30 per cent of the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXRB), and Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELG) and clusters of galaxies for about 10 per cent each. But, by assuming characteristic spectral....... This spectroscopic X-ray survey will provide a large, statistically complete, sample of sources detected at high energies, more than an order of magnitude fainter than obtained by previous missions. The study of these sources will significantly improve our understanding not only of the origin of DXRB, but also...

  13. On the errors on Omega(0): Monte Carlo simulations of the EMSS cluster sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oukbir, J.; Arnaud, M.

    2001-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of synthetic EMSS cluster samples, to quantify the systematic errors and the statistical uncertainties on the estimate of Omega (0) derived from fits to the cluster number density evolution and to the X-ray temperature distribution up to z=0.83. We identify...... the scatter around the relation between cluster X-ray luminosity and temperature to be a source of systematic error, of the order of Delta (syst)Omega (0) = 0.09, if not properly taken into account in the modelling. After correcting for this bias, our best Omega (0) is 0.66. The uncertainties on the shape...

  14. CA II TRIPLET SPECTROSCOPY OF SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD RED GIANTS. III. ABUNDANCES AND VELOCITIES FOR A SAMPLE OF 14 CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Marcionni, N. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba, CP 5000 (Argentina); Geisler, D.; Villanova, S. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Grocholski, A. J., E-mail: celeste@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: nmarcionni@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: svillanova@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We obtained spectra of red giants in 15 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters in the region of the Ca ii lines with FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope. We determined the mean metallicity and radial velocity with mean errors of 0.05 dex and 2.6 km s{sup −1}, respectively, from a mean of 6.5 members per cluster. One cluster (B113) was too young for a reliable metallicity determination and was excluded from the sample. We combined the sample studied here with 15 clusters previously studied by us using the same technique, and with 7 clusters whose metallicities determined by other authors are on a scale similar to ours. This compilation of 36 clusters is the largest SMC cluster sample currently available with accurate and homogeneously determined metallicities. We found a high probability that the metallicity distribution is bimodal, with potential peaks at −1.1 and −0.8 dex. Our data show no strong evidence of a metallicity gradient in the SMC clusters, somewhat at odds with recent evidence from Ca ii triplet spectra of a large sample of field stars. This may be revealing possible differences in the chemical history of clusters and field stars. Our clusters show a significant dispersion of metallicities, whatever age is considered, which could be reflecting the lack of a unique age–metallicity relation in this galaxy. None of the chemical evolution models currently available in the literature satisfactorily represents the global chemical enrichment processes of SMC clusters.

  15. Cluster cosmological analysis with X ray instrumental observables: introduction and testing of AsPIX method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valotti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology is one of the fundamental pillars of astrophysics, as such it contains many unsolved puzzles. To investigate some of those puzzles, we analyze X-ray surveys of galaxy clusters. These surveys are possible thanks to the bremsstrahlung emission of the intra-cluster medium. The simultaneous fit of cluster counts as a function of mass and distance provides an independent measure of cosmological parameters such as Ω m , σ s , and the dark energy equation of state w0. A novel approach to cosmological analysis using galaxy cluster data, called top-down, was developed in N. Clerc et al. (2012). This top-down approach is based purely on instrumental observables that are considered in a two-dimensional X-ray color-magnitude diagram. The method self-consistently includes selection effects and scaling relationships. It also provides a means of bypassing the computation of individual cluster masses. My work presents an extension of the top-down method by introducing the apparent size of the cluster, creating a three-dimensional X-ray cluster diagram. The size of a cluster is sensitive to both the cluster mass and its angular diameter, so it must also be included in the assessment of selection effects. The performance of this new method is investigated using a Fisher analysis. In parallel, I have studied the effects of the intrinsic scatter in the cluster size scaling relation on the sample selection as well as on the obtained cosmological parameters. To validate the method, I estimate uncertainties of cosmological parameters with MCMC method Amoeba minimization routine and using two simulated XMM surveys that have an increasing level of complexity. The first simulated survey is a set of toy catalogues of 100 and 10000 deg 2 , whereas the second is a 1000 deg 2 catalogue that was generated using an Aardvark semi-analytical N-body simulation. This comparison corroborates the conclusions of the Fisher analysis. In conclusion, I find that a cluster diagram that accounts

  16. Edge Principal Components and Squash Clustering: Using the Special Structure of Phylogenetic Placement Data for Sample Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen IV, Frederick A.; Evans, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering are two of the most heavily used techniques for analyzing the differences between nucleic acid sequence samples taken from a given environment. They have led to many insights regarding the structure of microbial communities. We have developed two new complementary methods that leverage how this microbial community data sits on a phylogenetic tree. Edge principal components analysis enables the detection of important differences between samples that contain closely related taxa. Each principal component axis is a collection of signed weights on the edges of the phylogenetic tree, and these weights are easily visualized by a suitable thickening and coloring of the edges. Squash clustering outputs a (rooted) clustering tree in which each internal node corresponds to an appropriate “average” of the original samples at the leaves below the node. Moreover, the length of an edge is a suitably defined distance between the averaged samples associated with the two incident nodes, rather than the less interpretable average of distances produced by UPGMA, the most widely used hierarchical clustering method in this context. We present these methods and illustrate their use with data from the human microbiome. PMID:23505415

  17. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CO-ADD: CROSS-CORRELATION WEAK LENSING AND TOMOGRAPHY OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simet, Melanie; Dodelson, Scott; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Annis, James T.; Hao Jiangang; Johnston, David; Lin, Huan; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Seo, Hee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    The shapes of distant galaxies are sheared by intervening galaxy clusters. We examine this effect in Stripe 82, a 275 deg 2 region observed multiple times in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and co-added to achieve greater depth. We obtain a mass-richness calibration that is similar to other SDSS analyses, demonstrating that the co-addition process did not adversely affect the lensing signal. We also propose a new parameterization of the effect of tomography on the cluster lensing signal which does not require binning in redshift, and we show that using this parameterization we can detect tomography for stacked clusters at varying redshifts. Finally, due to the sensitivity of the tomographic detection to accurately marginalize over the effect of the cluster mass, we show that tomography at low redshift (where dependence on exact cosmological models is weak) can be used to constrain mass profiles in clusters.

  18. Complex surveys analysis of categorical data

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Parimal

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this book is to study some of the research topics in the area of analysis of complex surveys which have not been covered in any book yet. It discusses the analysis of categorical data using three models: a full model, a log-linear model and a logistic regression model. It is a valuable resource for survey statisticians and practitioners in the field of sociology, biology, economics, psychology and other areas who have to use these procedures in their day-to-day work. It is also useful for courses on sampling and complex surveys at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The importance of sample surveys today cannot be overstated. From voters’ behaviour to fields such as industry, agriculture, economics, sociology, psychology, investigators generally resort to survey sampling to obtain an assessment of the behaviour of the population they are interested in. Many large-scale sample surveys collect data using complex survey designs like multistage stratified cluster designs. The o...

  19. Measurement of Galaxy Cluster Integrated Comptonization and Mass Scaling Relations with the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliwanchik, B. R.; et al.

    2015-01-22

    We describe a method for measuring the integrated Comptonization (Y (SZ)) of clusters of galaxies from measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in multiple frequency bands and use this method to characterize a sample of galaxy clusters detected in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) data. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit a β-model source profile and integrate Y (SZ) within an angular aperture on the sky. In simulated observations of an SPT-like survey that include cosmic microwave background anisotropy, point sources, and atmospheric and instrumental noise at typical SPT-SZ survey levels, we show that we can accurately recover β-model parameters for inputted clusters. We measure Y (SZ) for simulated semi-analytic clusters and find that Y (SZ) is most accurately determined in an angular aperture comparable to the SPT beam size. We demonstrate the utility of this method to measure Y (SZ) and to constrain mass scaling relations using X-ray mass estimates for a sample of 18 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.'75 radius aperture, we find an intrinsic log-normal scatter of 21% ± 11% in Y (SZ) at a fixed mass. Measuring Y (SZ) within a 0.3 Mpc projected radius (equivalent to 0.'75 at the survey median redshift z = 0.6), we find a scatter of 26% ± 9%. Prior to this study, the SPT observable found to have the lowest scatter with mass was cluster detection significance. We demonstrate, from both simulations and SPT observed clusters that Y (SZ) measured within an aperture comparable to the SPT beam size is equivalent, in terms of scatter with cluster mass, to SPT cluster detection significance.

  20. Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Model Data Mining For Recognizing Stock Data Sampling Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Jane Annatje Sumarauw

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Capital market has been beneficial to companies and investor. For investors, the capital market provides two economical advantages, namely deviden and capital gain, and a non-economical one that is a voting .} hare in Shareholders General Meeting. But, it can also penalize the share owners. In order to prevent them from the risk, the investors should predict the prospect of their companies. As a consequence of having an abstract commodity, the share quality will be determined by the validity of their company profile information. Any information of stock value fluctuation from Jakarta Stock Exchange can be a useful consideration and a good measurement for data analysis. In the context of preventing the shareholders from the risk, this research focuses on stock data sample category or stock data sample pattern by using Fuzzy c-Me, MS Clustering Model which providing any useful information jar the investors. lite research analyses stock data such as Individual Index, Volume and Amount on Property and Real Estate Emitter Group at Jakarta Stock Exchange from January 1 till December 31 of 204. 'he mining process follows Cross Industry Standard Process model for Data Mining (CRISP,. DM in the form of circle with these steps: Business Understanding, Data Understanding, Data Preparation, Modelling, Evaluation and Deployment. At this modelling process, the Fuzzy c-Means Clustering Model will be applied. Data Mining Fuzzy c-Means Clustering Model can analyze stock data in a big database with many complex variables especially for finding the data sample pattern, and then building Fuzzy Inference System for stimulating inputs to be outputs that based on Fuzzy Logic by recognising the pattern. Keywords: Data Mining, AUz..:y c-Means Clustering Model, Pattern Recognition

  1. THE GROWTH OF COOL CORES AND EVOLUTION OF COOLING PROPERTIES IN A SAMPLE OF 83 GALAXY CLUSTERS AT 0.3 < z < 1.2 SELECTED FROM THE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Bautz, M. W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vikhlinin, A.; Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Haan, T. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Lin, H. W. [Caddo Parish Magnet High School, Shrevport, LA 71101 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bocquet, S.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A., E-mail: mcdonald@space.mit.edu [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); and others

    2013-09-01

    We present first results on the cooling properties derived from Chandra X-ray observations of 83 high-redshift (0.3 < z < 1.2) massive galaxy clusters selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signature in the South Pole Telescope data. We measure each cluster's central cooling time, central entropy, and mass deposition rate, and compare these properties to those for local cluster samples. We find no significant evolution from z {approx} 0 to z {approx} 1 in the distribution of these properties, suggesting that cooling in cluster cores is stable over long periods of time. We also find that the average cool core entropy profile in the inner {approx}100 kpc has not changed dramatically since z {approx} 1, implying that feedback must be providing nearly constant energy injection to maintain the observed ''entropy floor'' at {approx}10 keV cm{sup 2}. While the cooling properties appear roughly constant over long periods of time, we observe strong evolution in the gas density profile, with the normalized central density ({rho}{sub g,0}/{rho}{sub crit}) increasing by an order of magnitude from z {approx} 1 to z {approx} 0. When using metrics defined by the inner surface brightness profile of clusters, we find an apparent lack of classical, cuspy, cool-core clusters at z > 0.75, consistent with earlier reports for clusters at z > 0.5 using similar definitions. Our measurements indicate that cool cores have been steadily growing over the 8 Gyr spanned by our sample, consistent with a constant, {approx}150 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} cooling flow that is unable to cool below entropies of 10 keV cm{sup 2} and, instead, accumulates in the cluster center. We estimate that cool cores began to assemble in these massive systems at z{sub cool}=1.0{sup +1.0}{sub -0.2}, which represents the first constraints on the onset of cooling in galaxy cluster cores. At high redshift (z {approx}> 0.75), galaxy clusters may be classified as ''cooling flows

  2. Sloan Digital Sky Survey III photometric quasar clustering: probing the initial conditions of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; Agarwal, Nishant; Lyons, Richard; Disbrow, Ashley; O' Connell, Ross [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong; Schlegel, David; Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA 94702 (United States); Ross, Ashley [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Hirata, Christopher; Huff, Eric; Weinberg, David [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 510, Upton NY 11375 (United States); Strauss, Michael; Bahcall, Neta [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brinkmann, J. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie, E-mail: shirleyh@andrew.cmu.edu [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2015-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has surveyed 14,555 square degrees of the sky, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present the large-scale clustering of 1.6 million quasars between z=0.5 and z=2.5 that have been classified from this imaging, representing the highest density of quasars ever studied for clustering measurements. This data set spans 0∼ 11,00 square degrees and probes a volume of 80 h{sup −3} Gpc{sup 3}. In principle, such a large volume and medium density of tracers should facilitate high-precision cosmological constraints. We measure the angular clustering of photometrically classified quasars using an optimal quadratic estimator in four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼ 25% over a bin width of δ{sub l} ∼ 10−15 on scales corresponding to matter-radiation equality and larger (0ℓ ∼ 2−3). Observational systematics can strongly bias clustering measurements on large scales, which can mimic cosmologically relevant signals such as deviations from Gaussianity in the spectrum of primordial perturbations. We account for systematics by employing a new method recently proposed by Agarwal et al. (2014) to the clustering of photometrically classified quasars. We carefully apply our methodology to mitigate known observational systematics and further remove angular bins that are contaminated by unknown systematics. Combining quasar data with the photometric luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of Ross et al. (2011) and Ho et al. (2012), and marginalizing over all bias and shot noise-like parameters, we obtain a constraint on local primordial non-Gaussianity of f{sub NL} = −113{sup +154}{sub −154} (1σ error). We next assume that the bias of quasar and galaxy distributions can be obtained independently from quasar/galaxy-CMB lensing cross-correlation measurements (such as those in Sherwin et al. (2013)). This can be facilitated by spectroscopic observations of the sources, enabling the redshift distribution to be

  3. GALAXY CLUSTERS AT HIGH REDSHIFT AND EVOLUTION OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Z. L.; Han, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of high-redshift clusters is important for studies of cosmology and cluster evolution. Using photometric redshifts of galaxies, we identify 631 clusters from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) wide field, 202 clusters from the CFHT deep field, 187 clusters from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, and 737 clusters from the Spitzer Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) field. The redshifts of these clusters are in the range 0.1 ∼ + - m 3.6 μ m colors of the BCGs are consistent with a stellar population synthesis model in which the BCGs are formed at redshift z f ≥ 2 and evolved passively. The g' - z' and B - m 3.6μm colors of the BCGs at redshifts z > 0.8 are systematically bluer than the passive evolution model for galaxies formed at z f ∼ 2, indicating star formation in high-redshift BCGs.

  4. The X-ray luminosity-temperature relation of a complete sample of low-mass galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, S.; Maughan, B. J.; Giles, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    found for massive clusters to a steeper slope for the lower mass sample studied here. Thanks to our rigorous treatment of selection biases, these measurements provide a robust reference against which to compare predictions of models of the impact of feedback on the X-ray properties of galaxy groups....... (T), taking selection biases fully into account. The logarithmic slope of the bolometric L-T relation was found to be 3.29 ± 0.33, consistent with values typically found for samples of more massive clusters. In combination with other recent studies of the L-T relation, we show...

  5. Statistical Techniques Applied to Aerial Radiometric Surveys (STAARS): cluster analysis. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkle, F.L.; Stablein, N.K.; Howell, J.A.; Wecksung, G.W.; Duran, B.S.

    1982-11-01

    One objective of the aerial radiometric surveys flown as part of the US Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was to ascertain the regional distribution of near-surface radioelement abundances. Some method for identifying groups of observations with similar radioelement values was therefore required. It is shown in this report that cluster analysis can identify such groups even when no a priori knowledge of the geology of an area exists. A method of convergent k-means cluster analysis coupled with a hierarchical cluster analysis is used to classify 6991 observations (three radiometric variables at each observation location) from the Precambrian rocks of the Copper Mountain, Wyoming, area. Another method, one that combines a principal components analysis with a convergent k-means analysis, is applied to the same data. These two methods are compared with a convergent k-means analysis that utilizes available geologic knowledge. All three methods identify four clusters. Three of the clusters represent background values for the Precambrian rocks of the area, and one represents outliers (anomalously high 214 Bi). A segmentation of the data corresponding to geologic reality as discovered by other methods has been achieved based solely on analysis of aerial radiometric data. The techniques employed are composites of classical clustering methods designed to handle the special problems presented by large data sets. 20 figures, 7 tables

  6. Infrared study of new star cluster candidates associated to dusty globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto King, P.; Barbá, R.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Jaque, M.; Firpo, V.; Nilo, J. L.; Soto, M.; Minniti, D.

    2014-10-01

    We present results from a study of a sample of small star clusters associated to dusty globules and bright-rimmed clouds that have been observed under ESO/Chile public infrared survey Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV). In this short communication, we analyse the near-infrared properties of a set of four small clusters candidates associated to dark clouds. This sample of clusters associated to dusty globules are selected from the new VVV stellar cluster candidates developed by members of La Serena VVV Group (Barbá et al. 2014). Firstly, we are producing color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for both, cluster candidates and surrounding areas for comparison through PSF photometry. The cluster positions are determined from the morphology on the images and also from the comparison of the observed luminosity function for the cluster candidates and the surrounding star fields. Now, we are working in the procedures to establish the full sample of clusters to be analyzed and methods for subtraction of the star field contamination. These clusters associated to dusty globules are simple laboratories to study the star formation relatively free of the influence of large star-forming regions and populous clusters, and they will be compared with those clusters associated to bright-rimmed globules, which are influenced by the energetic action of nearby O and B massive stars.

  7. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-Selected Galaxy Clusters AT 148 GHz in the 2008 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Tobias A.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Brown, Ben; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on 23 clusters detected blindly as Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrements in a 148 GHz, 455 deg (exp 2) map of the southern sky made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope 2008 observing season. All SZ detections announced in this work have confirmed optical counterparts. Ten of the clusters are new discoveries. One newly discovered cluster, ACT-CL 10102-4915, with a redshift of 0.75 (photometric), has an SZ decrement comparable to the most massive systems at lower redshifts. Simulations of the cluster recovery method reproduce the sample purity measured by optical follow-up. In particular, for clusters detected with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than six, simulations are consistent with optical follow-up that demonstrated this subsample is 100% pure, The simulations further imply that the total sample is 80% complete for clusters with mass in excess of 6 x 10(exp 14) solar masses referenced to the cluster volume characterized by 500 times the critical density. The Compton gamma-X-ray luminosity mass comparison for the 11 best-detected clusters visually agrees with both self-similar and non-adiabatic, simulation-derived scaling laws,

  8. Brightest Cluster Galaxies in REXCESS Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, L.; Bruch, S.; Donahue, M.

    2009-01-01

    Most galaxy clusters contain a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) which is larger than the other cluster ellipticals and has a more extended profile. In the hierarchical model, the BCG forms through many galaxy mergers in the crowded center of the cluster, and thus its properties give insight into the assembly of the cluster as a whole. In this project, we are working with the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) team (Boehringer et al 2007) to study BCGs in 33 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters, 0.055 < z < 0.183. We are imaging the BCGs in R band at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) in Chile. In this poster, we discuss our methods and give preliminary measurements of the BCG magnitudes, morphology, and stellar mass. We compare these BCG properties with the properties of their host clusters, particularly of the X-ray emitting gas.

  9. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50R-5045, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlafly, Eddie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St. MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon (CEFCA), Plaza de San Juan 1, planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Sanchez, Ariel G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Don [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cwho@lbl.gov [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2012-12-10

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg{sup 2}, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg{sup 2} and probes a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of {approx}15%, with a bin size of {delta}{sub l} = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l {approx} 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H{sub 0} constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.73 {+-} 0.019 and H{sub 0} to be 70.5 {+-} 1.6 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km. For an open {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find {Omega}{sub K} = 0.0035 {+-} 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 {+-} 0.078, and H{sub 0} to be 71.3 {+-} 1.7 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic

  10. GLACE: freezing the environment of line--emitting cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos--Castro, I.; Sánchez--Portal, M.; Cepa, J.; Povi, M.; Santos, J.; Altieri, B.; Bongiovanni, A.; Ederoclite, A.; Oteo, I.; Pérez García, A.; Pérez--Martínez, R.; Polednikova, J.; Ramón--Pérez, M.

    2015-05-01

    GLACE is performing a survey of emission-line galaxies in clusters with the main aim of studying the effect of the environment in the star formation activity. The innovation of this work is the use of tunable filters in scan mode to obtain low resolution spectra of the desired emission lines. Although the survey is in its initial stage, we have analysed two line datasets in two different clusters: Hα in Cl0024 at z=0.4 and [O II] in RXJ1257 at z = 0.9. The first is a well known intermediate redshift cluster that has been used to test the observational strategy. We reached the planned SFRs and we could deblend the [N II] component, thus being able to discriminate the AGN population from the star-forming galaxies. Also the spectral resolution is allowing us to exploit the data for dynamical analysis. The second target is a recently discovered cluster, that we have studied regarding its FIR and [O II] emission. The [O II] observations are revealing a fainter and less massive sample, when compared with the FIR emitters, showing two different populations of star-forming galaxies. The cluster emitters have shown that no evident correlation exist between the SFR (or sSFR) and the environment. Nevertheless, we have found that both samples, FIR- and [O II]-emitters, are concentrated in the areas of intermediate to even high local density. Additionally, we explored the morphological properties of the cluster galaxies using the non-parametric galSVM code.

  11. Manual hierarchical clustering of regional geochemical data using a Bayesian finite mixture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of regional scale, multivariate geochemical data is aided by a statistical technique called “clustering.” We investigate a particular clustering procedure by applying it to geochemical data collected in the State of Colorado, United States of America. The clustering procedure partitions the field samples for the entire survey area into two clusters. The field samples in each cluster are partitioned again to create two subclusters, and so on. This manual procedure generates a hierarchy of clusters, and the different levels of the hierarchy show geochemical and geological processes occurring at different spatial scales. Although there are many different clustering methods, we use Bayesian finite mixture modeling with two probability distributions, which yields two clusters. The model parameters are estimated with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability density function, which usually has multiple modes. Each mode has its own set of model parameters; each set is checked to ensure that it is consistent both with the data and with independent geologic knowledge. The set of model parameters that is most consistent with the independent geologic knowledge is selected for detailed interpretation and partitioning of the field samples. - Highlights: • We evaluate a clustering procedure by applying it to geochemical data. • The procedure generates a hierarchy of clusters. • Different levels of the hierarchy show geochemical processes at different spatial scales. • The clustering method is Bayesian finite mixture modeling. • Model parameters are estimated with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling.

  12. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: GALAXY MORPHOLOGIES AND THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION IN XMMXCS J2215.9 - 1738 AT z = 1.46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Matt; Stanford, S. Adam; Stott, John P.; Collins, Chris A.; Hoyle, Ben; Nichol, Robert C.; Davidson, Michael; Mann, Robert G.; Hosmer, Mark; Liddle, Andrew R.; Lloyd-Davies, Ed; Mehrtens, Nicola; Romer, A. Kathy; Sabirli, Kivanc; Sahlen, Martin; Kay, Scott T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Viana, Pedro T. P.; West, Michael J.; Barbary, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the morphological fractions and color-magnitude relation (CMR) in the most distant X-ray selected galaxy cluster currently known, XMMXCS J2215.9 - 1738 at z = 1.46, using a combination of optical imaging data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, and infrared data from the Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph, mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. We find that the morphological mix of the cluster galaxy population is similar to clusters at z ∼ 1. Within the central 0.5 Mpc, approximately ∼62% of the galaxies identified as likely cluster members are ellipticals or S0s; and ∼38% are spirals or irregulars. Therefore, early-type galaxies were already entrenched as the dominant galaxy population in at least some clusters approximately ∼4.5 Gyr after the big bang. We measure the CMRs for the early-type galaxies, finding that the slope in the z 850 -J relation is consistent with that measured in the Coma cluster, some ∼9 Gyr earlier, although the uncertainty is large. In contrast, the measured intrinsic scatter about the CMR is more than three times the value measured in Coma, after conversion to rest-frame U - V. From comparison with stellar population synthesis models, the intrinsic scatter measurements imply mean luminosity-weighted ages for the early-type galaxies in J2215.9 - 1738 of ∼3 Gyr, corresponding to the major epoch of star formation coming to an end at z f ∼ 3-5. We find that the cluster exhibits evidence of the 'downsizing' phenomenon: the fraction of faint cluster members on the red sequence expressed using the Dwarf-to-Giant Ratio (DGR) is 0.32 ± 0.18 within a radius of 0.5R 200 . This is consistent with extrapolation of the redshift evolution of the DGR seen in cluster samples at z 1 clusters, we find a lack of very bright galaxies within the cluster.

  13. Yellow fever vaccination coverage following massive emergency immunization campaigns in rural Uganda, May 2011: a community cluster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Following an outbreak of yellow fever in northern Uganda in December 2010, Ministry of Health conducted a massive emergency vaccination campaign in January 2011. The reported vaccination coverage in Pader District was 75.9%. Administrative coverage though timely, is affected by incorrect population estimates and over or under reporting of vaccination doses administered. This paper presents the validated yellow fever vaccination coverage following massive emergency immunization campaigns in Pader district. Methods A cross sectional cluster survey was carried out in May 2011 among communities in Pader district and 680 respondents were indentified using the modified World Health Organization (WHO) 40 × 17 cluster survey sampling methodology. Respondents were aged nine months and above. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to collect data on demographic characteristics, vaccination status and reasons for none vaccination. Vaccination status was assessed using self reports and vaccination card evidence. Our main outcomes were measures of yellow fever vaccination coverage in each age-specific stratum, overall, and disaggregated by age and sex, adjusting for the clustered design and the size of the population in each stratum. Results Of the 680 survey respondents, 654 (96.1%, 95% CI 94.9 – 97.8) reported being vaccinated during the last campaign but only 353 (51.6%, 95% CI 47.2 – 56.1) had valid yellow fever vaccination cards. Of the 280 children below 5 years, 269 (96.1%, 95% CI 93.7 – 98.7) were vaccinated and nearly all males 299 (96.9%, 95% CI 94.3 – 99.5) were vaccinated. The main reasons for none vaccination were; having travelled out of Pader district during the campaign period (40.0%), lack of transport to immunization posts (28.0%) and, sickness at the time of vaccination (16.0%). Conclusions Our results show that actual yellow fever vaccination coverage was high and satisfactory in Pader district since it was above the

  14. Clustering of High Redshift (z>2.9) Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Fan, Xiaohui; Richards, Gordon T.; Hall, Patrick B.; Schneider, Donald P.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Thakar, Anirudda R.; Berk, Daniel E.Vanden; Anderson, Scott F.; Bahcall, Neta A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-30

    We study the two-point correlation function of a uniformly selected sample of 4,428 optically selected luminous quasars with redshift 2.9 {le} z {le} 5.4 selected over 4041 deg{sup 2} from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We fit a power-law to the projected correlation function w{sub p}(r{sub p}) to marginalize over redshift space distortions and redshift errors. For a real-space correlation function of the form {zeta}(r) = (r/r{sub 0}){sup -{gamma}}, the fitted parameters in comoving coordinates are r{sub 0} = 15.2 {+-} 2.7 h{sup -1} Mpc and {gamma} = 2.0 {+-} 0.3, over a scale range 4 {le} r{sub p} {le} 150 h{sup -1} Mpc. Thus high-redshift quasars are appreciably more strongly clustered than their z {approx} 1.5 counterparts, which have a comoving clustering length r{sub 0} {approx} 6.5 h{sup -1} Mpc. Dividing our sample into two redshift bins: 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and z {ge} 3.5, and assuming a power-law index {gamma} = 2.0, we find a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 16.9 {+-} 1.7 h{sup -1} Mpc for the former, and r{sub 0} = 24.3 {+-} 2.4 h{sup -1} Mpc for the latter. Strong clustering at high redshift indicates that quasars are found in very massive, and therefore highly biased, halos. Following Martini & Weinberg, we relate the clustering strength and quasar number density to the quasar lifetimes and duty cycle. Using the Sheth & Tormen halo mass function, the quasar lifetime is estimated to lie in the range 4 {approx} 50 Myr for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5; and 30 {approx} 600 Myr for quasars with z {ge} 3.5. The corresponding duty cycles are 0.004 {approx} 0.05 for the lower redshift bin and 0.03 {approx} 0.6 for the higher redshift bin. The minimum mass of halos in which these quasars reside is 2-3 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with 2.9 {le} z {le} 3.5 and 4-6 x 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} for quasars with z {ge} 3.5; the effective bias factor b{sub eff} increases with redshift, e.g., b

  15. CONSTRAINING THE SCATTER IN THE MASS-RICHNESS RELATION OF maxBCG CLUSTERS WITH WEAK LENSING AND X-RAY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Evrard, August; McKay, Timothy; Hao Jiangang; Becker, Matthew; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hansen, Sarah; Frieman, Joshua; Sheldon, Erin; Johnston, David; Annis, James

    2009-01-01

    We measure the logarithmic scatter in mass at fixed richness for clusters in the maxBCG cluster catalog, an optically selected cluster sample drawn from Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data. Our measurement is achieved by demanding consistency between available weak-lensing and X-ray measurements of the maxBCG clusters, and the X-ray luminosity-mass relation inferred from the 400 days X-ray cluster survey, a flux-limited X-ray cluster survey. We find σ lnM|N 200 =0.45 -0.18 +0.20 (95% CL) at N 200 ∼ 40, where N 200 is the number of red sequence galaxies in a cluster. As a byproduct of our analysis, we also obtain a constraint on the correlation coefficient between ln L X and ln M at fixed richness, which is best expressed as a lower limit, r L,M|N ≥ 0.85(95% CL). This is the first observational constraint placed on a correlation coefficient involving two different cluster mass tracers. We use our results to produce a state-of-the-art estimate of the halo mass function at z = 0.23-the median redshift of the maxBCG cluster sample-and find that it is consistent with the WMAP5 cosmology. Both the mass function data and its covariance matrix are presented.

  16. The outlier sample effects on multivariate statistical data processing geochemical stream sediment survey (Moghangegh region, North West of Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari, Y.; Habibnia, A.; Memar, A.

    2009-01-01

    In geochemical stream sediment surveys in Moghangegh Region in north west of Iran, sheet 1:50,000, 152 samples were collected and after the analyze and processing of data, it revealed that Yb, Sc, Ni, Li, Eu, Cd, Co, as contents in one sample is far higher than other samples. After detecting this sample as an outlier sample, the effect of this sample on multivariate statistical data processing for destructive effects of outlier sample in geochemical exploration was investigated. Pearson and Spear man correlation coefficient methods and cluster analysis were used for multivariate studies and the scatter plot of some elements together the regression profiles are given in case of 152 and 151 samples and the results are compared. After investigation of multivariate statistical data processing results, it was realized that results of existence of outlier samples may appear as the following relations between elements: - true relation between two elements, which have no outlier frequency in the outlier sample. - false relation between two elements which one of them has outlier frequency in the outlier sample. - complete false relation between two elements which both have outlier frequency in the outlier sample

  17. Emigration Rates From Sample Surveys: An Application to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willekens, Frans; Zinn, Sabine; Leuchter, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    What is the emigration rate of a country, and how reliable is that figure? Answering these questions is not at all straightforward. Most data on international migration are census data on foreign-born population. These migrant stock data describe the immigrant population in destination countries but offer limited information on the rate at which people leave their country of origin. The emigration rate depends on the number leaving in a given period and the population at risk of leaving, weighted by the duration at risk. Emigration surveys provide a useful data source for estimating emigration rates, provided that the estimation method accounts for sample design. In this study, emigration rates and confidence intervals are estimated from a sample survey of households in the Dakar region in Senegal, which was part of the Migration between Africa and Europe survey. The sample was a stratified two-stage sample with oversampling of households with members abroad or return migrants. A combination of methods of survival analysis (time-to-event data) and replication variance estimation (bootstrapping) yields emigration rates and design-consistent confidence intervals that are representative for the study population.

  18. The weak lensing analysis of the CFHTLS and NGVS RedGOLD galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parroni, C.; Mei, S.; Erben, T.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Raichoor, A.; Ford, J.; Licitra, R.; Meneghetti, M.; Hildebrandt, H.; Miller, L.; Côté, P.; Covone, G.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P.-A.; Ferrarese, L.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Puzia, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate estimation of galaxy cluster masses is essential for their use in cosmological and astrophysical studies. We studied the accuracy of the optical richness obtained by our RedGOLD cluster detection algorithm tep{licitra2016a, licitra2016b} as a mass proxy, using weak lensing and X-ray mass measurements. We measured stacked weak lensing cluster masses for a sample of 1323 galaxy clusters in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey W1 and the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey at 0.2z<0.5, in the optical richness range 10-70. We tested different weak lensing mass models that account for miscentering, non-weak shear, the two-halo term, the contribution of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy, and the intrinsic scatter in the mass-richness relation. We calculated the coefficients of the mass-richness relation, and of the scaling relations between the lensing mass and X-ray mass proxies.

  19. Analysis of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect mass-observable relations using South Pole Telescope observations of an X-ray selected sample of low-mass galaxy clusters and groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Mohr, J.; Saro, A.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Gangkofner, D.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hennig, C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.;  uhada, R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2015-02-25

    We use microwave observations from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) to examine the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures of a sample of 46 X-ray selected groups and clusters drawn from ~6 deg2 of the XMM–Newton Blanco Cosmology Survey. These systems extend to redshift z = 1.02 and probe the SZE signal to the lowest X-ray luminosities (≥1042 erg s-1) yet; these sample characteristics make this analysis complementary to previous studies. We develop an analysis tool, using X-ray luminosity as a mass proxy, to extract selection-bias-corrected constraints on the SZE significance and Y_500 mass relations. The former is in good agreement with an extrapolation of the relation obtained from high-mass clusters. However, the latter, at low masses, while in good agreement with the extrapolation from the high-mass SPT clusters, is in tension at 2.8σ with the Planck constraints, indicating the low-mass systems exhibit lower SZE signatures in the SPT data. We also present an analysis of potential sources of contamination. For the radio galaxy point source population, we find 18 of our systems have 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey sources within 2 arcmin of the X-ray centre, and three of these are also detected at significance >4 by SPT. Of these three, two are associated with the group brightest cluster galaxies, and the third is likely an unassociated quasar candidate. We examine the impact of these point sources on our SZE scaling relation analyses and find no evidence of biases. We also examine the impact of dusty galaxies using constraints from the 220 GHz data. The stacked sample provides 2.8σ significant evidence of dusty galaxy flux, which would correspond to an average underestimate of the SPT Y_500 signal that is (17 ± 9)per cent in this sample of low-mass systems. Finally, we explore the impact of future data from SPTpol and XMM-XXL, showing that it will lead to a factor of 4 to 5 tighter

  20. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). V. EXTENT AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 0.5 CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Treu, Tommaso; Malkan, Matthew; Abramson, Louis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Schmidt, Kasper B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Poggianti, Bianca M. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Dressler, Alan [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Fontana, Adriano; Pentericci, Laura [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Bradac, Marusa; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuan-Han; He, Julie [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Trenti, Michele [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Linden, Anja von der [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Morris, Glenn [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We present the first study of the spatial distribution of star formation in z ∼ 0.5 cluster galaxies. The analysis is based on data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). We illustrate the methodology by focusing on two clusters (MACS 0717.5+3745 and MACS 1423.8+2404) with different morphologies (one relaxed and one merging) and use foreground and background galaxies as a field control sample. The cluster+field sample consists of 42 galaxies with stellar masses in the range 10{sup 8}–10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates in the range 1–20 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside-out growth. In ∼20% of the cases, the Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. We investigate trends with the hot gas density as traced by the X-ray emission, and with the surface mass density as inferred from gravitational lens models, and find no conclusive results. The diversity of morphologies and sizes observed in Hα illustrates the complexity of the environmental processes that regulate star formation. Upcoming analysis of the full GLASS data set will increase our sample size by almost an order of magnitude, verifying and strengthening the inference from this initial data set.

  1. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). V. EXTENT AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 0.5 CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Treu, Tommaso; Malkan, Matthew; Abramson, Louis; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Dressler, Alan; Fontana, Adriano; Pentericci, Laura; Bradac, Marusa; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuan-Han; He, Julie; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Trenti, Michele; Linden, Anja von der; Morris, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We present the first study of the spatial distribution of star formation in z ∼ 0.5 cluster galaxies. The analysis is based on data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). We illustrate the methodology by focusing on two clusters (MACS 0717.5+3745 and MACS 1423.8+2404) with different morphologies (one relaxed and one merging) and use foreground and background galaxies as a field control sample. The cluster+field sample consists of 42 galaxies with stellar masses in the range 10 8 –10 11 M ⊙  and star formation rates in the range 1–20 M ⊙ yr −1 . Both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside-out growth. In ∼20% of the cases, the Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. We investigate trends with the hot gas density as traced by the X-ray emission, and with the surface mass density as inferred from gravitational lens models, and find no conclusive results. The diversity of morphologies and sizes observed in Hα illustrates the complexity of the environmental processes that regulate star formation. Upcoming analysis of the full GLASS data set will increase our sample size by almost an order of magnitude, verifying and strengthening the inference from this initial data set

  2. A survey of energy conservation mechanisms for dynamic cluster based wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enam, R.N.; Tahir, M.; Ahmed, S.; Qureshi, R.

    2018-01-01

    WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) is an emerging technology that has unlimited potential for numerous application areas including military, crisis management, environmental, transportation, medical, home/ city automations and smart spaces. But energy constrained nature of WSNs necessitates that their architecture and communicating protocols to be designed in an energy aware manner. Sensor data collection through clustering mechanisms has become a common strategy in WSN. This paper presents a survey report on the major perspectives with which energy conservation mechanisms has been proposed in dynamic cluster based WSNs so far. All the solutions discussed in this paper focus on the cluster based protocols only.We have covered a vast scale of existing energy efficient protocols and have categorized them in six categories. In the beginning of this paper the fundamentals of the energy constraint issues of WSNs have been discussed and an overview of the causes of energy consumptions at all layers of WSN has been given. Later in this paper several previously proposed energy efficient protocols of WSNs are presented. (author)

  3. A Survey of Energy Conservation Mechanisms for Dynamic Cluster Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Noor Enam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available WSN (Wireless Sensor Network is an emerging technology that has unlimited potential for numerous application areas including military, crisis management, environmental, transportation, medical, home/ city automations and smart spaces. But energy constrained nature of WSNs necessitates that their architecture and communicating protocols to be designed in an energy aware manner. Sensor data collection through clustering mechanisms has become a common strategy in WSN. This paper presents a survey report on the major perspectives with which energy conservation mechanisms has been proposed in dynamic cluster based WSNs so far. All the solutions discussed in this paper focus on the cluster based protocols only.We have covered a vast scale of existing energy efficient protocols and have categorized them in six categories. In the beginning of this paper the fundamentals of the energy constraint issues of WSNs have been discussed and an overview of the causes of energy consumptions at all layers of WSN has been given. Later in this paper several previously proposed energy efficient protocols of WSNs are presented.

  4. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Guo, Jian-Wei; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing.

  5. A Survey of Blue-Noise Sampling and Its Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2015-05-05

    In this paper, we survey recent approaches to blue-noise sampling and discuss their beneficial applications. We discuss the sampling algorithms that use points as sampling primitives and classify the sampling algorithms based on various aspects, e.g., the sampling domain and the type of algorithm. We demonstrate several well-known applications that can be improved by recent blue-noise sampling techniques, as well as some new applications such as dynamic sampling and blue-noise remeshing.

  6. A Study on the Representative Sampling Survey for Radionuclide Analysis of RI Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, K. Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juyoul; Jung, Gunhyo [FNC Tech. Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    We developed a quantitative method for attaining a representative sample during sampling survey of RI waste. Considering a source, process, and type of RI waste, the method computes the number of sample, confidence interval, variance, and coefficient of variance. We also systematize the method of sampling survey logically and quantitatively. The result of this study can be applied to sampling survey of low- and intermediate-level waste generated from nuclear power plant during the transfer process to disposal facility.

  7. Cluster Sampling Bias in Government-Sponsored Evaluations: A Correlational Study of Employment and Welfare Pilots in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaganay, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    For pilot or experimental employment programme results to apply beyond their test bed, researchers must select 'clusters' (i.e. the job centres delivering the new intervention) that are reasonably representative of the whole territory. More specifically, this requirement must account for conditions that could artificially inflate the effect of a programme, such as the fluidity of the local labour market or the performance of the local job centre. Failure to achieve representativeness results in Cluster Sampling Bias (CSB). This paper makes three contributions to the literature. Theoretically, it approaches the notion of CSB as a human behaviour. It offers a comprehensive theory, whereby researchers with limited resources and conflicting priorities tend to oversample 'effect-enhancing' clusters when piloting a new intervention. Methodologically, it advocates for a 'narrow and deep' scope, as opposed to the 'wide and shallow' scope, which has prevailed so far. The PILOT-2 dataset was developed to test this idea. Empirically, it provides evidence on the prevalence of CSB. In conditions similar to the PILOT-2 case study, investigators (1) do not sample clusters with a view to maximise generalisability; (2) do not oversample 'effect-enhancing' clusters; (3) consistently oversample some clusters, including those with higher-than-average client caseloads; and (4) report their sampling decisions in an inconsistent and generally poor manner. In conclusion, although CSB is prevalent, it is still unclear whether it is intentional and meant to mislead stakeholders about the expected effect of the intervention or due to higher-level constraints or other considerations.

  8. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Coupon, Jean, E-mail: elinorm@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, ch. dEcogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland)

    2017-02-10

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6 σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  9. Testing the Large-scale Environments of Cool-core and Non-cool-core Clusters with Clustering Bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Battaglia, Nicholas; Cen, Renyue; Gaspari, Massimo; Strauss, Michael A.; Spergel, David N.; Coupon, Jean

    2017-01-01

    There are well-observed differences between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters, but the origin of this distinction is still largely unknown. Competing theories can be divided into internal (inside-out), in which internal physical processes transform or maintain the NCC phase, and external (outside-in), in which the cluster type is determined by its initial conditions, which in turn leads to different formation histories (i.e., assembly bias). We propose a new method that uses the relative assembly bias of CC to NCC clusters, as determined via the two-point cluster-galaxy cross-correlation function (CCF), to test whether formation history plays a role in determining their nature. We apply our method to 48 ACCEPT clusters, which have well resolved central entropies, and cross-correlate with the SDSS-III/BOSS LOWZ galaxy catalog. We find that the relative bias of NCC over CC clusters is b = 1.42 ± 0.35 (1.6 σ different from unity). Our measurement is limited by the small number of clusters with core entropy information within the BOSS footprint, 14 CC and 34 NCC clusters. Future compilations of X-ray cluster samples, combined with deep all-sky redshift surveys, will be able to better constrain the relative assembly bias of CC and NCC clusters and determine the origin of the bimodality.

  10. A MEASUREMENT OF THE RATE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN GALAXY CLUSTERS FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh W.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, LluIs; Miquel, Ramon; Garnavich, Peter; Goobar, Ariel; Ihara, Yutaka; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Nichol, Robert C.; Marriner, John; Molla, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z ≤ 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37 +0.17+0.01 -0.12-0.01 ) SNur h 2 and (0.55 +0.13+0.02 -0.11-0.01 ) SNur h 2 (SNux = 10 -12 L -1 xsun yr -1 ) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31 +0.18+0.01 -0.12-0.01 ) SNur h 2 and (0.49 +0.15+0.02 -0.11-0.01 ) SNur h 2 in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04 +1.99+0.07 -1.11-0.04 ) SNur h 2 and (0.36 +0.84+0.01 -0.30-0.01 ) SNur h 2 in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94 +1.31+0.043 -0.91-0.015 and 3.02 +1.31+0.062 -1.03-0.048 , for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r L = [(0.49 +0.15 -0.14 )+(0.91 +0.85 -0.81 ) x z] SNuB h 2 . A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most three hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are hostless to be (9.4 +8.3 -5.1 )%.

  11. Galaxy clusters as probes for cosmology and dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistelli, Elia S.; Burigana, Carlo; De Bernardis, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been made in building new galaxy clusters samples, at low and high redshifts, from wide-area surveys, particularly exploiting the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. A large effort is underway to identify and characterize these new systems with optical/NIR an...

  12. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE RATIOS IN STARS OF THE OUTER GALACTIC DISK. IV. A NEW SAMPLE OF OPEN CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, David; Carney, Bruce W.; Friel, Eileen D.

    2012-01-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances for nine stars in the old, distant open clusters Be18, Be21, Be22, Be32, and PWM4. For Be18 and PWM4, these are the first chemical abundance measurements. Combining our data with literature results produces a compilation of some 68 chemical abundance measurements in 49 unique clusters. For this combined sample, we study the chemical abundances of open clusters as a function of distance, age, and metallicity. We confirm that the metallicity gradient in the outer disk is flatter than the gradient in the vicinity of the solar neighborhood. We also confirm that the open clusters in the outer disk are metal-poor with enhancements in the ratios [α/Fe] and perhaps [Eu/Fe]. All elements show negligible or small trends between [X/Fe] and distance ( –1 ), but for some elements, there is a hint that the local (R GC GC > 13 kpc) samples may have different trends with distance. There is no evidence for significant abundance trends versus age ( –1 ). We measure the linear relation between [X/Fe] and metallicity, [Fe/H], and find that the scatter about the mean trend is comparable to the measurement uncertainties. Comparison with solar neighborhood field giants shows that the open clusters share similar abundance ratios [X/Fe] at a given metallicity. While the flattening of the metallicity gradient and enhanced [α/Fe] ratios in the outer disk suggest a chemical enrichment history different from that of the solar neighborhood, we echo the sentiments expressed by Friel et al. that definitive conclusions await homogeneous analyses of larger samples of stars in larger numbers of clusters. Arguably, our understanding of the evolution of the outer disk from open clusters is currently limited by systematic abundance differences between various studies.

  13. The evolution of the cluster optical galaxy luminosity function between z = 0.4 and 0.9 in the DAFT/FADA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Durret, Florence; Guennou, Loïc; Adami, Christophe; Biviano, Andrea; Ulmer, Melville P.; Clowe, Douglas; Halliday, Claire; Ilbert, Olivier; Márquez, Isabel; Schirmer, Mischa

    2015-03-01

    Context. There is some disagreement about the abundance of faint galaxies in high-redshift clusters, with contradictory results in the literature arising from studies of the optical galaxy luminosity function (GLF) for small cluster samples. Aims: We compute GLFs for one of the largest medium-to-high-redshift (0.4 ≤ z DAFT/FADA survey in the B,V,R, and I rest-frame bands. We used photometric redshifts computed from BVRIZJ images to constrain galaxy cluster membership. We carried out a detailed estimate of the completeness of our data. We distinguished the red-sequence and blue galaxies using a V - I versus I colour-magnitude diagram. We studied the evolution of these two populations with redshift. We fitted Schechter functions to our stacked GLFs to determine average cluster characteristics. Results: We find that the shapes of our GLFs are similar for the B,V,R, and I bands with a drop at the red GLF faint ends that is more pronounced at high redshift: αred ~ -0.5 at 0.40 ≤ z 0.1 at 0.65 ≤ z < 0.90. The blue GLFs have a steeper faint end (αblue ~ -1.6) than the red GLFs, which appears to be independent of redshift. For the full cluster sample, blue and red GLFs meet at MV = -20, MR = -20.5, and MI = -20.3. A study of how galaxy types evolve with redshift shows that late-type galaxies appear to become early types between z ~ 0.9 and today. Finally, the faint ends of the red GLFs of more massive clusters appear to be richer than less massive clusters, which is more typical of the lower redshift behaviour. Conclusions: Our results indicate that these clusters form at redshifts higher than z = 0.9 from galaxy structures that already have an established red sequence. Late-type galaxies then appear to evolve into early types, enriching the red sequence between this redshift and today. This effect is consistent with the evolution of the faint-end slope of the red sequence and the galaxy type evolution that we find. Finally, faint galaxies accreted from the field

  14. X-ray clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    This work is in three chapters, of which the first is an introduction to clusters of galaxies. The second chapter describes the HEAO A-2 Survey of Abell Clusters. The 225 clusters of galaxies listed in Abell's (1958) catalog which are of distance class four or less, were surveyed for 2 to 10 keV x-ray emission. Thirty-two identifications of x-ray sources with the clusters were made, fluxes and error boxes were determined for these sources; twelve of the identifications are new. The x-ray luminosity function has been derived and analytical fits have been made, the best fit is f(L) = 26.9 x 10 -8 exp( - L 44 /1.7) per Mpc per 10 44 erg s -1 per 2 to 10 keV band pass. The relationship between x-ray luminosity, Bautz-Morgan type, Rood-Sastry type, and richness has also been examined. The contribution of clusters to the x-ray background has been calculated from the luminosity function and has been found to be 3.5%, and with 90% certainty, less than 8% in the 2 to 10 keV band pass, assuming that clusters were not brighter in the past than they are at present. If they were bright enough in the past to account for the x-ray background, the evolution must have scaled more rapidly than (1 + z) 7 if clusters formed at z = 3, or (1 + z) 5 if clusters formed at z = 10. Chapter Three examines x-ray emission from poor clusters of galaxies. Burns and Owens' (1979) sample of 25 4C radio sources which coincide with Zwicky clusters of galaxies has been searched for x-ray emission in the HEAO A-2 data base. X-ray emission was detected from five sources at the 3sigma level, two exceeded 5 sigma. The search for x-ray emission was prompted by the knowledge of the existence of distorted radio sources in the clusters. The distortion implies the presence of a relatively dense intracluster medium which is expected to produce thermal bremsstrahlung x-ray emission

  15. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1985-10-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose contribution from uranium in the quartz and feldspar grains was included assuming an alpha efficiency facotr of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspars. (author)

  16. Supra-galactic colour patterns in globular cluster systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Juan C.

    2017-07-01

    An analysis of globular cluster systems associated with galaxies included in the Virgo and Fornax Hubble Space Telescope-Advanced Camera Surveys reveals distinct (g - z) colour modulation patterns. These features appear on composite samples of globular clusters and, most evidently, in galaxies with absolute magnitudes Mg in the range from -20.2 to -19.2. These colour modulations are also detectable on some samples of globular clusters in the central galaxies NGC 1399 and NGC 4486 (and confirmed on data sets obtained with different instruments and photometric systems), as well as in other bright galaxies in these clusters. After discarding field contamination, photometric errors and statistical effects, we conclude that these supra-galactic colour patterns are real and reflect some previously unknown characteristic. These features suggest that the globular cluster formation process was not entirely stochastic but included a fraction of clusters that formed in a rather synchronized fashion over large spatial scales, and in a tentative time lapse of about 1.5 Gy at redshifts z between 2 and 4. We speculate that the putative mechanism leading to that synchronism may be associated with large scale feedback effects connected with violent star-forming events and/or with supermassive black holes.

  17. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. IMPLICATIONS FROM THE NEARLY UNIVERSAL NATURE OF HORIZONTAL BRANCH DISCONTINUITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T. M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute,Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, IC2 Building, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Dalessandro, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Piotto, G.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,”Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sweigart, A. V. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Aparicio, A., E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu, E-mail: jayander@stsci, E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: dantona@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: M.Salaris@ljmu.ac.uk, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Calle Vía Láctea s/n. E38200 — La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    The UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey of Galactic globular clusters provides a new window into the phenomena that shape the morphological features of the horizontal branch (HB). Using this large and homogeneous catalog of UV and blue photometry, we demonstrate that the HB exhibits discontinuities that are remarkably consistent in color (effective temperature). This consistency is apparent even among some of the most massive clusters hosting multiple distinct sub-populations (such as NGC 2808, ω Cen, and NGC 6715), demonstrating that these phenomena are primarily driven by atmospheric physics that is independent of the underlying population properties. However, inconsistencies arise in the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the discontinuity within the blue HB (BHB) distribution shifts ∼1000–2000 K hotter. We demonstrate that this shift is likely due to a large helium enhancement in the BHB stars of these clusters, which in turn affects the surface convection and evolution of such stars. Our survey also increases the number of Galactic globular clusters known to host blue-hook stars (also known as late hot flashers) from 6 to 23 clusters. These clusters are biased toward the bright end of the globular cluster luminosity function, confirming that blue-hook stars tend to form in the most massive clusters with significant self-enrichment.

  18. CHANDRA CLUSTER COSMOLOGY PROJECT III: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER CONSTRAINTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Burenin, R. A.; Voevodkin, A.; Ebeling, H.; Hornstrup, A.; Nagai, D.; Quintana, H.

    2009-01-01

    Chandra observations of large samples of galaxy clusters detected in X-rays by ROSAT provide a new, robust determination of the cluster mass functions at low and high redshifts. Statistical and systematic errors are now sufficiently small, and the redshift leverage sufficiently large for the mass function evolution to be used as a useful growth of a structure-based dark energy probe. In this paper, we present cosmological parameter constraints obtained from Chandra observations of 37 clusters with (z) = 0.55 derived from 400 deg 2 ROSAT serendipitous survey and 49 brightest z ∼ 0.05 clusters detected in the All-Sky Survey. Evolution of the mass function between these redshifts requires Ω Λ > 0 with a ∼5σ significance, and constrains the dark energy equation-of-state parameter to w 0 = -1.14 ± 0.21, assuming a constant w and a flat universe. Cluster information also significantly improves constraints when combined with other methods. Fitting our cluster data jointly with the latest supernovae, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and baryonic acoustic oscillation measurements, we obtain w 0 = -0.991 ± 0.045 (stat) ±0.039 (sys), a factor of 1.5 reduction in statistical uncertainties, and nearly a factor of 2 improvement in systematics compared with constraints that can be obtained without clusters. The joint analysis of these four data sets puts a conservative upper limit on the masses of light neutrinos Σm ν M h and σ 8 from the low-redshift cluster mass function.

  19. A two-phase sampling survey for nonresponse and its paradata to correct nonresponse bias in a health surveillance survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, G; Bénézet, L; Geoffroy-Perez, B; Bouyer, J; Guéguen, A

    2017-02-01

    The decline in participation rates in surveys, including epidemiological surveillance surveys, has become a real concern since it may increase nonresponse bias. The aim of this study is to estimate the contribution of a complementary survey among a subsample of nonrespondents, and the additional contribution of paradata in correcting for nonresponse bias in an occupational health surveillance survey. In 2010, 10,000 workers were randomly selected and sent a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic data were available for the whole sample. After data collection of the questionnaires, a complementary survey among a random subsample of 500 nonrespondents was performed using a questionnaire administered by an interviewer. Paradata were collected for the complete subsample of the complementary survey. Nonresponse bias in the initial sample and in the combined samples were assessed using variables from administrative databases available for the whole sample, not subject to differential measurement errors. Corrected prevalences by reweighting technique were estimated by first using the initial survey alone and then the initial and complementary surveys combined, under several assumptions regarding the missing data process. Results were compared by computing relative errors. The response rates of the initial and complementary surveys were 23.6% and 62.6%, respectively. For the initial and the combined surveys, the relative errors decreased after correction for nonresponse on sociodemographic variables. For the combined surveys without paradata, relative errors decreased compared with the initial survey. The contribution of the paradata was weak. When a complex descriptive survey has a low response rate, a short complementary survey among nonrespondents with a protocol which aims to maximize the response rates, is useful. The contribution of sociodemographic variables in correcting for nonresponse bias is important whereas the additional contribution of paradata in

  20. Sample Archaeological Survey of Public Use Areas, Milford Lake, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    especially ceramics); Middle "" Mississippian, Middle Woodland and Central Plains archaeology ; the engineering and building technology of the Maya ...Sample Archaeological Survey of Public Use Areas -- 0C 0 awo (L" . .614 4.- -. 1?CNOV 1 40484 * , "n. O ji - 0" By Laura S. Schwiekhard Thn ’.iint haUs...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Milford Lake, Kansas Sample Archaeological Survey of Public Use

  1. A simple sample size formula for analysis of covariance in cluster randomized trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Eldridge, S.; Graff, M.J.; Hoop, E. de; Borm, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    For cluster randomized trials with a continuous outcome, the sample size is often calculated as if an analysis of the outcomes at the end of the treatment period (follow-up scores) would be performed. However, often a baseline measurement of the outcome is available or feasible to obtain. An

  2. The Splashback Feature around DES Galaxy Clusters: Galaxy Density and Weak Lensing Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chihway; et al.

    2017-10-18

    Splashback refers to the process of matter that is accreting onto a dark matter halo reaching its first orbital apocenter and turning around in its orbit. The cluster-centric radius at which this process occurs, r_sp, defines a halo boundary that is connected to the dynamics of the cluster, in contrast with other common halo boundary definitions such as R_200. A rapid decline in the matter density profile of the halo is expected near r_sp. We measure the galaxy number density and weak lensing mass profiles around RedMapper galaxy clusters in the first year Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. For a cluster sample with mean mass ~2.5 x 10^14 solar masses, we find strong evidence of a splashback-like steepening of the galaxy density profile and measure r_sp=1.16 +/- 0.08 Mpc/h, consistent with earlier SDSS measurements of More et al. (2016) and Baxter et al. (2017). Moreover, our weak lensing measurement demonstrates for the first time the existence of a splashback-like steepening of the matter profile of galaxy clusters. We measure r_sp=1.28 +/- 0.18 Mpc/h from the weak lensing data, in good agreement with our galaxy density measurements. Applying our analysis to different cluster and galaxy samples, we find that consistent with LambdaCDM simulations, r_sp scales with R_200m and does not evolve with redshift over the redshift range of 0.3--0.6. We also find that potential systematic effects associated with the RedMapper algorithm may impact the location of r_sp, in particular the choice of scale used to estimate cluster richness. We discuss progress needed to understand the systematic uncertainties and fully exploit forthcoming data from DES and future surveys, emphasizing the importance of more realistic mock catalogs and independent cluster samples.

  3. The dependence of galaxy clustering on tidal environment in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Hahn, Oliver; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-06-01

    The influence of the Cosmic Web on galaxy formation and evolution is of great observational and theoretical interest. We investigate whether the Cosmic Web leaves an imprint in the spatial clustering of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), using the group catalogue of Yang et al. and tidal field estimates at ˜2 h-1 Mpc scales from the mass-tides-velocity data set of Wang et al. We use the tidal anisotropy α (Paranjape et al.) to characterize the tidal environment of groups, and measure the redshift-space 2-point correlation function (2pcf) of group positions and the luminosity- and colour-dependent clustering of group galaxies using samples segregated by α. We find that all the 2pcf measurements depend strongly on α, with factors of ˜20 between the large-scale 2pcf of objects in the most and least isotropic environments. To test whether these strong trends imply `beyond halo mass' effects for galaxy evolution, we compare our results with corresponding 2pcf measurements in mock catalogues constructed using a halo occupation distribution that uses only halo mass as an input. We find that this prescription qualitatively reproduces all observed trends, and also quantitatively matches many of the observed results. Although there are some statistically significant differences between our `halo mass only' mocks and the data - in the most and least isotropic environments - which deserve further investigation, our results suggest that if the tidal environment induces additional effects on galaxy properties other than those inherited from their host haloes, then these must be weak.

  4. X-ray studies of coeval star samples. II. The Pleiades cluster as observed with the Einstein Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G.S.; Harnden, F.R. Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coronal X-ray emission of the Pleiades stars is investigated, and maximum likelihood, integral X-ray luminosity functions are computed for Pleiades members in selected color-index ranges. A detailed search is conducted for long-term variability in the X-ray emission of those stars observed more than once. An overall comparison of the survey results with those of previous surveys confirms the ubiquity of X-ray emission in the Pleiades cluster stars and its higher rate of emission with respect to older stars. It is found that the X-ray emission from dA and early dF stars cannot be proven to be dissimilar to that of Hyades and field stars of the same spectral type. The Pleiades cluster members show a real rise of the X-ray luminosity from dA stars to early dF stars. X-ray emission for the young, solarlike Pleiades stars is about two orders of magnitude more intense than for the nearby solarlike stars. 77 refs

  5. X-ray studies of coeval star samples. II - The Pleiades cluster as observed with the Einstein Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coronal X-ray emission of the Pleiades stars is investigated, and maximum likelihood, integral X-ray luminosity functions are computed for Pleiades members in selected color-index ranges. A detailed search is conducted for long-term variability in the X-ray emission of those stars observed more than once. An overall comparison of the survey results with those of previous surveys confirms the ubiquity of X-ray emission in the Pleiades cluster stars and its higher rate of emission with respect to older stars. It is found that the X-ray emission from dA and early dF stars cannot be proven to be dissimilar to that of Hyades and field stars of the same spectral type. The Pleiades cluster members show a real rise of the X-ray luminosity from dA stars to early dF stars. X-ray emission for the young, solarlike Pleiades stars is about two orders of magnitude more intense than for the nearby solarlike stars.

  6. Super-sample covariance approximations and partial sky coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Lima, Marcos; Aguena, Michel

    2018-04-01

    Super-sample covariance (SSC) is the dominant source of statistical error on large scale structure (LSS) observables for both current and future galaxy surveys. In this work, we concentrate on the SSC of cluster counts, also known as sample variance, which is particularly useful for the self-calibration of the cluster observable-mass relation; our approach can similarly be applied to other observables, such as galaxy clustering and lensing shear. We first examined the accuracy of two analytical approximations proposed in the literature for the flat sky limit, finding that they are accurate at the 15% and 30-35% level, respectively, for covariances of counts in the same redshift bin. We then developed a harmonic expansion formalism that allows for the prediction of SSC in an arbitrary survey mask geometry, such as large sky areas of current and future surveys. We show analytically and numerically that this formalism recovers the full sky and flat sky limits present in the literature. We then present an efficient numerical implementation of the formalism, which allows fast and easy runs of covariance predictions when the survey mask is modified. We applied our method to a mask that is broadly similar to the Dark Energy Survey footprint, finding a non-negligible negative cross-z covariance, i.e. redshift bins are anti-correlated. We also examined the case of data removal from holes due to, for example bright stars, quality cuts, or systematic removals, and find that this does not have noticeable effects on the structure of the SSC matrix, only rescaling its amplitude by the effective survey area. These advances enable analytical covariances of LSS observables to be computed for current and future galaxy surveys, which cover large areas of the sky where the flat sky approximation fails.

  7. Design of the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS): a four-country multistage cluster design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Anne; Deurenberg, Paul; Calame, Wim; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; van Beusekom, Christien; Hautvast, Jo; Sandjaja; Bee Koon, Poh; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nguyen, Bao Khanh; Parikh, Panam; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is a well-known factor in the growth, health and development of children. It is also acknowledged that worldwide many people have dietary imbalances resulting in over- or undernutrition. In 2009, the multinational food company FrieslandCampina initiated the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a combination of surveys carried out in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, to get a better insight into these imbalances. The present study describes the general study design and methodology, as well as some problems and pitfalls encountered. In each of these countries, participants in the age range of 0·5-12 years were recruited according to a multistage cluster randomised or stratified random sampling methodology. Field teams took care of recruitment and data collection. For the health status of children, growth and body composition, physical activity, bone density, and development and cognition were measured. For nutrition, food intake and food habits were assessed by questionnaires, whereas in subpopulations blood and urine samples were collected to measure the biochemical status parameters of Fe, vitamins A and D, and DHA. In Thailand, the researchers additionally studied the lipid profile in blood, whereas in Indonesia iodine excretion in urine was analysed. Biochemical data were analysed in certified laboratories. Study protocols and methodology were aligned where practically possible. In December 2011, data collection was finalised. In total, 16,744 children participated in the present study. Information that will be very relevant for formulating nutritional health policies, as well as for designing innovative food and nutrition research and development programmes, has become available.

  8. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  9. Sampling procedures for inventory of commercial volume tree species in Amazon Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Sylvio P; Pelissari, Allan L; Cysneiros, Vinicius C; Bonazza, Marcelo; Sanquetta, Carlos R

    2017-01-01

    The spatial distribution of tropical tree species can affect the consistency of the estimators in commercial forest inventories, therefore, appropriate sampling procedures are required to survey species with different spatial patterns in the Amazon Forest. For this, the present study aims to evaluate the conventional sampling procedures and introduce the adaptive cluster sampling for volumetric inventories of Amazonian tree species, considering the hypotheses that the density, the spatial distribution and the zero-plots affect the consistency of the estimators, and that the adaptive cluster sampling allows to obtain more accurate volumetric estimation. We use data from a census carried out in Jamari National Forest, Brazil, where trees with diameters equal to or higher than 40 cm were measured in 1,355 plots. Species with different spatial patterns were selected and sampled with simple random sampling, systematic sampling, linear cluster sampling and adaptive cluster sampling, whereby the accuracy of the volumetric estimation and presence of zero-plots were evaluated. The sampling procedures applied to species were affected by the low density of trees and the large number of zero-plots, wherein the adaptive clusters allowed concentrating the sampling effort in plots with trees and, thus, agglutinating more representative samples to estimate the commercial volume.

  10. Ca II TRIPLET SPECTROSCOPY OF SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD RED GIANTS. I. ABUNDANCES AND VELOCITIES FOR A SAMPLE OF CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Claria, J. J.; Grocholski, A. J.; Geisler, D.; Sarajedini, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained near-infrared spectra covering the Ca II triplet lines for a large number of stars associated with 16 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters using the VLT + FORS2. These data compose the largest available sample of SMC clusters with spectroscopically derived abundances and velocities. Our clusters span a wide range of ages and provide good areal coverage of the galaxy. Cluster members are selected using a combination of their positions relative to the cluster center as well as their location in the color-magnitude diagram, abundances, and radial velocities (RVs). We determine mean cluster velocities to typically 2.7 km s -1 and metallicities to 0.05 dex (random errors), from an average of 6.4 members per cluster. By combining our clusters with previously published results, we compile a sample of 25 clusters on a homogeneous metallicity scale and with relatively small metallicity errors, and thereby investigate the metallicity distribution, metallicity gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of the SMC cluster system. For all 25 clusters in our expanded sample, the mean metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.96 with σ = 0.19. The metallicity distribution may possibly be bimodal, with peaks at ∼-0.9 dex and -1.15 dex. Similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the SMC cluster system gives no indication of a radial metallicity gradient. However, intermediate age SMC clusters are both significantly more metal-poor and have a larger metallicity spread than their LMC counterparts. Our AMR shows evidence for three phases: a very early (>11 Gyr) phase in which the metallicity reached ∼-1.2 dex, a long intermediate phase from ∼10 to 3 Gyr in which the metallicity only slightly increased, and a final phase from 3 to 1 Gyr ago in which the rate of enrichment was substantially faster. We find good overall agreement with the model of Pagel and Tautvaisiene, which assumes a burst of star formation at 4 Gyr. Finally, we find that the mean RV of the cluster system

  11. Cluster Correlation in Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, A.; Bonometto, S. A.; Murante, G.; Yepes, G.

    2000-10-01

    We evaluate the dependence of the cluster correlation length, rc, on the mean intercluster separation, Dc, for three models with critical matter density, vanishing vacuum energy (Λ=0), and COBE normalization: a tilted cold dark matter (tCDM) model (n=0.8) and two blue mixed models with two light massive neutrinos, yielding Ωh=0.26 and 0.14 (MDM1 and MDM2, respectively). All models approach the observational value of σ8 (and hence the observed cluster abundance) and are consistent with the observed abundance of damped Lyα systems. Mixed models have a motivation in recent results of neutrino physics; they also agree with the observed value of the ratio σ8/σ25, yielding the spectral slope parameter Γ, and nicely fit Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS) reconstructed spectra. We use parallel AP3M simulations, performed in a wide box (of side 360 h-1 Mpc) and with high mass and distance resolution, enabling us to build artificial samples of clusters, whose total number and mass range allow us to cover the same Dc interval inspected through Automatic Plate Measuring Facility (APM) and Abell cluster clustering data. We find that the tCDM model performs substantially better than n=1 critical density CDM models. Our main finding, however, is that mixed models provide a surprisingly good fit to cluster clustering data.

  12. Planck early results. X. Statistical analysis of Sunyaev-Zeldovich scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    All-sky data from the Planck survey and the Meta-Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC) are combined to investigate the relationship between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and X-ray luminosity. The sample comprises ~1600 X-ray clusters with redshifts up to ~1 and spans...

  13. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. II. Data Description and Source Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Derek; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Hoyos, Carlos; Den Brok, Mark; Balcells, Marc; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Carter, David; Guzman, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier F.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Coma cluster, Abell 1656, was the target of a HST-ACS Treasury program designed for deep imaging in the F475W and F814W passbands. Although our survey was interrupted by the ACS instrument failure in early 2007, the partially-completed survey still covers approximately 50% of the core high density region in Coma. Observations were performed for twenty-five fields with a total coverage area of 274 aremin(sup 2), and extend over a wide range of cluster-centric radii (approximately 1.75 Mpe or 1 deg). The majority of the fields are located near the core region of Coma (19/25 pointings) with six additional fields in the south-west region of the cluster. In this paper we present SEXTRACTOR source catalogs generated from the processed images, including a detailed description of the methodology used for object detection and photometry, the subtraction of bright galaxies to measure faint underlying objects, and the use of simulations to assess the photometric accuracy and completeness of our catalogs. We also use simulations to perform aperture corrections for the SEXTRACTOR Kron magnitudes based only on the measured source flux and its half-light radius. We have performed photometry for 76,000 objects that consist of roughly equal numbers of extended galaxies and unresolved objects. Approximately two-thirds of all detections are brighter than F814W=26.5 mag (AB), which corresponds to the 10sigma, point-source detection limit. We estimate that Coma members are 5-10% of the source detections, including a large population of compact objects (primarily GCs, but also cEs and UCDs), and a wide variety of extended galaxies from cD galaxies to dwarf low surface brightness galaxies. The initial data release for the HST-ACS Coma Treasury program was made available to the public in August 2008. The images and catalogs described in this study relate to our second data release.

  14. A spectroscopic survey of EC4, an extended cluster in Andromeda's halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. L. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Irwin, M.; Ibata, R.; Martin, N. F.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Huxor, A.; Lewis, G. F.; Mackey, A. D.; McConnachie, A. W.; Tanvir, N.

    2009-07-01

    We present a spectroscopic survey of candidate red giant branch stars in the extended star cluster, EC4, discovered in the halo of M31 from our Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam survey, overlapping the tidal streams, Streams`Cp' and `Cr'. These observations used the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph mounted on the Keck II telescope to obtain spectra around the CaII triplet region with ~1.3 Å resolution. Six stars lying on the red giant branch within two core radii of the centre of EC4 are found to have an average vr = -287.9+1.9-2.4kms-1 and σv,corr = 2.7+4.2-2.7kms-1, taking instrumental errors into account. The resulting mass-to-light ratio for EC4 is M/L = 6.7+15-6.7Msolar/Lsolar, a value that is consistent with a globular cluster within the 1σ errors we derive. From the summed spectra of our member stars, we find EC4 to be metal-poor, with [Fe/H] = -1.6 +/- 0.15. We discuss several formation and evolution scenarios which could account for our kinematic and metallicity constraints on EC4, and conclude that EC4 is most comparable with an extended globular cluster. We also compare the kinematics and metallicity of EC4 with Streams `Cp' and`Cr', and find that EC4 bears a striking resemblance to Stream`Cp' in terms of velocity, and that the two structures are identical in terms of both their spectroscopic and photometric metallicities. From this, we conclude that EC4 is likely related to Stream`Cp'. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. E-mail: mlmc2@ast.cam.ac.uk

  15. Analyzing Repeated Measures Marginal Models on Sample Surveys with Resampling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Knoke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaged statistical software for analyzing categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample survey data with binary covariates does not appear to be available. Consequently, this report describes a customized SAS program which accomplishes such an analysis on survey data with jackknifed replicate weights for which the primary sampling unit information has been suppressed for respondent confidentiality. First, the program employs the Macro Language and the Output Delivery System (ODS to estimate the means and covariances of indicator variables for the response variables, taking the design into account. Then, it uses PROC CATMOD and ODS, ignoring the survey design, to obtain the design matrix and hypothesis test specifications. Finally, it enters these results into another run of CATMOD, which performs automated direct input of the survey design specifications and accomplishes the appropriate analysis. This customized SAS program can be employed, with minor editing, to analyze general categorical, repeated measures marginal models on sample surveys with replicate weights. Finally, the results of our analysis accounting for the survey design are compared to the results of two alternate analyses of the same data. This comparison confirms that such alternate analyses, which do not properly account for the design, do not produce useful results.

  16. XMM-NEWTON/SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN GALAXY CLUSTERS AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE MATTER-DENSITY PARAMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagana, Tatiana F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Departamento de Astronomia, Cidade Universitaria, CEP:05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zhang Yuying; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Schneider, Peter [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-12-10

    It is believed that the global baryon content of clusters of galaxies is representative of the matter distribution of the universe, and can, therefore, be used to reliably determine the matter-density parameter {Omega}{sub m}. This assumption is challenged by the growing evidence from optical and X-ray observations that the total baryon mass fraction increases toward rich clusters. In this context, we investigate the dependence of stellar and total baryon mass fractions as a function of mass. To do so, we used a subsample of 19 clusters extracted from the X-ray flux-limited sample HIFLUGCS that have available Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 data. From the optical analysis we derived the stellar masses. Using XMM-Newton we derived the gas masses. Then, adopting a scaling relation we estimate the total masses. Adding the gas and the stellar mass fractions we obtain the total baryonic content that we find to increase with cluster mass, reaching seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) prediction for clusters with M{sub 500} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. We observe a decrease of the stellar mass fraction (from 4.5% to {approx}1.0%) with increasing total mass where our findings for the stellar mass fraction agree with previous studies. This result suggests a difference in the number of stars formed per unit of halo mass, though with a large scatter for low-mass systems. That is, the efficiency of star formation varies on a cluster scale that lower mass systems are likely to have higher star formation efficiencies. It follows immediately that the dependence of the stellar mass fraction on total mass results in an increase of the mass-to-light ratio from lower to higher mass systems. We also discuss the consequences of these results in the context of determining the cosmic matter-density parameter {Omega}{sub m}.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies (Bellstedt+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellstedt, S.; Lidman, C.; Muzzin, A.; Franx, M.; Guatelli, S.; Hill, A. R.; Hoekstra, H.; Kurinsky, N.; Labbe, I.; Marchesini, D.; Marsan, Z. C.; Safavi-Naeini, M.; Sifon, C.; Stefanon, M.; van de Sande, J.; van Dokkum, P.; Weigel, C.

    2017-11-01

    We utilize a sample of 98 newly imaged galaxy clusters from the RELICS (REd Lens Infrared Cluster Survey) survey within this study. The data were collected during six observing runs on three instruments over a period spanning from 2013 October to 2015 March. The instruments utilized were the SofI2 camera on the New Technology Telescope at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) La Silla Observatory in Chile, WHIRC3 on the WIYN telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory and LIRIS4 on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma, Spain. (2 data files).

  18. Cataloging the Praesepe Cluster: Identifying Interlopers and Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Madeline R.; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mann, Andrew; Douglas, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    We present radial velocity measurements from an ongoing survey of the Praesepe open cluster using the WIYN 3.5m Telescope. Our target stars include 229 early-K to mid-M dwarfs with proper motion memberships that have been observed by the repurposed Kepler mission, K2. With this survey, we will provide a well-constrained membership list of the cluster. By removing interloping stars and determining the cluster binary frequency we can avoid systematic errors in our analysis of the K2 findings and more accurately determine exoplanet properties in the Praesepe cluster. Obtaining accurate exoplanet parameters in open clusters allows us to study the temporal dimension of exoplanet parameter space. We find Praesepe to have a mean radial velocity of 34.09 km/s and a velocity dispersion of 1.13 km/s, which is consistent with previous studies. We derive radial velocity membership probabilities for stars with ≥3 radial velocity measurements and compare against published membership probabilities. We also identify radial velocity variables and potential double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We plan to obtain more observations to determine the radial velocity membership of all the stars in our sample, as well as follow up on radial velocity variables to determine binary orbital solutions.

  19. Effects ok ikea's entry into a furniture production cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Eiriz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of a multinational into a cluster, a geographic agglomeration in a given place or region of predominantly small and medium enterprises specialized in a given industry or related industries, impacts the incumbent in the cluster. Aiming to identify the main effects of a multinational entry on the firms’ strategy in a cluster, it was analyzed the entry of IKEA, a Swedish multinational, into the cluster of furniture production in Paços de Ferreira and Paredes, in Portugal. In this study, the data collection technique to access primary data was a survey. The sample has small enterprises, which is similar to the structure of firms in the studied cluster. Results show that more than half the sample thinks that the entry of the multinational had not affected them. However, the firms that acknowledge a significant impact, assess that impact as negative. The competitiveness factors that have improved more significantly after IKEA’s entry were new product development and exporting strategies. The main responses of incumbent firms to the multinational entry were internationalization and the development of generic strategies of differentiation and focus based on differentiation.

  20. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1988-10-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1987 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 74 samples were dated. The results were corrected for short-term fading of feldspars as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks or at 100 deg. C for two weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar, and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar were included, assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar. (author) 20 tabs., 29 refs

  1. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1986-11-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short- term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quarts and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar. (author)

  2. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1987-10-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1986 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 56 samples were dated. The results were corrected for shortterm fading measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature or at 100 deg. C. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar grain were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 and 0.2 for quartz and feldspar, respectively. 21 refs. (author)

  3. A sampling device for counting insect egg clusters and measuring vertical distribution of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Talerico; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The use of a vertical sampling pole that delineates known volumes and position is illustrated and demonstrated for counting egg clusters of N. sertifer. The pole can also be used to estimate vertical and horizontal coverage, distribution or damage of vegetation or foliage.

  4. Grouped fuzzy SVM with EM-based partition of sample space for clustered microcalcification detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiya; Feng, Jun; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-07-20

    Detection of clustered microcalcification (MC) from mammograms plays essential roles in computer-aided diagnosis for early stage breast cancer. To tackle problems associated with the diversity of data structures of MC lesions and the variability of normal breast tissues, multi-pattern sample space learning is required. In this paper, a novel grouped fuzzy Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm with sample space partition based on Expectation-Maximization (EM) (called G-FSVM) is proposed for clustered MC detection. The diversified pattern of training data is partitioned into several groups based on EM algorithm. Then a series of fuzzy SVM are integrated for classification with each group of samples from the MC lesions and normal breast tissues. From DDSM database, a total of 1,064 suspicious regions are selected from 239 mammography, and the measurement of Accuracy, True Positive Rate (TPR), False Positive Rate (FPR) and EVL = TPR* 1-FPR are 0.82, 0.78, 0.14 and 0.72, respectively. The proposed method incorporates the merits of fuzzy SVM and multi-pattern sample space learning, decomposing the MC detection problem into serial simple two-class classification. Experimental results from synthetic data and DDSM database demonstrate that our integrated classification framework reduces the false positive rate significantly while maintaining the true positive rate.

  5. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XXVIII. Characterization of the Galactic White Dwarf Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantin, Nicholas J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Côté, Patrick; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Ferrarese, Laura; McConnachie, Alan [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Program, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Hanes, David A. [Queen’s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Bianchi, Luciana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [CEA/IRFU/SAp, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Starkenburg, Else, E-mail: nfantin@uvic.ca [Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    We use three different techniques to identify hundreds of white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) based on photometry from the NGVS and GUViCS, and proper motions derived from the NGVS and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Photometric distances for these candidates are calculated using theoretical color–absolute magnitude relations, while effective temperatures are measured by fitting their spectral energy distributions. Disk and halo WD candidates are separated using a tangential velocity cut of 200 km s{sup −1} in a reduced proper motion diagram, which leads to a sample of six halo WD candidates. Cooling ages, calculated for an assumed WD mass of 0.6 M {sub ⊙}, range between 60 Myr and 6 Gyr, although these estimates depend sensitively on the adopted mass. Luminosity functions for the disk and halo subsamples are constructed and compared to previous results from the SDSS and SuperCOSMOS survey. We compute a number density of (2.81 ± 0.52) × 10{sup −3} pc{sup −3} for the disk WD population—consistent with previous measurements. We find (7.85 ± 4.55) × 10{sup −6} pc{sup −3} for the halo, or 0.3% of the disk. Observed stellar counts are also compared to predictions made by the TRILEGAL and Besançon stellar population synthesis models. The comparison suggests that the TRILEGAL model overpredicts the total number of WDs. The WD counts predicted by the Besançon model agree with the observations, although a discrepancy arises when comparing the predicted and observed halo WD populations; the difference is likely due to the WD masses in the adopted model halo.

  6. Evolution of the cluster x-ray luminosity function slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.; Soltan, A.; Briel, U.; Gunn, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    We report the results of an X-ray survey of 58 clusters of galaxies at moderate and high redshifts. Using a luminosity-limited subsample of 25 objects, we find that to a redshift of 0.5 the slope (i.e., power-law index) of the luminosity function of distant clusters is independent of redshift and consistent with that of nearby clusters. The time scale for change in the slope must be greater than 9 billion years. We cannot measure the normalization of the luminosity function because our sample is not complete. We discuss the implications of our data for theoretical models. In particular, Perrenod's models with high Ω are excluded by the present data

  7. College Students' Health Behavior Clusters: Differences by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah; Zhou, Wenjun; Sowers, Morgan F; Shelnutt, Karla; Olfert, Melissa D; Morrell, Jesse; Koenings, Mallory; Kidd, Tandalayo; Horacek, Tanya M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Brown, Onikia; White, Adrienne A; Hoerr, Sharon L; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Kattelmann, Kendra K

    2017-07-01

    The study purpose was to identify clusters of weight-related behaviors by sex in a college student populations. We conducted secondary data analysis from online surveys and physical assessments collected in Project Young Adults Eating and Active for Health (YEAH) with a convenience sample of students on 13 college campuses in the United States. We performed 2-step cluster analysis by sex to identify subgroups with homogeneous characteristics and behaviors. We used 8 derivation variables: healthy eating; eating restraints; external cues; stress; fruit/vegetable intake; calories from fat; calories from sugar-sweetened beverages; and physical activity. Contribution of derivation variables to clusters was analyzed with a MANOVA test. Data from 1594 students were included. Cluster analysis revealed 2-clusters labeled "Healthful Behavior" and "At-risk" for males and females with an additional "Laid Back" cluster for males. "At-risk" clusters had the highest BMI, waist circumference, elevated health risk, and stress and least healthy dietary intake and physical activity. The "Laid Back" cluster had normal weights and the lowest restrained eating, external cues sensitivity, and stress. Identified differences in characteristics and attitudes towards weight-related behaviors between males and females can be used to tailor weight management programs.

  8. Do satellite galaxies trace matter in galaxy clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Li, Ran; Gao, Liang; Shan, Huanyuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Wang, Wenting; Chen, Gang; Makler, Martin; Pereira, Maria E. S.; Wang, Lin; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Erben, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    The spatial distribution of satellite galaxies encodes rich information of the structure and assembly history of galaxy clusters. In this paper, we select a red-sequence Matched-filter Probabilistic Percolation cluster sample in SDSS Stripe 82 region with 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.33, 20 0.7. Using the high-quality weak lensing data from CS82 Survey, we constrain the mass profile of this sample. Then we compare directly the mass density profile with the satellite number density profile. We find that the total mass and number density profiles have the same shape, both well fitted by an NFW profile. The scale radii agree with each other within a 1σ error (r_s,gal=0.34_{-0.03}^{+0.04} Mpc versus r_s=0.37_{-0.10}^{+0.15} Mpc).

  9. The Gaia-ESO Survey and CSI 2264: Substructures, disks, and sequential star formation in the young open cluster NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Flaccomio, E.; Bonito, R.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Guarcello, M. G.; Randich, S.; Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M.; Jeffries, R. D.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Alfaro, E. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Frasca, A.; Jofré, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Zaggia, S.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Reconstructing the structure and history of young clusters is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms and timescales of early stellar evolution and planet formation. Recent studies suggest that star clusters often exhibit a hierarchical structure, possibly resulting from several star formation episodes occurring sequentially rather than a monolithic cloud collapse. Aims: We aim to explore the structure of the open cluster and star-forming region NGC 2264 ( 3 Myr), which is one of the youngest, richest and most accessible star clusters in the local spiral arm of our Galaxy; we link the spatial distribution of cluster members to other stellar properties such as age and evolutionary stage to probe the star formation history within the region. Methods: We combined spectroscopic data obtained as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) with multi-wavelength photometric data from the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 (CSI 2264) campaign. We examined a sample of 655 cluster members, with masses between 0.2 and 1.8 M⊙ and including both disk-bearing and disk-free young stars. We used Teff estimates from GES and g,r,i photometry from CSI 2264 to derive individual extinction and stellar parameters. Results: We find a significant age spread of 4-5 Myr among cluster members. Disk-bearing objects are statistically associated with younger isochronal ages than disk-free sources. The cluster has a hierarchical structure, with two main blocks along its latitudinal extension. The northern half develops around the O-type binary star S Mon; the southern half, close to the tip of the Cone Nebula, contains the most embedded regions of NGC 2264, populated mainly by objects with disks and ongoing accretion. The median ages of objects at different locations within the cluster, and the spatial distribution of disked and non-disked sources, suggest that star formation began in the north of the cluster, over 5 Myr ago, and was ignited in its southern region a few Myr later

  10. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT CLUSTERS ON THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Felipe; Hughes, John P.; Sifón, Cristóbal; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Dünner, Rolando; Infante, Leopoldo; Battaglia, Nicholas; Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marsden, Danica

    2013-01-01

    We present the optical and X-ray properties of 68 galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect at 148 GHz by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Our sample, from an area of 504 deg 2 centered on the celestial equator, is divided into two regions. The main region uses 270 deg 2 of the ACT survey that overlaps with the co-added ugriz imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over Stripe 82 plus additional near-infrared pointed observations with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope. We confirm a total of 49 clusters to z ≈ 1.3, of which 22 (all at z > 0.55) are new discoveries. For the second region, the regular-depth SDSS imaging allows us to confirm 19 more clusters up to z ≈ 0.7, of which 10 systems are new. We present the optical richness, photometric redshifts, and separation between the SZ position and the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). We find no significant offset between the cluster SZ centroid and BCG location and a weak correlation between optical richness and SZ-derived mass. We also present X-ray fluxes and luminosities from the ROSAT All Sky Survey which confirm that this is a massive sample. One of the newly discovered clusters, ACT-CL J0044.4+0113 at z = 1.1 (photometric), has an integrated XMM-Newton X-ray temperature of kT X = 7.9 ± 1.0 keV and combined mass of M 200a = 8.2 +3.3 –2.5 × 10 14 h –1 70 M ☉ , placing it among the most massive and X-ray-hot clusters known at redshifts beyond z = 1. We also highlight the optically rich cluster ACT-CL J2327.4–0204 (RCS2 2327) at z = 0.705 (spectroscopic) as the most significant detection of the whole equatorial sample with a Chandra-derived mass of M 200a = 1.9 +0.6 –0.4 × 10 15 h –1 70 M ☉ , placing it in the ranks of the most massive known clusters like El Gordo and the Bullet Cluster.

  11. The formation and evolution of M33 as revealed by its star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Roman, Izaskun

    2012-03-01

    Numerical simulations based on the Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (Λ-CDM) model predict a scenario consistent with observational evidence in terms of the build-up of Milky Way-like halos. Under this scenario, large disk galaxies derive from the merger and accretion of many smaller subsystems. However, it is less clear how low-mass spiral galaxies fit into this picture. The best way to answer this question is to study the nearest example of a dwarf spiral galaxy, M33. We will use star clusters to understand the structure, kinematics and stellar populations of this galaxy. Star clusters provide a unique and powerful tool for studying the star formation histories of galaxies. In particular, the ages and metallicities of star clusters bear the imprint of the galaxy formation process. We have made use of the star clusters to uncover the formation and evolution of M33. In this dissertation, we have carried out a comprehensive study of the M33 star cluster system, including deep photometry as well as high signal-to-noise spectroscopy. In order to mitigate the significant incompleteness presents in previous catalogs, we have conducted ground-based and space-based photometric surveys of M33 star clusters. Using archival images, we have analyzed 12 fields using the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (ACS/HST) along the major axis of the galaxy. We present integrated photometry and color-magnitude diagrams for 161 star clusters in M33, of which 115 were previously uncataloged. This survey extends the depth of the existing M33 cluster catalogs by ˜ 1 mag. We have expanded our search through a photometric survey in a 1° x 1° area centered on M33 using the MegaCam camera on the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). In this work we discuss the photometric properties of the sample, including color-color diagrams of 599 new candidate stellar clusters, and 204 confirmed clusters. Comparisons with models of simple stellar populations

  12. A survey of archaeological samples dated in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdahl, V.

    1989-08-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1988 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 67 samples were dated. The results were corrected for short-term fading of feldspars as measured for samples stored at room temperature for four weeks or at 100 deg. C for two weeks. The beta dose from potassium and rubidium in feldspar, and the alpha dose from uranium and thorium in quartz and feldspar were included assuming alpha efficiency factors of 0.1 for quartz and 0.2 for feldspar. (author) 22 tabs., 1 ill., 14 refs

  13. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses II. Status of Nurses: November 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Barbara S.; And Others

    This report provides data describing the nursing population as determined by the second national sample survey of registered nurses. A brief introduction is followed by a chapter that presents an overview of the survey methodology, including details on the sampling design, the response rate, and the statistical reliability. Chapter 3 provides a…

  14. Novel platform for ocean survey and autonomous sampling using multi-agent system

    OpenAIRE

    Taher, Tawfiq; Weymouth, G.D.; Varghese, Tony

    2013-01-01

    In-situ surveying and sampling of ocean environments provides critical data for laboratory work and oceanographic research. However, sampling a time-varying ocean field is often time and resource limited-meaning that samples often miss the features of interest. This paper presents a modular autonomous multi-agent robotic system which has been developed to accommodate a variety of research activities. This paper demonstrates the complementary capabilities of the agents by simultaneously survey...

  15. ASPECT: A spectra clustering tool for exploration of large spectral surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    in der Au, A.; Meusinger, H.; Schalldach, P. F.; Newholm, M.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Analysing the empirical output from large surveys is an important challenge in contemporary science. Difficulties arise, in particular, when the database is huge and the properties of the object types to be selected are poorly constrained a priori. Aims: We present the novel, semi-automated clustering tool ASPECT for analysing voluminous archives of spectra. Methods: The heart of the program is a neural network in the form of a Kohonen self-organizing map. The resulting map is designed as an icon map suitable for the inspection by eye. The visual analysis is supported by the option to blend in individual object properties such as redshift, apparent magnitude, or signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the package provides several tools for the selection of special spectral types, e.g. local difference maps which reflect the deviations of all spectra from one given input spectrum (real or artificial). Results: ASPECT is able to produce a two-dimensional topological map of a huge number of spectra. The software package enables the user to browse and navigate through a huge data pool and helps them to gain an insight into underlying relationships between the spectra and other physical properties and to get the big picture of the entire data set. We demonstrate the capability of ASPECT by clustering the entire data pool of ~6 × 105 spectra from the Data Release 4 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To illustrate the results regarding quality and completeness we track objects from existing catalogues of quasars and carbon stars, respectively, and connect the SDSS spectra with morphological information from the GalaxyZoo project. Code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/547/A115

  16. Variability in research ethics review of cluster randomized trials: a scenario-based survey in three countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) present unique ethical challenges. In the absence of a uniform standard for their ethical design and conduct, problems such as variability in procedures and requirements by different research ethics committees will persist. We aimed to assess the need for ethics guidelines for CRTs among research ethics chairs internationally, investigate variability in procedures for research ethics review of CRTs within and among countries, and elicit research ethics chairs’ perspectives on specific ethical issues in CRTs, including the identification of research subjects. The proper identification of research subjects is a necessary requirement in the research ethics review process, to help ensure, on the one hand, that subjects are protected from harm and exploitation, and on the other, that reviews of CRTs are completed efficiently. Methods A web-based survey with closed- and open-ended questions was administered to research ethics chairs in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The survey presented three scenarios of CRTs involving cluster-level, professional-level, and individual-level interventions. For each scenario, a series of questions was posed with respect to the type of review required (full, expedited, or no review) and the identification of research subjects at cluster and individual levels. Results A total of 189 (35%) of 542 chairs responded. Overall, 144 (84%, 95% CI 79 to 90%) agreed or strongly agreed that there is a need for ethics guidelines for CRTs and 158 (92%, 95% CI 88 to 96%) agreed or strongly agreed that research ethics committees could be better informed about distinct ethical issues surrounding CRTs. There was considerable variability among research ethics chairs with respect to the type of review required, as well as the identification of research subjects. The cluster-cluster and professional-cluster scenarios produced the most disagreement. Conclusions Research ethics committees

  17. THE DETECTION AND STATISTICS OF GIANT ARCS BEHIND CLASH CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Zheng, Wei; Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Meneghetti, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton; Seitz, Stella; Zitrin, Adi; Merten, Julian; Maoz, Dani; Frye, Brenda; Umetsu, Keiichi; Vega, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    We developed an algorithm to find and characterize gravitationally lensed galaxies (arcs) to perform a comparison of the observed and simulated arc abundance. Observations are from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Simulated CLASH images are created using the MOKA package and also clusters selected from the high-resolution, hydrodynamical simulations, MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH sample. The algorithm's arc elongation accuracy, completeness, and false positive rate are determined and used to compute an estimate of the true arc abundance. We derive a lensing efficiency of 4 ± 1 arcs (with length ≥6″ and length-to-width ratio ≥7) per cluster for the X-ray-selected CLASH sample, 4 ± 1 arcs per cluster for the MOKA-simulated sample, and 3 ± 1 arcs per cluster for the MUSIC-simulated sample. The observed and simulated arc statistics are in full agreement. We measure the photometric redshifts of all detected arcs and find a median redshift z s = 1.9 with 33% of the detected arcs having z s  > 3. We find that the arc abundance does not depend strongly on the source redshift distribution but is sensitive to the mass distribution of the dark matter halos (e.g., the c–M relation). Our results show that consistency between the observed and simulated distributions of lensed arc sizes and axial ratios can be achieved by using cluster-lensing simulations that are carefully matched to the selection criteria used in the observations

  18. The Detection and Statistics of Giant Arcs behind CLASH Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Postman, Marc; Meneghetti, Massimo; Seitz, Stella; Zitrin, Adi; Merten, Julian; Maoz, Dani; Frye, Brenda; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zheng, Wei; Bradley, Larry; Vega, Jesus; Koekemoer, Anton

    2016-02-01

    We developed an algorithm to find and characterize gravitationally lensed galaxies (arcs) to perform a comparison of the observed and simulated arc abundance. Observations are from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Simulated CLASH images are created using the MOKA package and also clusters selected from the high-resolution, hydrodynamical simulations, MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH sample. The algorithm's arc elongation accuracy, completeness, and false positive rate are determined and used to compute an estimate of the true arc abundance. We derive a lensing efficiency of 4 ± 1 arcs (with length ≥6″ and length-to-width ratio ≥7) per cluster for the X-ray-selected CLASH sample, 4 ± 1 arcs per cluster for the MOKA-simulated sample, and 3 ± 1 arcs per cluster for the MUSIC-simulated sample. The observed and simulated arc statistics are in full agreement. We measure the photometric redshifts of all detected arcs and find a median redshift zs = 1.9 with 33% of the detected arcs having zs > 3. We find that the arc abundance does not depend strongly on the source redshift distribution but is sensitive to the mass distribution of the dark matter halos (e.g., the c-M relation). Our results show that consistency between the observed and simulated distributions of lensed arc sizes and axial ratios can be achieved by using cluster-lensing simulations that are carefully matched to the selection criteria used in the observations.

  19. A Science Portal and Archive for Extragalactic Globular Cluster Systems Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael; Rhode, Katherine L.; Gopu, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    For several years we have been carrying out a wide-field imaging survey of the globular cluster populations of a sample of giant spiral, S0, and elliptical galaxies with distances of ~10-30 Mpc. We use mosaic CCD cameras on the WIYN 3.5-m and Kitt Peak 4-m telescopes to acquire deep BVR imaging of each galaxy and then analyze the data to derive global properties of the globular cluster system. In addition to measuring the total numbers, specific frequencies, spatial distributions, and color distributions for the globular cluster populations, we have produced deep, high-quality images and lists of tens to thousands of globular cluster candidates for the ~40 galaxies included in the survey.With the survey nearing completion, we have been exploring how to efficiently disseminate not only the overall results, but also all of the relevant data products, to the astronomical community. Here we present our solution: a scientific portal and archive for extragalactic globular cluster systems data. With a modern and intuitive web interface built on the same framework as the WIYN One Degree Imager Portal, Pipeline, and Archive (ODI-PPA), our system will provide public access to the survey results and the final stacked mosaic images of the target galaxies. In addition, the astrometric and photometric data for thousands of identified globular cluster candidates, as well as for all point sources detected in each field, will be indexed and searchable. Where available, spectroscopic follow-up data will be paired with the candidates. Advanced imaging tools will enable users to overlay the cluster candidates and other sources on the mosaic images within the web interface, while metadata charting tools will allow users to rapidly and seamlessly plot the survey results for each galaxy and the data for hundreds of thousands of individual sources. Finally, we will appeal to other researchers with similar data products and work toward making our portal a central repository for data

  20. CODEX weak lensing: concentration of galaxy clusters at z ˜ 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibirka, N.; Cypriano, E. S.; Brimioulle, F.; Gruen, D.; Erben, T.; van Waerbeke, L.; Miller, L.; Finoguenov, A.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Henry, J. Patrick; Rykoff, E.; Rozo, E.; Dupke, R.; Kneib, J.-P.; Shan, H.; Spinelli, P.

    2017-06-01

    We present a stacked weak-lensing analysis of 27 richness selected galaxy clusters at 0.40 ≤ z ≤ 0.62 in the COnstrain Dark Energy with X-ray galaxy clusters (CODEX) survey. The fields were observed in five bands with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). We measure the stacked surface mass density profile with a 14σ significance in the radial range 0.1 White profile (NFW) profile and including the off-centring effect. We select the background sample using a conservative colour-magnitude method to reduce the potential systematic errors and contamination by cluster member galaxies. We perform a Bayesian analysis for the stacked profile and constrain the best-fitting NFW parameters M_{200c} = 6.6^{+1.0}_{-0.8} × 10^{14} h^{-1} M_{⊙} and c_{200c} = 3.7^{+0.7}_{-0.6}. The off-centring effect was modelled based on previous observational results found for redMaPPer Sloan Digital Sky Survey clusters. Our constraints on M200c and c200c allow us to investigate the consistency with numerical predictions and select a concentration-mass relation to describe the high richness CODEX sample. Comparing our best-fitting values for M200c and c200c with other observational surveys at different redshifts, we find no evidence for evolution in the concentration-mass relation, though it could be mitigated by particular selection functions. Similar to previous studies investigating the X-ray luminosity-mass relation, our data suggest a lower evolution than expected from self-similarity.

  1. Unequal cluster sizes in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristunas, Caroline; Morris, Tom; Gray, Laura

    2017-11-15

    To investigate the extent to which cluster sizes vary in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRT) and whether any variability is accounted for during the sample size calculation and analysis of these trials. Any, not limited to healthcare settings. Any taking part in an SW-CRT published up to March 2016. The primary outcome is the variability in cluster sizes, measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) in cluster size. Secondary outcomes include the difference between the cluster sizes assumed during the sample size calculation and those observed during the trial, any reported variability in cluster sizes and whether the methods of sample size calculation and methods of analysis accounted for any variability in cluster sizes. Of the 101 included SW-CRTs, 48% mentioned that the included clusters were known to vary in size, yet only 13% of these accounted for this during the calculation of the sample size. However, 69% of the trials did use a method of analysis appropriate for when clusters vary in size. Full trial reports were available for 53 trials. The CV was calculated for 23 of these: the median CV was 0.41 (IQR: 0.22-0.52). Actual cluster sizes could be compared with those assumed during the sample size calculation for 14 (26%) of the trial reports; the cluster sizes were between 29% and 480% of that which had been assumed. Cluster sizes often vary in SW-CRTs. Reporting of SW-CRTs also remains suboptimal. The effect of unequal cluster sizes on the statistical power of SW-CRTs needs further exploration and methods appropriate to studies with unequal cluster sizes need to be employed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. The Swift BAT Perspective on Non-Thermal Emission in HIFLUGCS Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    The search for diffuse non-thermal, inverse Compton (IC) emission from galaxy clusters at hard X-ray energies has been underway for many years, with most detections being either of low significance or controversial. Until recently, comprehensive surveys of hard X-ray emission from clusters were not possible; instead, individually proposed-for. long observations would be collated from the archive. With the advent of the Swift BAT all sky survey, any c1u,;ter's emission above 14 keV can be probed with nearly uniform sensitivity. which is comparable to that of RXTE, Beppo-SAX, and Suzaku with the 58-month version of the survey. In this work. we search for non-thermal excess emission above the exponentially decreasing, high energy thermal emission in the flux-limited HIFLUGCS sample. The BAT emission from many of the detected clusters is marginally extended; we are able to extract the total flux for these clusters using fiducial models for their spatial extent. To account for thermal emission at BAT energies, XMM-Newton EPIC spectra are extracted from coincident spatial regions so that both the thermal and non-thermal spectral components can be determined simultaneou,;ly in joint fits. We find marginally significant IC components in 6 clusters, though after closer inspection and consideration of systematic errors we are unable to claim a clear detection in any of them. The spectra of all clusters are also summed to enhance a cumulative non-thermal signal not quite detectable in individual clusters. After constructing a model based on single temperature

  3. Hα3: an Hα imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. II. Star formation properties of galaxies in the Virgo cluster and surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G.; Fumagalli, M.; Fossati, M.; Galardo, V.; Grossetti, F.; Boselli, A.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    2013-05-01

    Context. We present the analysis of Hα3, an Hα narrow-band imaging follow-up survey of 409 galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) in the Local Supercluster, including the Virgo cluster, in the region 11h advantage of Hα3, which provides the complete census of the recent massive star formation rate (SFR) in HI-rich galaxies in the local Universe and of ancillary optical data from SDSS we explore the relations between the stellar mass, the HI mass, and the current, massive SFR of nearby galaxies in the Virgo cluster. We compare these with those of isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster, and we investigate the role of the environment in shaping the star formation properties of galaxies at the present cosmological epoch. Methods: By using the Hα hydrogen recombination line as a tracer of recent star formation, we investigated the relationships between atomic neutral gas and newly formed stars in different environments (cluster and field), for many morphological types (spirals and dwarfs), and over a wide range of stellar masses (107.5 to 1011.5 M⊙). To quantify the degree of environmental perturbation, we adopted an updated calibration of the HI deficiency parameter which we used to divide the sample into three classes: unperturbed galaxies (DefHI ≤ 0.3), perturbed galaxies (0.3 model. Once considered as a whole, the Virgo cluster is effective in removing neutral hydrogen from galaxies, and this perturbation is strong enough to appreciably reduce the SFR of its entire galaxy population. Conclusions: An estimate of the present infall rate of 300-400 galaxies per Gyr in the Virgo cluster is obtained from the number of existing HI-rich late-type systems, assuming 200-300 Myr as the time scale for HI ablation. If the infall process has been acting at a constant rate, this would imply that the Virgo cluster has formed approximately 2 Gyr ago, consistently with the idea that Virgo is in a young state of dynamical evolution. Based

  4. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D. O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Bright, S. N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Dale, D. A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify their genuine nature, produce multiband photometry (from NUV to NIR), and derive their physical properties via spectral energy distribution fitting analyses. We use the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628 as a test case for demonstrating the impact that LEGUS will have on our understanding of the formation and evolution of YSCs and compact stellar associations within their host galaxy. Our analysis of the cluster luminosity function from the UV to the NIR finds a steepening at the bright end and at all wavelengths suggesting a dearth of luminous clusters. The cluster mass function of NGC 628 is consistent with a power-law distribution of slopes ˜ -2 and a truncation of a few times 105 {M}⊙ . After their formation, YSCs and compact associations follow different evolutionary paths. YSCs survive for a longer time frame, confirming their being potentially bound systems. Associations disappear on timescales comparable to hierarchically organized star-forming regions, suggesting that they are expanding systems. We find mass-independent cluster disruption in the inner region of NGC 628, while in the outer part of the galaxy there is little or no disruption. We observe faster disruption rates for low mass (≤104 {M}⊙ ) clusters, suggesting that a mass-dependent component is necessary to fully describe the YSC disruption process in NGC 628. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. Mass and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, P.; Suchyta, E.; Huff, E.; Hirsch, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Rykoff, E.; Gruen, D.; Armstrong, R.; Bacon, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bridle, S.; Clampitt, J.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; Jouvel, S.; Krause, E.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Patton, K.; Plazas, A.; Rowe, B.; Vikram, V.; Wilcox, H.; Young, J.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S. S.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Castander, F. J.; da Costa, L. N.; Cunha, C. E.; Depoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. F.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G. R.; Jarvis, M.; Karliner, I.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J. L.; Merritt, K. W.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B. D.; Reil, K.; Roe, N. A.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Sypniewski, A. J.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A.; Wechsler, R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-03-31

    We measure the weak-lensing masses and galaxy distributions of four massive galaxy clusters observed during the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey. This pathfinder study is meant to 1) validate the DECam imager for the task of measuring weak-lensing shapes, and 2) utilize DECam's large field of view to map out the clusters and their environments over 90 arcmin. We conduct a series of rigorous tests on astrometry, photometry, image quality, PSF modeling, and shear measurement accuracy to single out flaws in the data and also to identify the optimal data processing steps and parameters. We find Science Verification data from DECam to be suitable for the lensing analysis described in this paper. The PSF is generally well-behaved, but the modeling is rendered difficult by a flux-dependent PSF width and ellipticity. We employ photometric redshifts to distinguish between foreground and background galaxies, and a red-sequence cluster finder to provide cluster richness estimates and cluster-galaxy distributions. By fitting NFW profiles to the clusters in this study, we determine weak-lensing masses that are in agreement with previous work. For Abell 3261, we provide the first estimates of redshift, weak-lensing mass, and richness. In addition, the cluster-galaxy distributions indicate the presence of filamentary structures attached to 1E 0657-56 and RXC J2248.7-4431, stretching out as far as 1 degree (approximately 20 Mpc), showcasing the potential of DECam and DES for detailed studies of degree-scale features on the sky.

  6. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. VII. The Intrinsic Shapes of Low-luminosity Galaxies in the Core of the Virgo Cluster, and a Comparison with the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Ferrarese, Laura; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen; McConnacchie, Alan W.; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Emsellem, Eric; Mei, Simona; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Roediger, Joel; Simard, Luc; Boyer, Fred; Santos, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the intrinsic shapes of low-luminosity galaxies in the central 300 kpc of the Virgo Cluster using deep imaging obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). We build a sample of nearly 300 red-sequence cluster members in the yet-unexplored -14 families of triaxial models with normally distributed intrinsic ellipticities, E = 1 - C/A, and triaxialities, T = (A2 - B2)/(A2 - C2). We develop a Bayesian framework to explore the posterior distribution of the model parameters, which allows us to work directly on discrete data, and to account for individual, surface-brightness-dependent axis ratio uncertainties. For this population we infer a mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.43}-0.02+0.02 and a mean triaxiality \\bar{T} = {0.16}-0.06+0.07. This implies that faint Virgo galaxies are best described as a family of thick, nearly oblate spheroids with mean intrinsic axis ratios 1:0.94:0.57. The core of Virgo lacks highly elongated low-luminosity galaxies, with 95% of the population having q > 0.45. We additionally attempt a study of the intrinsic shapes of Local Group (LG) satellites of similar luminosities. For the LG population we infer a slightly larger mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.51}-0.06+0.07, and the paucity of objects with round apparent shapes translates into more triaxial mean shapes, 1:0.76:0.49. Numerical studies that follow the tidal evolution of satellites within LG-sized halos are in good agreement with the inferred shape distributions, but the mismatch for faint galaxies in Virgo highlights the need for more adequate simulations of this population in the cluster environment. We finally compare the intrinsic shapes of NGVS low-mass galaxies with samples of more massive quiescent systems, and with field, star-forming galaxies of similar luminosities. We find that the intrinsic flattening in this low-luminosity regime is almost independent of the environment in which the galaxy resides, but there is a hint

  7. Pairing call-response surveys and distance sampling for a mammalian carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sara J. K.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Underwood, Harold B.; Gibbs, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Density estimates accounting for differential animal detectability are difficult to acquire for wide-ranging and elusive species such as mammalian carnivores. Pairing distance sampling with call-response surveys may provide an efficient means of tracking changes in populations of coyotes (Canis latrans), a species of particular interest in the eastern United States. Blind field trials in rural New York State indicated 119-m linear error for triangulated coyote calls, and a 1.8-km distance threshold for call detectability, which was sufficient to estimate a detection function with precision using distance sampling. We conducted statewide road-based surveys with sampling locations spaced ≥6 km apart from June to August 2010. Each detected call (be it a single or group) counted as a single object, representing 1 territorial pair, because of uncertainty in the number of vocalizing animals. From 524 survey points and 75 detections, we estimated the probability of detecting a calling coyote to be 0.17 ± 0.02 SE, yielding a detection-corrected index of 0.75 pairs/10 km2 (95% CI: 0.52–1.1, 18.5% CV) for a minimum of 8,133 pairs across rural New York State. Importantly, we consider this an index rather than true estimate of abundance given the unknown probability of coyote availability for detection during our surveys. Even so, pairing distance sampling with call-response surveys provided a novel, efficient, and noninvasive means of monitoring populations of wide-ranging and elusive, albeit reliably vocal, mammalian carnivores. Our approach offers an effective new means of tracking species like coyotes, one that is readily extendable to other species and geographic extents, provided key assumptions of distance sampling are met.

  8. SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DETECTIONS OF THE PREVIOUSLY UNCONFIRMED PLANCK EARLY SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH CLUSTERS IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, K.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Aird, K. A.; Andersson, K.; Bazin, G.; Armstrong, R.; Desai, S.; Bonamente, M.; Brodwin, M.; Foley, R. J.; Clocchiatti, A.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P.; George, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present South Pole Telescope (SPT) observations of the five galaxy cluster candidates in the southern hemisphere which were reported as unconfirmed in the Planck Early Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (ESZ) sample. One cluster candidate, PLCKESZ G255.62-46.16, is located in the 2500 deg 2 SPT SZ survey region and was reported previously as SPT-CL J0411-4819. For the remaining four candidates, which are located outside of the SPT SZ survey region, we performed short, dedicated SPT observations. Each of these four candidates was strongly detected in maps made from these observations, with signal-to-noise ratios ranging from 6.3 to 13.8. We have observed these four candidates on the Magellan-Baade telescope and used these data to estimate cluster redshifts from the red sequence. Resulting redshifts range from 0.24 to 0.46. We report measurements of Y 0.'75 , the integrated Comptonization within a 0.'75 radius, for all five candidates. We also report X-ray luminosities calculated from ROSAT All-Sky Survey catalog counts, as well as optical and improved SZ coordinates for each candidate. The combination of SPT SZ measurements, optical red-sequence measurements, and X-ray luminosity estimates demonstrates that these five Planck ESZ cluster candidates do indeed correspond to real galaxy clusters with redshifts and observable properties consistent with the rest of the ESZ sample.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SPT-GMOS spectroscopy of gal. in massive clusters (Bayliss+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, M. B.; Zengo, K.; Ruel, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Bulbul, E.; Brodwin, M.; Capasso, R.; Chiu, I.-N.; McDonald, M.; Rapetti, D.; Saro, A.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Strazzullo, V.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zenteno, A.

    2017-10-01

    The majority of the data set used in this analysis comes from the SPT-GMOS spectroscopic survey (Bayliss+ 2016, J/ApJS/227/3), which consists of spectroscopic follow-up of 62 galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey. The full SPT-GMOS sample includes 2243 galaxy spectra, 1579 of which are cluster member galaxies. In addition to previously published galaxy spectroscopy, we also present the first publication of new spectroscopy in the fields of three SPT galaxy clusters. We observed SPT-CLJ0000-5748, SPT-CLJ0516-5430, and SPT-CLJ2337-5942 with the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) mounted on the Magellan-I (Baade) telescope at Las Campanas Observatory on the nights of 14-15 September 2012. (2 data files).

  10. Constraining the Scatter in the Mass-Richness Relation of maxBCG Clusters With Weak Lensing and X-ray Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U.; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago /Fermilab

    2009-08-03

    We measure the logarithmic scatter in mass at fixed richness for clusters in the maxBCG cluster catalog, an optically selected cluster sample drawn from SDSS imaging data. Our measurement is achieved by demanding consistency between available weak lensing and X-ray measurements of the maxBCG clusters, and the X-ray luminosity-mass relation inferred from the 400d X-ray cluster survey, a flux limited X-ray cluster survey. We find {sigma}{sub lnM|N{sub 200}} = 0.45{sub -0.18}{sup +0.20} (95%CL) at N{sub 200} {approx} 40, where N{sub 200} is the number of red sequence galaxies in a cluster. As a byproduct of our analysis, we also obtain a constraint on the correlation coefficient between lnL{sub X} and lnM at fixed richness, which is best expressed as a lower limit, r{sub L,M|N} {ge} 0.85 (95% CL). This is the first observational constraint placed on a correlation coefficient involving two different cluster mass tracers. We use our results to produce a state of the art estimate of the halo mass function at z = 0.23 - the median redshift of the maxBCG cluster sample - and find that it is consistent with the WMAP5 cosmology. Both the mass function data and its covariance matrix are presented.

  11. OMERACT-based fibromyalgia symptom subgroups: an exploratory cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Hoskin, Tanya L; Whipple, Mary O; Clauw, Daniel J; Barton, Debra L; Benzo, Roberto P; Williams, David A

    2014-10-16

    The aim of this study was to identify subsets of patients with fibromyalgia with similar symptom profiles using the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) core symptom domains. Female patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia and currently meeting fibromyalgia research survey criteria completed the Brief Pain Inventory, the 30-item Profile of Mood States, the Medical Outcomes Sleep Scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQ-R) and the Short Form-36 between 1 June 2011 and 31 October 2011. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was used to identify subgroups of patients with similar symptom profiles. To validate the results from this sample, hierarchical agglomerative clustering was repeated in an external sample of female patients with fibromyalgia with similar inclusion criteria. A total of 581 females with a mean age of 55.1 (range, 20.1 to 90.2) years were included. A four-cluster solution best fit the data, and each clustering variable differed significantly (P FIQ-R total scores (P = 0.0004)). In our study, we incorporated core OMERACT symptom domains, which allowed for clustering based on a comprehensive symptom profile. Although our exploratory cluster solution needs confirmation in a longitudinal study, this approach could provide a rationale to support the study of individualized clinical evaluation and intervention.

  12. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  13. Lot quality assurance sampling techniques in health surveys in developing countries: advantages and current constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, C F; Black, R E

    1991-01-01

    Traditional survey methods, which are generally costly and time-consuming, usually provide information at the regional or national level only. The utilization of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology, developed in industry for quality control, makes it possible to use small sample sizes when conducting surveys in small geographical or population-based areas (lots). This article describes the practical use of LQAS for conducting health surveys to monitor health programmes in developing countries. Following a brief description of the method, the article explains how to build a sample frame and conduct the sampling to apply LQAS under field conditions. A detailed description of the procedure for selecting a sampling unit to monitor the health programme and a sample size is given. The sampling schemes utilizing LQAS applicable to health surveys, such as simple- and double-sampling schemes, are discussed. The interpretation of the survey results and the planning of subsequent rounds of LQAS surveys are also discussed. When describing the applicability of LQAS in health surveys in developing countries, the article considers current limitations for its use by health planners in charge of health programmes, and suggests ways to overcome these limitations through future research. It is hoped that with increasing attention being given to industrial sampling plans in general, and LQAS in particular, their utilization to monitor health programmes will provide health planners in developing countries with powerful techniques to help them achieve their health programme targets.

  14. Science from a glimpse: Hubble SNAPshot observations of massive galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, A.; Ebeling, H.

    2018-06-01

    Hubble Space Telescope SNAPshot surveys of 86 X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.3 0.3. Examining the evolution of the slope of the cluster red sequence, we observe at best a slight decrease with redshift, indicating minimal age contribution since z ˜ 1. Congruent to previous studies' findings, we note that the two BCGs which are significantly bluer (≥5σ) than their clusters' red sequences reside in relaxed clusters and exhibit pronounced internal structure. Thanks to our targets' high X-ray luminosity, the subset of our sample observed with Chandra adds valuable leverage to the X-ray luminosity-optical richness relation, which, albeit with substantial scatter, is now clearly established from groups to extremely massive clusters of galaxies. We conclude that SNAPshot observations of MACS clusters stand to continue to play a vital pathfinder role for astrophysical investigations across the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

  15. CLUMP-3D: Testing ΛCDM with Galaxy Cluster Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Mauro; Umetsu, Keiichi; Ettori, Stefano; Sayers, Jack; Chiu, I.-Non; Meneghetti, Massimo; Vega-Ferrero, Jesús; Zitrin, Adi

    2018-06-01

    The ΛCDM model of structure formation makes strong predictions on the concentration and shape of dark matter (DM) halos, which are determined by mass accretion processes. Comparison between predicted shapes and observations provides a geometric test of the ΛCDM model. Accurate and precise measurements needs a full three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the cluster mass distribution. We accomplish this with a multi-probe 3D analysis of the X-ray regular Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) clusters combining strong and weak lensing, X-ray photometry and spectroscopy, and the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect (SZe). The cluster shapes and concentrations are consistent with ΛCDM predictions. The CLASH clusters are randomly oriented, as expected given the sample selection criteria. Shapes agree with numerical results for DM-only halos, which hints at baryonic physics being less effective in making halos rounder.

  16. UV TO FAR-IR CATALOG OF A GALAXY SAMPLE IN NEARBY CLUSTERS: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRENDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Jonathan D.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M., E-mail: jonatan@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a sample of cluster galaxies devoted to study the environmental influence on the star formation activity. This sample of galaxies inhabits in clusters showing a rich variety in their characteristics and have been observed by the SDSS-DR6 down to M{sub B} {approx} -18, and by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer AIS throughout sky regions corresponding to several megaparsecs. We assign the broadband and emission-line fluxes from ultraviolet to far-infrared to each galaxy performing an accurate spectral energy distribution for spectral fitting analysis. The clusters follow the general X-ray luminosity versus velocity dispersion trend of L{sub X} {proportional_to} {sigma}{sup 4.4}{sub c}. The analysis of the distributions of galaxy density counting up to the 5th nearest neighbor {Sigma}{sub 5} shows: (1) the virial regions and the cluster outskirts share a common range in the high density part of the distribution. This can be attributed to the presence of massive galaxy structures in the surroundings of virial regions. (2) The virial regions of massive clusters ({sigma}{sub c} > 550 km s{sup -1}) present a {Sigma}{sub 5} distribution statistically distinguishable ({approx}96%) from the corresponding distribution of low-mass clusters ({sigma}{sub c} < 550 km s{sup -1}). Both massive and low-mass clusters follow a similar density-radius trend, but the low-mass clusters avoid the high density extreme. We illustrate, with ABELL 1185, the environmental trends of galaxy populations. Maps of sky projected galaxy density show how low-luminosity star-forming galaxies appear distributed along more spread structures than their giant counterparts, whereas low-luminosity passive galaxies avoid the low-density environment. Giant passive and star-forming galaxies share rather similar sky regions with passive galaxies exhibiting more concentrated distributions.

  17. On the problems of PPS sampling in multi-character surveys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, which is on the problems of PPS sampling in multi-character surveys, compares the efficiency of some estimators used in PPSWR sampling for multiple characteristics. From a superpopulation model, we computed the expected variances of the different estimators for each of the first two finite populations ...

  18. Composition and genomic organization of arthropod Hox clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ryan M; Grbić, Miodrag; Nagy, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    The ancestral arthropod is believed to have had a clustered arrangement of ten Hox genes. Within arthropods, Hox gene mutations result in transformation of segment identities. Despite the fact that variation in segment number/character was common in the diversification of arthropods, few examples of Hox gene gains/losses have been correlated with morphological evolution. Furthermore, a full appreciation of the variation in the genomic arrangement of Hox genes in extant arthropods has not been recognized, as genome sequences from each major arthropod clade have not been reported until recently. Initial genomic analysis of the chelicerate Tetranychus urticae suggested that loss of Hox genes and Hox gene clustering might be more common than previously assumed. To further characterize the genomic evolution of arthropod Hox genes, we compared the genomic arrangement and general characteristics of Hox genes from representative taxa from each arthropod subphylum. In agreement with others, we find arthropods generally contain ten Hox genes arranged in a common orientation in the genome, with an increasing number of sampled species missing either Hox3 or abdominal-A orthologs. The genomic clustering of Hox genes in species we surveyed varies significantly, ranging from 0.3 to 13.6 Mb. In all species sampled, arthropod Hox genes are dispersed in the genome relative to the vertebrate Mus musculus. Differences in Hox cluster size arise from variation in the number of intervening genes, intergenic spacing, and the size of introns and UTRs. In the arthropods surveyed, Hox gene duplications are rare and four microRNAs are, in general, conserved in similar genomic positions relative to the Hox genes. The tightly clustered Hox complexes found in the vertebrates are not evident within arthropods, and differential patterns of Hox gene dispersion are found throughout the arthropods. The comparative genomic data continue to support an ancestral arthropod Hox cluster of ten genes with

  19. A Systematic Review of Published Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys Collecting Behavioral and Biologic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa G; Hakim, Avi J; Dittrich, Samantha; Burnett, Janet; Kim, Evelyn; White, Richard G

    2016-08-01

    Reporting key details of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey implementation and analysis is essential for assessing the quality of RDS surveys. RDS is both a recruitment and analytic method and, as such, it is important to adequately describe both aspects in publications. We extracted data from peer-reviewed literature published through September, 2013 that reported collected biological specimens using RDS. We identified 151 eligible peer-reviewed articles describing 222 surveys conducted in seven regions throughout the world. Most published surveys reported basic implementation information such as survey city, country, year, population sampled, interview method, and final sample size. However, many surveys did not report essential methodological and analytical information for assessing RDS survey quality, including number of recruitment sites, seeds at start and end, maximum number of waves, and whether data were adjusted for network size. Understanding the quality of data collection and analysis in RDS is useful for effectively planning public health service delivery and funding priorities.

  20. THE DETECTION AND STATISTICS OF GIANT ARCS BEHIND CLASH CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bingxiao; Zheng, Wei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Meneghetti, Massimo; Koekemoer, Anton [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, and INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Seitz, Stella [Universitaets-Sternwarte, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Zitrin, Adi [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Merten, Julian [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Maoz, Dani [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Frye, Brenda [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Umetsu, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Vega, Jesus, E-mail: bxu6@jhu.edu [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-01

    We developed an algorithm to find and characterize gravitationally lensed galaxies (arcs) to perform a comparison of the observed and simulated arc abundance. Observations are from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Simulated CLASH images are created using the MOKA package and also clusters selected from the high-resolution, hydrodynamical simulations, MUSIC, over the same mass and redshift range as the CLASH sample. The algorithm's arc elongation accuracy, completeness, and false positive rate are determined and used to compute an estimate of the true arc abundance. We derive a lensing efficiency of 4 ± 1 arcs (with length ≥6″ and length-to-width ratio ≥7) per cluster for the X-ray-selected CLASH sample, 4 ± 1 arcs per cluster for the MOKA-simulated sample, and 3 ± 1 arcs per cluster for the MUSIC-simulated sample. The observed and simulated arc statistics are in full agreement. We measure the photometric redshifts of all detected arcs and find a median redshift z{sub s} = 1.9 with 33% of the detected arcs having z{sub s} > 3. We find that the arc abundance does not depend strongly on the source redshift distribution but is sensitive to the mass distribution of the dark matter halos (e.g., the c–M relation). Our results show that consistency between the observed and simulated distributions of lensed arc sizes and axial ratios can be achieved by using cluster-lensing simulations that are carefully matched to the selection criteria used in the observations.

  1. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Clusters: from Pixels to Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The story of the origin and evolution of our Universe is told, equivalently, by space-time itself and by the structures that grow inside of it. Clusters of galaxies are the frontier of bottom-up structure formation. They are the most massive objects to have collapsed at the present epoch. By that virtue, their abundance and structural parameters are highly sensitive to the composition and evolution of the Universe. The most common probe of cluster cosmology, abundance, uses samples of clusters selected by some observable. Applying a mass-observable relation (MOR), cosmological parameters can be constrained by comparing the sample to predicted cluster abundances as a function of observable and redshift. Arguably, however, cluster probes have not yet entered the era of per cent level precision cosmology. The primary reason for this is our imperfect understanding of the MORs. The overall normalization, the slope of mass vs. observable, the redshift evolution, and the degree and correlation of intrinsic scatters of observables at fixed mass have to be constrained for interpreting abundances correctly. Mass measurement of clusters by means of the differential deflection of light from background sources in their gravitational field, i.e. weak lensing, is a powerful approach for achieving this. This thesis presents new methods for and scientific results of weak lensing measurements of clusters of galaxies. The former include, on the data reduction side, (i) the correction of CCD images for non-linear effects due to the electric fields of accumulated charges and (ii) a method for masking artifact features in sets of overlapping images of the sky by comparison