Advances in Bayesian Model Based Clustering Using Particle Learning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merl, D M
2009-11-19
Recent work by Carvalho, Johannes, Lopes and Polson and Carvalho, Lopes, Polson and Taddy introduced a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) alternative to traditional iterative Monte Carlo strategies (e.g. MCMC and EM) for Bayesian inference for a large class of dynamic models. The basis of SMC techniques involves representing the underlying inference problem as one of state space estimation, thus giving way to inference via particle filtering. The key insight of Carvalho et al was to construct the sequence of filtering distributions so as to make use of the posterior predictive distribution of the observable, a distribution usually only accessible in certain Bayesian settings. Access to this distribution allows a reversal of the usual propagate and resample steps characteristic of many SMC methods, thereby alleviating to a large extent many problems associated with particle degeneration. Furthermore, Carvalho et al point out that for many conjugate models the posterior distribution of the static variables can be parametrized in terms of [recursively defined] sufficient statistics of the previously observed data. For models where such sufficient statistics exist, particle learning as it is being called, is especially well suited for the analysis of streaming data do to the relative invariance of its algorithmic complexity with the number of data observations. Through a particle learning approach, a statistical model can be fit to data as the data is arriving, allowing at any instant during the observation process direct quantification of uncertainty surrounding underlying model parameters. Here we describe the use of a particle learning approach for fitting a standard Bayesian semiparametric mixture model as described in Carvalho, Lopes, Polson and Taddy. In Section 2 we briefly review the previously presented particle learning algorithm for the case of a Dirichlet process mixture of multivariate normals. In Section 3 we describe several novel extensions to the original
Combinatorial Clustering Algorithm of Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Cloud Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mi-Yuan Shan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a combinatorial clustering algorithm of cloud model and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (COCQPSO to solve the stochastic problem. The algorithm employs a novel probability model as well as a permutation-based local search method. We are setting the parameters of COCQPSO based on the design of experiment. In the comprehensive computational study, we scrutinize the performance of COCQPSO on a set of widely used benchmark instances. By benchmarking combinatorial clustering algorithm with state-of-the-art algorithms, we can show that its performance compares very favorably. The fuzzy combinatorial optimization algorithm of cloud model and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (FCOCQPSO in vague sets (IVSs is more expressive than the other fuzzy sets. Finally, numerical examples show the clustering effectiveness of COCQPSO and FCOCQPSO clustering algorithms which are extremely remarkable.
Smoothed Particle Inference: A Kilo-Parametric Method for X-ray Galaxy Cluster Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterson, John R.; Marshall, P.J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Andersson, K.; /Stockholm U. /SLAC
2005-08-05
We propose an ambitious new method that models the intracluster medium in clusters of galaxies as a set of X-ray emitting smoothed particles of plasma. Each smoothed particle is described by a handful of parameters including temperature, location, size, and elemental abundances. Hundreds to thousands of these particles are used to construct a model cluster of galaxies, with the appropriate complexity estimated from the data quality. This model is then compared iteratively with X-ray data in the form of adaptively binned photon lists via a two-sample likelihood statistic and iterated via Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The complex cluster model is propagated through the X-ray instrument response using direct sampling Monte Carlo methods. Using this approach the method can reproduce many of the features observed in the X-ray emission in a less assumption-dependent way that traditional analyses, and it allows for a more detailed characterization of the density, temperature, and metal abundance structure of clusters. Multi-instrument X-ray analyses and simultaneous X-ray, Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ), and lensing analyses are a straight-forward extension of this methodology. Significant challenges still exist in understanding the degeneracy in these models and the statistical noise induced by the complexity of the models.
Particle modeling of transport of α-ray generated ion clusters in air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tong, Lizhu; Nanbu, Kenichi; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi
2006-01-01
A particle model is developed using the test-particle Monte Carlo method to study the transport properties of α-ray generated ion clusters in a flow of air. An efficient ion-molecule collision model is proposed to simulate the collisions between ion and air molecule. The simulations are performed for a steady state of ion transport in a circular pipe. In the steady state, generation of ions is balanced with such losses of ions as absorption of the measuring sensor or pipe wall and disappearance by positive-negative ion recombination. The calculated ion current to the measuring sensor agrees well with the previous measured data. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, S G; Martins, M L
2010-01-01
Aggregation of animal cells in culture comprises a series of motility, collision and adhesion processes of basic relevance for tissue engineering, bioseparations, oncology research and in vitro drug testing. In the present paper, a cluster–cluster aggregation model with stochastic particle replication and chemotactically driven motility is investigated as a model for the growth of animal cells in culture. The focus is on the scaling laws governing the aggregation kinetics. Our simulations reveal that in the absence of chemotaxy the mean cluster size and the total number of clusters scale in time as stretched exponentials dependent on the particle replication rate. Also, the dynamical cluster size distribution functions are represented by a scaling relation in which the scaling function involves a stretched exponential of the time. The introduction of chemoattraction among the particles leads to distribution functions decaying as power laws with exponents that decrease in time. The fractal dimensions and size distributions of the simulated clusters are qualitatively discussed in terms of those determined experimentally for several normal and tumoral cell lines growing in culture. It is shown that particle replication and chemotaxy account for the simplest cluster size distributions of cellular aggregates observed in culture
Multiparticle correlations and identical particle effects in the independent cluster emission model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranft, J.
1977-01-01
In the nucleon approach to phenomenological applications, the model is compared to many different kinds of experimental data. The comparison indicates, that the model is qualitatively consistent with all available data. Analysis indicates, that identical particle effects due to the Bose statistics are present in data on joint rapidity-asimuthal correlations near Δy=ΔPHI=0. A new approach to this problem is the uncorrelated jet model with the Bose statistics. This model confirms the previous results. Furthermore, taking isospin conservation into account, the Bose correlations are predicted in π + π - channels, which should be most easily detectable in the decay of heavy resonances J/PSI
Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters as Probes of Particle ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Giant radio halos in galaxy clusters probe mechanisms of particle acceleration connected with cluster merger events. Shocks and turbulence are driven in the inter-galactic medium (IGM) during clusters mergers and may have a deep impact on the non-thermal properties of galaxy clusters. Models of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brehm, Sascha
2009-01-01
Two-particle excitations, such as spin and charge excitations, play a key role in high-T c cuprate superconductors (HTSC). Due to the antiferromagnetism of the parent compound the magnetic excitations are supposed to be directly related to the mechanism of superconductivity. In particular, the so-called resonance mode is a promising candidate for the pairing glue, a bosonic excitation mediating the electronic pairing. In addition, its interactions with itinerant electrons may be responsible for some of the observed properties of HTSC. Hence, getting to the bottom of the resonance mode is crucial for a deeper understanding of the cuprate materials. To analyze the corresponding two-particle correlation functions we develop in the present thesis a new, non-perturbative and parameter-free technique for T=0 which is based on the Variational Cluster Approach (VCA, an embedded cluster method for one-particle Green's functions). Guided by the spirit of the VCA we extract an effective electron-hole vertex from an isolated cluster and use a fully renormalized bubble susceptibility χ 0 including the VCA one-particle propagators. Within our new approach, the magnetic excitations of HTSC are shown to be reproduced for the Hubbard model within the relevant strong-coupling regime. Exceptionally, the famous resonance mode occurring in the underdoped regime within the superconductivity-induced gap of spin-flip electron-hole excitations is obtained. Its intensity and hourglass dispersion are in good overall agreement with experiments. Furthermore, characteristic features such as the position in energy of the resonance mode and the difference of the imaginary part of the susceptibility in the superconducting and the normal states are in accord with Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) experiments. For the first time, a strongly-correlated parameter-free calculation revealed these salient magnetic properties supporting the S=1 magnetic exciton scenario for the resonance mode. Besides
Nonthermal Particles and Radiation Produced by Cluster Merger Shocks
2003-09-10
NONTHERMAL PARTICLES AND RADIATION PRODUCED BY CLUSTER MERGER SHOCKS Robert C. Berrington and Charles D. Dermer Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7653...of the merging cluster and is assumed to be constant as the shock propagates outward from the cluster center. In this paper , we model the cluster ...emission in the60–250 eV band for a number of clus- ters. These clusters include Virgo , Coma, Fornax, A2199, A1795, and A4059 (Lieu et al. 1996a, 1996b
α-cluster model for the multiple emission of particles in the reaction 90Zr (e, α)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guevara, Y.M.; Garcia, C.; Hoyos, O.E.R.; Rodriguez, T. E.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.
2011-01-01
We present a methodology based on the model of photoabsorption by a cluster N- α for a better understanding of the puzzling steady increase behavior of the 90 Zr (e, α) yield obtained experimentally in the energy range of the giant dipole resonance (RDG) and the quasi-deuteron (QD).The calculation takes into account the emission of protons, neutrons and alpha particles in the framework of the reaction (which was used for the Intranuclear Cascade model (MCMC)). The statistical decay of the compound nucleus is described by Monte Carlo techniques in terms of competition between evaporation of particles (p, n, d, α, 3 He t) and nuclear fission, but for our specific case (the reaction and + Zr 90 in an energy range between 20 and 140 MeV) the fission channel does not have a high probability of occurrence. The results reproduce quite successfully the experimental data, suggesting that pre-equilibrium emission of alpha particles are essential for the interpretation of this exotic increase of the cross sections. (Author)
Haghighi, Babak; Choi, Jiwoong; Choi, Sanghun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long
2017-11-01
Accurate modeling of small airway diameters in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a crucial step toward patient-specific CFD simulations of regional airflow and particle transport. We proposed to use computed tomography (CT) imaging-based cluster membership to identify structural characteristics of airways in each cluster and use them to develop cluster-specific airway diameter models. We analyzed 284 COPD smokers with airflow limitation, and 69 healthy controls. We used multiscale imaging-based cluster analysis (MICA) to classify smokers into 4 clusters. With representative cluster patients and healthy controls, we performed multiple regressions to quantify variation of airway diameters by generation as well as by cluster. The cluster 2 and 4 showed more diameter decrease as generation increases than other clusters. The cluster 4 had more rapid decreases of airway diameters in the upper lobes, while cluster 2 in the lower lobes. We then used these regression models to estimate airway diameters in CT unresolved regions to obtain pressure-volume hysteresis curves using a 1D resistance model. These 1D flow solutions can be used to provide the patient-specific boundary conditions for 3D CFD simulations in COPD patients. Support for this study was provided, in part, by NIH Grants U01-HL114494, R01-HL112986 and S10-RR022421.
Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters as Probes of Particle ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
scenario still remain poorly understood. ... to test models with future observations. ... A popular scenario for the origin of radio halos assumes that relativis- ..... based on particle acceleration by merger-driven turbulence in galaxy clusters shows.
Lawson, Andrew B
2002-01-01
Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...
Nuclear clustering - a cluster core model study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul Selvi, G.; Nandhini, N.; Balasubramaniam, M.
2015-01-01
Nuclear clustering, similar to other clustering phenomenon in nature is a much warranted study, since it would help us in understanding the nature of binding of the nucleons inside the nucleus, closed shell behaviour when the system is highly deformed, dynamics and structure at extremes. Several models account for the clustering phenomenon of nuclei. We present in this work, a cluster core model study of nuclear clustering in light mass nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dai, Lei [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Guo, Qianying [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China); Liu, Yongchang, E-mail: licmtju@163.com [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China); Yu, Liming; Li, Huijun [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China)
2016-09-30
This article describes the microstructural evolution and tensile properties of Fe-Cr model alloy strengthened by nano-scale NbC particles. According to the results obtained from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, the bcc ultrafine grains and the disordered phase of Nb-rich nano-clusters were observed in the milled powders. The hot pressing (HP) resulted in a nearly equiaxed ferritic grains and dispersed nano-scale NbC (~8 nm) particles. The microstructure studies reveal that the formation of NbC nanoparticles is composed of nucleation and growth of the Nb-rich nano-clusters involving diffusion of their component. At room temperature the material exhibits an ultimate tensile strength of 700 MPa, yield strength of 650 MPa, and total elongation of 11.7 pct. The fracture surface studies reveal that a typical ductile fracture mode has occurred during tensile test.
Price Formation Based on Particle-Cluster Aggregation
Wang, Shijun; Zhang, Changshui
In the present work, we propose a microscopic model of financial markets based on particle-cluster aggregation on a two-dimensional small-world information network in order to simulate the dynamics of the stock markets. "Stylized facts" of the financial market time series, such as fat-tail distribution of returns, volatility clustering and multifractality, are observed in the model. The results of the model agree with empirical data taken from historical records of the daily closures of the NYSE composite index.
On the clustering of particles in an expanding Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efstathiou, G.; Eastwood, J.W.
1981-01-01
The clustering of particles is investigated in Friedmann models of the Universe using 1000- and 20 000-body numerical simulations. The results of these computations are analysed in terms of the two- and three-point correlation functions, the mean relative peculiar velocity between particle pairs and the mean square peculiar velocity dispersion between pairs. In the case of Einstein-de Sitter models it is found that on scales corresponding to the transition region the results are in rough agreement with simple analytic treatments based on the homogeneous spherical cluster models for the collapse of protoclusters. The results are in conflict with the kinetic theory calculations of Davis and Peebles who studied the problem in the case of an Einstein-de Sitter Universe and found good agreement with observational data. These authors suggest that clusters develop substantial non-radial motions whilst they are still small density fluctuations, so that when a cluster fragments out of the general Hubble expansion, it is already virialized. This 'previrialization' effect does not appear to occur in the numerical models described here. The effects of particle discreteness and two-body relaxation, which are particularly important in the N-body models but neglected in the approach of Davis and Peebles are also examined. (author)
Alpha particle cluster states in (fp)-shell nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merchant, A.C.
1987-07-01
Alpha particle cluster structure is known experimentally to persist throughout the mass range 16 ≤ A ≤ 20, and has been very successfully described in this region in terms of the Buck-Dover-Vary local potential cluster model. It is argued that an analogous cluster structure should be present in nuclei at the beginning of the (fp) - shell, and the available experimental data are examined to determine likely alpha particle cluster state candidates in the mass range 40 ≤ A ≤ 44. Calculations of the cluster state spectra and mean square cluster-core separation distances (which may be readily used to evaluate E2 electromagnetic transition rates) for sup(40)Ca, sup(42)Ca, sup(42)Sc, sup(43)Sc, sup(43)Ti and sup(44)Ti using the above mentioned model are presented, and compared with experimental measurements where possible. The agreement between theory and experiment is generally good (although inferior to that obtained in the (sd)-shell) and points to the desirability of an extension and improvement of the measurements of the properties of the excited states in these nuclei. (author)
Cluster-cluster aggregation of Ising dipolar particles under thermal noise
Suzuki, Masaru; Kun, Ferenc; Ito, Nobuyasu
2009-01-01
The cluster-cluster aggregation processes of Ising dipolar particles under thermal noise are investigated in the dilute condition. As the temperature increases, changes in the typical structures of clusters are observed from chainlike (D1
Gravity influence on the clustering of charged particles in turbulence
Lu, Jiang; Nordsiek, Hansen; Shaw, Raymond
2010-11-01
We report results aimed at studying the interactions of bidisperse charged inertial particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, under the influence of gravitational settling. We theoretically and experimentally investigate the impact of gravititational settling on particle clustering, which is quantified by the radial distribution function (RDF). The theory is based on a drift-diffusion (Fokker-Planck) model with gravitational settling appearing as a diffusive term depending on a dimensionless settling parameter. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory chamber with nearly homogeneous, isotropic turbulence in which the flow is seeded with charged particles and digital holography used to obtain 3D particle positions and velocities. The derived radial distribution function for bidisperse settling charged particles is compared to the experimental RDFs.
Clustering of low-valence particles: structure and kinetics.
Markova, Olga; Alberts, Jonathan; Munro, Edwin; Lenne, Pierre-François
2014-08-01
We compute the structure and kinetics of two systems of low-valence particles with three or six freely oriented bonds in two dimensions. The structure of clusters formed by trivalent particles is complex with loops and holes, while hexavalent particles self-organize into regular and compact structures. We identify the elementary structures which compose the clusters of trivalent particles. At initial stages of clustering, the clusters of trivalent particles grow with a power-law time dependence. Yet at longer times fusion and fission of clusters equilibrates and clusters form a heterogeneous phase with polydispersed sizes. These results emphasize the role of valence in the kinetics and stability of finite-size clusters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horiuchi, H.; Ikeda, K.
1986-01-01
This article reviews the development of the cluster model study. The stress is put on two points; one is how the cluster structure has come to be regarded as a fundamental structure in light nuclei together with the shell-model structure, and the other is how at present the cluster model is extended to and connected with the studies of the various subjects many of which are in the neighbouring fields. The authors the present the main theme with detailed explanations of the fundamentals of the microscopic cluster model which have promoted the development of the cluster mode. Examples of the microscopic cluster model study of light nuclear structure are given
Cluster analysis of rural, urban, and curbside atmospheric particle size data.
Beddows, David C S; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M
2009-07-01
Particle size is a key determinant of the hazard posed by airborne particles. Continuous multivariate particle size data have been collected using aerosol particle size spectrometers sited at four locations within the UK: Harwell (Oxfordshire); Regents Park (London); British Telecom Tower (London); and Marylebone Road (London). These data have been analyzed using k-means cluster analysis, deduced to be the preferred cluster analysis technique, selected from an option of four partitional cluster packages, namelythe following: Fuzzy; k-means; k-median; and Model-Based clustering. Using cluster validation indices k-means clustering was shown to produce clusters with the smallest size, furthest separation, and importantly the highest degree of similarity between the elements within each partition. Using k-means clustering, the complexity of the data set is reduced allowing characterization of the data according to the temporal and spatial trends of the clusters. At Harwell, the rural background measurement site, the cluster analysis showed that the spectra may be differentiated by their modal-diameters and average temporal trends showing either high counts during the day-time or night-time hours. Likewise for the urban sites, the cluster analysis differentiated the spectra into a small number of size distributions according their modal-diameter, the location of the measurement site, and time of day. The responsible aerosol emission, formation, and dynamic processes can be inferred according to the cluster characteristics and correlation to concurrently measured meteorological, gas phase, and particle phase measurements.
Reversible Formation of Silver Clusters and Particles in Polymer Films
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gaddy, G. A; Korchev, A. S; McLain, Jason L; Black, J. R; Mills, German; Bratcher, Matthew S; Slaten, B. L
2004-01-01
.... The formation of Ag clusters and particles is monitored using UV-VIS spectroscopy. Films treated with H2O2 exhibit bleaching of the UV-VIS signals corresponding to Ag clusters and Ag particles that were generated during the photo reduction...
Blind Quantum Signature with Controlled Four-Particle Cluster States
Li, Wei; Shi, Jinjing; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying
2017-08-01
A novel blind quantum signature scheme based on cluster states is introduced. Cluster states are a type of multi-qubit entangled states and it is more immune to decoherence than other entangled states. The controlled four-particle cluster states are created by acting controlled-Z gate on particles of four-particle cluster states. The presented scheme utilizes the above entangled states and simplifies the measurement basis to generate and verify the signature. Security analysis demonstrates that the scheme is unconditional secure. It can be employed to E-commerce systems in quantum scenario.
Scaling of cluster growth for coagulating active particles
Cremer, Peet; Löwen, Hartmut
2014-02-01
Cluster growth in a coagulating system of active particles (such as microswimmers in a solvent) is studied by theory and simulation. In contrast to passive systems, the net velocity of a cluster can have various scalings dependent on the propulsion mechanism and alignment of individual particles. Additionally, the persistence length of the cluster trajectory typically increases with size. As a consequence, a growing cluster collects neighboring particles in a very efficient way and thus amplifies its growth further. This results in unusual large growth exponents for the scaling of the cluster size with time and, for certain conditions, even leads to "explosive" cluster growth where the cluster becomes macroscopic in a finite amount of time.
Free fall characteristics of particle clusters in a vertical pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakashima, K; Johno, Y; Shigematsu, T
2009-01-01
When powder forms a weak interaction particle cluster in a gas-solid flow, the rate of fall of the cluster exceeds the terminal velocity of the individual particles (Slack, 1963; Marzocchella et al., 1991). However, the relationship between the unsteady characteristics of the free-fall of the particle cluster and the geometric condition of the experiment is not clear. We performed a simple experiment in which powder of a certain mass falls in a vertical pipe. When the powder falls in the vertical pipe, the distribution length of the powder expands, and the particle volume fraction is dense in the lower part, and is thin in the upper part. The fall velocity of the lower edge of the powder cluster and the flow rate of air generated by the powder fall were measured. We obtained the following results. The relative velocity of free-fall of the particle cluster has no relation to the individual particle diameters. The characteristic of a particle cluster exists unless the cluster has very high void fraction.
Improved multi-objective clustering algorithm using particle swarm optimization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Congcong Gong
Full Text Available Multi-objective clustering has received widespread attention recently, as it can obtain more accurate and reasonable solution. In this paper, an improved multi-objective clustering framework using particle swarm optimization (IMCPSO is proposed. Firstly, a novel particle representation for clustering problem is designed to help PSO search clustering solutions in continuous space. Secondly, the distribution of Pareto set is analyzed. The analysis results are applied to the leader selection strategy, and make algorithm avoid trapping in local optimum. Moreover, a clustering solution-improved method is proposed, which can increase the efficiency in searching clustering solution greatly. In the experiments, 28 datasets are used and nine state-of-the-art clustering algorithms are compared, the proposed method is superior to other approaches in the evaluation index ARI.
Improved multi-objective clustering algorithm using particle swarm optimization.
Gong, Congcong; Chen, Haisong; He, Weixiong; Zhang, Zhanliang
2017-01-01
Multi-objective clustering has received widespread attention recently, as it can obtain more accurate and reasonable solution. In this paper, an improved multi-objective clustering framework using particle swarm optimization (IMCPSO) is proposed. Firstly, a novel particle representation for clustering problem is designed to help PSO search clustering solutions in continuous space. Secondly, the distribution of Pareto set is analyzed. The analysis results are applied to the leader selection strategy, and make algorithm avoid trapping in local optimum. Moreover, a clustering solution-improved method is proposed, which can increase the efficiency in searching clustering solution greatly. In the experiments, 28 datasets are used and nine state-of-the-art clustering algorithms are compared, the proposed method is superior to other approaches in the evaluation index ARI.
Cluster Based Text Classification Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock
2011-01-01
We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases...... the accuracy at the same time. The test example is classified using simpler and smaller model. The training examples in a particular cluster share the common vocabulary. At the time of clustering, we do not take into account the labels of the training examples. After the clusters have been created......, the classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Boning [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Herbold, Eric B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homel, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regueiro, Richard A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2015-12-01
An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.
A Novel Cluster Head Selection Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Particle Swarm Optimization.
Ni, Qingjian; Pan, Qianqian; Du, Huimin; Cao, Cen; Zhai, Yuqing
2017-01-01
An important objective of wireless sensor network is to prolong the network life cycle, and topology control is of great significance for extending the network life cycle. Based on previous work, for cluster head selection in hierarchical topology control, we propose a solution based on fuzzy clustering preprocessing and particle swarm optimization. More specifically, first, fuzzy clustering algorithm is used to initial clustering for sensor nodes according to geographical locations, where a sensor node belongs to a cluster with a determined probability, and the number of initial clusters is analyzed and discussed. Furthermore, the fitness function is designed considering both the energy consumption and distance factors of wireless sensor network. Finally, the cluster head nodes in hierarchical topology are determined based on the improved particle swarm optimization. Experimental results show that, compared with traditional methods, the proposed method achieved the purpose of reducing the mortality rate of nodes and extending the network life cycle.
Production of metal particles and clusters
Mcmanus, S. P.
1982-01-01
The feasibility of producing novel metals or metal clusters in a low gravity environment was studied. The production of coordinately unsaturated metal carbonyls by thermolysis or photolysis of stable metal carbonyls has the potential to generate novel catalysts by this technique. Laser irradiation of available metal carbonyls was investigated. It is found that laser induced decomposition of metal carbonyls is feasible for producing a variety of coordinately unsaturated species. Formation of clustered species does occur but is hampered by weak metal-metal bonds.
Teleportation of Two-Particle Entangled State via Cluster State
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Da-Chuang; CAO Zhuo-Liang
2007-01-01
In this paper,two schemes for teleporting an unknown two-particle entangled state from the sender (Alice)to the receiver (Bob) via a four-particle entangled cluster state are proposed.In these two schemes,the unknown twoparticle entangled state can be teleported perfectly.The successful probabilities and fidelities of the schemes can reach unity.
Cluster Correlation in Mixed Models
Gardini, A.; Bonometto, S. A.; Murante, G.; Yepes, G.
2000-10-01
We evaluate the dependence of the cluster correlation length, rc, on the mean intercluster separation, Dc, for three models with critical matter density, vanishing vacuum energy (Λ=0), and COBE normalization: a tilted cold dark matter (tCDM) model (n=0.8) and two blue mixed models with two light massive neutrinos, yielding Ωh=0.26 and 0.14 (MDM1 and MDM2, respectively). All models approach the observational value of σ8 (and hence the observed cluster abundance) and are consistent with the observed abundance of damped Lyα systems. Mixed models have a motivation in recent results of neutrino physics; they also agree with the observed value of the ratio σ8/σ25, yielding the spectral slope parameter Γ, and nicely fit Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS) reconstructed spectra. We use parallel AP3M simulations, performed in a wide box (of side 360 h-1 Mpc) and with high mass and distance resolution, enabling us to build artificial samples of clusters, whose total number and mass range allow us to cover the same Dc interval inspected through Automatic Plate Measuring Facility (APM) and Abell cluster clustering data. We find that the tCDM model performs substantially better than n=1 critical density CDM models. Our main finding, however, is that mixed models provide a surprisingly good fit to cluster clustering data.
Particle clustering within a two-phase turbulent pipe jet
Lau, Timothy; Nathan, Graham
2016-11-01
A comprehensive study of the influence of Stokes number on the instantaneous distributions of particles within a well-characterised, two-phase, turbulent pipe jet in a weak co-flow was performed. The experiments utilised particles with a narrow size distribution, resulting in a truly mono-disperse particle-laden jet. The jet Reynolds number, based on the pipe diameter, was in the range 10000 developed technique. The results show that particle clustering is significantly influenced by the exit Stokes number. Particle clustering was found to be significant for 0 . 3 financial contributions by the Australian Research Council (Grant No. DP120102961) and the Australian Renewable Energy Agency (Grant No. USO034).
Influence of gravity on inertial particle clustering in turbulence
Lu, J.; Nordsiek, H.; Saw, E. W.; Fugal, J. P.; Shaw, R. A.
2008-11-01
We report results from experiments aimed at studying inertial particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, under the influence of gravitational settling. Conditions are selected to investigate the transition from negligible role of gravity to gravitationally dominated, as is expected to occur in atmospheric clouds. We measure droplet clustering, relative velocities, and the distribution of collision angles in this range. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory chamber with nearly homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. The turbulence is characterized using LDV and 2-frame holographic particle tracking velocimetry. We seed the flow with particles of various Stokes and Froude numbers and use digital holography to obtain 3D particle positions and velocities. From particle positions, we investigate the impact of gravity on inertial clustering through the calculation of the radial distribution function and we compare to computational results and other recent experiments.
Antisymmetrized four-body wave function and coexistence of single particle and cluster structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasakawa, T.
1979-01-01
It is shown that each Yakubovski component of the totally antisymmetric four-body wave function satisfies the same equation as the unantisymmetric wave function. In the antisymmetric total wave function, the wave functions belonging to the same kind of partition are totally antisymmetric among themselves. This leads to the coexistence of cluster models, including the single particle model as a special case of the cluster model, as a sum
Cluster model in reaction theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.
1979-01-01
A recent work by Rosenberg on cluster states in reaction theory is reexamined and generalized to include energies above the threshold for breakup into four composite fragments. The problem of elastic scattering between two interacting composite fragments is reduced to an equivalent two-particle problem with an effective potential to be determined by extremum principles. For energies above the threshold for breakup into three or four composite fragments effective few-particle potentials are introduced and the problem is reduced to effective three- and four-particle problems. The equivalent three-particle equation contains effective two- and three-particle potentials. The effective potential in the equivalent four-particle equation has two-, three-, and four-body connected parts and a piece which has two independent two-body connected parts. In the equivalent three-particle problem we show how to include the effect of a weak three-body potential perturbatively. In the equivalent four-body problem an approximate simple calculational scheme is given when one neglects the four-particle potential the effect of which is presumably very small
Positron Emission Tomography Particle tracking using cluster analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gundogdu, O.
2004-01-01
Positron Emission Particle Tracking was successfully used in a wide range of industrial applications. This technique primarily uses a single positron emitting tracer particle. However, using multiple particles would provide more comparative information about the physical processes taking place in a system such as mixing or fluidised beds. In this paper, a unique method that enables us to track more than one particle is presented. This method is based on the midpoint of the closest distance between two trajectories or coincidence vectors. The technique presented in this paper employs a clustering method
Positron Emission Tomography Particle tracking using cluster analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gundogdu, O. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk
2004-12-01
Positron Emission Particle Tracking was successfully used in a wide range of industrial applications. This technique primarily uses a single positron emitting tracer particle. However, using multiple particles would provide more comparative information about the physical processes taking place in a system such as mixing or fluidised beds. In this paper, a unique method that enables us to track more than one particle is presented. This method is based on the midpoint of the closest distance between two trajectories or coincidence vectors. The technique presented in this paper employs a clustering method.
A cluster expansion for bound three-alpha particles as a three-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, A.
1981-08-01
A three-body model is proposed to study the nuclear bound states. The nucleus is described as a bound state of three clusters. A cluster expansion is introduced for the three cluster bound state problem. The present integral equations are treated by simple approximate solutions, which lead to effective potentials by using the present cluster expansion. The 12 C nucleus is described as a three-alpha particle bound state. The binding energy of 12 C is calculated numerically using the present cluster expansion as bound three-alpha clusters. The present three-body cluster expansion calculations are very near to the exact three-body calculations using separable potentials. The present theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. (author)
Single-cluster dynamics for the random-cluster model
Deng, Y.; Qian, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.
2009-01-01
We formulate a single-cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the random-cluster model. This algorithm is a generalization of the Wolff single-cluster method for the q-state Potts model to noninteger values q>1. Its results for static quantities are in a satisfactory agreement with those
Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.
Auto-Clustering using Particle Swarm Optimization and Bacterial Foraging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rutkowski Olesen, Jakob; Cordero, Jorge; Zeng, Yifeng
2009-01-01
by using simplistic collaboration. Inspired by the advances in clustering using particle swarm optimization, we suggest further improvements. Moreover, we gathered standard benchmark datasets and compared our new approach against the standard K-means algorithm, obtaining promising results. Our hybrid...
Automated analysis of organic particles using cluster SIMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gillen, Greg; Zeissler, Cindy; Mahoney, Christine; Lindstrom, Abigail; Fletcher, Robert; Chi, Peter; Verkouteren, Jennifer; Bright, David; Lareau, Richard T.; Boldman, Mike
2004-06-15
Cluster primary ion bombardment combined with secondary ion imaging is used on an ion microscope secondary ion mass spectrometer for the spatially resolved analysis of organic particles on various surfaces. Compared to the use of monoatomic primary ion beam bombardment, the use of a cluster primary ion beam (SF{sub 5}{sup +} or C{sub 8}{sup -}) provides significant improvement in molecular ion yields and a reduction in beam-induced degradation of the analyte molecules. These characteristics of cluster bombardment, along with automated sample stage control and custom image analysis software are utilized to rapidly characterize the spatial distribution of trace explosive particles, narcotics and inkjet-printed microarrays on a variety of surfaces.
Differential Evolution and Particle Swarm Optimization for Partitional Clustering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krink, Thiemo; Paterlini, Sandra
2006-01-01
for numerical optimisation, which are hardly known outside the search heuristics field, are particle swarm optimisation (PSO) and differential evolution (DE). The performance of GAs for a representative point evolution approach to clustering is compared with PSO and DE. The empirical results show that DE......Many partitional clustering algorithms based on genetic algorithms (GA) have been proposed to tackle the problem of finding the optimal partition of a data set. Very few studies considered alternative stochastic search heuristics other than GAs or simulated annealing. Two promising algorithms...
Modeling of particle agglomeration in nanofluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishna, K. Hari; Neti, S.; Oztekin, A.; Mohapatra, S.
2015-01-01
Agglomeration strongly influences the stability or shelf life of nanofluid. The present computational and experimental study investigates the rate of agglomeration quantitatively. Agglomeration in nanofluids is attributed to the net effect of various inter-particle interaction forces. For the nanofluid considered here, a net inter-particle force depends on the particle size, volume fraction, pH, and electrolyte concentration. A solution of the discretized and coupled population balance equations can yield particle sizes as a function of time. Nanofluid prepared here consists of alumina nanoparticles with the average particle size of 150 nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH of the colloid was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the rate of increase of average particle size increased with time due to lower net positive charge on particles. The rate at which the average particle size is increased is predicted and measured for different electrolyte concentration and volume fraction. The higher rate of agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces. The rate of agglomeration decreases due to increase in the size of nano-particle clusters thus approaching zero rate of agglomeration when all the clusters are nearly uniform in size. Predicted rates of agglomeration agree adequate enough with the measured values; validating the mathematical model and numerical approach is employed
Cluster-cluster aggregation of Ising dipolar particles under thermal noise
Suzuki, Masaru
2009-08-14
The cluster-cluster aggregation processes of Ising dipolar particles under thermal noise are investigated in the dilute condition. As the temperature increases, changes in the typical structures of clusters are observed from chainlike (D1) to crystalline (D2) through fractal structures (D1.45), where D is the fractal dimension. By calculating the bending energy of the chainlike structure, it is found that the transition temperature is associated with the energy gap between the chainlike and crystalline configurations. The aggregation dynamics changes from being dominated by attraction to diffusion involving changes in the dynamic exponent z=0.2 to 0.5. In the region of temperature where the fractal clusters grow, different growth rates are observed between charged and neutral clusters. Using the Smoluchowski equation with a twofold kernel, this hetero-aggregation process is found to result from two types of dynamics: the diffusive motion of neutral clusters and the weak attractive motion between charged clusters. The fact that changes in structures and dynamics take place at the same time suggests that transitions in the structure of clusters involve marked changes in the dynamics of the aggregation processes. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
Clustering and phase behaviour of attractive active particles with hydrodynamics.
Navarro, Ricard Matas; Fielding, Suzanne M
2015-10-14
We simulate clustering, phase separation and hexatic ordering in a monolayered suspension of active squirming disks subject to an attractive Lennard-Jones-like pairwise interaction potential, taking hydrodynamic interactions between the particles fully into account. By comparing the hydrodynamic case with counterpart simulations for passive and active Brownian particles, we elucidate the relative roles of self-propulsion, interparticle attraction, and hydrodynamic interactions in determining clustering and phase behaviour. Even in the presence of an attractive potential, we find that hydrodynamic interactions strongly suppress the motility induced phase separation that might a priori have been expected in a highly active suspension. Instead, we find only a weak tendency for the particles to form stringlike clusters in this regime. At lower activities we demonstrate phase behaviour that is broadly equivalent to that of the counterpart passive system at low temperatures, characterized by regimes of gas-liquid, gas-solid and liquid-solid phase coexistence. In this way, we suggest that a dimensionless quantity representing the level of activity relative to the strength of attraction plays the role of something like an effective non-equilibrium temperature, counterpart to the (dimensionless) true thermodynamic temperature in the passive system. However there are also some important differences from the equilibrium case, most notably with regards the degree of hexatic ordering, which we discuss carefully.
Quark cluster model and confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koike, Yuji; Yazaki, Koichi
2000-01-01
How confinement of quarks is implemented for multi-hadron systems in the quark cluster model is reviewed. In order to learn the nature of the confining interaction for fermions we first study 1+1 dimensional QED and QCD, in which the gauge field can be eliminated exactly and generates linear interaction of fermions. Then, we compare the two-body potential model, the flip-flop model and the Born-Oppenheimer approach in the strong coupling lattice QCD for the meson-meson system. Having shown how the long-range attraction between hadrons, van der Waals interaction, shows up in the two-body potential model, we discuss two distinct attempts beyond the two-body potential model: one is a many-body potential model, the flip-flop model, and the other is the Born-Oppenheimer approach in the strong coupling lattice QCD. We explain how the emergence of the long-range attraction is avoided in these attempts. Finally, we present the results of the application of the flip-flop model to the baryon-baryon scattering in the quark cluster model. (author)
Chen, C. W.; Chung, H. Y.; Chiang, H.-P.; Lu, J. Y.; Chang, R.; Tsai, D. P.; Leung, P. T.
2010-10-01
The optical properties of composites with metallic nanoparticles are studied, taking into account the effects due to the nonlocal dielectric response of the metal and the coalescing of the particles to form clusters. An approach based on various effective medium theories is followed, and the modeling results are compared with those from the cases with local response and particles randomly distributed through the host medium. Possible observations of our modeling results are illustrated via a calculation of the transmission of light through a thin film made of these materials. It is found that the nonlocal effects are particularly significant when the particles coalesce, leading to blue-shifted resonances and slightly lower values in the dielectric functions. The dependence of these effects on the volume fraction and fractal dimension of the metal clusters is studied in detail.
FORMATION OF A INNOVATION REGIONAL CLUSTER MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. S. Merzlikina
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Summary. As a result of investigation of science and methodical approaches related problems of building and development of innovation clusters there were some issues in functional assignments of innovation and production clusters. Because of those issues, article’s authors differ conceptions of innovation cluster and production cluster, as they explain notion of innovation-production cluster. The main goal of this article is to reveal existing organizational issues in cluster building and its successful development. Based on regional clusters building analysis carried out there was typical practical structure of cluster members interaction revealed. This structure also have its cons, as following: absence cluster orientation to marketing environment, lack of members’ prolonged relations’ building and development system, along with ineffective management of information, financial and material streams within cluster, narrow competence difference and responsibility zones between cluster members, lack of transparence of cluster’s action, low environment changes adaptivity, hard to use cluster members’ intellectual property, and commercialization of hi-tech products. When all those issues listed above come together, it reduces life activity of existing models of innovative cluster-building along with practical opportunity of cluster realization. Because of that, authors offer an upgraded innovative-productive cluster building model with more efficient business processes management system, which includes advanced innovative cluster structure, competence matrix and subcluster responsibility zone. Suggested model differs from other ones by using unified innovative product development control center, which also controls production and marketing realization.
Interactions of energetic particles and clusters with solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averback, R.S.; Hsieh, Horngming; Benedek, R.
1990-12-01
Ion beams are being applied for surface modifications of materials in a variety of different ways: ion implantation, ion beam mixing, sputtering, and particle or cluster beam-assisted deposition. Fundamental to all of these processes is the deposition of a large amount of energy, generally some keV's, in a localized area. This can lead to the production of defects, atomic mixing, disordering and in some cases, amorphization. Recent results of molecular dynamics computer simulations of energetic displacement cascades in Cu and Ni with energies up to 5 keV suggest that thermal spikes play an important role in these processes. Specifically, it will be shown that many aspects of defect production, atomic mixing and ''cascade collapse'' can be understood as a consequence of local melting of the cascade core. Included in this discussion will be the possible role of electron-phonon coupling in thermal spike dynamics. The interaction of energetic clusters of atoms with solid surfaces has also been studied by molecular dynamics simulations. this process is of interest because a large amount of energy can be deposited in a small region and possibly without creating point defects in the substrate or implanting cluster atoms. The simulations reveal that the dynamics of the collision process are strongly dependent on cluster size and energy. Different regimes where defect production, local melting and plastic flow dominate will be discussed. 43 refs., 7 figs
Alam, Md Ferdous; Haque, Asadul
2017-10-18
An accurate determination of particle-level fabric of granular soils from tomography data requires a maximum correct separation of particles. The popular marker-controlled watershed separation method is widely used to separate particles. However, the watershed method alone is not capable of producing the maximum separation of particles when subjected to boundary stresses leading to crushing of particles. In this paper, a new separation method, named as Monash Particle Separation Method (MPSM), has been introduced. The new method automatically determines the optimal contrast coefficient based on cluster evaluation framework to produce the maximum accurate separation outcomes. Finally, the particles which could not be separated by the optimal contrast coefficient were separated by integrating cuboid markers generated from the clustering by Gaussian mixture models into the routine watershed method. The MPSM was validated on a uniformly graded sand volume subjected to one-dimensional compression loading up to 32 MPa. It was demonstrated that the MPSM is capable of producing the best possible separation of particles required for the fabric analysis.
NUCORE - A system for nuclear structure calculations with cluster-core models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heras, C.A.; Abecasis, S.M.
1982-01-01
Calculation of nuclear energy levels and their electromagnetic properties, modelling the nucleus as a cluster of a few particles and/or holes interacting with a core which in turn is modelled as a quadrupole vibrator (cluster-phonon model). The members of the cluster interact via quadrupole-quadrupole and pairing forces. (orig.)
Co-clustering models, algorithms and applications
Govaert, Gérard
2013-01-01
Cluster or co-cluster analyses are important tools in a variety of scientific areas. The introduction of this book presents a state of the art of already well-established, as well as more recent methods of co-clustering. The authors mainly deal with the two-mode partitioning under different approaches, but pay particular attention to a probabilistic approach. Chapter 1 concerns clustering in general and the model-based clustering in particular. The authors briefly review the classical clustering methods and focus on the mixture model. They present and discuss the use of different mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Cambridge Univ., England; Sussex Univ., Brighton, England)
1985-01-01
The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references
Particle Simulation of Oxidation Induced Band 3 Clustering in Human Erythrocytes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanae Shimo
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Oxidative stress mediated clustering of membrane protein band 3 plays an essential role in the clearance of damaged and aged red blood cells (RBCs from the circulation. While a number of previous experimental studies have observed changes in band 3 distribution after oxidative treatment, the details of how these clusters are formed and how their properties change under different conditions have remained poorly understood. To address these issues, a framework that enables the simultaneous monitoring of the temporal and spatial changes following oxidation is needed. In this study, we established a novel simulation strategy that incorporates deterministic and stochastic reactions with particle reaction-diffusion processes, to model band 3 cluster formation at single molecule resolution. By integrating a kinetic model of RBC antioxidant metabolism with a model of band 3 diffusion, we developed a model that reproduces the time-dependent changes of glutathione and clustered band 3 levels, as well as band 3 distribution during oxidative treatment, observed in prior studies. We predicted that cluster formation is largely dependent on fast reverse reaction rates, strong affinity between clustering molecules, and irreversible hemichrome binding. We further predicted that under repeated oxidative perturbations, clusters tended to progressively grow and shift towards an irreversible state. Application of our model to simulate oxidation in RBCs with cytoskeletal deficiency also suggested that oxidation leads to more enhanced clustering compared to healthy RBCs. Taken together, our model enables the prediction of band 3 spatio-temporal profiles under various situations, thus providing valuable insights to potentially aid understanding mechanisms for removing senescent and premature RBCs.
Particle Simulation of Oxidation Induced Band 3 Clustering in Human Erythrocytes.
Shimo, Hanae; Arjunan, Satya Nanda Vel; Machiyama, Hiroaki; Nishino, Taiko; Suematsu, Makoto; Fujita, Hideaki; Tomita, Masaru; Takahashi, Koichi
2015-06-01
Oxidative stress mediated clustering of membrane protein band 3 plays an essential role in the clearance of damaged and aged red blood cells (RBCs) from the circulation. While a number of previous experimental studies have observed changes in band 3 distribution after oxidative treatment, the details of how these clusters are formed and how their properties change under different conditions have remained poorly understood. To address these issues, a framework that enables the simultaneous monitoring of the temporal and spatial changes following oxidation is needed. In this study, we established a novel simulation strategy that incorporates deterministic and stochastic reactions with particle reaction-diffusion processes, to model band 3 cluster formation at single molecule resolution. By integrating a kinetic model of RBC antioxidant metabolism with a model of band 3 diffusion, we developed a model that reproduces the time-dependent changes of glutathione and clustered band 3 levels, as well as band 3 distribution during oxidative treatment, observed in prior studies. We predicted that cluster formation is largely dependent on fast reverse reaction rates, strong affinity between clustering molecules, and irreversible hemichrome binding. We further predicted that under repeated oxidative perturbations, clusters tended to progressively grow and shift towards an irreversible state. Application of our model to simulate oxidation in RBCs with cytoskeletal deficiency also suggested that oxidation leads to more enhanced clustering compared to healthy RBCs. Taken together, our model enables the prediction of band 3 spatio-temporal profiles under various situations, thus providing valuable insights to potentially aid understanding mechanisms for removing senescent and premature RBCs.
Modeling of Particle Agglomeration in Nanofluids
Kanagala, Hari Krishna
Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nano sized particles (life of these nanofluids. Current research addresses the agglomeration effect and how it can affect the shelf life of a nanofluid. The reasons for agglomeration in nanofluids are attributable to the interparticle interactions which are quantified by the various theories. By altering the governing properties like volume fraction, pH and electrolyte concentration different nanofluids with instant agglomeration, slow agglomeration and no agglomeration can be produced. A numerical model is created based on the discretized population balance equations which analyses the particle size distribution at different times. Agglomeration effects have been analyzed for alumina nanoparticles with average particle size of 150nm dispersed in de-ionized water. As the pH was moved towards the isoelectric point of alumina nanofluids, the particle size distribution became broader and moved to bigger sizes rapidly with time. Particle size distributions became broader and moved to bigger sizes more quickly with time with increase in the electrolyte concentration. The two effects together can be used to create different temporal trends in the particle size distributions. Faster agglomeration is attributed to the decrease in the electrostatic double layer repulsion forces which is due to decrease in the induced charge and the double layer thickness around the particle. Bigger particle clusters show lesser agglomeration due to reaching the equilibrium size. The procedures and processes described in this work can be used to generate more stable nanofluids.
Model building and new particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frampton, P.H.
1992-01-01
After an outline of the Standard Model, indications of new physics beyond it are discussed. The nature of model building is illustrated by three examples which predict, respectively, new particles called the axigluon, sarks and the aspon. (author). 11 refs
Aerosol cluster impact and break-up: model and implementation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lechman, Jeremy B.
2010-01-01
In this report a model for simulating aerosol cluster impact with rigid walls is presented. The model is based on JKR adhesion theory and is implemented as an enhancement to the granular (DEM) package within the LAMMPS code. The theory behind the model is outlined and preliminary results are shown. Modeling the interactions of small particles is relevant to a number of applications (e.g., soils, powders, colloidal suspensions, etc.). Modeling the behavior of aerosol particles during agglomeration and cluster dynamics upon impact with a wall is of particular interest. In this report we describe preliminary efforts to develop and implement physical models for aerosol particle interactions. Future work will consist of deploying these models to simulate aerosol cluster behavior upon impact with a rigid wall for the purpose of developing relationships for impact speed and probability of stick/bounce/break-up as well as to assess the distribution of cluster sizes if break-up occurs. These relationships will be developed consistent with the need for inputs into system-level codes. Section 2 gives background and details on the physical model as well as implementations issues. Section 3 presents some preliminary results which lead to discussion in Section 4 of future plans.
Experimental Tests of the Algebraic Cluster Model
Gai, Moshe
2018-02-01
The Algebraic Cluster Model (ACM) of Bijker and Iachello that was proposed already in 2000 has been recently applied to 12C and 16O with much success. We review the current status in 12C with the outstanding observation of the ground state rotational band composed of the spin-parity states of: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4± and 5-. The observation of the 4± parity doublet is a characteristic of (tri-atomic) molecular configuration where the three alpha- particles are arranged in an equilateral triangular configuration of a symmetric spinning top. We discuss future measurement with electron scattering, 12C(e,e’) to test the predicted B(Eλ) of the ACM.
Soft and diffractive scattering with the cluster model in Herwig
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gieseke, Stefan; Loshaj, Frasher; Kirchgaesser, Patrick [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2017-03-15
We present a new model for soft interactions in the event-generator Herwig. The model consists of two components. One to model diffractive final states on the basis of the cluster hadronization model and a second component that addresses soft multiple interactions as multiple particle production in multiperipheral kinematics. We present much improved results for minimum-bias measurements at various LHC energies. (orig.)
Analyses on the formation of atmospheric particles and stabilized sulphuric acid clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paasonen, P.
2012-11-01
Aerosol particles have various effects on our life. They affect the visibility and have diverse health effects, but are also applied in various applications, from drug inhalators to pesticides. Additionally, aerosol particles have manifold effects on the Earths' radiation budget and thus on the climate. The strength of the aerosol climate effect is one of the factors causing major uncertainties in the global climate models predicting the future climate change. Aerosol particles are emitted to atmosphere from various anthropogenic and biogenic sources, but they are also formed from precursor vapours in many parts of the world in a process called atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). The uncertainties in aerosol climate effect are partly due to the current lack of knowledge of the mechanisms governing the atmospheric NPF. It is known that gas phase sulphuric acid most certainly plays an important role in atmospheric NPF. However, also other vapours are needed in NPF, but the exact roles or even identities of these vapours are currently not exactly known. In this thesis I present some of the recent advancements in understanding of the atmospheric NPF in terms of the roles of the participating vapours and the meteorological conditions. Since direct measurements of new particle formation rate in the initial size scale of the formed particles (below 2 nm) are so far infrequent in both spatial and temporal scales, indirect methods are needed. The work presented on the following pages approaches the NPF from two directions: by analysing the observed formation rates of particles after they have grown to sizes measurable with widely applied instruments (2 nm or larger), and by measuring and modelling the initial sulphuric acid cluster formation. The obtained results can be summarized as follows. (1) The observed atmospheric new particle formation rates are typically connected with sulphuric acid concentration to the power close to two. (2) Also other compounds, most
Choi, Jiwoong; Leblanc, Lawrence; Choi, Sanghun; Haghighi, Babak; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long
2017-11-01
The goal of this study is to assess inter-subject variability in delivery of orally inhaled drug products to small airways in asthmatic lungs. A recent multiscale imaging-based cluster analysis (MICA) of computed tomography (CT) lung images in an asthmatic cohort identified four clusters with statistically distinct structural and functional phenotypes associating with unique clinical biomarkers. Thus, we aimed to address inter-subject variability via inter-cluster variability. We selected a representative subject from each of the 4 asthma clusters as well as 1 male and 1 female healthy controls, and performed computational fluid and particle simulations on CT-based airway models of these subjects. The results from one severe and one non-severe asthmatic cluster subjects characterized by segmental airway constriction had increased particle deposition efficiency, as compared with the other two cluster subjects (one non-severe and one severe asthmatics) without airway constriction. Constriction-induced jets impinging on distal bifurcations led to excessive particle deposition. The results emphasize the impact of airway constriction on regional particle deposition rather than disease severity, demonstrating the potential of using cluster membership to tailor drug delivery. NIH Grants U01HL114494 and S10-RR022421, and FDA Grant U01FD005837. XSEDE.
Cluster analysis of HZE particle tracks as applied to space radiobiology problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batmunkh, M.; Bayarchimeg, L.; Lkhagva, O.; Belov, O.
2013-01-01
A cluster analysis is performed of ionizations in tracks produced by the most abundant nuclei in the charge and energy spectra of the galactic cosmic rays. The frequency distribution of clusters is estimated for cluster sizes comparable to the DNA molecule at different packaging levels. For this purpose, an improved K-mean-based algorithm is suggested. This technique allows processing particle tracks containing a large number of ionization events without setting the number of clusters as an input parameter. Using this method, the ionization distribution pattern is analyzed depending on the cluster size and particle's linear energy transfer
Standard model without Higgs particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalenko, S.G.
1992-10-01
A modification of the standard model of electroweak interactions with the nonlocal Higgs sector is proposed. Proper form of nonlocality makes Higgs particles unobservable after the electroweak symmetry breaking. They appear only as a virtual state because their propagator is an entire function. We discuss some specific consequences of this approach comparing it with the conventional standard model. (author). 12 refs
Variational cluster perturbation theory for Bose-Hubbard models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koller, W; Dupuis, N
2006-01-01
We discuss the application of the variational cluster perturbation theory (VCPT) to the Mott-insulator-to-superfluid transition in the Bose-Hubbard model. We show how the VCPT can be formulated in such a way that it gives a translation invariant excitation spectrum-free of spurious gaps-despite the fact that it formally breaks translation invariance. The phase diagram and the single-particle Green function in the insulating phase are obtained for one-dimensional systems. When the chemical potential of the cluster is taken as a variational parameter, the VCPT reproduces the dimensional dependence of the phase diagram even for one-site clusters. We find a good quantitative agreement with the results of the density-matrix renormalization group when the number of sites in the cluster becomes of order 10. The extension of the method to the superfluid phase is discussed
Particle Tracing Modeling with SHIELDS
Woodroffe, J. R.; Brito, T. V.; Jordanova, V. K.
2017-12-01
The near-Earth inner magnetosphere, where most of the nation's civilian and military space assets operate, is an extremely hazardous region of the space environment which poses major risks to our space infrastructure. Failure of satellite subsystems or even total failure of a spacecraft can arise for a variety of reasons, some of which are related to the space environment: space weather events like single-event-upsets and deep dielectric charging caused by high energy particles, or surface charging caused by low to medium energy particles; other space hazards are collisions with natural or man-made space debris, or intentional hostile acts. A recently funded project through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program aims at developing a new capability to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. The project goals are to understand the dynamics of the surface charging environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons on both macro- and microscale. These challenging problems are addressed using a team of world-class experts and state-of-the-art physics-based models and computational facilities. We present first results of a coupled BATS-R-US/RAM-SCB/Particle Tracing Model to evaluate particle fluxes in the inner magnetosphere. We demonstrate that this setup is capable of capturing the earthward particle acceleration process resulting from dipolarization events in the tail region of the magnetosphere.
Phase Transitions in Algebraic Cluster Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yepez-Martinez, H.; Cseh, J.; Hess, P.O.
2006-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Phase transitions in nuclear systems are of utmost interest. An interesting class of phase transitions can be seen in algebraic models of nuclear structure. They are called shapephase transitions due to the following reason. These models have analytically solvable limiting cases, called dynamical symmetries, which are characterized by a chain of nested subgroups. They correspond to well-defined geometrical shape and behaviour, e.g. to rotation of an ellipsoid, or spherical vibration. The general case of the model, which includes interactions described by more than one groupchain, breaks the symmetry, and changing the relative strengths of these interactions, one can go from one shape to the other. In doing so a phase-transition can be seen. A phase transition is defined as a discontinuity of some quantity as a function of the control parameter, which gives the relative strength of the interactions of different symmetries. Real phase transitions can take place only in infinite systems, like in the classical limits of these algebraic models, when the particle number N is very large: N → ∞. For finite N the discontinuities are smoothed out, nevertheless, some indications of the phase-transitions can still be there. A controlled way of breaking the dynamical symmetries may reveal another very interesting phenomenon, i.e. the appearance of a quasidynamical (or effective) symmetry. This rather general symmetry-concept of quantum mechanics corresponds to a situation, in which the symmetry-breaking interactions are so strong that the energy-eigenfunctions are not symmetric, i.e. are not basis states of an irreducible representation of the symmetry group, rather they are linear combinations of these basis states. However, they are very special linear combinations in the sense that their coefficients are (approximately) identical for states with different spin values. When this is the case, then the underlying intrinsic state is the
A grand unified model for liganded gold clusters
Xu, Wen Wu; Zhu, Beien; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gao, Yi
2016-12-01
A grand unified model (GUM) is developed to achieve fundamental understanding of rich structures of all 71 liganded gold clusters reported to date. Inspired by the quark model by which composite particles (for example, protons and neutrons) are formed by combining three quarks (or flavours), here gold atoms are assigned three `flavours' (namely, bottom, middle and top) to represent three possible valence states. The `composite particles' in GUM are categorized into two groups: variants of triangular elementary block Au3(2e) and tetrahedral elementary block Au4(2e), all satisfying the duet rule (2e) of the valence shell, akin to the octet rule in general chemistry. The elementary blocks, when packed together, form the cores of liganded gold clusters. With the GUM, structures of 71 liganded gold clusters and their growth mechanism can be deciphered altogether. Although GUM is a predictive heuristic and may not be necessarily reflective of the actual electronic structure, several highly stable liganded gold clusters are predicted, thereby offering GUM-guided synthesis of liganded gold clusters by design.
Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Junkes, Alexandra
2011-10-15
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to {phi}{sub eq}=10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E{sub C}-0.460 eV and E205a at E{sub C}-0.395 eV where E{sub C} is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V{sub 3}) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V{sub 3} defect
Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junkes, Alexandra
2011-10-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10 35 cm -2 s -1 . In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to Φ eq =10 16 cm -2 . The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E C -0.460 eV and E205a at E C -0.395 eV where E C is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V 3 ) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V 3 defect exhibits a bistability, as does the leakage current. In oxygen
Morphology of clusters of attractive dry and wet self-propelled spherical particle suspensions.
Alarcón, Francisco; Valeriani, Chantal; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio
2017-01-25
In order to assess the effect of hydrodynamics in the assembly of active attractive spheres, we simulate a semi-dilute suspension of attractive self-propelled spherical particles in a quasi-two dimensional geometry comparing the case with and without hydrodynamics interactions. To start with, independent of the presence of hydrodynamics, we observe that depending on the ratio between attraction and propulsion, particles either coarsen or aggregate forming finite-size clusters. Focusing on the clustering regime, we characterize two different cluster parameters, i.e. their morphology and orientational order, and compare the case when active particles behave either as pushers or pullers (always in the regime where inter-particle attractions compete with self-propulsion). Studying cluster phases for squirmers with respect to those obtained for active Brownian disks (indicated as ABPs), we have shown that hydrodynamics alone can sustain a cluster phase of active swimmers (pullers), while ABPs form cluster phases due to the competition between attraction and self-propulsion. The structural properties of the cluster phases of squirmers and ABPs are similar, although squirmers show sensitivity to active stresses. Active Brownian disks resemble weakly pusher squirmer suspensions in terms of cluster size distribution, structure of the radius of gyration on the cluster size and degree of cluster polarity.
Cluster Observations of Particle Injections in the Exterior Cusp
Escoubet, C. P.; Grison, B.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Lavraud, B.; Pitout, F.; Soucek, J.; Richard, R. L.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.
2014-12-01
The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process takes place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the dusk or dawn sides (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed lower than usual around 280 km/s with the density of order 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft had an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. Using the time of flight technique on the upgoing and downgoing ions, which leads to energy dispersions, we obtain distances of the ion sources between 14 and 20 RE from the spacecraft. Using Tsyganenko model, we find that these sources are located on the dusk flank, past the terminator. The first injection by C3 is seen at approximately the same time as the 2nd injection on C1 but their sources at the magnetopause were separated by more than 7 RE. This would imply that two distinct sources were active at the same time on the dusk flank of the magnetosphere. In addition, a flow reversal was observed at the magnetopause on C4 which would be an indication that reconnection is taking place near the exterior cusp.
String model of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, Keiji
1975-01-01
Recent development of the models of elementary particles is described. The principal features of elementary particle physics can be expressed by quark model, mass spectrum, the Regge behavior of scattering amplitude, and duality. Venezians showed in 1968 that the B function can express these features. From the analysis of mass spectrum, the string model was introduced. The quantization of the string is performed with the same procedure as the ordinary quantum mechanics. The motion of the string is determined by the Nambu-Goto action integral, and the Schroedinger equation is obtained. Mass spectrum from the string model was same as that from the duality model such as Veneziano model. The interaction between strings can be introduced, and the Lagrangian can be formulated. The relation between the string model and the duality model has been studied. The string model is the first theory of non-local field, and the further development is attractive. The relation between this model and the quark model is still not clear. (Kato, T.)
One- and two-particle correlation functions in the dynamical quantum cluster approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hochkeppel, Stephan
2008-01-01
This thesis is dedicated to a theoretical study of the 1-band Hubbard model in the strong coupling limit. The investigation is based on the Dynamical Cluster Approximation (DCA) which systematically restores non-local corrections to the Dynamical Mean Field approximation (DMFA). The DCA is formulated in momentum space and is characterised by a patching of the Brillouin zone where momentum conservation is only recovered between two patches. The approximation works well if k-space correlation functions show a weak momentum dependence. In order to study the temperature and doping dependence of the spin- and charge excitation spectra, we explicitly extend the Dynamical Cluster Approximation to two-particle response functions. The full irreducible two-particle vertex with three momenta and frequencies is approximated by an effective vertex dependent on the momentum and frequency of the spin and/or charge excitations. The effective vertex is calculated by using the Quantum Monte Carlo method on the finite cluster whereas the analytical continuation of dynamical quantities is performed by a stochastic version of the maximum entropy method. A comparison with high temperature auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo data serves as a benchmark for our approach to two-particle correlation functions. Our method can reproduce basic characteristics of the spin- and charge excitation spectrum. Near and beyond optimal doping, our results provide a consistent overall picture of the interplay between charge, spin and single-particle excitations: a collective spin mode emerges at optimal doping and sufficiently low temperatures in the spin response spectrum and exhibits the energy scale of the magnetic exchange interaction J. Simultaneously, the low energy single-particle excitations are characterised by a coherent quasiparticle with bandwidth J. The origin of the quasiparticle can be quite well understood in a picture of a more or less antiferromagnetic ordered background in which holes
Binary model for the coma cluster of galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valtonen, M.J.; Byrd, G.G.
1979-01-01
We study the dynamics of galaxies in the Coma cluster and find that the cluster is probably dominated by a central binary of galaxies NGC 4874--NGC4889. We estimate their total mass to be about 3 x 10 14 M/sub sun/ by two independent methods (assuming in Hubble constant of 100 km s -1 Mpc -1 ). This binary is efficient in dynamically ejecting smaller galaxies, some of of which are seen in projection against the inner 3 0 radius of the cluster and which, if erroneously considered as bound members, cause a serious overestimate of the mass of the entire cluster. Taking account of the ejected galaxies, we estimate the total cluster mass to be 4--9 x 10 14 M/sub sun/, with a corresponding mass-to-light ratio for a typical galaxy in the range of 20--120 solar units. The origin of the secondary maximum observed in the radial surface density profile is studied. We consider it to be a remnant of a shell of galaxies which formed around the central binary. This shell expanded, then collapsed into the binary, and is now reexpanding. This is supported by the coincidence of the minimum in the cluster eccentricity and radical velocity dispersion at the same radial distance as the secondary maximum. Numerical simulations of a cluster model with a massive central binary and a spherical shell of test particles are performed, and they reproduce the observed shape, galaxy density, and radial velocity distributions in the Coma cluster fairly well. Consequences of extending the model to other clusters are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Tao; Shimasaki, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Shoji; Narita, Shunsuke; Uesugi, Kentaro
2013-01-01
Particle coagulation plays a key role in steel refining process to remove inclusions. Many research works focus on the behaviors of particle coagulation. To reveal its mechanism water model experiments have been performed by some researchers including the authors' group. In this paper, experiments of particle coagulation were carried out with molten Al including SiC particles in a mechanically agitated crucible with two baffles. Particle coagulation and formation of clusters were observed on the microscopy images of as-polished samples. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the clusters in solidified Al was implemented by X-ray micro CT available at SPring-8. The methods to distinguish clusters on two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional images were discussed, which were established in the previous works by the present authors' group. The characteristics of the 3D SiC clusters and their 2D cross-sections were analyzed. The statistical ranges of the parameters for 2D clusters were used as criterions to distinguish the clusters on 2D microscopy images from the as-polished samples. The kinetics of SiC particle coagulation was studied by the measured cluster number density and size using our program to distinguish cluster in 2D cross-sectional images according to 3D information (DC-2D-3D). The calculated and experimental results of the SiC particle coagulation in molten Al agree well with each other. (author)
Cluster shell model: I. Structure of 9Be, 9B
Della Rocca, V.; Iachello, F.
2018-05-01
We calculate energy spectra, electromagnetic transition rates, longitudinal and transverse electron scattering form factors and log ft values for beta decay in 9Be, 9B, within the framework of a cluster shell model. By comparing with experimental data, we find strong evidence for the structure of these nuclei to be two α-particles in a dumbbell configuration with Z2 symmetry, plus an additional nucleon.
Parallelization and scheduling of data intensive particle physics analysis jobs on clusters of PCs
Ponce, S
2004-01-01
Summary form only given. Scheduling policies are proposed for parallelizing data intensive particle physics analysis applications on computer clusters. Particle physics analysis jobs require the analysis of tens of thousands of particle collision events, each event requiring typically 200ms processing time and 600KB of data. Many jobs are launched concurrently by a large number of physicists. At a first view, particle physics jobs seem to be easy to parallelize, since particle collision events can be processed independently one from another. However, since large amounts of data need to be accessed, the real challenge resides in making an efficient use of the underlying computing resources. We propose several job parallelization and scheduling policies aiming at reducing job processing times and at increasing the sustainable load of a cluster server. Since particle collision events are usually reused by several jobs, cache based job splitting strategies considerably increase cluster utilization and reduce job ...
Synthetic properties of models of globular clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angeletti, L; Dolcetta, R; Giannone, P. (Rome Univ. (Italy). Osservatorio Astronomico)
1980-05-01
Synthetic and projected properties of models of globular clusters have been computed on the basis of stellar evolution and time changes of the dynamical cluster structure. Clusters with five and eight stellar groups (each group consisting of stars with the same mass) were studied. Mass loss from evolved stars was taken into account. Observational features were obtained at ages of 10-19 x 10/sup 9/ yr. The basic importance of the horizontal- and asymptotic-branch stars was pointed out. A comparison of the results with observed data of M3 is discussed with the purpose of obtaining general indications rather than a specific fit.
Synthetic properties of models of globular clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angeletti, L.; Dolcetta, R.; Giannone, P.
1980-01-01
Synthetic and projected properties of models of globular clusters have been computed on the basis of stellar evolution and time changes of the dynamical cluster structure. Clusters with five and eight stellar groups (each group consisting of stars with the same mass) were studied. Mass loss from evolved stars was taken into account. Observational features were obtained at ages of 10-19 x 10 9 yr. The basic importance of the horizontal- and asymptotic-branch stars was pointed out. A comparison of the results with observed data of M3 is discussed with the purpose of obtaining general indications rather than a specific fit. (orig.)
Topics in modelling of clustered data
Aerts, Marc; Ryan, Louise M; Geys, Helena
2002-01-01
Many methods for analyzing clustered data exist, all with advantages and limitations in particular applications. Compiled from the contributions of leading specialists in the field, Topics in Modelling of Clustered Data describes the tools and techniques for modelling the clustered data often encountered in medical, biological, environmental, and social science studies. It focuses on providing a comprehensive treatment of marginal, conditional, and random effects models using, among others, likelihood, pseudo-likelihood, and generalized estimating equations methods. The authors motivate and illustrate all aspects of these models in a variety of real applications. They discuss several variations and extensions, including individual-level covariates and combined continuous and discrete outcomes. Flexible modelling with fractional and local polynomials, omnibus lack-of-fit tests, robustification against misspecification, exact, and bootstrap inferential procedures all receive extensive treatment. The application...
Oxide-supported metal clusters: models for heterogeneous catalysts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santra, A K; Goodman, D W
2003-01-01
Understanding the size-dependent electronic, structural and chemical properties of metal clusters on oxide supports is an important aspect of heterogeneous catalysis. Recently model oxide-supported metal catalysts have been prepared by vapour deposition of catalytically relevant metals onto ultra-thin oxide films grown on a refractory metal substrate. Reactivity and spectroscopic/microscopic studies have shown that these ultra-thin oxide films are excellent models for the corresponding bulk oxides, yet are sufficiently electrically conductive for use with various modern surface probes including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Measurements on metal clusters have revealed a metal to nonmetal transition as well as changes in the crystal and electronic structures (including lattice parameters, band width, band splitting and core-level binding energy shifts) as a function of cluster size. Size-dependent catalytic reactivity studies have been carried out for several important reactions, and time-dependent catalytic deactivation has been shown to arise from sintering of metal particles under elevated gas pressures and/or reactor temperatures. In situ STM methodologies have been developed to follow the growth and sintering kinetics on a cluster-by-cluster basis. Although several critical issues have been addressed by several groups worldwide, much more remains to be done. This article highlights some of these accomplishments and summarizes the challenges that lie ahead. (topical review)
Granular Leidenfrost effect: Experiment and theory of floating particle clusters
Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef
2005-01-01
Granular material is vertically vibrated in a 2D container: above a critical shaking strength, and for a sufficient number of beads, a crystalline cluster is elevated and supported by a dilute gaseous layer of fast beads underneath. We call this phenomenon the granular Leidenfrost effect. The
Evaluating Mixture Modeling for Clustering: Recommendations and Cautions
Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J.
2011-01-01
This article provides a large-scale investigation into several of the properties of mixture-model clustering techniques (also referred to as latent class cluster analysis, latent profile analysis, model-based clustering, probabilistic clustering, Bayesian classification, unsupervised learning, and finite mixture models; see Vermunt & Magdison,…
Modelling baryonic effects on galaxy cluster mass profiles
Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke
2018-06-01
Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.
Modelling Baryonic Effects on Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles
Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke
2018-03-01
Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.
Processes of conversion of a hot metal particle into aerogel through clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)
2015-10-15
Processes are considered for conversion into a fractal structure of a hot metal micron-size particle that is located in a buffer gas or a gas flow and is heated by an external electric or electromagnetic source or by a plasma. The parameter of this heating is the particle temperature, which is the same in the entire particle volume because of its small size and high conductivity. Three processes determine the particle heat balance: particle radiation, evaporation of metal atoms from the particle surface, and heat transport to the surrounding gas due to its thermal conductivity. The particle heat balance is analyzed based on these processes, which are analogous to those for bulk metals with the small particle size, and its high temperature taken into account. Outside the particle, where the gas temperature is lower than on its surface, the formed metal vapor in a buffer gas flow is converted into clusters. Clusters grow as a result of coagulation until they become liquid, and then clusters form fractal aggregates if they are removed form the gas flow. Subsequently, associations of fractal aggregates join into a fractal structure. The rate of this process increases in medium electric fields, and the formed fractal structure has features of aerogels and fractal fibers. As a result of a chain of the above processes, a porous metal film may be manufactured for use as a filter or catalyst for gas flows.
Wang, Jian; Wexler, Anthony S.
2013-05-01
New particle formation consists of formation of thermodynamically stable clusters from trace gas molecules (homogeneous nucleation) followed by growth of these clusters to a detectable size. Because of the large coagulation rate of clusters smaller than 3 nm with the preexisting aerosol population, for new particle formation to take place, these clusters need to grow sufficiently fast to escape removal by coagulation. Previous studies have indicated that condensation of low-volatility organic vapor may play an important role in the initial growth of the clusters. However, due to the relatively high vapor pressure and partial molar volume of even highly oxidized organic compounds, the strong Kelvin effect may prevent typical ambient organics from condensing on these small clusters. Earlier studies did not consider that adsorption of organic molecules on the cluster surface, due to the intermolecular forces between the organic molecule and cluster, may occur and substantially alter the growth process under sub-saturated conditions. Using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm, we show that the adsorption of organic molecules onto the surface of clusters may significantly reduce the saturation ratio required for condensation of organics to occur, and therefore may provide a physico-chemical explanation for the enhanced initial growth by condensation of organics despite the strong Kelvin effect.
Complex scaling in the cluster model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruppa, A.T.; Lovas, R.G.; Gyarmati, B.
1987-01-01
To find the positions and widths of resonances, a complex scaling of the intercluster relative coordinate is introduced into the resonating-group model. In the generator-coordinate technique used to solve the resonating-group equation the complex scaling requires minor changes in the formulae and code. The finding of the resonances does not need any preliminary guess or explicit reference to any asymptotic prescription. The procedure is applied to the resonances in the relative motion of two ground-state α clusters in 8 Be, but is appropriate for any systems consisting of two clusters. (author) 23 refs.; 5 figs
Cluster infall in the concordance LCDM model
Pivato, Maximiliano C.; Padilla, Nelson D.; Lambas, Diego G.
2005-01-01
We perform statistical analyses of the infall of dark-matter onto clusters in numerical simulations within the concordance LCDM model. By studying the infall profile around clusters of different mass, we find a linear relation between the maximum infall velocity and mass which reach 900km/s for the most massive groups. The maximum infall velocity and the group mass follow a suitable power law fit of the form, V_{inf}^{max} = (M/m_0)^{gamma}. By comparing the measured infall velocity to the li...
Curvature-induced microswarming and clustering of self-propelled particles
Bruss, Isaac; Glotzer, Sharon
Non-equilibrium active matter systems exhibit many unique phenomena, such as motility-induced phase separation and swarming. However, little is known about how these behaviors depend on the geometry of the environment. To answer this question, we use Brownian dynamics simulations to study the effects of Gaussian curvature on self-propelled particles by confining them to the surface of a sphere. We find that a modest amount of curvature promotes phase separation by altering the shape of a cluster's boundary. Alternatively, particles on surfaces of high curvature experience reduced phase separation and instead form microswarms, where particles share a common orbit. We show that this novel flocking behavior is distinct from other previously studied examples, in that it is not explicitly incorporated into our model through Vicsek-like alignment rules nor torques. Rather, we find that microswarms emerge solely due to the geometric link between orientation and velocity, a property exclusive to surfaces with non-zero Gaussian curvature. These findings reveal the important role of local environment on the global emergent behavior of non-equilibrium systems. Center for Bio-Inspired Engineering (DOE Award # DE-SC0000989).
Cui, Jia; Hong, Bei; Jiang, Xuepeng; Chen, Qinghua
2017-05-01
With the purpose of reinforcing correlation analysis of risk assessment threat factors, a dynamic assessment method of safety risks based on particle filtering is proposed, which takes threat analysis as the core. Based on the risk assessment standards, the method selects threat indicates, applies a particle filtering algorithm to calculate influencing weight of threat indications, and confirms information system risk levels by combining with state estimation theory. In order to improve the calculating efficiency of the particle filtering algorithm, the k-means cluster algorithm is introduced to the particle filtering algorithm. By clustering all particles, the author regards centroid as the representative to operate, so as to reduce calculated amount. The empirical experience indicates that the method can embody the relation of mutual dependence and influence in risk elements reasonably. Under the circumstance of limited information, it provides the scientific basis on fabricating a risk management control strategy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cui Jia
2017-05-01
Full Text Available With the purpose of reinforcing correlation analysis of risk assessment threat factors, a dynamic assessment method of safety risks based on particle filtering is proposed, which takes threat analysis as the core. Based on the risk assessment standards, the method selects threat indicates, applies a particle filtering algorithm to calculate influencing weight of threat indications, and confirms information system risk levels by combining with state estimation theory. In order to improve the calculating efficiency of the particle filtering algorithm, the k-means cluster algorithm is introduced to the particle filtering algorithm. By clustering all particles, the author regards centroid as the representative to operate, so as to reduce calculated amount. The empirical experience indicates that the method can embody the relation of mutual dependence and influence in risk elements reasonably. Under the circumstance of limited information, it provides the scientific basis on fabricating a risk management control strategy.
α/β-particle radiation identification based on fuzzy C-means clustering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Yijianxia; Yang Lu; Li Wenqiang
2013-01-01
A pulse shape recognition method based on fuzzy C-means clustering for the discrimination of α/βparticle was presented. A detection circuit to isolate α/β-particles is designed. Using a single probe scintillating detector to acquire α/β particles. By comparing the results to pulse amplitude analysis, it is shown that by Fuzzy C-means clustering α-particle count rate increased by 42.9% and the cross-talk ratio of α-β is decreased by 15.9% for 6190 cps 0420 αsource; β-particle count rate increased by 31.8% and the cross -talk ratio of β-α is decreased by 7.7% for 05-05β source. (authors)
Modeling blue stragglers in young clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Pin; Deng Licai; Zhang Xiaobin
2011-01-01
A grid of binary evolution models are calculated for the study of a blue straggler (BS) population in intermediate age (log Age = 7.85–8.95) star clusters. The BS formation via mass transfer and merging is studied systematically using our models. Both Case A and B close binary evolutionary tracks are calculated for a large range of parameters. The results show that BSs formed via Case B are generally bluer and even more luminous than those produced by Case A. Furthermore, the larger range in orbital separations of Case B models provides a probability of producing more BSs than in Case A. Based on the grid of models, several Monte-Carlo simulations of BS populations in the clusters in the age range are carried out. The results show that BSs formed via different channels populate different areas in the color magnitude diagram (CMD). The locations of BSs in CMD for a number of clusters are compared to our simulations as well. In order to investigate the influence of mass transfer efficiency in the models and simulations, a set of models is also calculated by implementing a constant mass transfer efficiency, β = 0.5, during Roche lobe overflow (Case A binary evolution excluded). The result shows BSs can be formed via mass transfer at any given age in both cases. However, the distributions of the BS populations on CMD are different.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oyarzún, Simón; Domingues Tavares de Sa, Artur; Tuaillon-Combes, Juliette; Tamion, Alexandre; Hillion, Arnaud; Boisron, Olivier; Mosset, Alexis; Pellarin, Michel; Dupuis, Véronique; Hillenkamp, Matthias
2013-01-01
The giant magnetoresistance response of granular systems has since its discovery been described by a simple model based on the geometric orientation of the magnetic moments of adjacent nanoparticles. This model has been proven quite successful in many cases but its being based on decoupled neighboring grains has never been verified as all available studies rely on samples with too high concentration. Here we report on magnetic and magnetotransport measurements of cluster-assembled nanostructures with cobalt clusters around 2.3 nm diameter embedded in copper matrices at different concentrations. The thorough magnetic characterization based on the recently developed “triple fit” method allows the detection of measurable inter-particle interactions and thus assures true superparamagnetic behavior in the most dilute sample. The spintronic response is compared to theory and we show that only at low concentration (0.5 at.% Co) all experiments are consistent and the common theoretical description is appropriate. Increasing the concentration to 2.5 and 5 at.% implies deviations between magnetometry and magnetotransport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hozé, Nathanaël; Holcman, David
2012-01-01
We develop a coagulation–fragmentation model to study a system composed of a small number of stochastic objects moving in a confined domain, that can aggregate upon binding to form local clusters of arbitrary sizes. A cluster can also dissociate into two subclusters with a uniform probability. To study the statistics of clusters, we combine a Markov chain analysis with a partition number approach. Interestingly, we obtain explicit formulas for the size and the number of clusters in terms of hypergeometric functions. Finally, we apply our analysis to study the statistical physics of telomeres (ends of chromosomes) clustering in the yeast nucleus and show that the diffusion–coagulation–fragmentation process can predict the organization of telomeres. -- Highlights: ► We develop a coagulation–fragmentation model to study a system composed of a small number of stochastic particles. ► The stochastic objects are moving in a confined domain. ► We apply our analysis to study the statistical physics of telomeres (ends of chromosomes) clustering in the yeast nucleus. ► We show that the diffusion–coagulation–fragmentation process can predict the organization of telomeres in yeast.
Danwanichakul, Panu; Glandt, Eduardo D
2004-11-15
We applied the integral-equation theory to the connectedness problem. The method originally applied to the study of continuum percolation in various equilibrium systems was modified for our sequential quenching model, a particular limit of an irreversible adsorption. The development of the theory based on the (quenched-annealed) binary-mixture approximation includes the Ornstein-Zernike equation, the Percus-Yevick closure, and an additional term involving the three-body connectedness function. This function is simplified by introducing a Kirkwood-like superposition approximation. We studied the three-dimensional (3D) system of randomly placed spheres and 2D systems of square-well particles, both with a narrow and with a wide well. The results from our integral-equation theory are in good accordance with simulation results within a certain range of densities.
Einstein model for elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, N.K.
1975-01-01
A group theoretical model unifying a space-time group (E) and an internal symmetry group (I) for strongly interacting particles is worked out. The space-time group is the one that pertains to the group of motions of static Einstein cosmological model implying the symmetry of the group E = O 4 logical operation of multiplication R. With the use of Gueret and Vigier prescription, the left coset R logical operation of multiplication O 4 is identified with the internal symmetry group I = U 1 β logical operation of multiplication (SU(2) logical operation of multiplication SU(2)) contains SU(4). The complete dynamical group (D) is then found to be D = E logical operation of multiplication I = (O logical operation of multiplication R) logical operation of multiplication U 1 β logical operation of multiplication (SU(2) logical operation of multiplication SU(2) contains SO(4,2). Physically useful representations of the space-time group (E) are worked out by solving the eigenvalue problem of Laplace-Beltmi operator. The internal quantum numbers are prescribed in accordance with the SU(2) logical operation of multiplication SU(2) model of Nakamura and Sato. A general mass formula is derived and its use for known baryons and mesons is discussed. (author)
Gurgiolo, Chris; Vinas, Adolfo F.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a spherical harmonic analysis of the plasma velocity distribution function using high-angular, energy, and time resolution Cluster data obtained from the PEACE spectrometer instrument to demonstrate how this analysis models the particle distribution function and its moments and anisotropies. The results show that spherical harmonic analysis produced a robust physical representation model of the velocity distribution function, resolving the main features of the measured distributions. From the spherical harmonic analysis, a minimum set of nine spectral coefficients was obtained from which the moment (up to the heat flux), anisotropy, and asymmetry calculations of the velocity distribution function were obtained. The spherical harmonic method provides a potentially effective "compression" technique that can be easily carried out onboard a spacecraft to determine the moments and anisotropies of the particle velocity distribution function for any species. These calculations were implemented using three different approaches, namely, the standard traditional integration, the spherical harmonic (SPH) spectral coefficients integration, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) on the spherical harmonic methods. A comparison among the various methods shows that both SPH and SVD approaches provide remarkable agreement with the standard moment integration method.
Relativistic Particle Population and Magnetic Fields in Clusters of Galaxies
Kushnir, Doron
2011-08-01
We derive constrains on the cosmic ray (CR) population and magnetic fields (MF) in clusters of galaxies, based on: 1. The correlation between the radio and the X-ray luminosities: the former emitted by synchrotron of secondary electrons in a strong MF, >˜3 muG; In the core, the CR energy is ˜10^{-3} of the thermal energy; The source of CR is the accretion shock (AS), which accelerate CR with efficiency >˜1%. 2. The HXR luminosity: emitted by IC of CMB photons by electrons accelerated in AS with efficiency >˜1%. The constrains imply that gamma-ray emission from secondaries will be difficult to detect with existing/planned instruments. However, the extended emission from primary electrons might be detected by future HXR (NuStar, Simbol-X) and gamma-ray observations (Fermi, HESS, VERITAS).
Electromagnetic spin–orbit interaction and giant spin-Hall effect in dielectric particle clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yineng [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xiangdong, E-mail: zhangxd@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Nanophotonics and Ultrafine Optoelectronic Systems, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing (China)
2013-12-09
We report a phenomenon that electromagnetic spin–orbit interactions can be tailored by dielectric nanoparticles, and self-similar giant spin-Hall effect has been observed in the dielectric particle cluster. The near-field phase singularities and phase vorticity in the longitudinal component of scattered field can also be controlled by such a dielectric structure. The origin of phenomena is believed to be due to the collective resonance excitation in the dielectric particle cluster. It is expected to find applications in optics information processing and designing new nanophotonic devices.
Alpha-cluster preformation factor within cluster-formation model for odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei
Saleh Ahmed, Saad M.
2017-06-01
The alpha-cluster probability that represents the preformation of alpha particle in alpha-decay nuclei was determined for high-intensity alpha-decay mode odd-A and odd-odd heavy nuclei, 82 CSR) and the hypothesised cluster-formation model (CFM) as in our previous work. Our previous successful determination of phenomenological values of alpha-cluster preformation factors for even-even nuclei motivated us to expand the work to cover other types of nuclei. The formation energy of interior alpha cluster needed to be derived for the different nuclear systems with considering the unpaired-nucleon effect. The results showed the phenomenological value of alpha preformation probability and reflected the unpaired nucleon effect and the magic and sub-magic effects in nuclei. These results and their analyses presented are very useful for future work concerning the calculation of the alpha decay constants and the progress of its theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gokaltun, Seckin [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Munroe, Norman [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Subramaniam, Shankar [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2014-12-31
This study presents a new drag model, based on the cohesive inter-particle forces, implemented in the MFIX code. This new drag model combines an existing standard model in MFIX with a particle-based drag model based on a switching principle. Switches between the models in the computational domain occur where strong particle-to-particle cohesion potential is detected. Three versions of the new model were obtained by using one standard drag model in each version. Later, performance of each version was compared against available experimental data for a fluidized bed, published in the literature and used extensively by other researchers for validation purposes. In our analysis of the results, we first observed that standard models used in this research were incapable of producing closely matching results. Then, we showed for a simple case that a threshold is needed to be set on the solid volume fraction. This modification was applied to avoid non-physical results for the clustering predictions, when governing equation of the solid granular temperate was solved. Later, we used our hybrid technique and observed the capability of our approach in improving the numerical results significantly; however, improvement of the results depended on the threshold of the cohesive index, which was used in the switching procedure. Our results showed that small values of the threshold for the cohesive index could result in significant reduction of the computational error for all the versions of the proposed drag model. In addition, we redesigned an existing circulating fluidized bed (CFB) test facility in order to create validation cases for clustering regime of Geldart A type particles.
Scale-similar clustering of heavy particles in the inertial range of turbulence
Ariki, Taketo; Yoshida, Kyo; Matsuda, Keigo; Yoshimatsu, Katsunori
2018-03-01
Heavy particle clustering in turbulence is discussed from both phenomenological and analytical points of view, where the -4 /3 power law of the pair-correlation function is obtained in the inertial range. A closure theory explains the power law in terms of the balance between turbulence mixing and preferential-concentration mechanism. The obtained -4 /3 power law is supported by a direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. K. Ortega
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Sulphuric acid is a key component in atmospheric new particle formation. However, sulphuric acid alone does not form stable enough clusters to initiate particle formation in atmospheric conditions. Strong bases, such as amines, have been suggested to stabilize sulphuric acid clusters and thus participate in particle formation. We modelled the formation rate of clusters with two sulphuric acid and two amine molecules (JA2B2 at varying atmospherically relevant conditions with respect to concentrations of sulphuric acid ([H2SO4], dimethylamine ([DMA] and trimethylamine ([TMA], temperature and relative humidity (RH. We also tested how the model results change if we assume that the clusters with two sulphuric acid and two amine molecules would act as seeds for heterogeneous nucleation of organic vapours (other than amines with higher atmospheric concentrations than sulphuric acid. The modelled formation rates JA2B2 were functions of sulphuric acid concentration with close to quadratic dependence, which is in good agreement with atmospheric observations of the connection between the particle formation rate and sulphuric acid concentration. The coefficients KA2B2 connecting the cluster formation rate and sulphuric acid concentrations as JA2B2=KA2B2[H2SO4]2 turned out to depend also on amine concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. We compared the modelled coefficients KA2B2 with the corresponding coefficients calculated from the atmospheric observations (Kobs from environments with varying temperatures and levels of anthropogenic influence. By taking into account the modelled behaviour of JA2B2 as a function of [H2SO4], temperature and RH, the atmospheric particle formation rate was reproduced more closely than with the traditional semi-empirical formulae based on sulphuric acid concentration only. The formation rates of clusters with two sulphuric acid and two amine molecules with different amine compositions (DMA or TMA or one of both had
First results from the RAPID imaging energetic particle spectrometer on board Cluster
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B. Wilken
Full Text Available The advanced energetic particle spectrometer RAPID on board Cluster can provide a complete description of the relevant particle parameters velocity, V , and atomic mass, A, over an energy range from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV. We present the first measurements taken by RAPID during the commissioning and the early operating phases. The orbit on 14 January 2001, when Cluster was travelling from a perigee near dawn northward across the pole towards an apogee in the solar wind, is used to demonstrate the capabilities of RAPID in investigating a wide variety of particle populations. RAPID, with its unique capability of measuring the complete angular distribution of energetic particles, allows for the simultaneous measurements of local density gradients, as reflected in the anisotropies of 90° particles and the remote sensing of changes in the distant field line topology, as manifested in the variations of loss cone properties. A detailed discussion of angle-angle plots shows considerable differences in the structure of the boundaries between the open and closed field lines on the nightside fraction of the pass and the magnetopause crossing. The 3 March 2001 encounter of Cluster with an FTE just outside the magnetosphere is used to show the first structural plasma investigations of an FTE by energetic multi-spacecraft observations.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosheath
First results from the RAPID imaging energetic particle spectrometer on board Cluster
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Wilken
2001-09-01
Full Text Available The advanced energetic particle spectrometer RAPID on board Cluster can provide a complete description of the relevant particle parameters velocity, V , and atomic mass, A, over an energy range from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV. We present the first measurements taken by RAPID during the commissioning and the early operating phases. The orbit on 14 January 2001, when Cluster was travelling from a perigee near dawn northward across the pole towards an apogee in the solar wind, is used to demonstrate the capabilities of RAPID in investigating a wide variety of particle populations. RAPID, with its unique capability of measuring the complete angular distribution of energetic particles, allows for the simultaneous measurements of local density gradients, as reflected in the anisotropies of 90° particles and the remote sensing of changes in the distant field line topology, as manifested in the variations of loss cone properties. A detailed discussion of angle-angle plots shows considerable differences in the structure of the boundaries between the open and closed field lines on the nightside fraction of the pass and the magnetopause crossing. The 3 March 2001 encounter of Cluster with an FTE just outside the magnetosphere is used to show the first structural plasma investigations of an FTE by energetic multi-spacecraft observations.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosheath
On the shell model connection of the cluster model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cseh, J.; Levai, G.; Kato, K.
2000-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The interrelation of basic nuclear structure models is a longstanding problem. The connection between the spherical shell model and the quadrupole collective model has been studied extensively, and symmetry considerations proved to be especially useful in this respect. A collective band was interpreted in the shell model language long ago as a set of states (of the valence nucleons) with a specific SU(3) symmetry. Furthermore, the energies of these rotational states are obtained to a good approximation as eigenvalues of an SU(3) dynamically symmetric shell model Hamiltonian. On the other hand the relation of the shell model and cluster model is less well explored. The connection of the harmonic oscillator (i.e. SU(3)) bases of the two approaches is known, but it was established only for the unrealistic harmonic oscillator interactions. Here we investigate the question: Can an SU(3) dynamically symmetric interaction provide a similar connection between the spherical shell model and the cluster model, like the one between the shell and collective models? In other words: whether or not the energy of the states of the cluster bands, defined by a specific SU(3) symmetries, can be obtained from a shell model Hamiltonian (with SU(3) dynamical symmetry). We carried out calculations within the framework of the semimicroscopic algebraic cluster model, in which not only the cluster model space is obtained from the full shell model space by an SU(3) symmetry-dictated truncation, but SU(3) dynamically symmetric interactions are also applied. Actually, Hamiltonians of this kind proved to be successful in describing the gross features of cluster states in a wide energy range. The novel feature of the present work is that we apply exclusively shell model interactions. The energies obtained from such a Hamiltonian for several bands of the ( 12 C, 14 C, 16 O, 20 Ne, 40 Ca) + α systems turn out to be in good agreement with the experimental
Statistical mechanics of the cluster Ising model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smacchia, Pietro; Amico, Luigi; Facchi, Paolo; Fazio, Rosario; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Vedral, Vlatko
2011-01-01
We study a Hamiltonian system describing a three-spin-1/2 clusterlike interaction competing with an Ising-like antiferromagnetic interaction. We compute free energy, spin-correlation functions, and entanglement both in the ground and in thermal states. The model undergoes a quantum phase transition between an Ising phase with a nonvanishing magnetization and a cluster phase characterized by a string order. Any two-spin entanglement is found to vanish in both quantum phases because of a nontrivial correlation pattern. Nevertheless, the residual multipartite entanglement is maximal in the cluster phase and dependent on the magnetization in the Ising phase. We study the block entropy at the critical point and calculate the central charge of the system, showing that the criticality of the system is beyond the Ising universality class.
Statistical mechanics of the cluster Ising model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smacchia, Pietro [SISSA - via Bonomea 265, I-34136, Trieste (Italy); Amico, Luigi [CNR-MATIS-IMM and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, C/O ed. 10, viale Andrea Doria 6, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Facchi, Paolo [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Fazio, Rosario [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Center for Quantum Technology, National University of Singapore, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio [Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Vedral, Vlatko [Center for Quantum Technology, National University of Singapore, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)
2011-08-15
We study a Hamiltonian system describing a three-spin-1/2 clusterlike interaction competing with an Ising-like antiferromagnetic interaction. We compute free energy, spin-correlation functions, and entanglement both in the ground and in thermal states. The model undergoes a quantum phase transition between an Ising phase with a nonvanishing magnetization and a cluster phase characterized by a string order. Any two-spin entanglement is found to vanish in both quantum phases because of a nontrivial correlation pattern. Nevertheless, the residual multipartite entanglement is maximal in the cluster phase and dependent on the magnetization in the Ising phase. We study the block entropy at the critical point and calculate the central charge of the system, showing that the criticality of the system is beyond the Ising universality class.
Clustering properties of dynamical dark energy models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avelino, P. P.; Beca, L. M. G.; Martins, C. J. A. P.
2008-01-01
We provide a generic but physically clear discussion of the clustering properties of dark energy models. We explicitly show that in quintessence-type models the dark energy fluctuations, on scales smaller than the Hubble radius, are of the order of the perturbations to the Newtonian gravitational potential, hence necessarily small on cosmological scales. Moreover, comparable fluctuations are associated with different gauge choices. We also demonstrate that the often used homogeneous approximation is unrealistic, and that the so-called dark energy mutation is a trivial artifact of an effective, single fluid description. Finally, we discuss the particular case where the dark energy fluid is nonminimally coupled to dark matter
Uniform Suspension of the Clustered Triamcinolone Acetonide Particle
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Masahiko Sugimoto
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. MaQaid (MaQ is a new triamcinolone acetonide commercialised in Japan to visualize the vitreous. Because MaQ is preservative-free, it has a lower risk of ocular toxicities. However, since MaQ is only available as a powder, it needs suspenssion. Suspension does not always result uniformally, which causes poor visibility. This study reports a new MaQ suspension for better visibility. Methods. After medium addition to a MaQ vial, various methods were used. These included the use of (1 vortex mixer, (2 two syringes and a three-way stopcock, and (3 ultrasonic washer. We calculated suspended MaQ concentration (. To evaluate the reproducibility, we estimated the coefficient of variance (CV, . We used this MaQ for pig eyes, and vitreous visualization was simulated. Subsequently, we used this MaQ suspension for humans. Results. MaQ suspensions were sucessfull, and the concentrations of single particles increased significantly (. The CV was 36.1% for the routine method and 9.03% ffor the new method. Administration of a suspended MaQ made it possible to clearly visualize the vitreous in both pig and human eyes. Conclusions. We devised new techniques for uniformal MaQ suspension. These new methods can compensate for the MaQ disadvantages and ensure a safety surgery.
Assessing clustering strategies for Gaussian mixture filtering a subsurface contaminant model
Liu, Bo
2016-02-03
An ensemble-based Gaussian mixture (GM) filtering framework is studied in this paper in term of its dependence on the choice of the clustering method to construct the GM. In this approach, a number of particles sampled from the posterior distribution are first integrated forward with the dynamical model for forecasting. A GM representation of the forecast distribution is then constructed from the forecast particles. Once an observation becomes available, the forecast GM is updated according to Bayes’ rule. This leads to (i) a Kalman filter-like update of the particles, and (ii) a Particle filter-like update of their weights, generalizing the ensemble Kalman filter update to non-Gaussian distributions. We focus on investigating the impact of the clustering strategy on the behavior of the filter. Three different clustering methods for constructing the prior GM are considered: (i) a standard kernel density estimation, (ii) clustering with a specified mixture component size, and (iii) adaptive clustering (with a variable GM size). Numerical experiments are performed using a two-dimensional reactive contaminant transport model in which the contaminant concentration and the heterogenous hydraulic conductivity fields are estimated within a confined aquifer using solute concentration data. The experimental results suggest that the performance of the GM filter is sensitive to the choice of the GM model. In particular, increasing the size of the GM does not necessarily result in improved performances. In this respect, the best results are obtained with the proposed adaptive clustering scheme.
Hierarchical modeling of cluster size in wildlife surveys
Royle, J. Andrew
2008-01-01
Clusters or groups of individuals are the fundamental unit of observation in many wildlife sampling problems, including aerial surveys of waterfowl, marine mammals, and ungulates. Explicit accounting of cluster size in models for estimating abundance is necessary because detection of individuals within clusters is not independent and detectability of clusters is likely to increase with cluster size. This induces a cluster size bias in which the average cluster size in the sample is larger than in the population at large. Thus, failure to account for the relationship between delectability and cluster size will tend to yield a positive bias in estimates of abundance or density. I describe a hierarchical modeling framework for accounting for cluster-size bias in animal sampling. The hierarchical model consists of models for the observation process conditional on the cluster size distribution and the cluster size distribution conditional on the total number of clusters. Optionally, a spatial model can be specified that describes variation in the total number of clusters per sample unit. Parameter estimation, model selection, and criticism may be carried out using conventional likelihood-based methods. An extension of the model is described for the situation where measurable covariates at the level of the sample unit are available. Several candidate models within the proposed class are evaluated for aerial survey data on mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).
Determining characteristic principal clusters in the “cluster-plus-glue-atom” model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du, Jinglian; Wen, Bin; 2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, 75 University Ave West, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, 75 University Ave West, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada))" >Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki
2014-01-01
The “cluster-plus-glue-atom” model can easily describe the structure of complex metallic alloy phases. However, the biggest obstacle limiting the application of this model is that it is difficult to determine the characteristic principal cluster. In the case when interatomic force constants (IFCs) inside the cluster lead to stronger interaction than the interaction between the clusters, a new rule for determining the characteristic principal cluster in the “cluster-plus-glue-atom” model has been proposed on the basis of IFCs. To verify this new rule, the alloy phases in Cu–Zr and Al–Ni–Zr systems have been tested, and our results indicate that the present new rule for determining characteristic principal clusters is effective and reliable
Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions
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Gogberashvili M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.
Exploring the Standard Model of Particles
Johansson, K. E.; Watkins, P. M.
2013-01-01
With the recent discovery of a new particle at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the Higgs boson could be about to be discovered. This paper provides a brief summary of the standard model of particle physics and the importance of the Higgs boson and field in that model for non-specialists. The role of Feynman diagrams in making predictions for…
From molecular clusters to nanoparticles: second-generation ion-mediated nucleation model
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F. Yu
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Ions, which are generated in the atmosphere by galactic cosmic rays and other ionization sources, may play an important role in the formation of atmospheric aerosols. In the paper, a new second-generation ion-mediated nucleation (IMN model is presented. The new model explicitly treats the evaporation of neutral and charged clusters and it describes the evolution of the size spectra and composition of both charged and neutral clusters/particles ranging from small clusters of few molecules to large particles of several micrometers in diameter. Schemes used to calculate the evaporation coefficients for small neutral and charged clusters are consistent with the experimental data within the uncertainty range. The present IMN model, which is size-, composition-, and type-resolved, is a powerful tool for investigating the dominant mechanisms and key parameters controlling the formation and subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the atmosphere. This model can be used to analyze simultaneous measurements of the ion-mobility spectra and particle size distributions, which became available only recently. General features of the spectra for ions smaller than the critical size, size-dependent fractions of charged nanoparticles, and asymmetrical charging of freshly nucleated particles predicted by the new IMN model are consistent with recent measurements. Results obtained using the second generation IMN model, in which the most recent thermodynamic data for neutral and charged H2SO4-H2O clusters were used, suggest that ion-mediated nucleation of H2SO4-H2O can lead to a significant production of new particles in the lower atmosphere (including the boundary layer under favorable conditions. It has been shown that freshly nucleated particles of few nanometers in size can grow by the condensation of low volatile organic compounds to the size of cloud condensation nuclei. In such cases, the chemical composition of nucleated particles larger than ~10 nm is dominated
Wu, Jiayi; Ma, Yong-Bei; Congdon, Charles; Brett, Bevin; Chen, Shuobing; Xu, Yaofang; Ouyang, Qi; Mao, Youdong
2017-01-01
Structural heterogeneity in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data represents a major challenge for high-resolution structure determination. Unsupervised classification may serve as the first step in the assessment of structural heterogeneity. However, traditional algorithms for unsupervised classification, such as K-means clustering and maximum likelihood optimization, may classify images into wrong classes with decreasing signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) in the image data, yet demand increased computational costs. Overcoming these limitations requires further development of clustering algorithms for high-performance cryo-EM data processing. Here we introduce an unsupervised single-particle clustering algorithm derived from a statistical manifold learning framework called generative topographic mapping (GTM). We show that unsupervised GTM clustering improves classification accuracy by about 40% in the absence of input references for data with lower SNRs. Applications to several experimental datasets suggest that our algorithm can detect subtle structural differences among classes via a hierarchical clustering strategy. After code optimization over a high-performance computing (HPC) environment, our software implementation was able to generate thousands of reference-free class averages within hours in a massively parallel fashion, which allows a significant improvement on ab initio 3D reconstruction and assists in the computational purification of homogeneous datasets for high-resolution visualization.
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Jiayi Wu
Full Text Available Structural heterogeneity in single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM data represents a major challenge for high-resolution structure determination. Unsupervised classification may serve as the first step in the assessment of structural heterogeneity. However, traditional algorithms for unsupervised classification, such as K-means clustering and maximum likelihood optimization, may classify images into wrong classes with decreasing signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR in the image data, yet demand increased computational costs. Overcoming these limitations requires further development of clustering algorithms for high-performance cryo-EM data processing. Here we introduce an unsupervised single-particle clustering algorithm derived from a statistical manifold learning framework called generative topographic mapping (GTM. We show that unsupervised GTM clustering improves classification accuracy by about 40% in the absence of input references for data with lower SNRs. Applications to several experimental datasets suggest that our algorithm can detect subtle structural differences among classes via a hierarchical clustering strategy. After code optimization over a high-performance computing (HPC environment, our software implementation was able to generate thousands of reference-free class averages within hours in a massively parallel fashion, which allows a significant improvement on ab initio 3D reconstruction and assists in the computational purification of homogeneous datasets for high-resolution visualization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naghma Khatoon
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Mobility awareness and energy efficiency are two indispensable optimization problems in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs where nodes move unpredictably in any direction with restricted battery life, resulting in frequent change in topology. These constraints are widely studied to increase the lifetime of such networks. This paper focuses on the problems of mobility as well as energy efficiency to develop a clustering algorithm inspired by multiagent stochastic parallel search technique of particle swarm optimization. The election of cluster heads takes care of mobility and remaining energy as well as the degree of connectivity for selecting nodes to serve as cluster heads for longer duration of time. The cluster formation is presented by taking multiobjective fitness function using particle swarm optimization. The proposed work is experimented extensively in the NS-2 network simulator and compared with the other existing algorithms. The results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm in terms of network lifetime, average number of clusters formed, average number of reclustering required, energy consumption, and packet delivery ratio.
A collision model in plasma particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Yanyun; Chang Wenwei; Yin Yan; Yue Zongwu; Cao Lihua; Liu Daqing
2000-01-01
In order to offset the collisional effects reduced by using finite-size particles, β particle clouds are used in particle simulation codes (β is the ratio of charge or mass of modeling particles to real ones). The method of impulse approximation (strait line orbit approximation) is used to analyze the scattering cross section of β particle clouds plasmas. The authors can obtain the relation of the value of a and β and scattering cross section (a is the radius of β particle cloud). By using this relation the authors can determine the value of a and β so that the collisional effects of the modeling system is correspondent with the real one. The authors can also adjust the values of a and β so that the authors can enhance or reduce the collisional effects fictitiously. The results of simulation are in good agreement with the theoretical ones
Modeling of magnetic particle suspensions for simulations
Satoh, Akira
2017-01-01
The main objective of the book is to highlight the modeling of magnetic particles with different shapes and magnetic properties, to provide graduate students and young researchers information on the theoretical aspects and actual techniques for the treatment of magnetic particles in particle-based simulations. In simulation, we focus on the Monte Carlo, molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, lattice Boltzmann and stochastic rotation dynamics (multi-particle collision dynamics) methods. The latter two simulation methods can simulate both the particle motion and the ambient flow field simultaneously. In general, specialized knowledge can only be obtained in an effective manner under the supervision of an expert. The present book is written to play such a role for readers who wish to develop the skill of modeling magnetic particles and develop a computer simulation program using their own ability. This book is therefore a self-learning book for graduate students and young researchers. Armed with this knowledge,...
On the shell-model-connection of the cluster model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cseh, J.
2000-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The interrelation of basic nuclear structure models is a longstanding problem. The connection between the spherical shell model and the quadrupole collective model has been studied extensively, and symmetry considerations proved to be especially useful in this respect. A collective band was interpreted in the shell model language long ago [1] as a set of states (of the valence nucleons) with a specific SU(3) symmetry. Furthermore, the energies of these rotational states are obtained to a good approximation as eigenvalues of an SU(3) dynamically symmetric shell model Hamiltonian. On the other hand the relation of the shell model and cluster model is less well explored. The connection of the harmonic oscillator (i.e. SU(3)) bases of the two approaches is known [2] but it was established only for the unrealistic harmonic oscillator interactions. Here we investigate the question: Can an SU(3) dynamically symmetric interaction provide a similar connection between the spherical shell model and the cluster model, like the one between the shell and collective models? In other words: whether or not the energy of the states of the cluster bands, defined by a specific SU(3) symmetries, can be obtained from a shell model Hamiltonian (with SU(3) dynamical symmetry). We carried out calculations within the framework of the semimicroscopic algebraic cluster model [3,4] in order to find an answer to this question, which seems to be affirmative. In particular, the energies obtained from such a Hamiltonian for several bands of the ( 12 C, 14 C, 16 O, 20 Ne, 40 Ca) + α systems turn out to be in good agreement with the experimental values. The present results show that the simple and transparent SU(3) connection between the spherical shell model and the cluster model is valid not only for the harmonic oscillator interactions, but for much more general (SU(3) dynamically symmetric) Hamiltonians as well, which result in realistic energy spectra. Via
Observations and Modeling of Merging Galaxy Clusters
Golovich, Nathan Ryan
Context: Galaxy clusters grow hierarchically with continuous accretion bookended by major merging events that release immense gravitational potential energy (as much as ˜1065 erg). This energy creates an environment for rich astrophysics. Precise measurements of the dark matter halo, intracluster medium, and galaxy population have resulted in a number of important results including dark matter constraints and explanations of the generation of cosmic rays. However, since the timescale of major mergers (˜several Gyr) relegates observations of individual systems to mere snapshots, these results are difficult to understand under a consistent dynamical framework. While computationally expensive simulations are vital in this regard, the vastness of parameter space has necessitated simulations of idealized mergers that are unlikely to capture the full richness. Merger speeds, geometries, and timescales each have a profound consequential effect, but even these simple dynamical properties of the mergers are often poorly understood. A method to identify and constrain the best systems for probing the rich astrophysics of merging clusters is needed. Such a method could then be utilized to prioritize observational follow up and best inform proper exploration of dynamical phase space. Task: In order to identify and model a large number of systems, in this dissertation, we compile an ensemble of major mergers each containing radio relics. We then complete a pan-chromatic study of these 29 systems including wide field optical photometry, targeted optical spectroscopy of member galaxies, radio, and X-ray observations. We use the optical observations to model the galaxy substructure and estimate line of sight motion. In conjunction with the radio and X-ray data, these substructure models helped elucidate the most likely merger scenario for each system and further constrain the dynamical properties of each system. We demonstrate the power of this technique through detailed analyses
Modelling of heterogeneous clustering in aluminium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.E.; Bourgeois, L.; Nie, J.-F.; Muddle, B.C.
2003-01-01
Full text: Ab initio modelling of heterogeneous clustering in aluminium has been carried out in order to study the precipitation hardening of alloys. This process is based on the addition of small amounts of solute element to the pure metal. With increasing computational power, atomic scale effects can now be better simulated to determine the nature of the hardening mechanism. Comparisons are made between results obtained from two computational packages. These are the Linear Augmented Plane Wave WEEN2K and the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory package fhi98md. The study of the optimal geometry of very small size clusters inside aluminium has begun with the testing of initial convergence conditions by determination of binding energies for a variety of super cell sizes of the aluminium host crystal. These are compared with total energy calculations for small size precipitates of copper and transition metals of fixed geometry. Such local optimal determinations are seen as precursors to full Monte Carlo calculations of the notional best local geometry for larger precipitates
General decay law for emission of charged particles and exotic cluster radioactivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahu, Basudeb; Paira, Ramkrishna; Rath, Biswanath
2013-01-01
For the emission of charged particles from metastable nuclei, a general decay formula is developed based on the basic phenomenon of resonances occurring in quantum scattering process under Coulomb-nuclear potential. It relates the half-lives of monopole radioactive decays with the Q-values of the outgoing elements in different angular momentum states as well as the masses and charges of the nuclei involved in the decay. The relation is found to be a generalization of the Geiger–Nuttall law in α radioactivity and it explains well all known emission of charged particles including clusters, alpha and proton carrying angular momenta
Comparing clustering models in bank customers: Based on Fuzzy relational clustering approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayad Hendalianpour
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Clustering is absolutely useful information to explore data structures and has been employed in many places. It organizes a set of objects into similar groups called clusters, and the objects within one cluster are both highly similar and dissimilar with the objects in other clusters. The K-mean, C-mean, Fuzzy C-mean and Kernel K-mean algorithms are the most popular clustering algorithms for their easy implementation and fast work, but in some cases we cannot use these algorithms. Regarding this, in this paper, a hybrid model for customer clustering is presented that is applicable in five banks of Fars Province, Shiraz, Iran. In this way, the fuzzy relation among customers is defined by using their features described in linguistic and quantitative variables. As follows, the customers of banks are grouped according to K-mean, C-mean, Fuzzy C-mean and Kernel K-mean algorithms and the proposed Fuzzy Relation Clustering (FRC algorithm. The aim of this paper is to show how to choose the best clustering algorithms based on density-based clustering and present a new clustering algorithm for both crisp and fuzzy variables. Finally, we apply the proposed approach to five datasets of customer's segmentation in banks. The result of the FCR shows the accuracy and high performance of FRC compared other clustering methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Veena Anand
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN has the disadvantage of limited and non-rechargeable energy resource in WSN creates a challenge and led to development of various clustering and routing algorithms. The paper proposes an approach for improving network lifetime by using Particle swarm optimization based clustering and Harmony Search based routing in WSN. So in this paper, global optimal cluster head are selected and Gateway nodes are introduced to decrease the energy consumption of the CH while sending aggregated data to the Base station (BS. Next, the harmony search algorithm based Local Search strategy finds best routing path for gateway nodes to the Base Station. Finally, the proposed algorithm is presented.
Parameters of oscillation generation regions in open star cluster models
Danilov, V. M.; Putkov, S. I.
2017-07-01
We determine the masses and radii of central regions of open star cluster (OCL) models with small or zero entropy production and estimate the masses of oscillation generation regions in clustermodels based on the data of the phase-space coordinates of stars. The radii of such regions are close to the core radii of the OCL models. We develop a new method for estimating the total OCL masses based on the cluster core mass, the cluster and cluster core radii, and radial distribution of stars. This method yields estimates of dynamical masses of Pleiades, Praesepe, and M67, which agree well with the estimates of the total masses of the corresponding clusters based on proper motions and spectroscopic data for cluster stars.We construct the spectra and dispersion curves of the oscillations of the field of azimuthal velocities v φ in OCL models. Weak, low-amplitude unstable oscillations of v φ develop in cluster models near the cluster core boundary, and weak damped oscillations of v φ often develop at frequencies close to the frequencies of more powerful oscillations, which may reduce the non-stationarity degree in OCL models. We determine the number and parameters of such oscillations near the cores boundaries of cluster models. Such oscillations points to the possible role that gradient instability near the core of cluster models plays in the decrease of the mass of the oscillation generation regions and production of entropy in the cores of OCL models with massive extended cores.
di Stasio, Stefano; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Kostoglou, Margaritis
2002-03-01
The agglomeration kinetics of growing soot generated in a diffusion atmospheric flame are here studied in situ by light scattering technique to infer cluster morphology and size (fractal dimension D(f) and radius of gyration R(g)). SEM analysis is used as a standard reference to obtain primary particle size D(P) at different residence times. The number N(P) of primary particles per aggregate and the number concentration n(A) of clusters are evaluated on the basis of the measured angular patterns of the scattered light intensity. The major finding is that the kinetics of the coagulation process that yields to the formation of chain-like aggregates by soot primary particles (size 10 to 40 nm) can be described with a constant coagulation kernel beta(c,exp)=2.37x10(-9) cm3/s (coagulation constant tau(c) approximately = 0.28 ms). This result is in nice accord with the Smoluchowski coagulation equation in the free molecular regime, and, vice versa, it is in contrast with previous studies conducted by invasive (ex situ) techniques, which claimed the evidence in flames of coagulation rates much larger than the kinetic theory predictions. Thereafter, a number of numerical simulations is implemented to compare with the experimental results on primary particle growth rate and on the process of aggregate reshaping that is observed by light scattering at later residence times. The restructuring process is conjectured to occur, for not well understood reasons, as a direct consequence of the atomic rearrangement in the solid phase carbon due to the prolonged residence time within the flame. Thus, on one side, it is shown that the numerical simulations of primary size history compare well with the values of primary size from SEM experiment with a growth rate constant of primary diameter about 1 nm/s. On the other side, the evolution of aggregate morphology is found to be predictable by the numerical simulations when the onset of a first-order "thermal" restructuring mechanism is
Scattering and absorption of particles emitted by a point source in a cluster of point scatterers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liljequist, D.
2012-01-01
A theory for the scattering and absorption of particles isotropically emitted by a point source in a cluster of point scatterers is described and related to the theory for the scattering of an incident particle beam. The quantum mechanical probability of escape from the cluster in different directions is calculated, as well as the spatial distribution of absorption events within the cluster. A source strength renormalization procedure is required. The average quantum scattering in clusters with randomly shifting scatterer positions is compared to trajectory simulation with the aim of studying the validity of the trajectory method. Differences between the results of the quantum and trajectory methods are found primarily for wavelengths larger than the average distance between nearest neighbour scatterers. The average quantum results include, for example, a local minimum in the number of absorption events at the location of the point source and interference patterns in the angle-dependent escape probability as well as in the distribution of absorption events. The relative error of the trajectory method is in general, though not generally, of similar magnitude as that obtained for beam scattering.
submitter On the composition of ammonia–sulfuric-acid ion clusters during aerosol particle formation
Schobesberger, S; Bianchi, F; Rondo, L; Duplissy, J; Kürten, A; Ortega, I K; Metzger, A; Schnitzhofer, R; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Dunne, E M; Ehn, M; Gagné, S; Ickes, L; Junninen, H; Hansel, A; Kerminen, V -M; Kirkby, J; Kupc, A; Laaksonen, A; Lehtipalo, K; Mathot, S; Onnela, A; Petäjä, T; Riccobono, F; Santos, F D; Sipilä, M; Tomé, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Viisanen, Y; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Curtius, J; Donahue, N M; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R
2015-01-01
The formation of particles from precursor vapors is an important source of atmospheric aerosol. Research at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) facility at CERN tries to elucidate which vapors are responsible for this new-particle formation, and how in detail it proceeds. Initial measurement campaigns at the CLOUD stainless-steel aerosol chamber focused on investigating particle formation from ammonia $(NH_3)$ and sulfuric acid $(H-2SO_4)$. Experiments were conducted in the presence of water, ozone and sulfur dioxide. Contaminant trace gases were suppressed at the technological limit. For this study, we mapped out the compositions of small $NH_3–H_2SO_4$ clusters over a wide range of atmospherically relevant environmental conditions. We covered [NH3] in the range from 10. Positively charged clusters grew on average by Δm/Δn = 1.05 and were only observed at sufficiently high $[NH_3]$ / $[H_2SO_4]$. The $H_2SO_4$ molecules of these clusters are partially neutralized by $NH_3$, in close resemblance...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lacroix, D.; Durand, D.
2005-09-01
Rules for in-medium complex particle production in nuclear reactions are proposed. These rules have been implemented in two models to simulate nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions around the Fermi energy. Our work emphasizes the effect of randomness in cluster formation, the importance of the nucleonic Fermi motion as well as the role of conservation laws. The concepts of total available phase-space and explored phase-space under constraint imposed by the reaction are clarified. The compatibility of experimental observations with a random clusterization is illustrated in a schematic scenario of a proton-nucleus collision. The role of randomness under constraint is also illustrated in the nucleus-nucleus case. (authors)
Modeling of particle mixing in the atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Shupeng
2015-01-01
This thesis presents a newly developed size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM), which is able to simulate the dynamics of externally-mixed particles in the atmosphere, and evaluates its performance in three-dimensional air-quality simulations. The main work is split into four parts. First, the research context of external mixing and aerosol modelling is introduced. Secondly, the development of the SCRAM box model is presented along with validation tests. Each particle composition is defined by the combination of mass-fraction sections of its chemical components or aggregates of components. The three main processes involved in aerosol dynamic (nucleation, coagulation, condensation/ evaporation) are included in SCRAM. The model is first validated by comparisons with published reference solutions for coagulation and condensation/evaporation of internally-mixed particles. The particle mixing state is investigated in a 0-D simulation using data representative of air pollution at a traffic site in Paris. The relative influence on the mixing state of the different aerosol processes and of the algorithm used to model condensation/evaporation (dynamic evolution or bulk equilibrium between particles and gas) is studied. Then, SCRAM is integrated into the Polyphemus air quality platform and used to conduct simulations over Greater Paris during the summer period of 2009. This evaluation showed that SCRAM gives satisfactory results for both PM2.5/PM10 concentrations and aerosol optical depths, as assessed from comparisons to observations. Besides, the model allows us to analyze the particle mixing state, as well as the impact of the mixing state assumption made in the modelling on particle formation, aerosols optical properties, and cloud condensation nuclei activation. Finally, two simulations are conducted during the winter campaign of MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for
Exactly soluble models for surface partition of large clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugaev, K.A.; Bugaev, K.A.; Elliott, J.B.
2007-01-01
The surface partition of large clusters is studied analytically within a framework of the 'Hills and Dales Model'. Three formulations are solved exactly by using the Laplace-Fourier transformation method. In the limit of small amplitude deformations, the 'Hills and Dales Model' gives the upper and lower bounds for the surface entropy coefficient of large clusters. The found surface entropy coefficients are compared with those of large clusters within the 2- and 3-dimensional Ising models
Examining Model Atmospheric Particles Inside and Out
Wingen, L. M.; Zhao, Y.; Fairhurst, M. C.; Perraud, V. M.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.
2017-12-01
Atmospheric particles scatter incoming solar radiation and act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thereby directly and indirectly affecting the earth's radiative balance and reducing visibility. These atmospheric particles may not be uniform in composition. Differences in the composition of a particle's outer surface from its core can arise during particle growth, (photo)chemical aging, and exchange of species with the gas phase. The nature of the surface on a molecular level is expected to impact growth mechanisms as well as their ability to act as CCN. Model laboratory particle systems are explored using direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS), which is sensitive to surface composition, and contrasted with average composition measurements using high resolution, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS). Results include studies of the heterogeneous reactions of amines with solid dicarboxylic acid particles, which are shown to generate aminium dicarboxylate salts at the particle surface, leaving an unreacted core. Combination of both mass spectrometric techniques reveals a trend in reactivity of C3-C7 dicarboxylic acids with amines and allows calculation of the DART probe depth into the particles. The results of studies on additional model systems that are currently being explored will also be reported.
Comment on atomic independent-particle models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doda, D.D.; Gravey, R.H.; Green, A.E.S.
1975-01-01
The Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) independent-particle model in the form developed by Hermann and Skillman (HS) and the Green, Sellin, and Zachor (GSZ) analytic independent-particle model are being used for many types of applications of atomic theory to avoid cumbersome, albeit more rigorous, many-body calculations. The single-electron eigenvalues obtained with these models are examined and it is found that the GSZ model is capable of yielding energy eigenvalues for valence electrons which are substantially closer to experimental values than are the results of HS-HFS calculations. With the aid of an analytic representation of the equivalent HS-HFS screening function, the difficulty with this model is identified as a weakness of the potential in the neighborhood of the valence shell. Accurate representations of valence states are important in most atomic applications of the independent-particle model
Particle Tracking and Deposition from CFD Simulations using a Viscoelastic Particle Model
Losurdo, M.
2009-01-01
In the present dissertation the mathematical modelling of particle deposition is studied and the solution algorithms for particle tracking, deposition and deposit growth are developed. Particle deposition is modelled according to mechanical impact and contact mechanics taking into account the
Cluster-cluster correlations in the two-dimensional stationary Ising-model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klassmann, A.
1997-01-01
In numerical integration of the Cahn-Hillard equation, which describes Oswald rising in a two-phase matrix, N. Masbaum showed that spatial correlations between clusters scale with respect to the mean cluster size (itself a function of time). T. B. Liverpool showed by Monte Carlo simulations for the Ising model that the analogous correlations have a similar form. Both demonstrated that immediately around each cluster there is some depletion area followed by something like a ring of clusters of the same size as the original one. More precisely, it has been shown that the distribution of clusters around a given cluster looks like a sinus-curve decaying exponentially with respect to the distance to a constant value
Scalar particles in superstring models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binetruy, P.
1989-01-01
The role played by scalar fields in superstring models is reviewed, with an emphasis on recent developments. The case of the dilaton and moduli fields is discussed in connection with the issues of spacetime duality and supersymmetry breaking. Constraints on the Higgs sector are reviewed in the different classes of models
Radiobiological analyse based on cell cluster models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Hui; Jing Jia; Meng Damin; Xu Yuanying; Xu Liangfeng
2010-01-01
The influence of cell cluster dimension on EUD and TCP for targeted radionuclide therapy was studied using the radiobiological method. The radiobiological features of tumor with activity-lack in core were evaluated and analyzed by associating EUD, TCP and SF.The results show that EUD will increase with the increase of tumor dimension under the activity homogeneous distribution. If the extra-cellular activity was taken into consideration, the EUD will increase 47%. Under the activity-lack in tumor center and the requirement of TCP=0.90, the α cross-fire influence of 211 At could make up the maximum(48 μm)3 activity-lack for Nucleus source, but(72 μm)3 for Cytoplasm, Cell Surface, Cell and Voxel sources. In clinic,the physician could prefer the suggested dose of Cell Surface source in case of the future of local tumor control for under-dose. Generally TCP could well exhibit the effect difference between under-dose and due-dose, but not between due-dose and over-dose, which makes TCP more suitable for the therapy plan choice. EUD could well exhibit the difference between different models and activity distributions,which makes it more suitable for the research work. When the user uses EUD to study the influence of activity inhomogeneous distribution, one should keep the consistency of the configuration and volume of the former and the latter models. (authors)
Particle modeling of plasmas computational plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dawson, J.M.
1991-01-01
Recently, through the development of supercomputers, a powerful new method for exploring plasmas has emerged; it is computer modeling of plasmas. Such modeling can duplicate many of the complex processes that go on in a plasma and allow scientists to understand what the important processes are. It helps scientists gain an intuition about this complex state of matter. It allows scientists and engineers to explore new ideas on how to use plasma before building costly experiments; it allows them to determine if they are on the right track. It can duplicate the operation of devices and thus reduce the need to build complex and expensive devices for research and development. This is an exciting new endeavor that is in its infancy, but which can play an important role in the scientific and technological competitiveness of the US. There are a wide range of plasma models that are in use. There are particle models, fluid models, hybrid particle fluid models. These can come in many forms, such as explicit models, implicit models, reduced dimensional models, electrostatic models, magnetostatic models, electromagnetic models, and almost an endless variety of other models. Here the author will only discuss particle models. He will give a few examples of the use of such models; these will be taken from work done by the Plasma Modeling Group at UCLA because he is most familiar with work. However, it only gives a small view of the wide range of work being done around the US, or for that matter around the world
MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.
2013-01-01
We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter Γ in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters
Probabilistic Solar Energetic Particle Models
Adams, James H., Jr.; Dietrich, William F.; Xapsos, Michael A.
2011-01-01
To plan and design safe and reliable space missions, it is necessary to take into account the effects of the space radiation environment. This is done by setting the goal of achieving safety and reliability with some desired level of confidence. To achieve this goal, a worst-case space radiation environment at the required confidence level must be obtained. Planning and designing then proceeds, taking into account the effects of this worst-case environment. The result will be a mission that is reliable against the effects of the space radiation environment at the desired confidence level. In this paper we will describe progress toward developing a model that provides worst-case space radiation environments at user-specified confidence levels. We will present a model for worst-case event-integrated solar proton environments that provide the worst-case differential proton spectrum. This model is based on data from IMP-8 and GOES spacecraft that provide a data base extending from 1974 to the present. We will discuss extending this work to create worst-case models for peak flux and mission-integrated fluence for protons. We will also describe plans for similar models for helium and heavier ions.
The nuclear single particle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mang, H.
1985-01-01
Twenty years ago in December 1963 one half of the Nobel prize in Physics was awarded to Maria Goeppert-Mayer and Johannes Daniel Jensen for their work on the nuclear shell model. They suggested independently that a strong spin-orbit force with the opposite sign of the one known from atomic physics should be added to the shell-model potential. This proved to be the crucial new idea, because then all the bits of and pieces of evidence that had accumulated over the years fell into place. The author begins with the basic assumption: In a nucleus nucleons move almost independently of each other in an average or shell-model potential. He then provides experimental evidence plausibility arguments and mathematical deductions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitehead, Alfred J.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Vesperini, Enrico; Portegies Zwart, Simon
2013-01-01
We perform a series of simulations of evolving star clusters using the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE), a new community-based multi-physics simulation package, and compare our results to existing work. These simulations model a star cluster beginning with a King model distribution and a selection of power-law initial mass functions and contain a tidal cutoff. They are evolved using collisional stellar dynamics and include mass loss due to stellar evolution. After studying and understanding that the differences between AMUSE results and results from previous studies are understood, we explored the variation in cluster lifetimes due to the random realization noise introduced by transforming a King model to specific initial conditions. This random realization noise can affect the lifetime of a simulated star cluster by up to 30%. Two modes of star cluster dissolution were identified: a mass evolution curve that contains a runaway cluster dissolution with a sudden loss of mass, and a dissolution mode that does not contain this feature. We refer to these dissolution modes as 'dynamical' and 'relaxation' dominated, respectively. For Salpeter-like initial mass functions, we determined the boundary between these two modes in terms of the dynamical and relaxation timescales.
Liu, Ling; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Zhang, Haijie; Li, Hao; Zhong, Jie; Kurtén, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Zhang, Shaowen; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa; Zhang, Xiuhui; Li, Zesheng
2018-06-01
The formation of atmospheric aerosol particles from condensable gases is a dominant source of particulate matter in the boundary layer, but the mechanism is still ambiguous. During the clustering process, precursors with different reactivities can induce various chemical reactions in addition to the formation of hydrogen bonds. However, the clustering mechanism involving chemical reactions is rarely considered in most of the nucleation process models. Oxocarboxylic acids are common compositions of secondary organic aerosol, but the role of oxocarboxylic acids in secondary organic aerosol formation is still not fully understood. In this paper, glyoxylic acid, the simplest and the most abundant atmospheric oxocarboxylic acid, has been selected as a representative example of oxocarboxylic acids in order to study the clustering mechanism involving hydration reactions using density functional theory combined with the Atmospheric Clusters Dynamic Code. The hydration reaction of glyoxylic acid can occur either in the gas phase or during the clustering process. Under atmospheric conditions, the total conversion ratio of glyoxylic acid to its hydration reaction product (2,2-dihydroxyacetic acid) in both gas phase and clusters can be up to 85%, and the product can further participate in the clustering process. The differences in cluster structures and properties induced by the hydration reaction lead to significant differences in cluster formation rates and pathways at relatively low temperatures.
High energy model for irregular absorbing particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiappetta, Pierre.
1979-05-01
In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)
KMEANS CLUSTERING FOR HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL
Perrone, M.P.; Connell, S.D.
2004-01-01
An unsupervised kmeans clustering algorithm for hidden Markov models is described and applied to the task of generating subclass models for individual handwritten character classes. The algorithm is compared to a related clustering method and shown to give a relative change in the error rate of as
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, BirBikram; Patra, S. K.; Gupta, Raj K.
2010-01-01
We have studied the (ground-state) cluster radioactive decays within the preformed cluster model (PCM) of Gupta and collaborators [R. K. Gupta, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, Varenna, edited by E. Gadioli (Ricerca Scientifica ed Educazione Permanente, Milano, 1988), p. 416; S. S. Malik and R. K. Gupta, Phys. Rev. C 39, 1992 (1989)]. The relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory is used to obtain the nuclear matter densities for the double folding procedure used to construct the cluster-daughter potential with M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction including exchange effects. Following the PCM approach, we have deduced empirically the preformation probability P 0 emp from the experimental data on both the α- and exotic cluster-decays, specifically of parents in the trans-lead region having doubly magic 208 Pb or its neighboring nuclei as daughters. Interestingly, the RMF-densities-based nuclear potential supports the concept of preformation for both the α and heavier clusters in radioactive nuclei. P 0 α(emp) for α decays is almost constant (∼10 -2 -10 -3 ) for all the parent nuclei considered here, and P 0 c(emp) for cluster decays of the same parents decrease with the size of clusters emitted from different parents. The results obtained for P 0 c(emp) are reasonable and are within two to three orders of magnitude of the well-accepted phenomenological model of Blendowske-Walliser for light clusters.
An algebraic model for three-cluster giant molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hess, P.O.; Bijker, R.; Misicu, S.
2001-01-01
After an introduction to the algebraic U(7) model for three bodies, we present a relation of a geometrical description of three-cluster molecule to the algebraic U(7) model. Stiffness parameters of oscillations between each of two clusters are calculated and translated to the model parameter values of the algebraic model. The model is applied to the trinuclear system l32 Sn+ α + ll6 Pd which occurs in the ternary cold fission of 252 Cf. (Author)
Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations
Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.
2018-01-01
The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).
Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System (CMS)
2015-11-04
Coastal Inlets Research Program Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) is a Lagrangian...currents and waves. The Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP) supports the PTM with the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ), which provides coupled wave...and current forcing for PTM simulations. CMS -PTM is implemented in the Surface-water Modeling System, a GUI environment for input development
Interaction of particles with complex electrostatic structures and 3D clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonova, Tetyana
2007-01-01
Particles of micrometer size externally introduced in plasmas usually find their positions of levitation in the plasma sheath, where the gravity force is compensated by the strong electric field. Here due to electrostatic interaction they form different structures, which are interesting objects for the investigation of strongly coupled systems and critical phenomena. Because of the low damping (e.g. in comparison to colloidal suspension) it is possible to measure the dynamics up to the relevant highest frequency (e.g. Einstein frequency) at the most elementary level of single particle motion. The task of this work was to analyze the three dimensional structure, dynamical processes and the limit of the cooperative behavior in small plasma crystals. In addition to the study of the systems formed, the immersed particles themselves may be used for diagnostics of the plasma environment: estimation of parameters or monitoring of the processes inside plasma. The laboratory experiments are performed in two radio-frequency (RF) plasma reactors with parallel plate electrodes, where the lower electrode is a so-called ''adaptive electrode''. This electrode is segmented into 57 small ''pixels'' independently driven in DC (direct current) and/or RF voltage. When RF voltage is applied to one of these pixels, a bright localized glow, ''secondary plasma ball'', appears above. Three dimensional dust crystals with less than 100 particles are formed inside this ''plasma ball'' - the ideal conditions for the investigation of the transition from cluster systems to collective systems. The investigation of the particle interactions in crystals is performed with an optical diagnostic, which allows determination of all three particle coordinates simultaneously with time resolution of 0.04 sec. The experimental results are: 1. The binary interaction among particles in addition to the repelling Coulomb force exhibits also an attractive part, which is experimentally determined for the first
Interaction of particles with complex electrostatic structures and 3D clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antonova, Tetyana
2007-10-16
Particles of micrometer size externally introduced in plasmas usually find their positions of levitation in the plasma sheath, where the gravity force is compensated by the strong electric field. Here due to electrostatic interaction they form different structures, which are interesting objects for the investigation of strongly coupled systems and critical phenomena. Because of the low damping (e.g. in comparison to colloidal suspension) it is possible to measure the dynamics up to the relevant highest frequency (e.g. Einstein frequency) at the most elementary level of single particle motion. The task of this work was to analyze the three dimensional structure, dynamical processes and the limit of the cooperative behavior in small plasma crystals. In addition to the study of the systems formed, the immersed particles themselves may be used for diagnostics of the plasma environment: estimation of parameters or monitoring of the processes inside plasma. The laboratory experiments are performed in two radio-frequency (RF) plasma reactors with parallel plate electrodes, where the lower electrode is a so-called 'adaptive electrode'. This electrode is segmented into 57 small 'pixels' independently driven in DC (direct current) and/or RF voltage. When RF voltage is applied to one of these pixels, a bright localized glow, 'secondary plasma ball', appears above. Three dimensional dust crystals with less than 100 particles are formed inside this 'plasma ball' - the ideal conditions for the investigation of the transition from cluster systems to collective systems. The investigation of the particle interactions in crystals is performed with an optical diagnostic, which allows determination of all three particle coordinates simultaneously with time resolution of 0.04 sec. The experimental results are: 1. The binary interaction among particles in addition to the repelling Coulomb force exhibits also an attractive part, which is
Three-particle forces and nuclear models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krutov, V.A.
1980-01-01
Different nuclear models accounting and unaccounting for three-particle internucleon forces (TIF) are reviewed. At present only two nuclear models use manifestly TIP: the Vautherin-Brink-Skyrme (VBS) model and the model proposed by the author of the review and called the semiphenomenological (SP) nuclear model. There is a short discussion of major drawbacks of models unaccounting for TIF: multiparticle shell model, ''superfluid model'', Harty-Fock calculations with two-particle forces, Bruckner-Hartry-Fock calculations, the relativistic self-consistent nuclear model. The VBS and SP models are discussed in detail. It is concluded, that the employment of TIF even in a very simplified form (extremely short-range) puts away a lot of problems characteristic to models limited by two-particle forces (collapse at iteratious in Hartry-Fock, simultaneous fitting of the binding energy of a nucleus and the binding energy of a nucleon, etc.) and makes it possible to obtain in a rather simple way such nuclear characteristics as nuclear binding energy, nuclear mean square root radii, nucleon density of a nucleus
Validating clustering of molecular dynamics simulations using polymer models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phillips Joshua L
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular dynamics (MD simulation is a powerful technique for sampling the meta-stable and transitional conformations of proteins and other biomolecules. Computational data clustering has emerged as a useful, automated technique for extracting conformational states from MD simulation data. Despite extensive application, relatively little work has been done to determine if the clustering algorithms are actually extracting useful information. A primary goal of this paper therefore is to provide such an understanding through a detailed analysis of data clustering applied to a series of increasingly complex biopolymer models. Results We develop a novel series of models using basic polymer theory that have intuitive, clearly-defined dynamics and exhibit the essential properties that we are seeking to identify in MD simulations of real biomolecules. We then apply spectral clustering, an algorithm particularly well-suited for clustering polymer structures, to our models and MD simulations of several intrinsically disordered proteins. Clustering results for the polymer models provide clear evidence that the meta-stable and transitional conformations are detected by the algorithm. The results for the polymer models also help guide the analysis of the disordered protein simulations by comparing and contrasting the statistical properties of the extracted clusters. Conclusions We have developed a framework for validating the performance and utility of clustering algorithms for studying molecular biopolymer simulations that utilizes several analytic and dynamic polymer models which exhibit well-behaved dynamics including: meta-stable states, transition states, helical structures, and stochastic dynamics. We show that spectral clustering is robust to anomalies introduced by structural alignment and that different structural classes of intrinsically disordered proteins can be reliably discriminated from the clustering results. To our
Modeling pollutant transport using a meshless-lagrangian particle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrington, D.B.; Pepper, D.W.
2002-01-01
A combined meshless-Lagrangian particle transport model is used to predict pollutant transport over irregular terrain. The numerical model for initializing the velocity field is based on a meshless approach utilizing multiquadrics established by Kansa. The Lagrangian particle transport technique uses a random walk procedure to depict the advection and dispersion of pollutants over any type of surface, including street and city canyons
Lagrangian Trajectory Modeling of Lunar Dust Particles
Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.
2008-01-01
Apollo landing videos shot from inside the right LEM window, provide a quantitative measure of the characteristics and dynamics of the ejecta spray of lunar regolith particles beneath the Lander during the final 10 [m] or so of descent. Photogrammetry analysis gives an estimate of the thickness of the dust layer and angle of trajectory. In addition, Apollo landing video analysis divulges valuable information on the regolith ejecta interactions with lunar surface topography. For example, dense dust streaks are seen to originate at the outer rims of craters within a critical radius of the Lander during descent. The primary intent of this work was to develop a mathematical model and software implementation for the trajectory simulation of lunar dust particles acted on by gas jets originating from the nozzle of a lunar Lander, where the particle sizes typically range from 10 micron to 500 micron. The high temperature, supersonic jet of gas that is exhausted from a rocket engine can propel dust, soil, gravel, as well as small rocks to high velocities. The lunar vacuum allows ejected particles to travel great distances unimpeded, and in the case of smaller particles, escape velocities may be reached. The particle size distributions and kinetic energies of ejected particles can lead to damage to the landing spacecraft or to other hardware that has previously been deployed in the vicinity. Thus the primary motivation behind this work is to seek a better understanding for the purpose of modeling and predicting the behavior of regolith dust particle trajectories during powered rocket descent and ascent.
Computer Models Simulate Fine Particle Dispersion
2010-01-01
Through a NASA Seed Fund partnership with DEM Solutions Inc., of Lebanon, New Hampshire, scientists at Kennedy Space Center refined existing software to study the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces. The software, EDEM, allows users to import particles and obtain accurate representations of their shapes for modeling purposes, such as simulating bulk solids behavior, and was enhanced to be able to more accurately model fine, abrasive, cohesive particles. These new EDEM capabilities can be applied in many industries unrelated to space exploration and have been adopted by several prominent U.S. companies, including John Deere, Pfizer, and Procter & Gamble.
Hybrid K-means Dan Particle Swarm Optimization Untuk Clustering Nasabah Kredit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yusuf Priyo Anggodo
2017-05-01
Credit is the biggest revenue for the bank. However, banks have to be selective in deciding which clients can receive the credit. This issue is becoming increasingly complex because when the bank was wrong to give credit to customers can do harm, apart of that a large number of deciding parameter in determining customer credit. Clustering is one way to be able to resolve this issue. K-means is a simple and popular method for solving clustering. However, K-means pure can’t provide optimum solutions so that needs to be done to get the optimum solution to improve. One method of optimization that can solve the problems of optimization with particle swarm optimization is good (PSO. PSO is very helpful in the process of clustering to perform optimization on the central point of each cluster. To improve better results on PSO there are some that do improve. The first use of time-variant inertia to make the dynamic value of inertial w each iteration. Both control the speed of the particle velocity or clamping to get the best position. Besides to overcome premature convergence do hybrid PSO with random injection. The results of this research provide the optimum results for solving clustering of customer credits. The test results showed the hybrid PSO K-means provide the greatest results than K-means and PSO K-means, where the silhouette of the K-means, PSO K-means, and hybrid PSO K-means respectively 0.57343, 0.792045, 1. Keywords: Credit, Clustering, PSO, K-means, Random Injection
Analysis of the dynamical cluster approximation for the Hubbard model
Aryanpour, K.; Hettler, M. H.; Jarrell, M.
2002-01-01
We examine a central approximation of the recently introduced Dynamical Cluster Approximation (DCA) by example of the Hubbard model. By both analytical and numerical means we study non-compact and compact contributions to the thermodynamic potential. We show that approximating non-compact diagrams by their cluster analogs results in a larger systematic error as compared to the compact diagrams. Consequently, only the compact contributions should be taken from the cluster, whereas non-compact ...
Globular cluster metallicity scale: evidence from stellar models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demarque, P.; King, C.R.; Diaz, A.
1982-01-01
Theoretical giant branches have been constructed to determine their relative positions for metallicities in the range -2.3 0 )/sub 0,g/ based on these models is presented which yields good agreement over the observed range of metallicities for galactic globular clusters and old disk clusters. The metallicity of 47 Tuc and M71 given by this calibration is about -0.8 dex. Subject headings: clusters, globular: stars: abundances: stars: interiors
Krivitsky, Pavel N; Handcock, Mark S; Raftery, Adrian E; Hoff, Peter D
2009-07-01
Social network data often involve transitivity, homophily on observed attributes, clustering, and heterogeneity of actor degrees. We propose a latent cluster random effects model to represent all of these features, and we describe a Bayesian estimation method for it. The model is applicable to both binary and non-binary network data. We illustrate the model using two real datasets. We also apply it to two simulated network datasets with the same, highly skewed, degree distribution, but very different network behavior: one unstructured and the other with transitivity and clustering. Models based on degree distributions, such as scale-free, preferential attachment and power-law models, cannot distinguish between these very different situations, but our model does.
Structures of $p$-shell double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei studied with microscopic cluster models
Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko
2018-01-01
$0s$-orbit $\\Lambda$ states in $p$-shell double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei ($^{\\ \\,A}_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}Z$), $^{\\ \\,8}_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}\\textrm{Li}$, $^{\\ \\,9}_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}\\textrm{Li}$, $^{10,11,12}_{\\ \\ \\ \\ \\ \\Lambda\\Lambda}\\textrm{Be}$, $^{12,13}_{\\ \\ \\Lambda\\Lambda}\\textrm{B}$, and $^{\\,14}_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}\\textrm{C}$ are investigated. Microscopic cluster models are applied to core nuclear part and a potential model is adopted for $\\Lambda$ particles. The $\\Lambda$-core potential is a folding ...
ANALISIS SEGMENTASI PELANGGAN MENGGUNAKAN KOMBINASI RFM MODEL DAN TEKNIK CLUSTERING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beta Estri Adiana
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Intense competition in the business field motivates a small and medium enterprises (SMEs to manage customer services to the maximal. Improve of customer royalty by grouping cunstomers into some of groups and determining appropriate and effective marketing strategies for each group. Customer segmentation can be performed by data mining approach with clustering method. The main purpose of this paper is customer segmentation and measure their loyalty to a SME’s product. Using CRISP-DM method which consist of six phases, namely business understanding, data understanding, data preparatuin, modeling, evaluation and deployment. The K-Means algorithm is used for cluster formation and RapidMiner as a tool used to evaluate the result of clusters. Cluster formation is based on RFM (recency, frequency, monetary analysis. Davies Bouldin Index (DBI is used to find the optimal number of clusters (k. The customers are divided into 3 clusters, total of customer in first cluster is 30 customers who entered in typical customer category, the second cluster there are 8 customer whho entered in superstar customer and 89 customers in third cluster is dormant cluster category.
Quark cluster model in the three-nucleon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, A.
1986-11-01
The quark cluster model is used to investigate the structure of the three-nucleon systems. The nucleon-nucleon interaction is proposed considering the colour-nucleon clusters and incorporating the quark degrees of freedom. The quark-quark potential in the quark compound bag model agrees with the central force potentials. The confinement potential reduces the short-range repulsion. The colour van der Waals force is determined. Then, the probability of quark clusters in the three-nucleon bound state systems are numerically calculated using realistic nuclear wave functions. The results of the present calculations show that quarks cluster themselves in three-quark systems building the quark cluster model for the trinucleon system. (author)
Clustering disaggregated load profiles using a Dirichlet process mixture model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granell, Ramon; Axon, Colin J.; Wallom, David C.H.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We show that the Dirichlet process mixture model is scaleable. • Our model does not require the number of clusters as an input. • Our model creates clusters only by the features of the demand profiles. • We have used both residential and commercial data sets. - Abstract: The increasing availability of substantial quantities of power-use data in both the residential and commercial sectors raises the possibility of mining the data to the advantage of both consumers and network operations. We present a Bayesian non-parametric model to cluster load profiles from households and business premises. Evaluators show that our model performs as well as other popular clustering methods, but unlike most other methods it does not require the number of clusters to be predetermined by the user. We used the so-called ‘Chinese restaurant process’ method to solve the model, making use of the Dirichlet-multinomial distribution. The number of clusters grew logarithmically with the quantity of data, making the technique suitable for scaling to large data sets. We were able to show that the model could distinguish features such as the nationality, household size, and type of dwelling between the cluster memberships
Modelling of particles collection by vented limiters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsitrone, E.; Pegourie, B.; Granata, G.
1995-01-01
This document deals with the use of vented limiters for the collection of neutral particles in Tore Supra. The model developed for experiments is presented together with its experimental validation. Some possible improvements to the present limiter are also proposed. (TEC). 5 refs., 3 figs
submitter The effect of acid–base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano-particles
Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Kontkanen, Jenni; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Kürten, Andreas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Ahlm, Lars; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Olenius, Tinja; Ortega, Ismael K; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud; Rissanen, Matti P; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Simon, Mario; Smith, James N; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, António; Vaattovaara, Petri; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Vrtala, Aron E; Wagner, Paul E; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Virtanen, Annele; Donahue, Neil M; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Baltensperger, Urs; Riipinen, Ilona; Curtius, Joachim; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku
2016-01-01
The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at sub-3 nm sizes with different atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulphuric acid, water, ammonia and dimethylamine. We find that atmospheric ions and small acid-base clusters, which are not generally accounted for in the measurement of sulphuric acid vapour, can participate in the growth process, leading to enhanced growth rates. The availability of compounds capable of stabilizing sulphuric acid clusters governs the magnitude of these effects and thus the exact growth mechanism. We bring these observations into a ...
Fitting Latent Cluster Models for Networks with latentnet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel N. Krivitsky
2007-12-01
Full Text Available latentnet is a package to fit and evaluate statistical latent position and cluster models for networks. Hoﬀ, Raftery, and Handcock (2002 suggested an approach to modeling networks based on positing the existence of an latent space of characteristics of the actors. Relationships form as a function of distances between these characteristics as well as functions of observed dyadic level covariates. In latentnet social distances are represented in a Euclidean space. It also includes a variant of the extension of the latent position model to allow for clustering of the positions developed in Handcock, Raftery, and Tantrum (2007.The package implements Bayesian inference for the models based on an Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. It can also compute maximum likelihood estimates for the latent position model and a two-stage maximum likelihood method for the latent position cluster model. For latent position cluster models, the package provides a Bayesian way of assessing how many groups there are, and thus whether or not there is any clustering (since if the preferred number of groups is 1, there is little evidence for clustering. It also estimates which cluster each actor belongs to. These estimates are probabilistic, and provide the probability of each actor belonging to each cluster. It computes four types of point estimates for the coefficients and positions: maximum likelihood estimate, posterior mean, posterior mode and the estimator which minimizes Kullback-Leibler divergence from the posterior. You can assess the goodness-of-fit of the model via posterior predictive checks. It has a function to simulate networks from a latent position or latent position cluster model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagedorn, G.A.
1979-01-01
We investigate elastic and inelastic (2 cluster)→(2 cluster)scattering for classes of two, three, and four body Schroedinger operators H=H 0 +ΣVij. Formulas are derived for those generalized eigenfunctions of H which correspond asymptotically in the past to two freely moving clusters. With these eigenfunctions, we establish a formula for the (2 cluster)→(2 cluster) T-matrix and prove the convergence of a Born series for the T-matrix at high energy. (orig.) [de
Cluster-based analysis of multi-model climate ensembles
Hyde, Richard; Hossaini, Ryan; Leeson, Amber A.
2018-06-01
Clustering - the automated grouping of similar data - can provide powerful and unique insight into large and complex data sets, in a fast and computationally efficient manner. While clustering has been used in a variety of fields (from medical image processing to economics), its application within atmospheric science has been fairly limited to date, and the potential benefits of the application of advanced clustering techniques to climate data (both model output and observations) has yet to be fully realised. In this paper, we explore the specific application of clustering to a multi-model climate ensemble. We hypothesise that clustering techniques can provide (a) a flexible, data-driven method of testing model-observation agreement and (b) a mechanism with which to identify model development priorities. We focus our analysis on chemistry-climate model (CCM) output of tropospheric ozone - an important greenhouse gas - from the recent Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). Tropospheric column ozone from the ACCMIP ensemble was clustered using the Data Density based Clustering (DDC) algorithm. We find that a multi-model mean (MMM) calculated using members of the most-populous cluster identified at each location offers a reduction of up to ˜ 20 % in the global absolute mean bias between the MMM and an observed satellite-based tropospheric ozone climatology, with respect to a simple, all-model MMM. On a spatial basis, the bias is reduced at ˜ 62 % of all locations, with the largest bias reductions occurring in the Northern Hemisphere - where ozone concentrations are relatively large. However, the bias is unchanged at 9 % of all locations and increases at 29 %, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. The latter demonstrates that although cluster-based subsampling acts to remove outlier model data, such data may in fact be closer to observed values in some locations. We further demonstrate that clustering can provide a viable and
Particle in the Brusselator Model with Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuptsov, P.V.; Kuznetsov, S.P.; Mosekilde, Erik
2002-01-01
We consider the interaction of a small moving particle with a stationary space-periodic pattern in a chemical reaction-diffusion system with a flow. The pattern is produced by a one-dimensional Brusselator model that is perturbed by a constant displacement from the equilibrium state at the inlet....... By partially blocking the flow, the particle gives rise to a local increment of the flow rate. For certain parameter values a response with intermittent Hopf and Turing type structures is observed. In other regimes a wave of substitution of missing peaks runs across the pattern....
RELICS: Strong Lens Models for Five Galaxy Clusters from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey
Cerny, Catherine; Sharon, Keren; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Avila, Roberto J.; Bradač, Maruša; Bradley, Larry D.; Carrasco, Daniela; Coe, Dan; Czakon, Nicole G.; Dawson, William A.; Frye, Brenda L.; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuang-Han; Johnson, Traci L.; Jones, Christine; Lam, Daniel; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Mainali, Ramesh; Oesch, Pascal A.; Ogaz, Sara; Past, Matthew; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Peterson, Avery; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steven A.; Ryan, Russell E.; Salmon, Brett; Sendra-Server, Irene; Stark, Daniel P.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Trenti, Michele; Umetsu, Keiichi; Vulcani, Benedetta; Zitrin, Adi
2018-06-01
Strong gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters magnifies background galaxies, enhancing our ability to discover statistically significant samples of galaxies at {\\boldsymbol{z}}> 6, in order to constrain the high-redshift galaxy luminosity functions. Here, we present the first five lens models out of the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS) Hubble Treasury Program, based on new HST WFC3/IR and ACS imaging of the clusters RXC J0142.9+4438, Abell 2537, Abell 2163, RXC J2211.7–0349, and ACT-CLJ0102–49151. The derived lensing magnification is essential for estimating the intrinsic properties of high-redshift galaxy candidates, and properly accounting for the survey volume. We report on new spectroscopic redshifts of multiply imaged lensed galaxies behind these clusters, which are used as constraints, and detail our strategy to reduce systematic uncertainties due to lack of spectroscopic information. In addition, we quantify the uncertainty on the lensing magnification due to statistical and systematic errors related to the lens modeling process, and find that in all but one cluster, the magnification is constrained to better than 20% in at least 80% of the field of view, including statistical and systematic uncertainties. The five clusters presented in this paper span the range of masses and redshifts of the clusters in the RELICS program. We find that they exhibit similar strong lensing efficiencies to the clusters targeted by the Hubble Frontier Fields within the WFC3/IR field of view. Outputs of the lens models are made available to the community through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.
COCOA code for creating mock observations of star cluster models
Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele
2018-04-01
We introduce and present results from the COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) code that has been developed to create idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or N-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. In this paper, we describe the COCOA code and demonstrate its different applications by utilizing globular cluster (GC) models simulated with the MOCCA (MOnte Carlo Cluster simulAtor) code. COCOA is used to synthetically observe these different GC models with optical telescopes, perform point spread function photometry, and subsequently produce observed colour-magnitude diagrams. We also use COCOA to compare the results from synthetic observations of a cluster model that has the same age and metallicity as the Galactic GC NGC 2808 with observations of the same cluster carried out with a 2.2 m optical telescope. We find that COCOA can effectively simulate realistic observations and recover photometric data. COCOA has numerous scientific applications that maybe be helpful for both theoreticians and observers that work on star clusters. Plans for further improving and developing the code are also discussed in this paper.
Alloy design as an inverse problem of cluster expansion models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Peter Mahler; Kalidindi, Arvind R.; Schmidt, Søren
2017-01-01
Central to a lattice model of an alloy system is the description of the energy of a given atomic configuration, which can be conveniently developed through a cluster expansion. Given a specific cluster expansion, the ground state of the lattice model at 0 K can be solved by finding the configurat......Central to a lattice model of an alloy system is the description of the energy of a given atomic configuration, which can be conveniently developed through a cluster expansion. Given a specific cluster expansion, the ground state of the lattice model at 0 K can be solved by finding...... the inverse problem in terms of energetically distinct configurations, using a constraint satisfaction model to identify constructible configurations, and show that a convex hull can be used to identify ground states. To demonstrate the approach, we solve for all ground states for a binary alloy in a 2D...
Particle filters for random set models
Ristic, Branko
2013-01-01
“Particle Filters for Random Set Models” presents coverage of state estimation of stochastic dynamic systems from noisy measurements, specifically sequential Bayesian estimation and nonlinear or stochastic filtering. The class of solutions presented in this book is based on the Monte Carlo statistical method. The resulting algorithms, known as particle filters, in the last decade have become one of the essential tools for stochastic filtering, with applications ranging from navigation and autonomous vehicles to bio-informatics and finance. While particle filters have been around for more than a decade, the recent theoretical developments of sequential Bayesian estimation in the framework of random set theory have provided new opportunities which are not widely known and are covered in this book. These recent developments have dramatically widened the scope of applications, from single to multiple appearing/disappearing objects, from precise to imprecise measurements and measurement models. This book...
Zhang, Bo; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Qu, Yanping; Chen, Zhen; Albert, Paul S
2017-08-01
Joint modeling and within-cluster resampling are two approaches that are used for analyzing correlated data with informative cluster sizes. Motivated by a developmental toxicity study, we examined the performances and validity of these two approaches in testing covariate effects in generalized linear mixed-effects models. We show that the joint modeling approach is robust to the misspecification of cluster size models in terms of Type I and Type II errors when the corresponding covariates are not included in the random effects structure; otherwise, statistical tests may be affected. We also evaluate the performance of the within-cluster resampling procedure and thoroughly investigate the validity of it in modeling correlated data with informative cluster sizes. We show that within-cluster resampling is a valid alternative to joint modeling for cluster-specific covariates, but it is invalid for time-dependent covariates. The two methods are applied to a developmental toxicity study that investigated the effect of exposure to diethylene glycol dimethyl ether.
Pre-equilibrium (exciton) model and the heavy-ion reactions with cluster emission
Betak, E
2015-01-01
We bring the possibility to include the cluster emission into the statistical pre-equilibrium (exciton) model enlarged for considering also the heavy ion collisions. At this moment, the calculations have been done without treatment of angular momentum variables, but all the approach can be straightforwardly applied to heavy-ion reactions with cluster emission including the angular momentum variables. The direct motivation of this paper is a possibility of producing the superdeformed nuclei, which are easier to be detected in heavy-ion reactions than in those induced by light projectiles (nucleons, deuterons, $\\alpha$-particles).
Old star clusters: Bench tests of low mass stellar models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salaris M.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Old star clusters in the Milky Way and external galaxies have been (and still are traditionally used to constrain the age of the universe and the timescales of galaxy formation. A parallel avenue of old star cluster research considers these objects as bench tests of low-mass stellar models. This short review will highlight some recent tests of stellar evolution models that make use of photometric and spectroscopic observations of resolved old star clusters. In some cases these tests have pointed to additional physical processes efficient in low-mass stars, that are not routinely included in model computations. Moreover, recent results from the Kepler mission about the old open cluster NGC6791 are adding new tight constraints to the models.
Alpha cluster model and spectrum of 16O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauhoff, W.; Schultheis, H.; Schultheis, R.
1983-01-01
The structure of 16 O is studied in the alpha cluster model with parity and angular-momentum projection for several nucleon-nucleon interactions. The method differs from previous studies in that the states of positive and negative parity are determined without the customary restriction of the variational space to cluster positions with certain assumed symmetries. It is demonstrated that the alpha cluster model of 16 O is capable of explaining most of the experimental T = O levels up to about 15 MeV excitation. A shell-model analysis of the excited cluster-model states shows the necessity of including a very large number of shells. The evidence for the recently proposed tetrahedral symmetry of some excited states is also discussed
A two-particle exchange interaction model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyubina, Julia; Mueller, Karl-Hartmut; Wolf, Manfred; Hannemann, Ullrich
2010-01-01
The magnetisation reversal of two interacting particles was investigated within a simple model describing exchange coupling of magnetically uniaxial single-domain particles. Depending on the interaction strength W, the reversal may be cooperative or non-cooperative. A non-collinear reversal mode is obtained even for two particles with parallel easy axes. The model yields different phenomena as observed in spring magnets such as recoil hysteresis in the second quadrant of the field-magnetisation-plane, caused by exchange bias, as well as the mentioned reversal-rotation mode. The Wohlfarth's remanence analysis performed on aggregations of such pairs of interacting particles shows that the deviation δM(H m ) usually being considered as a hallmark of magnetic interaction vanishes for all maximum applied fields H m not only at W=0, but also for sufficiently large values of W. Furthermore, this so-called δM-plot depends on whether the sample is ac-field or thermally demagnetised.
A two-particle exchange interaction model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyubina, Julia, E-mail: j.lyubina@ifw-dresden.d [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270016, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Mueller, Karl-Hartmut; Wolf, Manfred; Hannemann, Ullrich [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270016, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)
2010-10-15
The magnetisation reversal of two interacting particles was investigated within a simple model describing exchange coupling of magnetically uniaxial single-domain particles. Depending on the interaction strength W, the reversal may be cooperative or non-cooperative. A non-collinear reversal mode is obtained even for two particles with parallel easy axes. The model yields different phenomena as observed in spring magnets such as recoil hysteresis in the second quadrant of the field-magnetisation-plane, caused by exchange bias, as well as the mentioned reversal-rotation mode. The Wohlfarth's remanence analysis performed on aggregations of such pairs of interacting particles shows that the deviation {delta}M(H{sub m}) usually being considered as a hallmark of magnetic interaction vanishes for all maximum applied fields H{sub m} not only at W=0, but also for sufficiently large values of W. Furthermore, this so-called {delta}M-plot depends on whether the sample is ac-field or thermally demagnetised.
Probabilistic Models for Solar Particle Events
Adams, James H., Jr.; Dietrich, W. F.; Xapsos, M. A.; Welton, A. M.
2009-01-01
Probabilistic Models of Solar Particle Events (SPEs) are used in space mission design studies to provide a description of the worst-case radiation environment that the mission must be designed to tolerate.The models determine the worst-case environment using a description of the mission and a user-specified confidence level that the provided environment will not be exceeded. This poster will focus on completing the existing suite of models by developing models for peak flux and event-integrated fluence elemental spectra for the Z>2 elements. It will also discuss methods to take into account uncertainties in the data base and the uncertainties resulting from the limited number of solar particle events in the database. These new probabilistic models are based on an extensive survey of SPE measurements of peak and event-integrated elemental differential energy spectra. Attempts are made to fit the measured spectra with eight different published models. The model giving the best fit to each spectrum is chosen and used to represent that spectrum for any energy in the energy range covered by the measurements. The set of all such spectral representations for each element is then used to determine the worst case spectrum as a function of confidence level. The spectral representation that best fits these worst case spectra is found and its dependence on confidence level is parameterized. This procedure creates probabilistic models for the peak and event-integrated spectra.
Clustering of European winter storms: A multi-model perspective
Renggli, Dominik; Buettner, Annemarie; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel; Zimmerli, Peter
2016-04-01
The storm series over Europe in 1990 (Daria, Vivian, Wiebke, Herta) and 1999 (Anatol, Lothar, Martin) are very well known. Such clusters of severe events strongly affect the seasonally accumulated damage statistics. The (re)insurance industry has quantified clustering by using distribution assumptions deduced from the historical storm activity of the last 30 to 40 years. The use of storm series simulated by climate models has only started recently. Climate model runs can potentially represent 100s to 1000s of years, allowing a more detailed quantification of clustering than the history of the last few decades. However, it is unknown how sensitive the representation of clustering is to systematic biases. Using a multi-model ensemble allows quantifying that uncertainty. This work uses CMIP5 decadal ensemble hindcasts to study clustering of European winter storms from a multi-model perspective. An objective identification algorithm extracts winter storms (September to April) in the gridded 6-hourly wind data. Since the skill of European storm predictions is very limited on the decadal scale, the different hindcast runs are interpreted as independent realizations. As a consequence, the available hindcast ensemble represents several 1000 simulated storm seasons. The seasonal clustering of winter storms is quantified using the dispersion coefficient. The benchmark for the decadal prediction models is the 20th Century Reanalysis. The decadal prediction models are able to reproduce typical features of the clustering characteristics observed in the reanalysis data. Clustering occurs in all analyzed models over the North Atlantic and European region, in particular over Great Britain and Scandinavia as well as over Iberia (i.e. the exit regions of the North Atlantic storm track). Clustering is generally weaker in the models compared to reanalysis, although the differences between different models are substantial. In contrast to existing studies, clustering is driven by weak
Testing the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter model at galactic cluster scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Pengxiang; Liang, Shi-Dong; Mocanu, Gabriela
2015-01-01
The possibility that dark matter may be in the form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) has been extensively explored at galactic scale. In particular, good fits for the galactic rotations curves have been obtained, and upper limits for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length have been estimated. In the present paper we extend the investigation of the properties of the BEC dark matter to the galactic cluster scale, involving dark matter dominated astrophysical systems formed of thousands of galaxies each. By considering that one of the major components of a galactic cluster, the intra-cluster hot gas, is described by King's β-model, and that both intra-cluster gas and dark matter are in hydrostatic equilibrium, bound by the same total mass profile, we derive the mass and density profiles of the BEC dark matter. In our analysis we consider several theoretical models, corresponding to isothermal hot gas and zero temperature BEC dark matter, non-isothermal gas and zero temperature dark matter, and isothermal gas and finite temperature BEC, respectively. The properties of the finite temperature BEC dark matter cluster are investigated in detail numerically. We compare our theoretical results with the observational data of 106 galactic clusters. Using a least-squares fitting, as well as the observational results for the dark matter self-interaction cross section, we obtain some upper bounds for the mass and scattering length of the dark matter particle. Our results suggest that the mass of the dark matter particle is of the order of μ eV, while the scattering length has values in the range of 10 −7 fm
CLUSTERS AS A MODEL OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SERBIA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marko Laketa
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Insufficient competitiveness of small and medium enterprises in Serbia can be significantly improved by a system of business associations through clusters, business incubators and technology parks. This connection contributes to the growth and development of not only the cluster members, but has a regional and national dimension as well because without it there is no significant breakthrough on the international market. The process of association of small and medium enterprises in clusters and other forms of interconnection in Serbia is far from the required and potential level.The awareness on the importance of clusters in a local economic development through contributions to the advancement of small and medium sized enterprises is not yet sufficiently mature. Support to associating into clusters and usage of their benefits after the model of highly developed countries is the basis for leading a successful economic policy and in Serbia there are all necessary prerequisites for it.
Structures in elementary particles. An electromagnetic elementary-particle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, Carl-Friedrich
2015-01-01
A picture of matter is developed, which is suited to develope and to explain the experimentally determined properties of the elementary particles and the basing structures starting from few known physical conditions in a simple and understandable way. It explains illustratively the spin and the structure of the stable particles, symmetry properties resulting from the half-integerness of the spin, the nature of the electric charge and the third-integerness of the charges in hadrons resulting from this, the stability and the indivisibility f the proton, the conditions for the formation and stability of the particles, and the causes for the limited lifetime of unstable particles like the free neutron. It opens also the view on the cause for the quantization of all for us known processes in the range of the microcosm and creates so an illustrative picture of the matter surrounding us.
Quantum Private Comparison of Equality Based on Five-Particle Cluster State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Yan; Zhang Shi-Bin; Wang Hai-Chun; Yan Li-Li; Han Gui-Hua; Sheng Zhi-Wei; Huang Yuan-Yuan; Suo Wang; Xiong Jin-Xin; Zhang Wen-Bo
2016-01-01
A protocol for quantum private comparison of equality (QPCE) is proposed based on five-particle cluster state with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP). In our protocol, TP is allowed to misbehave on its own but can not conspire with either of two parties. Compared with most two-user QPCE protocols, our protocol not only can compare two groups of private information (each group has two users) in one execution, but also compare just two private information. Compared with the multi-user QPCE protocol proposed, our protocol is safer with more reasonable assumptions of TP. The qubit efficiency is computed and analyzed. Our protocol can also be generalized to the case of 2N participants with one TP. The 2N-participant protocol can compare two groups (each group has N private information) in one execution or just N private information. (paper)
Nuclei and models, 2001-2003. DEA fields, particles and matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sida, J.L.
2003-01-01
This document gathers a series of 6 lessons dedicated to students in the first year of their thesis (DEA) in fields and particles physics: 1) the extent of nuclear physics, 2) the nucleus as a cluster of interacting fermions, 3) models and deformation, 4) nuclei and rotation, 5) isospin and exotic nuclei, and 6) fission reactions from the saddle point to the scission point
Modeling the formation of globular cluster systems in the Virgo cluster
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Hui; Gnedin, Oleg Y.
2014-01-01
The mass distribution and chemical composition of globular cluster (GC) systems preserve fossil record of the early stages of galaxy formation. The observed distribution of GC colors within massive early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) reveals a multi-modal shape, which likely corresponds to a multi-modal metallicity distribution. We present a simple model for the formation and disruption of GCs that aims to match the ACSVCS data. This model tests the hypothesis that GCs are formed during major mergers of gas-rich galaxies and inherit the metallicity of their hosts. To trace merger events, we use halo merger trees extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation. We select 20 halos in the mass range of 2 × 10 12 to 7 × 10 13 M ☉ and match them to 19 Virgo galaxies with K-band luminosity between 3 × 10 10 and 3 × 10 11 L ☉ . To set the [Fe/H] abundances, we use an empirical galaxy mass-metallicity relation. We find that a minimal merger ratio of 1:3 best matches the observed cluster metallicity distribution. A characteristic bimodal shape appears because metal-rich GCs are produced by late mergers between massive halos, while metal-poor GCs are produced by collective merger activities of less massive hosts at early times. The model outcome is robust to alternative prescriptions for cluster formation rate throughout cosmic time, but a gradual evolution of the mass-metallicity relation with redshift appears to be necessary to match the observed cluster metallicities. We also affirm the age-metallicity relation, predicted by an earlier model, in which metal-rich clusters are systematically several billion younger than their metal-poor counterparts.
A Deformable Model for Bringing Particles in Focus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Larsen, Rasmus
2010-01-01
and intensity, which enables an estimation of the out-of-focus blur of the particle. Using the particle model param- eters in a regression model we are able to infer 3D information about individual particles. Based on the defocus information we are able to infer the true size and shape of the particles. We...
Modeling familial clustered breast cancer using published data
Jonker, MA; Jacobi, CE; Hoogendoorn, WE; Nagelkerke, NJD; de Bock, GH; van Houwelingen, JC
2003-01-01
The purpose of this research was to model the familial clustering of breast cancer and to provide an accurate risk estimate for individuals from the general population, based on their family history of breast and ovarian cancer. We constructed a genetic model as an extension of a model by Claus et
Empirical particle transport model for tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petravic, M.; Kuo-Petravic, G.
1986-08-01
A simple empirical particle transport model has been constructed with the purpose of gaining insight into the L- to H-mode transition in tokamaks. The aim was to construct the simplest possible model which would reproduce the measured density profiles in the L-regime, and also produce a qualitatively correct transition to the H-regime without having to assume a completely different transport mode for the bulk of the plasma. Rather than using completely ad hoc constructions for the particle diffusion coefficient, we assume D = 1/5 chi/sub total/, where chi/sub total/ ≅ chi/sub e/ is the thermal diffusivity, and then use the κ/sub e/ = n/sub e/chi/sub e/ values derived from experiments. The observed temperature profiles are then automatically reproduced, but nontrivially, the correct density profiles are also obtained, for realistic fueling rates and profiles. Our conclusion is that it is sufficient to reduce the transport coefficients within a few centimeters of the surface to produce the H-mode behavior. An additional simple assumption, concerning the particle mean-free path, leads to a convective transport term which reverses sign a few centimeters inside the surface, as required by the H-mode density profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otero, F A; Frontini, G L; Elicabe, G E
2011-01-01
An analytic model for the scattering of a spherical particle with spherical inclusions has been proposed under the RG approximation. The model can be used without limitations to describe an X-ray scattering experiment. However, for light scattering several conditions must be fulfilled. Based on this model an inverse methodology is proposed to estimate the radii of host particle and inclusions, the number of inclusions and the Distance Distribution Functions (DDF's) of the distances between inclusions and the distances between inclusions and the origin of coordinates. The methodology is numerically tested in a light scattering example in which the host particle is eliminated by matching the refractive indices of host particle and medium. The results obtained for this cluster particle are very satisfactory.
Quantitative properties of clustering within modern microscopic nuclear models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volya, A.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.
2016-01-01
A method for studying cluster spectroscopic properties of nuclear fragmentation, such as spectroscopic amplitudes, cluster form factors, and spectroscopic factors, is developed on the basis of modern precision nuclear models that take into account the mixing of large-scale shell-model configurations. Alpha-cluster channels are considered as an example. A mathematical proof of the need for taking into account the channel-wave-function renormalization generated by exchange terms of the antisymmetrization operator (Fliessbach effect) is given. Examples where this effect is confirmed by a high quality of the description of experimental data are presented. By and large, the method in question extends substantially the possibilities for studying clustering phenomena in nuclei and for improving the quality of their description.
A Clustered Extragalactic Foreground Model for the EoR
Murray, S. G.; Trott, C. M.; Jordan, C. H.
2018-05-01
We review an improved statistical model of extra-galactic point-source foregrounds first introduced in Murray et al. (2017), in the context of the Epoch of Reionization. This model extends the instrumentally-convolved foreground covariance used in inverse-covariance foreground mitigation schemes, by considering the cosmological clustering of the sources. In this short work, we show that over scales of k ~ (0.6, 40.)hMpc-1, ignoring source clustering is a valid approximation. This is in contrast to Murray et al. (2017), who found a possibility of false detection if the clustering was ignored. The dominant cause for this change is the introduction of a Galactic synchrotron component which shadows the clustering of sources.
Polaron as the extended particle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kochetov, E.A.; Kuleshov, S.P.; Smondyrev, M.A.
1977-01-01
The polaron (a moving electron with concomitant lattice distortion) mass and energy are calculated. The problem of finding the Green function in the polaron model is solved. A number of the simplest approximations corresponding to the approximation in the picture of straight-line paths is considered. The case of strong coupling requires more detailed study of the particle motion in the effective field, caused by the significant polarization of vacuum near the particle. As a consequence, a more complex approximation of functional integrals is required. A variation method is used in this case. The bound state of a polaron interacting not only with photons, but also with some external classical field is investigated as well. A classical potential is considered as an example
Electromagnetic properties of 6Li in a cluster model with breathing clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruppa, A.T.; Beck, R.; Dickmann, F.
1987-01-01
Electromagnetic properties of 6 Li are studied using a microscopic (α+δ) cluster model. In addition to the ground state of the clusters, their breathing excited states are included in the wave function in order to take into account the distortion of the clusters. The elastic charge form factor is in good agreement with experiment up to a momentum transfer of 8 fm -2 . The ground state magnetic form factor and the inelastic charge form factor are also well described. The effect of the breathing states of α on the form factors proves to be negligible except at high momentum transfer. The ground-state charge density, rms charge radius, the magnetic dipole moment and a reduced transition strength are also obtained in fair agreement with experiment. (author)
Particle-based model for skiing traffic.
Holleczek, Thomas; Tröster, Gerhard
2012-05-01
We develop and investigate a particle-based model for ski slope traffic. Skiers are modeled as particles with a mass that are exposed to social and physical forces, which define the riding behavior of skiers during their descents on ski slopes. We also report position and speed data of 21 skiers recorded with GPS-equipped cell phones on two ski slopes. A comparison of these data with the trajectories resulting from computer simulations of our model shows a good correspondence. A study of the relationship among the density, speed, and flow of skiers reveals that congestion does not occur even with arrival rates of skiers exceeding the maximum ski lift capacity. In a sensitivity analysis, we identify the kinetic friction coefficient of skis on snow, the skier mass, the range of repelling social forces, and the arrival rate of skiers as the crucial parameters influencing the simulation results. Our model allows for the prediction of speed zones and skier densities on ski slopes, which is important in the prevention of skiing accidents.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kohnert, Aaron A.; Wirth, Brian D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2300 (United States)
2015-04-21
The microstructure that develops under low temperature irradiation in ferritic alloys is dominated by a high density of small (2–5 nm) defects. These defects have been widely observed to move via occasional discrete hops during in situ thin film irradiation experiments. Cluster dynamics models are used to describe the formation of these defects as an aggregation process of smaller clusters created as primary damage. Multiple assumptions regarding the mobility of these damage features are tested in the models, both with and without explicit consideration of such irradiation induced hops. Comparison with experimental data regarding the density of these defects demonstrates the importance of including such motions in a valid model. In particular, discrete hops inform the limited dependence of defect density on irradiation temperature observed in experiments, which the model was otherwise incapable of producing.
Molecular dynamics modelling of EGCG clusters on ceramide bilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeo, Jingjie; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, 138632 (Singapore)
2015-12-31
A novel method of atomistic modelling and characterization of both pure ceramide and mixed lipid bilayers is being developed, using only the General Amber ForceField. Lipid bilayers modelled as pure ceramides adopt hexagonal packing after equilibration, and the area per lipid and bilayer thickness are consistent with previously reported theoretical results. Mixed lipid bilayers are modelled as a combination of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. This model is shown to be stable after equilibration. Green tea extract, also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is introduced as a spherical cluster on the surface of the mixed lipid bilayer. It is demonstrated that the cluster is able to bind to the bilayers as a cluster without diffusing into the surrounding water.
GENERALISED MODEL BASED CONFIDENCE INTERVALS IN TWO STAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Ouma Onyango
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Chambers and Dorfman (2002 constructed bootstrap confidence intervals in model based estimation for finite population totals assuming that auxiliary values are available throughout a target population and that the auxiliary values are independent. They also assumed that the cluster sizes are known throughout the target population. We now extend to two stage sampling in which the cluster sizes are known only for the sampled clusters, and we therefore predict the unobserved part of the population total. Jan and Elinor (2008 have done similar work, but unlike them, we use a general model, in which the auxiliary values are not necessarily independent. We demonstrate that the asymptotic properties of our proposed estimator and its coverage rates are better than those constructed under the model assisted local polynomial regression model.
Likos, Christos N; Mladek, Bianca M; Gottwald, Dieter; Kahl, Gerhard
2007-06-14
We demonstrate the accuracy of the hypernetted chain closure and of the mean-field approximation for the calculation of the fluid-state properties of systems interacting by means of bounded and positive pair potentials with oscillating Fourier transforms. Subsequently, we prove the validity of a bilinear, random-phase density functional for arbitrary inhomogeneous phases of the same systems. On the basis of this functional, we calculate analytically the freezing parameters of the latter. We demonstrate explicitly that the stable crystals feature a lattice constant that is independent of density and whose value is dictated by the position of the negative minimum of the Fourier transform of the pair potential. This property is equivalent with the existence of clusters, whose population scales proportionally to the density. We establish that regardless of the form of the interaction potential and of the location on the freezing line, all cluster crystals have a universal Lindemann ratio Lf=0.189 at freezing. We further make an explicit link between the aforementioned density functional and the harmonic theory of crystals. This allows us to establish an equivalence between the emergence of clusters and the existence of negative Fourier components of the interaction potential. Finally, we make a connection between the class of models at hand and the system of infinite-dimensional hard spheres, when the limits of interaction steepness and space dimension are both taken to infinity in a particularly described fashion.
A Collaboration Service Model for a Global Port Cluster
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keith K.T. Toh
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The importance of port clusters to a global city may be viewed from a number of perspectives. The development of port clusters and economies of agglomeration and their contribution to a regional economy is underpinned by information and physical infrastructure that facilitates collaboration between business entities within the cluster. The maturity of technologies providing portals, web and middleware services provides an opportunity to push the boundaries of contemporary service reference models and service catalogues to what the authors propose to be "collaboration services". Servicing port clusters, portal engineers of the future must consider collaboration services to benefit a region. Particularly, service orchestration through a "public user portal" must gain better utilisation of publically owned infrastructure, to share knowledge and collaborate among organisations through information systems.
Fuzzy Clustering Methods and their Application to Fuzzy Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kroszynski, Uri; Zhou, Jianjun
1999-01-01
Fuzzy modeling techniques based upon the analysis of measured input/output data sets result in a set of rules that allow to predict system outputs from given inputs. Fuzzy clustering methods for system modeling and identification result in relatively small rule-bases, allowing fast, yet accurate....... An illustrative synthetic example is analyzed, and prediction accuracy measures are compared between the different variants...
Mathematical modelling of complex contagion on clustered networks
O'sullivan, David J.; O'Keeffe, Gary; Fennell, Peter; Gleeson, James
2015-09-01
The spreading of behavior, such as the adoption of a new innovation, is influenced bythe structure of social networks that interconnect the population. In the experiments of Centola (Science, 2010), adoption of new behavior was shown to spread further and faster across clustered-lattice networks than across corresponding random networks. This implies that the “complex contagion” effects of social reinforcement are important in such diffusion, in contrast to “simple” contagion models of disease-spread which predict that epidemics would grow more efficiently on random networks than on clustered networks. To accurately model complex contagion on clustered networks remains a challenge because the usual assumptions (e.g. of mean-field theory) regarding tree-like networks are invalidated by the presence of triangles in the network; the triangles are, however, crucial to the social reinforcement mechanism, which posits an increased probability of a person adopting behavior that has been adopted by two or more neighbors. In this paper we modify the analytical approach that was introduced by Hebert-Dufresne et al. (Phys. Rev. E, 2010), to study disease-spread on clustered networks. We show how the approximation method can be adapted to a complex contagion model, and confirm the accuracy of the method with numerical simulations. The analytical results of the model enable us to quantify the level of social reinforcement that is required to observe—as in Centola’s experiments—faster diffusion on clustered topologies than on random networks.
Mathematical modelling of complex contagion on clustered networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David J. P. O'Sullivan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The spreading of behavior, such as the adoption of a new innovation, is influenced bythe structure of social networks that interconnect the population. In the experiments of Centola (Science, 2010, adoption of new behavior was shown to spread further and faster across clustered-lattice networks than across corresponding random networks. This implies that the complex contagion effects of social reinforcement are important in such diffusion, in contrast to simple contagion models of disease-spread which predict that epidemics would grow more efficiently on random networks than on clustered networks. To accurately model complex contagion on clustered networks remains a challenge because the usual assumptions (e.g. of mean-field theory regarding tree-like networks are invalidated by the presence of triangles in the network; the triangles are, however, crucial to the social reinforcement mechanism, which posits an increased probability of a person adopting behavior that has been adopted by two or more neighbors. In this paper we modify the analytical approach that was introduced by Hebert-Dufresne et al. (Phys. Rev. E, 2010, to study disease-spread on clustered networks. We show how the approximation method can be adapted to a complex contagion model, and confirm the accuracy of the method with numerical simulations. The analytical results of the model enable us to quantify the level of social reinforcement that is required to observe—as in Centola’s experiments—faster diffusion on clustered topologies than on random networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kiao Inthavong
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper summarises current studies related to numerical gas-particle flows in the human nasal cavity. Of interest are the numerical modelling requirements to consider the effects of particle morphology for a variety of particle shapes and sizes such as very small particles sizes (nanoparticles, elongated shapes (asbestos fibres, rough shapes (pollen, and porous light density particles (drug particles are considered. It was shown that important physical phenomena needed to be addressed for different particle characteristics. This included the Brownian diffusion for submicron particles. Computational results for the nasal capture efficiency for nano-particles and various breathing rates in the laminar regime were found to correlate well with the ratio of particle diffusivity to the breathing rate. For micron particles, particle inertia is the most significant property and the need to use sufficient drag laws is important. Drag correlations for fibrous and rough surfaced particles were investigated to enable particle tracking. Based on the simulated results, semi-empirical correlations for particle deposition were fitted in terms of Peclet number and inertial parameter for nanoparticles and micron particles respectively.
A two-stage method for microcalcification cluster segmentation in mammography by deformable models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arikidis, N.; Kazantzi, A.; Skiadopoulos, S.; Karahaliou, A.; Costaridou, L.; Vassiou, K.
2015-01-01
Purpose: Segmentation of microcalcification (MC) clusters in x-ray mammography is a difficult task for radiologists. Accurate segmentation is prerequisite for quantitative image analysis of MC clusters and subsequent feature extraction and classification in computer-aided diagnosis schemes. Methods: In this study, a two-stage semiautomated segmentation method of MC clusters is investigated. The first stage is targeted to accurate and time efficient segmentation of the majority of the particles of a MC cluster, by means of a level set method. The second stage is targeted to shape refinement of selected individual MCs, by means of an active contour model. Both methods are applied in the framework of a rich scale-space representation, provided by the wavelet transform at integer scales. Segmentation reliability of the proposed method in terms of inter and intraobserver agreements was evaluated in a case sample of 80 MC clusters originating from the digital database for screening mammography, corresponding to 4 morphology types (punctate: 22, fine linear branching: 16, pleomorphic: 18, and amorphous: 24) of MC clusters, assessing radiologists’ segmentations quantitatively by two distance metrics (Hausdorff distance—HDIST cluster , average of minimum distance—AMINDIST cluster ) and the area overlap measure (AOM cluster ). The effect of the proposed segmentation method on MC cluster characterization accuracy was evaluated in a case sample of 162 pleomorphic MC clusters (72 malignant and 90 benign). Ten MC cluster features, targeted to capture morphologic properties of individual MCs in a cluster (area, major length, perimeter, compactness, and spread), were extracted and a correlation-based feature selection method yielded a feature subset to feed in a support vector machine classifier. Classification performance of the MC cluster features was estimated by means of the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (Az ± Standard Error) utilizing tenfold cross
Running and rotating: modelling the dynamics of migrating cell clusters
Copenhagen, Katherine; Gov, Nir; Gopinathan, Ajay
Collective motion of cells is a common occurrence in many biological systems, including tissue development and repair, and tumor formation. Recent experiments have shown cells form clusters in a chemical gradient, which display three different phases of motion: translational, rotational, and random. We present a model for cell clusters based loosely on other models seen in the literature that involves a Vicsek-like alignment as well as physical collisions and adhesions between cells. With this model we show that a mechanism for driving rotational motion in this kind of system is an increased motility of rim cells. Further, we examine the details of the relationship between rim and core cells, and find that the phases of the cluster as a whole are correlated with the creation and annihilation of topological defects in the tangential component of the velocity field.
Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo
2015-04-01
This volume contains a collection of contributions from the invited speakers at the 2014 edition of the International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces held in Metz, France, from 15th to 18th July 2014. This biennial conference alternates with the ICPEAC satellite International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics, and is concerned with experimental and theoretical studies of radiation interactions with matter. These include many-body and electron-electron correlation effects in excitation, and in single and multiple ionization of atoms, molecules, clusters and surfaces with various projectiles: electrons, photons and ions. More than 80 scientists, from 19 different countries around the world, came together to discuss the most recent progress on these topics. The scientific programme included 28 invited talks and a poster session extending over the three days of the meeting. Amongst the 51 posters, 11 have been selected and were advertised through short talks. Besides, Professor Nora Berrah gave a talk in memory of Professor Uwe Becker who sadly passed away shortly after co-chairing the previous edition of this conference. Financial support from the Institut Jean Barriol, Laboratoire SRSMC, Groupement de Recherche THEMS (CNRS), Ville de Metz, Metz Métropole, Conseil Général de la Moselle and Région Lorraine is gratefully acknowledged. Finally, I would like to thank the members of the local committee and the staff of the Université de Lorraine for making the conference run smoothly, the International Advisory Board for building up the scientific programme, the sessions chairpersons, those who gave their valuable time in carefully refereeing the articles of this volume and last, but not least, all participants for contributing to lively and fruitful discussions throughout the meeting.
Detailed modeling of size distribution functions and hydrogen content in combustion-formed particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sirignano, Mariano; D' Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); Kent, John [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)
2010-06-15
A kinetic modeling approach is proposed to delve into the nature and chemistry of combustion-produced particles. A sectional method is used for the first time on this purpose. It is based on modeling of gas-to-particle transitions by sections containing 125 lumped species with C numbers ranging from 24 to 4 x 10{sup 8} and H/C ratio ranging from 0 to 1. This allows not only the mass evolution of particles, but also their hydrogen content to be followed. The model is tested in an atmospheric pressure premixed flat flame of ethylene/oxygen with C/O = 0.8 and cold gas flow velocity of 4 cm/s. Comparison of modeled results with experimental data is satisfying in terms of species concentrations and H/C ratio of the particles. Analysis of model results in comparison with the experimental data has shown that it is possible to distinguish different precursors of particles moving from the exit of the burner into the post-oxidation region of the flame. At particle inception, i.e. just downstream from the flame front, gas-phase PAHs are responsible for particle nucleation and oligomers of aromatic hydrocarbons and small pericondensed hydrocarbons are predominantly present. Then the dehydrogenation process takes place and soot formation starts; in this zone large pericondensed and stacked structures are produced. Further up soot maturation generally linked with dehydrogenation is present, but still a few particles with higher H/C and with low coagulation efficiency are produced and remain present along the flame. The model, in accordance with experimental structural soot analysis, shows that in soot particles condensed structures typical of clusters of large pericondensed hydrocarbons are present whereas high-molecular mass condensed species mainly comprise oligomers of small aromatic compounds of clusters of small pericondensed hydrocarbons. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wahlen-Strothman, J. M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Henderson, T. H. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Hermes, M. R. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Degroote, M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Qiu, Y. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Zhao, J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Dukelsky, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia; Scuseria, G. E. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
2018-01-03
Coupled cluster and symmetry projected Hartree-Fock are two central paradigms in electronic structure theory. However, they are very different. Single reference coupled cluster is highly successful for treating weakly correlated systems, but fails under strong correlation unless one sacrifices good quantum numbers and works with broken-symmetry wave functions, which is unphysical for finite systems. Symmetry projection is effective for the treatment of strong correlation at the mean-field level through multireference non-orthogonal configuration interaction wavefunctions, but unlike coupled cluster, it is neither size extensive nor ideal for treating dynamic correlation. We here examine different scenarios for merging these two dissimilar theories. We carry out this exercise over the integrable Lipkin model Hamiltonian, which despite its simplicity, encompasses non-trivial physics for degenerate systems and can be solved via diagonalization for a very large number of particles. We show how symmetry projection and coupled cluster doubles individually fail in different correlation limits, whereas models that merge these two theories are highly successful over the entire phase diagram. Despite the simplicity of the Lipkin Hamiltonian, the lessons learned in this work will be useful for building an ab initio symmetry projected coupled cluster theory that we expect to be accurate in the weakly and strongly correlated limits, as well as the recoupling regime.
Fuzzy Modeled K-Cluster Quality Mining of Hidden Knowledge for Decision Support
S. Parkash Kumar; K. S. Ramaswami
2011-01-01
Problem statement: The work presented Fuzzy Modeled K-means Cluster Quality Mining of hidden knowledge for Decision Support. Based on the number of clusters, number of objects in each cluster and its cohesiveness, precision and recall values, the cluster quality metrics is measured. The fuzzy k-means is adapted approach by using heuristic method which iterates the cluster to form an efficient valid cluster. With the obtained data clusters, quality assessment is made by predictive mining using...
A model treating the DNA double-strand break repair inhibition by damage clustering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosemann, M.; Abel, H.; Regel, K.
1992-01-01
A microdosimetric model for the interpretation of radiation induced irreparable DNA double-strand breaks was applied to the biological endpoint of chromosomal aberrations. The model explains irreparable DNA double-strand breaks in terms of break clustering in DNA subunits. The model predicts quite good chromosomal aberrations in gamma- and X-ray irradiated V79 cells and human lymphocytes. In the case of α-particle irradiation the presumption had to be made, that only the cells with indirect events in the nucleus (due to delta-electrons) reach the metaphase and are analysed. With the help of this model we are able to explain the peculiar effectiveness of ultrasoft C-X-rays in human lymphocytes. In addition, an interpretation of experiments with accelerated and spatially correlated particles is given. (author)
Modeling and clustering users with evolving profiles in usage streams
Zhang, Chongsheng
2012-09-01
Today, there is an increasing need of data stream mining technology to discover important patterns on the fly. Existing data stream models and algorithms commonly assume that users\\' records or profiles in data streams will not be updated or revised once they arrive. Nevertheless, in various applications such asWeb usage, the records/profiles of the users can evolve along time. This kind of streaming data evolves in two forms, the streaming of tuples or transactions as in the case of traditional data streams, and more importantly, the evolving of user records/profiles inside the streams. Such data streams bring difficulties on modeling and clustering for exploring users\\' behaviors. In this paper, we propose three models to summarize this kind of data streams, which are the batch model, the Evolving Objects (EO) model and the Dynamic Data Stream (DDS) model. Through creating, updating and deleting user profiles, these models summarize the behaviors of each user as a profile object. Based upon these models, clustering algorithms are employed to discover interesting user groups from the profile objects. We have evaluated all the proposed models on a large real-world data set, showing that the DDS model summarizes the data streams with evolving tuples more efficiently and effectively, and provides better basis for clustering users than the other two models. © 2012 IEEE.
Modeling and clustering users with evolving profiles in usage streams
Zhang, Chongsheng; Masseglia, Florent; Zhang, Xiangliang
2012-01-01
Today, there is an increasing need of data stream mining technology to discover important patterns on the fly. Existing data stream models and algorithms commonly assume that users' records or profiles in data streams will not be updated or revised once they arrive. Nevertheless, in various applications such asWeb usage, the records/profiles of the users can evolve along time. This kind of streaming data evolves in two forms, the streaming of tuples or transactions as in the case of traditional data streams, and more importantly, the evolving of user records/profiles inside the streams. Such data streams bring difficulties on modeling and clustering for exploring users' behaviors. In this paper, we propose three models to summarize this kind of data streams, which are the batch model, the Evolving Objects (EO) model and the Dynamic Data Stream (DDS) model. Through creating, updating and deleting user profiles, these models summarize the behaviors of each user as a profile object. Based upon these models, clustering algorithms are employed to discover interesting user groups from the profile objects. We have evaluated all the proposed models on a large real-world data set, showing that the DDS model summarizes the data streams with evolving tuples more efficiently and effectively, and provides better basis for clustering users than the other two models. © 2012 IEEE.
A numerical study of fluidization behavior of Geldart A particles using a discrete particle model
Ye, M.; van der Hoef, Martin Anton; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on a numerical study of fluidization behavior of Geldart A particles by use of a 2D soft-sphere discrete particle model (DPM). Some typical features, including the homogeneous expansion, gross particle circulation in the absence of bubbles, and fast bubbles, can be clearly
Modeling Aggregation Processes of Lennard-Jones particles Via Stochastic Networks
Forman, Yakir; Cameron, Maria
2017-07-01
We model an isothermal aggregation process of particles/atoms interacting according to the Lennard-Jones pair potential by mapping the energy landscapes of each cluster size N onto stochastic networks, computing transition probabilities from the network for an N-particle cluster to the one for N+1, and connecting these networks into a single joint network. The attachment rate is a control parameter. The resulting network representing the aggregation of up to 14 particles contains 6427 vertices. It is not only time-irreversible but also reducible. To analyze its transient dynamics, we introduce the sequence of the expected initial and pre-attachment distributions and compute them for a wide range of attachment rates and three values of temperature. As a result, we find the configurations most likely to be observed in the process of aggregation for each cluster size. We examine the attachment process and conduct a structural analysis of the sets of local energy minima for every cluster size. We show that both processes taking place in the network, attachment and relaxation, lead to the dominance of icosahedral packing in small (up to 14 atom) clusters.
Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Grison
2005-12-01
Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 R_{E} cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.
Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Grison
2005-12-01
Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 RE cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.
Quantum Private Comparison of Equality Based on Five-Particle Cluster State
Chang, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Wang, Hai-Chun; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua; Sheng, Zhi-Wei; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Suo, Wang; Xiong, Jin-Xin
2016-12-01
A protocol for quantum private comparison of equality (QPCE) is proposed based on five-particle cluster state with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP). In our protocol, TP is allowed to misbehave on its own but can not conspire with either of two parties. Compared with most two-user QPCE protocols, our protocol not only can compare two groups of private information (each group has two users) in one execution, but also compare just two private information. Compared with the multi-user QPCE protocol proposed, our protocol is safer with more reasonable assumptions of TP. The qubit efficiency is computed and analyzed. Our protocol can also be generalized to the case of 2N participants with one TP. The 2N-participant protocol can compare two groups (each group has N private information) in one execution or just N private information. Supported by NSFC under Grant Nos. 61402058, 61572086, the Fund for Middle and Young Academic Leaders of CUIT under Grant No. J201511, the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 2013GZX0137, the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 12ZB017, and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions under Grant No. szjj2014-074
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-09-27
Sep 27, 2017 ... Author for correspondence (zh4403701@126.com). MS received 15 ... lic clusters using density functional theory (DFT)-GGA of the DMOL3 package. ... In the process of geometric optimization, con- vergence thresholds ..... and Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of. Jiangsu Province ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
environmental as well as technical problems during fuel gas utilization. ... adsorption on some alloys of Pd, namely PdAu, PdAg ... ried out on small neutral and charged Au24,26,27, Cu,28 ... study of Zanti et al.29 on Pdn (n = 1–9) clusters.
Three-Dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)
2017-08-11
The objective of this is to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I, II, and III (tensile, shear, and out-of-plane) propagation of multiple fractures and fracture clusters to accurately predict geothermal reservoir stimulation using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB). Effective development of enhanced geothermal systems can significantly benefit from improved modeling of hydraulic fracturing. In geothermal reservoirs, where the temperature can reach or exceed 350oC, thermal and poro-mechanical processes play an important role in fracture initiation and propagation. In this project hydraulic fracturing of hot subsurface rock mass will be numerically modeled by extending the virtual multiple internal bond theory and implementing it in a finite element code, WARP3D, a three-dimensional finite element code for solid mechanics. The new constitutive model along with the poro-thermoelastic computational algorithms will allow modeling the initiation and propagation of clusters of fractures, and extension of pre-existing fractures. The work will enable the industry to realistically model stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. The project addresses the Geothermal Technologies Office objective of accurately predicting geothermal reservoir stimulation (GTO technology priority item). The project goal will be attained by: (i) development of the VMIB method for application to 3D analysis of fracture clusters; (ii) development of poro- and thermoelastic material sub-routines for use in 3D finite element code WARP3D; (iii) implementation of VMIB and the new material routines in WARP3D to enable simulation of clusters of fractures while accounting for the effects of the pore pressure, thermal stress and inelastic deformation; (iv) simulation of 3D fracture propagation and coalescence and formation of clusters, and comparison with laboratory compression tests; and (v) application of the model to interpretation of injection experiments (planned by our
Burnout of pulverized biomass particles in large scale boiler – Single particle model approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saastamoinen, Jaakko; Aho, Martti; Moilanen, Antero
2010-01-01
the particle combustion model is coupled with one-dimensional equation of motion of the particle, is applied for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler. The particle size of biomass can be much larger than that of coal to reach complete burnout due to lower density and greater reactivity. The burner...... location and the trajectories of the particles might be optimised to maximise the residence time and burnout....
Pseudoclassical supergauge model for a (2 + 1) Dirac particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gitman, D.M.; Gonsalves, A.E.; Tyhtin, I.V.
1997-01-01
A new pseudo-classical supergauge model of the Dirac particle in 2 + 1 dimensions is proposed. Two ways of its quantization are discussed. Both reproduce the minimal quantum theory of the particle. 24 refs
Pseudoclassical supersymmetrical model for 2+1 Dirac particle
Gitman, D. M.; Gonçalves, A. E.; Tyutin, I. V.
1996-01-01
A new pseudoclassical supersymmetrical model of a spinning particle in 2+1 dimensions is proposed. Different ways of its quantization are discussed. They all reproduce the minimal quantum theory of the particle.
Source Term Model for Fine Particle Resuspension from Indoor Surfaces
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kim, Yoojeong; Gidwani, Ashok; Sippola, Mark; Sohn, Chang W
2008-01-01
This Phase I effort developed a source term model for particle resuspension from indoor surfaces to be used as a source term boundary condition for CFD simulation of particle transport and dispersion in a building...
Emergence of clustering in an acquaintance model without homophily
Bhat, Uttam; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.
2014-11-01
We introduce an agent-based acquaintance model in which social links are created by processes in which there is no explicit homophily. In spite of the homogeneous nature of the social interactions, highly-clustered social networks can arise. The crucial feature of our model is that of variable transitive interactions. Namely, when an agent introduces two unconnected friends, the rate at which a connection actually occurs between them depends on the number of their mutual acquaintances. As this transitive interaction rate is varied, the social network undergoes a dramatic clustering transition. Close to the transition, the network consists of a collection of well-defined communities. As a function of time, the network can also undergo an incomplete gelation transition, in which the gel, or giant cluster, does not constitute the entire network, even at infinite time. Some of the clustering properties of our model also arise, but in a more gradual manner, in Facebook networks. Finally, we discuss a more realistic variant of our original model in which network realizations can be constructed that quantitatively match Facebook networks.
Emergence of clustering in an acquaintance model without homophily
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhat, Uttam; Krapivsky, P L; Redner, S
2014-01-01
We introduce an agent-based acquaintance model in which social links are created by processes in which there is no explicit homophily. In spite of the homogeneous nature of the social interactions, highly-clustered social networks can arise. The crucial feature of our model is that of variable transitive interactions. Namely, when an agent introduces two unconnected friends, the rate at which a connection actually occurs between them depends on the number of their mutual acquaintances. As this transitive interaction rate is varied, the social network undergoes a dramatic clustering transition. Close to the transition, the network consists of a collection of well-defined communities. As a function of time, the network can also undergo an incomplete gelation transition, in which the gel, or giant cluster, does not constitute the entire network, even at infinite time. Some of the clustering properties of our model also arise, but in a more gradual manner, in Facebook networks. Finally, we discuss a more realistic variant of our original model in which network realizations can be constructed that quantitatively match Facebook networks. (paper)
Large psub(T) pion production and clustered parton model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanki, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Coll. of General Education
1977-05-01
Recent experimental results on the large p sub(T) inclusive ..pi../sup 0/ productions by pp and ..pi..p collisions are interpreted by the parton model in which the constituent quarks are defined to be the clusters of the quark-partons and gluons.
Metal cluster fission: jellium model and Molecular dynamics simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyalin, Andrey G.; Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia
2004-01-01
Fission of doubly charged sodium clusters is studied using the open-shell two-center deformed jellium model approximation and it ab initio molecular dynamic approach accounting for all electrons in the system. Results of calculations of fission reactions Na_10^2+ --> Na_7^+ + Na_3^+ and Na_18...
The dilute random field Ising model by finite cluster approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benyoussef, A.; Saber, M.
1987-09-01
Using the finite cluster approximation, phase diagrams of bond and site diluted three-dimensional simple cubic Ising models with a random field have been determined. The resulting phase diagrams have the same general features for both bond and site dilution. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs
Performance prediction model for distributed applications on multicore clusters
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Khanyile, NP
2012-07-01
Full Text Available discusses some of the short comings of this law in the current age. We propose a theoretical model for predicting the behavior of a distributed algorithm given the network restrictions of the cluster used. The paper focuses on the impact of latency...
Viederytė, Rasa; Didžiokas, Rimantas
2014-01-01
Paper analyses several cluster models on the basis of competitiveness: Nine-factor model, Double diamond model, Funnel model of cluster determinants, Destination Competitiveness and sustainability models, which are related to Porter’s Diamond model and concentrate to the classical one - adopt M. Porter’s Diamond model methodology to the evaluation of Lithuanian Maritime sector’s clustering on the basis of competitiveness. Despite the advances in cluster research, this model remains a complex ...
Beyond Hydrodynamic Modeling of AGN Heating in Galaxy Clusters
Yang, Hsiang-Yi Karen
Clusters of galaxies hold a unique position in hierarchical structure formation - they are both powerful cosmological probes and excellent astrophysical laboratories. Accurate modeling of the cluster properties is crucial for reducing systematic uncertainties in cluster cosmology. However, theoretical modeling of the intracluster medium (ICM) has long suffered from the "cooling-flow problem" - clusters with short central times or cool cores (CCs) are predicted to host massive inflows of gas that are not observed. Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is by far the most promising heating mechanism to counteract radiative cooling. Recent hydrodynamic simulations have made remarkable progress reproducing properties of the CCs. However, there remain two major questions that cannot be probed using purely hydrodynamic models: (1) what are the roles of cosmic rays (CRs)? (2) how is the existing picture altered when the ICM is modeled as weakly collisional plasma? We propose to move beyond limitations of pure hydrodynamics and progress toward a complete understanding of how AGN jet-inflated bubbles interact with their surroundings and provide heat to the ICM. Our objectives include: (1) understand how CR-dominated bubbles heat the ICM; (2) understand bubble evolution and sound-wave dissipation in the ICM with different assumptions of plasma properties, e.g., collisionality of the ICM, with or without anisotropic transport processes; (3) Develop a subgrid model of AGN heating that can be adopted in cosmological simulations based on state-of-the-art isolated simulations. We will use a combination of analytical calculations and idealized simulations to advance our understanding of each individual physical process. We will then perform the first three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of self-regulated AGN feedback with relevant CR and anisotropic transport processes in order to quantify the amount and distribution of heating from the AGN. Our
Cluster model calculations of alpha decays across the periodic table
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merchant, A.C.; Buck, B.
1988-10-01
The cluster model of Buck, Dover and Vary has been used to calculate partial widths for alpha decay from the ground states of all nuclei for which experimental measurements exist. The cluster-core potential is represented by a simple three-parameter form having fixed diffuseness, a radius which scales as A 1/3 and a depth which is adjusted to fit the Q-value of the particular decay. The calculations yield excellent agreement with the vast majority of the available data, and some typical examples are presented. (author) [pt
The effect of alkylating agents on model supported metal clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erdem-Senatalar, A.; Blackmond, D.G.; Wender, I. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering); Oukaci, R. (CERHYD, Algiers (Algeria))
1988-01-01
Interactions between model supported metal clusters and alkylating agents were studied in an effort to understand a novel chemical trapping technique developed for identifying species adsorbed on catalyst surfaces. It was found that these interactions are more complex than had previously been suggested. Studies were completed using deuterium-labeled dimethyl sulfate (DMS), (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, as a trapping agent to interact with the supported metal cluster ethylidyne tricobalt enneacarbonyl. Results showed that oxygenated products formed during the trapping reaction contained {minus}OCD{sub 3} groups from the DMS, indicating that the interaction was not a simple alkylation. 18 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.
Learning Particle Physics with DIY Play Dough Model
Thunyaniti, T.; Toedtanya, K.; Wuttiprom, S.
2017-09-01
The scientists once believed an atom was the smallest particle, nothing was smaller than this tiny particle. Later, they discovered an atom which consists of protons, neutrons and electrons, and they believed that these particles cannot be broken into the smaller particles. According to advanced technology, the scientists have discovered these particles are consisted of a smaller particles. The new particles are called quarks leptons and bosons which we called fundamental particle. Atomic structure cannot be observed directly, so it is complicated for studying these particles. To help the students get more understanding of its properties, so the researcher develops the learning pattern of fundamental particles from Play Dough Model for high school to graduate students. Four step of learning are 1) to introduces the concept of the fundamental particles discovery 2) to play the Happy Families game by using fundamental particles cards 3) to design and make their particle in a way that reflects its properties 4) to represents their particles from Play Dough Model. After doing activities, the students had more conceptual understanding and better memorability on fundamental particles. In addition, the students gained collaborative working experience among their friends also.
Rapidity correlations at fixed multiplicity in cluster emission models
Berger, M C
1975-01-01
Rapidity correlations in the central region among hadrons produced in proton-proton collisions of fixed final state multiplicity n at NAL and ISR energies are investigated in a two-step framework in which clusters of hadrons are emitted essentially independently, via a multiperipheral-like model, and decay isotropically. For n>or approximately=/sup 1///sub 2/(n), these semi-inclusive distributions are controlled by the reaction mechanism which dominates production in the central region. Thus, data offer cleaner insight into the properties of this mechanism than can be obtained from fully inclusive spectra. A method of experimental analysis is suggested to facilitate the extraction of new dynamical information. It is shown that the n independence of the magnitude of semi-inclusive correlation functions reflects directly the structure of the internal cluster multiplicity distribution. This conclusion is independent of certain assumptions concerning the form of the single cluster density in rapidity space. (23 r...
Latent Clustering Models for Outlier Identification in Telecom Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ye Ouyang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Collected telecom data traffic has boomed in recent years, due to the development of 4G mobile devices and other similar high-speed machines. The ability to quickly identify unexpected traffic data in this stream is critical for mobile carriers, as it can be caused by either fraudulent intrusion or technical problems. Clustering models can help to identify issues by showing patterns in network data, which can quickly catch anomalies and highlight previously unseen outliers. In this article, we develop and compare clustering models for telecom data, focusing on those that include time-stamp information management. Two main models are introduced, solved in detail, and analyzed: Gaussian Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (GPLSA and time-dependent Gaussian Mixture Models (time-GMM. These models are then compared with other different clustering models, such as Gaussian model and GMM (which do not contain time-stamp information. We perform computation on both sample and telecom traffic data to show that the efficiency and robustness of GPLSA make it the superior method to detect outliers and provide results automatically with low tuning parameters or expertise requirement.
Model study in chemisorption: atomic hydrogen on beryllium clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauschlicher, C.W. Jr.
1976-08-01
The interaction between atomic hydrogen and the (0001) surface of Be metal has been studied by ab initio electronic structure theory. Self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations have been performed using minimum, optimized minimum, double zeta and mixed basis sets for clusters as large as 22 Be atoms. The binding energy and equilibrium geometry (the distance to the surface) were determined for 4 sites. Both spatially restricted (the wavefunction was constrained to transform as one of the irreducible representations of the molecular point group) and unrestricted SCF calculations were performed. Using only the optimized minimum basis set, clusters containing as many as 22 beryllium atoms have been investigated. From a variety of considerations, this cluster is seen to be nearly converged within the model used, providing the most reliable results for chemisorption. The site dependence of the frequency is shown to be a geometrical effect depending on the number and angle of the bonds. The diffusion of atomic hydrogen through a perfect beryllium crystal is predicted to be energetically unfavorable. The cohesive energy, the ionization energy and the singlet-triplet separation were computed for the clusters without hydrogen. These quantities can be seen as a measure of the total amount of edge effects. The chemisorptive properties are not related to the total amount of edge effects, but rather the edge effects felt by the adsorbate bonding berylliums. This lack of correlation with the total edge effects illustrates the local nature of the bonding, further strengthening the cluster model for chemisorption. A detailed discussion of the bonding and electronic structure is included. The remaining edge effects for the Be 22 cluster are discussed
Extending the Modelling Framework for Gas-Particle Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup
, with very good results. Single particle combustion has been tested using a number of different particle combustion models applied to coal and straw particles. Comparing the results of these calculations to measurements on straw burnout, the results indicate that for straw, existing heterogeneous combustion...... models perform well, and may be used in high temperature ranges. Finally, the particle tracking and combustion model is applied to an existing coal and straw co- fuelled burner. The results indicate that again, the straw follows very different trajectories than the coal particles, and also that burnout...
Mathematical modelling of the combustion of a single wood particle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porteiro, J.; Miguez, J.L.; Granada, E.; Moran, J.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Maquinas y Motores Termicos y Fluidos. Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende 9 36200 Vigo (Spain)
2006-01-15
A mathematical model describing the thermal degradation of densified biomass particles is presented here. The model uses a novel discretisation scheme and combines intra-particle combustion processes with extra-particle transport processes, thereby including thermal and diffusional control mechanisms. The influence of structural changes on the physical-thermal properties of wood in its different stages is studied together with shrinkage of the particle during its degradation. The model is used to compare the predicted data with data on the mass loss dynamics and internal temperature of several particles from previous works and relevant literature, with good agreement. (author)
Particle Control in Phase Space by Global K-Means Clustering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Lapenta, G.; Pessah, M. E.
2015-01-01
We devise and explore an iterative optimization procedure for controlling particle populations in particle-in-cell (PIC) codes via merging and splitting of computational macro-particles. Our approach, is to compute an optimal representation of the global particle phase space structure while decre...
Modelling particle - particle interaction at the micro scale
Swedlow, J. L.
1983-03-01
In high-strength alloys, microstructure can influence toughness in a manner not yet fully quantified. Computational mechanics offers a tool whereby the events leading to fracture may be simulated, but the success of such an enterprise depends heavily upon the quality of the model employed. This report outlines a sequence of events thought to precede ductile fracture and presents a finite element model designed to capture the main events. The model is considered to be an improvement over an earlier one, and data are presented to support this conclusion. Work of this type requires a fine degree of resolution which normally will entail very large, detailed finite element maps. Such map sizes could easily exceed the capacity of research computers, and a substructuring technique is essential to pursue research of this sort. Such a technique has been developed for use without modification to an existing code, i.e., it may be implemented on a standard finite element program directly.
Modelling organic particles in the atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Couvidat, Florian
2012-01-01
Organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere is investigated via the development of a new model named H 2 O (Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Organics). First, a parameterization is developed to take into account secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene oxidation. It takes into account the effect of nitrogen oxides on organic aerosol formation and the hydrophilic properties of the aerosols. This parameterization is then implemented in H 2 O along with some other developments and the results of the model are compared to organic carbon measurements over Europe. Model performance is greatly improved by taking into account emissions of primary semi-volatile compounds, which can form secondary organic aerosols after oxidation or can condense when temperature decreases. If those emissions are not taken into account, a significant underestimation of organic aerosol concentrations occurs in winter. The formation of organic aerosols over an urban area was also studied by simulating organic aerosols concentration over the Paris area during the summer campaign of Megapoli (July 2009). H 2 O gives satisfactory results over the Paris area, although a peak of organic aerosol concentrations from traffic, which does not appear in the measurements, appears in the model simulation during rush hours. It could be due to an underestimation of the volatility of organic aerosols. It is also possible that primary and secondary organic compounds do not mix well together and that primary semi volatile compounds do not condense on an organic aerosol that is mostly secondary and highly oxidized. Finally, the impact of aqueous-phase chemistry was studied. The mechanism for the formation of secondary organic aerosol includes in-cloud oxidation of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, methacrolein and methylvinylketone, formation of methyltetrols in the aqueous phase of particles and cloud droplets, and the in-cloud aging of organic aerosols. The impact of wet deposition is also studied to better estimate the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koltay, E.; Rajta, I.; Kertesz, Zs.; Uzonyi, I.; Kiss, Z.A.; Morales, J.R.
2002-01-01
Aerosol samples collected around the Chilean site Lonquimay during major volcanic activities in January 1989 have been subjected to microPIXE measurements of 1 μm lateral resolution in the Debrecen Institute. Elemental concentrations relative to calcium have been determined for Al, Si, P, S, K, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba in 187 individual aerosol particles with the particle sizes between 15 μm and 1 μm. On the basis of a cluster analysis performed on the data set we defined eight clusters. Scatter plots for selected pairs of elements as Si/Al, K/Si, S/Cl, and Al/S elemental ratios that are considered as signatures characterizing types and mechanisms in volcanic eruption - have been compared with published data available in the literature for various volcanic sites. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arunachalam, V.; Marlow, W.H.; Lu, J.X.
1998-01-01
The importance of the long-range Lifshitz-van der Waals interaction energy between condensed bodies is well known. However, its implementation for interacting bodies that are highly irregular and separated by distances varying from contact to micrometers has received little attention. As part of a study of collisions of irregular aerosol particles, an approach based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals interaction has been developed to compute the interaction energy between a sphere and an aggregate of spheres at all separations. In the first part of this study, the iterated sum-over-dipole interactions between pairs of approximately spherical molecular clusters are compared with the Lifshitz and Lifshitz-Hamaker interaction energies for continuum spheres of radii equal to those of the clusters' circumscribed spheres and of the same masses as the clusters. The Lifshitz energy is shown to converge to the iterated dipolar energy for quasispherical molecular clusters for sufficiently large separations, while the energy calculated by using the Lifshitz-Hamaker approach does not. Next, the interaction energies between a contacting pair of these molecular clusters and a third cluster in different relative positions are calculated first by coupling all molecules in the three-cluster system and second by ignoring the interactions between the molecules of the adhering clusters. The error calculated by this omission is shown to be very small, and is an indication of the error in computing the long-range interaction energy between a pair of interacting spheres and a third sphere as a simple sum over the Lifshitz energies between individual, condensed-matter spheres. This Lifshitz energy calculation is then combined with the short-separation, nonsingular van der Waals energy calculation of Lu, Marlow, and Arunachalam, to provide an integrated picture of the van der Waals energy from large separations to contact. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
The Parental Environment Cluster Model of Child Neglect: An Integrative Conceptual Model.
Burke, Judith; Chandy, Joseph; Dannerbeck, Anne; Watt, J. Wilson
1998-01-01
Presents Parental Environment Cluster model of child neglect which identifies three clusters of factors involved in parents' neglectful behavior: (1) parenting skills and functions; (2) development and use of positive social support; and (3) resource availability and management skills. Model offers a focal theory for research, structure for…
Moreno, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2012-12-01
Particles laying motionless at the bed of rivers, lakes and estuaries can be put into motion when the shear stress exerted by the flow on the particles exceeds the critical shear stress. When these particles start their motion they can either remain suspended by long periods of time (suspended load) or move close to the bed (bed load). Particles are transported as bed load in three different modes: Sliding, rolling and saltation. Saltation is usually described as the bouncing motion of sediment particles in a layer a few particle diameters thick. The amount of particles and the bed-load mode in which they move depend on the particle size and density, and the flow intensity, usually quantified by the shear velocity. The bottom shear stress in natural streams will most likely be large enough to set saltation as the most important bed-load transport mechanism among all three modes. Thus, studying the saltation process is crucial for the overall understanding of bed-load transport. Particularly, numerical simulations of this process have been providing important insight regarding the relative importance of the physical mechanisms involved in it. Several processes occur when particles are saltating near the bed: i) Particles collide with the bed, ii) they "fly" between collisions with the bed, as a result of their interaction with the fluid flow, iii) and they collide among themselves. These processes can be simulated using a three-dimensional Eulerian-Lagrangian model. In order to mimic these processes we have experimented with an averaged turbulent flow field represented by the logarithmic law of the wall, and with a more involved approach in which a computed turbulent velocity field for a flat plate was used as a surrogate of the three-dimensional turbulent conditions present close to stream beds. Since flat-plate and open-channel boundary layers are essentially different, a dynamic similarity analysis was performed showing that the highly-resolved three
Particle based 3D modeling of positive streamer inception
H.J. Teunissen (Jannis)
2012-01-01
htmlabstractIn this report we present a particle based 3D model for the study of streamer inception near positive electrodes in air. The particle code is of the PIC-MCC type and an electrode is included using the charge simulation method. An algorithm for the adaptive creation of super-particles is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vargas, William E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales and Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica)], E-mail: vargasc@cariari.ucr.ac.cr
2008-06-15
A transition matrix approach is used to compute the scattering and absorption cross sections, as well as phase functions, asymmetry factors and forward scattering ratios, of clusters of spherical particles. In order to approach the local structure and composition of the nanosized active layer of photoelectrochemical solar cells, some clusters consist of homogeneous non-absorbing anatase spherical pigments, others have anatase particles coated with a monolayer of absorbing dye molecules, and others can consist of both uncoated and dye-coated anatase particles. Orientation average values of the volumetric scattering and absorption cross sections are computed in terms of the size of the spherical particles in the clusters and their number. The degree of scattering and absorption when considering dye-coated anatase particles in the clusters is characterized. The effect of dependent scattering on the average angular distribution of the scattered radiation is also considered.
van Borm, Werner August
Electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) in combination with an automation system and an energy-dispersive X-ray detection system was used to analyse thousands of microscopical particles, originating from the ambient atmosphere. The huge amount of data was processed by a newly developed X-ray correction method and a number of data reduction procedures. A standardless ZAF procedure for EPXMA was developed for quick semi-quantitative analysis of particles starting from simple corrections, valid for bulk samples and modified taking into account the particle finit diameter, assuming a spherical shape. Tested on a limited database of bulk and particulate samples, the compromise between calculation speed and accuracy yielded for elements with Z > 14 accuracies on concentrations less than 10% while absolute deviations remained below 4 weight%, thus being only important for low concentrations. Next, the possibilities for the use of supervised and unsupervised multivariate particle classification were investigated for source apportionment of individual particles. In a detailed study of the unsupervised cluster analysis technique several aspects were considered, that have a severe influence on the final cluster analysis results, i.e. data acquisition, X-ray peak identification, data normalization, scaling, variable selection, similarity measure, cluster strategy, cluster significance and error propagation. A supervised approach was developed using an expert system-like approach in which identification rules are builded to describe the particle classes in a unique manner. Applications are presented for particles sampled (1) near a zinc smelter (Vieille-Montagne, Balen, Belgium), analyzed for heavy metals, (2) in an urban aerosol (Antwerp, Belgium), analyzed for over 20 elements and (3) in a rural aerosol originating from a swiss mountain area (Bern). Thus is was possible to pinpoint a number of known and unknown sources and characterize their emissions in terms of particles
Testing Numerical Models of Cool Core Galaxy Cluster Formation with X-Ray Observations
Henning, Jason W.; Gantner, Brennan; Burns, Jack O.; Hallman, Eric J.
2009-12-01
Using archival Chandra and ROSAT data along with numerical simulations, we compare the properties of cool core and non-cool core galaxy clusters, paying particular attention to the region beyond the cluster cores. With the use of single and double β-models, we demonstrate a statistically significant difference in the slopes of observed cluster surface brightness profiles while the cluster cores remain indistinguishable between the two cluster types. Additionally, through the use of hardness ratio profiles, we find evidence suggesting cool core clusters are cooler beyond their cores than non-cool core clusters of comparable mass and temperature, both in observed and simulated clusters. The similarities between real and simulated clusters supports a model presented in earlier work by the authors describing differing merger histories between cool core and non-cool core clusters. Discrepancies between real and simulated clusters will inform upcoming numerical models and simulations as to new ways to incorporate feedback in these systems.
Jiang, Yu-ting; Mo, Zhi-wen
2017-10-01
Control power is used to discuss about the controller's measurable authority. It's a new index to describe the controlled teleportation schemes from the point of view of the controller. In this paper, we introduce two perfect controlled teleportation schemes and calculate the control power under different control particles. In scheme 1, the controller just controls one particle, which is particle 2. And in scheme 2, the controller controls the particles 2 and 3. They both use the cluster state |ψ > _{1234}={1/2}(|0000> +|0011> +|1100> -|1111> )_{1234} as communication channel. By calculating the control power between two schemes, the control power of scheme 1 is 1/3, which is the minimal value of control power. On the contrary, the control power of scheme 2 is maximal, 1/2. Scheme 2 which controls two particles successfully promotes the control power comparing with scheme 1. It's evidently that controlling particle 2 is a necessary condition. And controlling particle 3 can gain the control power but the controller cannot control it solely.
Non-relativistic model of two-particle decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dittrich, J.; Exner, P.
1986-01-01
A simple non-relativistic model of a spinless particle decaying into two lighter particles is treated in detail. It is similar to the Lee-model description of V-particle decay. Galilean covariance is formulated properly, by means of a unitary projective representation acting on the state space of the model. After separating the centre-of-mass motion the meromorphic structure of the reduced resolvent is deduced
Modeling of calcination of single kaolinitic clay particle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse
The present work aims at modeling of the calcination (dehydroxylation) process of clay particles, specifically kaolinite, and its thermal transformation. For such purpose, 1D single particle calcination model was developed based on the concept of shrinking core model to assess the dehydroxylation...
Experiments and modeling of single plastic particle conversion in suspension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nakhaei, Mohammadhadi; Wu, Hao; Grévain, Damien
2018-01-01
Conversion of single high density polyethylene (PE) particles has been studied by experiments and modeling. The experiments were carried out in a single particle combustor for five different shapes and masses of particles at temperature conditions of 900 and 1100°C. Each experiment was recorded...... against the experiments as well as literature data. Furthermore, a simplified isothermal model appropriate for CFD applications was developed, in order to model the combustion of plastic particles in cement calciners. By comparing predictions with the isothermal and the non–isothermal models under typical...
Development of an interdisciplinary model cluster for tidal water environments
Dietrich, Stephan; Winterscheid, Axel; Jens, Wyrwa; Hartmut, Hein; Birte, Hein; Stefan, Vollmer; Andreas, Schöl
2013-04-01
Global climate change has a high potential to influence both the persistence and the transport pathways of water masses and its constituents in tidal waters and estuaries. These processes are linked through dispersion processes, thus directly influencing the sediment and solid suspend matter budgets, and thus the river morphology. Furthermore, the hydrologic regime has an impact on the transport of nutrients, phytoplankton, suspended matter, and temperature that determine the oxygen content within water masses, which is a major parameter describing the water quality. This project aims at the implementation of a so-called (numerical) model cluster in tidal waters, which includes the model compartments hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. For the implementation of this cluster it is required to continue with the integration of different models that work in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The model cluster is thus suggested to lead to a more precise knowledge of the feedback processes between the single interdisciplinary model compartments. In addition to field measurements this model cluster will provide a complementary scientific basis required to address a spectrum of research questions concerning the integral management of estuaries within the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG, Germany). This will in particular include aspects like sediment and water quality management as well as adaptation strategies to climate change. The core of the model cluster will consist of the 3D-hydrodynamic model Delft3D (Roelvink and van Banning, 1994), long-term hydrodynamics in the estuaries are simulated with the Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model HAMSOM (Backhaus, 1983; Hein et al., 2012). The simulation results will be compared with the unstructured grid based SELFE model (Zhang and Bapista, 2008). The additional coupling of the BfG-developed 1D-water quality model QSim (Kirchesch and Schöl, 1999; Hein et al., 2011) with the morphological/hydrodynamic models is an
Burnout of pulverized biomass particles in large scale boiler - Single particle model approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saastamoinen, Jaakko; Aho, Martti; Moilanen, Antero [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Soerensen, Lasse Holst [ReaTech/ReAddit, Frederiksborgsveij 399, Niels Bohr, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Clausen, Soennik [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Berg, Mogens [ENERGI E2 A/S, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 9, DK-2450 Copenhagen SV (Denmark)
2010-05-15
Burning of coal and biomass particles are studied and compared by measurements in an entrained flow reactor and by modelling. The results are applied to study the burning of pulverized biomass in a large scale utility boiler originally planned for coal. A simplified single particle approach, where the particle combustion model is coupled with one-dimensional equation of motion of the particle, is applied for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler. The particle size of biomass can be much larger than that of coal to reach complete burnout due to lower density and greater reactivity. The burner location and the trajectories of the particles might be optimised to maximise the residence time and burnout. (author)
Collaborative filtering recommendation model based on fuzzy clustering algorithm
Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yunhua
2018-05-01
As one of the most widely used algorithms in recommender systems, collaborative filtering algorithm faces two serious problems, which are the sparsity of data and poor recommendation effect in big data environment. In traditional clustering analysis, the object is strictly divided into several classes and the boundary of this division is very clear. However, for most objects in real life, there is no strict definition of their forms and attributes of their class. Concerning the problems above, this paper proposes to improve the traditional collaborative filtering model through the hybrid optimization of implicit semantic algorithm and fuzzy clustering algorithm, meanwhile, cooperating with collaborative filtering algorithm. In this paper, the fuzzy clustering algorithm is introduced to fuzzy clustering the information of project attribute, which makes the project belong to different project categories with different membership degrees, and increases the density of data, effectively reduces the sparsity of data, and solves the problem of low accuracy which is resulted from the inaccuracy of similarity calculation. Finally, this paper carries out empirical analysis on the MovieLens dataset, and compares it with the traditional user-based collaborative filtering algorithm. The proposed algorithm has greatly improved the recommendation accuracy.
Clustering Multivariate Time Series Using Hidden Markov Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shima Ghassempour
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe an algorithm for clustering multivariate time series with variables taking both categorical and continuous values. Time series of this type are frequent in health care, where they represent the health trajectories of individuals. The problem is challenging because categorical variables make it difficult to define a meaningful distance between trajectories. We propose an approach based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs, where we first map each trajectory into an HMM, then define a suitable distance between HMMs and finally proceed to cluster the HMMs with a method based on a distance matrix. We test our approach on a simulated, but realistic, data set of 1,255 trajectories of individuals of age 45 and over, on a synthetic validation set with known clustering structure, and on a smaller set of 268 trajectories extracted from the longitudinal Health and Retirement Survey. The proposed method can be implemented quite simply using standard packages in R and Matlab and may be a good candidate for solving the difficult problem of clustering multivariate time series with categorical variables using tools that do not require advanced statistic knowledge, and therefore are accessible to a wide range of researchers.
Model-independent particle accelerator tuning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Scheinker
2013-10-01
Full Text Available We present a new model-independent dynamic feedback technique, rotation rate tuning, for automatically and simultaneously tuning coupled components of uncertain, complex systems. The main advantages of the method are: (1 it has the ability to handle unknown, time-varying systems, (2 it gives known bounds on parameter update rates, (3 we give an analytic proof of its convergence and its stability, and (4 it has a simple digital implementation through a control system such as the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS. Because this technique is model independent it may be useful as a real-time, in-hardware, feedback-based optimization scheme for uncertain and time-varying systems. In particular, it is robust enough to handle uncertainty due to coupling, thermal cycling, misalignments, and manufacturing imperfections. As a result, it may be used as a fine-tuning supplement for existing accelerator tuning/control schemes. We present multiparticle simulation results demonstrating the scheme’s ability to simultaneously adaptively adjust the set points of 22 quadrupole magnets and two rf buncher cavities in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE Linear Accelerator’s transport region, while the beam properties and rf phase shift are continuously varying. The tuning is based only on beam current readings, without knowledge of particle dynamics. We also present an outline of how to implement this general scheme in software for optimization, and in hardware for feedback-based control/tuning, for a wide range of systems.
A cluster expansion approach to exponential random graph models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin, Mei
2012-01-01
The exponential family of random graphs are among the most widely studied network models. We show that any exponential random graph model may alternatively be viewed as a lattice gas model with a finite Banach space norm. The system may then be treated using cluster expansion methods from statistical mechanics. In particular, we derive a convergent power series expansion for the limiting free energy in the case of small parameters. Since the free energy is the generating function for the expectations of other random variables, this characterizes the structure and behavior of the limiting network in this parameter region
Biosensor based on measurements of the clustering dynamics of magnetic particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample.......Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jian; Song Danjie; Guo Xiaojing; Jing Bo
2012-01-01
In order to transmit secure messages, a quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation is presented. The five-particle cluster state is used to detect eavesdroppers, and the classical XOR operation serving as a one-time-pad is used to ensure the security of the protocol. In the security analysis, the entropy theory method is introduced, and three detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference introduced. If the eavesdroppers intend to obtain all the information, the detection rate of the original ping-pong protocol is 50%; the second protocol, using two particles of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair as detection particles, is also 50%; while the presented protocol is 89%. Finally, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed, and the analysis results indicate that the protocol in this paper is more secure than the other two. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nilsson, Patrik T.; Malik, Azhar; Pagels, Joakim; Lindskog, Magnus; Rissler, Jenny; Gudmundsson, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Sanati, Mehri [Lund University, Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, P.O. Box 118, Lund (Sweden)
2011-07-15
The objective of this work was to design and evaluate an experimental setup to be used for field studies of particle formation in biomass gasification processes. The setup includes a high-temperature dilution probe and a denuder to separate solid particles from condensable volatile material. The efficiency of the setup to remove volatile material from the sampled stream and the influence from condensation on particles with different morphologies is presented. In order to study the sampling setup model, aerosols were created with a nebulizer to produce compact and solid KCl particles and a diffusion flame burner to produce agglomerated and irregular soot particles. The nebulizer and soot generator was followed by an evaporation-condensation section where volatile material, dioctylsebacete (DOS), was added to the system as a tar model compound. The model aerosol particles were heated to 200 C to create a system containing both solid particles and volatile organic material in gas phase. The heated aerosol particles were sampled and diluted at the same temperature with the dilution probe. Downstream the probe, the DOS was adsorbed in the denuder. This was achieved by slowly decreasing the temperature of the diluted sample towards ambient level in the denuder. Thereby the supersaturation of organic vapors was reduced which decreased the probability for tar condensation and nucleation of new particles. Both the generation system and the sampling technique gave reproducible results. A DOS collection efficiency of >99% was achieved if the denuder inlet concentration was diluted to less than 1-6 mg/m{sup 3} depending on the denuder flow rate. Concentrations higher than that lead to significant impact on the resulting KCl size distribution. The choice of model compounds was done to study the effect from the particle morphology on the achieved particle characteristics after the sampling setup. When similar amounts of volatile material condensed on soot agglomerates and
Efficient image duplicated region detection model using sequential block clustering
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sekeh, M. A.; Maarof, M. A.; Rohani, M. F.; Mahdian, Babak
2013-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-84 ISSN 1742-2876 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Image forensic * Copy–paste forgery * Local block matching Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZOI/mahdian-efficient image duplicated region detection model using sequential block clustering.pdf
Cluster Dynamics Modeling with Bubble Nucleation, Growth and Coalescence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blondel, Sophie [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bernholdt, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
2017-06-01
The topic of this communication pertains to defect formation in irradiated solids such as plasma-facing tungsten submitted to helium implantation in fusion reactor com- ponents, and nuclear fuel (metal and oxides) submitted to volatile ssion product generation in nuclear reactors. The purpose of this progress report is to describe ef- forts towards addressing the prediction of long-time evolution of defects via continuum cluster dynamics simulation. The di culties are twofold. First, realistic, long-time dynamics in reactor conditions leads to a non-dilute di usion regime which is not accommodated by the prevailing dilute, stressless cluster dynamics theory. Second, long-time dynamics calls for a large set of species (ideally an in nite set) to capture all possible emerging defects, and this represents a computational bottleneck. Extensions beyond the dilute limit is a signi cant undertaking since no model has been advanced to extend cluster dynamics to non-dilute, deformable conditions. Here our proposed approach to model the non-dilute limit is to monitor the appearance of a spatially localized void volume fraction in the solid matrix with a bell shape pro le and insert an explicit geometrical bubble onto the support of the bell function. The newly cre- ated internal moving boundary provides the means to account for the interfacial ux of mobile species into the bubble, and the growth of bubbles allows for coalescence phenomena which captures highly non-dilute interactions. We present a preliminary interfacial kinematic model with associated interfacial di usion transport to follow the evolution of the bubble in any number of spatial dimensions and any number of bubbles, which can be further extended to include a deformation theory. Finally we comment on a computational front-tracking method to be used in conjunction with conventional cluster dynamics simulations in the non-dilute model proposed.
Numerical investigation of compaction of deformable particles with bonded-particle model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dosta Maksym
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this contribution, a novel approach developed for the microscale modelling of particles which undergo large deformations is presented. The proposed method is based on the bonded-particle model (BPM and multi-stage strategy to adjust material and model parameters. By the BPM, modelled objects are represented as agglomerates which consist of smaller ideally spherical particles and are connected with cylindrical solid bonds. Each bond is considered as a separate object and in each time step the forces and moments acting in them are calculated. The developed approach has been applied to simulate the compaction of elastomeric rubber particles as single particles or in a random packing. To describe the complex mechanical behaviour of the particles, the solid bonds were modelled as ideally elastic beams. The functional parameters of solid bonds as well as material parameters of bonds and primary particles were estimated based on the experimental data for rubber spheres. Obtained results for acting force and for particle deformations during uniaxial compression are in good agreement with experimental data at higher strains.
Bayesian nonparametric clustering in phylogenetics: modeling antigenic evolution in influenza.
Cybis, Gabriela B; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Lemey, Philippe; Suchard, Marc A
2018-01-30
Influenza is responsible for up to 500,000 deaths every year, and antigenic variability represents much of its epidemiological burden. To visualize antigenic differences across many viral strains, antigenic cartography methods use multidimensional scaling on binding assay data to map influenza antigenicity onto a low-dimensional space. Analysis of such assay data ideally leads to natural clustering of influenza strains of similar antigenicity that correlate with sequence evolution. To understand the dynamics of these antigenic groups, we present a framework that jointly models genetic and antigenic evolution by combining multidimensional scaling of binding assay data, Bayesian phylogenetic machinery and nonparametric clustering methods. We propose a phylogenetic Chinese restaurant process that extends the current process to incorporate the phylogenetic dependency structure between strains in the modeling of antigenic clusters. With this method, we are able to use the genetic information to better understand the evolution of antigenicity throughout epidemics, as shown in applications of this model to H1N1 influenza. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Riemannian multi-manifold modeling and clustering in brain networks
Slavakis, Konstantinos; Salsabilian, Shiva; Wack, David S.; Muldoon, Sarah F.; Baidoo-Williams, Henry E.; Vettel, Jean M.; Cieslak, Matthew; Grafton, Scott T.
2017-08-01
This paper introduces Riemannian multi-manifold modeling in the context of brain-network analytics: Brainnetwork time-series yield features which are modeled as points lying in or close to a union of a finite number of submanifolds within a known Riemannian manifold. Distinguishing disparate time series amounts thus to clustering multiple Riemannian submanifolds. To this end, two feature-generation schemes for brain-network time series are put forth. The first one is motivated by Granger-causality arguments and uses an auto-regressive moving average model to map low-rank linear vector subspaces, spanned by column vectors of appropriately defined observability matrices, to points into the Grassmann manifold. The second one utilizes (non-linear) dependencies among network nodes by introducing kernel-based partial correlations to generate points in the manifold of positivedefinite matrices. Based on recently developed research on clustering Riemannian submanifolds, an algorithm is provided for distinguishing time series based on their Riemannian-geometry properties. Numerical tests on time series, synthetically generated from real brain-network structural connectivity matrices, reveal that the proposed scheme outperforms classical and state-of-the-art techniques in clustering brain-network states/structures.
Relativistic ''potential model'' for N-particle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.
1986-08-01
Neither quantum field theory nor S-Matrix theory have a well defined procedure for going over to an approximation that can be reliably used in non-relativistic models for nuclear physics. We meet the problem here by constructing a finite particle number relativistic scattering theory for (scalar) particles and mesons using integral equations of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky type. Restricted to N particles and one meson, we can go from the relativistic theory to a ''potential theory'' in the integral equation formulation by using boundary states which do not contain the meson asymptotically. The meson-particle input amplitudes contain a pole at the particle mass, and the particle-particle input amplitudes are null. This gives unique definition (numerically calculable) to the particle-particle off-shell amplitude, and hence to the covariant ''scattering potential'' (but not to the noninvariant concept of ''potential energy''). As we have commented before, if we take these scattering amplitudes as iput for relativistic Faddeev equations, the results are identical to those obtained from the same model starting from three particles and one meson. In this paper we explore how far we can extend this relativistic ''potential model'' to higher numbers of particles and mesons. 10 refs
Particle hopping vs. fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagel, K.
1995-12-31
Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.
An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snider, D.M. [SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O`Rourke, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Andrews, M.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1997-06-01
A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.
Activity-induced clustering in model dumbbell swimmers: the role of hydrodynamic interactions.
Furukawa, Akira; Marenduzzo, Davide; Cates, Michael E
2014-08-01
Using a fluid-particle dynamics approach, we numerically study the effects of hydrodynamic interactions on the collective dynamics of active suspensions within a simple model for bacterial motility: each microorganism is modeled as a stroke-averaged dumbbell swimmer with prescribed dipolar force pairs. Using both simulations and qualitative arguments, we show that, when the separation between swimmers is comparable to their size, the swimmers' motions are strongly affected by activity-induced hydrodynamic forces. To further understand these effects, we investigate semidilute suspensions of swimmers in the presence of thermal fluctuations. A direct comparison between simulations with and without hydrodynamic interactions shows these to enhance the dynamic clustering at a relatively small volume fraction; with our chosen model the key ingredient for this clustering behavior is hydrodynamic trapping of one swimmer by another, induced by the active forces. Furthermore, the density dependence of the motility (of both the translational and rotational motions) exhibits distinctly different behaviors with and without hydrodynamic interactions; we argue that this is linked to the clustering tendency. Our study illustrates the fact that hydrodynamic interactions not only affect kinetic pathways in active suspensions, but also cause major changes in their steady state properties.
Neuro-fuzzy system modeling based on automatic fuzzy clustering
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuangang TANG; Fuchun SUN; Zengqi SUN
2005-01-01
A neuro-fuzzy system model based on automatic fuzzy clustering is proposed.A hybrid model identification algorithm is also developed to decide the model structure and model parameters.The algorithm mainly includes three parts:1) Automatic fuzzy C-means (AFCM),which is applied to generate fuzzy rules automatically,and then fix on the size of the neuro-fuzzy network,by which the complexity of system design is reducesd greatly at the price of the fitting capability;2) Recursive least square estimation (RLSE).It is used to update the parameters of Takagi-Sugeno model,which is employed to describe the behavior of the system;3) Gradient descent algorithm is also proposed for the fuzzy values according to the back propagation algorithm of neural network.Finally,modeling the dynamical equation of the two-link manipulator with the proposed approach is illustrated to validate the feasibility of the method.
Angular distributions of particles sputtered from multicomponent targets with gas cluster ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ieshkin, A.E. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Ermakov, Yu.A., E-mail: yuriermak@yandex.ru [Skobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Research Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Chernysh, V.S. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2015-07-01
The experimental angular distributions of atoms sputtered from polycrystalline W, Cd and Ni based alloys with 10 keV Ar cluster ions are presented. RBS was used to analyze a material deposited on a collector. It has been found that the mechanism of sputtering, connected with elastic properties of materials, has a significant influence on the angular distributions of sputtered components. The effect of non-stoichiometric sputtering at different emission angles has been found for the alloys under cluster ion bombardment. Substantial smoothing of the surface relief was observed for all targets irradiated with cluster ions.
Stochastic Modeling of Direct Radiation Transmission in Particle-Laden Turbulent Flows
Banko, Andrew; Villafane, Laura; Kim, Ji Hoon; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Eaton, John K.
2017-11-01
Direct radiation transmission in turbulent flows laden with heavy particles plays a fundamental role in systems such as clouds, spray combustors, and particle-solar-receivers. Owing to their inertia, the particles preferentially concentrate and the resulting voids and clusters lead to deviations in mean transmission from the classical Beer-Lambert law for exponential extinction. Additionally, the transmission fluctuations can exceed those of Poissonian media by an order of magnitude, which implies a gross misprediction in transmission statistics if the correlations in particle positions are neglected. On the other hand, tracking millions of particles in a turbulence simulation can be prohibitively expensive. This work presents stochastic processes as computationally cheap reduced order models for the instantaneous particle number density field and radiation transmission therein. Results from the stochastic processes are compared to Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) simulations using the particle positions obtained from the point-particle DNS of isotropic turbulence at a Taylor Reynolds number of 150. Accurate transmission statistics are predicted with respect to MCRT by matching the mean, variance, and correlation length of DNS number density fields. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-NA0002373-1 and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DGE-114747.
TSI Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer Instrument Handbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-02-01
The Model 3936 Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) measures the size distribution of aerosols ranging from 10 nm up to 1000 nm. The SMPS uses a bipolar aerosol charger to keep particles within a known charge distribution. Charged particles are classified according to their electrical mobility, using a long-column differential mobility analyzer (DMA). Particle concentration is measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC). The SMPS is well-suited for applications including: nanoparticle research, atmospheric aerosol studies, pollution studies, smog chamber evaluations, engine exhaust and combustion studies, materials synthesis, filter efficiency testing, nucleation/condensation studies, and rapidly changing aerosol systems.
Carlsson, Philip T. M.; Zeuch, Thomas
2018-03-01
We have developed a new model utilizing our existing kinetic gas phase models to simulate experimental particle size distributions emerging in dry supersaturated H2SO4 vapor homogeneously produced by rapid oxidation of SO2 through stabilized Criegee-Intermediates from 2-butene ozonolysis. We use a sectional method for simulating the particle dynamics. The particle treatment in the model is based on first principles and takes into account the transition from the kinetic to the diffusion-limited regime. It captures the temporal evolution of size distributions at the end of the ozonolysis experiment well, noting a slight underrepresentation of coagulation effects for larger particle sizes. The model correctly predicts the shape and the modes of the experimentally observed particle size distributions. The predicted modes show an extremely high sensitivity to the H2SO4 evaporation rates of the initially formed H2SO4 clusters (dimer to pentamer), which were arbitrarily restricted to decrease exponentially with increasing cluster size. In future, the analysis presented in this work can be extended to allow a direct validation of quantum chemically predicted stabilities of small H2SO4 clusters, which are believed to initiate a significant fraction of atmospheric new particle formation events. We discuss the prospects and possible limitations of the here presented approach.
Spherical collapse and cluster counts in modified gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martino, Matthew C.; Stabenau, Hans F.; Sheth, Ravi K.
2009-01-01
Modifications to the gravitational potential affect the nonlinear gravitational evolution of large scale structures in the Universe. To illustrate some generic features of such changes, we study the evolution of spherically symmetric perturbations when the modification is of Yukawa type; this is nontrivial, because we should not and do not assume that Birkhoff's theorem applies. We then show how to estimate the abundance of virialized objects in such models. Comparison with numerical simulations shows reasonable agreement: When normalized to have the same fluctuations at early times, weaker large scale gravity produces fewer massive halos. However, the opposite can be true for models that are normalized to have the same linear theory power spectrum today, so the abundance of rich clusters potentially places interesting constraints on such models. Our analysis also indicates that the formation histories and abundances of sufficiently low mass objects are unchanged from standard gravity. This explains why simulations have found that the nonlinear power spectrum at large k is unaffected by such modifications to the gravitational potential. In addition, the most massive objects in models with normalized cosmic microwave background and weaker gravity are expected to be similar to the high-redshift progenitors of the most massive objects in models with stronger gravity. Thus, the difference between the cluster and field galaxy populations is expected to be larger in models with stronger large scale gravity.
Modelling clustering of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays.
Schaber, Clemens F; Filippov, Alexander E; Heinlein, Thorsten; Schneider, Jörg J; Gorb, Stanislav N
2015-08-06
Previous research demonstrated that arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) exhibit strong frictional properties. Experiments indicated a strong decrease of the friction coefficient from the first to the second sliding cycle in repetitive measurements on the same VACNT spot, but stable values in consecutive cycles. VACNTs form clusters under shear applied during friction tests, and self-organization stabilizes the mechanical properties of the arrays. With increasing load in the range between 300 µN and 4 mN applied normally to the array surface during friction tests the size of the clusters increases, while the coefficient of friction decreases. To better understand the experimentally obtained results, we formulated and numerically studied a minimalistic model, which reproduces the main features of the system with a minimum of adjustable parameters. We calculate the van der Waals forces between the spherical friction probe and bunches of the arrays using the well-known Morse potential function to predict the number of clusters, their size, instantaneous and mean friction forces and the behaviour of the VACNTs during consecutive sliding cycles and at different normal loads. The data obtained by the model calculations coincide very well with the experimental data and can help in adapting VACNT arrays for biomimetic applications.
Modelling and simulation of particle-particle interaction in a magnetophoretic bio-separation chip
Alam, Manjurul; Golozar, Matin; Darabi, Jeff
2018-04-01
A Lagrangian particle trajectory model is developed to predict the interaction between cell-bead particle complexes and to track their trajectories in a magnetophoretic bio-separation chip. Magnetic flux gradients are simulated in the OpenFOAM CFD software and imported into MATLAB to obtain the trapping lengths and trajectories of the particles. A connector vector is introduced to calculate the interaction force between cell-bead complexes as they flow through a microfluidic device. The interaction force calculations are performed for cases where the connector vector is parallel, perpendicular, and at an angle of 45° with the applied magnetic field. The trajectories of the particles are simulated by solving a system of eight ordinary differential equations using a fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The model is then used to study the effects of geometric positions and angles of the connector vector between the particles as well as the cell size, number of beads per cell, and flow rate on the interaction force and trajectories of the particles. The results show that the interaction forces may be attractive or repulsive, depending on the orientation of the connector vector distance between the particle complexes and the applied magnetic field. When the interaction force is attractive, the particles are observed to merge and trap sooner than a single particle, whereas a repulsive interaction force has little or no effect on the trapping length.
Zhang, Zhongkai; Zheng, Kuanyu; Dong, Jiahong; Fang, Qi; Hong, Jian; Wang, Xifeng
2016-01-19
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV) are the two dominant species of thrip-transmitted tospoviruses, cause significant losses in crop yield in Yunnan and its neighboring provinces in China. TSWV and TZSV belong to different serogroup of tospoviruses but induce similar symptoms in the same host plant species, which makes diagnostic difficult. We used different electron microscopy preparing methods to investigate clustering and cellular distribution of TSWV and TZSV in the host plant species. Negative staining of samples infected with TSWV and TZSV revealed that particles usually clustered in the vesicles, including single particle (SP), double particles clustering (DPC), triple particles clustering (TPC). In the immunogold labeling negative staining against proteins of TZSV, the antibodies against Gn protein were stained more strongly than the N protein. Ultrathin section and high pressure freeze (HPF)-electron microscopy preparations revealed that TSWV particles were distributed in the cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), filamentous inclusions (FI) and Golgi bodies in the mesophyll cells. The TSWV particles clustered as multiple particles clustering (MPC) and distributed in globular viroplasm or cisternae of ER in the top leaf cell. TZSV particles were distributed more abundantly in the swollen membrane of ER in the mesophyll cell than those in the phloem parenchyma cells and were not observed in the top leaf cell. However, TZSV virions were mainly present as single particle in the cytoplasm, with few clustering as MPC. In this study, we identified TSWV and TZSV particles had the distinct cellular distribution patterns in the cytoplasm from different tissues and host plants. This is the first report of specific clustering characteristics of tospoviruses particles as well as the cellular distribution of TSWV particles in the FI and globular viroplasm where as TZSV particles inside the membrane of ER. These results indicated that
Clustering of DSB in DNA by X-Ray and a-particle irradiation in MCF-7 cells studied with anti γ-H2AX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tapia, O.; Soto, J.; Castro, F.A.; Berciano, Ma T; Lafarga, M.; Cos, S.; Sanchez-Barcelo, E.
2007-01-01
Among the effects produced by the ionizing radiations in cellular DNA, double strand breaks (DSB) are considered particularly important. These ruptures and their grouping in certain points, clustering, are acknowledged as the cause for mutagenic effects and cellular death. In this work we present the methodology and the results of the application of the DSB - DNA marking technique by using anti γ-H2AX, taking human cancerous cells MCF-7 as model and X-rays and a particles as irradiation agents. The obtained results are showed in a qualitative way like a set of figures. Are shows the effects of a dose of 2 Gy X-rays in the DSB - DNA after 30 minutes of the irradiation that responds to a certain pattern in which a spatially homogenous irradiation interacts with the DNA. As in previous case, the effects of X-rays in the DSB - DNA shows a different pattern affecting the cells that are in mitosis. Also, the effects of a dose of 2 Gy X-rays obtained after 24 hours of irradiation shows a number of DSB smaller, which is indicative of the repairing process. The results of the irradiation with a dose of 0.1 Gy originated from a particles cause a smaller number of DSB. Nevertheless, the existence of a bigger clustering with the appearance of clearly more intense points is appraised. Also, the effect of the irradiation is showed as an aligned trace of clusters that is possible to attribute to the passing of a a particle through the cellular nucleus. (Author)
A Kinetic Model for the Sedimentation of Rod--Like Particles
Helzel, Christiane; Tzavaras, Athanasios
2015-01-01
We consider a coupled system consisting of a kinetic equation coupled to a macroscopic Stokes (or Navier-Stokes) equation and describing the motion of a suspension of rigid rods in gravity. A reciprocal coupling leads to the formation of clusters: The buoyancy force creates a macroscopic velocity gradient that causes the microscopic particles to align so that their sedimentation reinforces the formation of clusters of higher particle density. We provide a quantitative analysis of cluster formation. We derive a nonlinear moment closure model, which consists of evolution equations for the density and second order moments and that uses the structure of spherical harmonics to suggest a closure strategy. For a rectilinear flow we employ the moment closure together with a quasi-dynamic approximation to derive an effective equation. The effective equation is an advectiondiffusion equation with nonisotropic diffusion coupled to a Poisson equation, and belongs to the class of the so-called flux-limited Keller-Segel models. For shear flows, we provide an argument for the validity of the effective equation and perform numerical comparisons that indicate good agreement between the original system and the effective theory. For rectilinear flow we show numerical results which indicate that the quasi-dynamic provides accurate approximations. Finally, a linear stability analysis on the moment system shows that linear theory predicts a wavelength selection mechanism for the cluster width, provided that the Reynolds number is larger than zero.
A Kinetic Model for the Sedimentation of Rod--Like Particles
Helzel, Christiane
2015-10-12
We consider a coupled system consisting of a kinetic equation coupled to a macroscopic Stokes (or Navier-Stokes) equation and describing the motion of a suspension of rigid rods in gravity. A reciprocal coupling leads to the formation of clusters: The buoyancy force creates a macroscopic velocity gradient that causes the microscopic particles to align so that their sedimentation reinforces the formation of clusters of higher particle density. We provide a quantitative analysis of cluster formation. We derive a nonlinear moment closure model, which consists of evolution equations for the density and second order moments and that uses the structure of spherical harmonics to suggest a closure strategy. For a rectilinear flow we employ the moment closure together with a quasi-dynamic approximation to derive an effective equation. The effective equation is an advectiondiffusion equation with nonisotropic diffusion coupled to a Poisson equation, and belongs to the class of the so-called flux-limited Keller-Segel models. For shear flows, we provide an argument for the validity of the effective equation and perform numerical comparisons that indicate good agreement between the original system and the effective theory. For rectilinear flow we show numerical results which indicate that the quasi-dynamic provides accurate approximations. Finally, a linear stability analysis on the moment system shows that linear theory predicts a wavelength selection mechanism for the cluster width, provided that the Reynolds number is larger than zero.
Hyperon-nucleon interaction in the quark cluster model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Straub, U.; Zhang Zongye; Braeuer, K.; Faessler, A.; Khadkikar, S.B.; Luebeck, G.
1988-01-01
The lambda-nucleon and sigma-nucleon interaction is described in the nonrelativistic quark cluster model. The SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking due to the different quark masses is taken into account, i.e. different wavefunctions for the light (up, down) and heavy (strange) quarks are used in flavor and orbital space. The six-quark wavefunction is fully antisymmetrized. The model hamiltonian contains gluon exchange, pseudoscalar meson exchange and a phenomenological σ-meson exchange. The six-quark scattering problem is solved within the resonating group method. The experimental lambda-nucleon and sigma-nucleon cross sections are well reproduced. (orig.)
Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wenyao
2017-05-01
Stress corrosion is the major failure type of bridge cable damage. The acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to monitor the stress corrosion process of steel wires used in bridge cable structures. The damage evolution of stress corrosion in bridge cables was obtained according to the AE characteristic parameter figure. A particle swarm optimization cluster method was developed to determine the relationship between the AE signal and stress corrosion mechanisms. Results indicate that the main AE sources of stress corrosion in bridge cables included four types: passive film breakdown and detachment of the corrosion product, crack initiation, crack extension, and cable fracture. By analyzing different types of clustering data, the mean value of each damage pattern's AE characteristic parameters was determined. Different corrosion damage source AE waveforms and the peak frequency were extracted. AE particle swarm optimization cluster analysis based on principal component analysis was also proposed. This method can completely distinguish the four types of damage sources and simplifies the determination of the evolution process of corrosion damage and broken wire signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Merging for Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic Modeling of the Multiple Plasma Beams
Lipatov, Alexander S.
2011-01-01
We suggest a merging procedure for the Particle-Mesh Complex Particle Kinetic (PMCPK) method in case of inter-penetrating flow (multiple plasma beams). We examine the standard particle-in-cell (PIC) and the PMCPK methods in the case of particle acceleration by shock surfing for a wide range of the control numerical parameters. The plasma dynamics is described by a hybrid (particle-ion-fluid-electron) model. Note that one may need a mesh if modeling with the computation of an electromagnetic field. Our calculations use specified, time-independent electromagnetic fields for the shock, rather than self-consistently generated fields. While a particle-mesh method is a well-verified approach, the CPK method seems to be a good approach for multiscale modeling that includes multiple regions with various particle/fluid plasma behavior. However, the CPK method is still in need of a verification for studying the basic plasma phenomena: particle heating and acceleration by collisionless shocks, magnetic field reconnection, beam dynamics, etc.
Semi-Supervised Generation with Cluster-aware Generative Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maaløe, Lars; Fraccaro, Marco; Winther, Ole
2017-01-01
Deep generative models trained with large amounts of unlabelled data have proven to be powerful within the domain of unsupervised learning. Many real life data sets contain a small amount of labelled data points, that are typically disregarded when training generative models. We propose the Clust...... a log-likelihood of −79.38 nats on permutation invariant MNIST, while also achieving competitive semi-supervised classification accuracies. The model can also be trained fully unsupervised, and still improve the log-likelihood performance with respect to related methods.......Deep generative models trained with large amounts of unlabelled data have proven to be powerful within the domain of unsupervised learning. Many real life data sets contain a small amount of labelled data points, that are typically disregarded when training generative models. We propose the Cluster...
Fine‐Grained Mobile Application Clustering Model Using Retrofitted Document Embedding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yeo‐Chan Yoon
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fine‐grained mobile application clustering model using retrofitted document embedding. To automatically determine the clusters and their numbers with no predefined categories, the proposed model initializes the clusters based on title keywords and then merges similar clusters. For improved clustering performance, the proposed model distinguishes between an accurate clustering step with titles and an expansive clustering step with descriptions. During the accurate clustering step, an automatically tagged set is constructed as a result. This set is utilized to learn a high‐performance document vector. During the expansive clustering step, more applications are then classified using this document vector. Experimental results showed that the purity of the proposed model increased by 0.19, and the entropy decreased by 1.18, compared with the K‐means algorithm. In addition, the mean average precision improved by more than 0.09 in a comparison with a support vector machine classifier.
Kuiper, S.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt
2000-01-01
A simple single-particle model was developed for cross-flow microfiltration with microsieves. The model describes the cross-flow conditions required to release a trapped spherical particle from a circular pore. All equations are derived in a fully analytical way without any fitting parameters. For
A Global Model for Circumgalactic and Cluster-core Precipitation
Voit, G. Mark; Meece, Greg; Li, Yuan; O'Shea, Brian W.; Bryan, Greg L.; Donahue, Megan
2017-08-01
We provide an analytic framework for interpreting observations of multiphase circumgalactic gas that is heavily informed by recent numerical simulations of thermal instability and precipitation in cool-core galaxy clusters. We start by considering the local conditions required for the formation of multiphase gas via two different modes: (1) uplift of ambient gas by galactic outflows, and (2) condensation in a stratified stationary medium in which thermal balance is explicitly maintained. Analytic exploration of these two modes provides insights into the relationships between the local ratio of the cooling and freefall timescales (I.e., {t}{cool}/{t}{ff}), the large-scale gradient of specific entropy, and the development of precipitation and multiphase media in circumgalactic gas. We then use these analytic findings to interpret recent simulations of circumgalactic gas in which global thermal balance is maintained. We show that long-lasting configurations of gas with 5≲ \\min ({t}{cool}/{t}{ff})≲ 20 and radial entropy profiles similar to observations of cool cores in galaxy clusters are a natural outcome of precipitation-regulated feedback. We conclude with some observational predictions that follow from these models. This work focuses primarily on precipitation and AGN feedback in galaxy-cluster cores, because that is where the observations of multiphase gas around galaxies are most complete. However, many of the physical principles that govern condensation in those environments apply to circumgalactic gas around galaxies of all masses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sen, Oishik, E-mail: oishik-sen@uiowa.edu [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gaul, Nicholas J., E-mail: nicholas-gaul@ramdosolutions.com [RAMDO Solutions, LLC, Iowa City, IA 52240 (United States); Choi, K.K., E-mail: kyung-choi@uiowa.edu [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Jacobs, Gustaaf, E-mail: gjacobs@sdsu.edu [Aerospace Engineering, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92115 (United States); Udaykumar, H.S., E-mail: hs-kumar@uiowa.edu [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)
2017-05-01
Macro-scale computations of shocked particulate flows require closure laws that model the exchange of momentum/energy between the fluid and particle phases. Closure laws are constructed in this work in the form of surrogate models derived from highly resolved mesoscale computations of shock-particle interactions. The mesoscale computations are performed to calculate the drag force on a cluster of particles for different values of Mach Number and particle volume fraction. Two Kriging-based methods, viz. the Dynamic Kriging Method (DKG) and the Modified Bayesian Kriging Method (MBKG) are evaluated for their ability to construct surrogate models with sparse data; i.e. using the least number of mesoscale simulations. It is shown that if the input data is noise-free, the DKG method converges monotonically; convergence is less robust in the presence of noise. The MBKG method converges monotonically even with noisy input data and is therefore more suitable for surrogate model construction from numerical experiments. This work is the first step towards a full multiscale modeling of interaction of shocked particle laden flows.
Composed particle model in stochastic electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunini, S.A.
1985-01-01
We analyse the statistical properties of the non-relativistic motion of a particle that has two constituents having finite nasses and charges. The main interaction is in contact with thermal and zero point radiation of Stochastic Electrodynamics. (M.W.O.) [pt
Concepts and models in particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paty, M.
1977-01-01
The knowledge of Elementary Particle Physics is characterized by an object and a purpose which are both highly theoretical. This assessment is shown and analysed by some examples taken in recent achievements in the field. It is also tried to attempt an enonciation of some criteria of the reality for concepts and objects in this matter [fr
Modeling of coated fuel particles irradiation behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Tongxiang; Phelip, M.
2006-01-01
In this report, PANAMA code was used to estimate the CP performance under normal and accident condition. Under the normal irradiation test (1000 degree C 625 efpd, 10% FIMA), for intact CP fuel, failure fraction is in the level of 10 -7 . As-fabricated SiC failed particles results in the through coatings failed particles much earlier than the intact particles does, OPyC layer does not fail immediately after irradiation starts. The significant failures start at beyond the burnup of about 7% FIMA. Under the accident condition, the calculated results showed that when the heating temperature is much higher than 1850 degree C, the failure fraction of coated particle can reach the level of 1 percent. The CP fuel fails significantly if it has a buffer layer thinner than 65 urn, SiC layer thinner than 30 μm. High burnup CP need to develop small size kernel, thick buffer layer and thick SiC layer. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
Disclosed herein is a biosensor for optical detection of Brownian relaxation dynamics of magnetic particles measured by light transmission. The magnetic particles can be functionalized with biological ligands for the detection of target analytes in a sample. The setup may be implemented in a disc...
Organizational Model of the Southern Asia Cluster Family Businesses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vipin Gupta
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in the family business organization. Traditionally, the ideal typical organizational model was one where the management, governance, and ownership entities are kept separate. This principal agent model has been a subject of public debate in the wake of several corporate scandals. In the family business organization, significant management, governance and ownership is often with the members of a family & its trusted partners. It is common in the US to regulate the management, governance, and ownership roles of the family members by using competitive criteria for the involvement of different members. In Southern Asia cluster (Gupta & Hanges, 2004, on the other hand, it is quite common for the family involvement to be holistic and undivided, where the family collectively owns the shares in the family business. In this work, this organizational model of the Southern Asian family businesses is investigated. Keywords: Southern Asia, family business, organizational model
Modeling airflow and particle transport/deposition in pulmonary airways.
Kleinstreuer, Clement; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Zheng
2008-11-30
A review of research papers is presented, pertinent to computer modeling of airflow as well as nano- and micron-size particle deposition in pulmonary airway replicas. The key modeling steps are outlined, including construction of suitable airway geometries, mathematical description of the air-particle transport phenomena and computer simulation of micron and nanoparticle depositions. Specifically, diffusion-dominated nanomaterial deposits on airway surfaces much more uniformly than micron particles of the same material. This may imply different toxicity effects. Due to impaction and secondary flows, micron particles tend to accumulate around the carinal ridges and to form "hot spots", i.e., locally high concentrations which may lead to tumor developments. Inhaled particles in the size range of 20nm< or =dp< or =3microm may readily reach the deeper lung region. Concerning inhaled therapeutic particles, optimal parameters for mechanical drug-aerosol targeting of predetermined lung areas can be computed, given representative pulmonary airways.
Long range correlations, leading particle spectrum and correlations with leading particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilgenfritz, E.M.
1976-05-01
The unitary cluster emission model by de Groot and Ruijgrok is discussed as an approach to understand the leading particle behaviour. Consequences of the model concerning co--rrelations between leading particles and produced particles in the central region are considered. No satisfactory agreement was found. Production of leading clusters is argued for being an essential feature of these correlations. (author)
A first packet processing subdomain cluster model based on SDN
Chen, Mingyong; Wu, Weimin
2017-08-01
For the current controller cluster packet processing performance bottlenecks and controller downtime problems. An SDN controller is proposed to allocate the priority of each device in the SDN (Software Defined Network) network, and the domain contains several network devices and Controller, the controller is responsible for managing the network equipment within the domain, the switch performs data delivery based on the load of the controller, processing network equipment data. The experimental results show that the model can effectively solve the risk of single point failure of the controller, and can solve the performance bottleneck of the first packet processing.
The random cluster model and a new integration identity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, L C; Wu, F Y
2005-01-01
We evaluate the free energy of the random cluster model at its critical point for 0 -1 (√q/2) is a rational number. As a by-product, our consideration leads to a closed-form evaluation of the integral 1/(4π 2 ) ∫ 0 2π dΘ ∫ 0 2π dΦ ln[A+B+C - AcosΘ - BcosΦ - Ccos(Θ+Φ)] = -ln(2S) + (2/π)[Ti 2 (AS) + Ti 2 (BS) + Ti 2 (CS)], which arises in lattice statistics, where A, B, C ≥ 0 and S=1/√(AB + BC + CA)
Effective action and cluster properties of the abelian Higgs model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balaban, T; Imbrie, J Z; Jaffe, A
1988-02-01
We continue our program to establish the Higgs mechanism and mass gap for the abelian Higgs model in two and three dimensions. We develop a multiscale cluster expansion for the high frequency modes of the theory, within a framework of iterated renormalization group transformations. The expansions yield decoupling properties needed for a proof of exponential decay of correlations. The result of this analysis is a gauge invariant unit lattice theory with a deep Higgs potential of the shape required to exhibit the Higgs mechanism.
Investigating motion and stability of particles in flows using numerical models
Khurana, Nidhi
The phenomenon of transport of particles in a fluid is ubiquitous in nature and a detailed understanding of its mechanism continues to remain a fundamental question for physicists. In this thesis, we use numerical methods to study the dynamics and stability of particles advected in flows. First, we investigate the dynamics of a single, motile particle advected in a two-dimensional chaotic flow. The particle can be either spherical or ellipsoidal. Particle activity is modeled as a constant intrinsic swimming velocity and stochastic fluctuations in both the translational and rotational motions are also taken into account. Our results indicate that interaction of swimming with flow structures causes a reduction in long-term transport at low speeds. Swimmers can get trapped at the transport barriers of the flow. We show that elongated swimmers respond more strongly to the dynamical structures of the flow field. At low speeds, their macroscopic transport is reduced even further than in the case of spherical swimmers. However, at high speeds these elongated swimmers tend to get attracted to the stable manifolds of hyperbolic fixed points, leading to increased transport. We then investigate the collective dynamics of a system of particles. The particles may interact both with each other and with the background flow. We focus on two different cases. In the fist case, we examine the stability of aggregation models in a turbulent-like flow. We use a simple aggregation model in which a point-like particle moves with a constant intrinsic speed while its velocity vector is reoriented according to the average direction of motion of its neighbors. We generate a strongly fluctuating, spatially correlated background flow using Kinematic Simulation, and show that flocks are highly sensitive to this background flow and break into smaller clusters. Our results indicate that such environmental perturbations must be taken into account for models which aim to capture the collective
Shen, Chung-Wei; Chen, Yi-Hau
2018-03-13
We propose a model selection criterion for semiparametric marginal mean regression based on generalized estimating equations. The work is motivated by a longitudinal study on the physical frailty outcome in the elderly, where the cluster size, that is, the number of the observed outcomes in each subject, is "informative" in the sense that it is related to the frailty outcome itself. The new proposal, called Resampling Cluster Information Criterion (RCIC), is based on the resampling idea utilized in the within-cluster resampling method (Hoffman, Sen, and Weinberg, 2001, Biometrika 88, 1121-1134) and accommodates informative cluster size. The implementation of RCIC, however, is free of performing actual resampling of the data and hence is computationally convenient. Compared with the existing model selection methods for marginal mean regression, the RCIC method incorporates an additional component accounting for variability of the model over within-cluster subsampling, and leads to remarkable improvements in selecting the correct model, regardless of whether the cluster size is informative or not. Applying the RCIC method to the longitudinal frailty study, we identify being female, old age, low income and life satisfaction, and chronic health conditions as significant risk factors for physical frailty in the elderly. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.
Modified genetic algorithms to model cluster structures in medium-size silicon clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazterra, Victor E.; Ona, Ofelia; Caputo, Maria C.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Fuentealba, Patricio; Facelli, Julio C.
2004-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) to search for stable structures of medium size silicon clusters. In this work the GA uses a semiempirical energy function to find the best cluster structures, which are further optimized using density-functional theory. For small clusters our results agree well with previously reported structures, but for larger ones different structures appear. This is the case of Si 36 where we report a different structure, with significant lower energy than those previously found using limited search approaches on common structural motifs. This demonstrates the need for global optimization schemes when searching for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters
Space Particle Hazard Measurement and Modeling
2007-11-30
the spacecraft and perturbations of the environment generated by the spacecraft. Koons et al. (1999) compiled and studied all spacecraft anomalies...unrealistic for D12 than for Dα0p). However, unlike the stability problems associated with the original cross diffusion terms, they are quite manageable ...E), to mono-energetic beams of charged particles of known energies which enables one, in principle , to unfold the space environment spectrum, j(E
The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averyanov, G P; Kobylyatskiy, A V
2017-01-01
Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept. (paper)
Cumulative particle production in the quark recombination model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrilov, V.B.; Leksin, G.A.
1987-01-01
Production of cumulative particles in hadron-nuclear inteactions at high energies is considered within the framework of recombination quark model. Predictions for inclusive cross sections of production of cumulative particles and different resonances containing quarks in s state are made
Gravitational instantons as models for charged particle systems
Franchetti, Guido; Manton, Nicholas S.
2013-03-01
In this paper we propose ALF gravitational instantons of types A k and D k as models for charged particle systems. We calculate the charges of the two families. These are -( k + 1) for A k , which is proposed as a model for k + 1 electrons, and 2 - k for D k , which is proposed as a model for either a particle of charge +2 and k electrons or a proton and k - 1 electrons. Making use of preferred topological and metrical structures of the manifolds, namely metrically preferred representatives of middle dimension homology classes, we construct two different energy functionals which reproduce the Coulomb interaction energy for a system of charged particles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL
2006-01-01
The Flocking model, first proposed by Craig Reynolds, is one of the first bio-inspired computational collective behavior models that has many popular applications, such as animation. Our early research has resulted in a flock clustering algorithm that can achieve better performance than the Kmeans or the Ant clustering algorithms for data clustering. This algorithm generates a clustering of a given set of data through the embedding of the highdimensional data items on a two-dimensional grid for efficient clustering result retrieval and visualization. In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired clustering model, the Multiple Species Flocking clustering model (MSF), and present a distributed multi-agent MSF approach for document clustering.
MODEL-BASED CLUSTERING FOR CLASSIFICATION OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS AND DIAGNOSIS OF ECOLOGICAL STRESS
Clustering approaches were developed using the classification likelihood, the mixture likelihood, and also using a randomization approach with a model index. Using a clustering approach based on the mixture and classification likelihoods, we have developed an algorithm that...
Particle propagator of the spin Calogero–Sutherland model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakai, Ryota; Kato, Yusuke
2014-01-01
Explicit-exact expressions for the particle propagator of the spin 1/2 Calogero–Sutherland model are derived for the system of a finite number of particles and for that in the thermodynamic limit. Derivation of the expression in the thermodynamic limit is also presented in detail. Combining this result with the hole propagator obtained in earlier studies, we calculate the spectral function of the single particle Green's function in the full range of the energy and momentum space. The resultant spectral function exhibits power-law singularity characteristic to correlated particle systems in one dimension. (paper)
Bomont, Jean-Marc; Costa, Dino; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis
2017-06-14
We use Monte Carlo simulations to carry out a thorough analysis of structural correlations arising in a relatively dense fluid of rigid spherical particles with prototype competing interactions (short-range attractive and long-range repulsive two-Yukawa model). As the attraction strength increases, we show that the local density of the fluid displays a tiny reversal of trend within specific ranges of interparticle distances, whereupon it decreases first and increases afterwards, passing through a local minimum. Particles involved in this trend display, accordingly, distinct behaviours: for a sufficiently weak attraction, they seem to contribute to the long-wave oscillations typically heralding the formation of patterns in such fluids; for a stronger attraction, after the reversal of the local density has occurred, they form an outer shell of neighbours stabilizing the existing aggregation seeds. Following the increment of attraction, precisely in correspondence of the local density reversal, the local peak developed in the structure factor at small wavevectors markedly rises, signalling-in agreement with recent structural criteria-the onset of a clustered state. A detailed cluster analysis of microscopic configurations fully validates this picture.
Yuan, Jinfeng; Zhao, Weiting; Pan, Mingwang; Zhu, Lei
2016-08-01
A simple route is reported to synthesize colloidal particle clusters (CPCs) from self-assembly of in situ poly(vinylidene fluoride)/poly(styrene-co-tert-butyl acrylate) [PVDF/P(St-co-tBA)] Janus particles through one-pot seeded emulsion single electron transfer radical polymerization. In the in situ Pickering-like emulsion polymerization, the tBA/St/PVDF feed ratio and polymerization temperature are important for the formation of well-defined CPCs. When the tBA/St/PVDF feed ratio is 0.75 g/2.5 g/0.5 g and the reaction temperature is 35 °C, relatively uniform raspberry-like CPCs are obtained. The hydrophobicity of the P(St-co-tBA) domains and the affinity of PVDF to the aqueous environment are considered to be the driving force for the self-assembly of the in situ formed PVDF/P(St-co-tBA) Janus particles. The resultant raspberry-like CPCs with PVDF particles protruding outward may be promising for superhydrophobic smart coatings. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Subgrid Modeling of AGN-driven Turbulence in Galaxy Clusters
Scannapieco, Evan; Brüggen, Marcus
2008-10-01
Hot, underdense bubbles powered by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are likely to play a key role in halting catastrophic cooling in the centers of cool-core galaxy clusters. We present three-dimensional simulations that capture the evolution of such bubbles, using an adaptive mesh hydrodynamic code, FLASH3, to which we have added a subgrid model of turbulence and mixing. While pure hydro simulations indicate that AGN bubbles are disrupted into resolution-dependent pockets of underdense gas, proper modeling of subgrid turbulence indicates that this is a poor approximation to a turbulent cascade that continues far beyond the resolution limit. Instead, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities act to effectively mix the heated region with its surroundings, while at the same time preserving it as a coherent structure, consistent with observations. Thus, bubbles are transformed into hot clouds of mixed material as they move outward in the hydrostatic intracluster medium (ICM), much as large airbursts lead to a distinctive "mushroom cloud" structure as they rise in the hydrostatic atmosphere of Earth. Properly capturing the evolution of such clouds has important implications for many ICM properties. In particular, it significantly changes the impact of AGNs on the distribution of entropy and metals in cool-core clusters such as Perseus.
Sparsity enabled cluster reduced-order models for control
Kaiser, Eurika; Morzyński, Marek; Daviller, Guillaume; Kutz, J. Nathan; Brunton, Bingni W.; Brunton, Steven L.
2018-01-01
Characterizing and controlling nonlinear, multi-scale phenomena are central goals in science and engineering. Cluster-based reduced-order modeling (CROM) was introduced to exploit the underlying low-dimensional dynamics of complex systems. CROM builds a data-driven discretization of the Perron-Frobenius operator, resulting in a probabilistic model for ensembles of trajectories. A key advantage of CROM is that it embeds nonlinear dynamics in a linear framework, which enables the application of standard linear techniques to the nonlinear system. CROM is typically computed on high-dimensional data; however, access to and computations on this full-state data limit the online implementation of CROM for prediction and control. Here, we address this key challenge by identifying a small subset of critical measurements to learn an efficient CROM, referred to as sparsity-enabled CROM. In particular, we leverage compressive measurements to faithfully embed the cluster geometry and preserve the probabilistic dynamics. Further, we show how to identify fewer optimized sensor locations tailored to a specific problem that outperform random measurements. Both of these sparsity-enabled sensing strategies significantly reduce the burden of data acquisition and processing for low-latency in-time estimation and control. We illustrate this unsupervised learning approach on three different high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems from fluids with increasing complexity, with one application in flow control. Sparsity-enabled CROM is a critical facilitator for real-time implementation on high-dimensional systems where full-state information may be inaccessible.
Paul, Subhajit; Das, Subir K.
2018-03-01
Via event-driven molecular dynamics simulations we study kinetics of clustering in assemblies of inelastic particles in various space dimensions. We consider two models, viz., the ballistic aggregation model (BAM) and the freely cooling granular gas model (GGM), for each of which we quantify the time dependence of kinetic energy and average mass of clusters (that form due to inelastic collisions). These quantities, for both the models, exhibit power-law behavior, at least in the long time limit. For the BAM, corresponding exponents exhibit strong dimension dependence and follow a hyperscaling relation. In addition, in the high packing fraction limit the behavior of these quantities become consistent with a scaling theory that predicts an inverse relation between energy and mass. On the other hand, in the case of the GGM we do not find any evidence for such a picture. In this case, even though the energy decay, irrespective of packing fraction, matches quantitatively with that for the high packing fraction picture of the BAM, it is inversely proportional to the growth of mass only in one dimension, and the growth appears to be rather insensitive to the choice of the dimension, unlike the BAM.
A Variational Level Set Model Combined with FCMS for Image Clustering Segmentation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liming Tang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The fuzzy C means clustering algorithm with spatial constraint (FCMS is effective for image segmentation. However, it lacks essential smoothing constraints to the cluster boundaries and enough robustness to the noise. Samson et al. proposed a variational level set model for image clustering segmentation, which can get the smooth cluster boundaries and closed cluster regions due to the use of level set scheme. However it is very sensitive to the noise since it is actually a hard C means clustering model. In this paper, based on Samson’s work, we propose a new variational level set model combined with FCMS for image clustering segmentation. Compared with FCMS clustering, the proposed model can get smooth cluster boundaries and closed cluster regions due to the use of level set scheme. In addition, a block-based energy is incorporated into the energy functional, which enables the proposed model to be more robust to the noise than FCMS clustering and Samson’s model. Some experiments on the synthetic and real images are performed to assess the performance of the proposed model. Compared with some classical image segmentation models, the proposed model has a better performance for the images contaminated by different noise levels.
TURBULENT CLUSTERING OF PROTOPLANETARY DUST AND PLANETESIMAL FORMATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan Liubin; Padoan, Paolo; Scalo, John; Kritsuk, Alexei G.; Norman, Michael L.
2011-01-01
We study the clustering of inertial particles in turbulent flows and discuss its applications to dust particles in protoplanetary disks. Using numerical simulations, we compute the radial distribution function (RDF), which measures the probability of finding particle pairs at given distances, and the probability density function of the particle concentration. The clustering statistics depend on the Stokes number, St, defined as the ratio of the particle friction timescale, τ p , to the Kolmogorov timescale in the flow. In agreement with previous studies, we find that, in the dissipation range, the clustering intensity strongly peaks at St ≅ 1, and the RDF for St ∼ 1 shows a fast power-law increase toward small scales, suggesting that turbulent clustering may considerably enhance the particle collision rate. Clustering at inertial-range scales is of particular interest to the problem of planetesimal formation. At these large scales, the strongest clustering is from particles with τ p in the inertial range. Clustering of these particles occurs primarily around a scale where the eddy turnover time is ∼τ p . We find that particles of different sizes tend to cluster at different locations, leading to flat RDFs between different particles at small scales. In the presence of multiple particle sizes, the overall clustering strength decreases as the particle size distribution broadens. We discuss particle clustering in two recent models for planetesimal formation. We argue that, in the model based on turbulent clustering of chondrule-size particles, the probability of finding strong clusters that can seed planetesimals may have been significantly overestimated. We discuss various clustering mechanisms in simulations of planetesimal formation by gravitational collapse of dense clumps of meter-size particles, in particular the contribution from turbulent clustering due to the limited numerical resolution.
Stochastic cluster algorithms for discrete Gaussian (SOS) models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evertz, H.G.; Hamburg Univ.; Hasenbusch, M.; Marcu, M.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Pinn, K.; Muenster Univ.; Solomon, S.
1990-10-01
We present new Monte Carlo cluster algorithms which eliminate critical slowing down in the simulation of solid-on-solid models. In this letter we focus on the two-dimensional discrete Gaussian model. The algorithms are based on reflecting the integer valued spin variables with respect to appropriately chosen reflection planes. The proper choice of the reflection plane turns out to be crucial in order to obtain a small dynamical exponent z. Actually, the successful versions of our algorithm are a mixture of two different procedures for choosing the reflection plane, one of them ergodic but slow, the other one non-ergodic and also slow when combined with a Metropolis algorithm. (orig.)
Excitonic Order and Superconductivity in the Two-Orbital Hubbard Model: Variational Cluster Approach
Fujiuchi, Ryo; Sugimoto, Koudai; Ohta, Yukinori
2018-06-01
Using the variational cluster approach based on the self-energy functional theory, we study the possible occurrence of excitonic order and superconductivity in the two-orbital Hubbard model with intra- and inter-orbital Coulomb interactions. It is known that an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator state appears in the regime of strong intra-orbital interaction, a band insulator state appears in the regime of strong inter-orbital interaction, and an excitonic insulator state appears between them. In addition to these states, we find that the s±-wave superconducting state appears in the small-correlation regime, and the dx2 - y2-wave superconducting state appears on the boundary of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator state. We calculate the single-particle spectral function of the model and compare the band gap formation due to the superconducting and excitonic orders.
Model Adaptation for Prognostics in a Particle Filtering Framework
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the key motivating factors for using particle filters for prognostics is the ability to include model parameters as part of the state vector to be estimated....
Unified composite model of all fundamental particles and forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terazawa, H.
2000-01-01
The unified supersymmetric composite model of all fundamental particles (and forces) including not only the fundamental fermions (quarks and leptons) but also the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and Higgs scalars) is reviewed in detail
A transient single particle model under FCI conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xiao-Yan; SHANG Zhi; XU Ji-Jun
2005-01-01
The paper is focused on the coupling effect between film boiling heat transfer and evaporation drag around a hot-particle in cold liquid. Based on the continuity, momentum and energy equations of the vapor film, a transient two-dimensional single particle model has been established. This paper contains a detailed description of HPMC (High-temperature Particle Moving in Coolant) model for studying some aspects of the premixing stage of fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs). The transient process of high-temperature particles moving in coolant can be simulated. Comparisons between the experiment results and the calculations using HPMC model demonstrate that HPMC model achieves a good agreement in predicting the time-varying characteristic of high-temperature spheres moving in coolant.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sida, J.L
2003-07-01
This document gathers a series of 6 lessons dedicated to students in the first year of their thesis (DEA) in fields and particles physics: 1) the extent of nuclear physics, 2) the nucleus as a cluster of interacting fermions, 3) models and deformation, 4) nuclei and rotation, 5) isospin and exotic nuclei, and 6) fission reactions from the saddle point to the scission point.
Multiparticle production through isoscalar clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armburst, W.T.; Scott, D.M.
1975-01-01
The isoscalar cluster model for multiparticle production was extended to include clusters of A 2 meson pairs in addition to previously studied rho-rho and sigma clusters. The production of each type of cluster is given by an energy dependent Poisson distribution. The Poisson parameters determined from the charged particle multiplicity distributions indicate that the inclusion of A 2 -A 2 clusters does not improve the fit to the data. The predictions of the model for n 0 n/sub -/, f/sup 2//sub -,-/, and f/sup 2//sub 0,0/ compare favorably to the experimental values. (U.S.)
Three dimensional hair model by means particles using Blender
Alvarez-Cedillo, Jesús Antonio; Almanza-Nieto, Roberto; Herrera-Lozada, Juan Carlos
2010-09-01
The simulation and modeling of human hair is a process whose computational complexity is very large, this due to the large number of factors that must be calculated to give a realistic appearance. Generally, the method used in the film industry to simulate hair is based on particle handling graphics. In this paper we present a simple approximation of how to model human hair using particles in Blender. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Quasilinear Line Broadened Model for Energetic Particle Transport
Ghantous, Katy; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Berk, Herbert
2011-10-01
We present a self-consistent quasi-linear model that describes wave-particle interaction in toroidal geometry and computes fast ion transport during TAE mode evolution. The model bridges the gap between single mode resonances, where it predicts the analytically expected saturation levels, and the case of multiple modes overlapping, where particles diffuse across phase space. Results are presented in the large aspect ratio limit where analytic expressions are used for Fourier harmonics of the power exchange between waves and particles, . Implemention of a more realistic mode structure calculated by NOVAK code are also presented. This work is funded by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Elementary particles, dark matter candidate and new extended standard model
Hwang, Jaekwang
2017-01-01
Elementary particle decays and reactions are discussed in terms of the three-dimensional quantized space model beyond the standard model. Three generations of the leptons and quarks correspond to the lepton charges. Three heavy leptons and three heavy quarks are introduced. And the bastons (new particles) are proposed as the possible candidate of the dark matters. Dark matter force, weak force and strong force are explained consistently. Possible rest masses of the new particles are, tentatively, proposed for the experimental searches. For more details, see the conference paper at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308723916.
The topological B model as a twisted spinning particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcus, Neil; Yankielowicz, Shimon
1994-01-01
The B-twisted topological sigma model coupled to topological gravity is supposed to be described by an ordinary field theory: a type of holomorphic Chern-Simons theory for the open string, and the Kodaira-Spencer theory for the closed string. We show that the B model can be represented as a particle theory, obtained by reducing the sigma model to one dimension, and replacing the coupling to topological gravity by a coupling to a twisted one-dimensional supergravity. The particle can be defined on any Kaehler manifold - it does not require the Calabi-Yau condition - so it may provide a more generalized setting for the B model than the topological sigma model.The one-loop partition function of the particle can be written in terms of the Ray-Singer torsion of the manifold, and agrees with that of the original B model. After showing how to deform the Kaehler and complex structures in the particle, we prove the independence of this partition function on the Kaehler structure, and investigate the origin of the holomorphic anomaly. To define other amplitudes, one needs to introduce interactions into the particle. The particle will then define a field theory, which may or may not be the Chern-Simons or Kodaira-Spencer theories. ((orig.))
Liu, Jingxia; Colditz, Graham A
2018-05-01
There is growing interest in conducting cluster randomized trials (CRTs). For simplicity in sample size calculation, the cluster sizes are assumed to be identical across all clusters. However, equal cluster sizes are not guaranteed in practice. Therefore, the relative efficiency (RE) of unequal versus equal cluster sizes has been investigated when testing the treatment effect. One of the most important approaches to analyze a set of correlated data is the generalized estimating equation (GEE) proposed by Liang and Zeger, in which the "working correlation structure" is introduced and the association pattern depends on a vector of association parameters denoted by ρ. In this paper, we utilize GEE models to test the treatment effect in a two-group comparison for continuous, binary, or count data in CRTs. The variances of the estimator of the treatment effect are derived for the different types of outcome. RE is defined as the ratio of variance of the estimator of the treatment effect for equal to unequal cluster sizes. We discuss a commonly used structure in CRTs-exchangeable, and derive the simpler formula of RE with continuous, binary, and count outcomes. Finally, REs are investigated for several scenarios of cluster size distributions through simulation studies. We propose an adjusted sample size due to efficiency loss. Additionally, we also propose an optimal sample size estimation based on the GEE models under a fixed budget for known and unknown association parameter (ρ) in the working correlation structure within the cluster. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
An extended dissipative particle dynamics model
Cotter, C J
2003-01-01
The method of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) was introduced by Hoogerbrugge & Koelman to study meso-scale material processes. The theoretical investigation of the DPD method was initiated by Espanol who used a Fokker-Planck formulation of the DPD method and applied the Mori-Zwanzig projection operator calculus to obtain the equations of hydrodynamics for DPD. A current limitation of DPD is that it requires a clear separation of scales between the resolved and unresolved processes. In this note, we suggest a simple extension of DPD that allows for inclusion of unresolved processes with exponentially decaying variance for any value of the decay rate. The main point of the extension is that it is as easy to implement as DPD in a numerical algorithm.
Deuterium cluster model for low energy nuclear reactions (LENR)
Miley, George; Hora, Heinrich
2007-11-01
For studying the possible reactions of high density deuterons on the background of a degenerate electron gas, a summary of experimental observations resulted in the possibility of reactions in pm distance and more than ksec duration similar to the K-shell electron capture [1]. The essential reason was the screening of the deuterons by a factor of 14 based on the observations. Using the bosonic properties for a cluster formation of the deuterons and a model of compound nuclear reactions [2], the measured distribution of the resulting nuclei may be explained as known from the Maruhn-Greiner theory for fission. The local maximum of the distribution at the main minimum indicates the excited states of the compound nuclei during their intermediary state. This measured local maximum may be an independent proof for the deuteron clusters at LENR. [1] H. Hora, G.H. Miley et al. Physics Letters A175, 138 (1993) [2] H. Hora and G.H. Miley, APS March Meeting 2007, Program p. 116
Weibull modeling of particle cracking in metal matrix composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, C.A.; Withers, P.J.
1995-01-01
An investigation into the occurrence of reinforcement cracking within a particulate ZrO 2 /2618 Al alloy metal matrix composite under tensile plastic straining has been carried out, special attention being paid to the dependence of fracture on particle size and shape. The probability of particle cracking has been modeled using a Weibull approach, giving good agreement with the experimental data. Values for the Weibull modulus and the stress required to crack the particles were found to be within the range expected for the cracking of ceramic particles. Additional information regarding the fracture behavior of the particles was provided by in-situ neutron diffraction monitoring of the internal strains, measurement of the variation in the composite Young's modulus with straining and by direct observation of the cracked particles. The values of the particle stress required for the initiation of particle cracking deduced from these supplementary experiments were found to be in good agreement with each other and with the results from the Weibull analysis. Further, it is shown that while both the current experiments, as well as the previous work of others, can be well described by the Weibull approach, the exact values of the Weibull parameters do deduced are very sensitive to the approximations and the assumptions made in constructing the model
PART 2: LARGE PARTICLE MODELLING Simulation of particle filtration processes in deformable media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gernot Boiger
2008-06-01
Full Text Available In filtration processes it is necessary to consider both, the interaction of thefluid with the solid parts as well as the effect of particles carried in the fluidand accumulated on the solid. While part 1 of this paper deals with themodelling of fluid structure interaction effects, the accumulation of dirtparticles will be addressed in this paper. A closer look is taken on theimplementation of a spherical, LAGRANGIAN particle model suitable forsmall and large particles. As dirt accumulates in the fluid stream, it interactswith the surrounding filter fibre structure and over time causes modificationsof the filter characteristics. The calculation of particle force interactioneffects is necessary for an adequate simulation of this situation. A detailedDiscrete Phase Lagrange Model was developed to take into account thetwo-way coupling of the fluid and accumulated particles. The simulation oflarge particles and the fluid-structure interaction is realised in a single finitevolume flow solver on the basis of the OpenSource software OpenFoam.
Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Schrön, Martin [Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2014-08-01
Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.
Nili, Samaun; Park, Chanyoung; Haftka, Raphael T.; Kim, Nam H.; Balachandar, S.
2017-11-01
Point particle methods are extensively used in simulating Euler-Lagrange multiphase dispersed flow. When particles are much smaller than the Eulerian grid the point particle model is on firm theoretical ground. However, this standard approach of evaluating the gas-particle coupling at the particle center fails to converge as the Eulerian grid is reduced below particle size. We present an approach to model the interaction between particles and fluid for finite size particles that permits convergence. We use the generalized Faxen form to compute the force on a particle and compare the results against traditional point particle method. We apportion the different force components on the particle to fluid cells based on the fraction of particle volume or surface in the cell. The application is to a one-dimensional model of shock propagation through a particle-laden field at moderate volume fraction, where the convergence is achieved for a well-formulated force model and back coupling for finite size particles. Comparison with 3D direct fully resolved numerical simulations will be used to check if the approach also improves accuracy compared to the point particle model. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Simple mathematical models of symmetry breaking. Application to particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michel, L.
1976-01-01
Some mathematical facts relevant to symmetry breaking are presented. A first mathematical model deals with the smooth action of compact Lie groups on real manifolds, a second model considers linear action of any group on real or complex finite dimensional vector spaces. Application of the mathematical models to particle physics is considered. (B.R.H.)
Angelov, Kiril; Kaynakchieva, Vesela
2017-12-01
The aim of the current study is to research and analyze Mathematical model for research and analyze of relations and functions between enterprises, members of cluster, and its approbation in given cluster. Subject of the study are theoretical mechanisms for the definition of mathematical models for research and analyze of relations and functions between enterprises, members of cluster. Object of the study are production enterprises, members of cluster. Results of this study show that described theoretical mathematical model is applicable for research and analyze of functions and relations between enterprises, members of cluster from different industrial sectors. This circumstance creates alternatives for election of cluster, where is experimented this model for interaction improvement between enterprises, members of cluster.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Zhang
2009-06-01
Full Text Available A major analytical challenge in computational biology is the detection and description of clusters of specified site types, such as polymorphic or substituted sites within DNA or protein sequences. Progress has been stymied by a lack of suitable methods to detect clusters and to estimate the extent of clustering in discrete linear sequences, particularly when there is no a priori specification of cluster size or cluster count. Here we derive and demonstrate a maximum likelihood method of hierarchical clustering. Our method incorporates a tripartite divide-and-conquer strategy that models sequence heterogeneity, delineates clusters, and yields a profile of the level of clustering associated with each site. The clustering model may be evaluated via model selection using the Akaike Information Criterion, the corrected Akaike Information Criterion, and the Bayesian Information Criterion. Furthermore, model averaging using weighted model likelihoods may be applied to incorporate model uncertainty into the profile of heterogeneity across sites. We evaluated our method by examining its performance on a number of simulated datasets as well as on empirical polymorphism data from diverse natural alleles of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Our method yielded greater power for the detection of clustered sites across a breadth of parameter ranges, and achieved better accuracy and precision of estimation of clusters, than did the existing empirical cumulative distribution function statistics.
Manual hierarchical clustering of regional geochemical data using a Bayesian finite mixture model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellefsen, Karl J.; Smith, David B.
2016-01-01
Interpretation of regional scale, multivariate geochemical data is aided by a statistical technique called “clustering.” We investigate a particular clustering procedure by applying it to geochemical data collected in the State of Colorado, United States of America. The clustering procedure partitions the field samples for the entire survey area into two clusters. The field samples in each cluster are partitioned again to create two subclusters, and so on. This manual procedure generates a hierarchy of clusters, and the different levels of the hierarchy show geochemical and geological processes occurring at different spatial scales. Although there are many different clustering methods, we use Bayesian finite mixture modeling with two probability distributions, which yields two clusters. The model parameters are estimated with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability density function, which usually has multiple modes. Each mode has its own set of model parameters; each set is checked to ensure that it is consistent both with the data and with independent geologic knowledge. The set of model parameters that is most consistent with the independent geologic knowledge is selected for detailed interpretation and partitioning of the field samples. - Highlights: • We evaluate a clustering procedure by applying it to geochemical data. • The procedure generates a hierarchy of clusters. • Different levels of the hierarchy show geochemical processes at different spatial scales. • The clustering method is Bayesian finite mixture modeling. • Model parameters are estimated with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling.
Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laux, Harald
1998-08-01
A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a
Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laux, Harald
1998-08-01
A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a finite volume method
Model catalysis by size-selected cluster deposition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderson, Scott [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
2015-11-20
This report summarizes the accomplishments during the last four years of the subject grant. Results are presented for experiments in which size-selected model catalysts were studied under surface science and aqueous electrochemical conditions. Strong effects of cluster size were found, and by correlating the size effects with size-dependent physical properties of the samples measured by surface science methods, it was possible to deduce mechanistic insights, such as the factors that control the rate-limiting step in the reactions. Results are presented for CO oxidation, CO binding energetics and geometries, and electronic effects under surface science conditions, and for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction, ethanol oxidation reaction, and for oxidation of carbon by water.
Modelling of neutral particle transport in divertor plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kakizuka, Tomonori; Shimizu, Katsuhiro
1995-01-01
An outline of the modelling of neutral particle transport in the diverter plasma was described in the paper. The characteristic properties of divertor plasma were largely affected by interaction between neutral particles and divertor plasma. Accordingly, the behavior of neutral particle should be investigated quantitatively. Moreover, plasma and neutral gas should be traced consistently in the plasma simulation. There are Monte Carlo modelling and the neutral gas fluid modelling as the transport modelling. The former need long calculation time, but it is able to make the physical process modelling. A ultra-large parallel computer is good for the former. In spite of proposing some kinds of models, the latter has not been established. At the view point of reducing calculation time, a work station is good for the simulation of the latter, although some physical problems have not been solved. On the Monte Carlo method particle modelling, reducing the calculation time and introducing the interaction of particles are important subjects to develop 'the evolutional Monte Carlo Method'. To reduce the calculation time, two new methods: 'Implicit Monte Carlo method' and 'Free-and Diffusive-Motion Hybrid Monte-Carlo method' have been developing. (S.Y.)
Developments in kinetic modelling of chalcocite particle oxidation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaervi, J; Ahokainen, T; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy
1998-12-31
A mathematical model for simulating chalcocite particle oxidation is presented. Combustion of pure chalcocite with oxygen is coded as a kinetic module which can be connected as a separate part of commercial CFD-package, PHOENICS. Heat transfer, fluid flow and combustion phenomena can be simulated using CFD-calculation together with the kinetic model. Interaction between gas phase and particles are taken into account by source terms. The aim of the kinetic model is to calculate the particle temperature, contents of species inside the particle, oxygen consumption and formation of sulphur dioxide. Four oxidation reactions are considered and the shrinking core model is used to describe the rate of the oxidation reactions. The model is verified by simulating the particle oxidation reactions in a laboratory scale laminar-flow furnace under different conditions and the model predicts the effects of charges correctly. In the future, the model validation will be done after experimental studies in the laminar flow-furnace. (author) 18 refs.
Developments in kinetic modelling of chalcocite particle oxidation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaervi, J.; Ahokainen, T.; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy
1997-12-31
A mathematical model for simulating chalcocite particle oxidation is presented. Combustion of pure chalcocite with oxygen is coded as a kinetic module which can be connected as a separate part of commercial CFD-package, PHOENICS. Heat transfer, fluid flow and combustion phenomena can be simulated using CFD-calculation together with the kinetic model. Interaction between gas phase and particles are taken into account by source terms. The aim of the kinetic model is to calculate the particle temperature, contents of species inside the particle, oxygen consumption and formation of sulphur dioxide. Four oxidation reactions are considered and the shrinking core model is used to describe the rate of the oxidation reactions. The model is verified by simulating the particle oxidation reactions in a laboratory scale laminar-flow furnace under different conditions and the model predicts the effects of charges correctly. In the future, the model validation will be done after experimental studies in the laminar flow-furnace. (author) 18 refs.
Clustering network layers with the strata multilayer stochastic block model.
Stanley, Natalie; Shai, Saray; Taylor, Dane; Mucha, Peter J
2016-01-01
Multilayer networks are a useful data structure for simultaneously capturing multiple types of relationships between a set of nodes. In such networks, each relational definition gives rise to a layer. While each layer provides its own set of information, community structure across layers can be collectively utilized to discover and quantify underlying relational patterns between nodes. To concisely extract information from a multilayer network, we propose to identify and combine sets of layers with meaningful similarities in community structure. In this paper, we describe the "strata multilayer stochastic block model" (sMLSBM), a probabilistic model for multilayer community structure. The central extension of the model is that there exist groups of layers, called "strata", which are defined such that all layers in a given stratum have community structure described by a common stochastic block model (SBM). That is, layers in a stratum exhibit similar node-to-community assignments and SBM probability parameters. Fitting the sMLSBM to a multilayer network provides a joint clustering that yields node-to-community and layer-to-stratum assignments, which cooperatively aid one another during inference. We describe an algorithm for separating layers into their appropriate strata and an inference technique for estimating the SBM parameters for each stratum. We demonstrate our method using synthetic networks and a multilayer network inferred from data collected in the Human Microbiome Project.
A new model for the simplification of particle counting data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. F. Fadal
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a three-parameter mathematical model to describe the particle size distribution in a water sample. The proposed model offers some conceptual advantages over two other models reported on previously, and also provides a better fit to the particle counting data obtained from 321 water samples taken over three years at a large South African drinking water supplier. Using the data from raw water samples taken from a moderately turbid, large surface impoundment, as well as samples from the same water after treatment, typical ranges of the model parameters are presented for both raw and treated water. Once calibrated, the model allows the calculation and comparison of total particle number and volumes over any randomly selected size interval of interest.
Particle simulation models and their application to controlled fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuda, H.
1977-01-01
Plasma simulation models using particles are described which have been developed for studying the microscopic behavior of a confined plasma in a magnetic field. The first model is developed to investigate the anomalous diffusion of particles and energy due to low-frequency electrostatic microinstabilities in cylindrical and toroidal systems. The model makes use of the combination of eigenfunction expansion in one direction and the multipole expansion on a two-dimensional spatial grid for solving the Maxwell equations and for pushing particles. The second model is developed to study the neutral beam injection heating of a tokamak plasma taking into account the spatial variation of plasma parameters and the finite ion beam banana orbit. The self-consistent electric and magnetic fields are totally ignored in this model and the Fokker-Planck collisions on the beam ions due to background ions and electrons are built in through the Monte Carlo method
Utilitarian supersymmetric gauge model of particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Ernest
2010-01-01
A remarkabale U(1) gauge extension of the supersymmetric standard model was proposed 8 years ago. It is anomaly free, has no μ term, and conserves baryon and lepton numbers automatically. The phenomenology of a specific version of this model is discussed. In particular, leptoquarks are predicted, with couplings to the heavy singlet neutrinos, the scalar partners of which may be components of dark matter. The Majorana neutrino mass matrix itself may have two zero subdeterminants.
Elsässer, Thilo
Exposure to radiation of high-energy and highly charged ions (HZE) causes a major risk to human beings, since in long term space explorations about 10 protons per month and about one HZE particle per month hit each cell nucleus (1). Despite the larger number of light ions, the high ionisation power of HZE particles and its corresponding more complex damage represents a major hazard for astronauts. Therefore, in order to get a reasonable risk estimate, it is necessary to take into account the entire mixed radiation field. Frequently, neoplastic cell transformation serves as an indicator for the oncogenic potential of radiation exposure. It can be measured for a small number of ion and energy combinations. However, due to the complexity of the radiation field it is necessary to know the contribution to the radiation damage of each ion species for the entire range of energies. Therefore, a model is required which transfers the few experimental data to other particles with different LETs. We use the Local Effect Model (LEM) (2) with its cluster extension (3) to calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neoplastic transformation. It was originally developed in the framework of hadrontherapy and is applicable for a large range of ions and energies. The input parameters for the model include the linear-quadratic parameters for the induction of lethal events as well as for the induction of transformation events per surviving cell. Both processes of cell inactivation and neoplastic transformation per viable cell are combined to eventually yield the RBE for cell transformation. We show that the Local Effect Model is capable of predicting the RBE of neoplastic cell transformation for a broad range of ions and energies. The comparison of experimental data (4) with model calculations shows a reasonable agreement. We find that the cluster extension results in a better representation of the measured RBE values. With this model it should be possible to better
Helzel, Christiane; Tzavaras, Athanasios
2016-01-01
We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.
Helzel, Christiane
2016-07-22
We consider a kinetic model, which describes the sedimentation of rod-like particles in dilute suspensions under the influence of gravity, presented in Helzel and Tzavaras (submitted for publication). Here we restrict our considerations to shear flow and consider a simplified situation, where the particle orientation is restricted to the plane spanned by the direction of shear and the direction of gravity. For this simplified kinetic model we carry out a linear stability analysis and we derive two different nonlinear macroscopic models which describe the formation of clusters of higher particle density. One of these macroscopic models is based on a diffusive scaling, the other one is based on a so-called quasi-dynamic approximation. Numerical computations, which compare the predictions of the macroscopic models with the kinetic model, complete our presentation.
1986-09-23
attributed to these solutions, especially toward heart disease. And in 1618 Antoni published Panacea Aurea : Auro Potabile 4 which centered on the...probably a slow process (discussed next under the electrophoresis section ). Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis, the movement of charged particles in...electrical properties. Experimental Section Preparation of a Typical Au-Acetone Colloid The metal atom reactor has been described previo sly. 3 9 ’ 5 9 ’ 6 0
Peuten, M.; Zocchi, A.; Gieles, M.; Hénault-Brunet, V.
2017-09-01
Lowered isothermal models, such as the multimass Michie-King models, have been successful in describing observational data of globular clusters. In this study, we assess whether such models are able to describe the phase space properties of evolutionary N-body models. We compare the multimass models as implemented in limepy (Gieles & Zocchi) to N-body models of star clusters with different retention fractions for the black holes and neutron stars evolving in a tidal field. We find that multimass models successfully reproduce the density and velocity dispersion profiles of the different mass components in all evolutionary phases and for different remnants retention. We further use these results to study the evolution of global model parameters. We find that over the lifetime of clusters, radial anisotropy gradually evolves from the low- to the high-mass components and we identify features in the properties of observable stars that are indicative of the presence of stellar-mass black holes. We find that the model velocity scale depends on mass as m-δ, with δ ≃ 0.5 for almost all models, but the dependence of central velocity dispersion on m can be shallower, depending on the dark remnant content, and agrees well with that of the N-body models. The reported model parameters, and correlations amongst them, can be used as theoretical priors when fitting these types of mass models to observational data.
A simple analytical model for reactive particle ignition in explosives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanguay, Vincent [Defence Research and Development Canada - Valcartier, 2459 Pie XI Blvd. North, Quebec, QC, G3J 1X5 (Canada); Higgins, Andrew J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Zhang, Fan [Defence Research and Development Canada - Suffield, P. O. Box 4000, Stn Main, Medicine Hat, AB, T1A 8K6 (Canada)
2007-10-15
A simple analytical model is developed to predict ignition of magnesium particles in nitromethane detonation products. The flow field is simplified by considering the detonation products as a perfect gas expanding in a vacuum in a planar geometry. This simplification allows the flow field to be solved analytically. A single particle is then introduced in this flow field. Its trajectory and heating history are computed. It is found that most of the particle heating occurs in the Taylor wave and in the quiescent flow region behind it, shortly after which the particle cools. By considering only these regions, thereby considerably simplifying the problem, the flow field can be solved analytically with a more realistic equation of state (such as JWL) and a spherical geometry. The model is used to compute the minimum charge diameter for particle ignition to occur. It is found that the critical charge diameter for particle ignition increases with particle size. These results are compared to experimental data and show good agreement. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Test particle modeling of wave-induced energetic electron precipitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, H.C.; Inan, U.S.
1985-01-01
A test particle computer model of the precipitation of radiation belt electrons is extended to compute the dynamic energy spectrum of transient electron fluxes induced by short-duration VLF wave packets traveling along the geomagnetic field lines. The model is adapted to estimate the count rate and associated spectrum of precipitated electrons that would be observed by satellite-based particle detectors with given geometric factor and orientation with respect to the magnetic field. A constant-frequency wave pulse and a lightning-induced whistler wave packet are used as examples of the stimulating wave signals. The effects of asymmetry of particle mirror heights in the two hemispheres and the atmospheric backscatter of loss cone particles on the computed precipitated fluxes are discussed
Comparison of turbulent particle dispersion models in turbulent shear flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Laín
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This work compares the performance of two Lagrangian turbulent particle dispersion models: the standard model (e.g., that presented in Sommerfeld et al. (1993, in which the fluctuating fluid velocity experienced by the particle is composed of two components, one correlated with the previous time step and a second one randomly sampled from a Wiener process, and the model proposed by Minier and Peirano (2001, which is based on the PDF approach and performs closure at the level of acceleration of the fluid experienced by the particle. Formulation of a Langevin equation model for the increments of fluid velocity seen by the particle allows capturing some underlying physics of particle dispersion in general turbulent flows while keeping the mathematical manipulation of the stochastic model simple, thereby avoiding some pitfalls and simplifying the derivation of macroscopic relations. The performance of both dispersion models is tested in the configurations of grid-generated turbulence (Wells and Stock (1983 experiments, simple shear flow (Hyland et al., 1999 and confined axisymmetric jet flow laden with solids (Hishida and Maeda (1987 experiments.
blockcluster: An R Package for Model-Based Co-Clustering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parmeet Singh Bhatia
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Simultaneous clustering of rows and columns, usually designated by bi-clustering, coclustering or block clustering, is an important technique in two way data analysis. A new standard and efficient approach has been recently proposed based on the latent block model (Govaert and Nadif 2003 which takes into account the block clustering problem on both the individual and variable sets. This article presents our R package blockcluster for co-clustering of binary, contingency and continuous data based on these very models. In this document, we will give a brief review of the model-based block clustering methods, and we will show how the R package blockcluster can be used for co-clustering.
Rong, Guan; Liu, Guang; Zhou, Chuang-bing
2013-01-01
Since rocks are aggregates of mineral particles, the effect of mineral microstructure on macroscopic mechanical behaviors of rocks is inneglectable. Rock samples of four different particle shapes are established in this study based on clumped particle model, and a sphericity index is used to quantify particle shape. Model parameters for simulation in PFC are obtained by triaxial compression test of quartz sandstone, and simulation of triaxial compression test is then conducted on four rock samples with different particle shapes. It is seen from the results that stress thresholds of rock samples such as crack initiation stress, crack damage stress, and peak stress decrease with the increasing of the sphericity index. The increase of sphericity leads to a drop of elastic modulus and a rise in Poisson ratio, while the decreasing sphericity usually results in the increase of cohesion and internal friction angle. Based on volume change of rock samples during simulation of triaxial compression test, variation of dilation angle with plastic strain is also studied. PMID:23997677
Rong, Guan; Liu, Guang; Hou, Di; Zhou, Chuang-Bing
2013-01-01
Since rocks are aggregates of mineral particles, the effect of mineral microstructure on macroscopic mechanical behaviors of rocks is inneglectable. Rock samples of four different particle shapes are established in this study based on clumped particle model, and a sphericity index is used to quantify particle shape. Model parameters for simulation in PFC are obtained by triaxial compression test of quartz sandstone, and simulation of triaxial compression test is then conducted on four rock samples with different particle shapes. It is seen from the results that stress thresholds of rock samples such as crack initiation stress, crack damage stress, and peak stress decrease with the increasing of the sphericity index. The increase of sphericity leads to a drop of elastic modulus and a rise in Poisson ratio, while the decreasing sphericity usually results in the increase of cohesion and internal friction angle. Based on volume change of rock samples during simulation of triaxial compression test, variation of dilation angle with plastic strain is also studied.
A Statistical Model for Soliton Particle Interaction in Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans; Truelsen, J.
1986-01-01
A statistical model for soliton-particle interaction is presented. A master equation is derived for the time evolution of the particle velocity distribution as induced by resonant interaction with Korteweg-de Vries solitons. The detailed energy balance during the interaction subsequently determines...... the evolution of the soliton amplitude distribution. The analysis applies equally well for weakly nonlinear plasma waves in a strongly magnetized waveguide, or for ion acoustic waves propagating in one-dimensional systems....
Solitary Model of the Charge Particle Transport in Collisionless Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonchik, L.V.; Trukhachev, F.M.
2006-01-01
The one-dimensional MHD solitary model of charged particle transport in plasma is developed. It is shown that self-consistent electric field of ion-acoustic solitons can displace charged particles in space, which can be a reason of local electric current generation. The displacement amount is order of a few Debye lengths. It is shown that the current associated with soliton cascade has pulsating nature with DC component. Methods of built theory verification in dusty plasma are proposed
A conformal invariant model of localized spinning test particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, C.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille; Fliche, H.H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille
1977-02-01
A purely classical model of massless test particle with spin s is introduced as the dynamical system defined by the 10 dimensional 0(4,2) co-adjoint orbit with Casimir numbers (s 2 ,0,0). The Mathisson Papapetrou et al. equations of motion in a gravitational field are recovered, and moreover the particle appears to travel on null geodesics. Several implications are discussed
Interpolation of daily rainfall using spatiotemporal models and clustering
Militino, A. F.
2014-06-11
Accumulated daily rainfall in non-observed locations on a particular day is frequently required as input to decision-making tools in precision agriculture or for hydrological or meteorological studies. Various solutions and estimation procedures have been proposed in the literature depending on the auxiliary information and the availability of data, but most such solutions are oriented to interpolating spatial data without incorporating temporal dependence. When data are available in space and time, spatiotemporal models usually provide better solutions. Here, we analyse the performance of three spatiotemporal models fitted to the whole sampled set and to clusters within the sampled set. The data consists of daily observations collected from 87 manual rainfall gauges from 1990 to 2010 in Navarre, Spain. The accuracy and precision of the interpolated data are compared with real data from 33 automated rainfall gauges in the same region, but placed in different locations than the manual rainfall gauges. Root mean squared error by months and by year are also provided. To illustrate these models, we also map interpolated daily precipitations and standard errors on a 1km2 grid in the whole region. © 2014 Royal Meteorological Society.
Interpolation of daily rainfall using spatiotemporal models and clustering
Militino, A. F.; Ugarte, M. D.; Goicoa, T.; Genton, Marc G.
2014-01-01
Accumulated daily rainfall in non-observed locations on a particular day is frequently required as input to decision-making tools in precision agriculture or for hydrological or meteorological studies. Various solutions and estimation procedures have been proposed in the literature depending on the auxiliary information and the availability of data, but most such solutions are oriented to interpolating spatial data without incorporating temporal dependence. When data are available in space and time, spatiotemporal models usually provide better solutions. Here, we analyse the performance of three spatiotemporal models fitted to the whole sampled set and to clusters within the sampled set. The data consists of daily observations collected from 87 manual rainfall gauges from 1990 to 2010 in Navarre, Spain. The accuracy and precision of the interpolated data are compared with real data from 33 automated rainfall gauges in the same region, but placed in different locations than the manual rainfall gauges. Root mean squared error by months and by year are also provided. To illustrate these models, we also map interpolated daily precipitations and standard errors on a 1km2 grid in the whole region. © 2014 Royal Meteorological Society.
Self-similar two-particle separation model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lüthi, Beat; Berg, Jacob; Ott, Søren
2007-01-01
.g.; in the inertial range as epsilon−1/3r2/3. Particle separation is modeled as a Gaussian process without invoking information of Eulerian acceleration statistics or of precise shapes of Eulerian velocity distribution functions. The time scale is a function of S2(r) and thus of the Lagrangian evolving separation......We present a new stochastic model for relative two-particle separation in turbulence. Inspired by material line stretching, we suggest that a similar process also occurs beyond the viscous range, with time scaling according to the longitudinal second-order structure function S2(r), e....... The model predictions agree with numerical and experimental results for various initial particle separations. We present model results for fixed time and fixed scale statistics. We find that for the Richardson-Obukhov law, i.e., =gepsilont3, to hold and to also be observed in experiments, high Reynolds...
Propositions for a PDF model based on fluid particle acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minier, J.P.; Pozorski, J.
1997-05-01
This paper describes theoretical propositions to model the acceleration of a fluid particle in a turbulent flow. Such a model is useful for the PDF approach to turbulent reactive flows as well as for the Lagrangian modelling of two-phase flows. The model developed here draws from ideas already put forward by Sawford but which are generalized to the case of non-homogeneous flows. The model is built so as to revert continuously to Pope's model, which uses a Langevin equation for particle velocities, when the Reynolds number becomes very high. The derivation is based on the technique of fast variable elimination. This technique allow a careful analysis of the relations between different levels of modelling. It also allows to address certain problems in a more rigorous way. In particular, application of this technique shows that models presently used can in principle simulate bubbly flows including the pressure-gradient and added-mass forces. (author)
The cluster model and the generalized Brody-Moshinsky coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvestre-Brac, B.
1985-01-01
Cluster theories, which rigorously eliminate the centre of mass motion, need intrinsic cluster coordinates. It is shown that the Jacobi coordinates of the various clusters are related by an orthogonal transformation and that the use of generalized Brody-Moshinsky coefficients allows an exact calculation of the exchange kernels. This procedure is illustrated by the description of nucleon-nucleon interaction in terms of constituent quarks
COCOA Code for Creating Mock Observations of Star Cluster Models
Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek; Pych, Wojciech; Dalessandro, Emanuele
2017-01-01
We introduce and present results from the COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) code that has been developed to create idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or \\textit{N}-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. In this paper, we describe the C...
The Particle-Matrix model: limitations and further improvements needed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cepuritis, Rolands; Jacobsen, Stefan; Spangenberg, Jon
According to the Particle-Matrix Model (PMM) philosophy, the workability of concrete dependson the properties of two phases and the volumetric ratio between them: the fluid matrix phase (≤0.125 mm) and the solid particle phase (> 0.125 mm). The model has been successfully appliedto predict concrete...... workability for different types of concrete, but has also indicated that somepotential cases exist when its application is limited. The paper presents recent studies onimproving the method by analysing how the PMM one-point flow parameter λQ can beexpressed by rheological models (Bingham and Herschel-Bulkley)....
Particle tracking in sophisticated CAD models for simulation purposes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sulkimo, J.; Vuoskoski, J.
1995-01-01
The transfer of physics detector models from computer aided design systems to physics simulation packages like GEANT suffers from certain limitations. In addition, GEANT is not able to perform particle tracking in CAD models. We describe an application which is able to perform particle tracking in boundary models constructed in CAD systems. The transfer file format used is the new international standard, STEP. The design and implementation of the application was carried out using object-oriented techniques. It will be integrated in the future object-oriented version of GEANT. (orig.)
Particle tracking in sophisticated CAD models for simulation purposes
Sulkimo, J.; Vuoskoski, J.
1996-02-01
The transfer of physics detector models from computer aided design systems to physics simulation packages like GEANT suffers from certain limitations. In addition, GEANT is not able to perform particle tracking in CAD models. We describe an application which is able to perform particle tracking in boundary models constructed in CAD systems. The transfer file format used is the new international standard, STEP. The design and implementation of the application was carried out using object-oriented techniques. It will be integrated in the future object-oriented version of GEANT.
PIConGPU - A highly-scalable particle-in-cell implementation for GPU clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bussmann, Michael; Burau, Heiko; Debus, Alexander; Huebl, Axel; Kluge, Thomas; Pausch, Richard; Schmeisser, Nils; Steiniger, Klaus; Widera, Rene; Wyderka, Nikolai; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Schneider, Benjamin [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany); Schmitt, Felix [NVIDIA, Austin, TX (United States); Grottel, Sebastian; Gumhold, Stefan [TU Dresden (Germany); Juckeland, Guido; Angel, Wolfgang [TU Dresden (Germany); ZIH, Dresden (Germany)
2013-07-01
PIConGPU can handle large-scale simulations of laser plasma and astrophysical plasma dynamics on GPU clusters with thousands of GPUs. High data throughput allows to conduct large parameter surveys but makes it necessary to rethink data analysis and look for new ways of analyzing large simulation data sets. The speedup seen on GPUs enables scientists to add physical effects to their code that up until recently have been too computationally demanding. We present recent results obtained with PIConGPU, discuss scaling behaviour, the most important building blocks of the code and new physics modules recently added. In addition we give an outlook on data analysis, resiliance and load balancing with PIConGPU.
A Mathematical Model of the Single Aluminium Diboride Particle Ignition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. A. Yagodnikov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a developed mathematical model of ignition of the single aluminum diboride particle as an aluminum-boron alloy in the oxidizing environment of a complicated chemical composition containing oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. The mathematical model is based on the theory of parallel chemical reactions proceeding on the appropriate parts of the particle surface occupied by each element in proportion to their molar share in the alloy. The paper considers a possibility to establish a thermodynamic balance between components over a particle surface in the gas phase. The composition of components is chosen as a result of thermodynamic calculation, namely В g , B2O3 g , BO, B2O2, BO2, Alg , AlO, Al2O, N2. The mathematical model is formed by a system of the differential equations of enthalpy balance, mass of aluminum diboride particle, and of formed oxides, which become isolated by initial and boundary conditions for temperature and size of particles, concentration of an oxidizer, and temperature of gas. The software package “AlB2“ is developed. It is a complete independent module written in Fortran algorithmic language, which together with a package of the subroutines “SPARKS” is used to calculate parameters of burning aluminum diboride particle by the Runge-Kutt method.For stoichiometry of chemical reactions of interaction between aluminum diboride and oxygen, a dynamics of changing temperature of a particle and thickness of an oxide film on its surface is calculated. It was admitted as initial conditions that the aluminum diboride particle radius was 100μ and the reference temperature of environment was 500 K, 1000 K, 2300 K, and 3000 K. Depending on this temperature the aluminum diboride particle temperature was calculated. Changing thickness of the oxide film on the particle surface at various initial gas temperatures characterizes its increase at the initial heating period of ~ 0,01 s and a gradual slowdown of the
On Goldstone particles and the Adler principle in dual models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.; Pashnev, A.I.
1975-01-01
The results that have been obtained on the basis of considering the spontaneous vacuum transitions for the cases of Veneziano dual model and dual M-model are generalized to model containing internal quantum numbers of SU(N)-group. This generalization allows to consider how in dual models the spontaneous violation of symmetry occurs, which Goldstone particles appear in this process, how Adler's principle is realized for dual amplitudes and their topics related of spontaneous violation of symmetry
The effect of gas dynamics on semi-analytic modelling of cluster galaxies
Saro, A.; De Lucia, G.; Dolag, K.; Borgani, S.
2008-12-01
We study the degree to which non-radiative gas dynamics affect the merger histories of haloes along with subsequent predictions from a semi-analytic model (SAM) of galaxy formation. To this aim, we use a sample of dark matter only and non-radiative smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of four massive clusters. The presence of gas-dynamical processes (e.g. ram pressure from the hot intra-cluster atmosphere) makes haloes more fragile in the runs which include gas. This results in a 25 per cent decrease in the total number of subhaloes at z = 0. The impact on the galaxy population predicted by SAMs is complicated by the presence of `orphan' galaxies, i.e. galaxies whose parent substructures are reduced below the resolution limit of the simulation. In the model employed in our study, these galaxies survive (unaffected by the tidal stripping process) for a residual merging time that is computed using a variation of the Chandrasekhar formula. Due to ram-pressure stripping, haloes in gas simulations tend to be less massive than their counterparts in the dark matter simulations. The resulting merging times for satellite galaxies are then longer in these simulations. On the other hand, the presence of gas influences the orbits of haloes making them on average more circular and therefore reducing the estimated merging times with respect to the dark matter only simulation. This effect is particularly significant for the most massive satellites and is (at least in part) responsible for the fact that brightest cluster galaxies in runs with gas have stellar masses which are about 25 per cent larger than those obtained from dark matter only simulations. Our results show that gas dynamics has only a marginal impact on the statistical properties of the galaxy population, but that its impact on the orbits and merging times of haloes strongly influences the assembly of the most massive galaxies.
Heterotic particle models from various perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaszczyk, Michael I.
2012-10-15
We consider the compactification of heterotic string theory on toroidal orbifolds and their resolutions. In the framework of gauged linear sigma models we develop realizations of such spaces, allowing to continously vary the moduli and thus smoothly interpolate between different corners of the theory. This way all factorizable orbifold resolutions as well as some non-factorizable ones can be obtained. We find that for a given geometry there are many model which realize it as a target space, differing in their complexity. We explore regions of moduli space which otherwise would not be accessible. In particular we are interested in the orbifold regime, where exact string calculations are possible, and the large volume regime, where techniques of supergravity compactification can be applied. By comparing these two theories and matching the spectra we find evidence for non-perturbative effects which interpolate between these regimes.
A cosmological model with particle creation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatterjee, Sujit
2001-01-01
A higher dimensional cosmological model is proposed where an expanding universe evolves from the vacuum fluctuation and matter creation takes place out of the gravitational energy. Choosing a particular form of the matter creation function N(t) as an initial conditions it can be shown that starting from an inflationary era the cosmos enters the higher dimensional Friedmann-like phase after a time scale when the matter creation stops
Finite difference time domain modelling of particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurgens, T.G.; Harfoush, F.A.
1989-03-01
Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modelling has been successfully applied to a wide variety of electromagnetic scattering and interaction problems for many years. Here the method is extended to incorporate the modelling of wake fields in particle accelerators. Algorithmic comparisons are made to existing wake field codes, such as MAFIA T3. 9 refs., 7 figs
Masses of particles in the SO(18) grand unified model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asatryan, G.M.
1984-01-01
The grand unified model based on the orthogonal group SO(18) is treated. The model involves four familiar and four mirror families of fermions. Arising of masses of familiar and mirror particles is studied. The mass of the right-handed Wsub(R) boson interacting via right-handed current way is estimated
Wave-particle duality in a quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudder, S.P.
1984-01-01
A quark model based on finite-dimensional quantum mechanics is presented. Observables associated with color, flavor, charge, and spin are considered. Using these observables, quark and baryon Hamiltonians are constructed. Wave-particle dualities in this model are pointed out. (Auth.)
Survey of composite particle models of electroweak interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Mahiko.
1992-05-01
Models of composite weak bosons, the top-condensate model of electroweak interaction and related models we surveyed. Composite weak bosons must be tightly bound with a high compositeness scale in order to generate approximate puge symmetry dynamically. However, naturalness argument suggests that the compositeness scale is low at least in toy models. In the top-condensate model, where a composite Higgs doublet is formed with a very high scale, the prediction of the model is insensitive to details of the model and almost model-independent Actually, the numerical prediction of the t-quark and Higgs boson masses does not test compositeness of the Higgs boson nor condensation of the t-quark field. To illustrate the point, a composite t R -quark model is discussed which leads to the same numerical prediction as the top-condensate model. However, different constraints an imposed on the structure of the Higgs sector, depending on which particles are composite. The attempt to account the large t-b mass splitting by the high compositeness scale of the top-condensate model is reinterpreted in terms of fine tuning of more than one vacuum expectation value. It is difficult to lower, without a fourth generation, the t-quark mass in the composite particle models in general because the Yukawa coupling of the i-quark to the Higgs boson, t2 /4π = 0.1 for m t = 200 GeV, is too small for a coupling of a composite particle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tae Won Chung
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Measurement and discussions of logistics cluster competitiveness with a national approach are required to boost agglomeration effects and potentially create logistics efficiency and productivity. This study developed assessment criteria of logistics cluster competitiveness based on Porter's diamond model, calculated the weight of each criterion by the AHP method, and finally evaluated and discussed logistics cluster competitiveness among Asia main countries. The results indicate that there was a large difference in logistics cluster competitiveness among six countries. The logistics cluster competitiveness scores of Singapore (7.93, Japan (7.38, and Hong Kong (7.04 are observably different from those of China (5.40, Korea (5.08, and Malaysia (3.46. Singapore, with the highest competitiveness score, revealed its absolute advantage in logistics cluster indices. These research results intend to provide logistics policy makers with some strategic recommendations, and may serve as a baseline for further logistics cluster studies using Porter's diamond model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerra, Fabio A.; Coelho, Leandro dos S.
2008-01-01
An important problem in engineering is the identification of nonlinear systems, among them radial basis function neural networks (RBF-NN) using Gaussian activation functions models, which have received particular attention due to their potential to approximate nonlinear behavior. Several design methods have been proposed for choosing the centers and spread of Gaussian functions and training the RBF-NN. The selection of RBF-NN parameters such as centers, spreads, and weights can be understood as a system identification problem. This paper presents a hybrid training approach based on clustering methods (k-means and c-means) to tune the centers of Gaussian functions used in the hidden layer of RBF-NNs. This design also uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) for centers (local clustering search method) and spread tuning, and the Penrose-Moore pseudoinverse for the adjustment of RBF-NN weight outputs. Simulations involving this RBF-NN design to identify Lorenz's chaotic system indicate that the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional RBF-NN trained for k-means and the Penrose-Moore pseudoinverse for multi-step ahead forecasting
Modeling of Particle Emission During Dry Orthogonal Cutting
Khettabi, Riad; Songmene, Victor; Zaghbani, Imed; Masounave, Jacques
2010-08-01
Because of the risks associated with exposure to metallic particles, efforts are being put into controlling and reducing them during the metal working process. Recent studies by the authors involved in this project have presented the effects of cutting speeds, workpiece material, and tool geometry on particle emission during dry machining; the authors have also proposed a new parameter, named the dust unit ( D u), for use in evaluating the quantity of particle emissions relative to the quantity of chips produced during a machining operation. In this study, a model for predicting the particle emission (dust unit) during orthogonal turning is proposed. This model, which is based on the energy approach combined with the microfriction and the plastic deformation of the material, takes into account the tool geometry, the properties of the worked material, the cutting conditions, and the chip segmentation. The model is validated using experimental results obtained during the orthogonal turning of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, AISI 1018, AISI 4140 steels, and grey cast iron. A good agreement was found with experimental results. This model can help in designing strategies for reducing particle emission during machining processes, at the source.
A self-consistent model of rich clusters of galaxies. I. The galactic component of a cluster
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konyukov, M.V.
1985-01-01
It is shown that to obtain the distribution function for the galactic component of a cluster reduces in the last analysis to solving the boundary-value problem for the gravitational potential of a self-consistent field. The distribution function is determined by two main parameters. An algorithm is constructed for the solution of the problem, and a program is set up to solve it. It is used to establish the region of values of the parameters in the problem for which solutions exist. The scheme proposed is extended to the case where there exists in the cluster a separate central body with a known density distribution (for example, a cD galaxy). A method is indicated for the estimation of the parameters of the model from the results of observations of clusters of galaxies in the optical range
Hybrid Modeling Method for a DEP Based Particle Manipulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamad Sawan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results.
A point particle model of lightly bound skyrmions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mike Gillard
2017-04-01
Full Text Available A simple model of the dynamics of lightly bound skyrmions is developed in which skyrmions are replaced by point particles, each carrying an internal orientation. The model accounts well for the static energy minimizers of baryon number 1≤B≤8 obtained by numerical simulation of the full field theory. For 9≤B≤23, a large number of static solutions of the point particle model are found, all closely resembling size B subsets of a face centred cubic lattice, with the particle orientations dictated by a simple colouring rule. Rigid body quantization of these solutions is performed, and the spin and isospin of the corresponding ground states extracted. As part of the quantization scheme, an algorithm to compute the symmetry group of an oriented point cloud, and to determine its corresponding Finkelstein–Rubinstein constraints, is devised.
Modeling random combustion of lycopodium particles and gas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Bidabadi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The random modeling combustion of lycopodium particles has been researched by many authors. In this paper, we extend this model and we also generate a different method by analyzing the effect of random distributed sources of combustible mixture. The flame structure is assumed to consist of a preheat-vaporization zone, a reaction zone and finally a post flame zone. We divide the preheat zone to different parts. We assumed that there is different distribution of particles in sections which are really random. Meanwhile, it is presumed that the fuel particles vaporize first to yield gaseous fuel. In other words, most of the fuel particles are vaporized at the end of the preheat zone. It is assumed that the Zel’dovich number is large; therefore, the reaction term in preheat zone is negligible. In this work, the effect of random distribution of particles in the preheat zone on combustion characteristics such as burning velocity, flame temperature for different particle radius is obtained.
Modeling the pinning of Au and Ni clusters on graphite
Smith, R.; Nock, C.; Kenny, S.D.; Belbruno, J.J.; Di Vece, M.; Paloma, S.; Palmer, R.E.
2006-01-01
The pinning of size-selected AuN and NiN clusters on graphite, for N=7–100, is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations and the results are compared to experiment and previous work with Ag clusters. Ab initio calculations of the binding of the metal adatom and dimers on a graphite
Particle Based Modeling of Electrical Field Flow Fractionation Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tonguc O. Tasci
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Electrical Field Flow Fractionation (ElFFF is a sub method in the field flow fractionation (FFF family that relies on an applied voltage on the channel walls to effect a separation. ElFFF has fallen behind some of the other FFF methods because of the optimization complexity of its experimental parameters. To enable better optimization, a particle based model of the ElFFF systems has been developed and is presented in this work that allows the optimization of the main separation parameters, such as electric field magnitude, frequency, duty cycle, offset, flow rate and channel dimensions. The developed code allows visualization of individual particles inside the separation channel, generation of realistic fractograms, and observation of the effects of the various parameters on the behavior of the particle cloud. ElFFF fractograms have been generated via simulations and compared with experiments for both normal and cyclical ElFFF. The particle visualizations have been used to verify that high duty cycle voltages are essential to achieve long retention times and high resolution separations. Furthermore, by simulating the particle motions at the channel outlet, it has been demonstrated that the top channel wall should be selected as the accumulation wall for cyclical ElFFF to reduce band broadening and achieve high efficiency separations. While the generated particle based model is a powerful tool to estimate the outcomes of the ElFFF experiments and visualize particle motions, it can also be used to design systems with new geometries which may lead to the design of higher efficiency ElFFF systems. Furthermore, this model can be extended to other FFF techniques by replacing the electrical field component of the model with the fields used in the other FFF techniques.
Modeling reactive transport with particle tracking and kernel estimators
Rahbaralam, Maryam; Fernandez-Garcia, Daniel; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier
2015-04-01
Groundwater reactive transport models are useful to assess and quantify the fate and transport of contaminants in subsurface media and are an essential tool for the analysis of coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes in Earth Systems. Particle Tracking Method (PTM) provides a computationally efficient and adaptable approach to solve the solute transport partial differential equation. On a molecular level, chemical reactions are the result of collisions, combinations, and/or decay of different species. For a well-mixed system, the chem- ical reactions are controlled by the classical thermodynamic rate coefficient. Each of these actions occurs with some probability that is a function of solute concentrations. PTM is based on considering that each particle actually represents a group of molecules. To properly simulate this system, an infinite number of particles is required, which is computationally unfeasible. On the other hand, a finite number of particles lead to a poor-mixed system which is limited by diffusion. Recent works have used this effect to actually model incomplete mix- ing in naturally occurring porous media. In this work, we demonstrate that this effect in most cases should be attributed to a defficient estimation of the concentrations and not to the occurrence of true incomplete mixing processes in porous media. To illustrate this, we show that a Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) of the concentrations can approach the well-mixed solution with a limited number of particles. KDEs provide weighting functions of each particle mass that expands its region of influence, hence providing a wider region for chemical reactions with time. Simulation results show that KDEs are powerful tools to improve state-of-the-art simulations of chemical reactions and indicates that incomplete mixing in diluted systems should be modeled based on alternative conceptual models and not on a limited number of particles.
2017-06-01
Detonations: Effect of Instabilities, Dense Clustering , and Trace Survivability Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release...number of particles handled is severely restricted based on the memory limitations of a given processor cluster . Although, this limitation can be...S. 2010c. Clustering and combustion of dilute alumi- num particle clouds in a post-detonation flow field. Proc. Combust. Inst., 33, 2255. Boiko, V.M
Symmetry and the Standard Model mathematics and particle physics
Robinson, Matthew
2011-01-01
While elementary particle physics is an extraordinarily fascinating field, the huge amount of knowledge necessary to perform cutting-edge research poses a formidable challenge for students. The leap from the material contained in the standard graduate course sequence to the frontiers of M-theory, for example, is tremendous. To make substantial contributions to the field, students must first confront a long reading list of texts on quantum field theory, general relativity, gauge theory, particle interactions, conformal field theory, and string theory. Moreover, waves of new mathematics are required at each stage, spanning a broad set of topics including algebra, geometry, topology, and analysis. Symmetry and the Standard Model: Mathematics and Particle Physics, by Matthew Robinson, is the first volume of a series intended to teach math in a way that is catered to physicists. Following a brief review of classical physics at the undergraduate level and a preview of particle physics from an experimentalist's per...
Computing diffusivities from particle models out of equilibrium
Embacher, Peter; Dirr, Nicolas; Zimmer, Johannes; Reina, Celia
2018-04-01
A new method is proposed to numerically extract the diffusivity of a (typically nonlinear) diffusion equation from underlying stochastic particle systems. The proposed strategy requires the system to be in local equilibrium and have Gaussian fluctuations but it is otherwise allowed to undergo arbitrary out-of-equilibrium evolutions. This could be potentially relevant for particle data obtained from experimental applications. The key idea underlying the method is that finite, yet large, particle systems formally obey stochastic partial differential equations of gradient flow type satisfying a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The strategy is here applied to three classic particle models, namely independent random walkers, a zero-range process and a symmetric simple exclusion process in one space dimension, to allow the comparison with analytic solutions.
Liu, Fang; Cao, San-xing; Lu, Rui
2012-04-01
This paper proposes a user credit assessment model based on clustering ensemble aiming to solve the problem that users illegally spread pirated and pornographic media contents within the user self-service oriented broadband network new media platforms. Its idea is to do the new media user credit assessment by establishing indices system based on user credit behaviors, and the illegal users could be found according to the credit assessment results, thus to curb the bad videos and audios transmitted on the network. The user credit assessment model based on clustering ensemble proposed by this paper which integrates the advantages that swarm intelligence clustering is suitable for user credit behavior analysis and K-means clustering could eliminate the scattered users existed in the result of swarm intelligence clustering, thus to realize all the users' credit classification automatically. The model's effective verification experiments are accomplished which are based on standard credit application dataset in UCI machine learning repository, and the statistical results of a comparative experiment with a single model of swarm intelligence clustering indicates this clustering ensemble model has a stronger creditworthiness distinguishing ability, especially in the aspect of predicting to find user clusters with the best credit and worst credit, which will facilitate the operators to take incentive measures or punitive measures accurately. Besides, compared with the experimental results of Logistic regression based model under the same conditions, this clustering ensemble model is robustness and has better prediction accuracy.
An incremental DPMM-based method for trajectory clustering, modeling, and retrieval.
Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Tian, Guodong; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei
2013-05-01
Trajectory analysis is the basis for many applications, such as indexing of motion events in videos, activity recognition, and surveillance. In this paper, the Dirichlet process mixture model (DPMM) is applied to trajectory clustering, modeling, and retrieval. We propose an incremental version of a DPMM-based clustering algorithm and apply it to cluster trajectories. An appropriate number of trajectory clusters is determined automatically. When trajectories belonging to new clusters arrive, the new clusters can be identified online and added to the model without any retraining using the previous data. A time-sensitive Dirichlet process mixture model (tDPMM) is applied to each trajectory cluster for learning the trajectory pattern which represents the time-series characteristics of the trajectories in the cluster. Then, a parameterized index is constructed for each cluster. A novel likelihood estimation algorithm for the tDPMM is proposed, and a trajectory-based video retrieval model is developed. The tDPMM-based probabilistic matching method and the DPMM-based model growing method are combined to make the retrieval model scalable and adaptable. Experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm.
*K-means and cluster models for cancer signatures.
Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie
2017-09-01
We present *K-means clustering algorithm and source code by expanding statistical clustering methods applied in https://ssrn.com/abstract=2802753 to quantitative finance. *K-means is statistically deterministic without specifying initial centers, etc. We apply *K-means to extracting cancer signatures from genome data without using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). *K-means' computational cost is a fraction of NMF's. Using 1389 published samples for 14 cancer types, we find that 3 cancers (liver cancer, lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma) stand out and do not have cluster-like structures. Two clusters have especially high within-cluster correlations with 11 other cancers indicating common underlying structures. Our approach opens a novel avenue for studying such structures. *K-means is universal and can be applied in other fields. We discuss some potential applications in quantitative finance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miniati, Francesco
2015-01-01
We use the Matryoshka run to study the time-dependent statistics of structure-formation-driven turbulence in the intracluster medium of a 10 15 M ☉ galaxy cluster. We investigate the turbulent cascade in the inner megaparsec for both compressional and incompressible velocity components. The flow maintains approximate conditions of fully developed turbulence, with departures thereof settling in about an eddy-turnover time. Turbulent velocity dispersion remains above 700 km s –1 even at low mass accretion rate, with the fraction of compressional energy between 10% and 40%. The normalization and the slope of the compressional turbulence are susceptible to large variations on short timescales, unlike the incompressible counterpart. A major merger occurs around redshift z ≅ 0 and is accompanied by a long period of enhanced turbulence, ascribed to temporal clustering of mass accretion related to spatial clustering of matter. We test models of stochastic acceleration by compressional modes for the origin of diffuse radio emission in galaxy clusters. The turbulence simulation model constrains an important unknown of this complex problem and brings forth its dependence on the elusive microphysics of the intracluster plasma. In particular, the specifics of the plasma collisionality and the dissipation physics of weak shocks affect the cascade of compressional modes with strong impact on the acceleration rates. In this context radio halos emerge as complex phenomena in which a hierarchy of processes acting on progressively smaller scales are at work. Stochastic acceleration by compressional modes implies statistical correlation of radio power and spectral index with merging cores distance, both testable in principle with radio surveys
Statistical Clustering and Compositional Modeling of Iapetus VIMS Spectral Data
Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Roush, T. L.; Marzo, G.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.
2009-12-01
It has long been known that the surfaces of Saturn's major satellites are predominantly icy objects [e.g. 1 and references therein]. Since 2004, these bodies have been the subject of observations by the Cassini-VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) experiment [2]. Iapetus has the unique property that the hemisphere centered on the apex of its locked synchronous orbital motion around Saturn has a very low geometrical albedo of 2-6%, while the opposite hemisphere is about 10 times more reflective. The nature and origin of the dark material of Iapetus has remained a question since its discovery [3 and references therein]. The nature of this material and how it is distributed on the surface of this body, can shed new light into the knowledge of the Saturnian system. We apply statistical clustering [4] and theoretical modeling [5,6] to address the surface composition of Iapetus. The VIMS data evaluated were obtained during the second flyby of Iapetus, in September 2007. This close approach allowed VIMS to obtain spectra at relatively high spatial resolution, ~1-22 km/pixel. The data we study sampled the trailing hemisphere and part of the dark leading one. The statistical clustering [4] is used to identify statistically distinct spectra on Iapetus. The composition of these distinct spectra are evaluated using theoretical models [5,6]. We thank Allan Meyer for his help. This research was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Ames Research Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA. [1] A, Coradini et al., 2009, Earth, Moon & Planets, 105, 289-310. [2] Brown et al., 2004, Space Science Reviews, 115, 111-168. [3] Cruikshank, D. et al Icarus, 2008, 193, 334-343. [4] Marzo, G. et al. 2008, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, E12, CiteID E12009. [5] Hapke, B. 1993, Theory of reflectance and emittance spectroscopy, Cambridge University Press. [6] Shkuratov, Y. et al. 1999, Icarus, 137, 235-246.
Noguchi, Tomohiro G; Iwashita, Yasutaka; Kimura, Yasuyuki
2017-01-31
Amphiphilic Janus particles (AJP), composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic hemispheres, are one of the simplest anisotropic colloids, and they exhibit higher surface activities than particles with homogeneous surface properties. Consequently, a ternary system of AJP, water, and oil can form extremely stable Pickering emulsions, with internal structures that depend on the Janus structure of the particles and the system composition. However, the detail of these structures has not been fully explored, especially for the composition range where the amount of the minority liquid phase and AJP are comparable, where one would expect the Janus characteristics to be directly reflected. In this study, we varied the volume ratio of the particles and the minority liquid phase, water, by 2 orders of magnitude around the comparable composition range, and observed the resultant structures at the resolution of the individual particle dimensions by optical microscopy. When the volume ratio of water is smaller than that of the Janus particles, capillary interactions between the hydrophilic hemispheres of the particles induce micelle-like clusters in which the hydrophilic sides of the particles face inward. With increasing water content, these clusters grow into a rodlike morphology. When the water volume exceeds that of the particles, the structure transforms into an emulsion state composed of spherical droplets, colloidosomes, because of the surface activity of particles at the liquid-liquid interface. Thus, we found that a change in volume fraction alters the mechanism of structure formation in the ternary system, and large resulting morphological changes in the self-assembled structures reflect the anisotropy of the particles. The self-assembly shows essential commonalities with that in microemulsions of surfactant molecules, however the AJP system is stabilized only kinetically. Analysis of the dependence of the emulsion droplet size on composition shows that almost all the
Model Adaptation for Prognostics in a Particle Filtering Framework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhaskar Saha
2011-01-01
Full Text Available One of the key motivating factors for using particle filters for prognostics is the ability to include model parameters as part of the state vector to be estimated. This performs model adaptation in conjunction with state tracking, and thus, produces a tuned model that can used for long term predictions. This feature of particle filters works in most part due to the fact that they are not subject to the “curse of dimensionality”, i.e. the exponential growth of computational complexity with state dimension. However, in practice, this property holds for “well-designed” particle filters only as dimensionality increases. This paper explores the notion of wellness of design in the context of predicting remaining useful life for individual discharge cycles of Li-ion and Li-Polymer batteries. Prognostic metrics are used to analyze the tradeoff between different model designs and prediction performance. Results demonstrate how sensitivity analysis may be used to arrive at a well-designed prognostic model that can take advantage of the model adaptation properties of a particle filter.
The Modelling of Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Fan
2011-01-01
The work presented concerns the way small particles attached to a surface are resuspended when exposed to a turbulent flow. Of particular concern to this work is the remobilization of radioactive particles as a consequence of potential nuclear accidents. In this particular case the focus is on small particles, < 5 microns in diameter, where the principal force holding such particles onto a surface arises from van der Waals inter-molecular forces. Given its suitable treatment of the microphysics of small particles, it was decided here to aim to develop improved versions of the Rock'n'Roll (R'n'R) model; the R'n'R model is based on a statistical approach to resuspension involving the rocking and rolling of a particle about surface asperities induced by the moments of the fluctuating drag forces acting on the particle close to the surface. Firstly, a force (moment) balance model has been modified by including the distribution of the aerodynamic force instead of considering only its mean value. The R'n'R model is significantly improved by using realistic statistical fluctuations of both the stream-wise fluid velocity and acceleration close to the wall obtained from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow; in the standard model a major assumption is that these obey a Gaussian distribution. The flow conditions are translated into the moments of the drag force acting on the particle attached to the surface. In so doing the influence of highly non-Gaussian forces on the resuspension rate has been examined along with the sensitivity of the fluctuation statistics to LES and DNS. As a result of the analysis of our DNS/LES data 3 distinct features of the modified R'n'R model have emerged as playing an important part in the resuspension. The first is the typical forcing frequency due to the turbulent aerodynamic drag forces acting on the particle attached to a surface. The second is the value of the ratio of the root
Model Adaptation for Prognostics in a Particle Filtering Framework
Saha, Bhaskar; Goebel, Kai Frank
2011-01-01
One of the key motivating factors for using particle filters for prognostics is the ability to include model parameters as part of the state vector to be estimated. This performs model adaptation in conjunction with state tracking, and thus, produces a tuned model that can used for long term predictions. This feature of particle filters works in most part due to the fact that they are not subject to the "curse of dimensionality", i.e. the exponential growth of computational complexity with state dimension. However, in practice, this property holds for "well-designed" particle filters only as dimensionality increases. This paper explores the notion of wellness of design in the context of predicting remaining useful life for individual discharge cycles of Li-ion batteries. Prognostic metrics are used to analyze the tradeoff between different model designs and prediction performance. Results demonstrate how sensitivity analysis may be used to arrive at a well-designed prognostic model that can take advantage of the model adaptation properties of a particle filter.
Paladin Enterprises: Monolithic particle physics models global climate.
2002-01-01
Paladin Enterprises presents a monolithic particle model of the universe which will be used by them to build an economical fusion energy system. The model is an extension of the work done by James Clerk Maxwell. Essentially, gravity is unified with electro-magnetic forces and shown to be a product of a closed loop current system, i.e. a particle - monolithic or sub atomic. This discovery explains rapid global climate changes which are evident in the geological record and also provides an explanation for recent changes in the global climate.
A comparison of heuristic and model-based clustering methods for dietary pattern analysis.
Greve, Benjamin; Pigeot, Iris; Huybrechts, Inge; Pala, Valeria; Börnhorst, Claudia
2016-02-01
Cluster analysis is widely applied to identify dietary patterns. A new method based on Gaussian mixture models (GMM) seems to be more flexible compared with the commonly applied k-means and Ward's method. In the present paper, these clustering approaches are compared to find the most appropriate one for clustering dietary data. The clustering methods were applied to simulated data sets with different cluster structures to compare their performance knowing the true cluster membership of observations. Furthermore, the three methods were applied to FFQ data assessed in 1791 children participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) Study to explore their performance in practice. The GMM outperformed the other methods in the simulation study in 72 % up to 100 % of cases, depending on the simulated cluster structure. Comparing the computationally less complex k-means and Ward's methods, the performance of k-means was better in 64-100 % of cases. Applied to real data, all methods identified three similar dietary patterns which may be roughly characterized as a 'non-processed' cluster with a high consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal bread, a 'balanced' cluster with only slight preferences of single foods and a 'junk food' cluster. The simulation study suggests that clustering via GMM should be preferred due to its higher flexibility regarding cluster volume, shape and orientation. The k-means seems to be a good alternative, being easier to use while giving similar results when applied to real data.
NMR relaxation induced by iron oxide particles: testing theoretical models.
Gossuin, Y; Orlando, T; Basini, M; Henrard, D; Lascialfari, A; Mattea, C; Stapf, S; Vuong, Q L
2016-04-15
Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles find their main application as contrast agents for cellular and molecular magnetic resonance imaging. The contrast they bring is due to the shortening of the transverse relaxation time T 2 of water protons. In order to understand their influence on proton relaxation, different theoretical relaxation models have been developed, each of them presenting a certain validity domain, which depends on the particle characteristics and proton dynamics. The validation of these models is crucial since they allow for predicting the ideal particle characteristics for obtaining the best contrast but also because the fitting of T 1 experimental data by the theory constitutes an interesting tool for the characterization of the nanoparticles. In this work, T 2 of suspensions of iron oxide particles in different solvents and at different temperatures, corresponding to different proton diffusion properties, were measured and were compared to the three main theoretical models (the motional averaging regime, the static dephasing regime, and the partial refocusing model) with good qualitative agreement. However, a real quantitative agreement was not observed, probably because of the complexity of these nanoparticulate systems. The Roch theory, developed in the motional averaging regime (MAR), was also successfully used to fit T 1 nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles, even outside the MAR validity range, and provided a good estimate of the particle size. On the other hand, the simultaneous fitting of T 1 and T 2 NMRD profiles by the theory was impossible, and this occurrence constitutes a clear limitation of the Roch model. Finally, the theory was shown to satisfactorily fit the deuterium T 1 NMRD profile of superparamagnetic particle suspensions in heavy water.
Current and Future Tests of the Algebraic Cluster Model of12C
Gai, Moshe
2017-07-01
A new theoretical approach to clustering in the frame of the Algebraic Cluster Model (ACM) has been developed. It predicts, in12C, rotation-vibration structure with rotational bands of an oblate equilateral triangular symmetric spinning top with a D 3h symmetry characterized by the sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with a degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Our newly measured {2}2+ state in12C allows the first study of rotation-vibration structure in12C. The newly measured 5- state and 4- states fit very well the predicted ground state rotational band structure with the predicted sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a D 3h symmetry is characteristic of triatomic molecules, but it is observed in the ground state rotational band of12C for the first time in a nucleus. We discuss predictions of the ACM of other rotation-vibration bands in12C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode with prediction of (“missing 3- and 4-”) states that may shed new light on clustering in12C and light nuclei. In particular, the observation (or non observation) of the predicted (“missing”) states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha particles composing the Hoyle state at 7.6542 MeV in12C. We discuss proposed research programs at the Darmstadt S- DALINAC and at the newly constructed ELI-NP facility near Bucharest to test the predictions of the ACM in isotopes of carbon.
Modelling of Krn+ Clusters. II. Photoabsorption Spectra of Small Clusters (n=2 - 5)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalus, R.; Paidarová, Ivana; Hrivňák, D.; Gadea, F. X.
2004-01-01
Roč. 298, 1/3 (2004), s. 155-166 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1204 Grant - others:Barrande Program(XE) 2003-024-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : krypton * rare gases * cluster ions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2004
Cluster model calculations of the solid state materials electron structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelikan, P.; Biskupic, S.; Banacky, P.; Zajac, A.; Svrcek, A.; Noga, J.
1997-01-01
Materials of the general composition ACuO 2 are the parent compounds of so called infinite layer superconductors. In the paper presented the electron structure of the compounds CaCuO 2 , SrCuO2, Ca 0.86 Sr 0.14 CuO2 and Ca 0.26 Sr 0.74 CuO 2 were calculated. The cluster models consisting of 192 atoms were computed using quasi relativistic version of semiempirical INDO method. The obtained results indicate the strong ionicity of Ca/Sr-O bonds and high covalency of Cu-bonds. The width of energy gap at the Fermi level increases as follows: Ca 0.26 Sr 0.74 CuO 2 0.86 Sr 0.14 CuO2 2 . This order correlates with the fact that materials of the composition Ca x Sr 1-x CuO 2 have have the high temperatures of the superconductive transition (up to 110 K). Materials partially substituted by Sr 2+ have also the higher density of states in the close vicinity at the Fermi level that ai the additional condition for the possibility of superconductive transition. It was calculated the strong influence of the vibration motions to the energy gap at the Fermi level. (authors). 1 tabs., 2 figs., 10 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Huang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available New particle formation (NPF has been investigated intensively during the last 2 decades because of its influence on aerosol population and the possible contribution to cloud condensation nuclei. However, intensive measurements and modelling activities on this topic in urban metropolitan areas in China with frequent high-pollution episodes are still very limited. This study provides results from a comprehensive modelling study on the occurrence of NPF events in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region, China. The comprehensive modelling system, which combines the WRF-Chem (the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry regional chemical transport model and the MALTE-BOX sectional box model (the model to predict new aerosol formation in the lower troposphere, was shown to be capable of simulating atmospheric nucleation and subsequent growth. Here we present a detailed discussion of three typical NPF days, during which the measured air masses were notably influenced by either anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. Overall, simulated NPF events were generally in good agreement with the corresponding measurements, enabling us to get further insights into NPF processes in the YRD region. Based on the simulations, we conclude that biogenic organic compounds, particularly monoterpenes, play an essential role in the initial condensational growth of newly formed clusters through their low-volatility oxidation products. Although some uncertainties remain in this modelling system, this method provides a possibility to better understand particle formation and growth processes.
Modeling Correlation Effects in Nickelates with Slave Particles
Georgescu, Alexandru Bogdan; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab
Nickelate interfaces display interesting electronic properties including orbital ordering similar to that of cuprate superconductors and thickness dependent metal-insulator transitions. One-particle band theory calculations do not include dynamic localized correlation effects on the nickel sites and thus often incorrectly predict metallic systems or incorrect ARPES spectra. Building on two previous successful slave-particle treatments of local correlations, we present a generalized slave-particle method that includes prior models and allows us to produce new intermediate models. The computational efficiency of these slave-boson methods means that one can readily study correlation effects in complex heterostructures. We show some predictions of these methods for the electronic structure of bulk and thin film nickelates. Work supported by NSF Grant MRSEC DMR-1119826.
The alpha-particle and shell models of the nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perring, J.K.; Skyrme, T.H.R.
1994-01-01
It is shown that it is possible to write down α-particle wave functions for the ground states of 8 Be, 12 C and 16 O, which become, when antisymmetrized, identical with shell-model wave functions. The α-particle functions are used to obtain potentials which can then be used to derive wave functions and energies of excited states. Most of the low-lying states of 16 O are obtained in this way, qualitative agreement with experiment being found. The shell structure of the 0 + level at 6·06 MeV is analyzed, and is found to consist largely of single-particle excitations. The lifetime for pair-production is calculated, and found to be comparable with the experimental value. The validity of the method is discussed, and comparison made with shell-model calculations. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab
Prototype models for particle structure in gauge supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nath, P.; Arnowitt, R.
1981-01-01
Particle content in prototype models of gauge supersymmetry is examined. The properties of the prototype models which are in common with those of gauge supersymmetries are the initial non-diagonality of the quadratic part of the action, global supersymmetry invariance and the existence of a mass parameter in the quadratic part of the action. The analysis exhibits the particle content of prototype models to consist of normal poles and sets of complex conjugate poles on the physical sheet. Diagonalization of the hamiltonian can be carried out for such systems (in contrast to the prototype model of conformal supergravity where dipole ghosts arose). Essentially the pole structure observed in the prototype models of gauge supersymmetry is the supersymmetric analogue of the Lee-Wick phenomenon where the normal and the complex conjugate poles form global multiplets. (orig.)
Knots on a Torus: A Model of the Elementary Particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jack S. Avrin
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Two knots; just two rudimentary knots, the unknot and the trefoil. That’s all we need to build a model of the elementary particles of physics, one with fermions and bosons, hadrons and leptons, interactions weak and strong and the attributes of spin, isospin, mass, charge, CPT invariance and more. There are no quarks to provide fractional charge, no gluons to sequester them within nucleons and no “colors” to avoid violating Pauli’s principle. Nor do we require the importation of an enigmatic Higgs boson to confer mass upon the particles of our world. All the requisite attributes emerge simply (and relativistically invariant as a result of particle conformation and occupation in and of spacetime itself, a spacetime endowed with the imprimature of general relativity. Also emerging are some novel tools for systemizing the particle taxonomy as governed by the gauge group SU(2 and the details of particle degeneracy as well as connections to Hopf algebra, Dirac theory, string theory, topological quantum field theory and dark matter. One exception: it is found necessary to invoke the munificent geometry of the icosahedron in order to provide, as per the group “flavor” SU(3, a scaffold upon which to organize the well-known three generations—no more, no less—of the particle family tree.
Applying Dispersive Changes to Lagrangian Particles in Groundwater Transport Models
Konikow, Leonard F.
2010-01-01
Method-of-characteristics groundwater transport models require that changes in concentrations computed within an Eulerian framework to account for dispersion be transferred to moving particles used to simulate advective transport. A new algorithm was developed to accomplish this transfer between nodal values and advecting particles more precisely and realistically compared to currently used methods. The new method scales the changes and adjustments of particle concentrations relative to limiting bounds of concentration values determined from the population of adjacent nodal values. The method precludes unrealistic undershoot or overshoot for concentrations of individual particles. In the new method, if dispersion causes cell concentrations to decrease during a time step, those particles in the cell having the highest concentration will decrease the most, and those with the lowest concentration will decrease the least. The converse is true if dispersion is causing concentrations to increase. Furthermore, if the initial concentration on a particle is outside the range of the adjacent nodal values, it will automatically be adjusted in the direction of the acceptable range of values. The new method is inherently mass conservative. ?? US Government 2010.
Internal validation of risk models in clustered data: a comparison of bootstrap schemes
Bouwmeester, W.; Moons, K.G.M.; Kappen, T.H.; van Klei, W.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Vergouwe, Y.
2013-01-01
Internal validity of a risk model can be studied efficiently with bootstrapping to assess possible optimism in model performance. Assumptions of the regular bootstrap are violated when the development data are clustered. We compared alternative resampling schemes in clustered data for the estimation
Testing dark energy and dark matter cosmological models with clusters of galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boehringer, Hans [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)
2008-07-01
Galaxy clusters are, as the largest building blocks of our Universe, ideal probes to study the large-scale structure and to test cosmological models. The principle approach und the status of this research is reviewed. Clusters lend themselves for tests in serveral ways: the cluster mass function, the spatial clustering, the evolution of both functions with reshift, and the internal composition can be used to constrain cosmological parameters. X-ray observations are currently the best means of obtaining the relevant data on the galaxy cluster population. We illustrate in particular all the above mentioned methods with our ROSAT based cluster surveys. The mass calibration of clusters is an important issue, that is currently solved with XMM-Newton and Chandra studies. Based on the current experience we provide an outlook for future research, especially with eROSITA.
The effect of mining data k-means clustering toward students profile model drop out potential
Purba, Windania; Tamba, Saut; Saragih, Jepronel
2018-04-01
The high of student success and the low of student failure can reflect the quality of a college. One of the factors of fail students was drop out. To solve the problem, so mining data with K-means Clustering was applied. K-Means Clustering method would be implemented to clustering the drop out students potentially. Firstly the the result data would be clustering to get the information of all students condition. Based on the model taken was found that students who potentially drop out because of the unexciting students in learning, unsupported parents, diffident students and less of students behavior time. The result of process of K-Means Clustering could known that students who more potentially drop out were in Cluster 1 caused Credit Total System, Quality Total, and the lowest Grade Point Average (GPA) compared between cluster 2 and 3.
A Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field Model for Simultaneous Face Clustering and Tracking in Videos
Wu, Baoyuan
2016-10-25
Face clustering and face tracking are two areas of active research in automatic facial video processing. They, however, have long been studied separately, despite the inherent link between them. In this paper, we propose to perform simultaneous face clustering and face tracking from real world videos. The motivation for the proposed research is that face clustering and face tracking can provide useful information and constraints to each other, thus can bootstrap and improve the performances of each other. To this end, we introduce a Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field (CHMRF) to simultaneously model face clustering, face tracking, and their interactions. We provide an effective algorithm based on constrained clustering and optimal tracking for the joint optimization of cluster labels and face tracking. We demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art results in face clustering and tracking on several videos.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keszenman, D.J.; Sutherland, B.M.
2010-01-01
To determine the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of the biological effects of densely ionizing radiation in relation to changes in the ionization density along the track, we measured the yields and spectrum of clustered DNA damages induced by charged particles of different atomic number but similar kinetic energy per nucleon in different DNA microenvironments. Yeast DNA embedded in agarose in solutions of different free radical scavenging capacity was irradiated with 1 GeV protons, 1 GeV/nucleon oxygen ions, 980 MeV/nucleon titanium ions or 968 MeV/nucleon iron ions. The frequencies of double-strand breaks (DSBs), abasic sites and oxypurine clusters were quantified. The total DNA damage yields per absorbed dose induced in non-radioquenching solution decreased with LET, with minor variations in radioquenching conditions being detected. However, the total damage yields per particle fluence increased with LET in both conditions, indicating a higher efficiency per particle to induce clustered DNA damages. The yields of DSBs and non-DSB clusters as well as the damage spectra varied with LET and DNA milieu, suggesting the involvement of more than one mechanism in the formation of the different types of clustered damages.
The Modelling of Particle Resuspension in a Turbulent Boundary Layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Fan
2011-10-20
The work presented concerns the way small particles attached to a surface are resuspended when exposed to a turbulent flow. Of particular concern to this work is the remobilization of radioactive particles as a consequence of potential nuclear accidents. In this particular case the focus is on small particles, < 5 microns in diameter, where the principal force holding such particles onto a surface arises from van der Waals inter-molecular forces. Given its suitable treatment of the microphysics of small particles, it was decided here to aim to develop improved versions of the Rock'n'Roll (R'n'R) model; the R'n'R model is based on a statistical approach to resuspension involving the rocking and rolling of a particle about surface asperities induced by the moments of the fluctuating drag forces acting on the particle close to the surface. Firstly, a force (moment) balance model has been modified by including the distribution of the aerodynamic force instead of considering only its mean value. The R'n'R model is significantly improved by using realistic statistical fluctuations of both the stream-wise fluid velocity and acceleration close to the wall obtained from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow; in the standard model a major assumption is that these obey a Gaussian distribution. The flow conditions are translated into the moments of the drag force acting on the particle attached to the surface. In so doing the influence of highly non-Gaussian forces on the resuspension rate has been examined along with the sensitivity of the fluctuation statistics to LES and DNS. As a result of the analysis of our DNS/LES data 3 distinct features of the modified R'n'R model have emerged as playing an important part in the resuspension. The first is the typical forcing frequency due to the turbulent aerodynamic drag forces acting on the particle attached to a surface. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopka, Ladislav; Kosek, Juraj
2015-01-01
Polyethylene particles of various sizes are present in industrial gas-dispersion reactors and downstream processing units. The contact of the particles with a device wall as well as the mutual particle collisions cause electrons on the particle surface to redistribute in the system. The undesirable triboelectric charging results in several operational problems and safety risks in industrial systems, for example in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor. We studied the charging of polyethylene particles caused by the particle-particle interactions in gas. Our model employs the Discrete Element Method (DEM) describing the particle dynamics and incorporates the ‘Trapped Electron Approach’ as the physical basis for the considered charging mechanism. The model predicts the particle charge distribution for systems with various particle size distributions and various level of segregation. Simulation results are in a qualitative agreement with experimental observations of similar particulate systems specifically in two aspects: 1) Big particles tend to gain positive charge and small particles the negative one. 2) The wider the particle size distribution is, the more pronounced is the charging process. Our results suggest that not only the size distribution, but also the effect of the spatial segregation of the polyethylene particles significantly influence the resulting charge distribution ‘generated’ in the system. The level of particle segregation as well as the particle size distribution of polyethylene particles can be in practice adjusted by the choice of supported catalysts, by the conditions in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor and by the fluid dynamics. We also attempt to predict how the reactor temperature affects the triboelectric charging of particles. (paper)
Neural Networks for Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators
Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Chase, B. E.; Edstrom, D.; Milton, S. V.; Stabile, P.
2016-04-01
Particle accelerators are host to myriad nonlinear and complex physical phenomena. They often involve a multitude of interacting systems, are subject to tight performance demands, and should be able to run for extended periods of time with minimal interruptions. Often times, traditional control techniques cannot fully meet these requirements. One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence, particularly in light of recent theoretical and practical advances in these fields. Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are particularly well-suited to modeling, control, and diagnostic analysis of complex, nonlinear, and time-varying systems, as well as systems with large parameter spaces. Consequently, the use of neural network-based modeling and control techniques could be of significant benefit to particle accelerators. For the same reasons, particle accelerators are also ideal test-beds for these techniques. Many early attempts to apply neural networks to particle accelerators yielded mixed results due to the relative immaturity of the technology for such tasks. The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce neural networks to the particle accelerator community and report on some work in neural network control that is being conducted as part of a dedicated collaboration between Fermilab and Colorado State University (CSU). We describe some of the challenges of particle accelerator control, highlight recent advances in neural network techniques, discuss some promising avenues for incorporating neural networks into particle accelerator control systems, and describe a neural network-based control system that is being developed for resonance control of an RF electron gun at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, including initial experimental results from a benchmark controller.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosemary M McCloskey
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Clustering infections by genetic similarity is a popular technique for identifying potential outbreaks of infectious disease, in part because sequences are now routinely collected for clinical management of many infections. A diverse number of nonparametric clustering methods have been developed for this purpose. These methods are generally intuitive, rapid to compute, and readily scale with large data sets. However, we have found that nonparametric clustering methods can be biased towards identifying clusters of diagnosis-where individuals are sampled sooner post-infection-rather than the clusters of rapid transmission that are meant to be potential foci for public health efforts. We develop a fundamentally new approach to genetic clustering based on fitting a Markov-modulated Poisson process (MMPP, which represents the evolution of transmission rates along the tree relating different infections. We evaluated this model-based method alongside five nonparametric clustering methods using both simulated and actual HIV sequence data sets. For simulated clusters of rapid transmission, the MMPP clustering method obtained higher mean sensitivity (85% and specificity (91% than the nonparametric methods. When we applied these clustering methods to published sequences from a study of HIV-1 genetic clusters in Seattle, USA, we found that the MMPP method categorized about half (46% as many individuals to clusters compared to the other methods. Furthermore, the mean internal branch lengths that approximate transmission rates were significantly shorter in clusters extracted using MMPP, but not by other methods. We determined that the computing time for the MMPP method scaled linearly with the size of trees, requiring about 30 seconds for a tree of 1,000 tips and about 20 minutes for 50,000 tips on a single computer. This new approach to genetic clustering has significant implications for the application of pathogen sequence analysis to public health, where
Extended Cellular Automata Models of Particles and Space-Time
Beedle, Michael
2005-04-01
Models of particles and space-time are explored through simulations and theoretical models that use Extended Cellular Automata models. The expanded Cellular Automata Models consist go beyond simple scalar binary cell-fields, into discrete multi-level group representations like S0(2), SU(2), SU(3), SPIN(3,1). The propagation and evolution of these expanded cellular automatas are then compared to quantum field theories based on the "harmonic paradigm" i.e. built by an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, and with gravitational models.
Xu, Zhiqiang
2017-02-16
Attributed graph clustering, also known as community detection on attributed graphs, attracts much interests recently due to the ubiquity of attributed graphs in real life. Many existing algorithms have been proposed for this problem, which are either distance based or model based. However, model selection in attributed graph clustering has not been well addressed, that is, most existing algorithms assume the cluster number to be known a priori. In this paper, we propose two efficient approaches for attributed graph clustering with automatic model selection. The first approach is a popular Bayesian nonparametric method, while the second approach is an asymptotic method based on a recently proposed model selection criterion, factorized information criterion. Experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets demonstrate that our approaches for attributed graph clustering with automatic model selection significantly outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm.
Xu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, James; Xiao, Xiaokui; Fujimaki, Ryohei; Muraoka, Yusuke
2017-01-01
Attributed graph clustering, also known as community detection on attributed graphs, attracts much interests recently due to the ubiquity of attributed graphs in real life. Many existing algorithms have been proposed for this problem, which are either distance based or model based. However, model selection in attributed graph clustering has not been well addressed, that is, most existing algorithms assume the cluster number to be known a priori. In this paper, we propose two efficient approaches for attributed graph clustering with automatic model selection. The first approach is a popular Bayesian nonparametric method, while the second approach is an asymptotic method based on a recently proposed model selection criterion, factorized information criterion. Experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets demonstrate that our approaches for attributed graph clustering with automatic model selection significantly outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm.
Investigation of the cluster formation in lithium niobate crystals by computer modeling method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voskresenskii, V. M.; Starodub, O. R., E-mail: ol-star@mail.ru; Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Earth Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Science Centre (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
The processes occurring upon the formation of energetically equilibrium oxygen-octahedral clusters in the ferroelectric phase of a stoichiometric lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) crystal have been investigated by the computer modeling method within the semiclassical atomistic model. An energetically favorable cluster size (at which a structure similar to that of a congruent crystal is organized) is shown to exist. A stoichiometric cluster cannot exist because of the electroneutrality loss. The most energetically favorable cluster is that with a Li/Nb ratio of about 0.945, a value close to the lithium-to-niobium ratio for a congruent crystal.
*K-means and Cluster Models for Cancer Signatures
Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie
2017-01-01
We present *K-means clustering algorithm and source code by expanding statistical clustering methods applied in https://ssrn.com/abstract=2802753 to quantitative finance. *K-means is statistically deterministic without specifying initial centers, etc. We apply *K-means to extracting cancer signatures from genome data without using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). *K-means’ computational cost is a fraction of NMF’s. Using 1389 published samples for 14 cancer types, we find that 3 cancer...
Single-particle spectral density of the Hubbard model
Mehlig, B.; Eskes, H.; Hayn, R.; Meinders, M.B.J.
1995-01-01
We calculate the single-particle spectral function for the Hubbard model within the framework of a projection technique equivalent to the two-pole approximation. We show that the two-pole approximation can be well understood as an average characterization of the upper and the lower Hubbard bands,
SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL DENSITY OF THE HUBBARD-MODEL
MEHLIG, B; ESKES, H; HAYN, R; MEINDERS, MBJ
1995-01-01
We calculate the single-particle spectral function for the Hubbard model within the framework of a projection technique equivalent to the two-pole approximation. We show that the two-pole approximation can be well understood as an average characterization of the upper and the lower Hubbard bands,
Volatile particles formation during PartEmis: a modelling study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Vancassel
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A modelling study of the formation of volatile particles in a combustor exhaust has been carried out in the frame of the PartEmis European project. A kinetic model has been used in order to investigate nucleation efficiency of the H2O-H2SO4 binary mixture in the sampling system. A value for the fraction of the fuel sulphur S(IV converted into S(VI has been indirectly deduced from comparisons between model results and measurements. In the present study, ranges between roughly 2.5% and 6%, depending on the combustor settings and on the value assumed for the parameter describing sulphuric acid wall losses. Soot particles hygroscopicity has also been investigated as their activation is a key parameter for contrail formation. Growth factors of monodisperse particles exposed to high relative humidity (95% have been calculated and compared with experimental results. The modelling study confirms that the growth factor increases as the soot particle size decreases.
A comparative study of independent particle model based ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We find that among these three independent particle model based methods, the ss-VSCF method provides most accurate results in the thermal averages followed by t-SCF and the v-VSCF is the least accurate. However, the ss-VSCF is found to be computationally very expensive for the large molecules. The t-SCF gives ...
Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Leaback of Pulsatile Flow of Particle Fluid Suspension Model of Blood Under Periodic Body Acceleration. ... The variation in body acceleration amplitude though affects the velocity profile in the capillary tubes, it has no effect on the leakback in the tubes. Leakback is mainly determined by the balance of the viscous drag and ...
Investigation of some approximation used in promptly emitted particle models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leray, S.; La Rana, G.; Lucas, R.; Ngo, C.; Barranco, M.; Pi, M.; Vinas, X.
1984-01-01
We investigate three effects which can be taken into account in a model for promptly emitted particles: the Pauli blocking, the velocity of the window separating the two ions with respect to each of the fragments and the spatial extension of the window
Inner life of elementary particles. Pt. V. Detail model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geitner, Uwe W.
2011-01-01
The author tries to develop a model for the cosmological beginning of the universe starting from the existing world. The booklet (part IV) includes the following chapters: introduction; origin of vibrations; origin of the big-bang; origin of elementary particles; charges and fields, unified conception of forces; conclusions.
Measurement and Modeling of Particle Radiation in Coal Flames
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bäckström, Daniel; Johansson, Robert; Andersson, Klas Jerker
2014-01-01
This work aims at developing a methodology that can provide information of in-flame particle radiation in industrial-scale flames. The method is based on a combination of experimental and modeling work. The experiments have been performed in the high-temperature zone of a 77 kWth swirling lignite...
Particle dark matter from physics beyond the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matchev, Konstantin
2004-01-01
In this talk I contrast three different particle dark matter candidates, all motivated by new physics beyond the Standard Model: supersymmetric dark matter, Kaluza-Klein dark matter, and scalar dark matter. I then discuss the prospects for their discovery and identification in both direct detection as well as collider experiments
Topic modeling for cluster analysis of large biological and medical datasets.
Zhao, Weizhong; Zou, Wen; Chen, James J
2014-01-01
The big data moniker is nowhere better deserved than to describe the ever-increasing prodigiousness and complexity of biological and medical datasets. New methods are needed to generate and test hypotheses, foster biological interpretation, and build validated predictors. Although multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis may allow researchers to identify groups, or clusters, of related variables, the accuracies and effectiveness of traditional clustering methods diminish for large and hyper dimensional datasets. Topic modeling is an active research field in machine learning and has been mainly used as an analytical tool to structure large textual corpora for data mining. Its ability to reduce high dimensionality to a small number of latent variables makes it suitable as a means for clustering or overcoming clustering difficulties in large biological and medical datasets. In this study, three topic model-derived clustering methods, highest probable topic assignment, feature selection and feature extraction, are proposed and tested on the cluster analysis of three large datasets: Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) dataset, lung cancer dataset, and breast cancer dataset, which represent various types of large biological or medical datasets. All three various methods are shown to improve the efficacy/effectiveness of clustering results on the three datasets in comparison to traditional methods. A preferable cluster analysis method emerged for each of the three datasets on the basis of replicating known biological truths. Topic modeling could be advantageously applied to the large datasets of biological or medical research. The three proposed topic model-derived clustering methods, highest probable topic assignment, feature selection and feature extraction, yield clustering improvements for the three different data types. Clusters more efficaciously represent truthful groupings and subgroupings in the data than traditional methods, suggesting
Markov Chain Model-Based Optimal Cluster Heads Selection for Wireless Sensor Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gulnaz Ahmed
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The longer network lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is a goal which is directly related to energy consumption. This energy consumption issue becomes more challenging when the energy load is not properly distributed in the sensing area. The hierarchal clustering architecture is the best choice for these kind of issues. In this paper, we introduce a novel clustering protocol called Markov chain model-based optimal cluster heads (MOCHs selection for WSNs. In our proposed model, we introduce a simple strategy for the optimal number of cluster heads selection to overcome the problem of uneven energy distribution in the network. The attractiveness of our model is that the BS controls the number of cluster heads while the cluster heads control the cluster members in each cluster in such a restricted manner that a uniform and even load is ensured in each cluster. We perform an extensive range of simulation using five quality measures, namely: the lifetime of the network, stable and unstable region in the lifetime of the network, throughput of the network, the number of cluster heads in the network, and the transmission time of the network to analyze the proposed model. We compare MOCHs against Sleep-awake Energy Efficient Distributed (SEED clustering, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC, Zone Based Routing (ZBR, and Centralized Energy Efficient Clustering (CEEC using the above-discussed quality metrics and found that the lifetime of the proposed model is almost 1095, 2630, 3599, and 2045 rounds (time steps greater than SEED, ABC, ZBR, and CEEC, respectively. The obtained results demonstrate that the MOCHs is better than SEED, ABC, ZBR, and CEEC in terms of energy efficiency and the network throughput.
A Kondo cluster-glass model for spin glass Cerium alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmer, F M; Magalhaes, S G; Coqblin, B
2011-01-01
There are clear indications that the presence of disorder in Ce alloys, such as Ce(Ni,Cu) or Ce(Pd,Rh), is responsible for the existence of a cluster spin glass state which changes continuously into inhomogeneous ferromagnetism at low temperatures. We present a study of the competition between magnetism and Kondo effect in a cluster-glass model composed by a random inter-cluster interaction term and an intra-cluster one, which contains an intra-site Kondo interaction J k and an inter-site ferromagnetic one J 0 . The random interaction is given by the van Hemmen type of randomness which allows to solve the problem without the use of the replica method. The inter-cluster term is solved within the cluster mean-field theory and the remaining intra-cluster interactions can be treated by exact diagonalization. Results show the behavior of the cluster glass order parameter and the Kondo correlation function for several sizes of the clusters, J k , J 0 and values of the ferromagnetic inter-cluster average interaction I 0 . Particularly, for small J k , the magnetic solution is strongly dependent on I 0 and J 0 and a Kondo cluster-glass or a mixed phase can be obtained, while, for large J k , the Kondo effect is still dominant, both in good agreement with experiment in Ce(Ni,Cu) or Ce(Pd,Rh) alloys.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, S [Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K; Han, Y; Park, H [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine radiation oncology (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Injected gold nano particles (GNPs) to a body for dose enhancement are known to form in the tumorcell cluster morphology. We investigated the dependence of dose enhancement on the morphology characteristic with an approximated morphology model by using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: For MC simulation, TOPAS version 2.0P-03 was used. GNP cluster morphology was approximated as a body center cubic(BCC) model by placing 8 GNPs at the corner and one at the center of cube with length from 2.59 µm to 0.25 µm located in a 4 µm length water filled cube phantom. 4 µm length square shaped beams of poly-energetic 50, 260 kVp photons were irradiated to the water filled cube phantom with 100 nm diameter GNPs in it. Dose enhancement ratio(DER) was computed as a function of distance from the surface of the GNP at the cube center for 18 cubes geometries. For scoring particles, 10 nm width of concentric shell shaped detector was constructed up to 100 nm from the center. Total dose in a sphere of 100 nm radius of detector were normalized to 2.59 µm length cube morphology. To verified biological effect of BCC model applied to cell survival curve fitting. Results: DER increase as the distance of the GNPs reduces. DER was largest for 0.25 µm length cube. Dependence of GNP distance DER increment was 1.73, 1.60 for 50 kVp, 260 kVp photons, respectively. Also, Using BCC model applied to cell survival curve was well prediction. Conclusion: DER with GNPs was larger when they are closely packed in the phantom. Therefore, better therapeutic effects can be expected with close-packed GNPs. This research was supported by the NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2012M3A9B6055201 and 2012R1A1A2042414), Samsung Medical Center grant[GFO1130081].
Assessing clustering strategies for Gaussian mixture filtering a subsurface contaminant model
Liu, Bo; El Gharamti, Mohamad; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2016-01-01
An ensemble-based Gaussian mixture (GM) filtering framework is studied in this paper in term of its dependence on the choice of the clustering method to construct the GM. In this approach, a number of particles sampled from the posterior
Discrete particle modeling and micromechanical characterization of bilayer tablet compaction.
Yohannes, B; Gonzalez, M; Abebe, A; Sprockel, O; Nikfar, F; Kiang, S; Cuitiño, A M
2017-08-30
A mechanistic particle scale model is proposed for bilayer tablet compaction. Making bilayer tablets involves the application of first layer compaction pressure on the first layer powder and a second layer compaction pressure on entire powder bed. The bonding formed between the first layer and the second layer particles is crucial for the mechanical strength of the bilayer tablet. The bonding and the contact forces between particles of the first layer and second layer are affected by the deformation and rearrangement of particles due to the compaction pressures. Our model takes into consideration the elastic and plastic deformations of the first layer particles due to the first layer compaction pressure, in addition to the mechanical and physical properties of the particles. Using this model, bilayer tablets with layers of the same material and different materials, which are commonly used pharmaceutical powders, are tested. The simulations show that the strength of the layer interface becomes weaker than the strength of the two layers as the first layer compaction pressure is increased. The reduction of strength at the layer interface is related to reduction of the first layer surface roughness. The reduced roughness decreases the available bonding area and hence reduces the mechanical strength at the interface. In addition, the simulations show that at higher first layer compaction pressure the bonding area is significantly less than the total contact area at the layer interface. At the interface itself, there is a non-monotonic relationship between the bonding area and first layer force. The bonding area at the interface first increases and then decreases as the first layer pressure is increased. These results are in agreement with findings of previous experimental studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Bose-Einstein model of particle multiplicity distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mekjian, A.Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States) and California Institute of Technology, Kellogg Radiation Lab., Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States) and MTA KFKI RMKI, 114 PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: amekjian@physics.rutgers.edu; Csoergoe, T. [MTA KFKI RMKI, 114 PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Hegyi, S. [MTA KFKI RMKI, 114 PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)
2007-03-01
A model of particle production is developed based on a parallel with a theory of Bose-Einstein condensation and similarities with other critical phenomena such as critical opalescence. The role of a power law critical exponent {tau} and Levy index {alpha} are studied. Various features of this model are developed and compared with other commonly used models of particle production which are shown to differ by having different values for {tau}, {alpha}. While void scaling is a feature of this model, hierarchical structure is not a general property of it. The value of the exponent {tau}=2 is a transition point associated with void and hierarchical scaling features. An exponent {gamma} is introduced to describe enhanced fluctuations near a critical point. Experimentally determined properties of the void scaling function can be used to determine {tau}.
A Bose-Einstein model of particle multiplicity distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mekjian, A.Z.; Csoergoe, T.; Hegyi, S.
2007-01-01
A model of particle production is developed based on a parallel with a theory of Bose-Einstein condensation and similarities with other critical phenomena such as critical opalescence. The role of a power law critical exponent τ and Levy index α are studied. Various features of this model are developed and compared with other commonly used models of particle production which are shown to differ by having different values for τ, α. While void scaling is a feature of this model, hierarchical structure is not a general property of it. The value of the exponent τ=2 is a transition point associated with void and hierarchical scaling features. An exponent γ is introduced to describe enhanced fluctuations near a critical point. Experimentally determined properties of the void scaling function can be used to determine τ
A Bose Einstein model of particle multiplicity distributions
Mekjian, A. Z.; Csörgö, T.; Hegyi, S.
2007-03-01
A model of particle production is developed based on a parallel with a theory of Bose-Einstein condensation and similarities with other critical phenomena such as critical opalescence. The role of a power law critical exponent τ and Levy index α are studied. Various features of this model are developed and compared with other commonly used models of particle production which are shown to differ by having different values for τ, α. While void scaling is a feature of this model, hierarchical structure is not a general property of it. The value of the exponent τ=2 is a transition point associated with void and hierarchical scaling features. An exponent γ is introduced to describe enhanced fluctuations near a critical point. Experimentally determined properties of the void scaling function can be used to determine τ.
Solvable single-species aggregation-annihilation model for chain-shaped cluster growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ke Jianhong; Lin Zhenquan; Zheng Yizhuang; Chen Xiaoshuang; Lu Wei
2007-01-01
We propose a single-species aggregation-annihilation model, in which an aggregation reaction between two clusters produces an active cluster and an annihilation reaction produces an inert one. By means of the mean-field rate equation, we respectively investigate the kinetic scaling behaviours of three distinct systems. The results exhibit that: (i) for the general aggregation-annihilation system, the size distribution of active clusters consistently approaches the conventional scaling form; (ii) for the system with the self-degeneration of the cluster's activities, it takes the modified scaling form; and (iii) for the system with the self-closing of active clusters, it does not scale. Moreover, the size distribution of inert clusters with small size takes a power-law form, while that of large inert clusters obeys the scaling law. The results also show that all active clusters will eventually transform into inert ones and the inert clusters of any size can be produced by such an aggregation-annihilation process. This model can be used to mimic the chain-shaped cluster growth and can provide some useful predictions for the kinetic behaviour of the system
Bayesian modeling and prediction of solar particles flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dedecius, Kamil; Kalova, Jana
2010-01-01
An autoregression model was developed based on the Bayesian approach. Considering the solar wind non-homogeneity, the idea was applied of combining the pure autoregressive properties of the model with expert knowledge based on a similar behaviour of the various phenomena related to the flux properties. Examples of such situations include the hardening of the X-ray spectrum, which is often followed by coronal mass ejection and a significant increase in the particles flux intensity
Tachyonless models of relativistic particles with curvature and torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, Yu.A.; Plyushchaj, M.S.
1992-01-01
The problem of construction (2+1)-dimensional tachyonless models of relativistic particles with an action depending on the world-trajectory curvature and torsion is investigated. The special class of models, described by maximum symmetric action and comprising only spin internal degrees of freedom is found. The examples of systems from the special class are given, whose classical and quantum spectra contain only massive states. 23 refs
Cheng, Guang; Zhou, Lan; Huang, Jianhua Z.
2014-01-01
We consider efficient estimation of the Euclidean parameters in a generalized partially linear additive models for longitudinal/clustered data when multiple covariates need to be modeled nonparametrically, and propose an estimation procedure based
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gleb B. Trifonov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A mechanism of forming an innovative amber cluster was developed, including structural interconnections of cluster partners,a package of basic innovative technologies, which will createa new value chain, new vacancies, provide contributions to theregional budget.A method of analytical estimation was suggested to assess cluster synergism of partners: authorities, business, science/education, culture, which reﬂects potential possibilities of thecluster model of region development.
Tae Won Chung
2016-01-01
Measurement and discussions of logistics cluster competitiveness with a national approach are required to boost agglomeration effects and potentially create logistics efficiency and productivity. This study developed assessment criteria of logistics cluster competitiveness based on Porter's diamond model, calculated the weight of each criterion by the AHP method, and finally evaluated and discussed logistics cluster competitiveness among Asia main countries. The results indicate that there wa...
Cluster folding-model for quasi-elastic scattering of 23Na from 208Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabir, A.; Johnson, R.C.; Tostevin, M.H.
1991-01-01
A cluster model of 23 Na is used to calculate the 23 Na-target interaction potentials by folding the cluster wavefunction with the cluster-target interaction potentials. Coupled channels calculations are carried out for the quasi-elastic scattering of polarized 23 Na from 208 Pb at 170 MeV and compared with recent experiments. Qualitative agreement with experiment is obtained when the interaction is adjusted by a single overall normalization constant. (author)
The 5th Generation model of Particle Physics
Lach, Theodore
2009-05-01
The Standard model of Particle Physics is able to account for all known HEP phenomenon, yet it is not able to predict the masses of the quarks or leptons nor can it explain why they have their respective values. The Checker Board Model (CBM) predicts that there are 5 generation of quarks and leptons and shows a pattern to those masses, namely each three quarks or leptons (within adjacent generations or within a generation) are related to each other by a geometric mean relationship. A 2D structure of the nucleus can be imaged as 2D plate spinning on its axis, it would for all practical circumstances appear to be a 3D object. The masses of the hypothesized ``up'' and ``dn'' quarks determined by the CBM are 237.31 MeV and 42.392 MeV respectively. These new quarks in addition to a lepton of 7.4 MeV make up one of the missing generations. The details of this new particle physics model can be found at the web site: checkerboard.dnsalias.net. The only areas were this theory conflicts with existing dogma is in the value of the mass of the Top quark. The particle found at Fermi Lab must be some sort of composite particle containing Top quarks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernardes, N.
1984-01-01
A discussion is presented of zero-point motion effects on the binding energy of a small cluster of identical particles interacting through short range attractive-repulsive forces. The model is appropriate to a discussion of both Van der Waals as well as nuclear forces. (Author) [pt
A model for particle emission from a fissioning system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milek, B.; Reif, R.; Revai, J.
1987-04-01
The differential emission probability for a neutron emitted in a binary fission process due to non-adiabatic effects in the coupling of the single particle degrees of freedom to the accelerated relative motion of the fragments is investigated wihtin a model, which represents each nucleus by a non-deformed one-term separable potential. The derivation of measurable quantities from the asymptotic solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the single particle wave function is examined. Numerical calculations were performed for parameter values, which correspond to 252 Cf(sf). The calculated energy spectra and angular distributions of the emitted particles are presented in dependence on the mass asymmetry. (author)
Determining Trajectory of Triboelectrically Charged Particles, Using Discrete Element Modeling
2008-01-01
The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory is participating in an Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) project with an industry partner to modify a commercial off-the-shelf simulation software product to treat the electrodynamics of particulate systems. Discrete element modeling (DEM) is a numerical technique that can track the dynamics of particle systems. This technique, which was introduced in 1979 for analysis of rock mechanics, was recently refined to include the contact force interaction of particles with arbitrary surfaces and moving machinery. In our work, we endeavor to incorporate electrostatic forces into the DEM calculations to enhance the fidelity of the software and its applicability to (1) particle processes, such as electrophotography, that are greatly affected by electrostatic forces, (2) grain and dust transport, and (3) the study of lunar and Martian regoliths.
On Two Mixture-Based Clustering Approaches Used in Modeling an Insurance Portfolio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatjana Miljkovic
2018-05-01
Full Text Available We review two complementary mixture-based clustering approaches for modeling unobserved heterogeneity in an insurance portfolio: the generalized linear mixed cluster-weighted model (CWM and mixture-based clustering for an ordered stereotype model (OSM. The latter is for modeling of ordinal variables, and the former is for modeling losses as a function of mixed-type of covariates. The article extends the idea of mixture modeling to a multivariate classification for the purpose of testing unobserved heterogeneity in an insurance portfolio. The application of both methods is illustrated on a well-known French automobile portfolio, in which the model fitting is performed using the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm. Our findings show that these mixture-based clustering methods can be used to further test unobserved heterogeneity in an insurance portfolio and as such may be considered in insurance pricing, underwriting, and risk management.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rojas T, J.; Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima; Manrique C, E.; Torres T, E.
2002-01-01
Using monte Carlo simulation have been carried out an atomistic description of the structure and ordering processes in the system Cu-Au in a two-dimensional model. The ABV model of the alloy is a system of N atoms A and B, located in rigid lattice with some vacant sites. In the model we assume pair wise interactions between nearest neighbors with constant ordering energy J = 0,03 eV. The dynamics was introduced by means of a vacancy that exchanges of place with any atom of its neighbors. The simulations were carried out in a square lattice with 1024 and 4096 particles, using periodic boundary conditions to avoid border effects. We calculate the first two parameters of short range order of Warren-Cowley as function of the concentration and temperature. It was also studied the probabilities of formation of different atomic clusters that consist of 9 atoms as function of the concentration of the alloy and temperatures in a wide range of values. In some regions of temperature and concentration it was observed compositional and thermal polymorphism
An approach to modelling radiation damage by fast ionizing particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, G.E.
1987-01-01
The paper presents a statistical approach to modelling radiation damage in small biological structures such as enzymes, viruses, and some cells. Irreparable damage is assumed to be caused by the occurrence of ionizations within sensitive regions. For structures containing double-stranded DNA, one or more ionizations occurring within each strand of the DNA will cause inactivation; for simpler structures without double-stranded DNA a single ionization within the structure will be sufficient for inactivation. Damaging ionizations occur along tracks of primary irradiating particles or along tracks of secondary particles released at primary ionizations. An inactivation probability is derived for each damage mechanism, expressed in integral form in terms of the radius of the biological structure (assumed spherical), rate of ionization along primary tracks, and maximum energy for secondary particles. The performance of each model is assessed by comparing results from the model with those derived from data from various experimental studies extracted from the literature. For structures where a single ionization is sufficient for inactivation, the model gives qualitatively promising results; for larger more complex structures containing double-stranded DNA, the model requires further refinements. (author)
A new approach for modeling dry deposition velocity of particles
Giardina, M.; Buffa, P.
2018-05-01
The dry deposition process is recognized as an important pathway among the various removal processes of pollutants in the atmosphere. In this field, there are several models reported in the literature useful to predict the dry deposition velocity of particles of different diameters but many of them are not capable of representing dry deposition phenomena for several categories of pollutants and deposition surfaces. Moreover, their applications is valid for specific conditions and if the data in that application meet all of the assumptions required of the data used to define the model. In this paper a new dry deposition velocity model based on an electrical analogy schema is proposed to overcome the above issues. The dry deposition velocity is evaluated by assuming that the resistances that affect the particle flux in the Quasi-Laminar Sub-layers can be combined to take into account local features of the mutual influence of inertial impact processes and the turbulent one. Comparisons with the experimental data from literature indicate that the proposed model allows to capture with good agreement the main dry deposition phenomena for the examined environmental conditions and deposition surfaces to be determined. The proposed approach could be easily implemented within atmospheric dispersion modeling codes and efficiently addressing different deposition surfaces for several particle pollution.
Photoneutron and Photonuclear Cross Sections According to Packed cluster Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Mekkawi, L.S.; El-Bakty, O.M.
1998-01-01
Photonuclear gross sections have been estimated for 232 Th, 237 Np, 239 Pu, 233 U, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U in the energy range from threshold up to 20 MeV, by perturbation balance in Packed Cluster. The Packed Cluster (gamma, f) and (gamma, n) cross sections require complete absence of any (gamma,2n) or (gamma,nf) cross sections for 233 U and 234 U as in experiment. It also explains the early (gamma,n) and gamma,nf) reactions in 235 U
nIFTy galaxy cluster simulations II: radiative models
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Sembolini, F
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste, Italy 12Physics Department, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535, Sotuh Africa 13Physics Department, University of Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa 14South African Astronomical Observatory, PO Box...IFTy cluster comparison project (Sembolini et al., 2015): a study of the latest state-of- the-art hydrodynamical codes using simulated galaxy clusters as a testbed for theories of galaxy formation. Simulations are indis- pensable tools in the interpretation...
rEMM: Extensible Markov Model for Data Stream Clustering in R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Hahsler
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Clustering streams of continuously arriving data has become an important application of data mining in recent years and efficient algorithms have been proposed by several researchers. However, clustering alone neglects the fact that data in a data stream is not only characterized by the proximity of data points which is used by clustering, but also by a temporal component. The extensible Markov model (EMM adds the temporal component to data stream clustering by superimposing a dynamically adapting Markov chain. In this paper we introduce the implementation of the R extension package rEMM which implements EMM and we discuss some examples and applications.
Internal Structure of Charged Particles in a GRT Gravitational Model
Khlestkov, Yu. A.; Sukhanova, L. A.
2018-05-01
With the help of an exact solution of the Einstein and Maxwell equations, the internal structure of a multiply connected space of wormhole type with two unclosed static throats leading out of it into two parallel vacuum spaces or into one space is investigated in GRT for a free electric field and dust-like matter. The given geometry is considered as a particle-antiparticle pair with fundamental constants arising in the form of first integrals in the solution of the Cauchy problem - electric charges ±e of opposite sign in the throats and rest mass m0 - the total gravitational mass of the inner world of the particle in the throat. With the help of the energy conservation law, the unremovable rotation of the internal structure is included and the projection of the angular momentum of which onto the rotation axis is identified with the z-projection of the spin of the charged particle. The radius of 2-Gaussian curvature of the throat R* is identified with the charge radius of the particle, and the z-projection of the magnetic moment and the g-factor are found. The feasibility of the given gravitational model is confirmed by the found condition of independence of the spin quantum number of the electron and the proton s = 1/2 of the charge radius R* and the relativistic rest mass m* of the rotating throat, which is reliably confirmed experimentally, and also by the coincidence with high accuracy of the proton radius calculated in the model R*p = 0.8412·10-13 cm with the value of the proton charge radius obtained experimentally by measuring the Lamb shift on muonic hydrogen. The electron in the given model also turns out to be a structured particle with radius R*e = 3.8617·10-11 cm.
A Cluster-based Approach Towards Detecting and Modeling Network Dictionary Attacks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Tajari Siahmarzkooh
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an approach to detect network dictionary attacks using a data set collected as flows based on which a clustered graph is resulted. These flows provide an aggregated view of the network traffic in which the exchanged packets in the network are considered so that more internally connected nodes would be clustered. We show that dictionary attacks could be detected through some parameters namely the number and the weight of clusters in time series and their evolution over the time. Additionally, the Markov model based on the average weight of clusters,will be also created. Finally, by means of our suggested model, we demonstrate that artificial clusters of the flows are created for normal and malicious traffic. The results of the proposed approach on CAIDA 2007 data set suggest a high accuracy for the model and, therefore, it provides a proper method for detecting the dictionary attack.
A cluster expansion model for predicting activation barrier of atomic processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehman, Tafizur; Jaipal, M.; Chatterjee, Abhijit
2013-01-01
We introduce a procedure based on cluster expansion models for predicting the activation barrier of atomic processes encountered while studying the dynamics of a material system using the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method. Starting with an interatomic potential description, a mathematical derivation is presented to show that the local environment dependence of the activation barrier can be captured using cluster interaction models. Next, we develop a systematic procedure for training the cluster interaction model on-the-fly, which involves: (i) obtaining activation barriers for handful local environments using nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations, (ii) identifying the local environment by analyzing the NEB results, and (iii) estimating the cluster interaction model parameters from the activation barrier data. Once a cluster expansion model has been trained, it is used to predict activation barriers without requiring any additional NEB calculations. Numerical studies are performed to validate the cluster expansion model by studying hop processes in Ag/Ag(100). We show that the use of cluster expansion model with KMC enables efficient generation of an accurate process rate catalog
Effect of Policy Analysis on Indonesia’s Maritime Cluster Development Using System Dynamics Modeling
Nursyamsi, A.; Moeis, A. O.; Komarudin
2018-03-01
As an archipelago with two third of its territory consist of water, Indonesia should address more attention to its maritime industry development. One of the catalyst to fasten the maritime industry growth is by developing a maritime cluster. The purpose of this research is to gain understanding of the effect if Indonesia implement maritime cluster policy to the growth of maritime economic and its role to enhance the maritime cluster performance, hence enhancing Indonesia’s maritime industry as well. The result of the constructed system dynamic model simulation shows that with the effect of maritime cluster, the growth of employment rate and maritime economic is much bigger that the business as usual case exponentially. The result implies that the government should act fast to form a legitimate cluster maritime organizer institution so that there will be a synergize, sustainable, and positive maritime cluster environment that will benefit the performance of Indonesia’s maritime industry.
Particle transport model sensitivity on wave-induced processes
Staneva, Joanna; Ricker, Marcel; Krüger, Oliver; Breivik, Oyvind; Stanev, Emil; Schrum, Corinna
2017-04-01
Different effects of wind waves on the hydrodynamics in the North Sea are investigated using a coupled wave (WAM) and circulation (NEMO) model system. The terms accounting for the wave-current interaction are: the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state dependent momentum and energy flux. The role of the different Stokes drift parameterizations is investigated using a particle-drift model. Those particles can be considered as simple representations of either oil fractions, or fish larvae. In the ocean circulation models the momentum flux from the atmosphere, which is related to the wind speed, is passed directly to the ocean and this is controlled by the drag coefficient. However, in the real ocean, the waves play also the role of a reservoir for momentum and energy because different amounts of the momentum flux from the atmosphere is taken up by the waves. In the coupled model system the momentum transferred into the ocean model is estimated as the fraction of the total flux that goes directly to the currents plus the momentum lost from wave dissipation. Additionally, we demonstrate that the wave-induced Stokes-Coriolis force leads to a deflection of the current. During the extreme events the Stokes velocity is comparable in magnitude to the current velocity. The resulting wave-induced drift is crucial for the transport of particles in the upper ocean. The performed sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the model skill depends on the chosen processes. The results are validated using surface drifters, ADCP, HF radar data and other in-situ measurements in different regions of the North Sea with a focus on the coastal areas. The using of a coupled model system reveals that the newly introduced wave effects are important for the drift-model performance, especially during extremes. Those effects cannot be neglected by search and rescue, oil-spill, transport of biological material, or larva drift modelling.
The "p"-Median Model as a Tool for Clustering Psychological Data
Kohn, Hans-Friedrich; Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J.
2010-01-01
The "p"-median clustering model represents a combinatorial approach to partition data sets into disjoint, nonhierarchical groups. Object classes are constructed around "exemplars", that is, manifest objects in the data set, with the remaining instances assigned to their closest cluster centers. Effective, state-of-the-art implementations of…
The impact of mobile point defect clusters in a kinetic model of pressure vessel embrittlement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoller, R.E.
1998-05-01
The results of recent molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in iron indicate that small interstitial clusters may have a very low activation energy for migration, and that their migration is 1-dimensional, rather than 3-dimensional. The mobility of these clusters can have a significant impact on the predictions of radiation damage models, particularly at the relatively low temperatures typical of commercial, light water reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and other out-of-core components. A previously-developed kinetic model used to investigate RPV embrittlement has been modified to permit an evaluation of the mobile interstitial clusters. Sink strengths appropriate to both 1- and 3-dimensional motion of the clusters were evaluated. High cluster mobility leads to a reduction in the amount of predicted embrittlement due to interstitial clusters since they are lost to sinks rather than building up in the microstructure. The sensitivity of the predictions to displacement rate also increases. The magnitude of this effect is somewhat reduced if the migration is 1-dimensional since the corresponding sink strengths are lower than those for 3-dimensional diffusion. The cluster mobility can also affect the evolution of copper-rich precipitates in the model since the radiation-enhanced diffusion coefficient increases due to the lower interstitial cluster sink strength. The overall impact of the modifications to the model is discussed in terms of the major irradiation variables and material parameter uncertainties
Zhang, Yifan; Tang, Zhiqiang; Wu, Baoyuan; Ji, Qiang; Lu, Hanqing
2016-01-01
, we divide the problem into two tasks: face clustering which groups the faces depicting a certain person into a cluster, and name assignment which associates a name to each face. Each task is formulated as a structured prediction problem and modeled
Adaptive Noise Model for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video using Clustering of DCT Blocks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren
2011-01-01
The noise model is one of the most important aspects influencing the coding performance of Distributed Video Coding. This paper proposes a novel noise model for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding by using clustering of DCT blocks. The clustering algorithm takes advantage of the residual...... modelling. Furthermore, the proposed cluster level noise model is adaptively combined with a coefficient level noise model in this paper to robustly improve coding performance of TDWZ video codec up to 1.24 dB (by Bjøntegaard metric) compared to the DISCOVER TDWZ video codec....... information of all frequency bands, iteratively classifies blocks into different categories and estimates the noise parameter in each category. The experimental results show that the coding performance of the proposed cluster level noise model is competitive with state-ofthe- art coefficient level noise...
Tokuda, Tomoki; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Shimizu, Yu; Okada, Go; Takamura, Masahiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Doya, Kenji
2017-01-01
We propose a novel method for multiple clustering, which is useful for analysis of high-dimensional data containing heterogeneous types of features. Our method is based on nonparametric Bayesian mixture models in which features are automatically partitioned (into views) for each clustering solution. This feature partition works as feature selection for a particular clustering solution, which screens out irrelevant features. To make our method applicable to high-dimensional data, a co-clustering structure is newly introduced for each view. Further, the outstanding novelty of our method is that we simultaneously model different distribution families, such as Gaussian, Poisson, and multinomial distributions in each cluster block, which widens areas of application to real data. We apply the proposed method to synthetic and real data, and show that our method outperforms other multiple clustering methods both in recovering true cluster structures and in computation time. Finally, we apply our method to a depression dataset with no true cluster structure available, from which useful inferences are drawn about possible clustering structures of the data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomoki Tokuda
Full Text Available We propose a novel method for multiple clustering, which is useful for analysis of high-dimensional data containing heterogeneous types of features. Our method is based on nonparametric Bayesian mixture models in which features are automatically partitioned (into views for each clustering solution. This feature partition works as feature selection for a particular clustering solution, which screens out irrelevant features. To make our method applicable to high-dimensional data, a co-clustering structure is newly introduced for each view. Further, the outstanding novelty of our method is that we simultaneously model different distribution families, such as Gaussian, Poisson, and multinomial distributions in each cluster block, which widens areas of application to real data. We apply the proposed method to synthetic and real data, and show that our method outperforms other multiple clustering methods both in recovering true cluster structures and in computation time. Finally, we apply our method to a depression dataset with no true cluster structure available, from which useful inferences are drawn about possible clustering structures of the data.
Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Shimizu, Yu; Okada, Go; Takamura, Masahiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Doya, Kenji
2017-01-01
We propose a novel method for multiple clustering, which is useful for analysis of high-dimensional data containing heterogeneous types of features. Our method is based on nonparametric Bayesian mixture models in which features are automatically partitioned (into views) for each clustering solution. This feature partition works as feature selection for a particular clustering solution, which screens out irrelevant features. To make our method applicable to high-dimensional data, a co-clustering structure is newly introduced for each view. Further, the outstanding novelty of our method is that we simultaneously model different distribution families, such as Gaussian, Poisson, and multinomial distributions in each cluster block, which widens areas of application to real data. We apply the proposed method to synthetic and real data, and show that our method outperforms other multiple clustering methods both in recovering true cluster structures and in computation time. Finally, we apply our method to a depression dataset with no true cluster structure available, from which useful inferences are drawn about possible clustering structures of the data. PMID:29049392
The model of the relativistic particle with torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plyushchay, M.S.
1991-01-01
The model of the relativistic particle with torsion, whose action appears in the Bose-Fermi transmutation mechanism, is canonically quantized in the Minkowski and euclidean spaces. In the Minkowski space there are massive, massless and tachyonic states in the spectrum of the model. In the massive sector the spectrum contains an infinite number of states, whose spin can take integer, half-integer, or fractional values. In the euclidean space, the spectrum is finite and the spin can only be integer, or half-integer. The reasons for the differences of the quantum theory of the model in the two spaces are elucidated. (orig.)
A particle model of rolling grain ripples under waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste
2001-01-01
A simple model for the formation of rolling grain ripples on a flat sand bed by the oscillatory flow generated by a surface wave is presented. An equation of motion is derived for the individual ripples, seen as "particles," on the otherwise flat bed. The model accounts for the initial appearance...... of the ripples, the subsequent coarsening of the ripples, and the final equilibrium state. The model is related to the physical parameters of the problem, and an analytical approximation for the equilibrium spacing of the ripples is developed. It is found that the spacing between the ripples scales...
Lensed Type Ia supernovae as probes of cluster mass models
Recherche Astronomique de Lyon, UniversitÃ© Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Charles Andre, F-69230 Saint Genis Laval calibrations will be crucial when next-generation Hubble Space Telescope cluster surveys (e.g. Frontier ) provide magnification maps that will, in turn, form the basis for the exploration of the high-redshift
Ab initio calculations and modelling of atomic cluster structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Solov'yov, Ilia; Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2004-01-01
The optimized structure and electronic properties of small sodium and magnesium clusters have been investigated using it ab initio theoretical methods based on density-functional theory and post-Hartree-Fock many-body perturbation theory accounting for all electrons in the system. A new theoretical...
Embedded Cluster Models for Reactivity of the Hydrated Electron
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uhlig, Frank; Jungwirth, Pavel
2013-01-01
Roč. 227, č. 11 (2013), s. 1583-1593 ISSN 0942-9352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hydrated electron * clusters * reactivity * ab initio molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.178, year: 2013