WorldWideScience

Sample records for cluster luminosity functions

  1. Evolution of the cluster x-ray luminosity function slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.; Soltan, A.; Briel, U.; Gunn, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    We report the results of an X-ray survey of 58 clusters of galaxies at moderate and high redshifts. Using a luminosity-limited subsample of 25 objects, we find that to a redshift of 0.5 the slope (i.e., power-law index) of the luminosity function of distant clusters is independent of redshift and consistent with that of nearby clusters. The time scale for change in the slope must be greater than 9 billion years. We cannot measure the normalization of the luminosity function because our sample is not complete. We discuss the implications of our data for theoretical models. In particular, Perrenod's models with high Ω are excluded by the present data

  2. Evolution of the cluster X-ray luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullis, C.R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Henry, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements of the cluster X-ray luminosity function out to z = 0.8 based on the final sample of 201 galaxy systems from the 160 Square Degree ROSAT Cluster Survey. There is little evidence for any measurable change in cluster abundance out to z similar to 0.6 at luminosities of less...... than a few times 10(44) h(50)(-2) ergs s(-1) (0.5 - 2.0 keV). However, for 0.6 cluster deficit using integrated number counts...... independently confirm the presence of evolution. Whereas the bulk of the cluster population does not evolve, the most luminous and presumably most massive structures evolve appreciably between z = 0.8 and the present. Interpreted in the context of hierarchical structure formation, we are probing sufficiently...

  3. The luminosity function for globular clusters, 4: M3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoda, Mahiro; Fukuoka, Takashi

    1976-01-01

    The subgiant-turnoff portion (V = 17.2 - 20.0 mag) of the luminosity function for the globular cluster M3 has been determined from photometry of the stars within the annuli 3'-8' and 6'-8' for V = 17.2 - 19.0 mag and 19.0 - 20.0 mag, respectively, by using plates taken with the Kitt Peak 2.1-m reflector. Our result shows that the luminosity function for M3 has a similar steep rise in the subgiant portion as other clusters so far studied (M5, M13, and M92), in direct conflict with the result by SANDAGE (1954, 1957). A probable cause of this discrepancy is given. Comparison with theoretical luminosity functions by SIMODA and IBEN (1970) suggests that theory and observation are not inconsistent if the initial helium abundance of M3 stars is taken to be about 20 percent. It is suggested that M13 has a larger helium abundance than M3 and M92 from the intercomparison of their luminosity functions and color-magnitude diagrams. (auth.)

  4. Photometric studies of globular clusters in the Andromeda Nebula. Luminosity function for old globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, A.S.; Lyutyj, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The luminosity function for old globular clusters in M 31 is presented. The objects were selected according to their structural and photometric properties. At the usually accepted normal (Gaussian) distribution, the luminosity function is characterized by the following parameters: the mean magnitude, corrected for the extinction inside M 31, V-bar 0 =16 m ,38±0 m .08, and the absolute magnitude M-bar v =-8 m .29 assuming )m-M) v =23 m .67, standard deviation σ M v =1 m .16±0 m .08 and total object number N=300±17. Old globular clusters in M 31 are in the average about one magnitude more luminous then those in our Galaxy (M v ≅ -7 m .3). Intrinsic luminosity dispersions of globular clusters are nearly the same in both galaxies. Available data on globular clusters in the Local Group galaxies against the universality of globular luminosity function with identical parameters M v and σ M v

  5. Theoretical stellar luminosity functions and globular cluster ages and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliff, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The ages and chemical compositions of the stars in globular clusters are of great interest, particularly because age estimates from the well-known exercise of fitting observed color-magnitude diagrams to theoretical predictions tend to yield ages in excess of the Hubble time (an estimate to the age of the Universe) in standard cosmological models, for currently proposed high values of Hubble's constant (VandenBerg 1983). Relatively little use has been made of stellar luminosity functions of the globular clusters, for which reliable observations are now becoming available, to constrain the ages or compositions. The comparison of observed luminosity functions to theoretical ones allows one to take advantage of information not usually used, and has the advantage of being relatively insensitive to our lack of knowledge of the detailed structure of stellar envelopes and atmospheres. A computer program was developed to apply standard stellar evolutionary theory, using the most recently available input physics (opacities, nuclear reaction rates), to the calculation of the evolution of low-mass Population II stars. An algorithm for computing luminosity functions from the evolutionary tracks was applied to sets of tracks covering a broad range of chemical compositions and ages, such as may be expected for globular clusters

  6. The galaxy cluster mid-infrared luminosity function at 1.3 < z < 3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Vernet, Joël; De Breuck, Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstr.2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Galametz, Audrey [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio (Italy); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Jarvis, Matt [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hatch, Nina [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Seymour, Nick [CASS, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW, 1710 (Australia); Stanford, Spencer A. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present 4.5 μm luminosity functions for galaxies identified in 178 candidate galaxy clusters at 1.3 < z < 3.2. The clusters were identified as Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color-selected overdensities in the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN project, which imaged 420 powerful radio-loud active galactic nuclei (RLAGNs) at z > 1.3. The luminosity functions are derived for different redshift and richness bins, and the IRAC imaging reaches depths of m* + 2, allowing us to measure the faint end slopes of the luminosity functions. We find that α = –1 describes the luminosity function very well in all redshift bins and does not evolve significantly. This provides evidence that the rate at which the low mass galaxy population grows through star formation gets quenched and is replenished by in-falling field galaxies does not have a major net effect on the shape of the luminosity function. Our measurements for m* are consistent with passive evolution models and high formation redshifts (z{sub f} ∼ 3). We find a slight trend toward fainter m* for the richest clusters, implying that the most massive clusters in our sample could contain older stellar populations, yet another example of cosmic downsizing. Modeling shows that a contribution of a star-forming population of up to 40% cannot be ruled out. This value, found from our targeted survey, is significantly lower than the values found for slightly lower redshift, z ∼ 1, clusters found in wide-field surveys. The results are consistent with cosmic downsizing, as the clusters studied here were all found in the vicinity of RLAGNs—which have proven to be preferentially located in massive dark matter halos in the richest environments at high redshift—and they may therefore be older and more evolved systems than the general protocluster population.

  7. The galaxy cluster mid-infrared luminosity function at 1.3 < z < 3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Vernet, Joël; De Breuck, Carlos; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Galametz, Audrey; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jarvis, Matt; Hatch, Nina; Seymour, Nick; Stanford, Spencer A.

    2014-01-01

    We present 4.5 μm luminosity functions for galaxies identified in 178 candidate galaxy clusters at 1.3 < z < 3.2. The clusters were identified as Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color-selected overdensities in the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN project, which imaged 420 powerful radio-loud active galactic nuclei (RLAGNs) at z > 1.3. The luminosity functions are derived for different redshift and richness bins, and the IRAC imaging reaches depths of m* + 2, allowing us to measure the faint end slopes of the luminosity functions. We find that α = –1 describes the luminosity function very well in all redshift bins and does not evolve significantly. This provides evidence that the rate at which the low mass galaxy population grows through star formation gets quenched and is replenished by in-falling field galaxies does not have a major net effect on the shape of the luminosity function. Our measurements for m* are consistent with passive evolution models and high formation redshifts (z f ∼ 3). We find a slight trend toward fainter m* for the richest clusters, implying that the most massive clusters in our sample could contain older stellar populations, yet another example of cosmic downsizing. Modeling shows that a contribution of a star-forming population of up to 40% cannot be ruled out. This value, found from our targeted survey, is significantly lower than the values found for slightly lower redshift, z ∼ 1, clusters found in wide-field surveys. The results are consistent with cosmic downsizing, as the clusters studied here were all found in the vicinity of RLAGNs—which have proven to be preferentially located in massive dark matter halos in the richest environments at high redshift—and they may therefore be older and more evolved systems than the general protocluster population.

  8. The Seven Sisters DANCe. I. Empirical isochrones, luminosity, and mass functions of the Pleiades cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouy, H.; Bertin, E.; Sarro, L. M.; Barrado, D.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Berihuete, A.; Olivares, J.; Beletsky, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 million unique sources in a region encompassing ~80 deg2 centered on the Pleiades cluster. Aims: We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades and measure the mass and luminosity functions of the cluster. Methods: Using the probabilistic selection method previously described, we identified high probability members in the DANCe (i ≥ 14 mag) and Tycho-2 (V ≲ 12 mag) catalogues and studied the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. Results: We find a total of 2109 high-probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to ~0.025 M⊙. The size, sensitivity, and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Conclusions: Our census supersedes previous studies of the Pleiades cluster populations, in terms of both sensitivity and accuracy. Based on service observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Table 1 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgDANCe catalogs (Tables 6 and 7) and full Tables 2-5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A148

  9. PRIMUS: Galaxy clustering as a function of luminosity and color at 0.2 < z < 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibba, Ramin A.; Smith, M. Stephen M.; Coil, Alison L.; Mendez, Alexander J. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Aird, James [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Bray, Aaron D.; Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cool, Richard J. [MMT Observatory, 1540 E Second Street, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zhu, Guangtun, E-mail: rskibba@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We present measurements of the luminosity and color-dependence of galaxy clustering at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the Prism Multi-object Survey. We quantify the clustering with the redshift-space and projected two-point correlation functions, ξ(r{sub p} , π) and w{sub p} (r{sub p} ), using volume-limited samples constructed from a parent sample of over ∼130, 000 galaxies with robust redshifts in seven independent fields covering 9 deg{sup 2} of sky. We quantify how the scale-dependent clustering amplitude increases with increasing luminosity and redder color, with relatively small errors over large volumes. We find that red galaxies have stronger small-scale (0.1 Mpc h {sup –1} < r{sub p} < 1 Mpc h {sup –1}) clustering and steeper correlation functions compared to blue galaxies, as well as a strong color dependent clustering within the red sequence alone. We interpret our measured clustering trends in terms of galaxy bias and obtain values of b {sub gal} ≈ 0.9-2.5, quantifying how galaxies are biased tracers of dark matter depending on their luminosity and color. We also interpret the color dependence with mock catalogs, and find that the clustering of blue galaxies is nearly constant with color, while redder galaxies have stronger clustering in the one-halo term due to a higher satellite galaxy fraction. In addition, we measure the evolution of the clustering strength and bias, and we do not detect statistically significant departures from passive evolution. We argue that the luminosity- and color-environment (or halo mass) relations of galaxies have not significantly evolved since z ∼ 1. Finally, using jackknife subsampling methods, we find that sampling fluctuations are important and that the COSMOS field is generally an outlier, due to having more overdense structures than other fields; we find that 'cosmic variance' can be a significant source of uncertainty for high-redshift clustering measurements.

  10. The Luminosity Functions of Old and Intermediate-Age Globular Clusters in NGC 3610

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmore, B. C.; Schweizer, F.; Kundu, A.; Miller, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    The WFPC2 Camera on board HST has been used to obtain high-resolution images of NGC 3610, a dynamically young elliptical galaxy. These observations supersede shorter, undithered HST observations where an intermediate-age population of globular clusters was first discovered. The new observations show the bimodal color distribution of globular clusters more clearly, with peaks at (V-I)o = 0.95 and 1.17. The luminosity function (LF) of the blue, metal-poor population of clusters in NGC 3610 turn...

  11. On the luminosity function, lifetimes, and origin of blue stragglers in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailyn, Charles D.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.

    1995-01-01

    We compute theoretical evolutionary tracks of blue stragglers created by mergers. Two formation scenarios are considered: mergers of primordial binaries, and stellar collisions. These two scenarios predict strikingly different luminosity functions, which are potentially distinguishable observationally. Tabulated theoretical luminosity functions and lifetimes are presented for blue stragglers formed under a variety of input conditions. We compare our results with observations of the blue straggler sequences in 47 Tucanae and M3. In the case of 47 Tuc, the luminosity function and the formation rate are compatible with the hypothesis that the blue stragglers formed through the collision of single stars. Mergers of primordial binaries are only marginally cosistent with the data, and a significant enhancement of the collision cross section by binary-single-star encounters appears to be ruled out. In the case of M3, we find that the innermost blue stragglers have a luminosity function significantly different from that of the outer stragglers, thus confirming earlier suggestions that there are two distinct populations of blue stragglers in this cluster. The inner stragglers are preferentially brighter and bluer, as would be expected if they were made by collisions, but there are so many of them that the collision rate would need to be enhanced by interactions involving wide binaries. The luminosity function of the outer stragglers is almost identical to the predictions of mergers from primordial binaries and is inconsistent with the collision hypothesis.

  12. THE REST-FRAME OPTICAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF CLUSTER GALAXIES AT z < 0.8 AND THE ASSEMBLY OF THE CLUSTER RED SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, Gregory; Von der Linden, Anja; De Lucia, Gabriella; White, Simon; Pello, Roser; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Marchesini, Danilo; Clowe, Douglas; Halliday, Claire; Jablonka, Pascale; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Poggianti, Bianca; Saglia, Roberto; Simard, Luc; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We present the rest-frame optical luminosity function (LF) of red-sequence galaxies in 16 clusters at 0.4 < z < 0.8 drawn from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS). We compare our clusters to an analogous sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and match the EDisCS clusters to their most likely descendants. We measure all LFs down to M ∼ M * + (2.5-3.5). At z < 0.8, the bright end of the LF is consistent with passive evolution but there is a significant buildup of the faint end of the red sequence toward lower redshift. There is a weak dependence of the LF on cluster velocity dispersion for EDisCS but no such dependence for the SDSS clusters. We find tentative evidence that red-sequence galaxies brighter than a threshold magnitude are already in place, and that this threshold evolves to fainter magnitudes toward lower redshifts. We compare the EDisCS LFs with the LF of coeval red-sequence galaxies in the field and find that the bright end of the LFs agree. However, relative to the number of bright red galaxies, the field has more faint red galaxies than clusters at 0.6 < z < 0.8 but fewer at 0.4 < z < 0.6, implying differential evolution. We compare the total light in the EDisCS cluster red sequences to the total red-sequence light in our SDSS cluster sample. Clusters at 0.4 < z < 0.8 must increase their luminosity on the red sequence (and therefore stellar mass in red galaxies) by a factor of 1-3 by z = 0. The necessary processes that add mass to the red sequence in clusters predict local clusters that are overluminous as compared to those observed in the SDSS. The predicted cluster luminosities can be reconciled with observed local cluster luminosities by combining multiple previously known effects.

  13. Pixel-Cluster Counting Luminosity Measurement in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    McCormack, William Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A precision measurement of the delivered luminosity is a key component of the ATLAS physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A fundamental ingredient of the strategy to control the systematic uncertainties affecting the absolute luminosity has been to compare the measurements of several luminometers, most of which use more than one counting technique. The level of consistency across the various methods provides valuable cross-checks as well as an estimate of the detector-related systematic uncertainties. This poster describes the development of a luminosity algorithm based on pixel-cluster counting in the recently installed ATLAS inner b-layer (IBL), using data recorded during the 2015 pp run at the LHC. The noise and background contamination of the luminosity-associated cluster count is minimized by a multi-component fit to the measured cluster-size distribution in the forward pixel modules of the IBL. The linearity, long-term stability and statistical precision of the cluster-counting method are ...

  14. Pixel-Cluster Counting Luminosity Measurement In ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)782710; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A precision measurement of the delivered luminosity is a key component of the ATLAS physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A fundamental ingredient of the strategy to control the systematic uncertainties affecting the absolute luminosity has been to compare the measure- ments of several luminometers, most of which use more than one counting technique. The level of consistency across the various methods provides valuable cross-checks as well as an estimate of the detector-related systematic uncertainties. This poster describes the development of a luminosity algorithm based on pixel-cluster counting in the recently installed ATLAS inner b-layer (IBL), using data recorded during the 2015 pp run at the LHC. The noise and background contamination of the luminosity-associated cluster count is minimized by a multi-component fit to the measured cluster-size distribution in the forward pixel modules of the IBL. The linearity, long-term stability and statistical precision of the cluster- counting method a...

  15. Protogalaxy interactions in newly formed clusters: Galaxy luminosities, colors, and intergalactic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    The role of protogalaxy interactions in galactic evolution is studied during the formation of galaxy clusters. In the early stages of the collapse, coalescent encounters of protogalaxies lead to the development of a galactic luminosity function. Once galaxies acquire appreciable random motions, mutual collisions between galaxies in rich clusters will trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds to form stars. This provides both a source for enriched intracluster gas and an interpretation of the correlation between luminosity and color for cluster elliptical galaxies. Other observational consequences that are considered include optical, X-ray, and diffuse nonthermal radio emission from newly formed clusters of galaxies

  16. MEASURING THE LUMINOSITY AND VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS DEPENDENCE OF QUASAR–GALAXY CLUSTERING AT z ∼ 0.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krolewski, Alex G.; Eisenstein, Daniel J., E-mail: akrolewski@college.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    We study the dependence of quasar clustering on quasar luminosity and black hole mass by measuring the angular overdensity of photometrically selected galaxies imaged by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) about z ∼ 0.8 quasars from SDSS. By measuring the quasar–galaxy cross-correlation function and using photometrically selected galaxies, we achieve a higher density of tracer objects and a more sensitive detection of clustering than measurements of the quasar autocorrelation function. We test models of quasar formation and evolution by measuring the luminosity dependence of clustering amplitude. We find a significant overdensity of WISE galaxies about z ∼ 0.8 quasars at 0.2–6.4 h{sup −1} Mpc in projected comoving separation. We find no appreciable increase in clustering amplitude with quasar luminosity across a decade in luminosity, and a power-law fit between luminosity and clustering amplitude gives an exponent of −0.01 ± 0.06 (1 σ error). We also fail to find a significant relationship between clustering amplitude and black hole mass, although our dynamic range in true mass is suppressed due to the large uncertainties in virial black hole mass estimates. Our results indicate that a small range in host dark matter halo mass maps to a large range in quasar luminosity.

  17. MEASURING THE LUMINOSITY AND VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS DEPENDENCE OF QUASAR–GALAXY CLUSTERING AT z ∼ 0.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolewski, Alex G.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the dependence of quasar clustering on quasar luminosity and black hole mass by measuring the angular overdensity of photometrically selected galaxies imaged by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) about z ∼ 0.8 quasars from SDSS. By measuring the quasar–galaxy cross-correlation function and using photometrically selected galaxies, we achieve a higher density of tracer objects and a more sensitive detection of clustering than measurements of the quasar autocorrelation function. We test models of quasar formation and evolution by measuring the luminosity dependence of clustering amplitude. We find a significant overdensity of WISE galaxies about z ∼ 0.8 quasars at 0.2–6.4 h −1 Mpc in projected comoving separation. We find no appreciable increase in clustering amplitude with quasar luminosity across a decade in luminosity, and a power-law fit between luminosity and clustering amplitude gives an exponent of −0.01 ± 0.06 (1 σ error). We also fail to find a significant relationship between clustering amplitude and black hole mass, although our dynamic range in true mass is suppressed due to the large uncertainties in virial black hole mass estimates. Our results indicate that a small range in host dark matter halo mass maps to a large range in quasar luminosity

  18. Effects of Galaxy collisions on the structure and evolution of Galaxy clusters. I. Mass and luminosity functions and background light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin)

    1983-01-01

    The role of galaxy collisions in controlling the form of the galaxy mass and luminosity functions and in creating a diffuse background light is investigated by means of a direct computer simulation. Galaxy collisions are treated in a realistic manner, including both galaxy mergers and tidal encounters. A large number of theoretical studies of a galaxy collisions were consulted to formulate the basic input physics of collision cross sections. Despite this large number of studies, there remains considerable uncertainty in the effects of a collision on a galaxy due mainly to our lack of knowledge of the orbital distribution of matter in galaxies. To improve this situation, some methods of semiempirical calibration are suggested: for example, a survey of background light in clusters of different richness and morphological classes. If real galaxies are represented by galaxy models where the bulk of the matter is on radial, rather than circular, orbits, then tidal collisions are more damaging and there are a number of interesting effects: Repeated tidal encounters lead to galaxy mass and luminosity functions which are largely independent of model parameters and the initial galaxy mass function. It appears unlikely that the form of the average present-day luminosity function characteristic of both field and cluster galaxies is due to collisions, but certain observed deviations from the average found by Heiligman and Turner and by Dressler may be a signature of collisions, in particular a flat faint-end slope. The amount of luminous matter stripped from the galaxies in the simulations agrees with the amount of diffuse background light seen in the Coma Cluster

  19. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  20. DEEP ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT THE INFALL REGION OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Jenkins, L.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2012-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M UV = –10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (α ≈ –1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parameterization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of α ≈ –1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than α = –1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star-forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star-forming galaxies show a turnover at M UV ≈ –14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M * = 10 8 M ☉ . A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star-forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star-forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  1. THE LUMINOSITY PROFILES OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donzelli, C. J.; Muriel, H.; Madrid, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We have derived detailed R-band luminosity profiles and structural parameters for a total of 430 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), down to a limiting surface brightness of 24.5 mag arcsec -2 . Light profiles were initially fitted with a Sersic's R 1/n model, but we found that 205 (∼48%) BCGs require a double component model to accurately match their light profiles. The best fit for these 205 galaxies is an inner Sersic model, with indices n ∼ 1-7, plus an outer exponential component. Thus, we establish the existence of two categories of the BCG luminosity profiles: single and double component profiles. We found that double profile BCGs are brighter (∼0.2 mag) than single profile BCGs. In fact, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test applied to these subsamples indicates that they have different total magnitude distributions, with mean values M R = -23.8 ± 0.6 mag for single profile BCGs and M R = -24.0 ± 0.5 mag for double profile BCGs. We find that partial luminosities for both subsamples are indistinguishable up to r = 15 kpc, while for r > 20 kpc the luminosities we obtain are on average 0.2 mag brighter for double profile BCGs. This result indicates that extra-light for double profile BCGs does not come from the inner region but from the outer regions of these galaxies. The best-fit slope of the Kormendy relation for the whole sample is a = 3.13 ± 0.04. However, when fitted separately, single and double profile BCGs show different slopes: a single = 3.29 ± 0.06 and a double = 2.79 ± 0.08. Also, the logarithmic slope of the metric luminosity α is higher in double profile BCGs (α double = 0.65 ± 0.12) than in single profile BCGs (α single = 0.59 ± 0.14). The mean isophote outer ellipticity (calculated at μ ∼ 24 mag arcsec -2 ) is higher in double profile BCGs (e double = 0.30 ± 0.10) than in single profile BCGs (e single = 0.26 ± 0.11). Similarly, the mean absolute value of inner minus outer ellipticity is also higher in double profile BCGs. From a

  2. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Pipher, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 {mu}m spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 {mu}m), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L{sub Sun} and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L{sub Sun }. The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L{sub Sun }. Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity

  3. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SPITZER-IDENTIFIED PROTOSTARS IN NINE NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukova, E.; Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Pipher, J.; Allen, L. E.; Myers, P. C.; Muzerolle, J.

    2012-01-01

    We identify protostars in Spitzer surveys of nine star-forming (SF) molecular clouds within 1 kpc: Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Chamaeleon, Lupus, Taurus, Orion, Cep OB3, and Mon R2, which combined host over 700 protostar candidates. These clouds encompass a variety of SF environments, including both low-mass and high-mass SF regions, as well as dense clusters and regions of sparsely distributed star formation. Our diverse cloud sample allows us to compare protostar luminosity functions in these varied environments. We combine near- and mid-infrared photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer to create 1-24 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Using protostars from the c2d survey with well-determined bolometric luminosities, we derive a relationship between bolometric luminosity, mid-IR luminosity (integrated from 1-24 μm), and SED slope. Estimations of the bolometric luminosities for protostar candidates are combined to create luminosity functions for each cloud. Contamination due to edge-on disks, reddened Class II sources, and galaxies is estimated and removed from the luminosity functions. We find that luminosity functions for high-mass SF clouds (Orion, Mon R2, and Cep OB3) peak near 1 L ☉ and show a tail extending toward luminosities above 100 L ☉ . The luminosity functions of the low-mass SF clouds (Serpens, Perseus, Ophiuchus, Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon) do not exhibit a common peak, however the combined luminosity function of these regions peaks below 1 L ☉ . Finally, we examine the luminosity functions as a function of the local surface density of young stellar objects. In the Orion molecular clouds, we find a significant difference between the luminosity functions of protostars in regions of high and low stellar density, the former of which is biased toward more luminous sources. This may be the result of primordial mass segregation, although this interpretation is not unique. We compare our luminosity functions to those

  4. The luminosity and mass functions of the Pleiades: low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambly, N.C.; Jameson, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    COSMOS measurements of R and I Schmidt plates are used to determine the luminosity function and hence mass function of the Pleiades open cluster. Star counts are made in the cluster and the field star contribution, measured outside the cluster, is subtracted. A lower limit of 30 brown dwarfs is found; the mass function is flat at the lowest masses. (author)

  5. The low-luminosity stellar mass function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroupa, Pavel; Tout, C.A.; Gilmore, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    The stellar mass function for low-mass stars is constrained using the stellar luminosity function and the slope of the mass-luminosity relation. We investigate the range of mass functions for stars with absolute visual magnitude fainter than M V ≅ +5 which are consistent with both the local luminosity function and the rather poorly determined mass-absolute visual magnitude relation. Points of inflexion in the mass-luminosity relation exist because of the effects of H - , H 2 and of other molecules on the opacity and equation of state. The first two of these correspond to absolute magnitudes M V ≅ +7 and M V ≅ +12, respectively, at which structure is evident in the stellar luminosity function (a flattening and a maximum, respectively). Combining the mass-luminosity relation which shows these inflexion points with a peaked luminosity function, we test smooth mass functions in the mass range 0.9-0.1 the solar mass. (author)

  6. Measuring the Mean and Scatter of the X-ray Luminosity -- Optical Richness Relation for maxBCG Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; McKay, T.A.; Becker, M.A.; Evrard, A.; Johnston, D.E.; Koester, B.P.; Rozo, E.; Sheldon, E.S.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2007-10-02

    We interpret and model the statistical weak lensing measurements around 130,000 groups and clusters of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey presented by Sheldon et al. (2007). We present non-parametric inversions of the 2D shear profiles to the mean 3D cluster density and mass profiles in bins of both optical richness and cluster i-band luminosity. Since the mean cluster density profile is proportional to the cluster-mass correlation function, the mean profile is spherically symmetric by the assumptions of large-scale homogeneity and isotropy. We correct the inferred 3D profiles for systematic effects, including non-linear shear and the fact that cluster halos are not all precisely centered on their brightest galaxies. We also model the measured cluster shear profile as a sum of contributions from the brightest central galaxy, the cluster dark matter halo, and neighboring halos. We infer the relations between mean cluster virial mass and optical richness and luminosity over two orders of magnitude in cluster mass; the virial mass at fixed richness or luminosity is determined with a precision of {approx} 13% including both statistical and systematic errors. We also constrain the halo concentration parameter and halo bias as a function of cluster mass; both are in good agreement with predictions from N-body simulations of LCDM models. The methods employed here will be applicable to deeper, wide-area optical surveys that aim to constrain the nature of the dark energy, such as the Dark Energy Survey, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and space-based surveys.

  7. Ultra-faint ultraviolet galaxies at z ∼ 2 behind the lensing cluster A1689: The luminosity function, dust extinction, and star formation rate density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian; Freeman, William R.; Dominguez, Alberto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Richard, Johan [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Charles André, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Stark, Daniel P.; Robertson, Brant [Department of Astronomy, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Rm N204, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I.; Rafelski, Marc [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kewley, Lisa, E-mail: anahita.alavi@email.ucr.edu [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-01-10

    We have obtained deep ultraviolet imaging of the lensing cluster A1689 with the WFC3/UVIS camera onboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the F275W (30 orbits) and F336W (4 orbits) filters. These images are used to identify z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies via their Lyman break, in the same manner that galaxies are typically selected at z ≥ 3. Because of the unprecedented depth of the images and the large magnification provided by the lensing cluster, we detect galaxies 100× fainter than previous surveys at this redshift. After removing all multiple images, we have 58 galaxies in our sample in the range –19.5 < M {sub 1500} < –13 AB mag. Because the mass distribution of A1689 is well constrained, we are able to calculate the intrinsic sensitivity of the observations as a function of source plane position, allowing for accurate determinations of effective volume as a function of luminosity. We fit the faint-end slope of the luminosity function to be α = –1.74 ± 0.08, which is consistent with the values obtained for 2.5 < z < 6. Notably, there is no turnover in the luminosity function down to M {sub 1500} = –13 AB mag. We fit the UV spectral slopes with photometry from existing Hubble optical imaging. The observed trend of increasingly redder slopes with luminosity at higher redshifts is observed in our sample, but with redder slopes at all luminosities and average reddening of (E(B – V)) = 0.15 mag. We assume the stars in these galaxies are metal poor (0.2 Z {sub ☉}) compared to their brighter counterparts (Z {sub ☉}), resulting in bluer assumed intrinsic UV slopes and larger derived values for dust extinction. The total UV luminosity density at z ∼ 2 is 4.31{sub −0.60}{sup +0.68}×10{sup 26} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1} Mpc{sup –3}, more than 70% of which is emitted by galaxies in the luminosity range of our sample. Finally, we determine the global star formation rate density from UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2 (assuming a constant dust

  8. Galaxy luminosity function: evolution at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Guennou, L.; Adami, C.

    2014-12-01

    There are some disagreements about the abundance of faint galaxies in high redshift clusters. DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a medium redshift (0.4clusters ideal to tackle these problems. We present cluster galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) based on photometric redshifts for 30 clusters in B, V, R and I restframe bands. We show that completeness is a key parameter to understand the different observed behaviors when fitting the GLFs. We also investigate the evolution of GLFs with redshift for red and blue galaxy populations separately. We find a drop of the faint end of red GLFs which is more important at higher redshift while the blue GLF faint end remains flat in our redshift range. These results can be interpreted in terms of galaxy quenching. Faint blue galaxies transform into red ones which enrich the red sequence from high to low redshifts in clusters while some blue galaxies are still accreted from the environment, compensating for this evolution so that the global GLF does not seem to evolve.

  9. properties and luminosity functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hektor Monteiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an investigation of a sample of 1072 stars extracted from the Villanova Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs (2005 on-line version, studying their distribution in the Galaxy, their physical properties and their luminosity functions. The distances and physical properties of the white dwarfs are determined through interpolation of their (B-V or (b-y colors in model grids. The solar position relative to the Galactic plane, luminosity function, as well as separate functions for each white dwarf spectral type are derived and discussed. We show that the binary fraction does not vary significantly as a function of distance from the Galactic disk out to 100 pc. We propose that the formation rates of DA and non-DAs have changed over time and/or that DAs evolve into non-DA types. The luminosity functions for DAs and DBs have peaks possibly related to a star burst event.

  10. Proceeding Paper for HSTD11 Conference about Luminosity Measurement by Pixel-Cluster-Counting

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Peilian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system. It consists of planar pixel modules in the central region and 3D pixel modules at two extremities. We use the longitudinal cluster size distributions in 3D modules of the IBL to determine the number of pixel clusters produced by primary charged particles per event and suppress backgrounds. This Pixel Cluster Counting (PCC) algorithm provides a bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement. An accurate luminosity measurement is a key component for precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and one of the largest uncertainties on the luminosity determination in ATLAS arises from the long-term stability of the measurement technique. The comparison of the PCC algorithm with other existing algorithms provides key insights in assessing and reducing such uncertainty.

  11. Carbon Isotopes in Globular Clusters Down to the Bump in the Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetrone, Matthew D.

    2003-03-01

    We find that the 12C/13C ratio evolves from high values (>20) below the bump in the luminosity function (BLF) to near the equilibrium value of the CNO cycle above the BLF in the globular clusters (GCs) NGC 6528 and M4. This is the first time that the predicted decline of the 12C/13C ratios due to the extra mixing at the BLF is detected in a GC. In M4, a slight decline from 12C/13C = 10 just above the BLF at MV=+0.5 to 12C/13C = 4 at MV=-0.6 is detected, suggesting that some additional mixing may occur beyond the BLF in this cluster. Isotope ratios are measured and found to be constant in the GCs NGC 6553 and 47 Tucanae down to just above the BLF of those GCs. Based on observations made in part at the W. M. Keck Observatory by the Gemini staff, supported by the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities of Research in Astronomy, Inc., on behalf of the international Gemini partnership of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, the UK, and the US. The W. M. Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Measuring the stellar luminosity function and spatial density profile of the inner 0.5 pc of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuan; Ghez, Andrea; Lu, Jessica R.; Morris, Mark R.; Yelda, Sylvana; Martinez, Gregory D.; Peter, Annika H. G.; Wright, Shelley; Bullock, James; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Matthews, K.

    2012-07-01

    We report on measurements of the luminosity function of early (young) and late-type (old) stars in the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way nuclear star cluster as well as the density profiles of both components. The young (~ 6 Myr) and old stars (> 1 Gyr) in this region provide different physical probes of the environment around a supermassive black hole; the luminosity function of the young stars offers us a way to measure the initial mass function from star formation in an extreme environment, while the density profile of the old stars offers us a probe of the dynamical interaction of a star cluster with a massive black hole. The two stellar populations are separated through a near-infrared spectroscopic survey using the integral-field spectrograph OSIRIS on Keck II behind the laser guide star adaptive optics system. This spectroscopic survey is able to separate early-type (young) and late-type (old) stars with a completeness of 50% at K' = 15.5. We describe our method of completeness correction using a combination of star planting simulations and Bayesian inference. The completeness corrected luminosity function of the early-type stars contains significantly more young stars at faint magnitudes compared to previous surveys with similar depth. In addition, by using proper motion and radial velocity measurements along with anisotropic spherical Jeans modeling of the cluster, it is possible to measure the spatial density profile of the old stars, which has been difficult to constrain with number counts alone. The most probable model shows that the spatial density profile, n(r) propto r-γ, to be shallow with γ = 0.4 ± 0.2, which is much flatter than the dynamically relaxed case of γ = 3/2 to 7/4, but does rule out a 'hole' in the distribution of old stars. We show, for the first time, that the spatial density profile, the black hole mass, and velocity anisotropy can be fit simultaneously to obtain a black hole mass that is consistent with that derived from

  13. THE CLUSTERING OF GALAXIES IN THE SDSS-III BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: LUMINOSITY AND COLOR DEPENDENCE AND REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hong; Zehavi, Idit [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, OH 44106 (United States); Zheng Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, UT 84112 (United States); Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy and CCAPP, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Berlind, Andreas A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Chen Yanmei [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Eisenstein, Daniel J.; McBride, Cameron K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ho, Shirley; Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kazin, Eyal [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Manera, Marc; Maraston, Claudia; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.; Samushia, Lado [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Nuza, Sebastian E. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Parejko, John K. [Department of Physics, Yale University, 260 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2013-04-20

    We measure the luminosity and color dependence and the redshift evolution of galaxy clustering in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Ninth Data Release. We focus on the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of subsets of its CMASS sample, which includes about 260,000 galaxies over {approx}3300 deg{sup 2} in the redshift range 0.43 < z < 0.7. To minimize the selection effect on galaxy clustering, we construct well-defined luminosity and color subsamples by carefully accounting for the CMASS galaxy selection cuts. The 2PCF of the whole CMASS sample, if approximated by a power-law, has a correlation length of r{sub 0} = 7.93 {+-} 0.06 h {sup -1} Mpc and an index of {gamma} = 1.85 {+-} 0.01. Clear dependences on galaxy luminosity and color are found for the projected 2PCF in all redshift bins, with more luminous and redder galaxies generally exhibiting stronger clustering and steeper 2PCF. The color dependence is also clearly seen for galaxies within the red sequence, consistent with the behavior of SDSS-II main sample galaxies at lower redshifts. At a given luminosity (k + e corrected), no significant evolution of the projected 2PCFs with redshift is detected for red sequence galaxies. We also construct galaxy samples of fixed number density at different redshifts, using redshift-dependent magnitude thresholds. The clustering of these galaxies in the CMASS redshift range is found to be consistent with that predicted by passive evolution. Our measurements of the luminosity and color dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy clustering will allow for detailed modeling of the relation between galaxies and dark matter halos and new constraints on galaxy formation and evolution.

  14. C-M diagram and luminosity function of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 7099. I. Photographic photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotto, G.; Rosino, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Ortolani, S.; Alcaino, G.; Osservatorio Astronomico, Padua, Italy; Ministerio de Educacion de Chile, Instituto Isaac Newton, Santiago)

    1987-01-01

    New photographic photometry of about 4400 stars in the field of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 7099 = M30 is presented. A C-M diagram and a luminosity function are obtained from this photometry. The distance modulus is estimated at 14.5 + or - 0.5 assuming V(HB) = 15.11 + or - 0.10 and E(B-V) = 0.03 + or - 0.03. The metallicity is (Fe/H) = 1.9 + or - 0.3 based on the dereddened color index (B-V)0,g = 0.71 + or - 0.03. The theoretical isochrones of VandenBerg and Bell (1985) give a better fit to the observations assuming (Fe/H) = -1.8, (m-M)V = 14.6, and E(B-V) = 0.02. A fair fit is also obtained using isochrones of low iron content with an oxygen enhancement of 0.7. From the fit, an age of 17 + or - 4 Gyr is deduced. 41 references

  15. Correlation function of the luminosity distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biern, Sang Gyu; Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: sgbiern@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-09-01

    We present the correlation function of the luminosity distances in a flat ΛCDM universe. Decomposing the luminosity distance fluctuation into the velocity, the gravitational potential, and the lensing contributions in linear perturbation theory, we study their individual contributions to the correlation function. The lensing contribution is important at large redshift ( z ∼> 0.5) but only for small angular separation (θ ∼< 3°), while the velocity contribution dominates over the other contributions at low redshift or at larger separation. However, the gravitational potential contribution is always subdominant at all scale, if the correct gauge-invariant expression is used. The correlation function of the luminosity distances depends significantly on the matter content, especially for the lensing contribution, thus providing a novel tool of estimating cosmological parameters.

  16. Evolution of cluster X-ray luminosities and radii: Results from the 160 square degree rosat survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; McNamara, B.R.; Forman, W.

    1998-01-01

    We searched for cluster X-ray luminosity and radius evolution using our sample of 203 galaxy clusters detected in the 160 deg(2) survey with the ROSAT PSPC (Vikhlinin et al.). With such a large area survey, it is possible, for the first time with ROSAT, to test the evolution of luminous clusters, L......-X > 3 x 10(44) ergs s(-1) in the 0.5-2 keV band. We detect a factor of 3-4 deficit of such luminous clusters at z > 0.3 compared with the present. The evolution is much weaker or absent at modestly lower luminosities, (1-3) x 10(44) ergs s(-1). At still lower luminosities, we find no evolution from...... the analysis of the log N-log S relation. The results in the two upper L, bins are in agreement with the Einstein Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey evolution result (Gioia et al.; Henry ct al.), which was obtained using a completely independent cluster sample. The low-L-X results are in agreement with other...

  17. Altered luminosity functions for relativistically beamed objects. II - Distribution of Lorentz factors and parent populations with complex luminosity functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urry, C.M.; Padovani, P.

    1991-01-01

    In a previous paper, Urry and Shafer (1984) showed that the observed luminosity function (LF) of objects that have part or all of their emission relativistically beamed was a double power law, flat at the faint end and steep at the bright end, so that the ratio of beamed sources to parents was a strong function of luminosity. These calculations are extended here for more realistic LFs required for actual tests of a unified theory of AGN. The observed LF of the beam-dominated objects is generally flatter than the parent LF, so that the number density ratio is a strong function of luminosity and can easily be greater than unity at high luminosities, even for gradual low-luminosity cutoffs in the parent LF. Several characteristic break points can be identified depending on the details of the parent LF. The calculations can be used to test unified theories by predicting the observed LF for aligned objects from the LF of the proposed parent population. 6 refs

  18. Regulation of the X-ray luminosity of clusters of galaxies by cooling and supernova feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, G M; Bryan, G L

    2001-11-22

    Clusters of galaxies are thought to contain about ten times as much dark matter as baryonic matter. The dark component therefore dominates the gravitational potential of a cluster, and the baryons confined by this potential radiate X-rays with a luminosity that depends mainly on the gas density in the cluster's core. Predictions of the X-rays' properties based on models of cluster formation do not, however, agree with the observations. If the models ignore the condensation of cooling gas into stars and feedback from the associated supernovae, they overestimate the X-ray luminosity because the density of the core gas is too high. An early episode of uniformly distributed supernova feedback could rectify this by heating the uncondensed gas and therefore making it harder to compress into the core, but such a process seems to require an implausibly large number of supernovae. Here we show how radiative cooling of intergalactic gas and subsequent supernova heating conspire to eliminate highly compressible low-entropy gas from the intracluster medium. This brings the core entropy and X-ray luminosities of clusters into agreement with the observations, in a way that depends little on the efficiency of supernova heating in the early Universe.

  19. Resolving the faint end of the satellite luminosity function for the nearest elliptical Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnojevic, Denija

    2014-10-01

    We request HST/ACS imaging to follow up 15 new faint candidate dwarfs around the nearest elliptical Centaurus A (3.8 Mpc). The dwarfs were found via a systematic ground-based (Magellan/Megacam) survey out to ~150 kpc, designed to directly confront the "missing satellites" problem in a wholly new environment. Current Cold Dark Matter models for structure formation fail to reproduce the shallow slope of the satellite luminosity function in spiral-dominated groups for which dwarfs fainter than M_V<-14 have been surveyed (the Local Group and the nearby, interacting M81 group). Clusters of galaxies show a better agreement with cosmological predictions, suggesting an environmental dependence of the (poorly-understood) physical processes acting on the evolution of low mass galaxies (e.g., reionization). However, the luminosity function completeness for these rich environments quickly drops due to the faintness of the satellites and to the difficult cluster membership determination. We target a yet unexplored "intermediate" environment, a nearby group dominated by an elliptical galaxy, ideal due to its proximity: accurate (10%) distance determinations for its members can be derived from resolved stellar populations. The proposed observations of the candidate dwarfs will confirm their nature, group membership, and constrain their luminosities, metallicities, and star formation histories. We will obtain the first complete census of dwarf satellites of an elliptical down to an unprecedented M_V<-9. Our results will crucially constrain cosmological predictions for the faint end of the satellite luminosity function to achieve a more complete picture of the galaxy formation process.

  20. Luminosity function of high redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Data from ten different emission-line surveys are included in a study of the luminosity function of high redshift quasars. Five of the surveys are analyzed through microdensitometric techniques and the data for new quasars are given. The uncertainties in magnitudes, redshifts, and line equivalent widths are assessed and found to be +-0.3 mag. +-0.04 in z and approx. 30%, respectively. Criteria for selecting the redshift range 1.8 less than or equal to z - 1 Mpc - 1 for each of two cosmologies (q 0 = 1 and q 0 = 0). For either cosmology, the function exhibits a steep increase with magnitude at high luminosities and a gentler increase at intermediate luminosities. Data from the new surveys indicate a possible turnover at the faint end of the distribution. Total volume densities of quasars are computed for each of three extrapolations of the trend of the data to low luminosities. These densities are compared to those of active galaxies and field galaxies

  1. Evolution of the cluster optical galaxy luminosity function in the CFHTLS: breaking the degeneracy between mass and redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarron, F.; Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Adami, C.

    2018-06-01

    Obtaining large samples of galaxy clusters is important for cosmology: cluster counts as a function of redshift and mass can constrain the parameters of our Universe. They are also useful in order to understand the formation and evolution of clusters. We develop an improved version of the Adami & MAzure Cluster FInder (AMACFI), now the Adami, MAzure & Sarron Cluster FInder (AMASCFI), and apply it to the 154 deg2 of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) to obtain a large catalogue of 1371 cluster candidates with mass M200 > 1014 M⊙ and redshift z ≤ 0.7. We derive the selection function of the algorithm from the Millennium simulation, and cluster masses from a richness-mass scaling relation built from matching our candidates with X-ray detections. We study the evolution of these clusters with mass and redshift by computing the i'-band galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) for the early-type (ETGs) and late-type galaxies (LTGs). This sample is 90% pure and 70% complete, and therefore our results are representative of a large fraction of the cluster population in these redshift and mass ranges. We find an increase in both the ETG and LTG faint populations with decreasing redshift (with Schechter slopes αETG = -0.65 ± 0.03 and αLTG = -0.95 ± 0.04 at z = 0.6, and αETG = -0.79 ± 0.02 and αLTG = -1.26 ± 0.03 at z = 0.2) and also a decrease in the LTG (but not the ETG) bright end. Our large sample allows us to break the degeneracy between mass and redshift, finding that the redshift evolution is more pronounced in high-mass clusters, but that there is no significant dependence of the faint end on mass for a given redshift. These results show that the cluster red sequence is mainly formed at redshift z > 0.7, and that faint ETGs continue to enrich the red sequence through quenching of brighter LTGs at z ≤ 0.7. The efficiency of this quenching is higher in large-mass clusters, while the accretion rate of faint LTGs is lower as the more massive

  2. The pulsation mode and period-luminosity relationship of cool variables in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The period-luminosity-temperature relationship for globular cluster red and yellow variables is examined. The results suggest that the higher temperature, more metal-deficient cluster variables pulsate in the fundamental mode, while the lower temperature more metal-rich variables pulsate in the first overtone. On the assumption that this is correct, a relationship between fundamental period and bolometric magnitude is derived for cluster variables with observed periods of between 1 and 300 days. (author)

  3. THE LOCAL [C ii] 158 μ m EMISSION LINE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Yan, Lin; Capak, Peter; Faisst, Andreas; Masters, Daniel [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Diaz-Santos, Tanio [Nucleo de Astronomia de la Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Armus, Lee, E-mail: shemmati@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We present, for the first time, the local [C ii] 158 μ m emission line luminosity function measured using a sample of more than 500 galaxies from the Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. [C ii] luminosities are measured from the Herschel PACS observations of the Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey and estimated for the rest of the sample based on the far-infrared (far-IR) luminosity and color. The sample covers 91.3% of the sky and is complete at S{sub 60μm} > 5.24 Jy. We calculate the completeness as a function of [C ii] line luminosity and distance, based on the far-IR color and flux densities. The [C ii] luminosity function is constrained in the range ∼10{sup 7–9} L{sub ⊙} from both the 1/ V{sub max} and a maximum likelihood methods. The shape of our derived [C ii] emission line luminosity function agrees well with the IR luminosity function. For the CO(1-0) and [C ii] luminosity functions to agree, we propose a varying ratio of [C ii]/CO(1-0) as a function of CO luminosity, with larger ratios for fainter CO luminosities. Limited [C ii] high-redshift observations as well as estimates based on the IR and UV luminosity functions are suggestive of an evolution in the [C ii] luminosity function similar to the evolution trend of the cosmic star formation rate density. Deep surveys using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array with full capability will be able to confirm this prediction.

  4. The luminosity function of star clusters in 20 star-forming galaxies based on Hubble legacy archive photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bowers, Ariel S.; Lindsay, Kevin; Ansari, Asna; Evans, Jessica; Chandar, Rupali; Larsen, Soeren

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity functions (LFs) have been determined for star cluster populations in 20 nearby (4-30 Mpc), star-forming galaxies based on Advanced Camera for Surveys source lists generated by the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA). These cluster catalogs provide one of the largest sets of uniform, automatically generated cluster candidates available in the literature at present. Comparisons are made with other recently generated cluster catalogs demonstrating that the HLA-generated catalogs are of similar quality, but in general do not go as deep. A typical cluster LF can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL∝L α , with an average value for α of –2.37 and rms scatter = 0.18 when using the F814W ('I') band. A comparison of fitting results based on methods that use binned and unbinned data shows good agreement, although there may be a systematic tendency for the unbinned (maximum likelihood) method to give slightly more negative values of α for galaxies with steeper LFs. We find that galaxies with high rates of star formation (or equivalently, with the brightest or largest numbers of clusters) have a slight tendency to have shallower values of α. In particular, the Antennae galaxy (NGC 4038/39), a merging system with a relatively high star formation rate (SFR), has the second flattest LF in the sample. A tentative correlation may also be present between Hubble type and values of α, in the sense that later type galaxies (i.e., Sd and Sm) appear to have flatter LFs. Hence, while there do appear to be some weak correlations, the relative similarity in the values of α for a large number of star-forming galaxies suggests that, to first order, the LFs are fairly universal. We examine the bright end of the LFs and find evidence for a downturn, although it only pertains to about 1% of the clusters. Our uniform database results in a small scatter (≈0.4 to 0.5 mag) in the correlation between the magnitude of the brightest cluster (M brightest ) and log of the number

  5. Clustering of quasars in a wide luminosity range at redshift 4 with Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Wide-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wanqiu; Akiyama, Masayuki; Bosch, James; Enoki, Motohiro; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nagashima, Masahiro; Niida, Mana; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Oguri, Masamune; Onoue, Masafusa; Oogi, Taira; Ouchi, Masami; Schulze, Andreas; Shirasaki, Yuji; Silverman, John D.; Tanaka, Manobu M.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Toba, Yoshiki; Uchiyama, Hisakazu; Yamashita, Takuji

    2018-01-01

    We examine the clustering of quasars over a wide luminosity range, by utilizing 901 quasars at \\overline{z}_phot˜ 3.8 with -24.73 Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) S16A Wide2 date release and 342 more luminous quasars at 3.4 Digital Sky Survey that fall in the HSC survey fields. We measure the bias factors of two quasar samples by evaluating the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) between the quasar samples and 25790 bright z ˜ 4 Lyman break galaxies in M1450 < -21.25 photometrically selected from the HSC dataset. Over an angular scale of 10.0" to 1000.0", the bias factors are 5.93+1.34-1.43 and 2.73+2.44-2.55 for the low- and high-luminosity quasars, respectively, indicating no significant luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at z ˜ 4. It is noted that the bias factor of the luminous quasars estimated by the CCF is smaller than that estimated by the auto-correlation function over a similar redshift range, especially on scales below 40.0". Moreover, the bias factor of the less-luminous quasars implies the minimal mass of their host dark matter halos is 0.3-2 × 1012 h-1 M⊙, corresponding to a quasar duty cycle of 0.001-0.06.

  6. The luminosity function of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yichuan C.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new evolutionary model for the optical luminosity function of quasars. Our analytical model is derived from fits to the empirical luminosity function estimated by Hartwick and Schade and Warren, Hewett, and Osmer on the basis of more than 1200 quasars over the range of redshifts 0 approximately less than z approximately less than 4.5. We find that the evolution of quasars over this entire redshift range can be well fitted by a Gaussian distribution, while the shape of the luminosity function can be well fitted by either a double power law or an exponential L(exp 1/4) law. The predicted number counts of quasars, as a function of either apparent magnitude or redshift, are fully consistent with the observed ones. Our model indicates that the evolution of quasars reaches its maximum at z approximately = 2.8 and declines at higher redshifts. An extrapolation of the evolution to z approximately greater than 4.5 implies that quasars may have started their cosmic fireworks at z(sub f) approximately = 5.2-5.5. Forthcoming surveys of quasars at these redshifts will be critical to constrain the epoch of quasar formation. All the results we derived are based on observed quasars and are therefore subject to the bias of obscuration by dust in damped Ly alpha systems. Future surveys of these absorption systems at z approximately greater than 3 will also be important if the formation epoch of quasars is to be known unambiguously.

  7. Cluster evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The galaxy and cluster luminosity functions are constructed from a model of the mass distribution based on hierarchical clustering at an epoch where the matter distribution is non-linear. These luminosity functions are seen to reproduce the present distribution of objects as can be inferred from the observations. They can be used to deduce the redshift dependence of the cluster distribution and to extrapolate the observations towards the past. The predicted evolution of the cluster distribution is quite strong, although somewhat less rapid than predicted by the linear theory

  8. Globular clusters and galaxy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1984-01-01

    Using semipartial correlation coefficients and bootstrap techniques, a study is made of the important features of globular clusters with respect to the total number of galaxy clusters and dependence of specific galaxy cluster on parent galaxy type, cluster radii, luminosity functions and cluster ellipticity. It is shown that the ellipticity of LMC clusters correlates significantly with cluster luminosity functions, but not with cluster age. The cluter luminosity value above which globulars are noticeably flattened may differ by a factor of about 100 from galaxy to galaxy. Both in the Galaxy and in M31 globulars with small core radii have a Gaussian distribution over luminosity, whereas clusters with large core radii do not. In the cluster systems surrounding the Galaxy, M31 and NGC 5128 the mean radii of globular clusters was found to increase with the distance from the nucleus. Central galaxies in rich clusters have much higher values for specific globular cluster frequency than do other cluster ellipticals, suggesting that such central galaxies must already have been different from normal ellipticals at the time they were formed

  9. HICOSMO - cosmology with a complete sample of galaxy clusters - I. Data analysis, sample selection and luminosity-mass scaling relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.

    2017-08-01

    The X-ray regime, where the most massive visible component of galaxy clusters, the intracluster medium, is visible, offers directly measured quantities, like the luminosity, and derived quantities, like the total mass, to characterize these objects. The aim of this project is to analyse a complete sample of galaxy clusters in detail and constrain cosmological parameters, like the matter density, Ωm, or the amplitude of initial density fluctuations, σ8. The purely X-ray flux-limited sample (HIFLUGCS) consists of the 64 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters, which are excellent targets to study the systematic effects, that can bias results. We analysed in total 196 Chandra observations of the 64 HIFLUGCS clusters, with a total exposure time of 7.7 Ms. Here, we present our data analysis procedure (including an automated substructure detection and an energy band optimization for surface brightness profile analysis) that gives individually determined, robust total mass estimates. These masses are tested against dynamical and Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) derived masses of the same clusters, where good overall agreement is found with the dynamical masses. The Planck SZ masses seem to show a mass-dependent bias to our hydrostatic masses; possible biases in this mass-mass comparison are discussed including the Planck selection function. Furthermore, we show the results for the (0.1-2.4) keV luminosity versus mass scaling relation. The overall slope of the sample (1.34) is in agreement with expectations and values from literature. Splitting the sample into galaxy groups and clusters reveals, even after a selection bias correction, that galaxy groups exhibit a significantly steeper slope (1.88) compared to clusters (1.06).

  10. The evolution of the cluster optical galaxy luminosity function between z = 0.4 and 0.9 in the DAFT/FADA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Durret, Florence; Guennou, Loïc; Adami, Christophe; Biviano, Andrea; Ulmer, Melville P.; Clowe, Douglas; Halliday, Claire; Ilbert, Olivier; Márquez, Isabel; Schirmer, Mischa

    2015-03-01

    Context. There is some disagreement about the abundance of faint galaxies in high-redshift clusters, with contradictory results in the literature arising from studies of the optical galaxy luminosity function (GLF) for small cluster samples. Aims: We compute GLFs for one of the largest medium-to-high-redshift (0.4 ≤ z DAFT/FADA survey in the B,V,R, and I rest-frame bands. We used photometric redshifts computed from BVRIZJ images to constrain galaxy cluster membership. We carried out a detailed estimate of the completeness of our data. We distinguished the red-sequence and blue galaxies using a V - I versus I colour-magnitude diagram. We studied the evolution of these two populations with redshift. We fitted Schechter functions to our stacked GLFs to determine average cluster characteristics. Results: We find that the shapes of our GLFs are similar for the B,V,R, and I bands with a drop at the red GLF faint ends that is more pronounced at high redshift: αred ~ -0.5 at 0.40 ≤ z 0.1 at 0.65 ≤ z < 0.90. The blue GLFs have a steeper faint end (αblue ~ -1.6) than the red GLFs, which appears to be independent of redshift. For the full cluster sample, blue and red GLFs meet at MV = -20, MR = -20.5, and MI = -20.3. A study of how galaxy types evolve with redshift shows that late-type galaxies appear to become early types between z ~ 0.9 and today. Finally, the faint ends of the red GLFs of more massive clusters appear to be richer than less massive clusters, which is more typical of the lower redshift behaviour. Conclusions: Our results indicate that these clusters form at redshifts higher than z = 0.9 from galaxy structures that already have an established red sequence. Late-type galaxies then appear to evolve into early types, enriching the red sequence between this redshift and today. This effect is consistent with the evolution of the faint-end slope of the red sequence and the galaxy type evolution that we find. Finally, faint galaxies accreted from the field

  11. HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS FIRST COMPLETE CLUSTER DATA: FAINT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 5-10 FOR UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND COSMIC REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kawamata, Ryota; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Oguri, Masamune, E-mail: ishigaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-20

    We present comprehensive analyses of faint dropout galaxies up to z ∼ 10 with the first full-depth data set of the A2744 lensing cluster and parallel fields observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program. We identify 54 dropouts at z ∼ 5-10 in the HFF fields and enlarge the size of the z ∼ 9 galaxy sample obtained to date. Although the number of highly magnified (μ ∼ 10) galaxies is small because of the tiny survey volume of strong lensing, our study reaches the galaxies' intrinsic luminosities comparable to the deepest-field HUDF studies. We derive UV luminosity functions with these faint dropouts, carefully evaluating by intensive simulations the combination of observational incompleteness and lensing effects in the image plane, including magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images, with the evaluation of mass model dependencies. Our results confirm that the faint-end slope, α, is as steep as –2 at z ∼ 6-8 and strengthen the evidence for the rapid decrease of UV luminosity densities, ρ{sub UV}, at z > 8 from the large z ∼ 9 sample. We examine whether the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease trend can be reconciled with the large Thomson scattering optical depth, τ{sub e}, measured by cosmic microwave background experiments, allowing a large space of free parameters, such as an average ionizing photon escape fraction and a stellar-population-dependent conversion factor. No parameter set can reproduce both the rapid ρ{sub UV} decrease and the large τ {sub e}. It is possible that the ρ{sub UV} decrease moderates at z ≳ 11, that the free parameters significantly evolve toward high z, or that there exist additional sources of reionization such as X-ray binaries and faint active galactic nuclei.

  12. HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS FIRST COMPLETE CLUSTER DATA: FAINT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 5-10 FOR UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND COSMIC REIONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Kawamata, Ryota; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Oguri, Masamune

    2015-01-01

    We present comprehensive analyses of faint dropout galaxies up to z ∼ 10 with the first full-depth data set of the A2744 lensing cluster and parallel fields observed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program. We identify 54 dropouts at z ∼ 5-10 in the HFF fields and enlarge the size of the z ∼ 9 galaxy sample obtained to date. Although the number of highly magnified (μ ∼ 10) galaxies is small because of the tiny survey volume of strong lensing, our study reaches the galaxies' intrinsic luminosities comparable to the deepest-field HUDF studies. We derive UV luminosity functions with these faint dropouts, carefully evaluating by intensive simulations the combination of observational incompleteness and lensing effects in the image plane, including magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images, with the evaluation of mass model dependencies. Our results confirm that the faint-end slope, α, is as steep as –2 at z ∼ 6-8 and strengthen the evidence for the rapid decrease of UV luminosity densities, ρ UV , at z > 8 from the large z ∼ 9 sample. We examine whether the rapid ρ UV decrease trend can be reconciled with the large Thomson scattering optical depth, τ e , measured by cosmic microwave background experiments, allowing a large space of free parameters, such as an average ionizing photon escape fraction and a stellar-population-dependent conversion factor. No parameter set can reproduce both the rapid ρ UV decrease and the large τ e . It is possible that the ρ UV decrease moderates at z ≳ 11, that the free parameters significantly evolve toward high z, or that there exist additional sources of reionization such as X-ray binaries and faint active galactic nuclei

  13. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE FAINT END OF THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼ 7-8 USING THE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING OF THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER A2744

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Clement, Benjamin; Jauzac, Mathilde; Schaerer, Daniel; Limousin, Marceau; Jullo, Eric; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting the power of gravitational lensing, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program aims at observing six massive galaxy clusters to explore the distant universe far beyond the limits of blank field surveys. Using the complete Hubble Space Telescope observations of the first HFF cluster A2744, we report the detection of 50 galaxy candidates at z ∼ 7 and eight candidates at z ∼ 8 in a total survey area of 0.96 arcmin 2 in the source plane. Three of these galaxies are multiply imaged by the lensing cluster. Using an updated model of the mass distribution in the cluster we were able to calculate the magnification factor and the effective survey volume for each galaxy in order to compute the ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function (LF) at both redshifts 7 and 8. Our new measurements reliably extend the z ∼ 7 UV LF down to an absolute magnitude of M UV ∼ –15.5. We find a characteristic magnitude of M UV ⋆ =−20.90 −0.73 +0.90  mag and a faint-end slope α=−2.01 −0.28 +0.20 , close to previous determinations in blank fields. We show here for the first time that this slope remains steep down to very faint luminosities of 0.01 L * . Although prone to large uncertainties, our results at z ∼ 8 also seem to confirm a steep faint-end slope below 0.1 L * . The HFF program is therefore providing an extremely efficient way to study the faintest galaxy populations at z > 7 that would otherwise be inaccessible with current instrumentation. The full sample of six galaxy clusters will provide even better constraints on the buildup of galaxies at early epochs and their contribution to cosmic reionization

  14. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE FAINT END OF THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼ 7-8 USING THE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING OF THE HUBBLE FRONTIER FIELDS CLUSTER A2744

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Richard, Johan; Clement, Benjamin [CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. André, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Jauzac, Mathilde [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Schaerer, Daniel [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Limousin, Marceau; Jullo, Eric [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Natarajan, Priyamvada [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Egami, Eiichi [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ebeling, Harald [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Exploiting the power of gravitational lensing, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program aims at observing six massive galaxy clusters to explore the distant universe far beyond the limits of blank field surveys. Using the complete Hubble Space Telescope observations of the first HFF cluster A2744, we report the detection of 50 galaxy candidates at z ∼ 7 and eight candidates at z ∼ 8 in a total survey area of 0.96 arcmin{sup 2} in the source plane. Three of these galaxies are multiply imaged by the lensing cluster. Using an updated model of the mass distribution in the cluster we were able to calculate the magnification factor and the effective survey volume for each galaxy in order to compute the ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function (LF) at both redshifts 7 and 8. Our new measurements reliably extend the z ∼ 7 UV LF down to an absolute magnitude of M {sub UV} ∼ –15.5. We find a characteristic magnitude of M{sub UV}{sup ⋆}=−20.90{sub −0.73}{sup +0.90} mag and a faint-end slope α=−2.01{sub −0.28}{sup +0.20}, close to previous determinations in blank fields. We show here for the first time that this slope remains steep down to very faint luminosities of 0.01 L {sup *}. Although prone to large uncertainties, our results at z ∼ 8 also seem to confirm a steep faint-end slope below 0.1 L {sup *}. The HFF program is therefore providing an extremely efficient way to study the faintest galaxy populations at z > 7 that would otherwise be inaccessible with current instrumentation. The full sample of six galaxy clusters will provide even better constraints on the buildup of galaxies at early epochs and their contribution to cosmic reionization.

  15. Constraints on the age and evolution of the Galaxy from the white dwarf luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The white dwarf disk luminosity function is explored using observational results of Liebert et al. (1988, 1989) as a template for comparison, and the cooling curves of Wood (1990, 1991) as the input basis functions for the integration. The star formation rate over the history of the Galaxy is found to be constant to within an order of magnitude, and the disk age lies in the range 6-13.5 Gyr, where roughly 40 percent of the uncertainty is due to the observational uncertainties. Using the best current estimates as inputs to the integration, the disk ages range from 7.5 to 11 Gyr, i.e., they are substantially younger than most estimates for the halo globular clusters but in reasonable agreement with those for the disk globular clusters and open clusters. The ages of these differing populations, taken together, are consistent with the pressure-supported collapse models of early spiral Galactic evolution.

  16. Distance of the Pleiades cluster and the calibration of photometric luminosities for early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, O.J.

    1986-01-01

    An examination of the lower main-sequence (mode-A) stars in the Pleiades cluster suggests an Fe/H abundance ratio between 0.0 and 0.1 dex with a resulting modulus of 5.65 + or - 0.1 mag, and fundamental defects in the calculation of Balona and Shobbrook (1984), with an adopted modulus of 5.50 mag, are discussed. It is suggested that the ZAMS of Balona and Shobbrook, and of Mermilliod (1981), are too bright due to their assumption that the color-luminosity arrays of such clusters as the Pleiades represent isochrones, leading to uncertainties in the ZAMS, particularly with respect to slope. Several recently published photometric luminosity calibrations for early-type stars may be incorrect due to their failing to recognize the probable presence of at least two evolutionary modes and the apparent absence of ZAMS stars near the sun. 34 references

  17. The Abundance of Low-Luminosity Lyα Emitters at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Michael R.; Ellis, Richard S.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Kuijken, Konrad

    2004-05-01

    We derive the luminosity function of high-redshift Lyα-emitting sources from a deep, blind, spectroscopic survey that utilized strong-lensing magnification by intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. We observed carefully selected regions near nine clusters, consistent with magnification factors generally greater than 10 for the redshift range 4.5account our varying intrinsic Lyα line sensitivity as a function of wavelength and sky position. By virtue of the strong magnification factor, we provide constraints on the Lyα luminosity function to unprecedented limits of 1040 ergs s -1, corresponding to a star formation rate of 0.01 Msolar yr-1. Our cumulative z~=5 Lyα luminosity function is consistent with a power-law form n(>L)~L-1 over 1041-1042.5 ergs s-1. When combined with the results of other surveys, limited at higher luminosities, our results suggest evidence for the suppression of star formation in low-mass halos, as predicted in popular models of galaxy formation. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  18. Centre-excised X-ray luminosity as an efficient mass proxy for future galaxy cluster surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; von der Linden, Anja

    2018-01-01

    The cosmological constraining power of modern galaxy cluster catalogues can be improved by obtaining low-scatter mass proxy measurements for even a small fraction of sources. In the context of large upcoming surveys that will reveal the cluster population down to the group scale and out to high redshifts, efficient strategies for obtaining such mass proxies will be valuable. In this work, we use high-quality weak-lensing and X-ray mass estimates for massive clusters in current X-ray-selected catalogues to revisit the scaling relations of the projected, centre-excised X-ray luminosity (Lce), which previous work suggests correlates tightly with total mass. Our data confirm that this is the case with Lce having an intrinsic scatter at fixed mass comparable to that of gas mass, temperature or YX. Compared to the other proxies, however, Lce is less susceptible to systematic uncertainties due to background modelling, and can be measured precisely with shorter exposures. This opens up the possibility of using Lce to estimate masses for large numbers of clusters discovered by new X-ray surveys (e.g. eROSITA) directly from the survey data, as well as for clusters discovered at other wavelengths with relatively short follow-up observations. We describe a simple procedure for making such estimates from X-ray surface brightness data, and comment on the spatial resolution required to apply this method as a function of cluster mass and redshift. We also explore the potential impact of Chandra and XMM-Newton follow-up observations over the next decade on dark energy constraints from new cluster surveys.

  19. The faint-end of galaxy luminosity functions at the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, B.; Castellano, M.; Ferrara, A.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Amorín, R.; Grazian, A.; Mármol-Queralto, E.; Michałowski, M. J.; Mortlock, A.; Paris, D.; Parsa, S.; Pilo, S.; Santini, P.; Di Criscienzo, M.

    2018-05-01

    During the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), feedback effects reduce the efficiency of star formation process in small halos or even fully quench it. The galaxy luminosity function (LF) may then turn over at the faint-end. We analyze the number counts of z > 5 galaxies observed in the fields of four Frontier Fields (FFs) clusters and obtain constraints on the LF faint-end: for the turn-over magnitude at z ~ 6, MUVT >~-13.3 for the circular velocity threshold of quenching star formation process, vc* <~ 47 km s-1. We have not yet found significant evidence of the presence of feedback effects suppressing the star formation in small galaxies.

  20. Constraints on Ωm and σ8 from the potential-based cluster temperature function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrick, Christian; Pace, Francesco; Bartelmann, Matthias; Roncarelli, Mauro

    2015-12-01

    The abundance of galaxy clusters is in principle a powerful tool to constrain cosmological parameters, especially Ωm and σ8, due to the exponential dependence in the high-mass regime. While the best observables are the X-ray temperature and luminosity, the abundance of galaxy clusters, however, is conventionally predicted as a function of mass. Hence, the intrinsic scatter and the uncertainties in the scaling relations between mass and either temperature or luminosity lower the reliability of galaxy clusters to constrain cosmological parameters. In this article, we further refine the X-ray temperature function for galaxy clusters by Angrick et al., which is based on the statistics of perturbations in the cosmic gravitational potential and proposed to replace the classical mass-based temperature function, by including a refined analytic merger model and compare the theoretical prediction to results from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. Although we find already a good agreement if we compare with a cluster temperature function based on the mass-weighted temperature, including a redshift-dependent scaling between mass-based and spectroscopic temperature yields even better agreement between theoretical model and numerical results. As a proof of concept, incorporating this additional scaling in our model, we constrain the cosmological parameters Ωm and σ8 from an X-ray sample of galaxy clusters and tentatively find agreement with the recent cosmic microwave background based results from the Planck mission at 1σ-level.

  1. Deep JHK Photometry and the Infrared Luminosity Function of the Galactic Bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Glenn P.; Frogel, Jay A.; Terndrup, D. M.

    1995-03-01

    We derive the deepest, most complete near-IR luminosity function for Galactic bulge stars yet obtained based on new JHK photometry for stars in two fields of Baade's Window. When combined with previously published data, we are able to construct a luminosity function over the range 5.5 Blanco, V.M., & Whitford, A.E. 1990, ApJ, 353, 494). Between b = -3 and -12 we find a gradient in [Fe/H] of -0.06 +/- 0.03 dex/degree, consistent with other, independent derivations. We derive a helium abundance for Baade's Window with the R and R(') methods and find that Y = 0.27 +/- 0.03. Finally, we find that the bolometric corrections for bulge K giants (V - K >= 2) are in excellent agreement with empirical derivations based on observations of globular cluster and local field stars. However, for the redder M giants we find, as did Frogel and Whitford 1987, that the bolometric corrections differ by several tenths of a magnitude from those derived for field giants and adopted in the Revised Yale Isochrones. This difference most likely arises from the excess molecular blanketing in the V and I bands of the bulge giants relative to that seen in field stars.

  2. Galaxy luminosity function and Tully-Fisher relation: reconciled through rotation-curve studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, Andrea; Salucci, Paolo; Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    The relation between galaxy luminosity L and halo virial velocity v vir required to fit the galaxy luminosity function differs from the observed Tully-Fisher relation between L and disk speed v rot . Because of this, the problem of reproducing the galaxy luminosity function and the Tully-Fisher relation simultaneously has plagued semianalytic models since their inception. Here we study the relation between v rot and v vir by fitting observational average rotation curves of disk galaxies binned in luminosity. We show that the v rot -v vir relation that we obtain in this way can fully account for this seeming inconsistency. Therefore, the reconciliation of the luminosity function with the Tully-Fisher relation rests on the complex dependence of v rot on v vir , which arises because the ratio of stellar mass to dark matter mass is a strong function of halo mass.

  3. THE LUMINOSITY, MASS, AND AGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF COMPACT STAR CLUSTERS IN M83 BASED ON HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaleida, Catherine; Calzetti, Daniela; Saha, Abhijit; O'Connell, Robert; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick; Paresce, Francesco; Silk, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The newly installed Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope has been used to obtain multi-band images of the nearby spiral galaxy M83. These new observations are the deepest and highest resolution images ever taken of a grand-design spiral, particularly in the near-ultraviolet, and allow us to better differentiate compact star clusters from individual stars and to measure the luminosities of even faint clusters in the U band. We find that the luminosity function (LF) for clusters outside of the very crowded starburst nucleus can be approximated by a power law, dN/dL ∝ L α , with α = -2.04 ± 0.08, down to M V ∼ -5.5. We test the sensitivity of the LF to different selection techniques, filters, binning, and aperture correction determinations, and find that none of these contribute significantly to uncertainties in α. We estimate ages and masses for the clusters by comparing their measured UBVI, Hα colors with predictions from single stellar population models. The age distribution of the clusters can be approximated by a power law, dN/dτ ∝ τ γ , with γ = -0.9 ± 0.2, for M ∼> few x 10 3 M sun and τ ∼ 8 yr. This indicates that clusters are disrupted quickly, with ∼80%-90% disrupted each decade in age over this time. The mass function of clusters over the same M-τ range is a power law, dN/dM ∝ M β , with β = -1.94 ± 0.16, and does not have bends or show curvature at either high or low masses. Therefore, we do not find evidence for a physical upper mass limit, M C , or for the earlier disruption of lower mass clusters when compared with higher mass clusters, i.e., mass-dependent disruption. We briefly discuss these implications for the formation and disruption of the clusters.

  4. Luminosity-velocity diagrams for Virgo Cluster spirals. I - Inner rotation curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Madore, Barry F.

    1990-01-01

    Optical rotation curves are presented for the innermost portions of nine spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. The emission-line (H-alpha and forbidden N II) velocity data are to be used in combination with new CCD photometry to construct luminosity-velocity diagrams, in a continuing investigation of an apparent initial linear branch and its potential as a distance indicator. Compared to recent H I data, the present optical rotation curves generally show systematically steeper inner gradients. This effect is ascribed to the poorer resolution of the H I data and/or to holes in the gas distribution.

  5. The Mass Function of Young Star Clusters in the "Antennae" Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang; Fall

    1999-12-20

    We determine the mass function of young star clusters in the merging galaxies known as the "Antennae" (NGC 4038/9) from deep images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope. This is accomplished by means of reddening-free parameters and a comparison with stellar population synthesis tracks to estimate the intrinsic luminosity and age, and hence the mass, of each cluster. We find that the mass function of the young star clusters (with ages less, similar160 Myr) is well represented by a power law of the form psi&parl0;M&parr0;~M-2 over the range 104 less, similarM less, similar106 M middle dot in circle. This result may have important implications for our understanding of the origin of globular clusters during the early phases of galactic evolution.

  6. Spectroscopic constraints on the form of the stellar cluster mass function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, N.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Trancho, G.; Weisz, D. R.; Larsen, S. S.; Fouesneau, M.; Kaschinski, C. B.; Gieles, M.

    2012-05-01

    This contribution addresses the question of whether the initial cluster mass function (ICMF) has a fundamental limit (or truncation) at high masses. The shape of the ICMF at high masses can be studied using the most massive young (advantages are that more clusters can be used and that the ICMF leaves a distinct pattern on the global relation between the cluster luminosity and median age within a population. If a truncation is present, a generic prediction (nearly independent of the cluster disruption law adopted) is that the median age of bright clusters should be younger than that of fainter clusters. In the case of an non-truncated ICMF, the median age should be independent of cluster luminosity. Here, we present optical spectroscopy of twelve young stellar clusters in the face-on spiral galaxy NGC 2997. The spectra are used to estimate the age of each cluster, and the brightness of the clusters is taken from the literature. The observations are compared with the model expectations of Larsen (2009, A&A, 494, 539) for various ICMF forms and both mass dependent and mass independent cluster disruption. While there exists some degeneracy between the truncation mass and the amount of mass independent disruption, the observations favour a truncated ICMF. For low or modest amounts of mass independent disruption, a truncation mass of 5-6 × 105 M⊙ is estimated, consistent with previous determinations. Additionally, we investigate possible truncations in the ICMF in the spiral galaxy M 83, the interacting Antennae galaxies, and the collection of spiral and dwarf galaxies present in Larsen (2009, A&A, 494, 539) based on photometric catalogues taken from the literature, and find that all catalogues are consistent with having a truncation in the cluster mass functions. However for the case of the Antennae, we find a truncation mass of a few × 106M⊙ , suggesting a dependence on the environment, as has been previously suggested.

  7. The quasar luminosity function at redshift 4 with the Hyper Suprime-Cam Wide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masayuki; He, Wanqiu; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Niida, Mana; Nagao, Tohru; Bosch, James; Coupon, Jean; Enoki, Motohiro; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Oguri, Masamune; Ono, Yoshiaki; Onoue, Masafusa; Ouchi, Masami; Schulze, Andreas; Silverman, John D.; Tanaka, Manobu M.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Terashima, Yuichi; Toba, Yoshiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of z ˜ 4 quasars based on the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program Wide layer imaging data in the g, r, i, z, and y bands covering 339.8 deg2. From stellar objects, 1666 z ˜ 4 quasar candidates are selected via the g-dropout selection down to i = 24.0 mag. Their photometric redshifts cover the redshift range between 3.6 and 4.3, with an average of 3.9. In combination with the quasar sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the same redshift range, a quasar luminosity function covering the wide luminosity range of M1450 = -22 to -29 mag is constructed. The quasar luminosity function is well described by a double power-law model with a knee at M1450 = -25.36 ± 0.13 mag and a flat faint-end slope with a power-law index of -1.30 ± 0.05. The knee and faint-end slope show no clear evidence of redshift evolution from those seen at z ˜ 2. The flat slope implies that the UV luminosity density of the quasar population is dominated by the quasars around the knee, and does not support the steeper faint-end slope at higher redshifts reported at z > 5. If we convert the M1450 luminosity function to the hard X-ray 2-10 keV luminosity function using the relation between the UV and X-ray luminosity of quasars and its scatter, the number density of UV-selected quasars matches well with that of the X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) above the knee of the luminosity function. Below the knee, the UV-selected quasars show a deficiency compared to the hard X-ray luminosity function. The deficiency can be explained by the lack of obscured AGNs among the UV-selected quasars.

  8. GALAXIES IN ΛCDM WITH HALO ABUNDANCE MATCHING: LUMINOSITY-VELOCITY RELATION, BARYONIC MASS-VELOCITY RELATION, VELOCITY FUNCTION, AND CLUSTERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Klypin, Anatoly; Primack, Joel; Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been regarded as difficult if not impossible for a cosmological model to account simultaneously for the galaxy luminosity, mass, and velocity distributions. We revisit this issue using a modern compilation of observational data along with the best available large-scale cosmological simulation of dark matter (DM). We find that the standard cosmological model, used in conjunction with halo abundance matching (HAM) and simple dynamical corrections, fits—at least on average—all basic statistics of galaxies with circular velocities V circ > 80 km s –1 calculated at a radius of ∼10 kpc. Our primary observational constraint is the luminosity-velocity (LV) relation—which generalizes the Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson relations in allowing all types of galaxies to be included, and provides a fundamental benchmark to be reproduced by any theory of galaxy formation. We have compiled data for a variety of galaxies ranging from dwarf irregulars to giant ellipticals. The data present a clear monotonic LV relation from ∼50 km s –1 to ∼500 km s –1 , with a bend below ∼80 km s –1 and a systematic offset between late- and early-type galaxies. For comparison to theory, we employ our new ΛCDM 'Bolshoi' simulation of DM, which has unprecedented mass and force resolution over a large cosmological volume, while using an up-to-date set of cosmological parameters. We use HAM to assign rank-ordered galaxy luminosities to the DM halos, a procedure that automatically fits the empirical luminosity function and provides a predicted LV relation that can be checked against observations. The adiabatic contraction of DM halos in response to the infall of the baryons is included as an optional model ingredient. The resulting predictions for the LV relation are in excellent agreement with the available data on both early-type and late-type galaxies for the luminosity range from M r = –14 to M r = –22. We also compare our predictions for the 'cold' baryon mass (i

  9. Low-mass stars in globular clusters. III. The mass function of 47 Tucanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marchi, G.; Paresce, F.

    1995-12-01

    We have used the WFPC2 on board HST to investigate the stellar population in a field located 4'6 E of the center of the globular cluster 47 Tuc (NGC 104), close to the half-mass radius, through wide band imaging at 606 and 812nm. A total of ~3000 stars are accurately classified by two-color photometry to form a color-magnitude diagram extending down to a limiting magnitude m_814_=~m_I_=~24. A rich cluster main sequence is detected spanning the range from m_814_=~18 through m_814_=~23, where it spreads considerably due to the increasing photometric uncertainty and galaxy contamination. A secondary sequence of objects is also detected, parallel to the main sequence, as expected for a population of binary stars. The measured binary fraction in the range 195%. The main sequence luminosity function obtained from the observed CMD increases with decreasing luminosity following a power-law trend with index α=~0.15 in the range 5crowding. On the basis of the available mass-luminosity relation for this metallicity, the resultant mass function shows a power-law increase in numbers for decreasing masses in the range 0.8-0.3Msun_ with a slope α=~1.5, but then flattens out in the 0.3-0.15Msun_ range. The comparison of the mass function of 47 Tuc with that of NGC 6397 (Paper I) and of M 15 (Paper II), previously investigated with the same instrumentation, suggests that the stellar population near the half-mass radius of these clusters should not be very sensitive to either internal or externally-driven dynamical processes. The difference between their mass functions could then be attributed to metallicity, reflecting an intrinsic difference in their initial mass functions, unless mass-segregation is stronger in 47 Tuc than in the other two clusters. This latter circumstance could be due, for instance, to the large number of binaries discovered in 47 Tuc. In all cases, however, the mass function is found to flatten below 0.3Msun_ and the flattening is most likely an intrinsic

  10. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. VII. The Intrinsic Shapes of Low-luminosity Galaxies in the Core of the Virgo Cluster, and a Comparison with the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Ferrarese, Laura; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen; McConnacchie, Alan W.; Boselli, Alessandro; Courteau, Stéphane; Emsellem, Eric; Mei, Simona; Peng, Eric; Puzia, Thomas H.; Roediger, Joel; Simard, Luc; Boyer, Fred; Santos, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the intrinsic shapes of low-luminosity galaxies in the central 300 kpc of the Virgo Cluster using deep imaging obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). We build a sample of nearly 300 red-sequence cluster members in the yet-unexplored -14 families of triaxial models with normally distributed intrinsic ellipticities, E = 1 - C/A, and triaxialities, T = (A2 - B2)/(A2 - C2). We develop a Bayesian framework to explore the posterior distribution of the model parameters, which allows us to work directly on discrete data, and to account for individual, surface-brightness-dependent axis ratio uncertainties. For this population we infer a mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.43}-0.02+0.02 and a mean triaxiality \\bar{T} = {0.16}-0.06+0.07. This implies that faint Virgo galaxies are best described as a family of thick, nearly oblate spheroids with mean intrinsic axis ratios 1:0.94:0.57. The core of Virgo lacks highly elongated low-luminosity galaxies, with 95% of the population having q > 0.45. We additionally attempt a study of the intrinsic shapes of Local Group (LG) satellites of similar luminosities. For the LG population we infer a slightly larger mean intrinsic ellipticity \\bar{E} = {0.51}-0.06+0.07, and the paucity of objects with round apparent shapes translates into more triaxial mean shapes, 1:0.76:0.49. Numerical studies that follow the tidal evolution of satellites within LG-sized halos are in good agreement with the inferred shape distributions, but the mismatch for faint galaxies in Virgo highlights the need for more adequate simulations of this population in the cluster environment. We finally compare the intrinsic shapes of NGVS low-mass galaxies with samples of more massive quiescent systems, and with field, star-forming galaxies of similar luminosities. We find that the intrinsic flattening in this low-luminosity regime is almost independent of the environment in which the galaxy resides, but there is a hint

  11. Cross-correlation of SDSS DR7 quasars and DR10 BOSS galaxies: The weak luminosity dependence of quasar clustering at z ∼ 0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yue; McBride, Cameron K.; Swanson, Molly E. C.; White, Martin; Kirkpatrick, Jessica A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schlegel, David J.; Zheng, Zheng; Myers, Adam D.; Guo, Hong; Zehavi, Idit; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Parejko, John K.; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Ebelke, Garrett; Malanushenko, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    We present the measurement of the two-point cross-correlation function (CCF) of 8198 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars and 349,608 Data Release 10 CMASS galaxies from the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey at 0.3 < z < 0.9. The CCF can be reasonably well fit by a power-law model ξ QG (r) = (r/r 0 ) –γ on projected scales of r p = 2-25 h –1 Mpc with r 0 = 6.61 ± 0.25 h –1 Mpc and γ = 1.69 ± 0.07. We estimate a quasar linear bias of b Q = 1.38 ± 0.10 at (z) = 0.53 from the CCF measurements, which corresponds to a characteristic host halo mass of ∼4 × 10 12 h –1 M ☉ , compared with a ∼10 13 h –1 M ☉ characteristic host halo mass for CMASS galaxies. Based on the clustering measurements, most quasars at z-bar ∼0.5 are not the descendants of their higher luminosity counterparts at higher redshift, which would have evolved into more massive and more biased systems at low redshift. We divide the quasar sample in luminosity and constrain the luminosity dependence of quasar bias to be db Q /dlog L = 0.20 ± 0.34 or 0.11 ± 0.32 (depending on different luminosity divisions) for quasar luminosities –23.5 > M i (z = 2) > –25.5, implying a weak luminosity dependence of clustering for luminous quasars at z-bar ∼0.5. We compare our measurements with theoretical predictions, halo occupation distribution (HOD) models, and mock catalogs. These comparisons suggest that quasars reside in a broad range of host halos. The host halo mass distributions significantly overlap with each other for quasars at different luminosities, implying a poor correlation between halo mass and instantaneous quasar luminosity. We also find that the quasar HOD parameterization is largely degenerate such that different HODs can reproduce the CCF equally well, but with different satellite fractions and host halo mass distributions. These results highlight the limitations and ambiguities in modeling the distribution of quasars with the standard HOD approach.

  12. Statistical Issues in Galaxy Cluster Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The number and growth of massive galaxy clusters are sensitive probes of cosmological structure formation. Surveys at various wavelengths can detect clusters to high redshift, but the fact that cluster mass is not directly observable complicates matters, requiring us to simultaneously constrain scaling relations of observable signals with mass. The problem can be cast as one of regression, in which the data set is truncated, the (cosmology-dependent) underlying population must be modeled, and strong, complex correlations between measurements often exist. Simulations of cosmological structure formation provide a robust prediction for the number of clusters in the Universe as a function of mass and redshift (the mass function), but they cannot reliably predict the observables used to detect clusters in sky surveys (e.g. X-ray luminosity). Consequently, observers must constrain observable-mass scaling relations using additional data, and use the scaling relation model in conjunction with the mass function to predict the number of clusters as a function of redshift and luminosity.

  13. The quasar luminosity function from a variability-selected sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. R. S.; Veron, P.

    1993-01-01

    A sample of quasars is selected from a 10-yr sequence of 30 UK Schmidt plates. Luminosity functions are derived in several redshift intervals, which in each case show a featureless power-law rise towards low luminosities. There is no sign of the 'break' found in the recent UVX sample of Boyle et al. It is suggested that reasons for the disagreement are connected with biases in the selection of the UVX sample. The question of the nature of quasar evolution appears to be still unresolved.

  14. The white dwarf luminosity function - A possible probe of the galactic halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamanaha, Christopher M.; Silk, Joseph; Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamically inferred dark halo mass density, amounting to above 0.01 solar masses/cu pc at the sun's Galactocentric radius, can be composed of faint white dwarfs provided that the halo formed in a sufficiently early burst of star formation. The model is constrained by the observed disk white dwarf luminosity function which falls off below log (L/solar L) = -4.4, due to the onset of star formation in the disk. By using a narrow range for the initial mass function and an exponentially decaying halo star formation rate with an e-folding time equal to the free-fall time, all the halo dark matter is allowed to be in cool white dwarfs which lie beyond the falloff in the disk luminosity function. Although it is unlikely that all the dark matter is in these dim white dwarfs, a definite signature in the low-luminosity end of the white dwarf luminosity function is predicted even if they comprise only 1 percent of the dark matter. Current CCD surveys should answer the question of the existence of this population within the next few years.

  15. THE GALAXY OPTICAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Caldwell, Nelson; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Moustakas, John

    2012-01-01

    We present the galaxy optical luminosity function for the redshift range 0.05 2 in the Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Our statistical sample is composed of 12,473 galaxies with known redshifts down to I = 20.4 (AB). Our results at low redshift are consistent with those from Sloan Digital Sky Survey; at higher redshift, we find strong evidence for evolution in the luminosity function, including differential evolution between blue and red galaxies. We find that the luminosity density evolves as (1 + z) (0.54±0.64) for red galaxies and (1 + z) (1.64±0.39) for blue galaxies.

  16. The Evolution in the Faint-End Slope of the Quasar Luminosity Function

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Hernquist, Lars; Cox, Thomas J.; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Robertson, Brant; Springel, Volker

    2005-01-01

    (Abridged) Based on numerical simulations of galaxy mergers that incorporate black hole (BH) growth, we predict the faint end slope of the quasar luminosity function (QLF) and its evolution with redshift. Our simulations have yielded a new model for quasar lifetimes where the lifetime depends on both the instantaneous and peak quasar luminosities. This motivates a new interpretation of the QLF in which the bright end consists of quasars radiating at nearly their peak luminosities, but the fai...

  17. Synthetic horizontal branch models for globular clusters - the luminosity of the horizontal branch and the Oosterhoff effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.W.; Demarque, P.; Zinn, R.

    1987-01-01

    The variation of horizontal-branch (HB) luminosities with metal abundances is analyzed on the basis of HB models synthesized from theoretical HB evolutionary tracks. The focus is on the Oosterhoff effect, as related to period shifts in globular-cluster RR Lyr variables. The construction of the models and the Oosterhoff period groups is explained in detail, and the implications for globular-cluster ages are considered. The ratio of Delta M(bol) (RR) to Delta Fe/H for the HB is calculated as 0.24, slightly steeper than that found by Sandage (1981 and 1982). 35 references

  18. THE z = 5 QUASAR LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM SDSS STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreer, Ian D.; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin; Shen Yue; Schneider, Donald P.; Brandt, W. Niel; Myers, Adam D.; DeGraf, Colin; Glikman, Eilat; Ge Jian; Streblyanska, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the Type I quasar luminosity function at z = 5 using a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed quasars selected from optical imaging data. We measure the bright end (M 1450 2 , then extend to lower luminosities (M 1450 2 of deep, coadded imaging in the SDSS Stripe 82 region (the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap). The faint sample includes 14 quasars with spectra obtained as ancillary science targets in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, and 59 quasars observed at the MMT and Magellan telescopes. We construct a well-defined sample of 4.7 1450 * ∼-27). The bright-end slope is steep (β ∼ 1450 < –26) from z = 5 to z = 6 than from z = 4 to z = 5, suggesting a more rapid decline in quasar activity at high redshift than found in previous surveys. Our model for the quasar luminosity function predicts that quasars generate ∼30% of the ionizing photons required to keep hydrogen in the universe ionized at z = 5.

  19. The luminosity function for different morphological types in the CfA Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzke, Ronald O.; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    We derive the luminosity function for different morphological types in the original CfA Redshift Survey (CfA1) and in the first two slices of the CfA Redshift Survey Extension (CfA2). CfA1 is a complete sample containing 2397 galaxies distributed over 2.7 steradians with m(sub z) less than or equal 14.5. The first two complete slices of CfA2 contain 1862 galaxies distributed over 0.42 steradians with m(sub z)=15.5. The shapes of the E-S0 and spiral luminosity functions (LF) are indistinguishable. We do not confirm the steeply decreasing faint end in the E-S0 luminosity function found by Loveday et al. for an independent sample in the southern hemisphere. We demonstrate that incomplete classification in deep redshift surveys can lead to underestimates of the faint end of the elliptical luminosity function and could be partially responsible for the difference between the CfA survey and other local field surveys. The faint end of the LF for the Magellanic spirals and irregulars is very steep. The Sm-Im luminosity function is well fit by a Schechter function with M*=-18.79, alpha=-1.87, and phi*=0.6x10(exp -3) for M(sub z) less than or equal to -13. These galaxies are largely responsible for the excess at the faint end of the general CfA luminosity function. The abundance of intrinsically faint, blue galaxies nearby affects the interpretation of deep number counts. The dwarf population increases the expected counts at B=25 in a no-evolution, q(sub 0)=0.05 model by a factor of two over standard no-evolution estimates. These dwarfs change the expected median redshift in deep redshift surveys by less than 10 percent . Thus the steep Sm-Im LF may contribute to the reconciliation of deep number counts with deep redshift surveys.

  20. THE GALAXY OPTICAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION FROM THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard J. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Caldwell, Nelson; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Moustakas, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    We present the galaxy optical luminosity function for the redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.75 from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey, a spectroscopic survey of 7.6 deg{sup 2} in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Our statistical sample is composed of 12,473 galaxies with known redshifts down to I = 20.4 (AB). Our results at low redshift are consistent with those from Sloan Digital Sky Survey; at higher redshift, we find strong evidence for evolution in the luminosity function, including differential evolution between blue and red galaxies. We find that the luminosity density evolves as (1 + z){sup (0.54{+-}0.64)} for red galaxies and (1 + z){sup (1.64{+-}0.39)} for blue galaxies.

  1. Consistency between the luminosity function of resolved millisecond pulsars and the galactic center excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploeg, Harrison; Gordon, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutherford Building, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Crocker, Roland [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek (Australia); Macias, Oscar, E-mail: harrison.ploeg@pg.canterbury.ac.nz, E-mail: chris.gordon@canterbury.ac.nz, E-mail: Roland.Crocker@anu.edu.au, E-mail: oscar.macias@vt.edu [Center for Neutrino Physics, Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, 850 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Fermi Large Area Telescope data reveal an excess of GeV gamma rays from the direction of the Galactic Center and bulge. Several explanations have been proposed for this excess including an unresolved population of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) and self-annihilating dark matter. It has been claimed that a key discriminant for or against the MSP explanation can be extracted from the properties of the luminosity function describing this source population. Specifically, is the luminosity function of the putative MSPs in the Galactic Center consistent with that characterizing the resolved MSPs in the Galactic disk? To investigate this we have used a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo to evaluate the posterior distribution of the parameters of the MSP luminosity function describing both resolved MSPs and the Galactic Center excess. At variance with some other claims, our analysis reveals that, within current uncertainties, both data sets can be well fit with the same luminosity function.

  2. Self-similar gravitational clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Fall, S.M.; Hogan, C.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational clustering is considered and several new scaling relations are derived for the multiplicity function. These include generalizations of the Press-Schechter theory to different densities and cosmological parameters. The theory is then tested against multiplicity function and correlation function estimates for a series of 1000-body experiments. The results are consistent with the theory and show some dependence on initial conditions and cosmological density parameter. The statistical significance of the results, however, is fairly low because of several small number effects in the experiments. There is no evidence for a non-linear bootstrap effect or a dependence of the multiplicity function on the internal dynamics of condensed groups. Empirical estimates of the multiplicity function by Gott and Turner have a feature near the characteristic luminosity predicted by the theory. The scaling relations allow the inference from estimates of the galaxy luminosity function that galaxies must have suffered considerable dissipation if they originally formed from a self-similar hierarchy. A method is also developed for relating the multiplicity function to similar measures of clustering, such as those of Bhavsar, for the distribution of galaxies on the sky. These are shown to depend on the luminosity function in a complicated way. (author)

  3. Color Gradients Within Globular Clusters: Restricted Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a restricted numerical simulation for the color gradients within globular clusters have been presented. The standard luminosity function of M3 and Salpeter's initial mass functions were used to generate model clusters as a fundamental population. Color gradients with the sample clusters for both King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions are discussed in the case of using the standard luminosity function. The dependence of color gradients on several parameters for the simulations with Salpeter's initial mass functions, such as slope of initial mass functions, cluster ages, metallicities, concentration parameters of King model, and slopes of power law, are also discussed. No significant radial color gradients are shown to the sample clusters which are regenerated by a random number generation technique with various parameters in both of King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions. Dynamical mass segregation and stellar evolution of horizontal branch stars and blue stragglers should be included for the general case of model simulations to show the observed radial color gradients within globular clusters.

  4. The Truncated Lognormal Distribution as a Luminosity Function for SWIFT-BAT Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Zaninetti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the luminosity function (LF in Gamma ray bursts (GRBs depends on the adopted cosmology, each one characterized by its corresponding luminosity distance. Here, we analyze three cosmologies: the standard cosmology, the plasma cosmology and the pseudo-Euclidean universe. The LF of the GRBs is firstly modeled by the lognormal distribution and the four broken power law and, secondly, by a truncated lognormal distribution. The truncated lognormal distribution fits acceptably the range in luminosity of GRBs as a function of the redshift.

  5. Explaining the luminosity spread in young clusters: proto and pre-main sequence stellar evolution in a molecular cloud environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sigurd S.; Haugbølle, Troels

    2018-02-01

    Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams of star-forming regions show a large luminosity spread. This is incompatible with well-defined isochrones based on classic non-accreting protostellar evolution models. Protostars do not evolve in isolation of their environment, but grow through accretion of gas. In addition, while an age can be defined for a star-forming region, the ages of individual stars in the region will vary. We show how the combined effect of a protostellar age spread, a consequence of sustained star formation in the molecular cloud, and time-varying protostellar accretion for individual protostars can explain the observed luminosity spread. We use a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation including a sub-scale sink particle model of a star-forming region to follow the accretion process of each star. The accretion profiles are used to compute stellar evolution models for each star, incorporating a model of how the accretion energy is distributed to the disc, radiated away at the accretion shock, or incorporated into the outer layers of the protostar. Using a modelled cluster age of 5 Myr, we naturally reproduce the luminosity spread and find good agreement with observations of the Collinder 69 cluster, and the Orion Nebular Cluster. It is shown how stars in binary and multiple systems can be externally forced creating recurrent episodic accretion events. We find that in a realistic global molecular cloud model massive stars build up mass over relatively long time-scales. This leads to an important conceptual change compared to the classic picture of non-accreting stellar evolution segmented into low-mass Hayashi tracks and high-mass Henyey tracks.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Quasar luminosity function (Hawkins+, 1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. R. S.; Veron, P.

    1994-11-01

    A sample of quasars is selected from a 10-yr sequence of 30 UK Schmidt plates. Luminosity functions are derived in several redshift intervals, which in each case show a featureless power-law rise towards low luminosities. There is no sigh of the 'break' found in the recent UVX sample of Boyle, Shanks & Peterson. It is suggested that reasons for the disagreement are connected with biases in the selection of the UVX sample. The question of the nature of quasar evolution appears to be still unresolved. (1 data file).

  7. Improved optical mass tracer for galaxy clusters calibrated using weak lensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R.; Mandelbaum, R.; Hirata, C.; Bahcall, N.; Seljak, U.

    2008-11-01

    We develop an improved mass tracer for clusters of galaxies from optically observed parameters, and calibrate the mass relation using weak gravitational lensing measurements. We employ a sample of ~13000 optically selected clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) maxBCG catalogue, with photometric redshifts in the range 0.1-0.3. The optical tracers we consider are cluster richness, cluster luminosity, luminosity of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) and combinations of these parameters. We measure the weak lensing signal around stacked clusters as a function of the various tracers, and use it to determine the tracer with the least amount of scatter. We further use the weak lensing data to calibrate the mass normalization. We find that the best mass estimator for massive clusters is a combination of cluster richness, N200, and the luminosity of the BCG, LBCG: , where is the observed mean BCG luminosity at a given richness. This improved mass tracer will enable the use of galaxy clusters as a more powerful tool for constraining cosmological parameters.

  8. The gamma-ray pulsar population of globular clusters: implications for the GeV excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Linden, Tim, E-mail: dhooper@fnal.gov, E-mail: linden.70@osu.edu [Ohio State University, Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physcis (CCAPP), Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that the GeV excess, observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, might originate from a population of millisecond pulsars that formed in globular clusters. With this in mind, we employ the publicly available Fermi data to study the gamma-ray emission from 157 globular clusters, identifying a statistically significant signal from 25 of these sources (ten of which are not found in existing gamma-ray catalogs). We combine these observations with the predicted pulsar formation rate based on the stellar encounter rate of each globular cluster to constrain the gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecond pulsars in the Milky Way's globular cluster system. We find that this pulsar population exhibits a luminosity function that is quite similar to those millisecond pulsars observed in the field of the Milky Way (i.e. the thick disk). After pulsars are expelled from a globular cluster, however, they continue to lose rotational kinetic energy and become less luminous, causing their luminosity function to depart from the steady-state distribution. Using this luminosity function and a model for the globular cluster disruption rate, we show that millisecond pulsars born in globular clusters can account for only a few percent or less of the observed GeV excess. Among other challenges, scenarios in which the entire GeV excess is generated from such pulsars are in conflict with the observed mass of the Milky Way's Central Stellar Cluster.

  9. A New Determination of the Luminosity Function of the Galactic Halo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Peter Charles

    The luminosity function of the galactic halo is determined by subtracting from the observed numbers of proper motion stars in the LHS Catalogue the expected numbers of main-sequence, degenerate, and giant stars of the disk population. Selection effects are accounted for by Monte Carlo simulations based upon realistic colour-luminosity relations and kinematic models. The catalogue is shown to be highly complete, and a calibration of the magnitude estimates therein is presented. It is found that, locally, the ratio of disk to halo material is close to 950, and that the mass density in main sequence and subgiant halo stars with 3 account the possibility of a moderate rate of halo rotation, it is argued that the total density does not much exceed 5 x 10('-5) M(,o) pc('-3), in which case the total mass interior to the sun is of the order of 5 x 10('8) M(,o) for a density distribution which projects to a de Vaucouleurs r(' 1/4) law. It is demonstrated that if the Wielen luminosity function is a faithful representation of the stellar distribution in the solar neighbourhood, then the observed numbers of large proper motion stars are inconsistent with the presence of an intermediate popula- tion at the level, and with the kinematics advocated recently by Gilmore and Reid. The initial mass function (IMF) of the halo is considered, and weak evidence is presented that its slope is at least not shallower than that of the disk population IMF. A crude estimate of the halo's age, based on a comparison of the main sequence turnoff in the reduced proper motion diagram with theoretical models is obtained; a tentative lower limit is 15 Gyr with a best estimate of between 15 and 18 Gyr. Finally, the luminosity function obtained here is compared with those determined in other investigations.

  10. The Faint End of the Lyman Alpha Luminosity Function at 2 < z < 3.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Yaswant; Livermore, Rachael; Indahl, Briana; Wold, Isak; Davis, Dustin; Finkelstein, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Most current models predict that our universe is mostly composed of small, dim galaxies. Due to these galaxies being so faint, it is very difficult to study these types of galaxies outside of our local universe. This is particularly an issue for studying how these small galaxies evolved over their lifetimes. With the benefit of gravitational lensing, however, we are able to observe galaxies that are farther and fainter than ever before possible. In this particular study, we focus on Lyman-Alpha emitting galaxies between the redshifts of 2-3.8, so that we may study these galaxies during the epoch of peak star formation in the universe. We use the McDonald Observatory 2.7, Harlan Smith telescope with the VIRUS-P IFU spectrograph to observe several Hubble Frontier Field lensing clusters to spectroscopically discover faint galaxies over this redshift range. In addition to providing insight into the faint-end slope of the Lyman alpha luminosity function, the spectroscopic redshifts will allow us to better constrain the mass models of the foreground clusters, such as Abell 370, so that we may better understand lensing effects for this and future studies.

  11. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 μm) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  12. Collapsar γ-ray bursts: how the luminosity function dictates the duration distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2017-12-01

    Jets in long-duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs) have to drill through the collapsing star in order to break out of it and produce the γ-ray signal while the central engine is still active. If the breakout time is shorter for more powerful engines, then the jet-collapsar interaction acts as a filter of less luminous jets. We show that the observed broken power-law GRB luminosity function is a natural outcome of this process. For a theoretically motivated breakout time that scales with jet luminosity as L-χ with χ ∼ 1/3-1/2, we show that the shape of the γ-ray duration distribution can be uniquely determined by the GRB luminosity function and matches the observed one. This analysis has also interesting implications about the supernova-central engine connection. We show that not only successful jets can deposit sufficient energy in the stellar envelope to power the GRB-associated supernovae, but also failed jets may operate in all Type Ib/c supernovae.

  13. The young star cluster population of M51 with LEGUS - I. A comprehensive study of cluster formation and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messa, M.; Adamo, A.; Östlin, G.; Calzetti, D.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Shabani, F.; Chandar, R.; Dale, D. A.; Dobbs, C. L.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kim, H.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Tosi, M.; Ubeda, L.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B. C.; Fedorenko, K.; Mahadevan, S.; Andrews, J. E.; Bright, S. N.; Cook, D. O.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Ahmad, S. D.; Beale, L. P.; Brown, K.; Clarkson, D. A.; Guidarelli, G. C.; Parziale, R.; Turner, J.; Weber, M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently acquired WFC3 UV (F275W and F336W) imaging mosaics under the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS), combined with archival ACS data of M51, are used to study the young star cluster (YSC) population of this interacting system. Our newly extracted source catalogue contains 2834 cluster candidates, morphologically classified to be compact and uniform in colour, for which ages, masses and extinction are derived. In this first work we study the main properties of the YSC population of the whole galaxy, considering a mass-limited sample. Both luminosity and mass functions follow a power-law shape with slope -2, but at high luminosities and masses a dearth of sources is observed. The analysis of the mass function suggests that it is best fitted by a Schechter function with slope -2 and a truncation mass at 1.00 ± 0.12 × 105 M⊙. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm this result and link the shape of the luminosity function to the presence of a truncation in the mass function. A mass limited age function analysis, between 10 and 200 Myr, suggests that the cluster population is undergoing only moderate disruption. We observe little variation in the shape of the mass function at masses above 1 × 104 M⊙ over this age range. The fraction of star formation happening in the form of bound clusters in M51 is ∼ 20 per cent in the age range 10-100 Myr and little variation is observed over the whole range from 1 to 200 Myr.

  14. A Search for Low-Luminosity BL Lacertae Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Travis A.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric S.

    1999-05-01

    Many properties of BL Lacs have become explicable in terms of the ``relativistic beaming'' hypothesis, whereby BL Lacs are FR 1 radio galaxies viewed nearly along the jet axis. However, a possible problem with this model is that a transition population between beamed BL Lacs and unbeamed FR 1 galaxies has not been detected. A transition population of ``low-luminosity BL Lacs'' was predicted to exist in abundance in X-ray-selected samples such as the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) by Browne & Marcha. However, these BL Lacs may have been misidentified as clusters of galaxies. We have conducted a search for such objects in the EMSS with the ROSAT High-Resolution Imager (HRI) here we present ROSAT HRI images, optical spectra, and VLA radio maps for a small number of BL Lacs that were previously misidentified in the EMSS catalog as clusters of galaxies. While these objects are slightly lower in luminosity than other EMSS BL Lacs, their properties are too similar to the other BL Lacs in the EMSS sample to ``bridge the gap'' between BL Lacs and FR 1 radio galaxies. Also, the number of new BL Lacs found is too low to alter significantly the X-ray luminosity function or value for the X-ray-selected EMSS BL Lac sample. Thus, these observations do not explain fully the discrepancy between the X-ray- and radio-selected BL Lac samples.

  15. The luminosity function and formation rate history of GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmani, C.; Avila-Reese, V.; Ghisellini, G.; Tutukov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The isotropic luminosity function (LF) and formation rate history (FRH) of long GRBs is by the first time constrained by using jointly both the observed GRB peak-flux and redshift distributions. Our results support an evolving LF and a FRH that keeps increasing after z = 2. We discuss some interesting implications related to these results

  16. X-ray cluster Abell 744

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.; Beers, T.C.; Geller, M.J.; Gioia, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray and optical observations of the cluster of galaxies Abell 744 are presented. The X-ray flux (assuming H(0) = 100 km/s per Mpc) is about 9 x 10 to the 42nd erg/s. The X-ray source is extended, but shows no other structure. Photographic photometry (in Kron-Cousins R), calibrated by deep CCD frames, is presented for all galaxies brighter than 19th magnitude within 0.75 Mpc of the cluster center. The luminosity function is normal, and the isopleths show little evidence of substructure near the cluster center. The cluster has a dominant central galaxy, which is classified as a normal brightest-cluster elliptical on the basis of its luminosity profile. New redshifts were obtained for 26 galaxies in the vicinity of the cluster center; 20 appear to be cluster members. The spatial distribution of redshifts is peculiar; the dispersion within the 150 kpc core radius is much greater than outside. Abell 744 is similar to the nearby cluster Abell 1060. 31 references

  17. Toward understanding environmental effects in SDSS clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einasto, Jaan; Tago, E.; Einasto, M.; Saar, E.; Suhhonenko, I.; /Tartu Observ.; Heinamaki, P.; /Tartu Observ. /Tuorla Observ.; Hutsi, G.; /Tartu Observ. /Garching, Max; Tucker, D.L.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    We find clusters and superclusters of galaxies using the Data Release 1 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We determine the luminosity function of clusters and find that clusters in a high-density environment have a luminosity a factor of {approx}5 higher than in a low-density environment. We also study clusters and superclusters in numerical simulations. Simulated clusters in a high-density environment are also more massive than those in a low-density environment. Comparison of the density distribution at various epochs in simulations shows that in large low-density regions (voids) dynamical evolution is very slow and stops at an early epoch. In contrast, in large regions of higher density (superclusters) dynamical evolution starts early and continues until the present; here particles cluster early, and by merging of smaller groups very rich systems of galaxies form.

  18. Luminosity and beta function measurement at the electron-positron collider ring LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, P

    1996-01-01

    The optimization of luminosity needs a fast signal which is provided with the measurement of the rate of small angle Bhabba scattered e+ and e-. It is shown that, despite the excess of background particles received at the detectors, luminosity measurements are possible by using appropriate techniques. The results presented include examples of luminosity optimization with the adjustment of the vertical beam separation at interaction points. The correlation between changes in measured beam sizes and changes in luminosity is shown. In the second part, a new method to obtain precise optics measurements is presented. The procedure to measure the phase advance using 1000-turn orbit measurements of a horizontally or vertically excited beam is described. Beta, alpha and phase advance functions can be obtained exclusively from the phase advances at beam position monitors. This method has been used to measure optics imperfections at LEP. Results of these experiments are compared with simulation results using MAD Measur...

  19. Deep CCD photometry in globular clusters. VII. M30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richer, H.B.; Fahlman, G.G.; Vandenberg, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    New UBV CCD photometry in a single field of the globular cluster M30 was obtained, and the data were used to obtain the color magnitude diagram (CMD) of the cluster, its luminosity function, and to derive fundamental cluster parameters. No blue stragglers were found, nor any evidence of a binary sequence in the data even though the field under study is only 21 core radii from the cluster center. The cluster reddening is observed to be 0.068 + or - 0.035, significantly higher than that adopted in most current papers on M30. An intercomparison of the CMDs of three very metal-poor clusters clearly shows that there is no evidence for any age difference between them. The age of M30 itself is found to be about 14 Gyr. The luminosity function of M30 is determined to be M(V) = 8. Comparison of this function with one found by Bolte (1987) at 65 core radii shows clear evidence of mass segregation in the low-mass stars. 44 references

  20. Radio emission of Abell galaxy clusters with red shifts from 0.02 to 0.075 at 102.5 MHz. Observations of clusters southward from the galactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The sample of 121 Abell clusters of galaxies with measured red shifts from 0.02 to 0.075, delta= 10 deg - +80 deg and within the completeness galactic-latitude region is presented. The completeness. with respect to the Abell's catalog is 80%. The completeness of the sample in function of distance (the completeness function) was constructed and the mean cluster density of 1.5x10 -6 Mpc -3 was derived. Observations at 102.5 MHz of 39 clusters southward from the galactic plane were carried out with BSA radio telescope. Flux density measurements for radio sources in the directions of the clusters have been made, integrated fluxes of clusters and luminosity estimations for their radio halos are presented. Radio emission of 11 clusters was detected , and for two of these and for other clust rs radio sources detected in the directions to the outskirts of clusters. Radio halos having the luminosity comparable to that of the A1656 (Coma) cluster are not typical for clusters

  1. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IV. The preliminary 90-mu m luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of 90-mum-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z = 0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10(9)

  2. IRAS bright galaxy sample. II. The sample and luminosity function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Sanders, D.B.; Neugebauer, G.; Madore, B.F.; Danielson, G.E.; David Dunlap Observatory, Richmond Hill, Canada; Palomar Observatory; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

    1987-01-01

    A statistically complete sample of 324 of the brightest infrared galaxies discovered at 60 microns in the IRAS all-sky survey is described. The results show that far-infrared emission is a significant luminosity component in the local universe, representing 25 percent of the luminosity emitted by stars in the same volume. Above 10 to the 11th solar luminosities, the infrared luminous galaxies are the dominant population of objects in the universe, being as numerous as the Seyfert galaxies and more numerous than quasars at higher luminosities. The infrared luminosity appears to be independent of the optical luminosity of galaxies. Most infrared bright galaxies appear to require much of the interstellar matter to be contributing to the observed infrared luminosity. Approximately 60-80 percent of the far-infrared luminosity of the local universe can be attributed, directly or indirectly, to recent or ongoing star formation. 67 references

  3. Physics as a function of energy and luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a new physics in the range of mass up to TeV region is discussed. Most of the discussion concern hadron-hadron (hh) colliders, and also electron-positron colliders are discussed. The cross-sections for new particle production in hh colliders have the general Drell-Yan form, in which the differential luminosity for the collision of partons is included. The formulas with the parton distribution scaled up from present energy using the Altarelli-Parisi equations may be approximately correct within a factor of 2 for the production of particles. Some typical parton-parton luminosity functions for proton-proton and proton-antiproton collisions are presented. From the consideration of luminosity, it can be said that the pp colliders are to be preferred. The case studies of some of the possible new physics discussed by Zakharov, mainly on Higgs bosons and supersymmetric particles, but also a few remarks about technicolor are presented. It seems possible to detect technicolor at a large hh collider. The physics reaches of different possible hh colliders are summarized in tables. In the tables, the observable production of Higgses up to 1 TeV in mass, the observable masses for gluinos (squarks) and the technicolor observability are shown. The cleanliness of electron-positron colliders compared to hadron-hadron colliders is pled, a guess is given as to the appropriate conversion factors between the energy in the electron-positron and hh collisions, the complementarity of electron-positron and hh colliders is urged, and it is argued that a rational mix of world accelerators would include both. (Kato, T.)

  4. The Luminosity Function of Fermi-detected Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; Shaw, M.S.; Romani, R.W.; Dermer, C.D.; Costamante, L.; King, O.G.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Richards, J.L.; Stevenson, M.

    2012-04-16

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of {gamma}-ray selected blazars to date. In this work we use a complete sample of FSRQs detected during the first year of operation to determine the luminosity function (LF) and its evolution with cosmic time. The number density of FSRQs grows dramatically up to redshift {approx}0.5-2.0 and declines thereafter. The redshift of the peak in the density is luminosity dependent, with more luminous sources peaking at earlier times; thus the LF of {gamma}-ray FSRQs follows a luminosity-dependent density evolution similarly to that of radio-quiet AGN. Also using data from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope we derive the average spectral energy distribution of FSRQs in the 10 keV-100GeV band and show that there is no correlation of the peak {gamma}-ray luminosity with {gamma}-ray peak frequency. The coupling of the SED and LF allows us to predict that the contribution of FSRQs to the Fermi isotropic {gamma}-ray background is 9.3{sub -1.0}{sup +1.6}% ({+-}3% systematic uncertainty) in the 0.1-100GeV band. Finally we determine the LF of unbeamed FSRQs, finding that FSRQs have an average Lorentz factor of {gamma} = 11.7{sub -2.2}{sup +3.3}, that most are seen within 5{sup o} of the jet axis, and that they represent only {approx}0.1% of the parent population.

  5. Derivation of the stellar luminosity function in the direction of the south galactic pole by a statistical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipp, S L

    1981-12-01

    A method is developed to calculate absolute magnitude probability distributions for stars from a proper motion survey. This method uses ellipsoidal velocity distributions to predict tangential velocity distributions. The tangential velocity distributions are transformed into absolute magnitude distributions. The absolute magnitude distributions for the stars in a proper motion survey may be summed to produce a luminosity function. This method was applied to stars in the region of the south galactic pole and the resulting luminosity function is statistically identical to Luyten's 1968 luminosity function.

  6. The mysterious age invariance of the planetary nebula luminosity function bright cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Planetary nebulae mark the end of the active life of 90% of all stars. They trace the transition from a red giant to a degenerate white dwarf. Stellar models1,2 predicted that only stars above approximately twice the solar mass could form a bright nebula. But the ubiquitous presence of bright planetary nebulae in old stellar populations, such as elliptical galaxies, contradicts this: such high-mass stars are not present in old systems. The planetary nebula luminosity function, and especially its bright cut-off, is almost invariant between young spiral galaxies, with high-mass stars, and old elliptical galaxies, with only low-mass stars. Here, we show that new evolutionary tracks of low-mass stars are capable of explaining in a simple manner this decades-old mystery. The agreement between the observed luminosity function and computed stellar evolution validates the latest theoretical modelling. With these models, the planetary nebula luminosity function provides a powerful diagnostic to derive star formation histories of intermediate-age stars. The new models predict that the Sun at the end of its life will also form a planetary nebula, but it will be faint.

  7. The Magellanic Bridge Cluster NGC 796: Deep Optical AO Imaging Reveals the Stellar Content and Initial Mass Function of a Massive Open Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalari, Venu M.; Carraro, Giovanni; Evans, Christopher J.; Rubio, Monica

    2018-04-01

    NGC 796 is a massive young cluster located 59 kpc from us in the diffuse intergalactic medium of the 1/5–1/10 Z⊙ Magellanic Bridge, allowing us to probe variations in star formation and stellar evolution processes as a function of metallicity in a resolved fashion, and providing a link between resolved studies of nearby solar-metallicity and unresolved distant metal-poor clusters located in high-redshift galaxies. In this paper, we present adaptive optics griHα imaging of NGC 796 (at 0.″5, which is ∼0.14 pc at the cluster distance) along with optical spectroscopy of two bright members to quantify the cluster properties. Our aim is to explore whether star formation and stellar evolution vary as a function of metallicity by comparing the properties of NGC 796 to higher-metallicity clusters. We find an age of {20}-5+12 Myr from isochronal fitting of the cluster main sequence in the color–magnitude diagram. Based on the cluster luminosity function, we derive a top-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) with a slope α = 1.99 ± 0.2, hinting at a metallicity and/or environmental dependence of the IMF, which may lead to a top-heavy IMF in the early universe. Study of the Hα emission-line stars reveals that classical Be stars constitute a higher fraction of the total B-type stars when compared with similar clusters at greater metallicity, providing some support to the chemically homogeneous theory of stellar evolution. Overall, NGC 796 has a total estimated mass of 990 ± 200 M⊙, and a core radius of 1.4 ± 0.3 pc, which classifies it as a massive young open cluster, unique in the diffuse interstellar medium of the Magellanic Bridge.

  8. LFlGRB: Luminosity function of long gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debdutta

    2018-04-01

    LFlGRB models the luminosity function (LF) of long Gamma Ray Bursts (lGRBs) by using a sample of Swift and Fermi lGRBs to re-derive the parameters of the Yonetoku correlation and self-consistently estimate pseudo-redshifts of all the bursts with unknown redshifts. The GRB formation rate is modeled as the product of the cosmic star formation rate and a GRB formation efficiency for a given stellar mass.

  9. The evolution of the intergalactic medium and the origin of the galaxy luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Gabaud, David; Blanchard, Alain; Mamon, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The coupling of the Press and Schechter prescription with the CDM scenario and the Hoyle-Rees-Ostriker cooling criterion leads to a galaxy formation scenario in which galaxies are overproduced by a large factor. Although star formation might be suppressed in the smaller halos, a large amount of energy per galactic mass is needed to account for the present number density of galaxies. The evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) provides a simple criterion to prevent galaxy formation without requiring feedback, since halos with small virial temperatures are not able to retain the infalling hot gas of the IGM. If the ionizing background has decreased since z is approximately 1 - 2, then this criterion explains the slope of the luminosity function at the faint end. In addition, this scenario predicts two populations of dwarf galaxies, well differentiated in age, gas content, stellar populations, and clustering properties, which can be identified with dE and dIm galaxies.

  10. Quasars in galaxy cluster environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, E.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of radio loud quasars is found to be strongly dependent upon their galaxy cluster environment. Previous studies have shown that bright quasars are found in rich clusters, while high luminosity quasars are found only in poorer environments. The analysis of low luminosity radio quiet quasars indicate that they are never found in rich environments, suggesting that they are a physically different class of objects. Properties of the quasar environment are investigated to determine constraints on the physical mechanisms of quasar formation and evolution. The optical cluster morphology indicates that the cluster cores have smaller radii and higher galaxy densities than are typical for low redshift clusters of similar richness. Radio morphologies may indicate that the formation of a dense intra-cluster medium is associated with the quasars' fading at these epochs. Galaxy colors appear to be normal, but there may be a tendency for clusters associated with high luminosity quasars to contain a higher fraction of gas-rich galaxies than those associated with low luminosity quasars. Multislit spectroscopic observations of galaxies associated with high luminosity quasars indicate that quasars are preferentially located in regions of low relative velocity dispersion, either in rich clusters of abnormally low dispersion, or in poor groups which are dynamically normal. This suggests that galaxy-galaxy interactions may play a role in quasar formation and sustenanace. Virialization of rich clusters and the subsequent increase in galaxy velocities may therefore be responsible for the fading of quasars in rich environments

  11. X-ray clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    This work is in three chapters, of which the first is an introduction to clusters of galaxies. The second chapter describes the HEAO A-2 Survey of Abell Clusters. The 225 clusters of galaxies listed in Abell's (1958) catalog which are of distance class four or less, were surveyed for 2 to 10 keV x-ray emission. Thirty-two identifications of x-ray sources with the clusters were made, fluxes and error boxes were determined for these sources; twelve of the identifications are new. The x-ray luminosity function has been derived and analytical fits have been made, the best fit is f(L) = 26.9 x 10 -8 exp( - L 44 /1.7) per Mpc per 10 44 erg s -1 per 2 to 10 keV band pass. The relationship between x-ray luminosity, Bautz-Morgan type, Rood-Sastry type, and richness has also been examined. The contribution of clusters to the x-ray background has been calculated from the luminosity function and has been found to be 3.5%, and with 90% certainty, less than 8% in the 2 to 10 keV band pass, assuming that clusters were not brighter in the past than they are at present. If they were bright enough in the past to account for the x-ray background, the evolution must have scaled more rapidly than (1 + z) 7 if clusters formed at z = 3, or (1 + z) 5 if clusters formed at z = 10. Chapter Three examines x-ray emission from poor clusters of galaxies. Burns and Owens' (1979) sample of 25 4C radio sources which coincide with Zwicky clusters of galaxies has been searched for x-ray emission in the HEAO A-2 data base. X-ray emission was detected from five sources at the 3sigma level, two exceeded 5 sigma. The search for x-ray emission was prompted by the knowledge of the existence of distorted radio sources in the clusters. The distortion implies the presence of a relatively dense intracluster medium which is expected to produce thermal bremsstrahlung x-ray emission

  12. Luminosity function of the brightest galaxies in the IRAS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Sanders, D.B.; Madore, B.F.; Neugebauer, G.; Persson, C.J.; Persson, S.E.; Rice, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Results from a study of the far infrared properties of the brightest galaxies in the IRAS survey are described. There is a correlation between the infrared luminosity and the infrared to optical luminosity ratio and between the infrared luminosity and the far infrared color temperature in these galaxies. The infrared bright galaxies represent a significant component of extragalactic objects in the local universe, being comparable in space density to the Seyferts, optically identified starburst galaxies, and more numerous than quasars at the same bolometric luminosity. The far infrared luminosity in the local universe is approximately 25% of the starlight output in the same volume

  13. The luminosity of galactic components and morphological segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanes, J. M.; Salvador-Sole, E.; Sanroma, M.

    1989-01-01

    The luminosities of the bulge and disk components of disk galaxies are analyzed, and the possible correlation of these luminosities with morphological type and local density is explored. Galaxies of different types are found to be located in distinct bands in the bulge-to-disk luminosity ratio vs total luminosity diagram, allowing the determination of the typical bulge luminosity function of disk galaxies of different types from their respective total luminosity functions, along with a better characterization of morphological segregation among disk galaxies. No evidence for any bulge luminosity segregation is found, and disks appear to be less luminous with increasing local density. 33 refs

  14. The luminosity function at z ∼ 8 from 97 Y-band dropouts: Inferences about reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Treu, Tommaso; Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Trenti, Michele [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Bradley, Larry D.; Stiavelli, Massimo [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Oesch, Pascal A. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Shull, J. Michael, E-mail: kschmidt@physics.ucsb.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present the largest search to date for Y-band dropout galaxies (z ∼ 8 Lyman break galaxies, LBGs) based on 350 arcmin{sup 2} of Hubble Space Telescope observations in the V, Y, J, and H bands from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey. In addition to previously published data, the BoRG13 data set presented here includes approximately 50 arcmin{sup 2} of new data and deeper observations of two previous BoRG pointings, from which we present 9 new z ∼ 8 LBG candidates, bringing the total number of BoRG Y-band dropouts to 38 with 25.5 ≤ m{sub J} ≤ 27.6 (AB system). We introduce a new Bayesian formalism for estimating the galaxy luminosity function, which does not require binning (and thus smearing) of the data and includes a likelihood based on the formally correct binomial distribution as opposed to the often-used approximate Poisson distribution. We demonstrate the utility of the new method on a sample of 97 Y-band dropouts that combines the bright BoRG galaxies with the fainter sources published in Bouwens et al. from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and Early Release Science programs. We show that the z ∼ 8 luminosity function is well described by a Schechter function over its full dynamic range with a characteristic magnitude M{sup ⋆}=−20.15{sub −0.38}{sup +0.29}, a faint-end slope of α=−1.87{sub −0.26}{sup +0.26}, and a number density of log{sub 10} ϕ{sup ⋆}[Mpc{sup −3}]=−3.24{sub −0.24}{sup +0.25}. Integrated down to M = –17.7, this luminosity function yields a luminosity density log{sub 10} ϵ[erg s{sup −1} Hz{sup −1} Mpc{sup −3}]=25.52{sub −0.05}{sup +0.05}. Our luminosity function analysis is consistent with previously published determinations within 1σ. The error analysis suggests that uncertainties on the faint-end slope are still too large to draw a firm conclusion about its evolution with redshift. We use our statistical framework to discuss the implication of our study for the physics of

  15. The luminosity function at z ∼ 8 from 97 Y-band dropouts: Inferences about reionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Treu, Tommaso; Kelly, Brandon C.; Trenti, Michele; Bradley, Larry D.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Oesch, Pascal A.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present the largest search to date for Y-band dropout galaxies (z ∼ 8 Lyman break galaxies, LBGs) based on 350 arcmin 2 of Hubble Space Telescope observations in the V, Y, J, and H bands from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey. In addition to previously published data, the BoRG13 data set presented here includes approximately 50 arcmin 2 of new data and deeper observations of two previous BoRG pointings, from which we present 9 new z ∼ 8 LBG candidates, bringing the total number of BoRG Y-band dropouts to 38 with 25.5 ≤ m J ≤ 27.6 (AB system). We introduce a new Bayesian formalism for estimating the galaxy luminosity function, which does not require binning (and thus smearing) of the data and includes a likelihood based on the formally correct binomial distribution as opposed to the often-used approximate Poisson distribution. We demonstrate the utility of the new method on a sample of 97 Y-band dropouts that combines the bright BoRG galaxies with the fainter sources published in Bouwens et al. from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and Early Release Science programs. We show that the z ∼ 8 luminosity function is well described by a Schechter function over its full dynamic range with a characteristic magnitude M ⋆ =−20.15 −0.38 +0.29 , a faint-end slope of α=−1.87 −0.26 +0.26 , and a number density of log 10  ϕ ⋆ [Mpc −3 ]=−3.24 −0.24 +0.25 . Integrated down to M = –17.7, this luminosity function yields a luminosity density log 10  ϵ[erg s −1 Hz −1 Mpc −3 ]=25.52 −0.05 +0.05 . Our luminosity function analysis is consistent with previously published determinations within 1σ. The error analysis suggests that uncertainties on the faint-end slope are still too large to draw a firm conclusion about its evolution with redshift. We use our statistical framework to discuss the implication of our study for the physics of reionization. By assuming theoretically motivated priors on the clumping factor and the photon

  16. X-Ray Temperatures, Luminosities, and Masses from XMM-Newton Follow-up of the First Shear-selected Galaxy Cluster Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Amruta J.; Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Wittman, David, E-mail: amrejd@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: dwittman@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    We continue the study of the first sample of shear-selected clusters from the initial 8.6 square degrees of the Deep Lens Survey (DLS); a sample with well-defined selection criteria corresponding to the highest ranked shear peaks in the survey area. We aim to characterize the weak lensing selection by examining the sample’s X-ray properties. There are multiple X-ray clusters associated with nearly all the shear peaks: 14 X-ray clusters corresponding to seven DLS shear peaks. An additional three X-ray clusters cannot be definitively associated with shear peaks, mainly due to large positional offsets between the X-ray centroid and the shear peak. Here we report on the XMM-Newton properties of the 17 X-ray clusters. The X-ray clusters display a wide range of luminosities and temperatures; the L {sub X} − T {sub X} relation we determine for the shear-associated X-ray clusters is consistent with X-ray cluster samples selected without regard to dynamical state, while it is inconsistent with self-similarity. For a subset of the sample, we measure X-ray masses using temperature as a proxy, and compare to weak lensing masses determined by the DLS team. The resulting mass comparison is consistent with equality. The X-ray and weak lensing masses show considerable intrinsic scatter (∼48%), which is consistent with X-ray selected samples when their X-ray and weak lensing masses are independently determined.

  17. GALAXY CLUSTERING AND PROJECTED DENSITY PROFILES AS TRACED BY SATELLITES IN PHOTOMETRIC SURVEYS: METHODOLOGY AND LUMINOSITY DEPENDENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenting; Jing, Y. P.; Li Cheng; Okumura, Teppei; Han Jiaxin

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new method which measures the projected density distribution w p (r p )n of photometric galaxies surrounding a set of spectroscopically identified galaxies and simultaneously the projected cross-correlation function w p (r p ) between the two populations. In this method, we are able to divide the photometric galaxies into subsamples in luminosity intervals even when redshift information is unavailable, enabling us to measure w p (r p )n and w p (r p ) as a function of not only the luminosity of the spectroscopic galaxy, but also that of the photometric galaxy. Extensive tests show that our method can measure w p (r p ) in a statistically unbiased way. The accuracy of the measurement depends on the validity of the assumption inherent to the method that the foreground/background galaxies are randomly distributed and are thus uncorrelated with those galaxies of interest. Therefore, our method can be applied to the cases where foreground/background galaxies are distributed in large volumes, which is usually valid in real observations. We have applied our method to data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) including a sample of 10 5 luminous red galaxies at z ∼ 0.4 and a sample of about half a million galaxies at z ∼ 0.1, both of which are cross-correlated with a deep photometric sample drawn from the SDSS. On large scales, the relative bias factor of galaxies measured from w p (r p ) at z ∼ 0.4 depends on luminosity in a manner similar to what is found for those at z ∼ 0.1, which are usually probed by autocorrelations of spectroscopic samples in previous studies. On scales smaller than a few Mpc and at both z ∼ 0.4 and z ∼ 0.1, the photometric galaxies of different luminosities exhibit similar density profiles around spectroscopic galaxies at fixed luminosity and redshift. This provides clear observational support for the assumption commonly adopted in halo occupation distribution models that satellite galaxies of different luminosities are

  18. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph; Gaidos, Eric; Mann, Andrew W.; Lépine, Sebastien; James, David; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law

  19. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mann, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lépine, Sebastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Riddle, Reed [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law.

  20. Stellar Populations in the Central 0.5 pc of the Galaxy. I. A New Method for Constructing Luminosity Functions and Surface-density Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T.; Lu, J. R.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Yelda, S.; Martinez, G. D.; Wright, S. A.; Matthews, K.

    2013-02-01

    We present new high angular resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the nuclear star cluster surrounding the Milky Way's central supermassive black hole. Using the integral-field spectrograph OSIRIS on Keck II behind the laser-guide-star adaptive optics system, this spectroscopic survey enables us to separate early-type (young, 4-6 Myr) and late-type (old, >1 Gyr) stars with a completeness of 50% down to K' = 15.5 mag, which corresponds to ~10 M ⊙ for the early-type stars. This work increases the radial extent of reported OSIRIS/Keck measurements by more than a factor of three from 4'' to 14'' (0.16 to 0.56 pc), along the projected disk of young stars. For our analysis, we implement a new method of completeness correction using a combination of star-planting simulations and Bayesian inference. We assign probabilities for the spectral type of every source detected in deep imaging down to K' = 15.5 mag using information from spectra, simulations, number counts, and the distribution of stars. The inferred radial surface-density profiles, Σ(R)vpropR -Γ, for the young stars and late-type giants are consistent with earlier results (Γearly = 0.93 ± 0.09, Γlate = 0.16 ± 0.07). The late-type surface-density profile is approximately flat out to the edge of the survey. While the late-type stellar luminosity function is consistent with the Galactic bulge, the completeness-corrected luminosity function of the early-type stars has significantly more young stars at faint magnitudes compared with previous surveys with similar depth. This luminosity function indicates that the corresponding mass function of the young stars is likely less top-heavy than that inferred from previous surveys.

  1. Radio emission of Abell Clusters in the GB region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalec, A.

    1977-01-01

    In the GB survey region (Maslowski 1972) there are 102 Abell Clusters (Abell 1958) 31 of them coincide with the positions of Gb radio sources. The number of random coincidences was estimated from a Poisson distribution. For 19 cluster from this group, the observations at 2695 MHz were made with the same instrument. The clusters' redshifts were estimated. On the basis of this material, an analysis of the luminosity function for these cluster was carried out. (author)

  2. Possible relationship between metal abundance and luminosity for disk galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothun, G.D.; Romanishin, W.; Strom, S.E.; Strom, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Near-infrared colors have been measured for a sample of 31 late-type galaxies in the Pegasus I and Pisces clusters; system luminosities in the sample cover the range -19< M/sub H/<-23.5. The color index (J-K) correlates strongly with the absolute H magnitude; lower-luminosity systems have bluer colors. These observations are consistent with the assumption that the mean metal abundance of the old disk population decreases systematically with luminosity. The systematic variation of (B-H) with absolute H magnitude reported recently by Tully et al. derives in part from this proposed systematic change of metallicity with luminosity. However, one must still posit a relative increase in the number of newly formed stars and/or a systematic smaller age for lower-luminosity disks in order to fully explain the observed (B-H), H relation

  3. ROSAT X-ray luminosity functions of the Hyades dK and dM stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, John P.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Stern, Robert A.; Stauffer, John R.

    1994-02-01

    Long-duration ROSAT PSPC pointed observations of the Hyades open star cluster are performed. The Hyades dK and XLFs from the present observations are compared with published Einstein dK/dM XLFs. The Hyades dK binaries have significantly higher L(X) than the Hyades dK stars. However, all these binaries have relatively long periods (greater than about 1 yr), and hence the L(X) levels cannot be attributed to the enhanced activity expected in short-period, 'BY Dra-type' systems. It is also shown that the effect cannot be due simply to the summed luminosities of the component stars.

  4. A PHYSICAL MODEL FOR THE 0 {approx}< z {approx}< 8 REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY AND STELLAR MASS FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C. Marcella [Department of Physics, Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Trenti, Michele, E-mail: tasandro@phys.ethz.ch [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    We present a model to understand the redshift evolution of the UV luminosity and stellar mass functions of Lyman break galaxies. Our approach is based on the assumption that the luminosity and stellar mass of a galaxy is related to its dark-matter (DM) halo assembly and gas infall rate. Specifically, galaxies experience a burst of star formation at the halo assembly time, followed by a constant star formation rate, representing a secular star formation activity sustained by steady gas accretion. Star formation from steady gas accretion is the dominant contribution to the galaxy UV luminosity at all redshifts. The model is calibrated by constructing a galaxy luminosity versus halo mass relation at z = 4 via abundance matching. After this luminosity calibration, the model naturally fits the z = 4 stellar mass function, and correctly predicts the evolution of both luminosity and stellar mass functions from z = 0 to z = 8. While the details of star formation efficiency and feedback are hidden within our calibrated luminosity versus halo mass relation, our study highlights that the primary driver of galaxy evolution across cosmic time is the buildup of DM halos, without the need to invoke a redshift-dependent efficiency in converting gas into stars.

  5. Modelling the luminosity function of long gamma-ray bursts using Swift and Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debdutta

    2018-01-01

    I have used a sample of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) common to both Swift and Fermi to re-derive the parameters of the Yonetoku correlation. This allowed me to self-consistently estimate pseudo-redshifts of all the bursts with unknown redshifts. This is the first time such a large sample of GRBs from these two instruments is used, both individually and in conjunction, to model the long GRB luminosity function. The GRB formation rate is modelled as the product of the cosmic star formation rate and a GRB formation efficiency for a given stellar mass. An exponential cut-off power-law luminosity function fits the data reasonably well, with ν = 0.6 and Lb = 5.4 × 1052 ergs- 1, and does not require a cosmological evolution. In the case of a broken power law, it is required to incorporate a sharp evolution of the break given by Lb ∼ 0.3 × 1052(1 + z)2.90 erg s- 1, and the GRB formation efficiency (degenerate up to a beaming factor of GRBs) decreases with redshift as ∝ (1 + z)-0.80. However, it is not possible to distinguish between the two models. The derived models are then used as templates to predict the distribution of GRBs detectable by CZT Imager onboard AstroSat as a function of redshift and luminosity. This demonstrates that via a quick localization and redshift measurement of even a few CZT Imager GRBs, AstroSat will help in improving the statistics of GRBs both typical and peculiar.

  6. Recalculating the quasar luminosity function of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caditz, David M.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: The extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provides a uniform sample of over 13 000 variability selected quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) in the redshift range 0.68 based on this survey may be in error because the k-correction has apparently been misapplied, which results in underestimating the intrinsic brightness of roughly half of the eBOSS sources. This work provides new estimates of the QLF based on a corrected eBOSS dataset. Methods: Intrinsic luminosities were recalculated using the appropriate g-band k-correction function. The QLF was determined for the corrected dataset using a model-weighted estimator, and parametric models were refit to the corrected luminosity function. Projected number counts based on the corrected models are also provided. Results: At redshifts higher than the "pivot" redshift, zp = 2.2, the original and recalculated results differ significantly; in particular, the new results show stronger high-redshift evolution in the best-fit models than the original eBOSS analysis. A new seven-parameter QLF model is provided that fits the corrected eBOSS dataset.

  7. Missing mass from low-luminosity stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, M.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Results from a deep photometric survey for low-luminosity stars show a turnup to the luminosity function at faint magnitudes, and reopen the possibility that the missing mass in the solar neighbourhood is made up of stars after all. (author)

  8. NEAR-IR PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF HB, MSTO, AND SGB FOR METAL POOR GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report photometric features of the HB, MSTO, and SGB for a set of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters on the near-IR CMDs. The magnitude and color of the MSTO and SGB are measured on the fiducial normal points of the CMDs by applying a polynomial fit. The near-IR luminosity functions of horizontal branch stars in the classical second parameter pair M3 and M13 indicate that HB stars in M13 are dominated by hot stars that are rotatively faint in the infrared, whereas HB stars in M3 are brighter than those in M13. The luminosity functions of HB stars in the observed bulge clusters, except for NGC 6717, show a trend that the fainter hot HB stars are dominated in the relatively metal-poor clusters while the relatively metal-rich clusters contain the brighter HB stars. It is suggestive that NGC 6717 would be an extreme example of the second-parameter phenomenon for the bulge globular clusters.

  9. Astrophysical parameters of ten poorly studied open star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadross, Ashraf Latif; El-Bendary, Reda; Osman, Anas; Ismail, Nader; Bakry, Abdel Aziz

    2012-01-01

    We present the fundamental parameters of ten open star clusters, nominated from Kronberger et al. who presented some newly discovered stellar groups on the basis of the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry and Digitized Sky Survey visual images. Star counts and photometric parameters (radius, membership, distance, color excess, age, luminosity function, mass function, total mass, and dynamical relaxation time) have been determined for these ten clusters for the first time. In order to calibrate our procedures, the main parameters (distance, age, and color excess) have been re-estimated for another five clusters, which are also studied by Kronberger et al. (research papers)

  10. Lost but not forgotten: intracluster light in galaxy groups and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, Tahlia; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Zabludoff, Ann; Zaritsky, Dennis; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Mulchaey, John S.

    2018-03-01

    With Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we investigate the progenitor population and formation mechanisms of the intracluster light (ICL) for 23 galaxy groups and clusters at 0.29 ≤ z ≤ 0.89. The colour gradients of the BCG+ICL become bluer with increasing radius out to 53-100 kpc for all but one system, suggesting that violent relaxation after major mergers with the BCG cannot be the dominant source of ICL. The BCG+ICL luminosities and stellar masses are too large for the ICL stars to come from the dissolution of dwarf galaxies alone, given the observed evolution of the faint end of the cluster galaxy luminosity function, implying instead that the ICL grows from the stripping of more massive galaxies. Using the colours of cluster members from the CLASH high-mass sample, we place conservative lower limits on the luminosities of galaxies from which the ICL at r originate via stripping. We find that the ICL at 100 kpc has a colour similar to a 1010.0 M⊙ galaxy and that 75 per cent of the total BCG+ICL luminosity at r originating in galaxies with L > 0.2 L* (log(M★ [M⊙])>10.4), assuming conservatively that these galaxies are completely disrupted. We conclude that the tidal stripping of massive galaxies is the likely source of the intracluster light from 10 to 100 kpc for galaxy groups and clusters.

  11. Luminosity function for planetary nebulae and the number of planetary nebulae in local group galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Identifications of 19 and 34 faint planetary nebulae have been made in the central regions of the SMC and LMC, respectively, using on-line/off-line filter photography at [O III] and Hα. The previously known brighter planetary nebulae in these fields, eight in both the SMC and the LMC, were also identified. On the basis of the ratio of the numbers of faint to bright planetary nebulae in these fields and the numbers of bright planetary nebulae in the surrounding fields, the total numbers of planetary nebulae in the SMC and LMC are estimated to be 285 +- 78 and 996 +- 253, respectively. Corrections have been applied to account for omissions due to crowding confusion in previous surveys, spatial and detectability incompleteness, and obscuration by dust.Equatorial coordinates and finding charts are presented for all the identified planetary nebulae. The coordinates have uncertainties smaller than 0.''6 relative to nearby bright stars, thereby allowing acquisition of the planetary nebulae by bling offsetting.Monochromatic fluxes are derived photographically and used to determine the luminosity function for Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae as faint as 6 mag below the brightest. The luminosity function is used to estimate the total numbers of planetary nebulae in eight Local Group galaxies in which only bright planetary nebulae have been identified. The dervied luminosity specific number of planetary nebulae per unit luminosity is nearly constant for all eight galaxies, having a value of 6.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae L -1 /sub sun/. The mass specific number, based on the three galaxies with well-determined masses, is 2.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae M -1 /sub sun/. With estimates for the luminosity and mass of our Galaxy, its total number of planetary nebulae is calculated to be 10,000 +- 4000, in support of the Cudworth distance scale

  12. CROSS-CORRELATION WEAK LENSING OF SDSS GALAXY CLUSTERS. I. MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Scranton, Ryan; Koester, Benjamin P.; Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Cunha, Carlos; Lima, Marcos; Frieman, Joshua A.; McKay, Timothy A.; Lin Huan; Annis, James; Wechsler, Risa H.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A.; Fukugita, Masataka

    2009-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers on the weak lensing effect caused by clusters of galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The photometrically selected cluster sample, known as MaxBCG, includes ∼130,000 objects between redshift 0.1 and 0.3, ranging in size from small groups to massive clusters. We split the clusters into bins of richness and luminosity and stack the surface density contrast to produce mean radial profiles. The mean profiles are detected over a range of scales, from the inner halo (25 kpc h -1 ) well into the surrounding large-scale structure (30 Mpc h -1 ), with a significance of 15 to 20 in each bin. The signal over this large range of scales is best interpreted in terms of the cluster-mass cross-correlation function. We pay careful attention to sources of systematic error, correcting for them where possible. The resulting signals are calibrated to the ∼10% level, with the dominant remaining uncertainty being the redshift distribution of the background sources. We find that the profiles scale strongly with richness and luminosity. We find that the signal within a given richness bin depends upon luminosity, suggesting that luminosity is more closely correlated with mass than galaxy counts. We split the samples by redshift but detect no significant evolution. The profiles are not well described by power laws. In a subsequent series of papers, we invert the profiles to three-dimensional mass profiles, show that they are well fit by a halo model description, measure mass-to-light ratios, and provide a cosmological interpretation.

  13. An Archival Search For Young Globular Clusters in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1995-07-01

    One of the most intriguing results from HST has been the discovery of ultraluminous star clusters in interacting and merging galaxies. These clusters have the luminosities, colors, and sizes that would be expected of young globular clusters produced by the interaction. We propose to use the data in the HST Archive to determine how prevalent this phenomena is, and to determine whether similar clusters are produced in other environments. Three samples will be extracted and studied in a systematic and consistent manner: 1} interacting and merging galaxies, 2} starburst galaxies, 3} a control sample of ``normal'' galaxies. A preliminary search of the archives shows that there are at least 20 galaxies in each of these samples, and the number will grow by about 50 observations become available. The data will be used to determine the luminosity function, color histogram , spatial distribution, and structural properties of the clusters using the same techniques employed in our study of NGC 7252 {``Atoms -for-Peace'' galaxy} and NGC 4038/4039 {``The Antennae''}. Our ultimate goals are: 1} to understand how globular clusters form, and 2} to use the clusters as evolutionary tracers to unravel the histories of interacting galaxies.

  14. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. DEPROJECTION OF THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS PROFILES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO AND FORNAX CLUSTERS: INVESTIGATING THE 'CORE/POWER-LAW DICHOTOMY'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Lisa; Ferrarese, Laura; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Chen, Chin-Wei; Jordan, Andres; Infante, Leopoldo; Peng, Eric; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Although early observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointed to a sharp dichotomy among early-type galaxies in terms of the logarithmic slope γ' of their central surface brightness profiles, several studies in the past few years have called this finding into question. In particular, recent imaging surveys of 143 early-type galaxies belonging to the Virgo and Fornax Clusters using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board HST have not found a dichotomy in γ', but instead a systematic progression from central luminosity deficit to excess relative to the inward extrapolation of the best-fitting global Sersic model. Given that earlier studies also found that the dichotomy persisted when analyzing the deprojected density profile slopes, we investigate the distribution of the three-dimensional luminosity density profiles of the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Survey galaxies. Having fitted the surface brightness profiles with modified Sersic models, we then deproject the galaxies using an Abel integral and measure the inner slopes γ 3D of the resulting luminosity density profiles at various fractions of the effective radius R e . We find no evidence of a dichotomy, but rather, a continuous variation in the central luminosity profiles as a function of galaxy magnitude. We introduce a parameter, Δ 3D , that measures the central deviation of the deprojected luminosity profiles from the global Sersic fit, showing that this parameter varies smoothly and systematically along the luminosity function.

  15. The Low-mass Population in the Young Cluster Stock 8: Stellar Properties and Initial Mass Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose, Jessy; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Fang, Qiliang [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Samal, Manash R. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University 300, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Panwar, Neelam, E-mail: jessyvjose1@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2017-02-10

    The evolution of H ii regions/supershells can trigger a new generation of stars/clusters at their peripheries, with environmental conditions that may affect the initial mass function, disk evolution, and star formation efficiency. In this paper we study the stellar content and star formation processes in the young cluster Stock 8, which itself is thought to be formed during the expansion of a supershell. We present deep optical photometry along with JHK and 3.6 and 4.5 μ m photometry from UKIDSS and Spitzer -IRAC. We use multicolor criteria to identify the candidate young stellar objects in the region. Using evolutionary models, we obtain a median log(age) of ∼6.5 (∼3.0 Myr) with an observed age spread of ∼0.25 dex for the cluster. Monte Carlo simulations of the population of Stock 8, based on estimates for the photometric uncertainty, differential reddening, binarity, and variability, indicate that these uncertainties introduce an age spread of ∼0.15 dex. The intrinsic age spread in the cluster is ∼0.2 dex. The fraction of young stellar objects surrounded by disks is ∼35%. The K -band luminosity function of Stock 8 is similar to that of the Trapezium cluster. The initial mass function (IMF) of Stock 8 has a Salpeter-like slope at >0.5 M {sub ⊙} and flattens and peaks at ∼0.4 M {sub ⊙}, below which it declines into the substellar regime. Although Stock 8 is surrounded by several massive stars, there seems to be no severe environmental effect in the form of the IMF due to the proximity of massive stars around the cluster.

  16. Yellow supergiants in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Superluminous giant stars (SLGs) have been reported in young globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars appear to be in the post-asymptotic-giant-branch phase of evolution. This program was an investigation of galactic SLG candidates in open clusters, which are more like the LMC young globular clusters. These were chosen because luminosity, mass, and age determinations can be made for members since cluster distances and interstellar reddenings are known. Color magnitude diagrams were searched for candidates, using the same selection criteria as for SLGs in the LMC. Classification spectra were obtained of 115 program stars from McGraw-Hill Observatory and of 68 stars from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Chile. These stars were visually classified on the MK system using spectral scans of standard stars taken at the respective observations. Published information was combined with this program's data for 83 stars in 30 clusters. Membership probabilities were assigned to these stars, and the clusters were analyzed according to age. It was seen that the intrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters. With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by the supergiants decline. Also, it appears that the evolutionary tracks of luminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than of class III

  17. The correlation functions for the clustering of galaxies and Abell clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Jones, J.E.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The difference in amplitudes between the galaxy-galaxy correlation function and the correlation function between Abell clusters is a consequence of two facts. Firstly, most Abell clusters with z<0.08 lie in a relatively small volume of the sampled space, and secondly, the fraction of galaxies lying in Abell clusters differs considerably inside and outside of this volume. (The Abell clusters are confined to a smaller volume of space than are the galaxies.) We discuss the implications of this interpretation of the clustering correlation functions and present a simple model showing how such a situation may arise quite naturally in standard theories for galaxy formation. (orig.)

  18. STAR FORMATION IN DENSE CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    A model of core-clump accretion with equally likely stopping describes star formation in the dense parts of clusters, where models of isolated collapsing cores may not apply. Each core accretes at a constant rate onto its protostar, while the surrounding clump gas accretes as a power of protostar mass. Short accretion flows resemble Shu accretion and make low-mass stars. Long flows resemble reduced Bondi accretion and make massive stars. Accretion stops due to environmental processes of dynamical ejection, gravitational competition, and gas dispersal by stellar feedback, independent of initial core structure. The model matches the field star initial mass function (IMF) from 0.01 to more than 10 solar masses. The core accretion rate and the mean accretion duration set the peak of the IMF, independent of the local Jeans mass. Massive protostars require the longest accretion durations, up to 0.5 Myr. The maximum protostar luminosity in a cluster indicates the mass and age of its oldest protostar. The distribution of protostar luminosities matches those in active star-forming regions if protostars have a constant birthrate but not if their births are coeval. For constant birthrate, the ratio of young stellar objects to protostars indicates the star-forming age of a cluster, typically ∼1 Myr. The protostar accretion luminosity is typically less than its steady spherical value by a factor of ∼2, consistent with models of episodic disk accretion.

  19. Cosmic Star Formation History and Evolution of the Galaxy UV Luminosity Function for z < 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keming; Schiminovich, David

    2018-01-01

    We present the latest constraints on the evolution of the far-ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies (1500 Å, UVLF hereafter) for 0 NSA, GAMA, VIPERS, and COSMOS photo-z. Our final sample consists of ~170000 galaxies, which represents the largest sample used in such studies. By integrating wide NSA and GAMA data and deep VIPERS and COSMOS photo-z data, we have been able to constrain both the bright end and the faint end of the luminosity function with high accuracy over the entire redshift range. We fit a Schechter function to our measurements of the UVLF, both to parameterize its evolution, and to integrate for SFR densities. From z~1 to z~0, the characteristic absolute magnitude of the UVLF increases linearly by ~1.5 magnitudes, while the faint end slope remains shallow (alpha < 1.5). However, the Schechter function fit exhibits an excess of galaxies at the bright end, which is accounted for by contributions from AGN. We also describe our methodology, which can be applied more generally to any combination of wide-shallow and deep-narrow surveys.

  20. Intrinsic width and luminosity function of the M92 main sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandage, A.; Katem, B.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of B and V magnitudes of approx.475 identified stars in the magnitude interval 18.0 - 4 is too low. The luminosity function, obtained from the present data, is compared with that determined earlier by Tayler, by Hartwick, by van den Bergh, and with Fukuoka and Simoda, with good agreement. The evidence favors that phi(M/sub v/) flattens fainter than M/sub v/approx. =+6 as predicted in some dynamical models, due to loss of low mass stars

  1. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN STELLAR SYSTEMS: 'QUIESCENT' ACCRETION AND LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volonteri, M.; Campbell, D.; Mateo, M.; Dotti, M.

    2011-01-01

    Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus. However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper, we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally, we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local universe.

  2. Statistics of the hubble diagram. II. The form of the luminosity function and density variations with application to quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    New techniques for deriving a luminosity function LF and a spatial density distribution rho (r) from magnitude-redshift data are presented. These techniques do not require iterative improvement of an initially guessed solution or the adoption of arbitrary analytic forms; instead, they provide explicit numerical estimates of the LF and rho (r). Thus, sources of systematic uncertainty are eliminated. This is achieved at the cost of an increase in the statistical noise. As in Paper I of this series, it is necessary to assume that the LF does not vary in functional form. An internal test of this assumption is described.These techniques are illustrated by application to a sample of 3 CR and 4C quasars. The radio luminosity function is found to be a steep power law with no features. The optical luminosity function is found to be a shallow power law cut off roughly exponentially above a characteristic luminosity L/sub opt/* (Z) corresponding roughly to M/sub B/=-22-6 log (1+Z) The comoving density evolution is not well fitted by any simple function of 1+Z [e.g., (1+Z) 6 errs by factors as large as approx.5 at some redshifts] but is well represented by an exponential of look-back time. Specific analytic fits and numerical tabulations are given for each of these functions. The constant LF form assumption is found to be a reasonable first approximation for the quasars.Other possible applications of the new methods to problems in extragalactic and stellar astronomy are suggested

  3. OBSERVED SCALING RELATIONS FOR STRONG LENSING CLUSTERS: CONSEQUENCES FOR COSMOLOGY AND CLUSTER ASSEMBLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2010-01-01

    Scaling relations of observed galaxy cluster properties are useful tools for constraining cosmological parameters as well as cluster formation histories. One of the key cosmological parameters, σ 8 , is constrained using observed clusters of galaxies, although current estimates of σ 8 from the scaling relations of dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters are limited by the large scatter in the observed cluster mass-temperature (M-T) relation. With a sample of eight strong lensing clusters at 0.3 8 , but combining the cluster concentration-mass relation with the M-T relation enables the inclusion of unrelaxed clusters as well. Thus, the resultant gains in the accuracy of σ 8 measurements from clusters are twofold: the errors on σ 8 are reduced and the cluster sample size is increased. Therefore, the statistics on σ 8 determination from clusters are greatly improved by the inclusion of unrelaxed clusters. Exploring cluster scaling relations further, we find that the correlation between brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) luminosity and cluster mass offers insight into the assembly histories of clusters. We find preliminary evidence for a steeper BCG luminosity-cluster mass relation for strong lensing clusters than the general cluster population, hinting that strong lensing clusters may have had more active merging histories.

  4. New Technique for Luminosity Measurement Using 3D Pixel Modules in the ATLAS IBL Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Peilian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Insertable b-Layer ( IBL ) is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system. It consists of planar pixel modules in the central region and 3D modules at two extremities. We use the cluster length distributions in 3D sensor modules of the IBL to determine the number of primary charged particles per event and suppress backgrounds. This Pixel Cluster Counting ( PCC ) algorithm provides a bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement. An accurate luminosity measurement is a key component for precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider and one of the largest uncertainties on the luminosity determination in ATLAS arises from the long-term stability of the measurement technique. The comparison of the PCC algorithm with other existing algorithms provides key insights in assessing and reducing such uncertainty.

  5. Pixel Color Clustering of Multi-Temporally Acquired Digital Photographs of a Rice Canopy by Luminosity-Normalization and Pseudo-Red-Green-Blue Color Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Doi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red-green-blue (RGB channels of RGB digital photographs were loaded with luminosity-adjusted R, G, and completely white grayscale images, respectively (RGwhtB method, or R, G, and R + G (RGB yellow grayscale images, respectively (RGrgbyB method, to adjust the brightness of the entire area of multi-temporally acquired color digital photographs of a rice canopy. From the RGwhtB or RGrgbyB pseudocolor image, cyan, magenta, CMYK yellow, black, L*, a*, and b* grayscale images were prepared. Using these grayscale images and R, G, and RGB yellow grayscale images, the luminosity-adjusted pixels of the canopy photographs were statistically clustered. With the RGrgbyB and the RGwhtB methods, seven and five major color clusters were given, respectively. The RGrgbyB method showed clear differences among three rice growth stages, and the vegetative stage was further divided into two substages. The RGwhtB method could not clearly discriminate between the second vegetative and midseason stages. The relative advantages of the RGrgbyB method were attributed to the R, G, B, magenta, yellow, L*, and a* grayscale images that contained richer information to show the colorimetrical differences among objects than those of the RGwhtB method. The comparison of rice canopy colors at different time points was enabled by the pseudocolor imaging method.

  6. PHAT STELLAR CLUSTER SURVEY. I. YEAR 1 CATALOG AND INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hodge, Paul W.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Beerman, Lori C.; Seth, Anil C.; Caldwell, Nelson; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Larsen, Søren S.; Olsen, Knut A. G.; San Roman, Izaskun; Sarajedini, Ata; Bianchi, Luciana; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Girardi, Léo; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason; Lang, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-cycle program to obtain high spatial resolution imaging of one-third of the M31 disk at ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, we present the first installment of the PHAT stellar cluster catalog. When completed, the PHAT cluster catalog will be among the largest and most comprehensive surveys of resolved star clusters in any galaxy. The exquisite spatial resolution achieved with HST has allowed us to identify hundreds of new clusters that were previously inaccessible with existing ground-based surveys. We identify 601 clusters in the Year 1 sample, representing more than a factor of four increase over previous catalogs within the current survey area (390 arcmin 2 ). This work presents results derived from the first ∼25% of the survey data; we estimate that the final sample will include ∼2500 clusters. For the Year 1 objects, we present a catalog with positions, radii, and six-band integrated photometry. Along with a general characterization of the cluster luminosities and colors, we discuss the cluster luminosity function, the cluster size distributions, and highlight a number of individually interesting clusters found in the Year 1 search.

  7. PHAT STELLAR CLUSTER SURVEY. I. YEAR 1 CATALOG AND INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hodge, Paul W.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Beerman, Lori C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Seth, Anil C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gouliermis, Dimitrios A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, Soren S. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Olsen, Knut A. G. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); San Roman, Izaskun; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Girardi, Leo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kalirai, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lang, Dustin, E-mail: lcjohnso@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2012-06-20

    The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-cycle program to obtain high spatial resolution imaging of one-third of the M31 disk at ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, we present the first installment of the PHAT stellar cluster catalog. When completed, the PHAT cluster catalog will be among the largest and most comprehensive surveys of resolved star clusters in any galaxy. The exquisite spatial resolution achieved with HST has allowed us to identify hundreds of new clusters that were previously inaccessible with existing ground-based surveys. We identify 601 clusters in the Year 1 sample, representing more than a factor of four increase over previous catalogs within the current survey area (390 arcmin{sup 2}). This work presents results derived from the first {approx}25% of the survey data; we estimate that the final sample will include {approx}2500 clusters. For the Year 1 objects, we present a catalog with positions, radii, and six-band integrated photometry. Along with a general characterization of the cluster luminosities and colors, we discuss the cluster luminosity function, the cluster size distributions, and highlight a number of individually interesting clusters found in the Year 1 search.

  8. On the distinction between density and luminosity evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the assumptions of pure density evolution and pure luminosity evolution lead to observable differences in the distribution of sources for all convergent luminosity functions. The proof given is valid for sources with an arbitrary number of intrinisic luminosities (e.g., optical, infrared, and radio) and also holds in the special cases of mixed evolution that are considered. (author)

  9. Globular Clusters Shine in a Galaxy Lacking Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    ( 9.3 billion years) population and metal-poor.Rethinking Formation TheoriesThe long-standing picture of galaxies has closely connected old, metal-poor globular clusters to the galaxies dark-matter halos. Past studies have found that the ratio between the total globular-cluster mass and the overall mass of a galaxy (i.e., all dark + baryonic matter) holds remarkably constant across galaxies its typically 3 x 10-5. This has led researchers to believe that properties of the dark-matter halo may determine globular-cluster formation.The luminosity function of the compact objects in NGC 1052DF2. The red and blue curves show the luminosity functions of globular clusters in the Milky Way and in the typical ultra-diffuse galaxies of the Coma cluster, respectively. NGC 1052DF2s globular clusters peak at a significantly higher luminosity. [Adapted from van Dokkum et al. 2018]NGC 1052DF2, with a globular-cluster mass thats 3% of the mass of the galaxy ( 1000 times the expected ratio!), defies this picture. This unusual galaxy therefore demonstrates that the usual relation between globular-cluster mass and total galaxy mass probably isnt due to a fundamental connection between the dark-matter halo and globular-cluster formation. Instead, van Dokkum and collaborators suggest, globular-cluster formation may ultimately be a baryon-driven process.As with all unexpected discoveries in astronomy, we must now determine whether NGC 1052DF2 is simply a fluke, or whether it represents a new class of object we can expect to find more of. Either way, this unusual galaxy is forcing us to rethink what we know about galaxies and the star clusters they host.CitationPieter van Dokkum et al 2018 ApJL 856 L30. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aab60b

  10. Cosmological constraints from Chandra observations of galaxy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Steven W

    2002-09-15

    Chandra observations of rich, relaxed galaxy clusters allow the properties of the X-ray gas and the total gravitating mass to be determined precisely. Here, we present results for a sample of the most X-ray luminous, dynamically relaxed clusters known. We show that the Chandra data and independent gravitational lensing studies provide consistent answers on the mass distributions in the clusters. The mass profiles exhibit a form in good agreement with the predictions from numerical simulations. Combining Chandra results on the X-ray gas mass fractions in the clusters with independent measurements of the Hubble constant and the mean baryonic matter density in the Universe, we obtain a tight constraint on the mean total matter density of the Universe, Omega(m), and an interesting constraint on the cosmological constant, Omega(Lambda). We also describe the 'virial relations' linking the masses, X-ray temperatures and luminosities of galaxy clusters. These relations provide a key step in linking the observed number density and spatial distribution of clusters to the predictions from cosmological models. The Chandra data confirm the presence of a systematic offset of ca. 40% between the normalization of the observed mass-temperature relation and the predictions from standard simulations. This finding leads to a significant revision of the best-fit value of sigma(8) inferred from the observed temperature and luminosity functions of clusters.

  11. Globular clusters - Fads and fallacies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The types of globular clusters observed in the Milky Way Galaxy are described together with their known characteristics, with special attention given to correcting the erroneous statements made earlier about globular clusters. Among these are the following statements: the Galaxy is surrounded by many hundreds of globular clusters; all globular clusters are located toward the Galactic center, all globular clusters are metal poor and move about the Galaxy in highly elliptical paths; all globular clusters contain RR Lyrae-type variable stars, and the RR Lyrae stars found outside of globulars have come from cluster dissolution or ejection; all of the stars in a given cluster were born at the same time and have the same chemical composition; X-ray globulars are powered by central black holes; and the luminosity functions for globular clusters are well defined and well determined. Consideration is given to the fact that globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds differ from those in the Milky Way by their age distribution and that the globulars of the SMC differ from those of the LMC

  12. X-ray clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamic PPM simulation of the cold dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Cen, Renyue; Norman, Michael L.; Ostriker, Jermemiah P.; Stone, James M.

    1994-01-01

    A new three-dimensional hydrodynamic code based on the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) is utilized to compute the distribution of hot gas in the standard Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized cold dark matter (CDM) universe. Utilizing periodic boundary conditions, a box with size 85 h(exp-1) Mpc, having cell size 0.31 h(exp-1) Mpc, is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3)=10(exp 7.3) cells. Adopting standard parameters determined from COBE and light-element nucleosynthesis, Sigma(sub 8)=1.05, Omega(sub b)=0.06, we find the X-ray-emitting clusters, compute the luminosity function at several wavelengths, the temperature distribution, and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. The results, which are compared with those obtained in the preceding paper (Kang et al. 1994a), may be used in conjuction with ROSAT and other observational data sets. Overall, the results of the two computations are qualitatively very similar with regard to the trends of cluster properties, i.e., how the number density, radius, and temeprature depend on luminosity and redshift. The total luminosity from clusters is approximately a factor of 2 higher using the PPM code (as compared to the 'total variation diminishing' (TVD) code used in the previous paper) with the number of bright clusters higher by a similar factor. The primary conclusions of the prior paper, with regard to the power spectrum of the primeval density perturbations, are strengthened: the standard CDM model, normalized to the COBE microwave detection, predicts too many bright X-ray emitting clusters, by a factor probably in excess of 5. The comparison between observations and theoretical predictions for the evolution of cluster properties, luminosity functions, and size and temperature distributions should provide an important discriminator among competing scenarios for the development of structure in the universe.

  13. Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, M.; Saito, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kumano, S.

    2011-01-01

    For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to AMD, the 9 Be nucleus consists of two α-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F 2 of 9 Be along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F 2 are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in 9 Be. It indicates that the anomalous 9 Be result should be explained by a different mechanism from the nuclear binding and Fermi motion. If nuclear-modification slopes d(F 2 A /F 2 D )/dx are shown by the maximum local densities, the 9 Be anomaly can be explained by the AMD picture, namely by the clustering structure, whereas it certainly cannot be described in the simple shell model. This fact suggests that the large nuclear modification in 9 Be should be explained by large densities in the clusters. For example, internal nucleon structure could be modified in the high-density clusters. The clustering aspect of nuclear structure functions is an unexplored topic which is interesting for future investigations.

  14. Search for optical millisecond pulsars in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleditch, J.H.; Imamura, J.N.; Steiman-Cameron, T.Y.

    1988-01-01

    A search for millisecond optical pulsars in several bright, compact globular clusters was conducted. The sample included M28, and the X-ray clusters 47 Tuc, NGC 6441, NGC 6624, M22, and M15. The globular cluster M28 contains the recently discovered 327 Hz radio pulsar. Upper limits of 4 sigma to pulsed emission of (1-20) solar luminosities were found for the globular clusters tested, and 0.3 solar luminosity for the M28 pulsar for frequencies up to 500 Hz. 8 references

  15. THE WYOMING SURVEY FOR Hα. II. Hα LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT z∼ 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, AND 0.40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Daniel A.; Cook, David O.; Moore, Carolynn A.; Staudaher, Shawn M.; Barlow, Rebecca J.; Cohen, Seth A.; Johnson, L. Clifton; Kattner, ShiAnne M.; Schuster, Micah D.

    2010-01-01

    The Wyoming Survey for Hα, or WySH, is a large-area, ground-based imaging survey for Hα-emitting galaxies at redshifts of z ∼ 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, and 0.40. The survey spans up to 4 deg 2 in a set of fields of low Galactic cirrus emission, using twin narrowband filters at each epoch for improved stellar continuum subtraction. Hα luminosity functions are presented for each Δz ∼ 0.02 epoch based on a total of nearly 1200 galaxies. These data clearly show an evolution with look-back time in the volume-averaged cosmic star formation rate. Integrals of Schechter fits to the incompleteness- and extinction-corrected Hα luminosity functions indicate star formation rates per comoving volume of 0.010, 0.013, 0.020, 0.022 h 70 M sun yr -1 Mpc -3 at z ∼ 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, and 0.40, respectively. Combined statistical and systematic measurement uncertainties are on the order of 25%, while the effects of cosmic variance are at the 20% level. The bulk of this evolution is driven by changes in the characteristic luminosity L * of the Hα luminosity functions, with L * for the earlier two epochs being a factor of 2 larger than L * at the latter two epochs; it is more difficult with this data set to decipher systematic evolutionary differences in the luminosity function amplitude and faint-end slope. Coupling these results with a comprehensive compilation of results from the literature on emission line surveys, the evolution in the cosmic star formation rate density over 0 ∼< z ∼< 1.5 is measured.

  16. Seeking the epoch of maximum luminosity for dusty quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanyan, Valeri; Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    Infrared luminosities νL ν (7.8 μm) arising from dust reradiation are determined for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars with 1.4 luminosity does not show a maximum at any redshift z < 5, reaching a plateau for z ≳ 3 with maximum luminosity νL ν (7.8 μm) ≳ 10 47 erg s –1 ; luminosity functions show one quasar Gpc –3 having νL ν (7.8 μm) > 10 46.6 erg s –1 for all 2 luminosity has not yet been identified at any redshift below 5. The most ultraviolet luminous quasars, defined by rest frame νL ν (0.25 μm), have the largest values of the ratio νL ν (0.25 μm)/νL ν (7.8 μm) with a maximum ratio at z = 2.9. From these results, we conclude that the quasars most luminous in the ultraviolet have the smallest dust content and appear luminous primarily because of lessened extinction. Observed ultraviolet/infrared luminosity ratios are used to define 'obscured' quasars as those having >5 mag of ultraviolet extinction. We present a new summary of obscured quasars discovered with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and determine the infrared luminosity function of these obscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1. This is compared with infrared luminosity functions of optically discovered, unobscured quasars in the SDSS and in the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. The comparison indicates comparable numbers of obscured and unobscured quasars at z ∼ 2.1 with a possible excess of obscured quasars at fainter luminosities.

  17. A NEW METHOD TO QUANTIFY X-RAY SUBSTRUCTURES IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Lima Neto, Gastao B.; Lagana, Tatiana F. [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-20

    We present a new method to quantify substructures in clusters of galaxies, based on the analysis of the intensity of structures. This analysis is done in a residual image that is the result of the subtraction of a surface brightness model, obtained by fitting a two-dimensional analytical model ({beta}-model or Sersic profile) with elliptical symmetry, from the X-ray image. Our method is applied to 34 clusters observed by the Chandra Space Telescope that are in the redshift range z in [0.02, 0.2] and have a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) greater than 100. We present the calibration of the method and the relations between the substructure level with physical quantities, such as the mass, X-ray luminosity, temperature, and cluster redshift. We use our method to separate the clusters in two sub-samples of high- and low-substructure levels. We conclude, using Monte Carlo simulations, that the method recuperates very well the true amount of substructure for small angular core radii clusters (with respect to the whole image size) and good S/N observations. We find no evidence of correlation between the substructure level and physical properties of the clusters such as gas temperature, X-ray luminosity, and redshift; however, analysis suggest a trend between the substructure level and cluster mass. The scaling relations for the two sub-samples (high- and low-substructure level clusters) are different (they present an offset, i.e., given a fixed mass or temperature, low-substructure clusters tend to be more X-ray luminous), which is an important result for cosmological tests using the mass-luminosity relation to obtain the cluster mass function, since they rely on the assumption that clusters do not present different scaling relations according to their dynamical state.

  18. The Luminosity Function of Fermi-Detected Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    extensively studied at radio (Dunlop & Peacock 1990; Wall et al. 2005), soft X-ray (Giommi & Padovani 1994; Rector et al. 2000; Wolter & Celotti 2001...FSRQs) evolve positively (i.e., there were more blazars in the past, Dunlop & Peacock 1990) up to a redshift cutoff which depends on luminosity (e.g...luminosity of 1048 erg s−1. The LDDE model provides a good fit to the LAT data and is able to reproduce the observed distribution in Figure 2. The log

  19. Constraints on the gamma-ray burst luminosity function from Pioneer Venus Orbiter and BATSE observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulmer, A.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the width of the gamma ray burst luminosity function through the distribution of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) peak fluxes as detected by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The strength of the analysis is greatly enhanced by using a merged

  20. The evolution of X-ray clusters in a cold plus hot dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Klypin, Anatoly; Loken, Chris; Norman, Michael L.; Burns, Jack O.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first self-consistently computed results on the evolution of X-ray properties of galaxy clusters in a cold + hot dark matter (CHDM) model. We have performed a hydrodynamic plus N-body simulation for the COBE-compatible CHDM model with standard mass components: Omega(sub hot) = 0.3, Omega (sub cold) = 0.6 and Omega(sub baryon) = 0.1 (h = 0.5). In contrast with the CDM model, which fails to reproduce the observed temperature distribution function dN/dT (Bryan et al. 1994b), the CHDM model fits the observational dN/dT quite well. Our results on X-ray luminosity are less firm but even more intriguing. We find that the resulting X-ray luminosity functions at redshifts z = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7 are well fit by observations, where they overlap. The fact that both temperatures and luminosities provide a reasonable fit to the available observational data indicates that, unless we are missing some essential physics, there is neither room nor need for a large fraction of gas in rich clusters: 10% (or less) in baryons is sufficient to explain their X-ray properties. We also see a tight correlation between X-ray luminosity and gas temperature.

  1. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-12-05

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determin...

  2. The Faint End of the Quasar Luminosity Function at z ~ 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikman, Eilat; Bogosavljević, Milan; Djorgovski, S. G.; Stern, Daniel; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Mahabal, Ashish

    2010-02-01

    The evolution of the quasar luminosity function (QLF) is one of the basic cosmological measures providing insight into structure formation and mass assembly in the universe. We have conducted a spectroscopic survey to find faint quasars (-26.0 law (Φ vprop L β) gives a faint-end slope β = -1.6 ± 0.2. If we consider our larger, but highly incomplete sample going 1 mag fainter, we measure a steeper faint-end slope -2 law LF. Our best fit finds a bright-end slope, α = -2.4 ± 0.2, and faint-end slope, β = -2.3 ± 0.2, without a well-constrained break luminosity. This is effectively a single power law, with β = -2.7 ± 0.1. We use these results to place limits on the amount of ultraviolet radiation produced by quasars and find that quasars are able to ionize the intergalactic medium at these redshifts. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  3. The properties of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei. I - Luminosity function, cosmological evolution, and contribution to the diffuse X-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccacaro, T.; Della ceca, R.; Gioia, I.M.; Morris, S.L.; Stocke, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) and their implications for cosmological evolution are determined for 420 X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN). The local XLFs flatten considerably when L(x) is less than or equal to 5 x 10 to the 42nd ergs/s, and higher-luminosity XLF are demonstrated to fit a power-law approximation. Cosmological evolution in terms of two pure-luminosity evolutionary models is directly supported by model-independent AGN XLF, showing weak evolution when z is less than 0.4 and more pronounced evolution at higher z. The parameter C is determined for the two models, and the values support the 'slower' evolution of these AGN relative to QSOs selected optically. The deevolved XLF best-fit slope is found to be 3.05 for high luminosities and 1.35 for low luminosities, with no evidence of slope changes for other luminosities. 38 refs

  4. Luminosity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    Luminosity monitors are needed in each experiment doing spin physics at RHIC. They concentrate on the luminosity aspects here because, for example, with a 10 -3 raw asymmetry in an experiment, an error of 10 -4 in the luminosity is as significant as a 10% polarization error. Because luminosity is a property of how two beams overlap, the luminosity at an interaction region must be measured at that interaction region in order to be relevant to the experiment at that interaction region. The authors will have to do the physics and the luminosity measurements by using labels on the event sums according to the polarization labels on the colliding bunches. Most likely they will not have independent polarization measurement on each bunch, but only on all the filled bunches in a ring, or perhaps all the bunches that are actually used in an experiment. Most analyses can then be handled by using the nine combinations gotten from three kinds of bunches in each ring, +, - and empty bunches. The empty bunches are needed to measure beam-gas background, (and some, like six in a row, are needed for the beam abort). Much of the difficulty comes from the fact that they must use a physics process to represent the luminosity. This process must have kinematic and geometric cuts both to reduce systematics such as beam-gas backgrounds, and to make it representative of the part of the interaction diamond from which the physics events come

  5. The Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey. III. The Luminosity Function of the M101 Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Shany; van Dokkum, Pieter; Merritt, Allison; Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai; Karachentsev, I. D.; Makarova, L. N.

    2017-03-01

    We obtained follow-up HST observations of the seven low surface brightness galaxies discovered with the Dragonfly Telephoto Array in the field of the massive spiral galaxy M101. Out of the seven galaxies, only three were resolved into stars and are potentially associated with the M101 group at D = 7 Mpc. Based on HST ACS photometry in the broad F606W and F814W filters, we use a maximum likelihood algorithm to locate the Tip of the Red Giant Branch in galaxy color-magnitude diagrams. Distances are {6.38}-0.35+0.35,{6.87}-0.30+0.21 and {6.52}-0.27+0.25 {Mpc} and we confirm that they are members of the M101 group. Combining the three confirmed low-luminosity satellites with previous results for brighter group members, we find the M101 galaxy group to be a sparsely populated galaxy group consisting of seven group members, down to M V = -9.2 mag. We compare the M101 cumulative luminosity function to that of the Milky Way and M31. We find that they are remarkably similar; in fact, the cumulative luminosity function of the M101 group gets even flatter for fainter magnitudes, and we show that the M101 group might exhibit the two known small-scale flaws in the ΛCDM model, namely “the missing satellite” problem and the “too big to fail” problem. Kinematic measurements of M101's satellite galaxies are required to determine whether the “too big to fail” problem does in fact exist in the M101 group.

  6. CMS Luminosity Calibration for the pp Reference Run at $\\sqrt{s}=5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the integrated luminosity delivered to the CMS Experiment during the very first LHC proton-proton run at $5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$ center-of-mass energy is presented. The Pixel Cluster Counting method is used and the absolute luminosity scale calibration is derived from an analysis of Van der Meer Scans performed in November 2015. The overall uncertainty on the luminosity measurement is $2.3\\%$. The time stability of such calibrations is also studied and taken into account for the final systematic uncertainty.

  7. BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AND CORE GAS DENSITY IN REXCESS CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, Luke; Donahue, Megan; Bruch, Seth; Voit, G. Mark; Boehringer, Hans; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Pierini, Daniele; Croston, Judith H.; Arnaud, Monique

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and their host clusters using a sample of nearby galaxy clusters from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey. The sample was imaged with the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research in R band to investigate the mass of the old stellar population. Using a metric radius of 12 h -1 kpc, we found that the BCG luminosity depends weakly on overall cluster mass as L BCG ∝ M 0.18±0.07 cl , consistent with previous work. We found that 90% of the BCGs are located within 0.035 r 500 of the peak of the X-ray emission, including all of the cool core (CC) clusters. We also found an unexpected correlation between the BCG metric luminosity and the core gas density for non-cool-core (non-CC) clusters, following a power law of n e ∝ L 2.7±0.4 BCG (where n e is measured at 0.008 r 500 ). The correlation is not easily explained by star formation (which is weak in non-CC clusters) or overall cluster mass (which is not correlated with core gas density). The trend persists even when the BCG is not located near the peak of the X-ray emission, so proximity is not necessary. We suggest that, for non-CC clusters, this correlation implies that the same process that sets the central entropy of the cluster gas also determines the central stellar density of the BCG, and that this underlying physical process is likely to be mergers.

  8. Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxies Have "Normal" Luminosities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer

    2000-04-10

    The galactic environment of gamma-ray bursts can provide good evidence about the nature of the progenitor system, with two old arguments implying that the burst host galaxies are significantly subluminous. New data and new analysis have now reversed this picture: (1) Even though the first two known host galaxies are indeed greatly subluminous, the next eight hosts have absolute magnitudes typical for a population of field galaxies. A detailed analysis of the 16 known hosts (10 with redshifts) shows them to be consistent with a Schechter luminosity function with R*=-21.8+/-1.0, as expected for normal galaxies. (2) Bright bursts from the Interplanetary Network are typically 18 times brighter than the faint bursts with redshifts; however, the bright bursts do not have galaxies inside their error boxes to limits deeper than expected based on the luminosities for the two samples being identical. A new solution to this dilemma is that a broad burst luminosity function along with a burst number density varying as the star formation rate will require the average luminosity of the bright sample (>6x1058 photons s-1 or>1.7x1052 ergs s-1) to be much greater than the average luminosity of the faint sample ( approximately 1058 photons s-1 or approximately 3x1051 ergs s-1). This places the bright bursts at distances for which host galaxies with a normal luminosity will not violate the observed limits. In conclusion, all current evidence points to gamma-ray burst host galaxies being normal in luminosity.

  9. Dynamical evolution of galaxies in clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostriker, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In addition to the processes involved in the evolution of star clusters, there are three kinds of processes that are peculiar to, or far more important in, galaxy clusters than in star clusters: galaxy interactions with gas, high-velocity tidal interactions, and accretion and cannibalism. The latter is discussed at some length; analytical calculations for the apparent luminosity evolution of the first brightest galaxy and the apparent luminosity evolution of M 12 are described, along with the numerical simulation of cluster evolution. It appears that many of the notable features of centrally condensed clusters of galaxies, particularly the presence of very luminous but low-surface-brightness central cD systems, can be understood in terms of a straightforward dynamical theory of galactic cannibalism. It is possible to maintain the hypothesis that dynamical evolution gradually transforms Bautz--Morgan III clusters to type II systems or type I systems. 36 references, 5 figures

  10. Supernova blast wave within a stellar cluster outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Raga, A. C.; Velázquez, P. F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Toledo-Roy, J. C.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we develop a semi-analytic model of a supernova which goes off in the centre of a stellar cluster. The supernova remnant interacts with a stratified, pre-existent outflow produced by the winds of the cluster stars. We compare our semi-analytic model with numerical simulations using the spherically symmetric Euler equations with appropriate mass and energy source terms. We find good agreement between these two approaches, and we find that for typical parameters the blast wave is likely to reach the Taylor-Sedov regime outside the cluster radius. We also calculate the predicted X-ray luminosity of the flow as a function of time, and we obtain its dependence on the outer radius and the number of stars of the cluster.

  11. Luminosity and Redshift dependence of quasar spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel E. Vanden Berk et al.

    2004-03-09

    Using a large sample of quasar spectra from the SDSS, we examine the composite spectral trends of quasars as functions of both redshift and luminosity, independently of one another. Aside from the well known Baldwin effect (BE)--the decrease of line equivalent width with luminosity--the average spectral properties are remarkably similar. Host galaxy contamination and the BE are the primary causes for apparent changes in the average spectral slope of the quasars. The BE is detected for most emission lines, including the Balmer lines, but with several exceptions including NV1240A. Emission line shifts of several lines are associated with the BE. The BE is mainly a function of luminosity, but also partly a function of redshift in that line equivalent widths become stronger with redshift. Some of the complex iron features change with redshift, particularly near the small blue bump region.

  12. Hot gas in the cold dark matter scenario: X-ray clusters from a high-resolution numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ryu, Dongsu

    1994-01-01

    A new, three-dimensional, shock-capturing hydrodynamic code is utilized to determine the distribution of hot gas in a standard cold dark matter (CDM) model of the universe. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed: a box with size 85 h(exp -1) Mpc having cell size 0.31 h(exp -1) Mpc is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3) = 10(exp 7.3) cells. Adopting standard parameters determined from COBE and light-element nucleosynthesis, sigma(sub 8) = 1.05, omega(sub b) = 0.06, and assuming h = 0.5, we find the X-ray-emitting clusters and compute the luminosity function at several wavelengths, the temperature distribution, and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. We find that most of the total X-ray emissivity in our box originates in a relatively small number of identifiable clusters which occupy approximately 10(exp -3) of the box volume. This standard CDM model, normalized to COBE, produces approximately 5 times too much emission from clusters having L(sub x) is greater than 10(exp 43) ergs/s, a not-unexpected result. If all other parameters were unchanged, we would expect adequate agreement for sigma(sub 8) = 0.6. This provides a new and independent argument for lower small-scale power than standard CDM at the 8 h(exp -1) Mpc scale. The background radiation field at 1 keV due to clusters in this model is approximately one-third of the observed background, which, after correction for numerical effects, again indicates approximately 5 times too much emission and the appropriateness of sigma(sub 8) = 0.6. If we have used the observed ratio of gas to total mass in clusters, rather than basing the mean density on light-element nucleosynthesis, then the computed luminosity of each cluster would have increased still further, by a factor of approximately 10. The number density of clusters increases to z approximately 1, but the luminosity per typical cluster decreases, with the result that evolution in the number density of bright

  13. The initial mass function for very low mass stars in the Hyades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W.B.; Burrows, A.; Lunine, J.I.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical luminosity functions at various evolutionary ages for stars and substellar objects (brown dwarfs), spanning the mass range from 0.03 to 0.2 solar mass is computed. These functions constrain the distribution of very low mass objects in a star cluster of known age. Calculations with a 1988-1989 survey of faint members of the Hyades cluster by Leggett and Hawkins (1988, 1989), a cluster whose age is 6 x 10 to the 8th yr are compared. The comparison shows that the survey does not reach sufficiently low luminosities to reveal brown dwarfs. A strong constraint on the initial mass function (IMF) for very low mass stars in the Hyades is obtained and it is inferred that its IMF does not increase with decreasing mass for the mass interval investigated here. Results imply at most a moderate contribution from brown dwarfs to the cluster mass, and to the Galaxy's mass if the Hyades are representative of the Galaxy as a whole. 10 refs

  14. Evolution of Galaxy Luminosity and Stellar-Mass Functions since $z=1$ with the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzi, D.; et al.

    2017-07-27

    We present the first study of the evolution of the galaxy luminosity and stellar-mass functions (GLF and GSMF) carried out by the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe the COMMODORE galaxy catalogue selected from Science Verification images. This catalogue is made of $\\sim 4\\times 10^{6}$ galaxies at $0functions against literature results obtained with spectroscopic redshifts; ii) we want to shed light on the way galaxies build up their masses over cosmic time. We find that both the ${\\it i}$-band galaxy luminosity and stellar mass functions are characterised by a double-Schechter shape at $z<0.2$. Both functions agree well with those based on spectroscopic redshifts. The DES GSMF agrees especially with those measured for the GAlaxy Mass Assembly and the PRism MUlti-object Survey out to $z\\sim1$. At $0.2luminosity and stellar-mass densities respectively to be constant ($\\rho_{\\rm L}\\propto (1+z)^{-0.12\\pm0.11}$) and decreasing ($\\rho_{\\rm Mstar}\\propto (1+z)^{-0.5\\pm0.1}$) with $z$. This indicates that, while at higher redshift galaxies have less stellar mass, their luminosities do not change substantially because of their younger and brighter stellar populations. Finally, we also find evidence for a top-down mass-dependent evolution of the GSMF.

  15. LHC Luminosity Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091107; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Papotti, Giulia

    This thesis adresses several approaches with the common goal of assessing, understanding and improving the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). To better exploit existing margins for maximum luminosity while fulfilling the requirements of the LHC experiments, new techniques for luminosity levelling are studied and developed to an operational state, such as changing the crossing angle or $\\beta^*$ (beam size) at the interaction points with the beams in collisions. In 2017 LHC operation, the crossing angle reduction in collisions improved the integrated luminosity by $\\mathrm{\\sim} 2\\,\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$ ($\\mathrm{\\sim} 4\\,\\mathrm{\\%}$ of the yearly production). For additional diagnostics, a new method for measuring beam sizes and orbits for each circulating bunch using the luminosity measurement during beam separation scans is shown. The results of these Emittance Scans improved the understanding of the LHC luminosity reach and of the orbit offsets introduced by beam-beam long-range effects.

  16. Stellar population samples at the galactic poles. IV. Luminosity function for the M-type dwarfs at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, O.J.

    1976-01-01

    The (UBVRI) photometry of all M dwarfs which are within 10degree of the South Galactic Pole and brighter than visual magnitude 15, and which have annual proper motions greater than 0/sup prime/./sub /096, are discussed. The observations themselves are listed and discussed in a recent Astrophysical Journal Supplement. The luminosity function is found to be very similar, in the overlapping sections, to that previously derived spectrophotometrically from the M stars near the Sun, and the extension to M/subV/ near +13 mag indicates that this luminosity is near the peak of that function. No support is found in these data for the recently suggested superabundance of low velocity M stars near the Sun

  17. Calculating luminosity for a coupled Tevatron lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Martens, M.A.; Michelotti, L.; Goderre, G.

    1995-05-01

    The traditional formula for calculating luminosity assumes an uncoupled lattice and makes use of one-degree-of-freedom lattice functions, β H and β v , for relating transverse beam widths to emittances. Strong coupling requires changing this approach. It is simplest to employ directly the linear normal form coordinates of the one turn map. An equilibrium distribution in phase space is expressed as a function of the Jacobian's eigenvectors and beam size parameters or emittances. Using the equilibrium distributions an expression for the luminosity was derived and applied to the Tevatron lattice, which was coupled due to a quadrupole roll

  18. Multi-Bunch Simulations of the ILC for Luminosity Performance Studies

    CERN Document Server

    White, Glen; Walker, Nicholas J

    2005-01-01

    To study the luminosity performance of the International Linear Collider (ILC) with different design parameters, a simulation was constructed that tracks a multi-bunch representation of the beam from the Damping Ring extraction through to the Interaction Point. The simulation code PLACET is used to simulate the LINAC, MatMerlin is used to track through the Beam Delivery System and GUINEA-PIG for the beam-beam interaction. Included in the simulation are ground motion and wakefield effects, intra-train fast feedback and luminosity-based feedback systems. To efficiently study multiple parameters/multiple seeds, the simulation is deployed on the Queen Mary High-Throughput computing cluster at Queen Mary, University of London, where 100 simultaneous simulation seeds can be run.

  19. Apparent luminosity function of galaxies to the twenty-first magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Galaxy counts to limiting magnitudes B=17.7 to 21.0 in 13 selected areas in the north galactic polar cap are presented. The photographs were taken with a reducing camera at the Cassegrain focus of the 91 cm and 205 cm reflectors of McDonald Observatory. Both galaxy and star images were counted and recorded. On each plate a few stars and galaxies were marked as representative of the plate limit. Selected brighter galaxies and stars were measured photoelectrically to fix the zero points. The B magnitude limits of each plate for stars and galaxies are obtained by a combination of photoelectric and photographic photometry. The resulting apparent luminosity functions of galaxies and stars are compared with earlier data. Sources of error in the counts are discussed in detail

  20. Sub-mm emission line deep fields: CO and [C II] luminosity functions out to z = 6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, Gergö; van Kampen, Eelco; Decarli, Roberto; Spaans, Marco; Somerville, Rachel S.; Trager, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Now that Atacama Large (Sub)Millimeter Array is reaching its full capabilities, observations of sub-mm emission line deep fields become feasible. We couple a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation with a radiative transfer code to make predictions for the luminosity function of CO J =1-0 out to CO

  1. Subaru weak-lensing survey of dark matter subhalos in the Coma cluster: Subhalo mass function and statistical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Futamase, Toshifumi; Kuroshima, Risa; Kajisawa, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    We present a 4 deg 2 weak gravitational lensing survey of subhalos in the very nearby Coma cluster using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The large apparent size of cluster subhalos allows us to measure the mass of 32 subhalos detected in a model-independent manner, down to the order of 10 –3 of the virial mass of the cluster. Weak-lensing mass measurements of these shear-selected subhalos enable us to investigate subhalo properties and the correlation between subhalo masses and galaxy luminosities for the first time. The mean distortion profiles stacked over subhalos show a sharply truncated feature which is well-fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) mass model with the truncation radius, as expected due to tidal destruction by the main cluster. We also found that subhalo masses, truncation radii, and mass-to-light ratios decrease toward the cluster center. The subhalo mass function, dn/dln M sub , in the range of 2 orders of magnitude in mass, is well described by a single power law or a Schechter function. Best-fit power indices of 1.09 −0.32 +0.42 for the former model and 0.99 −0.23 +0.34 for the latter, are in remarkable agreement with slopes of ∼0.9-1.0 predicted by the cold dark matter paradigm. The tangential distortion signals in the radial range of 0.02-2 h –1 Mpc from the cluster center show a complex structure which is well described by a composition of three mass components of subhalos, the NFW mass distribution as a smooth component of the main cluster, and a lensing model from a large scale structure behind the cluster. Although the lensing signals are 1 order of magnitude lower than those for clusters at z ∼ 0.2, the total signal-to-noise ratio, S/N = 13.3, is comparable, or higher, because the enormous number of background source galaxies compensates for the low lensing efficiency of the nearby cluster.

  2. THE SWIFT AGN AND CLUSTER SURVEY. II. CLUSTER CONFIRMATION WITH SDSS DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-01-01

    We study 203 (of 442) Swift AGN and Cluster Survey extended X-ray sources located in the SDSS DR8 footprint to search for galaxy over-densities in three-dimensional space using SDSS galaxy photometric redshifts and positions near the Swift cluster candidates. We find 104 Swift clusters with a >3σ galaxy over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmation as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, and X-ray luminosity. We also detect red sequences in ∼85% of the 104 confirmed clusters. The X-ray luminosity and optical richness for the SDSS confirmed Swift clusters are correlated and follow previously established relations. The distribution of the separations between the X-ray centroids and the most likely BCG is also consistent with expectation. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≲ 0.3 and is still 80% complete up to z ≃ 0.4, consistent with the SDSS survey depth. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further study of cluster evolution and cosmology. We also match our SDSS confirmed Swift clusters to existing cluster catalogs, and find 42, 23, and 1 matches in optical, X-ray, and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich catalogs, respectively, and so the majority of these clusters are new detections

  3. STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE COOL CORES OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher; Rupke, David S. N.

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel) and Hα (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to Hα luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and Hα morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (A1991, A2052, A2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given Hα luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/Hα ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B - V) ∼ 0.2) or a top-heavy initial mass function in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from ∼0.05 M sun yr -1 in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to ∼5 M sun yr -1 in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, Hα, and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14 +18 -8 %. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium, which turns into stars and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.

  4. An Investigation of X-ray Luminosity versus Crystalline Powder Granularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borade, Ramesh; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; ,

    2012-03-07

    At the High-throughput Discovery of Scintillator Materials Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, scintillators are synthesized by solid-state reaction or melt mixing, forming crystalline powders. These powders are formed in various granularity and the crystal grain size affects the apparent luminosity of the scintillator. To accurately predict a "full-size" scintillator's crystal luminosity, the crystal luminosity as a function of crystal granularity size has to be known. In this study, we examine Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BGO), Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce (LSO), YAlO{sub 3}:Ce (YAP:Ce), and CsBa{sub 2}I{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} (CBI) luminosities as a function of crystalline grain size. The highest luminosities were measured for 600- to 1000-{micro}m crystal grain sizes for BGO and LSO, for 310- to 600-{micro}m crystal grain sizes for CBI, and for crystal grains larger than 165{micro}m for YAP:Ce. Crystal grains that were larger than 1 mm had a lower packing fraction, and smaller grains were affected by internal scattering. We measured a 34% decrease in luminosity for BGO when decreasing from the 600- to 1000- {micro}m crystal grain size range down to the 20- to 36-{micro}m range. The corresponding luminosity decrease for LSO was 44% for the same grain size decrease. YAP:Ce exhibited a luminosity decrease of 47% when the grain size decreased from the 165- to 310-{micro}m crystal grains to the 20- to 36-{micro}m range, and CBI exhibited a luminosity decrease of 98% when the grain size decreased from the 310- to 600-{micro}m crystal grain range to the 36- to 50-{micro}m range. We were able to very accurately estimate full-size crystal luminosities from crystalline grains that are larger than 90 {micro}m.

  5. An investigation of X-ray luminosity versus crystalline powder granularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecek, Martin; Borade, Ramesh; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    At the High-Throughput Discovery of Scintillator Materials Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, scintillators are synthesized by solid-state reaction or melt mixing, forming crystalline powders. These powders are formed in various granularity and the crystal grain size affects the apparent luminosity of the scintillator. To accurately predict a “full-size” scintillator's crystal luminosity, the crystal luminosity as a function of crystal granularity size has to be known. In this study, we examine Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 (BGO), Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce 3+ (LSO), YAlO 3 :Ce 3+ (YAP:Ce), and CsBa 2 I 5 :Eu 2+ (CBI) luminosities as a function of crystalline grain size. The highest luminosities were measured for 600- to 1000-μm crystal grain sizes for BGO and LSO, for 310- to 600-μm crystal grain sizes for CBI, and for crystal grains larger than 165 μm for YAP:Ce. Crystal grains that were larger than 1 mm had a lower packing fraction, and smaller grains were affected by internal scattering. We measured a 34% decrease in luminosity for BGO when decreasing from the 600- to 1000-μm crystal grain size range down to the 20- to 36-μm range. The corresponding luminosity decrease for LSO was 44% for the same grain size decrease. YAP:Ce exhibited a luminosity decrease of 47% when the grain size decreased from the 165- to 310-μm crystal grains to the 20- to 36-μm range, and CBI exhibited a luminosity decrease of 98% when the grain size decreased from the 310- to 600-μm crystal grain range to the 36- to 50-μm range. We were able to very accurately estimate full-size crystal luminosities from crystalline grains that are larger than 90 μm.

  6. New cataclysmic variables and other exotic binaries in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Sandoval, L. E.; van den Berg, M.; Heinke, C. O.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Anderson, J.; Cool, A. M.; Edmonds, P. D.; Wijnands, R.; Ivanova, N.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2018-04-01

    We present 22 new (+3 confirmed) cataclysmic variables (CVs) in the non-core-collapsed globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc). The total number of CVs in the cluster is now 43, the largest sample in any globular cluster so far. For the identifications we used near-ultraviolet (NUV) and optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope, in combination with X-ray results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This allowed us to build the deepest NUV CV luminosity function of the cluster to date. We found that the CVs in 47 Tuc are more concentrated towards the cluster centre than the main-sequence turn-off stars. We compared our results to the CV populations of the core-collapsed globular clusters NGC 6397 and NGC 6752. We found that 47 Tuc has fewer bright CVs per unit mass than those two other clusters. That suggests that dynamical interactions in core-collapsed clusters play a major role creating new CVs. In 47 Tuc, the CV population is probably dominated by primordial and old dynamically formed systems. We estimated that the CVs in 47 Tuc have total masses of ˜1.4 M⊙. We also found that the X-ray luminosity function of the CVs in the three clusters is bimodal. Additionally, we discuss a possible double degenerate system and an intriguing/unclassified object. Finally, we present four systems that could be millisecond pulsar companions given their X-ray and NUV/optical colours. For one of them we present very strong evidence for being an ablated companion. The other three could be CO or He white dwarfs.

  7. Focusing Cosmic Telescopes: Exploring Redshift z ~ 5-6 Galaxies with the Bullet Cluster 1E0657 - 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradač, Maruša; Treu, Tommaso; Applegate, Douglas; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Marshall, Phil; Schneider, Peter; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The gravitational potential of clusters of galaxies acts as a cosmic telescope allowing us to find and study galaxies at fainter limits than otherwise possible and thus probe closer to the epoch of formation of the first galaxies. We use the Bullet cluster 1E0657 - 56 (z = 0.296) as a case study, because its high mass and merging configuration makes it one of the most efficient cosmic telescopes we know. We develop a new algorithm to reconstruct the gravitational potential of the Bullet cluster based on a non-uniform adaptive grid, combining strong and weak gravitational lensing data derived from deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys F606W-F775W-F850LP and ground-based imaging. We exploit this improved mass map to study z ~ 5-6 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), which we detect as dropouts. One of the LBGs is multiply imaged, providing a geometric confirmation of its high redshift, and is used to further improve our mass model. We quantify the uncertainties in the magnification map reconstruction in the intrinsic source luminosity, and in the volume surveyed, and show that they are negligible compared to sample variance when determining the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies. With shallower and comparable magnitude limits to Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), the Bullet cluster observations, after correcting for magnification, probe deeper into the luminosity function of the high-redshift galaxies than GOODS and only slightly shallower than HUDF. We conclude that accurately focused cosmic telescopes are the most efficient way to sample the bright end of the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies and—in case they are multiply imaged—confirm their redshifts. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5

  8. THE SNAPSHOT HUBBLE U-BAND CLUSTER SURVEY (SHUCS). I. SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND FIRST APPLICATION TO THE MIXED STAR CLUSTER POPULATION OF NGC 4041

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Adamo, A. [Max-Planck-Institut for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Silva-Villa, E. [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, and Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Quebec (CRAQ), Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Gallagher, J. S.; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling, 475 North Charter Street, Madison WI 53706 (United States); Bastian, N. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead, CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Westmoquette, M. S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Zackrisson, E. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Oscar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden); Larsen, S. S. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Weisz, D. R. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Charlton, J. C., E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We present the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS), a project aimed at characterizing the star cluster populations of 10 nearby galaxies (d < 23 Mpc, half within Almost-Equal-To 12 Mpc) through new F336W (U-band equivalent) imaging from Wide Field Camera 3, and archival BVI-equivalent data with the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing the UBVI baseline reduces the age-extinction degeneracy of optical colors, thus enabling the measurement of reliable ages and masses for the thousands of clusters covered by our survey. The sample consists chiefly of face-on spiral galaxies at low inclination, in various degrees of isolation (isolated, in group, merging), and includes two active galactic nucleus hosts. This first paper outlines the survey itself, the observational datasets, the analysis methods, and presents a proof-of-concept study of the large-scale properties and star cluster population of NGC 4041, a massive SAbc galaxy at a distance of Almost-Equal-To 23 Mpc, and part of a small grouping of six giant members. We resolve two structural components with distinct stellar populations, a morphology more akin to merging and interacting systems. We also find strong evidence of a truncated, Schechter-type mass function, and a similarly segmented luminosity function. These results indicate that binning must erase much of the substructure present in the mass and luminosity functions, and might account for the conflicting reports on the intrinsic shape of these functions in the literature. We also note a tidal feature in the outskirts of the galaxy in Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging, and follow it up with a comprehensive multi-wavelength study of NGC 4041 and its parent group. We deduce a minor merger as a likely cause of its segmented structure and the observed pattern of a radially decreasing star formation rate. We propose that combining the study of star cluster populations with broadband metrics is not only advantageous, but often easily achievable thorough

  9. HEAO A-1 observations of x ray emitting clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies were known to be sources of x ray emission. Statistical analysis of how the x ray emission from clusters is related to other cluster properties was limited by the small number of clusters observed in the x ray region and the completeness of the x ray sample being considered. Both of these limitations are solved by producing a flux-limited catalog of x ray emitting Abell clusters of galaxies and using this catalog to investigate how the x ray emission correlates with other cluster properties. X ray data from the HEAO A-1 experiment were used to search for x ray emission from Abell clusters of galaxies. Selection criteria were chosen to ensure that the resulting catalog was complete and as free as possible from selection effects. The resulting identifications and x ray luminosities were used to check correlations with other cluster properties. Special consideration was given to observational selection effects and consistency checks. The data were consistent with all clusters of galaxies being x ray emitters beyond some limiting luminosity, which depends on cluster richness. Furthermore, the x ray luminosity of clusters is correlated with the richness of the cluster, its galaxy content, and the spacial distribution and galaxy content of galaxies within the cluster. It is concluded that the x ray emission from clusters of galaxies depends not only on the richness of the cluster but also the morphology of the cluster

  10. Characterization of Omega-WINGS galaxy clusters. I. Stellar light and mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariddi, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fasano, G.; Poggianti, B. M.; Moretti, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Sciarratta, M.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Galaxy clusters are the largest virialized structures in the observable Universe. Knowledge of their properties provides many useful astrophysical and cosmological information. Aims: Our aim is to derive the luminosity and stellar mass profiles of the nearby galaxy clusters of the Omega-WINGS survey and to study the main scaling relations valid for such systems. Methods: We merged data from the WINGS and Omega-WINGS databases, sorted the sources according to the distance from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and calculated the integrated luminosity profiles in the B and V bands, taking into account extinction, photometric and spatial completeness, K correction, and background contribution. Then, by exploiting the spectroscopic sample we derived the stellar mass profiles of the clusters. Results: We obtained the luminosity profiles of 46 galaxy clusters, reaching r200 in 30 cases, and the stellar mass profiles of 42 of our objects. We successfully fitted all the integrated luminosity growth profiles with one or two embedded Sérsic components, deriving the main clusters parameters. Finally, we checked the main scaling relation among the clusters parameters in comparison with those obtained for a selected sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) of the same clusters. Conclusions: We found that the nearby galaxy clusters are non-homologous structures such as ETGs and exhibit a color-magnitude (CM) red-sequence relation very similar to that observed for galaxies in clusters. These properties are not expected in the current cluster formation scenarios. In particular the existence of a CM relation for clusters, shown here for the first time, suggests that the baryonic structures grow and evolve in a similar way at all scales.

  11. The Dependence of galaxy colors on luminosity and environment at z~0.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, H.K.C.; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept.; Hsieh, B.C.; /Taiwan, Natl. Central U. /Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys.; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab; Gladders, M.D.; /Carnegie Inst.

    2005-08-01

    The authors analyze the B-R{sub c} colors of galaxies as functions of luminosity and local galaxy density using a large photometric redshift catalog based on the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. They select two samples of galaxies with a magnitude limit of M{sub R{sub e}} < -18.5 and redshift ranges of 0.2 {le} z < 0.4 and 0.4 {le} x < 0.6 containing 10{sup 5} galaxies each. they model the color distributions of subsamples of galaxies and derive the red galaxy fraction and peak colors of red and blue galaxies as functions of galaxy luminosity and environment. The evolution of these relationships over the redshift range of x {approx} 0.5 to z {approx} 0.05 is analyzed in combination with published results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. They find that there is a strong evolution in the restframe peak color of bright blue galaxies in that they become redder with decreasing redshift, while the colors of faint blue galaxies remain approximately constant. This effect supports the ''downsizing'' scenario of star formation in galaxies. While the general dependence of the galaxy color distributions on the environment is small, they find that the change of red galaxy fraction with epoch is a function of the local galaxy density, suggesting that the downsizing effect may operate with different timescales in regions of different galaxy densities.

  12. A First Estimate of the X-Ray Binary Frequency as a Function of Star Cluster Mass in a Single Galactic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2008-05-01

    We use the previously identified 15 infrared star cluster counterparts to X-ray point sources in the interacting galaxies NGC 4038/4039 (the Antennae) to study the relationship between total cluster mass and X-ray binary number. This significant population of X-Ray/IR associations allows us to perform, for the first time, a statistical study of X-ray point sources and their environments. We define a quantity, η, relating the fraction of X-ray sources per unit mass as a function of cluster mass in the Antennae. We compute cluster mass by fitting spectral evolutionary models to Ks luminosity. Considering that this method depends on cluster age, we use four different age distributions to explore the effects of cluster age on the value of η and find it varies by less than a factor of 4. We find a mean value of η for these different distributions of η = 1.7 × 10-8 M-1⊙ with ση = 1.2 × 10-8 M-1⊙. Performing a χ2 test, we demonstrate η could exhibit a positive slope, but that it depends on the assumed distribution in cluster ages. While the estimated uncertainties in η are factors of a few, we believe this is the first estimate made of this quantity to "order of magnitude" accuracy. We also compare our findings to theoretical models of open and globular cluster evolution, incorporating the X-ray binary fraction per cluster.

  13. Mass functions for eight galactic clusters in the solar neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francic, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Mass functions for eight galactic clusters in the solar neighborhood have been obtained. The mass functions have been determined from proper motion membership probabilities and unlike similar investigations, corrected for outlying cluster stars. The membership probabilities have been determined from the joint proper motion and surface density distributions for the field and clusters stars. They have also been corrected for any magnitude dependences. Comparison of the mass functions with the Salpeter IMF shows that the older clusters tend to be deficient in the number of low mass stars, while the younger clusters tend to have more. Analysis of the relaxation times shows that the deficiency of faint stars in the older clusters is likely due to their evaporation from the cluster. The combined mass function for six of the cluster results in a power law with a power law index of -1.97 ± 0.17 for 1.1 < M/Mass of sun < 2.5. This agrees with a recent determination of the field star IMF where the power law index is -2.00 ± 0.18 for 0.8 < M/Mass of sun < 18. If the older clusters are not considered, then comparison of the combined mass function with the individual cluster mass functions shows that the universality hypothesis cannot be denied

  14. LHCb: LHCb Muon System Performance at High Luminosity

    CERN Multimedia

    Pinci, D

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector was conceived to operate with an average Luminosity of $2 \\times 10^{32}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. During the last year of LHC run, the whole apparatus has shown to be able to perfectly acquire and manage data produced at a Luminosity as high as $4 \\times 10^{32}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. In these conditions, all sub-detectors operated at average particle rates higher than the design ones and in particular the Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers equipping the Muon System had to sustain a particle rate as high as 250 kHz/cm$^{2}$. In order to study the possibility of increasing the Luminosity of operation of the whole experiment several tests were performed. The effective beam Luminosity at the interaction point of LHCb was increased in several steps up to $10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and in each step the behavior of all the detectors in the Muon System was recorded. The data analysis has allowed to study the performance of the Muon System as a function of the LHC Luminosity and the results are r...

  15. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PHOTOMETRY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nantais, Julie B.; Huchra, John P.; Zezas, Andreas; Gazeas, Kosmas; Strader, Jay

    2011-01-01

    We perform aperture photometry and profile fitting on 419 globular cluster (GC) candidates with m V ≤ 23 mag identified in Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys BVI imaging, and estimate the effective radii of the clusters. We identify 85 previously known spectroscopically confirmed clusters, and newly identify 136 objects as good cluster candidates within the 3σ color and size ranges defined by the spectroscopically confirmed clusters, yielding a total of 221 probable GCs. The luminosity function peak for the 221 probable GCs with estimated total dereddening applied is V ∼ (20.26 ± 0.13) mag, corresponding to a distance of ∼3.7 ± 0.3 Mpc. The blue and red GC candidates, and the metal-rich and metal-poor spectroscopically confirmed clusters, respectively, are similar in half-light radius. Red confirmed clusters are about 6% larger in median half-light radius than blue confirmed clusters, and red and blue good GC candidates are nearly identical in half-light radius. The total population of confirmed and 'good' candidates shows an increase in half-light radius as a function of galactocentric distance.

  16. Galaxies at z ~ 6: The UV Luminosity Function and Luminosity Density from 506 HUDF, HUDF Parallel ACS Field, and GOODS i-Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Franx, M.

    2006-12-01

    We have detected 506 i-dropouts (z~6 galaxies) in deep, wide-area HST ACS fields: HUDF, enhanced GOODS, and HUDF parallel ACS fields (HUDF-Ps). The contamination levels are ~92% are at z~6). With these samples, we present the most comprehensive, quantitative analyses of z~6 galaxies yet and provide optimal measures of the UV luminosity function (LF) and luminosity density at z~6, and their evolution to z~3. We redetermine the size and color evolution from z~6 to z~3. Field-to-field variations (cosmic variance), completeness, flux, and contamination corrections are modeled systematically and quantitatively. After corrections, we derive a rest-frame continuum UV (~1350 Å) LF at z~6 that extends to M1350,AB~-17.5 (0.04L*z=3). There is strong evidence for evolution of the LF between z~6 and z~3, most likely through a brightening (0.6+/-0.2 mag) of M* (at 99.7% confidence), although the degree depends on the faint-end slope. As expected from hierarchical models, the most luminous galaxies are deficient at z~6. Density evolution (φ*) is ruled out at >99.99% confidence. Despite large changes in the LF, the luminosity density at z~6 is similar to (0.82+/-0.21 times) that at z~3. Changes in the mean UV color of galaxies from z~6 to z~3 suggest an evolution in dust content, indicating that the true evolution is substantially larger: at z~6 the star formation rate density is just ~30% of the z~3 value. Our UV LF is consistent with z~6 galaxies providing the necessary UV flux to reionize the universe. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 9803. Observations have been carried out using the Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Paranal Observatory, under program ID LP168.A-0485.

  17. The infrared luminosity function of AKARI 90 μm galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2018-03-01

    Local infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) are necessary benchmarks for high-redshift IR galaxy evolution studies. Any accurate IR LF evolution studies require accordingly accurate local IR LFs. We present IR galaxy LFs at redshifts of z ≤ 0.3 from AKARI space telescope, which performed an all-sky survey in six IR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm) with 10 times better sensitivity than its precursor Infrared Astronomical Satellite. Availability of 160 μm filter is critically important in accurately measuring total IR luminosity of galaxies, covering across the peak of the dust emission. By combining data from Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 13 (DR 13), six-degree Field Galaxy Survey and the 2MASS Redshift Survey, we created a sample of 15 638 local IR galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, factor of 7 larger compared to previously studied AKARI-SDSS sample. After carefully correcting for volume effects in both IR and optical, the obtained IR LFs agree well with previous studies, but comes with much smaller errors. Measured local IR luminosity density is ΩIR = 1.19 ± 0.05 × 108L⊙ Mpc-3. The contributions from luminous IR galaxies and ultraluminous IR galaxies to ΩIR are very small, 9.3 per cent and 0.9 per cent, respectively. There exists no future all-sky survey in far-IR wavelengths in the foreseeable future. The IR LFs obtained in this work will therefore remain an important benchmark for high-redshift studies for decades.

  18. LFsGRB: Binary neutron star merger rate via the luminosity function of short gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debdutta

    2018-04-01

    LFsGRB models the luminosity function (LF) of short Gamma Ray Bursts (sGRBs) by using the available catalog data of all short GRBs (sGRBs) detected till 2017 October, estimating the luminosities via pseudo-redshifts obtained from the Yonetoku correlation, and then assuming a standard delay distribution between the cosmic star formation rate and the production rate of their progenitors. The data are fit well both by exponential cutoff powerlaw and broken powerlaw models. Using the derived parameters of these models along with conservative values in the jet opening angles seen from afterglow observations, the true rate of short GRBs is derived. Assuming a short GRB is produced from each binary neutron star merger (BNSM), the rate of gravitational wave (GW) detections from these mergers are derived for the past, present and future configurations of the GW detector networks.

  19. Calculation of integrated luminosity for beams stored in the Tevatron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    A model for calculating the integrated luminosity of beams stored in the Tevatron collider will be presented. The model determines the instantaneous luminosity by calculating the overlap integral of bunched beams passing through the interaction region. The calculation accounts for the variation in beam size due to the beta functions and also for effects due to finite longitudinal emittance and non-zero dispersion in the interaction region. The integrated luminosity is calculated for the beams as they evolve due to processes including collisions and intrabeam scattering. The model has been applied to both the extant and upgraded Tevatron collider, but is not limited to them. The original motivation for developing the computer model was to determine the reduction in luminosity due to beams with non-zero longitudinal emittances. There are two effects: the transverse beam size is increased where the dispersion is non-zero; the finite length of the beam bunch combined with an increasing β function results in an increased transverse beam size at the ends of the bunch. The derivation of a sufficiently useful analytic expression for the luminosity proved to be intractable. Instead, a numerical integration computer program was developed to calculate the luminosity in the presence of a finite longitudinal emittance. The program was then expanded into a model which allows the luminosity to vary due to changes in emittances and reduction in bunch intensities. At that point, it was not difficult to calculate the integrated luminosity. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. The Discovery of Low-Luminosity BL Lacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Travis A.; Stocke, John T.

    1995-12-01

    Many of the properties of BL Lacs have become explicable in terms of the ``relativistic beaming'' hypothesis whereby BL Lacs are ``highly beamed'' FR-I radio galaxies (i.e. our line of sight to these objects is nearly along the jet axis). Further, radio-selected BL Lacs (RBLs) are believed to be seen nearly ``on-axis'' (the line-of-sight angle theta ~ 8deg ) while X-ray selected BL Lacs (XBLs) are seen at larger angles (theta ~ 30deg ; the X-ray emitting jet is believed to be less collimated). However, a major problem with this model was that a transition population between beamed BL Lacs and unbeamed FR-Is had not been detected. Low-luminosity BL Lacs may be such a transition population, and were predicted to exist by Browne and Marcha (1993). We present ROSAT HRI images, VLA radio maps and optical spectra which confirm the existence of low-luminosity BL Lacs, objects which were previously mis-identified in the EMSS catalog as clusters of galaxies. Thus our results strengthen the relativistic beaming hypothesis.

  1. The Evolution of the Type Ia Supernova Luminosity Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, K.J.; Toonen, S.; Graur, O.

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) exhibit a wide diversity of peak luminosities and light curve shapes: the faintest SNe Ia are 10 times less luminous and evolve more rapidly than the brightest SNe Ia. Their differing characteristics also extend to their stellar age distributions, with fainter SNe Ia

  2. DISENTANGLING THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Jonathan D.; Vilchez, J. M.; Iglesias-Paramo, J., E-mail: jonatan@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-05-20

    In this work, we present the results of a novel approach devoted to disentangling the role of the environmental processes affecting galaxies in clusters. This is based on the analysis of the near-UV (NUV) - r' distributions of a large sample of star-forming galaxies in clusters spanning more than four absolute magnitudes. The galaxies inhabit three distinct environmental regions: virial regions, cluster infall regions, and field environment. We have applied rigorous statistical tests to analyze both the complete NUV - r' distributions and their averages for three different bins of the r'-band galaxy luminosity down to M{sub r{sup '}}{approx}-18, throughout the three environmental regions considered. We have identified the environmental processes that significantly affect the star-forming galaxies in a given luminosity bin by using criteria based on the characteristics of these processes: their typical timescales, the regions where they operate, and the galaxy luminosity range for which their effects are more intense. We have found that the high-luminosity (M{sub r{sup '}}{<=}-20) star-forming galaxies do not show significant signs in their star formation activity of being affected by: (1) the environment in the last {approx}10{sup 8} yr, or (2) a sudden quenching in the last 1.5 Gyr. The intermediate-luminosity (-20< M{sub r{sup '}}{<=}-19) star-forming galaxies appear to be affected by starvation in the virial regions and by the harassment in the virial and infall regions. Low-luminosity (-19luminosity star-forming galaxies in a stronger way, which would be expected for their lower luminosities.

  3. Subaru Weak-lensing Survey of Dark Matter Subhalos in the Coma Cluster: Subhalo Mass Function and Statistical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Futamase, Toshifumi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kuroshima, Risa

    2014-04-01

    We present a 4 deg2 weak gravitational lensing survey of subhalos in the very nearby Coma cluster using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The large apparent size of cluster subhalos allows us to measure the mass of 32 subhalos detected in a model-independent manner, down to the order of 10-3 of the virial mass of the cluster. Weak-lensing mass measurements of these shear-selected subhalos enable us to investigate subhalo properties and the correlation between subhalo masses and galaxy luminosities for the first time. The mean distortion profiles stacked over subhalos show a sharply truncated feature which is well-fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) mass model with the truncation radius, as expected due to tidal destruction by the main cluster. We also found that subhalo masses, truncation radii, and mass-to-light ratios decrease toward the cluster center. The subhalo mass function, dn/dln M sub, in the range of 2 orders of magnitude in mass, is well described by a single power law or a Schechter function. Best-fit power indices of 1.09^{+0.42}_{-0.32} for the former model and 0.99_{-0.23}^{+0.34} for the latter, are in remarkable agreement with slopes of ~0.9-1.0 predicted by the cold dark matter paradigm. The tangential distortion signals in the radial range of 0.02-2 h -1 Mpc from the cluster center show a complex structure which is well described by a composition of three mass components of subhalos, the NFW mass distribution as a smooth component of the main cluster, and a lensing model from a large scale structure behind the cluster. Although the lensing signals are 1 order of magnitude lower than those for clusters at z ~ 0.2, the total signal-to-noise ratio, S/N = 13.3, is comparable, or higher, because the enormous number of background source galaxies compensates for the low lensing efficiency of the nearby cluster. Based on data collected from the Subaru Telescope and obtained from SMOKA, operated by the Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of

  4. Star Formation in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Francesco; Stahler, Steven W.

    1999-11-01

    We study the record of star formation activity within the dense cluster associated with the Orion Nebula. The bolometric luminosity function of 900 visible members is well matched by a simplified theoretical model for cluster formation. This model assumes that stars are produced at a constant rate and distributed according to the field-star initial mass function. Our best-fit age for the system, within this framework, is 2×106 yr. To undertake a more detailed analysis, we present a new set of theoretical pre-main-sequence tracks. These cover all masses from 0.1 to 6.0 Msolar, and start from a realistic stellar birthline. The tracks end along a zero-age main-sequence that is in excellent agreement with the empirical one. As a further aid to cluster studies, we offer an heuristic procedure for the correction of pre-main-sequence luminosities and ages to account for the effects of unresolved binary companions. The Orion Nebula stars fall neatly between our birthline and zero-age main-sequence in the H-R diagram. All those more massive than about 8 Msolar lie close to the main sequence, as also predicted by theory. After accounting for the finite sensitivity of the underlying observations, we confirm that the population between 0.4 and 6.0 Msolar roughly follows a standard initial mass function. We see no evidence for a turnover at lower masses. We next use our tracks to compile stellar ages, also between 0.4 and 6.0 Msolar. Our age histogram reveals that star formation began at a low level some 107 yr ago and has gradually accelerated to the present epoch. The period of most active formation is indeed confined to a few×106 yr, and has recently ended with gas dispersal from the Trapezium. We argue that the acceleration in stellar births, which extends over a wide range in mass, reflects the gravitational contraction of the parent cloud spawning this cluster.

  5. On the incidence of close binary stars in globular clusters and the nature of the cluster X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, V.

    1977-01-01

    Recent calculations suggest that the globular clusters could not have formed with more than 20 per cent of the normal Population I fraction of their stars in binary systems. The fact that the clusters have more than their fair share of novae and U Geminorum stars (three each out of approximately 200 of each known, while the clusters contain only about 10 -4 of the mass and 10 -3 of the luminosity of the galaxy) therefore becomes surprising. The hypothesis of binary capture within cluster cores suggested to account for the clusters' high X-ray luminosity provides a few extra systems, but neither it nor any of the similar encounter or capture mechanisms suggested can account for the novae and U Gen stars, which remain puzzling. The number of Algol-type and W UMa eclipsing binaries predicted by these hypotheses do not conflict with data presently available, but careful searches for them would constitute a critical test of the theories. (author)

  6. Pregalactic formation of globular clusters in cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, S.M.; Blumenthal, G.R.; Rosenblatt, E.I.

    1988-01-01

    The pregalactic hypothesis for the formation of globular clusters is reconsidered in the light of Zinn's (1985) discovery of a two-component globular population in the Milky Way. For a cold dark matter spectrum, high-sigma fluctuations of 10 to the 5th - 10 to the 6th solar masses are assumed to be the progenitors of the spheroidal population of globular clusters. The mass fraction of globular clusters in galaxies then requires that perturbations above roughly 2.8 sigma survive as globulars, and their observed radii require baryonic collapse factors of order 10. Such an absolute density threshold for globular cluster formation achieves adequate fits to observed cluster radii and densities, the mass fraction of globulars versus Hubble type, the radial density profile of globulars within galaxies, and the globular luminosity function. However, a fixed density threshold criterion for cluster survival lacks convincing physical justification and does not by itself explain the homogeneous metallicities within clusters or the large metallicity variations from cluster to cluster and from galaxy to galaxy. 33 references

  7. Accretion-induced luminosity spreads in young clusters: evidence from stellar rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, S. P.; Naylor, Tim; Mayne, N. J.; Saunders, Eric; Jeffries, R. D.

    2011-05-01

    We present an analysis of the rotation of young stars in the associations Cepheus OB3b, NGC 2264, 2362 and the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We discover a correlation between rotation rate and position in a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) such that stars which lie above an empirically determined median pre-main sequence rotate more rapidly than stars which lie below this sequence. The same correlation is seen, with a high degree of statistical significance, in each association studied here. If position within the CMD is interpreted as being due to genuine age spreads within a cluster, then the stars above the median pre-main sequence would be the youngest stars. This would in turn imply that the most rapidly rotating stars in an association are the youngest, and hence those with the largest moments of inertia and highest likelihood of ongoing accretion. Such a result does not fit naturally into the existing picture of angular momentum evolution in young stars, where the stars are braked effectively by their accretion discs until the disc disperses. Instead, we argue that, for a given association of young stars, position within the CMD is not primarily a function of age, but of accretion history. We show that this hypothesis could explain the correlation we observe between rotation rate and position within the CMD.

  8. Luminosity monitor at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Franklin, M.E.B.

    1981-02-01

    The luminosity monitor system utilized by the MKII Detector and by the PEP operators is described. This system processes information from 56 photomultipliers and calculates independent luminosities for each of the 3 colliding bunches in PEP. Design considerations, measurement techniques, and sources of error in the luminosity measurement are discussed

  9. The Evolution of the Faint End of the UV Luminosity Function during the Peak Epoch of Star Formation (1 < z < 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian; Richard, Johan; Rafelski, Marc; Jauzac, Mathilde; Limousin, Marceau; Freeman, William R.; Scarlata, Claudia; Robertson, Brant; Stark, Daniel P.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Desai, Vandana

    2016-11-01

    We present a robust measurement of the rest-frame UV luminosity function (LF) and its evolution during the peak epoch of cosmic star formation at 1\\lt z\\lt 3. We use our deep near-ultraviolet imaging from WFC3/UVIS on the Hubble Space Telescope and existing Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)/WFC and WFC3/IR imaging of three lensing galaxy clusters, Abell 2744 and MACS J0717 from the Hubble Frontier Field survey and Abell 1689. Combining deep UV imaging and high magnification from strong gravitational lensing, we use photometric redshifts to identify 780 ultra-faint galaxies with {M}{UV}\\lt -12.5 AB mag at 1\\lt z\\lt 3. From these samples, we identified five new, faint, multiply imaged systems in A1689. We run a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the completeness correction and effective volume for each cluster using the latest published lensing models. We compute the rest-frame UV LF and find the best-fit faint-end slopes of α =-1.56+/- 0.04, α =-1.72+/- 0.04, and α =-1.94+/- 0.06 at 1.0\\lt z\\lt 1.6, 1.6\\lt z\\lt 2.2, and 2.2\\lt z\\lt 3.0, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the UV LF becomes steeper from z˜ 1.3 to z˜ 2.6 with no sign of a turnover down to {M}{UV}=-14 AB mag. We further derive the UV LFs using the Lyman break “dropout” selection and confirm the robustness of our conclusions against different selection methodologies. Because the sample sizes are so large and extend to such faint luminosities, the statistical uncertainties are quite small, and systematic uncertainties (due to the assumed size distribution, for example) likely dominate. If we restrict our analysis to galaxies and volumes above \\gt 50 % completeness in order to minimize these systematics, we still find that the faint-end slope is steep and getting steeper with redshift, though with slightly shallower (less negative) values (α =-1.55+/- 0.06, -1.69 ± 0.07, and -1.79 ± 0.08 for z˜ 1.3, 1.9, and 2.6, respectively). Finally, we conclude that the faint star

  10. WHERE ARE MOST OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN TODAY’S UNIVERSE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, William E., E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    The total number of globular clusters (GCs) in a galaxy rises continuously with the galaxy luminosity L, while the relative number of galaxies decreases with L following the Schechter function. The product of these two very nonlinear functions gives the relative number of GCs contained by all galaxies at a given L. It is shown that GCs, in this universal sense, are most commonly found in galaxies within a narrow range around L{sub ⋆}. In addition, blue (metal-poor) GCs outnumber the red (metal-richer) ones globally by 4 to 1 when all galaxies are added, pointing to the conclusion that the earliest stages of galaxy formation were especially favorable to forming massive, dense star clusters.

  11. Suzaku observations of low surface brightness cluster Abell 1631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babazaki, Yasunori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ota, Naomi; Sasaki, Shin; Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Pratt, Gabriel W.; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2018-04-01

    We present analysis results for a nearby galaxy cluster Abell 1631 at z = 0.046 using the X-ray observatory Suzaku. This cluster is categorized as a low X-ray surface brightness cluster. To study the dynamical state of the cluster, we conduct four-pointed Suzaku observations and investigate physical properties of the Mpc-scale hot gas associated with the A 1631 cluster for the first time. Unlike relaxed clusters, the X-ray image shows no strong peak at the center and an irregular morphology. We perform spectral analysis and investigate the radial profiles of the gas temperature, density, and entropy out to approximately 1.5 Mpc in the east, north, west, and south directions by combining with the XMM-Newton data archive. The measured gas density in the central region is relatively low (a few ×10-4 cm-3) at the given temperature (˜2.9 keV) compared with X-ray-selected clusters. The entropy profile and value within the central region (r < 0.1 r200) are found to be flatter and higher (≳400 keV cm2). The observed bolometric luminosity is approximately three times lower than that expected from the luminosity-temperature relation in previous studies of relaxed clusters. These features are also observed in another low surface brightness cluster, Abell 76. The spatial distributions of galaxies and the hot gas appear to be different. The X-ray luminosity is relatively lower than that expected from the velocity dispersion. A post-merger scenario may explain the observed results.

  12. Remarks on the maximum luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Ikeda, Taishi; Moore, Christopher J.; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2018-04-01

    The quest for fundamental limitations on physical processes is old and venerable. Here, we investigate the maximum possible power, or luminosity, that any event can produce. We show, via full nonlinear simulations of Einstein's equations, that there exist initial conditions which give rise to arbitrarily large luminosities. However, the requirement that there is no past horizon in the spacetime seems to limit the luminosity to below the Planck value, LP=c5/G . Numerical relativity simulations of critical collapse yield the largest luminosities observed to date, ≈ 0.2 LP . We also present an analytic solution to the Einstein equations which seems to give an unboundedly large luminosity; this will guide future numerical efforts to investigate super-Planckian luminosities.

  13. Blue straggler stars in the globular cluster NGC 5053

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.M.; Cohen, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the low central concentration globular cluster NGC 5053 based on photometry to 23 mag is reported. Deep C-M diagrams are presented, a mean metal abundance for the cluster is derived from the color of the RGB at the level of the horizontal branch, and theoretical isochrones are used to derive a distance modulus of (m - M0) = 16.05 + or - 0.14 mag and an age of 18 + or - 3 Gyr. A luminosity function based on subgiant and upper main-sequence stars is also constructed. A total of 24 blue stragglers in NGC 5053 are identified and their properties are studied. 65 references

  14. Optical study of the DAFT/FADA galaxy cluster survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Clowe, D.; Adami, C.

    2013-11-01

    DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a large survey of ˜90 high redshift (0.42×10^{14} M_{⊙}) clusters with HST weak lensing oriented data, plus BVRIZJ 4m ground based follow up to compute photometric redshifts. The main goals of this survey are to constrain dark energy parameters using weak lensing tomography and to study a large homogeneous sample of high redshift massive clusters. We will briefly review the latest results of this optical survey, focusing on two ongoing works: the calculation of galaxy luminosity functions from photometric redshift catalogs and the weak lensing analysis of ground based data.

  15. On the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for shell-burning stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Saint Andrews Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Core-mass-shell-luminosity relations for several types of shell-burning star have been calculated using simultaneous differential equations derived from simple homology approximations. The principal objective of obtaining a mass-luminosity relation for helium giants was achieved. This relation gives substantially higher luminosities than the equivalent relation for H-shell stars with core masses greater than 1 solar mass. The algorithm for calculating mass-luminosity relations in this fashion was investigated in detail. Most of the assumptions regarding the physics in the shell do not play a critical role in determining the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation. The behaviour of the core-mass-core-radius relation for a growing degenerate core as a single unique function of mass and growth rate needs to be defined before a single core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for all H-shell stars can be obtained directly from the homology approximations. (author)

  16. ON THE SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF A Li-RICH GIANT IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 362

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Orazi, Valentina; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Lucatello, Sara; Momany, Yazan [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Angelou, George C. [Max Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; Sollima, Antonio [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127, Bologna (Italy); Lattanzio, John C., E-mail: valentina.dorazi@oapd.inaf.it [Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2015-03-10

    We have serendipitously identified the first lithium-rich giant star located close to the red giant branch bump in a globular cluster. Through intermediate-resolution FLAMES spectra we derived a lithium abundance of A(Li) = 2.55 (assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium), which is extremely high considering the star’s evolutionary stage. Kinematic and photometric analysis confirm the object as a member of the globular cluster NGC 362. This is the fourth Li-rich giant discovered in a globular cluster, but is the only one known to exist at a luminosity close to the bump magnitude. The three previous detections are clearly more evolved, located close to, or beyond, the tip of their red giant branch. Our observations are able to discard the accretion of planets/brown dwarfs, as well as an enhanced mass-loss mechanism as a formation channel for this rare object. While the star sits just above the cluster bump luminosity, its temperature places it toward the blue side of the giant branch in the color–magnitude diagram. We require further dedicated observations to unambiguously identify the star as a red giant: we are currently unable to confirm whether Li production has occurred at the bump of the luminosity function or if the star is on the pre-zero-age horizontal branch. The latter scenario provides the opportunity for the star to have synthesized Li rapidly during the core helium flash or gradually during its red giant branch ascent via some extra mixing process.

  17. Luminosity with more bunches in PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.

    1990-12-01

    The near term accelerator physics program for PEP includes experiments in a collider mode with up to 9 bunches in each beam. In this memo, luminosity data from the 3 x 3 configuration is first used to calculate vertical beam size, emittance and tune shift as a function of current. The data is then used to extrapolate to the case with either 6 x 6 or 9 x 9 bunches colliding in PEP. Vertical emittance growth from the separated bunch optics and dispersion at the IP are included in the calculations. The conclusion is that given a 90 mA current drive limitation in PEP, operating with 6 x 6 bunches yields the maximum luminosity. 9 refs., 6 figs

  18. Deep CCD photometry in globular clusters III. M15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlman, G.G.; Richer, H.B.; Vandenberg, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    CCD photometry in U, B, and V is presented for a 5' x 3' field in the globular cluster M15. The location of the main sequence in the color-magnitude diagram is found here to be significantly bluer than previous studies have indicated. The luminosity function of the cluster is studied down to V = 22.8 (Mroughly-equal7.5) and shown to be consistent with a power-law mass function, n(M) = QM/sup -alpha/ with α = 2.5 +- 1.0, to the limit of our data. The field star population brighter than V = 21.5, is examined in some detail. There appears to be about 50% more stars belonging to the disk in the field as compared with the Bahcall-Soneira standard galaxy model. The reddening to the cluster is found to be E(B-V) = 0.11 +- 0.04 from nine bright field stars. A new value for the ultraviolet excess of the cluster main-sequence stars is obtained, delta(0.6) = 0.25 +- 0.02, and confirms the well-known fact that M15 is among the metal poorest of the globular clusters

  19. CROSS-CORRELATION WEAK LENSING OF SDSS GALAXY CLUSTERS. III. MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Erin S.; Johnston, David E.; Masjedi, Morad; Blanton, Michael R.; McKay, Timothy A.; Scranton, Ryan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hansen, Sarah M.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Annis, James

    2009-01-01

    We present measurements of the excess mass-to-light ratio (M/L) measured around MaxBCG galaxy clusters observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This red-sequence cluster sample includes objects from small groups with M 200 ∼ 5 x 10 12 h -1 M sun to clusters with M 200 ∼ 10 15 h -1 M sun . Using cross-correlation weak lensing, we measure the excess mass density profile above the universal mean Δρ(r)=ρ(r)-ρ-bar for clusters in bins of richness and optical luminosity. We also measure the excess luminosity density Δl(r)=l(r)-l-bar measured in the z = 0.25 i band. For both mass and light, we de-project the profiles to produce three-dimensional mass and light profiles over scales from 25 h -1 kpc to 22 h -1 Mpc. From these profiles we calculate the cumulative excess mass ΔM(r) and excess light ΔL(r) as a function of separation from the BCG. On small scales, where ρ(r)>>ρ-bar, the integrated mass-to-light profile (ΔM/ΔL)(r) may be interpreted as the cluster M/L. We find the (ΔM/ΔL) 200 , the M/L within r 200 , scales with cluster mass as a power law with index 0.33 ± 0.02. On large scales, where ρ(r)∼ρ-bar, the ΔM/ΔL approaches an asymptotic value independent of cluster richness. For small groups, the mean (ΔM/ΔL) 200 is much smaller than the asymptotic value, while for large clusters (ΔM/ΔL) 200 is consistent with the asymptotic value. This asymptotic value should be proportional to the mean M/L of the universe (M/L). We find (M/L)b -2 M/L = 362 ± 54h (statistical). There is additional uncertainty in the overall calibration at the ∼10% level. The parameter b 2 M/L is primarily a function of the bias of the L ∼ * galaxies used as light tracers, and should be of order unity. Multiplying by the luminosity density in the same bandpass we find Ω m b -2 M/L = 0.20 ± 0.03, independent of the Hubble parameter.

  20. Improved Density Functional Tight Binding Potentials for Metalloid Aluminum Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    unlimited IMPROVED DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL TIGHT BINDING POTENTIALS FOR METALLOID ALUMINUM CLUSTERS by Joon H. Kim June 2016 Thesis Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMPROVED DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL TIGHT BINDING POTENTIALS FOR METALLOID ALUMINUM CLUSTERS 5. FUNDING...repulsive potentials for use in density-functional tight binding (DFTB) simulations of low-valence aluminum metalloid clusters . These systems are under

  1. The galactic globular cluster NGC 1851: its dynamical and evolutionary properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviane, I.; Piotto, G.; Fagotto, F.; Zaggia, S.; Capaccioli, M.; Aparicio, A.

    1998-05-01

    We have completely mapped the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 with large-field, ground-based VI CCD photometry and pre-repair HST/WFPC1 data for the central region. The photometric data set has allowed a V vs. (V-I) colour-magnitude diagram for ~ 20500 stars to be constructed. >From the apparent luminosity of the horizontal branch (HB) we derive a true distance modulus (m-M)_0 = 15.44 +/- 0.20. An accurate inspection of the cluster's bright and blue objects confirms the presence of seven ``supra-HB'' stars, six of which are identified as evolved descendants from HB progenitors. The HB morphology is found to be clearly bimodal, showing both a red clump and a blue tail, which are not compatible with standard evolutionary models. Synthetic Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams demonstrate that the problem could be solved by assuming a bimodal efficiency of the mass loss along the red giant branch (RGB). With the aid of Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics we find evidence that the radial distribution of the blue HB stars is different from that of the red HB and sub-giant branch (SGB) stars. We give the first measurement of the mean absolute I magnitude for 22 known RR Lyr variables ( = 0.12 +/- 0.20 mag at a metallicity [Fe/H] = -1.28). The mean absolute V magnitude is = 0.58 +/- 0.20 mag, and we confirm that these stars are brighter than those of the zero-age HB (ZAHB). Moreover, we found seven new RR Lyr candidates (six ab type and one c type). With these additional variables the ratio of the two types is now N_c/Nab = 0.38. >From a sample of 25 globular clusters a new calibration for Delta V_bump() HB as a function of cluster metallicity is derived. NGC 1851 follows this general trend fairly well. From a comparison with the theoretical models, we also find some evidence for an age-metallicity relation among globular clusters. We identify 13 blue straggler stars, which do not show any sign of variability. The blue stragglers are less concentrated than the subgiant branch

  2. Optically-Selected Cluster Catalogs As a Precision Cosmology Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U. /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KICP, Chicago /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Michigan U. /Chicago U., Astron.; Evrard, August E.; McKay, Timothy A.; /Michigan U.

    2007-03-26

    We introduce a framework for describing the halo selection function of optical cluster finders. We treat the problem as being separable into a term that describes the intrinsic galaxy content of a halo (the Halo Occupation Distribution, or HOD) and a term that captures the effects of projection and selection by the particular cluster finding algorithm. Using mock galaxy catalogs tuned to reproduce the luminosity dependent correlation function and the empirical color-density relation measured in the SDSS, we characterize the maxBCG algorithm applied by Koester et al. to the SDSS galaxy catalog. We define and calibrate measures of completeness and purity for this algorithm, and demonstrate successful recovery of the underlying cosmology and HOD when applied to the mock catalogs. We identify principal components--combinations of cosmology and HOD parameters--that are recovered by survey counts as a function of richness, and demonstrate that percent-level accuracies are possible in the first two components, if the selection function can be understood to {approx} 15% accuracy.

  3. Lyα EMITTERS IN HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION. II. ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EQUIVALENT WIDTH DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Totani, Tomonori; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions of the UV continuum luminosity function (UV LF) and Lyα equivalent width (EW) distribution of Lyα emitters (LAEs) in the framework of the hierarchical clustering model of galaxy formation. The model parameters for the LAEs were determined by fitting to the observed Lyα LF at z = 5.7 in our previous study, and the fit indicates that extinction of Lyα photons by dust is significantly less effective than that of UV continuum photons, implying a clumpy dust distribution in the interstellar medium. We then compare the predictions about UV LFs and EW distributions with a variety of observations at z∼ 3-6, allowing no more free parameters and paying careful attention to the selection conditions of LAEs in each survey. We find that the predicted UV LFs and EW distributions are in nice agreement with observed data, and especially, our model naturally reproduces the existence of large EW LAEs (∼> 240 A) without introducing Pop III stars or top-heavy initial mass function. We show that both the stellar population (young age and low metallicity) and extinction by clumpy dust are the keys to reproducing large EW LAEs. The evidence of EW enhancement by clumpy dust is further strengthened by the quantitative agreement between our model and recent observations about a positive correlation between EW and extinction. The observed trend that brighter LAEs in the UV continuum tend to have smaller mean EW is also reproduced, and the clumpy dust plays an important role again for this trend. We suggested in our previous study that the transmission of the intergalactic medium for Lyα emission rapidly decreases from z ∼ 6 to 7 by fitting to Lyα LFs, and this evidence is quantitatively strengthened by the comparison with the UV LF and EW distribution at z ∼ 6.6.

  4. Performance of the Pixel Luminosity Telescope for Luminosity Measurement at CMS during Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated system for luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment using silicon pixel sensors arranged into "telescopes", each consisting of three planes. It was installed during LS1 at the beginning of 2015 and has been providing online and offline luminosity measurements throughout Run 2. The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement employs the "fast-or" capability of the pixel readout chip (PSI46) to identify events where a hit is registered in all three sensors in a telescope corresponding primarily to tracks originating from the interaction point. In addition, the full pixel information is read out at a lower rate, allowing for the calculation of corrections to the online luminosity from effects such as the miscounting of tracks not originating from the interaction point and detector efficiency. In this talk, we will present results from 2016 running and preliminary 2017 results, including commissioning and operational history, luminosity calibration using Va...

  5. Performance of the Pixel Luminosity Telescope for Luminosity Measurement at CMS during Run2

    CERN Document Server

    Lujan, Paul Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated system for luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment using silicon pixel sensors arranged into telescopes, each consisting of three sensor planes. It was installed in CMS at the beginning of 2015 and has been providing online and offline luminosity measurements throughout Run 2 of the LHC. The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement employs the fast-or capability of the pixel readout chip to identify events where a hit is registered in all three sensors in a telescope, corresponding primarily to tracks originating from the interaction point. In addition, the full pixel information is read out at a lower rate, allowing for the calculation of corrections to the online luminosity from effects such as the miscounting of tracks not originating from the interaction point and detector efficiency. This paper presents results from the 2016 running of the PLT, including commissioning and operational history, luminosity calibration using Van der Meer scans, and...

  6. Clustering of very luminous infrared galaxies and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, YU

    1993-01-01

    The IRAS survey reveals a class of ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (ULIRG's) with IR luminosities comparable to the bolometric luminosities of quasars. The nature, origin, and evolution of ULIRG's are attracting more and more attention recently. Since galaxy morphology is certainly a function of environment, morphological observations show that ULIRG's are interacting/merging galaxies, and some ULIRG's might be the dust-enshrouded quasars (S88) or giant ellipticals, the study of ULIRG's environment and large scale clustering effects should be worthwhile. ULIRG's and very luminous IR galaxies have been selected from the 2Jy IRAS redshift survey. Meanwhile, a catalog of IRAS groups of galaxies has been constructed using a percolation-like algorithm. Therefore, whether ULIRG's and/or VLIRG's have a group environment can be checked immediately. Other aspects of the survey are discussed.

  7. CHANDRA ACIS SURVEY OF X-RAY POINT SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES. II. X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song; Qiu, Yanli; Liu, Jifeng [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: songw@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: jfliu@bao.ac.cn [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Based on the recently completed Chandra /ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library of 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular ( α ∼ 1.50 ± 0.07) to elliptical (∼1.21 ± 0.02), to spirals (∼0.80 ± 0.02), to peculiars (∼0.55 ± 0.30), and to irregulars (∼0.26 ± 0.10). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosities for different types of galaxies. A radial dependency is found for ellipticals, with a flatter XLF slope for sources located between D {sub 25} and 2 D {sub 25}, suggesting the XLF slopes in the outer region of early-type galaxies are dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. This study shows that the ULX rate in early-type galaxies is 0.24 ± 0.05 ULXs per surveyed galaxy, on a 5 σ confidence level. The XLF for ULXs in late-type galaxies extends smoothly until it drops abruptly around 4 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup −1}, and this break may suggest a mild boundary between the stellar black hole population possibly including 30 M {sub ⊙} black holes with super-Eddington radiation and intermediate mass black holes.

  8. ALMA SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: CO LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC DENSITY OF MOLECULAR GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Aravena, Manuel; Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Carilli, Chris [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Bouwens, Rychard [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Da Cunha, Elisabete [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Daddi, Emanuele [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Ivison, R. J.; Popping, Gergö [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Riechers, Dominik [Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Smail, Ian R. [6 Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Swinbank, Mark [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-053121 Bonn (Germany); Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo, E-mail: decarli@mpia.de [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2016-12-10

    In this paper we use ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field in band 3 and band 6, to place blind constraints on the CO luminosity function and the evolution of the cosmic molecular gas density as a function of redshift up to z  ∼ 4.5. This study is based on galaxies that have been selected solely through their CO emission and not through any other property. In all of the redshift bins the ASPECS measurements reach the predicted “knee” of the CO luminosity function (around 5 × 10{sup 9} K km s{sup −1} pc{sup 2}). We find clear evidence of an evolution in the CO luminosity function with respect to z  ∼ 0, with more CO-luminous galaxies present at z  ∼ 2. The observed galaxies at z  ∼ 2 also appear more gas-rich than predicted by recent semi-analytical models. The comoving cosmic molecular gas density within galaxies as a function of redshift shows a drop by a factor of 3–10 from z  ∼ 2 to z  ∼ 0 (with significant error bars), and possibly a decline at z  > 3. This trend is similar to the observed evolution of the cosmic star formation rate density. The latter therefore appears to be at least partly driven by the increased availability of molecular gas reservoirs at the peak of cosmic star formation ( z  ∼ 2).

  9. Looking Wider and Further: The Evolution of Galaxies Inside Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are rare objects in the universe, but on-going wide field optical surveys are identifying many thousands of them to redshift 1.0 and beyond. Using early data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and publicly released data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), this dissertation explores the evolution of cluster galaxies in the redshift range from 0 to 1.0. As it is common for deep wide field sky surveys like DES to struggle with galaxy detection efficiency at cluster core, the first component of this dissertation describes an efficient package that helps resolving the issue. The second part focuses on the formation of cluster galaxies. The study quantifies the growth of cluster bright central galaxies (BCGs), and argues for the importance of merging and intra-cluster light production during BCG evolution. An analysis of cluster red sequence galaxy luminosity function is also performed, demonstrating that the abundance of these galaxies is mildly dependent on cluster mass and redshift. The last component of the dissertation characterizes the properties of galaxy filaments to help understanding cluster environments

  10. Standard globular cluster giant branches in the (MI/V-IO) plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, G.S.; Armandroff, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    CCD photometry in the V, I (Cousins) bandpasses is presented for a large number of giants in eight galactic globular clusters. The (V-I) O color of the giant branch accurately ranks clusters in metal abundance, and can accordingly be used to ascertain both metal abundances and abundance dispersions in old stellar populations. A relation is derived that yields the bolometric correction to the I magnitude for red giants as a function of (V-I) O color. With this relation, and the assumption of the LDZ distance scale, the bolometric magnitudes of the brightest red giants in the clusters were determined; good agreement is obtained with the predictions of stellar evolution theory for the luminosity of the He core flash. 63 refs

  11. The High Luminosity LHC Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Lucio

    The High Luminosity LHC is one of the major scientific project of the next decade. It aims at increasing the luminosity reach of LHC by a factor five for peak luminosity and a factor ten in integrated luminosity. The project, now fully approved and funded, will be finished in ten years and will prolong the life of LHC until 2035-2040. It implies deep modifications of the LHC for about 1.2 km around the high luminosity insertions of ATLAS and CMS and relies on new cutting edge technologies. We are developing new advanced superconducting magnets capable of reaching 12 T field; superconducting RF crab cavities capable to rotate the beams with great accuracy; 100 kA and hundred meter long superconducting links for removing the power converter out of the tunnel; new collimator concepts, etc... Beside the important physics goals, the High Luminosity LHC project is an ideal test bed for new technologies for the next hadron collider for the post-LHC era.

  12. X-RAY DETECTION OF THE CLUSTER CONTAINING THE CEPHEID S MUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; DePasquale, Joseph; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    The galactic Cepheid S Muscae has recently been added to the important list of Cepheids linked to open clusters, in this case the sparse young cluster ASCC 69. Low-mass members of a young cluster are expected to have rapid rotation and X-ray activity, making X-ray emission an excellent way to discriminate them from old field stars. We have made an XMM-Newton observation centered on S Mus and identified a population of X-ray sources whose near-IR Two Micron All Sky Survey counterparts lie at locations in the J, (J – K) color-magnitude diagram consistent with cluster membership at the distance of S Mus. Their median energy and X-ray luminosity are consistent with young cluster members as distinct from field stars. These strengthen the association of S Mus with the young cluster, making it a potential Leavitt law (period-luminosity relation) calibrator.

  13. Science from a glimpse: Hubble SNAPshot observations of massive galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, A.; Ebeling, H.

    2018-06-01

    Hubble Space Telescope SNAPshot surveys of 86 X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.3 0.3. Examining the evolution of the slope of the cluster red sequence, we observe at best a slight decrease with redshift, indicating minimal age contribution since z ˜ 1. Congruent to previous studies' findings, we note that the two BCGs which are significantly bluer (≥5σ) than their clusters' red sequences reside in relaxed clusters and exhibit pronounced internal structure. Thanks to our targets' high X-ray luminosity, the subset of our sample observed with Chandra adds valuable leverage to the X-ray luminosity-optical richness relation, which, albeit with substantial scatter, is now clearly established from groups to extremely massive clusters of galaxies. We conclude that SNAPshot observations of MACS clusters stand to continue to play a vital pathfinder role for astrophysical investigations across the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

  14. X-Ray Detection of the Cluster Containing the Cepheid S Mus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Karovska, Margarita; DePasquale, Joseph; Tingle, Evan

    2014-04-01

    The galactic Cepheid S Muscae has recently been added to the important list of Cepheids linked to open clusters, in this case the sparse young cluster ASCC 69. Low-mass members of a young cluster are expected to have rapid rotation and X-ray activity, making X-ray emission an excellent way to discriminate them from old field stars. We have made an XMM-Newton observation centered on S Mus and identified a population of X-ray sources whose near-IR Two Micron All Sky Survey counterparts lie at locations in the J, (J - K) color-magnitude diagram consistent with cluster membership at the distance of S Mus. Their median energy and X-ray luminosity are consistent with young cluster members as distinct from field stars. These strengthen the association of S Mus with the young cluster, making it a potential Leavitt law (period-luminosity relation) calibrator.

  15. X-RAY DETECTION OF THE CLUSTER CONTAINING THE CEPHEID S MUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; DePasquale, Joseph; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.

    2014-01-01

    The galactic Cepheid S Muscae has recently been added to the important list of Cepheids linked to open clusters, in this case the sparse young cluster ASCC 69. Low-mass members of a young cluster are expected to have rapid rotation and X-ray activity, making X-ray emission an excellent way to discriminate them from old field stars. We have made an XMM-Newton observation centered on S Mus and identified a population of X-ray sources whose near-IR Two Micron All Sky Survey counterparts lie at locations in the J, (J – K) color-magnitude diagram consistent with cluster membership at the distance of S Mus. Their median energy and X-ray luminosity are consistent with young cluster members as distinct from field stars. These strengthen the association of S Mus with the young cluster, making it a potential Leavitt law (period-luminosity relation) calibrator

  16. USING THE BULLET CLUSTER AS A GRAVITATIONAL TELESCOPE TO STUDY z ∼> 7 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Nicholas; Bradač, Maruša; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Treu, Tommaso; Clowe, Douglas; Jones, Christine; Stiavelli, Massimo; Zaritsky, Dennis; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Clément, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We use imaging obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to search for z 850 dropouts at z ∼ 7 and J 110 dropouts at z ∼ 9 lensed by the Bullet Cluster. In total we find 10 z 850 dropouts in our 8.27 arcmin 2 field. Using magnification maps from a combined weak- and strong-lensing mass reconstruction of the Bullet Cluster and correcting for estimated completeness levels, we calculate the surface density and luminosity function of our z 850 dropouts as a function of intrinsic (accounting for magnification) magnitude. We find results consistent with published blank field surveys, despite using much shallower data, and demonstrate the effectiveness of cluster surveys in the search for z ∼ 7 galaxies.

  17. STAR CLUSTERS IN A NUCLEAR STAR FORMING RING: THE DISAPPEARING STRING OF PEARLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Väisänen, Petri; Barway, Sudhanshu; Randriamanakoto, Zara, E-mail: petri@saao.ac.za [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-12-20

    An analysis of the star cluster population in a low-luminosity early-type galaxy, NGC 2328, is presented. The clusters are found in a tight star forming nuclear spiral/ring pattern and we also identify a bar from structural two-dimensional decomposition. These massive clusters are forming very efficiently in the circumnuclear environment and they are young, possibly all less than 30 Myr of age. The clusters indicate an azimuthal age gradient, consistent with a ''pearls-on-a-string'' formation scenario, suggesting bar-driven gas inflow. The cluster mass function has a robust down turn at low masses at all age bins. Assuming clusters are born with a power-law distribution, this indicates extremely rapid disruption at timescales of just several million years. If found to be typical, it means that clusters born in dense circumnuclear rings do not survive to become old globular clusters in non-interacting systems.

  18. STAR CLUSTERS IN A NUCLEAR STAR FORMING RING: THE DISAPPEARING STRING OF PEARLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Väisänen, Petri; Barway, Sudhanshu; Randriamanakoto, Zara

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the star cluster population in a low-luminosity early-type galaxy, NGC 2328, is presented. The clusters are found in a tight star forming nuclear spiral/ring pattern and we also identify a bar from structural two-dimensional decomposition. These massive clusters are forming very efficiently in the circumnuclear environment and they are young, possibly all less than 30 Myr of age. The clusters indicate an azimuthal age gradient, consistent with a ''pearls-on-a-string'' formation scenario, suggesting bar-driven gas inflow. The cluster mass function has a robust down turn at low masses at all age bins. Assuming clusters are born with a power-law distribution, this indicates extremely rapid disruption at timescales of just several million years. If found to be typical, it means that clusters born in dense circumnuclear rings do not survive to become old globular clusters in non-interacting systems

  19. BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT THE PRESENT EPOCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strauss, Michael A.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Chisari, Nora E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We have obtained photometry and spectroscopy of 433 z ≤ 0.08 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a full-sky survey of Abell clusters to construct a BCG sample suitable for probing deviations from the local Hubble flow. The BCG Hubble diagram over 0 < z < 0.08 is consistent to within 2% of the Hubble relation specified by a Ω {sub m} = 0.3, Λ = 0.7 cosmology. This sample allows us to explore the structural and photometric properties of BCGs at the present epoch, their location in their hosting galaxy clusters, and the effects of the cluster environment on their structure and evolution. We revisit the L{sub m} -α relation for BCGs, which uses α, the log-slope of the BCG photometric curve of growth, to predict the metric luminosity in an aperture with 14.3 kpc radius, L{sub m} , for use as a distance indicator. Residuals in the relation are 0.27 mag rms. We measure central stellar velocity dispersions, σ, of the BCGs, finding the Faber-Jackson relation to flatten as the metric aperture grows to include an increasing fraction of the total BCG luminosity. A three-parameter ''metric plane'' relation using α and σ together gives the best prediction of L{sub m} , with 0.21 mag residuals. The distribution of projected spatial offsets, r{sub x} of BCGs from the X-ray-defined cluster center is a steep γ = –2.33 power law over 1 < r{sub x} < 10{sup 3} kpc. The median offset is ∼10 kpc, but ∼15% of the BCGs have r{sub x} > 100 kpc. The absolute cluster-dispersion normalized BCG peculiar velocity |ΔV {sub 1}|/σ {sub c} follows an exponential distribution with scale length 0.39 ± 0.03. Both L{sub m} and α increase with σ {sub c}. The α parameter is further moderated by both the spatial and velocity offset from the cluster center, with larger α correlated with the proximity of the BCG to the cluster mean velocity or potential center. At the same time, position in the cluster has little effect on L{sub m} . Likewise, residuals from

  20. FOSSIL SYSTEMS IN THE 400d CLUSTER CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodkin, Alexey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Mescheryakov, Alexander; Burenin, Rodion; Hornstrup, Allan

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of seven new fossil systems in the 400d cluster survey. Our search targets nearby, z ≤ 0.2, and X-ray bright, L X ≥ 10 43 erg s -1 , clusters of galaxies. Where available, we measure the optical luminosities from Sloan Digital Sky Survey images, thereby obtaining uniform sets of both X-ray and optical data. Our selection criteria identify 12 fossil systems, out of which five are known from previous studies. While in general agreement with earlier results, our larger sample size allows us to put tighter constraints on the number density of fossil clusters. It has been previously reported that fossil groups are more X-ray bright than other X-ray groups of galaxies for the same optical luminosity. We find, however, that the X-ray brightness of massive fossil systems is consistent with that of the general population of galaxy clusters and follows the same L X -L opt scaling relation.

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF MAXIMAL LUMINOSITY OF GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghizadeh-Popp, M.; Szalay, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ozogany, K.; Racz, Z. [Institute for Theoretical Physics-HAS, Eoetvoes University, Pazmany setany 1/a, 1117 Budapest (Hungary); Regoes, E., E-mail: mtaghiza@pha.jhu.edu [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-11-10

    Extreme value statistics is applied to the distribution of galaxy luminosities in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We analyze the DR8 Main Galaxy Sample (MGS), as well as the luminous red galaxies (LRGs). Maximal luminosities are sampled from batches consisting of elongated pencil beams in the radial direction of sight. For the MGS, results suggest a small and positive tail index {xi}, effectively ruling out the possibility of having a finite maximum cutoff luminosity, and implying that the luminosity distribution function may decay as a power law at the high-luminosity end. Assuming, however, {xi} = 0, a non-parametric comparison of the maximal luminosities with the Fisher-Tippett-Gumbel distribution (limit distribution for variables distributed by the Schechter fit) indicates a good agreement provided that uncertainties arising from both the finite batch size and the batch-size distribution are accounted for. For a volume-limited sample of LRGs, results show that they can be described as being the extremes of a luminosity distribution with an exponentially decaying tail, provided that the uncertainties related to batch-size distribution are taken care of.

  2. Luminosity class of neutron reflectometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleshanov, N.K., E-mail: pnk@pnpi.spb.ru

    2016-10-21

    The formulas that relate neutron fluxes at reflectometers with differing q-resolutions are derived. The reference luminosity is defined as a maximum flux for measurements with a standard resolution. The methods of assessing the reference luminosity of neutron reflectometers are presented for monochromatic and white beams, which are collimated with either double diaphragm or small angle Soller systems. The values of the reference luminosity for unified parameters define luminosity class of reflectometers. The luminosity class characterizes (each operation mode of) the instrument by one number and can be used to classify operating reflectometers and optimize designed reflectometers. As an example the luminosity class of the neutron reflectometer NR-4M (reactor WWR-M, Gatchina) is found for four operation modes: 2.1 (monochromatic non-polarized beam), 1.9 (monochromatic polarized beam), 1.5 (white non-polarized beam), 1.1 (white polarized beam); it is shown that optimization of measurements may increase the flux at the sample up to two orders of magnitude with monochromatic beams and up to one order of magnitude with white beams. A fan beam reflectometry scheme with monochromatic neutrons is suggested, and the expected increase in luminosity is evaluated. A tuned-phase chopper with a variable TOF resolution is recommended for reflectometry with white beams.

  3. Core condensation in heavy halos: a two-stage theory for galaxy formation and clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S D.M.; Rees, M J [Cambridge Univ. Inst. of Astronomy (UK)

    1978-05-01

    It is suggested that most of the material in the Universe condensed at an early epoch into small 'dark' objects. Irrespective of their nature, these objects must subsequently have undergone hierarchical clustering, whose present scale is inferred from the large-scale distribution of galaxies. As each stage of the hierarchy forms and collapses, relaxation effects wipe out its substructure, and to a self-similar distribution of bound masses. The entire luminous content of galaxies, however, results from the cooling and fragmentation of residual gas within the transient potential wells provided by the dark matter. Every galaxy thus forms as a concentrated luminous core embedded in an extensive dark halo. The observed sizes of galaxies and their survival through later stages of the hierarchy seem inexplicable without invoking substantial dissipation; this dissipation allows the galaxies to become sufficiently concentrated to survive the disruption of their halos in groups and clusters of galaxies. A specific model is proposed in which ..cap omega.. approximately equals 0.2, the dark matter makes up 80 per cent of the total mass, and half the residual gas has been converted into luminous galaxies by the present time. This model is consistent with the inferred proportions of dark matter and gas in rich clusters, with the observed luminosity density of the Universe and with the observed radii of galaxies; further, it predicts the characteristic luminosities of bright galaxies can give a luminosity function of the observed shape.

  4. Clustering of near clusters versus cluster compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Gao; Yipeng Jing

    1989-01-01

    The clustering properties of near Zwicky clusters are studied by using the two-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation functions for compact and medium compact clusters, for open clusters, and for all near Zwicky clusters are estimated. The results show much stronger clustering for compact and medium compact clusters than for open clusters, and that open clusters have nearly the same clustering strength as galaxies. A detailed study of the compactness-dependence of correlation function strength is worth investigating. (author)

  5. The Faint End of the Quasar Luminosity Function at z ~ 4: Implications for Ionization of the Intergalactic Medium and Cosmic Downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikman, Eilat; Djorgovski, S. G.; Stern, Daniel; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo

    2011-02-01

    We present an updated determination of the z ~ 4 QSO luminosity function (QLF), improving the quality of the determination of the faint end of the QLF presented by Glikman et al. (2010). We have observed an additional 43 candidates from our survey sample, yielding one additional QSO at z = 4.23 and increasing the completeness of our spectroscopic follow-up to 48% for candidates brighter than R = 24 over our survey area of 3.76 deg2. We study the effect of using K-corrections to compute the rest-frame absolute magnitude at 1450 Å compared with measuring M 1450 directly from the object spectra. We find a luminosity-dependent bias: template-based K-corrections overestimate the luminosity of low-luminosity QSOs, likely due to their reliance on templates derived from higher luminosity QSOs. Combining our sample with bright quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and using spectrum-based M 1450 for all the quasars, we fit a double power law to the binned QLF. Our best fit has a bright-end slope, α = 3.3 ± 0.2, and faint-end slope, β = 1.6+0.8 -0.6. Our new data revise the faint-end slope of the QLF down to flatter values similar to those measured at z ~ 3. The break luminosity, though poorly constrained, is at M* = -24.1+0.7 -1.9, approximately 1-1.5 mag fainter than at z ~ 3. This QLF implies that QSOs account for about half the radiation needed to ionize the intergalactic medium at these redshifts. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. THE BIVARIATE SIZE-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z {approx} 4-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Su, Jian [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ravindranath, Swara, E-mail: kuanghan@pha.jhu.edu [The Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India)

    2013-03-01

    We study the bivariate size-luminosity distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at redshifts around 4 and 5 in GOODS and the HUDF fields. We model the size-luminosity distribution as a combination of log-normal distribution (in size) and Schechter function (in luminosity), therefore it enables a more detailed study of the selection effects. We perform extensive simulations to quantify the dropout-selection completenesses and measurement biases and uncertainties in two-dimensional size and magnitude bins, and transform the theoretical size-luminosity distribution to the expected distribution for the observed data. Using maximum-likelihood estimator, we find that the Schechter function parameters for B {sub 435}-dropouts and are consistent with the values in the literature, but the size distributions are wider than expected from the angular momentum distribution of the underlying dark matter halos. The slope of the size-luminosity (RL) relation is similar to those found for local disk galaxies, but considerably shallower than local early-type galaxies.

  7. THE BIVARIATE SIZE-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z ∼ 4-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Su, Jian; Ferguson, Henry C.; Ravindranath, Swara

    2013-01-01

    We study the bivariate size-luminosity distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at redshifts around 4 and 5 in GOODS and the HUDF fields. We model the size-luminosity distribution as a combination of log-normal distribution (in size) and Schechter function (in luminosity), therefore it enables a more detailed study of the selection effects. We perform extensive simulations to quantify the dropout-selection completenesses and measurement biases and uncertainties in two-dimensional size and magnitude bins, and transform the theoretical size-luminosity distribution to the expected distribution for the observed data. Using maximum-likelihood estimator, we find that the Schechter function parameters for B 435 -dropouts and are consistent with the values in the literature, but the size distributions are wider than expected from the angular momentum distribution of the underlying dark matter halos. The slope of the size-luminosity (RL) relation is similar to those found for local disk galaxies, but considerably shallower than local early-type galaxies.

  8. Statistics of the Hubble diagram. I. Determination of q2 and luminosity evolution with application to quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    A rank statistic version of the magnitude-redshift q 0 test is developed. It may be applied to the Hubble diagram of objects with an arbitrary and unknown luminosity function; in particular, the objects need not be ''standard candles.'' Only the single restriction that the objects' luminosity function does not vary in functional form is placed on the sources' intrinsic properties. Density and/or luminosity evolution are taken into account. Corrections for sample selection biases are incorporated into the analysis. Tests for the presence of luminosity evolution are given. Methods for determining either q 0 or the luminosity evolution when the other is a priori known are described.Application of these techniques to a sample of 119 3CR and 4C quasars leads to the following results: The radio Hubble diagram is consistent with all values of q 0 , suggesting that the quasar radio luminosity function is a featureless power law. The optical Hubble diagram indicates one of these possibilities: (1) the value of q 0 is in the range 2--32, probably near 5; (2) the value of q 0 is more reasonable and there is strong optical luminosity evolution [e.g., if q/sub o/ approx. = 0.05, then the characteristic optical luminosity scales like approx. (1 + Z)/sup 7/3/]; or (3) the data are a low-probability (< or =0.05) statistical fluctuation. The second interpretation is probably the most sensible one.Generalizations of the rank statistic magnitude-redshift test are suggested for application to a variety of extragalactic and stellar problems. Specific examples of applications to unorthodox cosmologies are given. Even for the unfavorable (very broad luminosity function) case of the optical quasar data, the rank statistic analysis is sensitive to relative variations in the distance-modulus-redshift relation as small as approx.0.4 mag for 1/2 < or = Z < or = 2

  9. Formation of Compact Ellipticals in the merging star cluster scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia Zapata, Fernanda Cecilia; Theory and star formation group

    2018-01-01

    In the last years, extended old stellar clusters have been observed. They are like globular clusters (GCs) but with larger sizes(a limit of Re=10 pc is currently seen as reasonable). These extended objects (EOs) cover a huge range of mass. Objects at the low mass end with masses comparable to normal globular clusters are called extended clusters or faint fuzzies Larsen & Brodie (2000) and objects at the high-mass end are called ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). Ultra compact dwarf galaxies are compact object with luminositys above the brigtest known GCs. UCDs are more compact than typical dwarf galaxies but with comparable luminosities. Usually, a lower mass limit of 2 × 10^6 Solar masses is applied.Fellhauer & Kroupa (2002a,b) demostrated that object like ECs, FFs and UCDs can be the remnants of the merger of star clusters complexes, this scenario is called the Merging Star Cluster Scenario. Amore concise study was performed by Bruens et al. (2009, 2011).Our work tries to explain the formation of compact elliptical(cE). These objects are a comparatively rare class of spheroidal galaxies, possessing very small Re and high central surface brightnesses (Faber 1973). cEs have the same parameters as extended objects but they are slightly larger than 100 pc and the luminosities are in the range of -11 to -12 Mag.The standard formation sceanrio of these systems proposes a galaxy origin. CEs are the result of tidal stripping and truncation of nucleated larger systems. Or they could be a natural extension of the class of elliptical galaxies to lower luminosities and smaller sizes.We want to propose a completely new formation scenario for cEs. In our project we try to model cEs in a similar way that UCDs using the merging star cluster scenario extended to much higher masses and sizes. We think that in the early Universe we might have produced sufficiently strong star bursts to form cluster complexes which merge into cEs. So far it is observationally unknown if cEs are

  10. RELICS: Strong Lens Models for Five Galaxy Clusters from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Catherine; Sharon, Keren; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Avila, Roberto J.; Bradač, Maruša; Bradley, Larry D.; Carrasco, Daniela; Coe, Dan; Czakon, Nicole G.; Dawson, William A.; Frye, Brenda L.; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuang-Han; Johnson, Traci L.; Jones, Christine; Lam, Daniel; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Mainali, Ramesh; Oesch, Pascal A.; Ogaz, Sara; Past, Matthew; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Peterson, Avery; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steven A.; Ryan, Russell E.; Salmon, Brett; Sendra-Server, Irene; Stark, Daniel P.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Trenti, Michele; Umetsu, Keiichi; Vulcani, Benedetta; Zitrin, Adi

    2018-06-01

    Strong gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters magnifies background galaxies, enhancing our ability to discover statistically significant samples of galaxies at {\\boldsymbol{z}}> 6, in order to constrain the high-redshift galaxy luminosity functions. Here, we present the first five lens models out of the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS) Hubble Treasury Program, based on new HST WFC3/IR and ACS imaging of the clusters RXC J0142.9+4438, Abell 2537, Abell 2163, RXC J2211.7–0349, and ACT-CLJ0102–49151. The derived lensing magnification is essential for estimating the intrinsic properties of high-redshift galaxy candidates, and properly accounting for the survey volume. We report on new spectroscopic redshifts of multiply imaged lensed galaxies behind these clusters, which are used as constraints, and detail our strategy to reduce systematic uncertainties due to lack of spectroscopic information. In addition, we quantify the uncertainty on the lensing magnification due to statistical and systematic errors related to the lens modeling process, and find that in all but one cluster, the magnification is constrained to better than 20% in at least 80% of the field of view, including statistical and systematic uncertainties. The five clusters presented in this paper span the range of masses and redshifts of the clusters in the RELICS program. We find that they exhibit similar strong lensing efficiencies to the clusters targeted by the Hubble Frontier Fields within the WFC3/IR field of view. Outputs of the lens models are made available to the community through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

  11. M dwarfs in the Local Milky Way: The Field Low-Mass Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochanski, Jr, John J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Modern sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, have revolutionized how Astronomy is done. With millions of photometric and spectroscopic observations, global observational properties can be studied with unprecedented statistical significance. Low-mass stars dominate the local Milky Way, with tens of millions observed by SDSS within a few kpc. Thus, they make ideal tracers of the Galactic potential, and the thin and thick disks. In this thesis dissertation, I present my efforts to characterize the local low-mass stellar population, using a collection of observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). First, low-mass stellar template spectra were constructed from the co-addition of thousands of SDSS spectroscopic observations. These template spectra were used to quantify the observable changes introduced by chromospheric activity and metallicity. Furthermore, the average ugriz colors were measured as a function of spectral type. Next, the local kinematic structure of the Milky Way was quantified, using a special set of SDSS spectroscopic observations. Combining proper motions and radial velocities (measured using the spectral templates), along with distances, the full UVW space motions of over 7000 low-mass stars along one line of sight were computed. These stars were also separated kinematically to investigate other observational differences between the thin and thick disks. Finally, this dissertation details a project designed to measure the luminosity and mass functions of low-mass stars. Using a new technique optimized for large surveys, the field luminosity function (LF) and local stellar density profile are measured simultaneously. The sample size used to estimate the LF is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than any previous study, offering a definitive measurement of this quantity. The observed LF is transformed into a mass function (MF) and compared to previous studies.

  12. Full-data Results of Hubble Frontier Fields: UV Luminosity Functions at z ∼ 6–10 and a Consistent Picture of Cosmic Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Kawamata, Ryota; Ouchi, Masami; Oguri, Masamune; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ono, Yoshiaki

    2018-02-01

    We present UV luminosity functions of dropout galaxies at z∼ 6{--}10 with the complete Hubble Frontier Fields data. We obtain a catalog of ∼450 dropout-galaxy candidates (350, 66, and 40 at z∼ 6{--}7, 8, and 9, respectively), with UV absolute magnitudes that reach ∼ -14 mag, ∼2 mag deeper than the Hubble Ultra Deep Field detection limits. We carefully evaluate number densities of the dropout galaxies by Monte Carlo simulations, including all lensing effects such as magnification, distortion, and multiplication of images as well as detection completeness and contamination effects in a self-consistent manner. We find that UV luminosity functions at z∼ 6{--}8 have steep faint-end slopes, α ∼ -2, and likely steeper slopes, α ≲ -2 at z∼ 9{--}10. We also find that the evolution of UV luminosity densities shows a non-accelerated decline beyond z∼ 8 in the case of {M}trunc}=-15, but an accelerated one in the case of {M}trunc}=-17. We examine whether our results are consistent with the Thomson scattering optical depth from the Planck satellite and the ionized hydrogen fraction Q H II at z≲ 7 based on the standard analytic reionization model. We find that reionization scenarios exist that consistently explain all of the observational measurements with the allowed parameters of {f}esc}={0.17}-0.03+0.07 and {M}trunc}> -14.0 for {log}{ξ }ion}/[{erg}}-1 {Hz}]=25.34, where {f}esc} is the escape fraction, M trunc is the faint limit of the UV luminosity function, and {ξ }ion} is the conversion factor of the UV luminosity to the ionizing photon emission rate. The length of the reionization period is estimated to be {{Δ }}z={3.9}-1.6+2.0 (for 0.1< {Q}{{H}{{II}}}< 0.99), consistent with the recent estimate from Planck.

  13. Luminosity measurement at AMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A precise measurement of a luminosity is required by experiments with high statistics. The largest sources of a systematic error of a luminosity measurement are an alignment of the tube chambers which measure a polar angle of Bhabha events and a higher order correction for the Bhabha cross section calculation. We describe a resent study for these uncertainties and how to reduce the systematic errors from these sources. The total systematic error of the luminosity measurement of 1.8% can be reduced to 1.0% by this study. (author)

  14. Binary neutron star merger rate via the luminosity function of short gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debdutta

    2018-04-01

    The luminosity function of short Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) is modelled by using the available catalogue data of all short GRBs (sGRBs) detected till October, 2017. The luminosities are estimated via the `pseudo-redshifts' obtained from the `Yonetoku correlation', assuming a standard delay distribution between the cosmic star formation rate and the production rate of their progenitors. While the simple powerlaw is ruled out to high confidence, the data is fit well both by exponential cutoff powerlaw and broken powerlaw models. Using the derived parameters of these models along with conservative values in the jet opening angles seen from afterglow observations, the true rate of short GRBs are derived. Assuming a short GRB is produced from each binary neutron star merger (BNSM), the rate of gravitational wave (GW) detections from these mergers are derived for the past, present and future configurations of the GW detector networks. Stringent lower limits of 1.87yr-1 for the aLIGO-VIRGO, and 3.11yr-1 for the upcoming aLIGO-VIRGO-KAGRA-LIGO/India configurations are thus derived for the BNSM rate at 68% confidence. The BNSM rates calculated from this work and that independently inferred from the observation of the only confirmed BNSM observed till date, are shown to have a mild tension; however the scenario that all BNSMs produce sGRBs cannot be ruled out.

  15. Lithuanian medical tourism cluster: conditions and background for functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol A. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available as the global economy develops, more and more attention is paid to the creation of tourist clusters, which are extremely important for the economy and national competitiveness. This article analyzes the cluster of medical tourism in Lithuania, and explores the conditions for its successful functioning. The creation of the medical tourism cluster is highly influenced by a number of factors: the regulation of tourist and medical services, the level of entrepreneurial activity, human resources, the experience of partnership. In addition, the article analyzes the structure of the medical tourism cluster, determines the prerequisites for the functioning of the Lithuanian medical tourism cluster, including a wide range of services, European standards for the provision of medical services, high qualification of specialists, etc. When writing the article, the methods of systematic and logical analysis of scientific literature were used.

  16. Infall-driven protostellar accretion and the solution to the luminosity problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padoan, Paolo; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of mass infall in the formation and evolution of protostars. To avoid ad hoc initial and boundary conditions, we consider the infall resulting self-consistently from modeling the formation of stellar clusters in turbulent molecular clouds. We show that infall rates...... in turbulent clouds are comparable to accretion rates inferred from protostellar luminosities or measured in pre-main-sequence stars. They should not be neglected in modeling the luminosity of protostars and the evolution of disks, even after the embedded protostellar phase. We find large variations of infall...... rates from protostar to protostar, and large fluctuations during the evolution of individual protostars. In most cases, the infall rate is initially of order 10–5 M ☉ yr–1, and may either decay rapidly in the formation of low-mass stars, or remain relatively large when more massive stars are formed...

  17. RADIO ACTIVE GALAXY NUCLEI IN GALAXY CLUSTERS: HEATING HOT ATMOSPHERES AND DRIVING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE GROWTH OVER COSMIC TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.-J.; McNamara, B. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    We estimate the average radio active galactic nucleus (AGN, mechanical) power deposited into the hot atmospheres of galaxy clusters over more than three quarters of the age of the Universe. Our sample was drawn from eight major X-ray cluster surveys and includes 685 clusters in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 0.6 that overlap the area covered by the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). The radio-AGN mechanical power was estimated from the radio luminosity of central NVSS sources, using the relation of Cavagnolo et al. that is based on mechanical powers determined from the enthalpies of X-ray cavities. We find only a weak correlation between radio luminosity and cluster X-ray luminosity, although the most powerful radio sources reside in luminous clusters. The average AGN mechanical power of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} exceeds the X-ray luminosity of 44% of the clusters, indicating that the accumulation of radio-AGN energy is significant in these clusters. Integrating the AGN mechanical power to redshift z = 2.0, using simple models for its evolution and disregarding the hierarchical growth of clusters, we find that the AGN energy accumulated per particle in low luminosity X-ray clusters exceeds 1 keV per particle. This result represents a conservative lower limit to the accumulated thermal energy. The estimate is comparable to the level of energy needed to 'preheat' clusters, indicating that continual outbursts from radio-AGN are a significant source of gas energy in hot atmospheres. Assuming an average mass conversion efficiency of {eta} = 0.1, our result implies that the supermassive black holes that released this energy did so by accreting an average of {approx}10{sup 9} M {sub Sun} over time, which is comparable to the level of growth expected during the quasar era.

  18. Photometry of the rich cluster of galaxies 0004.8-3450

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.

    1980-01-01

    Photographic photometry in b, r and i wavebands of an extremely rich cluster of galaxies at 00sup(h)04sup(m).8 - 34 0 50'is presented. The cluster is centred on an unusually elongated cD galaxy. The brighter members of this cluster tend to lie along the axis of the cD. The luminosity function for 1552 galaxies shows, after application of a suitable correction for non-members, a form more characteristic of loose clusters with some spirals than of clusters with cD galaxies. The colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams for a smaller sample of galaxies are discussed. The distributions of very red and blue galaxies show no evidence for a significant proportion of either being cluster members. The cluster probably contains few spirals, although it appears to lie in a supercluster which may contain spirals. A few galaxies are unusually bright in the i band, their properties are discussed briefly. There is some evidence for a deficiency of other elongated galaxies with the same position angle as the cD. The cluster itself is aligned with the cD. (author)

  19. IMPACT OF H{sub 2}-BASED STAR FORMATION MODEL ON THE z {>=} 6 LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND THE IONIZING PHOTON BUDGET FOR REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaacks, Jason; Thompson, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4002 (United States); Nagamine, Kentaro, E-mail: jaacksj@physics.unlv.edu [Visiting Scientist. Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics for the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583, Japan. (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    We present the results of a numerical study examining the effect of an H{sub 2}-based star formation (SF) model on the rest-frame UV luminosity function and star formation rate function (SFRF) of z {>=} 6 galaxies, and the implications for reionization. Using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations outfitted with an H{sub 2}-SF model, we find good agreement with our previous results (non-H{sub 2} SF model) and observations at M{sub uv} {<=} -18. However, at M{sub uv} > -18, we find that the LF deviates from both our previous work and current observational extrapolations, producing significantly fewer low-luminosity galaxies and exhibiting additional turnover at the faint end. We constrain the redshift evolution of this turnover point using a modified Schechter function that includes additional terms to quantify the turnover magnitude (M{sub uv}{sup t}) and subsequent slope ({beta}). We find that M{sub uv}{sup t} evolves from M{sub uv}{sup t}=-17.33 (at z = 8) to -15.38 (z = 6), while {beta} becomes shallower by {Delta}{beta} = 0.22 during the same epoch. This occurs in an M{sub uv} range that will be observable by James Webb Space Telescope. By integrating the SFRF, we determine that even though the H{sub 2}-SF model significantly reduces the number density of low-luminosity galaxies at M{sub uv} > -18, it does not suppress the total SFR density enough to affect the capability of SF to maintain reionization.

  20. THE ARECIBO METHANOL MASER GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. III. DISTANCES AND LUMINOSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, J. D.; Menten, K. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    We derive kinematic distances to the 86 6.7 GHz methanol masers discovered in the Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey. The systemic velocities of the sources were derived from 13 CO (J = 2-1), CS (J = 5-4), and NH 3 observations made with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, the APEX telescope, and the Effelsberg 100 m telescope, respectively. Kinematic distance ambiguities were resolved using H I self-absorption with H I data from the VLA Galactic Plane Survey. We observe roughly three times as many sources at the far distance compared to the near distance. The vertical distribution of the sources has a scale height of ∼ 30 pc, and is much lower than that of the Galactic thin disk. We use the distances derived in this work to determine the luminosity function of 6.7 GHz maser emission. The luminosity function has a peak at approximately 10 -6 L sun . Assuming that this luminosity function applies, the methanol maser population in the Large Magellanic Cloud and M33 is at least 4 and 14 times smaller, respectively, than in our Galaxy.

  1. CKM fits as a function of luminosity (Time)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoecker, A.; Lacker, H.; Laplace, S.; Le Diberder, F.

    2001-05-01

    Possible scenarios for CKM fits in the years 2005 and 2010 are presented using B- and K - physics results from extrapolated luminosities for B-factories at the γ(4S), for the hadron machines at Tevatron and LHC and experiments for rare kaon decays. The study provides an estimate of what precision for the CKM matrix elements can be achieved if all relevant experiments and accelerators, including upgrades for the existing e + e - machines, reach their design goals. It is intended to give information used to explore which type of future experiments are needed to cover all relevant physics topics related to the CKM matrix and the search of physics beyond the Standard Model. (authors)

  2. Cranked cluster wave function for molecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Hisashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Wada, Takahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Construction of the cranked cluster wave function is discussed by focussing on three problems; the self-consistency between the potential and the density distribution, the properties of the rotational angular frequency which is strongly influenced by the inter-cluster Pauli principle and by the parity projection, and the spin alignment along the rotation axis with the resulting structure-change of the molecular state. (author)

  3. Evolution of the Quasar Luminosity Function: Implications for EoR-21cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Puchwein, Ewald; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2018-05-01

    We present predictions for the spatial distribution of 21 cm brightness temperature fluctuations from high-dynamic-range simulations for AGN-dominated reionization histories that have been tested against available Lyα and CMB data. We model AGN by extrapolating the observed Mbh-σ relation to high redshifts and assign them ionizing emissivities consistent with recent UV luminosity function measurements. AGN-dominated reionization histories increase the variance of the 21 cm emission by a factor of up to ten compared to similar reionization histories dominated by faint galaxies, to values close to 100 mK2 at scales accessible to experiments (k <~ 1 cMpc-1h). This is lower than the sensitivity reached by ongoing experiments by only a factor of about two or less. AGN dominated reionization should be easily detectable by LOFAR (and later HERA and SKA1) at their design sensitivity.

  4. Correction of beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Lukic, S

    2015-01-01

    Three methods for handling beam-beam effects in luminosity measurement at ILC are tested and evaluated in this work. The first method represents an optimization of the LEPtype asymmetric selection cuts that reduce the counting biases. The second method uses the experimentally reconstructed shape of the √ s ′ spectrum to determine the Beamstrahlung component of the bias. The last, recently proposed, collision-frame method relies on the reconstruction of the collision-frame velocity to define the selection function in the collision frame both in experiment and in theory. Thus the luminosity expression is insensitive to the difference between the CM frame of the collision and the lab frame. The collision-frame method is independent of the knowledge of the beam parameters, and it allows an accurate reconstruction of the luminosity spectrum above 80% of the nominal CM energy. However, it gives no precise infromation about luminosity below 80% of the nominal CM energy. The compatibility of diverse selection cut...

  5. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-01-01

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determinationof the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since theHiggs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale anda search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions areof crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross sectionmeasurement.To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section,the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm−2 s−1was reached with 1011 protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In suchconditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required,especially for instrumentation near the beam.The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminomet...

  6. Jellyfish: Observational Properties of Extreme Ram-Pressure Stripping Events in Massive Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conor, McPartland; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the physical origin and observational signatures of extreme ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z=0.3-0.7, based on data in the F606W passband obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen ``jellyfish" galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define quantitative morphological criteria to select candidate galaxies which are similar to known cases of RPS. Considering a sample of 16 ``jellyfish" galaxies (10 of which we present for the first time), we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on dynamical features such as apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the observed events occur primarily at large distances from the cluster core and involve infall trajectories featuring high impact parameters. Simple models of cluster growth show that such trajectories are consistent with two scenarios: 1) galaxy infall along filaments; and 2) infall at high velocities (≥1000 km/s) characteristic of cluster mergers. The observed distribution of events is best described by timescales of ˜few Myr in agreement with recent numerical simulations of RPS. The broader areal coverage of the Hubble Frontier Fields should provide an even larger sample of RPS events to determine the relative contributions of infall and cluster mergers. Prompted by the discovery of several jellyfish galaxies whose brightness in the F606W passband rivals or exceeds that of the respective brightest cluster galaxy, we attempt to constrain the luminosity function of galaxies undergoing RPS. The observed significant excess at the bright end compared to the luminosity functions of blue cluster members strongly suggests enhanced star formation, thus challenging theoretical and numerical studies according to which RPS merely displaces existing star-forming regions. In-depth studies of individual objects will help test our

  7. Clustering Properties of Emission Line Selected Galaxies over the past 12.5 Gyrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khostovan, Ali Ahmad; Sobral, David; Mobasher, Bahram; Best, Philip N.; Smail, Ian; Matthee, Jorryt; Darvish, Behnam; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Stott, John P.

    2018-01-01

    In this talk, I will present my latest results on the clustering and dark matter halo (DMH) mass properties of ~7000 narrowband-selected [OIII] and [OII] emitters. I will briefly describe the past work that has been done with our samples (e.g., luminosity functions, evolution of equivalent widths) as motivation of using [OIII] and [OII] emitters to study clustering/halo properties. My talk will focus on our findings regarding the line luminosity and stellar mass dependencies with DMH mass. We find strongly increasing and redshift-independent trends between line luminosity and DMH mass with evidence for a shallower slope at the bright end consistent with halo masses of ~ 1012.5-13 M⊙. Similar, but weaker, trends between stellar mass and halo mass have also been found. We investigate the inter-dependencies of these trends on halo mass and find that the correlation with line luminosity is stronger than with stellar mass. This suggest that active galaxies may be connected with their host DMHs simply based on their emission line luminosity. If time permits, I will briefly present our most recent results using our sample of ~4000 Lyα emitters, where we find similar trends to that seen with the [OIII] and [OII] samples, as well as previous Hα measurements, which suggests galaxies selected based on emission lines may be tracing the same subpopulation of star forming galaxies. I will conclude my talk with an interpretation of this connection and suggest that the shallower slope seen for the brightest emitters is evidence for a transitional halo mass as suggested in models where quenching mechanisms truncate star formation activity and reduce the fraction of star forming galaxies with increasing halo mass.

  8. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UV-CONTINUUM AND Lyα LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT z > 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Linhua; Egami, Eiichi; Walth, Gregory; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Matsuda, Yuichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Tohru; Ota, Kazuaki; Ouchi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations of z > 6 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). The candidates were selected as i'-dropout objects down to z' = 27 AB magnitudes from an ultra-deep SDF z'-band image. With the Keck spectroscopy we identified 19 LBGs with prominent Lyα emission lines at 6 ≤ z ≤ 6.4. The median value of the Lyα rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) is ∼50 Å, with four EWs >100 Å. This well-defined spectroscopic sample spans a UV-continuum luminosity range of –21.8 ≤ M UV ≤ –19.5 (0.6 ∼ 5 L* UV ) and a Lyα luminosity range of (0.3-3) × 10 43 erg s –1 (0.3-3 L* Lyα ). We derive the UV and Lyα luminosity functions (LFs) from our sample at (z) ∼ 6.2 after we correct for sample incompleteness. We find that our measurement of the UV LF is consistent with the results of previous studies based on photometric LBG samples at 5 6.

  9. High Luminosity LHC Project Description

    CERN Document Server

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Rossi, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is a novel configuration of the Large Hadron Collider, aiming at increasing the luminosity by a factor five or more above the nominal LHC design, to allow increasing the integrated luminosity, in the high luminosity experiments ATLAS and CMS, from the 300 fb-1 of the LHC original design up to 3000 fb-1 or more. This paper contains a short description of the main machine parameters and of the main equipment that need to be developed and installed. The preliminary cost evaluation and the time plan are presented, too. Finally, the international collaboration that is supporting the project, the governance and the project structure are discussed, too.

  10. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR HOST GALAXIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Naoki; Fukugita, Masataka

    2010-01-01

    The sample of 137 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with 0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-II supernova survey for the southern equatorial stripe of 300 deg 2 is used to derive the luminosity functions (LFs) of SNe Ia and of their host galaxies in the g, r, i passbands. We show that the LF of SNe Ia host galaxies matches well with that of galaxies in the general field, suggesting that the occurrence of SNe Ia does not favor a particular type of galaxy but is predominantly proportional to the luminosity of galaxies. The evidence is weak that the SNe rate varies with the color of host galaxies. The only evidence that points to possible correlation between the SN rate and star formation activity is that the SN rate in late-type galaxies is higher than that in early-type galaxies by 31% ± 35%. In our low-redshift sample, the component of type Ia SN rate that is proportional to star formation activity is not evident in the integrated SN rate, while our observation is compatible with the current two-component models. The sample contains eight SNe Ia whose host galaxies were not identified, but it is shown that their occurrence is consistent with them occurring in low-luminous galaxies beyond the survey. The LF of SNe Ia is approximately Gaussian with the full width at half-maximum being a factor of σ = 0.24 mag or 1.67 in luminosity. The Gaussian distribution becomes tighter if the ratio of extinction to reddening, R V , is lower than the characteristic value for the Milky Way and if luminosity is corrected for the light-curve shape. The average color excess is ∼0.07 mag, which is significantly smaller than reddening expected for field galaxies. This color excess does not vary with the distance of the SNe from the center of the host galaxy to 15 kpc. This suggests that the major part of the color excess appears to be either intrinsic or reddening that arises in the immediate environment of SNe, rather than interstellar

  11. Fossil systems in the 400d cluster catalog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voevodkin, Alexey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Heitmann, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of seven new fossil systems in the 400d cluster survey. Our search targets nearby, z ≤ 0.2, and X-ray bright, LX ≥ 10^43 erg s-1, clusters of galaxies. Where available, we measure the optical luminosities from Sloan Digital Sky Survey images, thereby obtaining uniform sets...

  12. Massive Star Clusters in Ongoing Galaxy Interactions: Clues to Cluster Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.; Borne, Kirk D.

    2003-09-01

    We present HST WFPC2 observations, supplemented by ground-based Hα data, of the star-cluster populations in two pairs of interacting galaxies selected for being in very different kinds of encounters seen at different stages. Dynamical information and n-body simulations provide the details of encounter geometry, mass ratio, and timing. In NGC 5752/4 we are seeing a weak encounter, well past closest approach, after about 2.5×108 yr. The large spiral NGC 5754 has a normal population of disk clusters, while the fainter companion NGC 5752 exhibits a rich population of luminous clusters with a flatter luminosity function. The strong, ongoing encounter in NGC 6621/2, seen about 1.0×108 yr past closest approach between roughly equal-mass galaxies, has produced an extensive population of luminous clusters, particularly young and luminous in a small region between the two nuclei. This region is dynamically interesting, with such a strong perturbation in the velocity field that the rotation curve reverses sign. From these results, in comparison with other strongly interacting systems discussed in the literature, cluster formation requires a threshold level of perturbation, with stage of the interaction a less important factor. The location of the most active star formation in NGC 6621/2 draws attention to a possible role for the Toomre stability threshold in shaping star formation in interacting galaxies. The rich cluster populations in NGC 5752 and NGC 6621 show that direct contact between gas-rich galaxy disks is not a requirement to form luminous clusters and that they can be triggered by processes happening within a single galaxy disk (albeit triggered by external perturbations). Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. The Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS) in SDSS and the high-z bright-end Quasar Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jan-Torge; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the most luminous quasars at high redshift directly probe the evolution of the most massive black holes in the early Universe and their connection to massive galaxy formation. Unfortunately, extremely luminous quasars at high redshift are very rare objects. Only wide area surveys have a chance to constrain their population. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) nd the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) have so far provided the most widely adopted measurements of the type I quasar luminosity function (QLF) at z>3. However, a careful re-examination of the SDSS quasar sample revealed that the SDSS quasar selection is in fact missing a significant fraction of $z~3$ quasars at the brightest end.We have identified the purely optical color selection of SDSS, where quasars at these redshifts are strongly contaminated by late-type dwarfs, and the spectroscopic incompleteness of the SDSS footprint as the main reasons. Therefore we have designed the Extremely Luminous Quasar Survey (ELQS), based on a novel near-infrared JKW2 color cut using WISE AllWISE and 2MASS all-sky photometry, to yield high completeness for very bright (i < 18.0) quasars in the redshift range of 2.8<= z<=5.0. It effectively uses Random Forest machine-learning algorithms on SDSS and WISE photometry for quasar-star classification and photometric redshift estimation.The ELQS is spectroscopically following up ~230 new quasar candidates in an area of ~12000 deg2 in the SDSS footprint, to obtain a well-defined and complete quasar sample for an accurate measurement of the bright-end quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 2.8<= z<=5.0. So far the ELQS has identified 75 bright new quasars in this redshift range and observations of the fall sky will continue until the end of the year. At the AAS winter meeting we will present the full spectroscopic results of the survey, including a re-estimation and extension of the high-z QLF toward higher luminosities.

  14. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Akiyama, Masayuki [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Hasinger, Günther [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Miyaji, Takamitsu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Watson, Michael G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  15. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  16. A TALE OF DWARFS AND GIANTS: USING A z = 1.62 CLUSTER TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE RED SEQUENCE GREW OVER THE LAST 9.5 BILLION YEARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, Gregory H.; Tran, Kim-Vy; Papovich, Casey; Momcheva, Ivelina; Willmer, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z = 1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJK s imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the Very Large Telescope, we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red-sequence LF to that for clusters at z 0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field whose star formation is quenched and who are subsequently allowed to merge. We find that three to four mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z = 1.62 and z = 0.6 match the observed LF evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red-sequence population at all luminosities.

  17. Inelastic electron scattering as an indicator of clustering in wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    While the shell model is the most fundamental of nuclear structure models, states in light nuclei also have been described successfully in terms of clusters. Indeed, Wildemuth and Tang have shown a correspondence between the cluster and shell models, the clusters arising naturally as correlations out of the shell model Hamiltonian. For light nuclei, the cluster model reduces the many-body problem to a few-body one, with interactions occurring between the clusters. These interactions involve particle exchanges, since the nucleons may still be considered somewhat freely moving, with their motion not strictly confined to the clusters themselves. Such is the relation of the cluster model to the shell model. For a realistic shell model then, one may expect some evidence of clustering in the wave functions for those systems in which the cluster model is valid. The results obtained using the multi-ℎωshell model wave functions are closer in agreement with experiment than the results obtained using the 0ℎωwave functions. Yet in all cases, that level of agreement is not good, with the calculations underpredicting the measured values by at least a factor of two. This indicates that the shell model wave functions do not exhibit clustering behavior, which is expected to manifest itself at small momentum transfer. The exception is the transition to the 7 - /2 state in 7 Li, for which the value obtained from the γ-decay width is in agreement with the value obtained from the MK3W and (0 + 2 + 4)ℎωshell model calculations

  18. THE RELATION BETWEEN COOL CLUSTER CORES AND HERSCHEL-DETECTED STAR FORMATION IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawle, T. D.; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Fiedler, A.; Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Portouw, J.; Walth, G. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Smith, G. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Altieri, B.; Valtchanov, I. [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC, ESA, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Gonzalez, P. G. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Van der Werf, P. P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Zemcov, M., E-mail: trawle@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) analysis of 68 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at 0.08 < z < 1.0. Deriving total infrared luminosities directly from Spitzer and Herschel photometry spanning the peak of the dust component (24-500 {mu}m), we calculate the obscured star formation rate (SFR). 22{sup +6.2}{sub -5.3}% of the BCGs are detected in the far-infrared, with SFR = 1-150 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The infrared luminosity is highly correlated with cluster X-ray gas cooling times for cool-core clusters (gas cooling time <1 Gyr), strongly suggesting that the star formation in these BCGs is influenced by the cluster-scale cooling process. The occurrence of the molecular gas tracing H{alpha} emission is also correlated with obscured star formation. For all but the most luminous BCGs (L{sub TIR} > 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), only a small ({approx}<0.4 mag) reddening correction is required for SFR(H{alpha}) to agree with SFR{sub FIR}. The relatively low H{alpha} extinction (dust obscuration), compared to values reported for the general star-forming population, lends further weight to an alternate (external) origin for the cold gas. Finally, we use a stacking analysis of non-cool-core clusters to show that the majority of the fuel for star formation in the FIR-bright BCGs is unlikely to originate from normal stellar mass loss.

  19. GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE IRAC DARK FIELD. II. MID-INFRARED SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, J. E.; Surace, J. A.; Yan, L.; Thompson, D.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Hora, J. L.; Gorjian, V.

    2009-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) luminosities, star formation rates (SFR), colors, morphologies, locations, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) properties of 24 μm detected sources in photometrically detected high-redshift clusters in order to understand the impact of environment on star formation (SF) and AGN evolution in cluster galaxies. We use three newly identified z = 1 clusters selected from the IRAC dark field; the deepest ever mid-IR survey with accompanying, 14 band multiwavelength data including deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging and deep wide-area Spitzer MIPS 24 μm imaging. We find 90 cluster members with MIPS detections within two virial radii of the cluster centers, of which 17 appear to have spectral energy distributions dominated by AGNs and the rest dominated by SF. We find that 43% of the star-forming sample have IR luminosities L IR > 10 11 L sun (luminous IR galaxies). The majority of sources (81%) are spirals or irregulars. A large fraction (at least 25%) show obvious signs of interactions. The MIPS-detected member galaxies have varied spatial distributions as compared to the MIPS-undetected members with one of the three clusters showing SF galaxies being preferentially located on the cluster outskirts, while the other two clusters show no such trend. Both the AGN fraction and the summed SFR of cluster galaxies increase from redshift zero to one, at a rate that is a few times faster in clusters than over the same redshift range in the field. Cluster environment does have an effect on the evolution of both AGN fraction and SFR from redshift one to the present, but does not affect the IR luminosities or morphologies of the MIPS sample. SF happens in the same way regardless of environment making MIPS sources look the same in the cluster and field, however the cluster environment does encourage a more rapid evolution with time as compared to the field.

  20. Luminosity Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Maettig, Stefan; Pauly, T

    For almost all measurements performed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) one crucial ingredient is the precise knowledge about the integrated luminosity. The determination and precision on the integrated luminosity has direct implications on any cross-section measurement, and its instantaneous measurement gives important feedback on the conditions at the experimental insertions and on the accelerator performance. ATLAS is one of the main experiments at the LHC. In order to provide an accurate and reliable luminosity determination, ATLAS uses a variety of different sub-detectors and algorithms that measure the luminosity simultaneously. One of these sub-detectors are the Beam Condition Monitors (BCM) that were designed to protect the ATLAS detector from potentially dangerous beam losses. Due to its fast readout and very clean signals this diamond detector is providing in addition since May 2011 the official ATLAS luminosity. This thesis describes the calibration and performance of the BCM as a luminosity detec...

  1. Characterization of the CBC2 readout ASIC for the CMS strip-tracker high-luminosity upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, D; Hall, G; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, M; Jones, L; Murray, P; Prydderch, M

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Binary Chip 2 (CBC2) is a full-scale prototype ASIC developed for the front-end readout of the high-luminosity upgrade of the CMS silicon strip tracker. The 254-channel, 130 nm CMOS ASIC is designed for the binary readout of double-layer modules, and features cluster-width discrimination and coincidence logic for detecting high-P T track candidates. The chip was delivered in January 2013 and has since been bump-bonded to a dual-chip hybrid and extensively tested. The CBC2 is fully functional and working to specification: we present the result of electrical characterization of the chip, including gain, noise, threshold scan and power consumption, together with the performance of the stub finding logic. Finally we will outline the plan for future developments towards the production version

  2. Near-IR period-luminosity relations for pulsating stars in ω Centauri (NGC 5139)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Alonso-García, J.; Gran, F.; Dékány, I.; Minniti, D.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The globular cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139) hosts hundreds of pulsating variable stars of different types, thus representing a treasure trove for studies of their corresponding period-luminosity (PL) relations. Our goal in this study is to obtain the PL relations for RR Lyrae and SX Phoenicis stars in the field of the cluster, based on high-quality, well-sampled light curves in the near-infrared (IR). Methods: Observations were carried out using the VISTA InfraRed CAMera (VIRCAM) mounted on the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). A total of 42 epochs in J and 100 epochs in KS were obtained, spanning 352 days. Point-spread function photometry was performed using DoPhot and DAOPHOT crowded-field photometry packages in the outer and inner regions of the cluster, respectively. Results: Based on the comprehensive catalog of near-IR light curves thus secured, PL relations were obtained for the different types of pulsators in the cluster, both in the J and KS bands. This includes the first PL relations in the near-IR for fundamental-mode SX Phoenicis stars. The near-IR magnitudes and periods of Type II Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars were used to derive an updated true distance modulus to the cluster, with a resulting value of (m - M)0 = 13.708 ± 0.035 ± 0.10 mag, where the error bars correspond to the adopted statistical and systematic errors, respectively. Adding the errors in quadrature, this is equivalent to a heliocentric distance of 5.52 ± 0.27 kpc. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, with the VISTA telescope (project ID 087.D-0472, PI R. Angeloni).

  3. Simulating the Birth of Massive Star Clusters: Is Destruction Inevitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Very early in its operation, the Hubble Space Telescope {HST} opened an entirely new frontier: study of the demographics and properties of star clusters far beyond the Milky Way. However, interpretation of HST's observations has proven difficult, and has led to the development of two conflicting models. One view is that most massive star clusters are disrupted during their infancy by feedback from newly formed stars {i.e., "infant mortality"}, independent of cluster mass or environment. The other model is that most star clusters survive their infancy and are disrupted later by mass-dependent dynamical processes. Since observations at present have failed to discriminate between these views, we propose a theoretical investigation to provide new insight. We will perform radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive star clusters, including for the first time a realistic treatment of the most important stellar feedback processes. These simulations will elucidate the physics of stellar feedback, and allow us to determine whether cluster disruption is mass-dependent or -independent. We will also use our simulations to search for observational diagnostics that can distinguish bound from unbound clusters, and to predict how cluster disruption affects the cluster luminosity function in a variety of galactic environments.

  4. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the luminosity delivered by the LHC is pivotal for several key physics analyses. During the first three years of running, tremendous steps forwards have been made in the comprehension of the subtleties related to luminosity monitoring and calibration, which led to an unprecedented accuracy at a hadron collider. The detectors and corresponding algorithms employed to estimate online and offline the luminosity in CMS are described. Details are given concerning the procedure based on the Van der Meer scan technique that allowed a very precise calibration of the luminometers from the determination of the LHC beams parameters. What is being prepared in terms of detector and online software upgrades for the next LHC run is also summarized.

  5. Inelastic electron scattering as an indicator of clustering in wave functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    While the shell model is the most fundamental of nuclear structure models, states in light nuclei also have been described successfully in terms of clusters. Indeed, Wildemuth and Tang have shown a correspondence between the cluster and shell models, the clusters arising naturally as correlations out of the shell model Hamiltonian. For light nuclei, the cluster model reduces the many-body problem to a few-body one, with interactions occurring between the clusters. These interactions involve particle exchanges, since the nucleons may still be considered somewhat freely moving, with their motion not strictly confined to the clusters themselves. Such is the relation of the cluster model to the shell model. For a realistic shell model then, one may expect some evidence of clustering in the wave functions for those systems in which the cluster model is valid. The results obtained using the multi-{Dirac_h}{omega}shell model wave functions are closer in agreement with experiment than the results obtained using the 0{Dirac_h}{omega}wave functions. Yet in all cases, that level of agreement is not good, with the calculations underpredicting the measured values by at least a factor of two. This indicates that the shell model wave functions do not exhibit clustering behavior, which is expected to manifest itself at small momentum transfer. The exception is the transition to the 7{sup -}/2 state in {sup 7}Li, for which the value obtained from the {gamma}-decay width is in agreement with the value obtained from the MK3W and (0 + 2 + 4){Dirac_h}{omega}shell model calculations 17 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. Luminosity monitoring and measurement at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Beretvas, A.; Derwent, P.F.

    2000-01-01

    Using two telescopes of beam-beam counters, CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab) has measured the luminosity to an accuracy of 4.1% (3.6%) in run Ib (Ia). For run Ib (Ia) the average luminosity was 9.1(3.3)x10 30 cm -2 s -1 . For a typical data set the integrated luminosity was 86.47 (19.65) pb -1 in run Ib (Ia) resulting in a total integrated luminosity of 106.1±4.1 pb -1 . This paper shows how we have determined the accuracy of our results

  7. Reverberation Mapping of High-Luminosity Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, Shai [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Brandt, William N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Maoz, Dan; Netzer, Hagai [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Shemmer, Ohad, E-mail: shai@wise.tau.ac.il [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Over the past three decades reverberation mapping (RM) has been applied to about 100 AGNs. Their broad line region (BLR) sizes were measured and yielded mass estimates of the black holes in their center. However, very few attempts were carried out for high-luminosity quasars, at luminosities higher than 10{sup 46} erg/sec in the optical. Most of these attempts failed since RM of such quasars is difficult due to a number of reasons, mostly due to the long time needed to monitor these objects. During the past two decades we carried out a RM campaign on six high-luminosity quasars. This contribution presents some of the final light curves of that RM campaign in which we measured the BLR size in C iv of three of the objects (S5 0836+71, SBS 1116+603, and SBS 1425+606). We present the C iv BLR size and luminosity relation over eight orders of magnitude in luminosity, pushing the luminosity limit to its highest point so far.

  8. Luminosity Optimization Feedback in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The luminosity optimization at the SLC has been limited by the precision with which one can measure the micron size beams at the Interaction Point. Ten independent tuning parameters must be adjusted. An automated application has been used to scan each parameter over a significant range and set the minimum beam size as measured with a beam-beam deflection scan. Measurement errors limited the accuracy of this procedure and degraded the resulting luminosity. A new luminosity optimization feedback system has been developed using novel dithering techniques to maximize the luminosity with respect to the 10 parameters, which are adjusted one at a time. Control devices are perturbed around nominal setpoints, while the averaged readout of a digitized luminosity monitor measurement is accumulated for each setting. Results are averaged over many pulses to achieve high precision and then fitted to determine the optimal setting. The dithering itself causes a small loss in luminosity, but the improved optimization is expected to significantly enhance the performance of the SLC. Commissioning results are reported

  9. The fraction of AGNs in major merger galaxies and its luminosity dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Anna K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Sanders, David B.

    2018-05-01

    We use a phenomenological model which connects the galaxy and active galactic nucleus (AGN) populations to investigate the process of AGNs triggering through major galaxy mergers at z ˜ 0. The model uses stellar mass functions as input and allows the prediction of AGN luminosity functions based on assumed Eddington ratio distribution functions (ERDFs). We show that the number of AGNs hosted by merger galaxies relative to the total number of AGNs increases as a function of AGN luminosity. This is due to more massive galaxies being more likely to undergo a merger and does not require the assumption that mergers lead to higher Eddington ratios than secular processes. Our qualitative analysis also shows that to match the observations, the probability of a merger galaxy hosting an AGN and accreting at a given Eddington value has to be increased by a factor ˜10 relative to the general AGN population. An additional significant increase of the fraction of high Eddington ratio AGNs among merger host galaxies leads to inconsistency with the observed X-ray luminosity function. Physically our results imply that, compared to the general galaxy population, the AGN fraction among merger galaxies is ˜10 times higher. On average, merger triggering does however not lead to significantly higher Eddington ratios.

  10. X-ray studies of coeval star samples. II. The Pleiades cluster as observed with the Einstein Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G.S.; Harnden, F.R. Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coronal X-ray emission of the Pleiades stars is investigated, and maximum likelihood, integral X-ray luminosity functions are computed for Pleiades members in selected color-index ranges. A detailed search is conducted for long-term variability in the X-ray emission of those stars observed more than once. An overall comparison of the survey results with those of previous surveys confirms the ubiquity of X-ray emission in the Pleiades cluster stars and its higher rate of emission with respect to older stars. It is found that the X-ray emission from dA and early dF stars cannot be proven to be dissimilar to that of Hyades and field stars of the same spectral type. The Pleiades cluster members show a real rise of the X-ray luminosity from dA stars to early dF stars. X-ray emission for the young, solarlike Pleiades stars is about two orders of magnitude more intense than for the nearby solarlike stars. 77 refs

  11. X-ray studies of coeval star samples. II - The Pleiades cluster as observed with the Einstein Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coronal X-ray emission of the Pleiades stars is investigated, and maximum likelihood, integral X-ray luminosity functions are computed for Pleiades members in selected color-index ranges. A detailed search is conducted for long-term variability in the X-ray emission of those stars observed more than once. An overall comparison of the survey results with those of previous surveys confirms the ubiquity of X-ray emission in the Pleiades cluster stars and its higher rate of emission with respect to older stars. It is found that the X-ray emission from dA and early dF stars cannot be proven to be dissimilar to that of Hyades and field stars of the same spectral type. The Pleiades cluster members show a real rise of the X-ray luminosity from dA stars to early dF stars. X-ray emission for the young, solarlike Pleiades stars is about two orders of magnitude more intense than for the nearby solarlike stars.

  12. Conceptual design of a high luminosity 510 MeV collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, C.; Robin, D.; Cornacchia, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the magnetic lattice design of a high luminosity 510 MeV electron-positron collider, based on high field superconduction bending dipoles. The design criteria are flexibility in the choice of the tune and beta functions at the interaction point, horizontal emittance larger than 1 mm mrad to produce a luminosity larger than 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , large synchrotron radiation damping rate, and large momentum compaction. The RF system parameter are chosen to provide a short bunch length also when the beam energy spread is determined by the microwave instability. A satisfactory ring dynamic aperature, and a simultaneous small value of the horizontal and vertical beta function at the interaction point, the authors expect will be achieved by using Cornacchia-Halbach modified sextupoles

  13. LHC luminosity upgrade detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; de Roeck, Albert; Bortoletto, Daniela; Wigmans, Richard; Riegler, Werner; Smith, Wesley H

    2006-01-01

    LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm -2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: • Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) • Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector developments (lectures 2-4) • Electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges (lecture 5) Note: the much more ambitious LHC energy upgrade will not be covered

  14. Optical–Mid-infrared Period–Luminosity Relations for W UMa-type Contact Binaries Based on Gaia DR 1: 8% Distance Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodian; Deng, Licai; de Grijs, Richard; Wang, Shu; Feng, Yuting

    2018-06-01

    W Ursa Majoris (W UMa)-type contact binary systems (CBs) are useful statistical distance indicators because of their large numbers. Here, we establish (orbital) period–luminosity relations (PLRs) in 12 optical to mid-infrared bands (GBVRIJHK s W1W2W3W4) based on 183 nearby W UMa-type CBs with accurate Tycho–Gaia parallaxes. The 1σ dispersion of the PLRs decreases from optical to near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. The minimum scatter, 0.16 mag, implies that W UMa-type CBs can be used to recover distances to 7% precision. Applying our newly determined PLRs to 19 open clusters containing W UMa-type CBs demonstrates that the PLR and open cluster CB distance scales are mutually consistent to within 1%. Adopting our PLRs as secondary distance indicators, we compiled a catalog of 55,603 CB candidates, of which 80% have distance estimates based on a combination of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared photometry. Using Fourier decomposition, 27,318 high-probability W UMa-type CBs were selected. The resulting 8% distance accuracy implies that our sample encompasses the largest number of objects with accurate distances within a local volume with a radius of 3 kpc available to date. The distribution of W UMa-type CBs in the Galaxy suggests that in different environments, the CB luminosity function may be different: larger numbers of brighter (longer-period) W UMa-type CBs are found in younger environments.

  15. X-RAY PROPERTIES OF YOUNG EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. I. X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    2010-01-01

    We have compared the combined X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in Chandra observations of young, post-merger elliptical galaxies with that of typical old elliptical galaxies. We find that the XLF of the 'young' sample does not present the prominent high-luminosity break at L X > 5 x 10 38 erg s -1 found in the old elliptical galaxy XLF. The 'young' and 'old' XLFs differ with a 3σ statistical significance (with a probability less than 0.2% that they derive from the same underlying parent distribution). Young elliptical galaxies host a larger fraction of luminous LMXBs (L X > 5 x 10 38 erg s -1 ) than old elliptical galaxies and the XLF of the young galaxy sample is intermediate between that of typical old elliptical galaxies and that of star-forming galaxies. This observational evidence may be related to the last major/minor mergers and the associated star formation.

  16. REVISITING SCALING RELATIONS FOR GIANT RADIO HALOS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R. [INAF/IRA, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Ettori, S. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Giacintucci, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Pratt, G. W. [Laboratoire AIM, IRFU/Service dAstrophysique-CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dolag, K. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Markevitch, M. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R{sub 500} as P{sub 1.4}∼L{sup 2.1±0.2}{sub 500}. Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L{sub 500} > 5 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}) clusters branch into two populations—radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P{sub 1.4} scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R{sub 500}, measured by Planck, as P{sub 1.4}∼Y{sup 2.05±0.28}{sub 500}, in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that 'SZ-luminous' Y{sub 500} > 6 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup 2} clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the

  17. The correlation function for density perturbations in an expanding universe. II - Nonlinear theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclelland, J.; Silk, J.

    1977-01-01

    A formalism is developed to find the two-point and higher-order correlation functions for a given distribution of sizes and shapes of perturbations which are randomly placed in three-dimensional space. The perturbations are described by two parameters such as central density and size, and the two-point correlation function is explicitly related to the luminosity function of groups and clusters of galaxies

  18. The Far-Infrared Luminosity Function and Star Formation Rate Density for Dust Obscured Galaxies in the Bootes Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanog, Jae Alyson; Wardlow, J. L.; Fu, H.; Cooray, A. R.; HerMES

    2013-01-01

    We present the far-Infrared (FIR) luminosity function (LF) and the star-formation rate density (SFRD) for dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Bootes field at redshift 2. These galaxies are selected by having a large rest frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratio ( > 1000) and are expected to be some of the most luminous and heavily obscured galaxies in the Universe at this epoch. Photometric redshifts for DOGs are estimated from optical and mid-IR data using empirically derived low resolution spectral templates for AGN and galaxies. We use HerMES Herschel-SPIRE data to fit a modified blackbody to calculate the FIR luminosity (LFIR) and dust temperature (Td) for all DOGs individually detected in SPIRE maps. A stacking analyses was implemented to measure a median sub-mm flux of undetected DOGs. We find that DOGs have LIR and Td that are similar with the sub-millimeter galaxy (SMG) population, suggesting these two populations are related. The DOG LF and SFRD at 2 are calculated and compared to SMGs.

  19. Luminosity lifetime in the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.; Finley, D.; Johnson, R.P.; Kerns, Q.; McCarthy, J.; Siemann, R.; Zhang, P.

    1988-01-01

    Since the inauguration of colliding proton-antiproton operations in 1987, the Tevatron has exhibited luminosity lifetimes shorter than expected. During a typical colliding beam storage period, called a store, luminosity is calculated periodically by measuring the charge and emittances of each bunch. The growth of the transverse bunch emittances is the dominant cause of luminosity deterioration. Throughout, this period, the position spectrum of the bunches exhibited betatron signals larger than expected from Schottky noise. A model assuming externally driven betatron oscillations explains both the betatron signals and the emittance growth. A program is underway to improve the Tevatron luminosity lifetime. The abort kickers have been identified as sources of emittance growth, and some quadrupole power supplies are further candidates. Because the horizontal dispersion through the RF cavities is nonzero, RF phase noise has been investigated. Noise in the main dipole regulation circuit has also been studied. 13 refs., 4 figs

  20. THE LIFETIME AND POWERS OF FR IIs IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognini, Joe; Bird, Jonathan; Martini, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We have identified and studied a sample of 151 FR IIs found in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the MaxBCG cluster catalog with data from FIRST and NVSS. We have compared the radio luminosities and projected lengths of these FR IIs to the projected length distribution of a range of mock catalogs generated by an FR II model and estimate the FR II lifetime to be 1.9 × 10 8 yr. The uncertainty in the lifetime calculation is a factor of two, primarily due to uncertainties in the intracluster medium (ICM) density and the FR II axial ratio. We furthermore measure the jet power distribution of FR IIs in BCGs and find that it is well described by a log-normal distribution with a median power of 1.1 × 10 37 W and a coefficient of variation of 2.2. These jet powers are nearly linearly related to the observed luminosities, and this relation is steeper than many other estimates, although it is dependent on the jet model. We investigate correlations between FR II and cluster properties and find that galaxy luminosity is correlated with jet power. This implies that jet power is also correlated with black hole mass, as the stellar luminosity of a BCG should be a good proxy for its spheroid mass and therefore the black hole mass. Jet power, however, is not correlated with cluster richness, nor is FR II lifetime strongly correlated with any cluster properties. We calculate the enthalpy of the lobes to examine the impact of the FR IIs on the ICM and find that heating due to adiabatic expansion is too small to offset radiative cooling by a factor of at least six. In contrast, the jet power is approximately an order of magnitude larger than required to counteract cooling. We conclude that if feedback from FR IIs offsets cooling of the ICM, then heating must be primarily due to another mechanism associated with FR II expansion.

  1. THE LIFETIME AND POWERS OF FR IIs IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antognini, Joe; Bird, Jonathan; Martini, Paul, E-mail: antognini@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: bird@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: martini@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We have identified and studied a sample of 151 FR IIs found in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the MaxBCG cluster catalog with data from FIRST and NVSS. We have compared the radio luminosities and projected lengths of these FR IIs to the projected length distribution of a range of mock catalogs generated by an FR II model and estimate the FR II lifetime to be 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} yr. The uncertainty in the lifetime calculation is a factor of two, primarily due to uncertainties in the intracluster medium (ICM) density and the FR II axial ratio. We furthermore measure the jet power distribution of FR IIs in BCGs and find that it is well described by a log-normal distribution with a median power of 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} W and a coefficient of variation of 2.2. These jet powers are nearly linearly related to the observed luminosities, and this relation is steeper than many other estimates, although it is dependent on the jet model. We investigate correlations between FR II and cluster properties and find that galaxy luminosity is correlated with jet power. This implies that jet power is also correlated with black hole mass, as the stellar luminosity of a BCG should be a good proxy for its spheroid mass and therefore the black hole mass. Jet power, however, is not correlated with cluster richness, nor is FR II lifetime strongly correlated with any cluster properties. We calculate the enthalpy of the lobes to examine the impact of the FR IIs on the ICM and find that heating due to adiabatic expansion is too small to offset radiative cooling by a factor of at least six. In contrast, the jet power is approximately an order of magnitude larger than required to counteract cooling. We conclude that if feedback from FR IIs offsets cooling of the ICM, then heating must be primarily due to another mechanism associated with FR II expansion.

  2. A hot white dwarf luminosity function from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesinski, J.; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Hügelmeyer, S.; Dreizler, S.; Liebert, J.; Harris, H.

    2009-12-01

    Aims. We present a hot white dwarf (WD) luminosity function (LF) using data taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 4. We present and discuss a combined LF, along with separate DA and non-DA as LFs. We explore the completeness of our LFs and interpret a sudden drop in the non-DA LF near 2 M_bol as a transition of the non-DA WD atmosphere into the DA one during WD evolution. Our LF extends roughly between -0.5 T_eff > ˜25 000 K. Our LF should now be useful for estimates of recent star formation and for studies of neutrino and other potential particle emission losses in hot WDs. Methods: To create a sample whose completeness can be characterized fully, we used stars whose spectra were obtained via the SDSS's “hot standard” target selection criteria. The hot standard stars were purposefully targeted to a high level of completeness by the SDSS for calibration purposes. We are fortunate that many of them are hot white dwarfs stars. We further limited the sample to stars with fitted temperatures exceeding 23 500 K and log{g} > 7.0. We determined stellar distances for our sample based on their absolute SDSS g filter magnitudes, derived from WD stellar atmosphere model fits to the SDSS stellar spectra. Results: We compared our LF with those of other researchers where overlap occurs; however, our LFs are unique in their extension to the most luminous/hottest WDs. The cool end of our LF connects with the hot end of previously determined SDSS WD LFs and agreement here is quite good. It is also good with previous non-SDSS WD LFs. We note distinct differences between the DA and non-DA LFs and discuss the reliability of the DA LF at its hot end. We have extended the range of luminosities covered in the most recent WD LFs. The SDSS sample is understood quite well and its exploration should contribute to a number of new insights into early white dwarf evolution.

  3. Far-infrared luminosities of Markarian starburst galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, L.K.; Willner, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Total far-infrared luminosities have been calculated from measured IRAS fluxes for a sample of optically selected galaxies and for a comparison sample of spiral galaxies. The starburst galaxies are notably more luminous in the far-infrared and have higher dust color temperatures than the comparison galaxies. The far-infrared light dominates the total luminosity of the starburst galaxies, and a significant amount of dust must be present. The far-infrared emission correlates well with total blue luminosity, nuclear blue luminosity, and nuclear H-alpha luminosity. The dust that produces the far-infrared light is probably heated predominantly by B rather than by O stars. 30 references

  4. CLIC Luminosity Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, Armen; Gschwendtner, Edda; Lefevre, Thibault; Tygier, Sam; Appleby, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC post-collision line is designed to transport the un-collided beams and the products of the collided beams with a total power of 14 MW to the main beam dump. Luminosity monitoring for CLIC is based on high energy muons produced by beamstrahlung photons in the main dump. Threshold Cherenkov counters are proposed for the detection of these muons. The expected rates and layout for these detectors is presented. Another method for luminosity monitoring is to directly detect the beamstrahlung photons in the post-collision line. Full Monte Carlo simulation has been performed to address its feasibility.

  5. RX J1548.9+0851, a fossil cluster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenthaler, P.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2012-04-01

    Vaucouleurs r1/4 law without a cD envelope. Symmetric shells are revealed along the major axis of the galaxy indicating a recent minor merger. RX J1548.9+0851 shows a steep, increasing luminosity function with a faint-end slope of α = -1.4 ± 0.1. Satellite galaxies show a clear spatial segregation with respect to their stellar populations - objects with old stars are confined to an elongated, central distribution aligned with the major axis of the central elliptical. Conclusions: Although RX J1548.9+0851 shows similar properties compared to other fossils studied recently, it might not be a fossil at all, being dominated by 2 bright central ellipticals. Comparing RX J1548.9+0851 with scaling relations from ordinary poor groups and clusters confirm the idea that fossils might simply be normal clusters with the richness and optical luminosity of poor groups.

  6. The Gemini/HST Galaxy Cluster Project: Redshift 0.2–1.0 Cluster Sample, X-Ray Data, and Optical Photometry Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Inger; Chiboucas, Kristin; Hibon, Pascale; Nielsen, Louise D.; Takamiya, Marianne

    2018-04-01

    The Gemini/HST Galaxy Cluster Project (GCP) covers 14 z = 0.2–1.0 clusters with X-ray luminosity of {L}500≥slant {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.1–2.4 keV band. In this paper, we provide homogeneously calibrated X-ray luminosities, masses, and radii, and we present the complete catalog of the ground-based photometry for the GCP clusters. The clusters were observed with either Gemini North or South in three or four of the optical passbands g‧, r‧, i‧, and z‧. The photometric catalog includes consistently calibrated total magnitudes, colors, and geometrical parameters. The photometry reaches ≈25 mag in the passband closest to the rest-frame B band. We summarize comparisons of our photometry with data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We describe the sample selection for our spectroscopic observations, and establish the calibrations to obtain rest-frame magnitudes and colors. Finally, we derive the color–magnitude relations for the clusters, and briefly discuss these in the context of evolution with redshift. Consistent with our results based on spectroscopic data, the color–magnitude relations support passive evolution of the red sequence galaxies. The absence of change in the slope with redshift constrains the allowable age variation along the red sequence to <0.05 dex between the brightest cluster galaxies and those four magnitudes fainter. This paper serves as the main reference for the GCP cluster and galaxy selection, X-ray data, and ground-based photometry.

  7. AGN Clustering in the BAT Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Meredith; Cappelluti, Nico; Urry, Meg; Koss, Michael; BASS Team

    2018-01-01

    We characterize the environments of local growing supermassive black holes by measuring the clustering of AGN in the Swift-BAT Spectroscopic Survey (BASS). With 548 AGN in the redshift range 0.012MASS galaxies, we constrain the halo occupation distribution (HOD) of the full sample with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as in bins of obscuration with matched luminosity distributions. In doing so, we find that AGN tend to reside in galaxy groups, agreeing with previous studies of AGN throughout a large range of luminosity and redshift. We also find evidence that obscured AGN tend to reside in denser environments than unobscured AGN.

  8. THE CLUSTER AND FIELD GALAXY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION AT z = 1-1.5: EVIDENCE FOR A REVERSAL OF THE LOCAL ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND AGN FRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Paul; Miller, E. D.; Bautz, M.; Brodwin, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Hickox, R. C.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Galametz, A.; Norman, D.; Dey, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Murray, S.; Jones, C.; Brown, M. J. I.

    2013-01-01

    The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M ≥ 10 14 M ☉ ) at 1 A = 3.0 +2.4 -1.4 % for AGNs with a rest-frame, hard X-ray luminosity greater than L X, H ≥ 10 44 erg s –1 . This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M * 3.6 (z) + 1, where M * 3.6 (z) is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6 μm bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3σ upper limit on the value for AGNs of similar luminosity at z ∼ 0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z ∼ 0.75. AGNs with L X, H ≥ 10 43 erg s –1 exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast to the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field and clusters are consistent at 1 < z < 1.5. This is evidence that the cluster AGN population has evolved more rapidly than the field population from z ∼ 1.5 to the present. This environment-dependent AGN evolution mimics the more rapid evolution of star-forming galaxies in clusters relative to the field.

  9. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE EXTENDED Hα FILAMENTS IN COOLING FLOW CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard; Rupke, David S. N.

    2010-01-01

    We present a high spatial resolution Hα survey of 23 cooling flow clusters using the Maryland Magellan Tunable Filter, covering 1-2 orders of magnitude in cooling rate, dM/dt, temperature, and entropy. We find that 8/23 (35%) of our clusters have complex, filamentary morphologies at Hα, while an additional 7/23 (30%) have marginally extended or nuclear Hα emission, in general agreement with previous studies of line emission in cooling flow cluster brightest cluster galaxies. A weak correlation between the integrated near-UV luminosity and the Hα luminosity is also found for our complete sample with a large amount of scatter about the expected relation for photoionization by young stars. We detect Hα emission out to the X-ray cooling radius, but no further, in several clusters and find a strong correlation between the Hα luminosity contained in filaments and the X-ray cooling flow rate of the cluster, suggesting that the warm ionized gas is linked to the cooling flow. Furthermore, we detect a strong enhancement in the cooling properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) coincident with the Hα emission, compared to the surrounding ICM at the same radius. While the filaments in a few clusters may be entrained by buoyant radio bubbles, in general, the radially infalling cooling flow model provides a better explanation for the observed trends. The correlation of the Hα and X-ray properties suggests that conduction may be important in keeping the filaments ionized. The thinness of the filaments suggests that magnetic fields are an important part of channeling the gas and shielding it from the surrounding hot ICM.

  10. Clustered supernovae versus the gaseous disk and halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiles, C.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of clustered supernovae on the two-dimensional porosity parameter Q(2D) and the rates M of mass injection of both hot and cold gas into the halo are reconsidered. The effects of high-absolute value z, low-density extension of the neutral gas layer are theoretically calculated and the distribution of H-alpha luminosities of extragalactic H II regions is observationally determined. These results are used to estimate the birth rate of star clusters having N supernovae as a function of N. A Galaxy-wide average of Q(2D) roughly 0.30 is obtained, corresponding to an area filling factor of 0.23. Area filling factors and mass injection rates into the halo due to breakthrough bubbles with large N are calculated for different types of galaxy. The calculations are related to the area covered by H I 'holes' and the area covered by giant H II regions. The effects of supernova clusters that are too small to produce breakthrough bubbles are discussed. 53 refs

  11. Estimation of cluster stability using the theory of electron density functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Yu.A.

    1985-01-01

    Prospects of using simple versions of the electron density functional for studying the energy characteristics of cluster compounds Was discussed. These types of cluster compounds were considered: clusters of Cs, Be, B, Sr, Cd, Sc, In, V, Tl, I elements as intermediate form between molecule and solid body, metalloorganic Mo, W, Tc, Re, Rn clusters and elementoorganic compounds of nido-cluster type. The problem concerning changes in the binding energy of homoatomic clusters depending on their size and three-dimensional structure was analysed

  12. Infrared study of new star cluster candidates associated to dusty globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto King, P.; Barbá, R.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Jaque, M.; Firpo, V.; Nilo, J. L.; Soto, M.; Minniti, D.

    2014-10-01

    We present results from a study of a sample of small star clusters associated to dusty globules and bright-rimmed clouds that have been observed under ESO/Chile public infrared survey Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV). In this short communication, we analyse the near-infrared properties of a set of four small clusters candidates associated to dark clouds. This sample of clusters associated to dusty globules are selected from the new VVV stellar cluster candidates developed by members of La Serena VVV Group (Barbá et al. 2014). Firstly, we are producing color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for both, cluster candidates and surrounding areas for comparison through PSF photometry. The cluster positions are determined from the morphology on the images and also from the comparison of the observed luminosity function for the cluster candidates and the surrounding star fields. Now, we are working in the procedures to establish the full sample of clusters to be analyzed and methods for subtraction of the star field contamination. These clusters associated to dusty globules are simple laboratories to study the star formation relatively free of the influence of large star-forming regions and populous clusters, and they will be compared with those clusters associated to bright-rimmed globules, which are influenced by the energetic action of nearby O and B massive stars.

  13. HH 1158: THE LOWEST LUMINOSITY EXTERNALLY IRRADIATED HERBIG–HARO JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, B.; Whelan, E. T.

    2015-01-01

    We have identified a new externally irradiated Herbig–Haro (HH) jet, HH 1158, within ∼2 pc of the massive OB type stars in the σ Orionis cluster. At an L bol  ∼ 0.1 L ⊙ , HH 1158 is the lowest luminosity irradiated HH jet identified to date in any cluster. Results from the analysis of high-resolution optical spectra indicate asymmetries in the brightness, morphology, electron density, velocity, and the mass outflow rates for the blue and redshifted lobes. We constrain the position angle of the HH 1158 jet at 102° ± 5°. The mass outflow rate and the mean accretion rate for HH 1158 using multiple diagnostics are estimated to be (5.2 ± 2.6) × 10 −10 M ⊙ yr −1 and (3.0 ± 1.0) × 10 −10 M ⊙ yr −1 , respectively. The properties for HH 1158 are notably similar to the externally irradiated HH 444–HH 447 jets previously identified in σ Orionis. In particular, the morphology is such that the weaker jet beam is tilted toward the massive stars, indicating a higher extent of photo-evaporation. The high value for the Hα/[S ii] ratio is also consistent with the ratios measured in other irradiated jets, including HH 444–HH 447. The presence of an extended collimated jet that is bipolar and the evidence of shocked emission knots make HH 1158 the first unique case of irradiated HH jets at the very low-luminosity end, and provides an opportunity to learn the physical properties of very faint HH jet sources

  14. SHAM beyond clustering: new tests of galaxy–halo abundance matching with galaxy groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2013-05-27

    We construct mock catalogs of galaxy groups using subhalo abundance matching (SHAM) and undertake several new tests of the SHAM prescription for the galaxy-dark matter connection. All SHAM models we studied exhibit significant tension with galaxy groups observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The SHAM prediction for the field galaxy luminosity function (LF) is systematically too dim, and the group galaxy LF systematically too bright, regardless of the details of the SHAM prescription. SHAM models connecting r-band luminosity, Mr, to Vacc, the maximum circular velocity of a subhalo at the time of accretion onto the host, faithfully reproduce galaxy group abundance as a function of richness, g(N). However, SHAM models connecting Mr with Vpeak, the peak value of Vmax over the entire merger history of the halo, over-predict galaxy group abundance. Our results suggest that no SHAM model can simultaneously reproduce the observed g(N) and two-point projected galaxy clustering. Nevertheless, we also report a new success of SHAM: an accurate prediction for Phi(m12), the abundance of galaxy groups as a function of magnitude gap m12, defined as the difference between the r-band absolute magnitude of the two brightest group members. We show that it may be possible to use joint measurements of g(N) and Phi(m12) to tightly constrain the details of the SHAM implementation. Additionally, we show that the hypothesis that the luminosity gap is constructed via random draws from a universal LF provides a poor description of the data, contradicting recent claims in the literature. Finally, we test a common assumption of the Conditional Luminosity Function (CLF) formalism, that the satellite LF need only be conditioned by the brightness of the central galaxy. We find this assumption to be well-supported by the observed Phi(m12).

  15. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The origin of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) has posed a long-standing mystery for astronomers. New observations of several of these faint giants with the Hubble Space Telescope are now lending support to one theory.Faint-Galaxy MysteryHubble images of Dragonfly 44 (top) and DFX1 (bottom). The right panels show the data with greater contrast and extended objects masked. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]UDGs large, extremely faint spheroidal objects were first discovered in the Virgo galaxy cluster roughly three decades ago. Modern telescope capabilities have resulted in many more discoveries of similar faint galaxies in recent years, suggesting that they are a much more common phenomenon than we originally thought.Despite the many observations, UDGs still pose a number of unanswered questions. Chief among them: what are UDGs? Why are these objects the size of normal galaxies, yet so dim? There are two primary models that explain UDGs:UDGs were originally small galaxies, hence their low luminosity. Tidal interactions then puffed them up to the large size we observe today.UDGs are effectively failed galaxies. They formed the same way as normal galaxies of their large size, but something truncated their star formation early, preventing them from gaining the brightness that we would expect for galaxies of their size.Now a team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) has made some intriguing observations with Hubble that lend weight to one of these models.Globulars observed in 16 Coma-cluster UDGs by Hubble. The top right panel shows the galaxy identifications. The top left panel shows the derived number of globular clusters in each galaxy. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Globulars GaloreVan Dokkum and collaborators imaged two UDGs with Hubble: Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, both located in the Coma galaxy cluster. These faint galaxies are both smooth and elongated, with no obvious irregular features, spiral arms, star-forming regions, or other indications of tidal interactions

  16. TWO BARIUM STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 5822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katime Santrich, O. J.; Pereira, C. B.; De Castro, D. B., E-mail: osantrich@on.br, E-mail: claudio@on.br, E-mail: denise@on.br [Observatorio Nacional/MCT, Rua Gen. Jose Cristino, 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    Open clusters are very useful examples to explain the constraint of the nucleosynthesis process with the luminosities of stars because the distances of the clusters are better known than those of field stars. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the chemical composition of two red giants in the young open cluster NGC 5822, NGC 5822-2, and NGC 5822-201. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, a mean overabundance of the elements created by the s-process, ''s'', with the notation [s/Fe] of 0.77 {+-} 0.12 and 0.83 {+-} 0.05. These values are higher than those for field giants of similar metallicity. We also found that NGC 5822-2 and -201 have, respectively, luminosities of 140 L{sub Sun} and 76 L{sub Sun }, which are much lower than the luminosity of an asymptotic giant branch star. We conclude that NGC 5822-2 and NGC 5822-201 are two new barium stars first identified in the open cluster NGC 5822. The mass transfer hypothesis is the best scenario to explain the observed overabundances.

  17. Photoluminescence quenching of chemically functionalized porous silicon by a ruthenium cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukherroub, R.; Wayner, D.D.M. [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Lockwood, D.J. [Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Zargarian, D. [Chemistry Department, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, succursale, Centre-ville, Montreal QC (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes photoluminescence (PL) quenching of hydrogen-terminated and chemically derivatized porous silicon (PSi) nanostructures by a green ruthenium cluster (I). Chemisorption of freshly prepared PSi surfaces in a hexane solution of the Ru cluster for several days at room temperature led to a complete quenching of the PSi PL. The only visible PL was due to the original PL of the cluster. When the PSi surface functionalized with undecylenic acid was immersed in the same hexane solution of (I), the PSi PL was completely quenched and accompanied with a shift to a lower energy of the cluster PL. This shift was assigned to the formation of an ester linkage resulting from the nucleophilic attack of the PO anion of the cluster on the terminal acid functional group. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Photoluminescence quenching of chemically functionalized porous silicon by a ruthenium cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukherroub, R.; Wayner, D. D. M.; Lockwood, D. J.; Zargarian, D.

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes photoluminescence (PL) quenching of hydrogen-terminated and chemically derivatized porous silicon (PSi) nanostructures by a green ruthenium cluster (I). Chemisorption of freshly prepared PSi surfaces in a hexane solution of the Ru cluster for several days at room temperature led to a complete quenching of the PSi PL. The only visible PL was due to the original PL of the cluster. When the PSi surface functionalized with undecylenic acid was immersed in the same hexane solution of (I), the PSi PL was completely quenched and accompanied with a shift to a lower energy of the cluster PL. This shift was assigned to the formation of an ester linkage resulting from the nucleophilic attack of the PO anion of the cluster on the terminal acid functional group.

  19. A Clustering-Based Automatic Transfer Function Design for Volume Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional transfer functions (TFs designed based on intensity-gradient magnitude (IGM histogram are effective tools for the visualization and exploration of 3D volume data. However, traditional design methods usually depend on multiple times of trial-and-error. We propose a novel method for the automatic generation of transfer functions by performing the affinity propagation (AP clustering algorithm on the IGM histogram. Compared with previous clustering algorithms that were employed in volume visualization, the AP clustering algorithm has much faster convergence speed and can achieve more accurate clustering results. In order to obtain meaningful clustering results, we introduce two similarity measurements: IGM similarity and spatial similarity. These two similarity measurements can effectively bring the voxels of the same tissue together and differentiate the voxels of different tissues so that the generated TFs can assign different optical properties to different tissues. Before performing the clustering algorithm on the IGM histogram, we propose to remove noisy voxels based on the spatial information of voxels. Our method does not require users to input the number of clusters, and the classification and visualization process is automatic and efficient. Experiments on various datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. The ALHAMBRA survey: evolution of galaxy clustering since z ˜ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalte-Mur, P.; Martínez, V. J.; Norberg, P.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Ascaso, B.; Merson, A. I.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Castander, F. J.; Hurtado-Gil, L.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Molino, A.; Montero-Dorta, A. D.; Stefanon, M.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Perea, J.; Pović, M.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    We study the clustering of galaxies as function of luminosity and redshift in the range 0.35 work cover 2.38 deg2 in seven independent fields, after applying a detailed angular selection mask, with accurate photometric redshifts, σz ≲ 0.014(1 + z), down to IAB accounting for photometric redshifts uncertainties. We infer the galaxy bias, and study its evolution with luminosity. We study the effect of sample variance, and confirm earlier results that the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) and European Large Area ISO Survey North 1 (ELAIS-N1) fields are dominated by the presence of large structures. For the intermediate and bright samples, Lmed ≳ 0.6L*, we obtain a strong dependence of bias on luminosity, in agreement with previous results at similar redshift. We are able to extend this study to fainter luminosities, where we obtain an almost flat relation, similar to that observed at low redshift. Regarding the evolution of bias with redshift, our results suggest that the different galaxy populations studied reside in haloes covering a range in mass between log10[Mh/( h-1 M⊙)] ≳ 11.5 for samples with Lmed ≃ 0.3L* and log10[Mh/( h-1 M⊙)] ≳ 13.0 for samples with Lmed ≃ 2L*, with typical occupation numbers in the range of ˜1-3 galaxies per halo.

  1. Mathematical model for research and analyze relations and functions between enterprises, members of cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Kiril; Kaynakchieva, Vesela

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the current study is to research and analyze Mathematical model for research and analyze of relations and functions between enterprises, members of cluster, and its approbation in given cluster. Subject of the study are theoretical mechanisms for the definition of mathematical models for research and analyze of relations and functions between enterprises, members of cluster. Object of the study are production enterprises, members of cluster. Results of this study show that described theoretical mathematical model is applicable for research and analyze of functions and relations between enterprises, members of cluster from different industrial sectors. This circumstance creates alternatives for election of cluster, where is experimented this model for interaction improvement between enterprises, members of cluster.

  2. Dynamics of rich clusters of galaxies. I. The Coma cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, S.M.; Gunn, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of the Coma cluster are analyzed using self-consistent equilibrium dynamical models. Observational material for Coma is culled from a variety of sources. Projected surface, density, and velocity-dispersion profiles are derived extending out to a radius of 3 0 from the cluster center, which are essentially free from field contamination. Segregation of galaxies by luminosity and morphology are discussed and a quantitative estimate of the latter is made. The method of constructing self-consistent dynamical models is discussed. Four different forms of the distribution function are analyzed allowing for different possible dependences of f on energy and angular momentum. Properties of typical models that might resemble actual clusters are presented, and the importance of having velocity-dispersion information is empha sized. The effect of a central massive object such as a cD galaxy on the core structure is illustrated. A comparison of these models with Coma reveals that only models with a distribution function in which the ratio of tangential to radial velocity dispersions is everywhere constant give acceptable fits. In particular, it is possible to rule out models that have isotropic motions in the core and predominantly radial motions in the halo. For H 0 = 50, the best-fitting models give a total projected mass inside 3 0 of 2.9 x 10 15 M/sub sun/ , a core radius of 340--400 kpc (8.5'--10'), an upper limit to any central massive object of approx.10 13 M/sub sun/ , and a mass-to-blue-light ratio of M/L = 181. From cosmological considerations the cluster ''edge'' is determined to lie at rapprox.5 0 --6 0 . The possible distribution of ''dark matter'' in Coma is discussed and it is argued that this distribution cannot be significantly different from that of the galaxies. The dynamics of morphological segregation are examined quantitatively, and are explained at least qualitatively

  3. Online luminosity measurement at BES III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wenbo; Fu Chengdong; Mo Xiaohu; He Kanglin; Zhu Kejun; Li Fei; Zhao Shujun

    2010-01-01

    As a crucial parameter of both accelerator and detector, the realization of online luminosity measurement is of great importance. Several methods of luminosity measurement are recapitulated and the emphasis is laid on the algorithm of using e + e - and γγ final states. Taking into account the status at the beginning of the joint commissioning of detector and accelerator, the information from end cap electromagnetic calorimeter is used to select the good event. With the help of online Event filter, the luminosity is calculated and the monitoring of online cross section of hadron is realized. The preliminary results indicate that the online luminosity measurement is stable and its role for machine tuning and monitoring of the overall running status is indispensable. (authors)

  4. ISOTROPIC LUMINOSITY INDICATORS IN A COMPLETE AGN SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Rieke, George H.; Rigby, Jane R.

    2009-01-01

    The [O IV] λ25.89 μm line has been shown to be an accurate indicator of active galactic nucleus (AGN) intrinsic luminosity in that it correlates well with hard (10-200 keV) X-ray emission. We present measurements of [O IV] for 89 Seyfert galaxies from the unbiased revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) sample. The [O IV] luminosity distributions of obscured and unobscured Seyferts are indistinguishable, indicating that their intrinsic AGN luminosities are quite similar and that the RSA sample is well suited for tests of the unified model. In addition, we analyze several commonly used proxies for AGN luminosity, including [O III] λ5007 A, 6 cm radio, and 2-10 keV X-ray emission. We find that the radio luminosity distributions of obscured and unobscured AGNs show no significant difference, indicating that radio luminosity is a useful isotropic luminosity indicator. However, the observed [O III] and 2-10 keV luminosities are systematically smaller for obscured Seyferts, indicating that they are not emitted isotropically.

  5. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation-XI. Clustering and halo masses of high redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehong; Kim, Han-Seek; Liu, Chuanwu; Trenti, Michele; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the clustering properties of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 6 - 8. Using the semi-analytical model MERAXES constructed as part of the dark-ages reionization and galaxy-formation observables from numerical simulation (DRAGONS) project, we predict the angular correlation function (ACF) of LBGs at z ∼ 6 - 8. Overall, we find that the predicted ACFs are in good agreement with recent measurements at z ∼ 6 and z ∼ 7.2 from observations consisting of the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and cosmic sssembly near-infrared deep extragalactic legacy survey field. We confirm the dependence of clustering on luminosity, with more massive dark matter haloes hosting brighter galaxies, remains valid at high redshift. The predicted galaxy bias at fixed luminosity is found to increase with redshift, in agreement with observations. We find that LBGs of magnitude MAB(1600) < -19.4 at 6 ≲ z ≲ 8 reside in dark matter haloes of mean mass ∼1011.0-1011.5 M⊙, and this dark matter halo mass does not evolve significantly during reionisation.

  6. MPX detectors as LHC luminosity monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopczak, Andre; Ali, Babar; Bergmann, Benedikt; Caforio, Davide; Heijne, Erik; Pospisil, Stanislav; Seifert, Frank; Solc, Jaroslav; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel [IEAP CTU in Prague (Czech Republic); Ashba, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [University of Montreal (Canada); Bekhouche, Khaled [Biskra University (Algeria); Campbell, Michael; Nessi, Marzio [CERN (Switzerland); Lipniacka, Anna [Bergen University (Norway)

    2016-07-01

    A network of 16 Medipix-2 (MPX) silicon pixel devices was installed in the ATLAS detector cavern at CERN. It was designed to measure the composition and spectral characteristics of the radiation field in the ATLAS experiment and its surroundings. This study demonstrates that the MPX network can also be used as a self-sufficient luminosity monitoring system. The MPX detectors collect data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain, and thus they provide independent measurements of the bunch-integrated ATLAS/LHC luminosity. In particular, the MPX detectors located close enough to the primary interaction point are used to perform van der Meer calibration scans with high precision. Results from the luminosity monitoring are presented for 2012 data taken at √(s) =8 TeV proton-proton collisions. The characteristics of the LHC luminosity reduction rate are studied and the effects of beam-beam (burn-off) and beam-gas (single bunch) interactions are evaluated. The systematic variations observed in the MPX luminosity measurements are below 0.3% for one minute intervals.

  7. LHC Report: A new luminosity record

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    After about one month of operation, the LHC has already accumulated an integrated luminosity of 28 pb-1, which corresponds to over 50% of the total delivered to the experiments in 2010. This impressive start to the LHC run in 2011 bodes well for the rest of year.   Following careful collimator set-up and validation, the first phase of beam commissioning 2011 has come to an end. The first stable beams were declared on Sunday 13 March with a moderate 3 bunches per beam and an initial luminosity of 1.6 × 1030 cm-2s-1. Machine protection tests continued during the following week as the commissioning team made absolutely sure that all critical systems (beam dumps, beam interlock system, etc.) were functioning properly. When these tests had finished, the way was opened to increased intensity and the LHC quickly moved through the first part of its planned, staged intensity increase. Fills with increasing numbers of bunches were delivered to the experiments, culminating in a fill with 200...

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN GROUP LOCAL DENSITY AND GROUP LUMINOSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xinfa [School of Science, Nanchang University, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Yu Guisheng [Department of Natural Science, Nanchang Teachers College, Jiangxi 330103 (China)

    2012-11-10

    In this study, we investigate the correlation between group local number density and total luminosity of groups. In four volume-limited group catalogs, we can conclude that groups with high luminosity exist preferentially in high-density regions, while groups with low luminosity are located preferentially in low-density regions, and that in a volume-limited group sample with absolute magnitude limit M{sub r} = -18, the correlation between group local number density and total luminosity of groups is the weakest. These results basically are consistent with the environmental dependence of galaxy luminosity.

  9. The X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies and their relationship to other cluster properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.J.; Dickens, R.J.; Burnell, S.J.B.; Culhane, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    New observations with the MSSL proportional counter spectrometer on the Ariel V satellite of the X-ray spectra of 20 candidate clusters of galaxies are reported. The data are compared with the results from the OSO-8 satellite and the combined sample of some 30 cluster X-ray spectra are analysed. The present study finds generally larger values of Lsub(X) than do Uhuru or the SSI, which, because of the larger field of view, may indicate significant amounts of hot gas away from the cluster centres. The validity of all X-ray cluster identifications has been examined, and sources have been classified according to certainty of identification. The incidence of X-ray line emission from the clusters has been investigated and temperatures, kTsub(X), have been derived on the basis of an isothermal model. Relationships between X-ray, optical and radio properties of the clusters have been studied. The more massive, centrally condensed clusters generally contain higher temperature gas and have a greater luminosity than the less massive, more irregular clusters. (author)

  10. The evolution of the rest-frame J- and H-band luminosity function of galaxies to z=3.5

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanon, Mauro; Marchesini, Danilo

    2011-01-01

    We present the rest-frame J- and H-band luminosity function (LF) of field galaxies, based on a deep multi-wavelength composite sample from the MUSYC, FIRES and FIREWORKS survey public catalogues, covering a total area of 450 arcmin^2. The availability of flux measurements in the Spitzer IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 um channels allows us to compute absolute magnitudes in the rest-frame J and H bands up to z=3.5 minimizing the dependence on the stellar evolution models. We compute the LF in the fo...

  11. Luminosity performance reach after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W.

    2012-01-01

    Based on past experience (2010/2011), in particular expected limitations from beam-beam effects, and taking into account the expected beam quality from the LHC injectors, the peak and integrated luminosity at top energy is discussed for different scenarios (e.g. bunch spacing, beta*). In particular it will be shown which are the key parameters to reach the nominal luminosity and it is also shown that peak luminosities two times larger than nominal (or higher) are possible. Possible test in 2012 are discussed

  12. Infrared photometry of open star clusters Alessi 16, Chupina1, Juchert-Saloran1 and Patchick 78

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Selim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present JHKs near-infrared photometric study for the poorly studied open star clusters Alessi 16, Chupina1, Juchert-Saloran1 and Patchick 78 based on 2MASS data. Astrometry and photometric parameters have been calculated using the Redial Density Profile (RDP and Color Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs fittings. Radius, distance, reddening, age, Luminosity Function (LF, Mass Function (MF, total mass and relaxation time have been calculated from the analysis of 2MASS data. The stellar memberships have been determined using a new method.

  13. Detector Performance and Upgrade Plans of the Pixel Luminosity Telescope for Online per-Bunch Luminosity Measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated system for luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment using silicon pixel sensors. It was installed during LS1 and has been providing luminosity measurements throughout Run 2. The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement employs the "fast-or" capability of the pixel readout chip (PSI46) to quickly identify likely tracks at the full 40MHz interaction rate. In addition, the full pixel information is read out at a lower rate, allowing for more detailed offline analysis. In this talk, we will present details of the commissioning, performance and operational history of the currently installed hardware and upgrade plans for LS2.

  14. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: THE STELLAR MASS ASSEMBLY OF FOSSIL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Craig D.; Miller, Christopher J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Richards, Joseph W.; Deadman, Paul-James [Center for Time Domain Informatics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lloyd-Davies, E. J.; Kathy Romer, A.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Liddle, Andrew R. [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Hoyle, Ben [Institute of Sciences of the Cosmos (ICCUB) and IEEC, Physics Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08024 (Spain); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Stott, John P.; Capozzi, Diego; Collins, Chris A. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Sahlen, Martin [Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Stanford, S. Adam [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Viana, Pedro T. P., E-mail: craigha@umich.edu [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-06-10

    This paper presents both the result of a search for fossil systems (FSs) within the XMM Cluster Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the results of a study of the stellar mass assembly and stellar populations of their fossil galaxies. In total, 17 groups and clusters are identified at z < 0.25 with large magnitude gaps between the first and fourth brightest galaxies. All the information necessary to classify these systems as fossils is provided. For both groups and clusters, the total and fractional luminosity of the brightest galaxy is positively correlated with the magnitude gap. The brightest galaxies in FSs (called fossil galaxies) have stellar populations and star formation histories which are similar to normal brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). However, at fixed group/cluster mass, the stellar masses of the fossil galaxies are larger compared to normal BCGs, a fact that holds true over a wide range of group/cluster masses. Moreover, the fossil galaxies are found to contain a significant fraction of the total optical luminosity of the group/cluster within 0.5 R{sub 200}, as much as 85%, compared to the non-fossils, which can have as little as 10%. Our results suggest that FSs formed early and in the highest density regions of the universe and that fossil galaxies represent the end products of galaxy mergers in groups and clusters.

  15. Operational results from the LHC luminosity monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; Ratti, A.; Matis, H.S.; Stezelberger, T.; Turner, W.C.; Yaver, H.; Bravin, E.

    2011-03-28

    The luminosity monitors for the high luminosity regions in the LHC have been operating to monitor and optimize the luminosity since 2009. The device is a gas ionization chamber inside the neutral particle absorber 140 m from the interaction point and monitors showers produced by high energy neutral particles from the collisions. It has the ability to resolve the bunch-by-bunch luminosity as well as to survive the extreme level of radiation in the nominal LHC operation. We present operational results of the device during proton and lead ion operations in 2010 and make comparisons with measurements of experiments. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN can accelerate proton and lead ion beams to 7 TeV and 547 TeV and produce collisions of these particles. Luminosity measures performance of the LHC and is particularly important for experiments in high luminosity interaction points (IPs), ATLAS (IP1) and CMS (IP5). To monitor and optimize the luminosities of these IPs, BRAN (Beam RAte Neutral) detectors [1, 2] have been installed and operating since the beginning of the 2009 operation [3]. A neutral particle absorber (TAN) protects the D2 separation dipole from high energy forward neutral particles produced in the collisions [4]. These neutral particles produce electromagnetic and hadronic showers inside the TAN and their energy flux is proportional to the collision rate and hence to the luminosity. The BRAN detector is an Argon gas ionization chamber installed inside the TANs on both sides of the IP1 and IP5 and monitors the relative changes in the luminosity by detecting the ionization due to these showers. When the number of collisions per bunch crossing (multiplicity) is small, the shower rate inside the TAN is also proportional to the luminosity. Hence, the detector is designed to operate by measuring either the shower rate (counting mode for low and intermediate luminosities) or the average shower flux (pulse height mode for high luminosities). The detector is

  16. Optical Counterparts for Low-Luminosity X-ray Sources in Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Adrienne

    2002-07-01

    We propose to use narrow-band HAlpha imaging with ACS to search for the optical counterparts of low-luminosity X-ray sources {Lx 2 x 10^30 - 5 x 10^32 erg/s} in the globular cluster Omega Centauri. With 9 WFC fields, we will cover the inner two core radii of the cluster, and encompass about 90 of the faint sources we have identified with Chandra. Approximately 30-50 of these sources should be cluster members, the remainder being mostly background galaxies plus a smaller number of foreground stars. This large population of low-Lx cluster X-ray sources is second only to the more than 100 faint sources recently discovered in 47 Tuc with Chandra {Grindlay et al. 2001a}, which have been identified as a mixture of cataclysmic variables, quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries, millisecond pulsars, and coronally active main-sequence binaries. Our Cycle 6 WFPC2 program successfully identified 2 of the 3 then-known faint X-ray sources in the core of Omega Cen using H-alpha imaging. We now propose to expand the areal coverage by a factor of about 18 to encompass the much larger number of sources that have since been discovered with Chandra. The extreme crowding in the central regions of Omega Cen requires the resolution of HST to obtain optical IDs. These identifications are key to making meaningful comparisons between the populations of faint X-ray sources in different clusters, in an effort to understand their origins and role in cluster dynamics.

  17. CVs and millisecond pulsar progenitors in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Cool, A. M.; Bailyn, C. D.

    1991-01-01

    The recent discovery of a large population of millisecond pulsars in globular clusters, together with earlier studies of both low luminosity X-ray sources and LMXBs in globulars, suggest there should be significant numbers of CVs in globulars. Although they have been searched for without success in selected cluster X-ray source fields, systematic surveys are lacking and would constrain binary production and both stellar and dynamical evolution in globular clusters. We describe the beginnings of such a search, using narrow band H-alpha imaging, and the sensitivities it might achieve.

  18. X-ray aspects of the DAFT/FADA clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Durret, F.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Adami, C.

    2012-12-01

    We have undertaken the DAFT/FADA survey with the aim of applying constraints on dark energy based on weak lensing tomography as well as obtaining homogeneous and high quality data for a sample of 91 massive clusters in the redshift range [0.4,0.9] for which there are HST archive data. We have analysed the XMM-Newton data available for 42 of these clusters to derive their X-ray temperatures and luminosities and search for substructures. This study was coupled with a dynamical analysis for the 26 clusters having at least 30 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range. We present preliminary results on the coupled X-ray and dynamical analyses of these clusters.

  19. The distribution of mass for spiral galaxies in clusters and in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, D.A.; Whitmore, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made between the mass distributions of spiral galaxies in clusters and in the field using Burstein's mass-type methodology. Both the H-alpha emission-line rotation curves and more extended H I rotation curves are used. The fitting technique for determining mass types used by Burstein and coworkers has been replaced by an objective chi-sq method. Mass types are shown to be a function of both the Hubble type and luminosity, contrary to earlier results. The present data show a difference in the distribution of mass types for spiral galaxies in the field and in clusters, in the sense that mass type I galaxies, where the inner and outer velocity gradients are similar, are generally found in the field rather than in clusters. This can be understood in terms of the results of Whitmore, Forbes, and Rubin (1988), who find that the rotation curves of galaxies in the central region of clusters are generally failing, while the outer galaxies in a cluster and field galaxies tend to have flat or rising rotation curves. 15 refs

  20. MODELING THE RED SEQUENCE: HIERARCHICAL GROWTH YET SLOW LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bell, Eric F.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the effects of mergers on the evolution of massive early-type galaxies by modeling the evolution of their stellar populations in a hierarchical context. We investigate how a realistic red sequence population set up by z ∼ 1 evolves under different assumptions for the merger and star formation histories, comparing changes in color, luminosity, and mass. The purely passive fading of existing red sequence galaxies, with no further mergers or star formation, results in dramatic changes at the bright end of the luminosity function and color-magnitude relation. Without mergers there is too much evolution in luminosity at a fixed space density compared to observations. The change in color and magnitude at a fixed mass resembles that of a passively evolving population that formed relatively recently, at z ∼ 2. Mergers among the red sequence population ('dry mergers') occurring after z = 1 build up mass, counteracting the fading of the existing stellar populations to give smaller changes in both color and luminosity for massive galaxies. By allowing some galaxies to migrate from the blue cloud onto the red sequence after z = 1 through gas-rich mergers, younger stellar populations are added to the red sequence. This manifestation of the progenitor bias increases the scatter in age and results in even smaller changes in color and luminosity between z = 1 and z = 0 at a fixed mass. The resultant evolution appears much slower, resembling the passive evolution of a population that formed at high redshift (z ∼ 3-5), and is in closer agreement with observations. We conclude that measurements of the luminosity and color evolution alone are not sufficient to distinguish between the purely passive evolution of an old population and cosmologically motivated hierarchical growth, although these scenarios have very different implications for the mass growth of early-type galaxies over the last half of cosmic history.

  1. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE CENTRAL 0.5 pc OF THE GALAXY. II. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Do, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Yelda, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Matthews, K., E-mail: jlu@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: tuan.do@uci.edu, E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: morris@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: kym@caltech.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way plays host to a massive, young cluster that may have formed in one of the most inhospitable environments in the Galaxy. We present new measurements of the global properties of this cluster, including the initial mass function (IMF), age, and cluster mass. These results are based on Keck laser-guide-star adaptive optics observations used to identify the young stars and measure their Kp-band luminosity function as presented in Do et al. A Bayesian inference methodology is developed to simultaneously fit the global properties of the cluster utilizing the observations and extensive simulations of synthetic star clusters. We find that the slope of the mass function for this cluster is {alpha} = 1.7 {+-} 0.2, which is steeper than previously reported, but still flatter than the traditional Salpeter slope of 2.35. The age of the cluster is between 2.5 and 5.8 Myr with 95% confidence, which is a younger age than typically adopted but consistent within the uncertainties of past measurements. The exact age of the cluster is difficult to determine since our results show two distinct age solutions (3.9 Myr and 2.8 Myr) due to model degeneracies in the relative number of Wolf-Rayet and OB stars. The total cluster mass is between 14,000 and 37,000 M {sub Sun} above 1 M {sub Sun} and it is necessary to include multiple star systems in order to fit the observed luminosity function and the number of observed Wolf-Rayet stars. The new IMF slope measurement is now consistent with X-ray observations indicating a factor of 10 fewer X-ray emitting pre-main-sequence stars than expected when compared with a Salpeter IMF. The young cluster at the Galactic center is one of the few definitive examples of an IMF that deviates significantly from the near-universal IMFs found in the solar neighborhood.

  2. EVOLUTION OF GALAXY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION USING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, B. H. F.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; De Simoni, F.; Benoist, C.; Makler, M.; Mesquita, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of using photometric redshifts for studying the evolution of both the global galaxy luminosity function (LF) and that for different galaxy types. To this end, we compare the LFs obtained using photometric redshifts from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) D1 field with those from the spectroscopic survey VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) comprising ∼4800 galaxies. We find that for z ≤ 2.0, in the interval of magnitudes considered by this survey, the LFs obtained using photometric and spectroscopic redshifts show a remarkable agreement. This good agreement led us to use all four Deep fields of the CFHTLS comprising ∼386,000 galaxies to compute the LF of the combined fields and directly estimate the error in the parameters based on the field-to-field variation. We find that the characteristic absolute magnitude M* of Schechter fits fades by ∼0.7 mag from z ∼ 1.8 to z ∼ 0.3, while the characteristic density φ* increases by a factor of ∼4 in the same redshift interval. We use the galaxy classification provided by the template fitting program used to compute photometric redshifts and split the sample into galaxy types. We find that these Schechter parameters evolve differently for each galaxy type, an indication that their evolution is a combination of several effects: galaxy merging, star formation quenching, and mass assembly. All these results are compatible with those obtained by different spectroscopic surveys such as VVDS, DEEP2, and zCosmos, which reinforces the fact that photometric redshifts can be used to study galaxy evolution, at least for the redshift bins adopted so far. This is of great interest since future very large imaging surveys containing hundreds of millions of galaxies will allow us to obtain important precise measurements to constrain the evolution of the LF and to explore the dependence of this evolution on morphology and/or color helping constrain the mechanisms of galaxy evolution.

  3. THE MEGASECOND CHANDRA X-RAY VISIONARY PROJECT OBSERVATION OF NGC 3115. III. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF LMXBS AND DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Wong, Ka-Wah [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Jennings, Zachary G.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P. [University of California Observatories, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, MI 48824 (United States); Sivakoff, Gregory R., E-mail: dacheng.lin@unh.edu [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2015-07-20

    We studied the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115, using the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project Observation. With a total exposure time of ∼1.1 Ms, we constructed the XLF down to a limiting luminosity of ∼10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}, which is much deeper than that typically reached for other early-type galaxies. We found significant flattening of the overall LMXB XLF from dN/dL ∝ L{sup −2.2±0.4} above 5.5 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} to dN/dL ∝ L{sup −1.0±0.1} below it, although we could not rule out a fit with a higher break at ∼1.6 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}. We also found evidence that the XLF of LMXBs in globular clusters (GCs) is overall flatter than that of field LMXBs. Thus, our results for this galaxy do not support the idea that all LMXBs are formed in GCs. The XLF of field LMXBs seems to show spatial variation, with the XLF in the inner region of the galaxy being flatter than that in the outer region, probably due to contamination of LMXBs from undetected and/or disrupted GCs in the inner region. The XLF in the outer region is probably the XLF of primordial field LMXBs, exhibiting dN/dL ∝ L{sup −1.2±0.1} up to a break close to the Eddington limit of neutron star LMXBs (∼1.7 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}). The break of the GC LMXB XLF is lower, at ∼1.1 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1}. We also confirm previous findings that the metal-rich/red GCs are more likely to host LMXBs than the metal-poor/blue GCs, which is more significant for more luminous LMXBs, and that more massive GCs are more likely to host LMXBs.

  4. Luminosity Monitoring in ATLAS with MPX Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086061

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on the Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of multiple types of radiation. Sixteen such detectors were successfully operated in the ATLAS detector at the LHC and collected data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain from 2008 to 2013. Each ATLAS-MPX detector provides separate measurements of the bunch-integrated LHC luminosity. An internal consistency for luminosity monitoring of about 2% was demonstrated. In addition, the MPX devices close to the beam are sensitive enough to provide relative-luminosity measurements during van der Meer calibration scans, in a low-luminosity regime that lies below the sensitivity of the ATLAS calorimeter-based bunch-integrating luminometers. Preliminary results from these luminosity studies are presented for 2012 data taken at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV proton-proton collisions.

  5. Functional clustering of time series gene expression data by Granger causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A common approach for time series gene expression data analysis includes the clustering of genes with similar expression patterns throughout time. Clustered gene expression profiles point to the joint contribution of groups of genes to a particular cellular process. However, since genes belong to intricate networks, other features, besides comparable expression patterns, should provide additional information for the identification of functionally similar genes. Results In this study we perform gene clustering through the identification of Granger causality between and within sets of time series gene expression data. Granger causality is based on the idea that the cause of an event cannot come after its consequence. Conclusions This kind of analysis can be used as a complementary approach for functional clustering, wherein genes would be clustered not solely based on their expression similarity but on their topological proximity built according to the intensity of Granger causality among them. PMID:23107425

  6. Novel Functions of MicroRNA-17-92 Cluster in the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shan; Chen, Xiang; He, Yuedong; Yu, Xijie

    2018-01-01

    MiR-17-92 cluster is coded by MIR17HG in chromosome 13, which is highly conserved in vertebrates. Published literatures have proved that miR-17-92 cluster critically regulates tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent researches showed that the miR-17-92 cluster also plays novel functions in the endocrine system. To summarize recent findings on the physiological and pathological roles of miR-17-92 cluster in bone, lipid and glucose metabolisms. MiR-17-92 cluster plays significant regulatory roles in bone development and metabolism through regulating the differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, miR-17- 92 cluster is nearly involved in every aspect of lipid metabolism. Last but not the least, the miR-17-92 cluster is closely bound up with pancreatic beta cell function, development of type 1 diabetes and insulin resistance. However, whether miR-17-92 cluster is involved in the communication among bone, fat and glucose metabolisms remains unknown. Growing evidence indicates that miR-17-92 cluster plays significant roles in bone, lipid and glucose metabolisms through a variety of signaling pathways. Fully understanding its modulating mechanisms may necessarily facilitate to comprehend the clinical and molecule features of some metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis, arthrosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. It may provide new drug targets to prevent and cure these disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Detectors and luminosity for hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, R.

    1983-01-01

    Three types of very high energy hadron-hadron coliders are discussed in terms of the trade-off between energy and luminosity. The usable luminosity depends both on the physics under study and the rate capabilities of the detector

  8. Intrinsic alignment in redMaPPer clusters - II. Radial alignment of satellites towards cluster centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Jin; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Freeman, Peter E.; Chen, Yen-Chi; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli

    2018-03-01

    We study the orientations of satellite galaxies in redMaPPer clusters constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at 0.1 measurement methods (re-Gaussianization, de Vaucouleurs, and isophotal shapes), which trace galaxy light profiles at different radii. The measured SA signal depends on these shape measurement methods. We detect the strongest SA signal in isophotal shapes, followed by de Vaucouleurs shapes. While no net SA signal is detected using re-Gaussianization shapes across the entire sample, the observed SA signal reaches a statistically significant level when limiting to a subsample of higher luminosity satellites. We further investigate the impact of noise, systematics, and real physical isophotal twisting effects in the comparison between the SA signal detected via different shape measurement methods. Unlike previous studies, which only consider the dependence of SA on a few parameters, here we explore a total of 17 galaxy and cluster properties, using a statistical model averaging technique to naturally account for parameter correlations and identify significant SA predictors. We find that the measured SA signal is strongest for satellites with the following characteristics: higher luminosity, smaller distance to the cluster centre, rounder in shape, higher bulge fraction, and distributed preferentially along the major axis directions of their centrals. Finally, we provide physical explanations for the identified dependences and discuss the connection to theories of SA.

  9. Cluster-cluster clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Cambridge Univ., England; Sussex Univ., Brighton, England)

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references

  10. Luminosity enhancements at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coward, D.H.

    1984-04-01

    Several ideas are discussed that have been proposed to improve the luminosity at the SPEAR and PEP electron-positron storage rings and to insure good luminosity at the SLAC Linear Collider. There have been two proposals studied recently for SPEAR: a Microbeta insertion using Samarium Cobalt permanent magnets, and a Minibeta insertion using conventional quadrupole magnets. The notations Microbeta and minibeta used here are somewhat arbitrary since the front faces of the first quadrupole magnets for both insertions are at nearly the same distance from the interaction point

  11. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-10-01

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determination of the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since the Higgs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale and a search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions are of crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross section measurement. To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section, the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 was reached with 10 11 protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In such conditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required, especially for instrumentation near the beam. The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminometers, which fulfill the listed requirements: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), the Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) and the Forward Hadron calorimeter (HF). The BCM1F was upgraded during LS1 from 8 to 24 diamond sensors and is read out by a dedicated fast ASIC. The back-end comprises a deadtime-less histogramming unit, with 6.25 ns bin width and analog-to-digital converters with 2 ns sampling time in the VME standard. A microTCA system with better time resolution is in development. Particles originating from collisions and machine induced background arrive with 12 ns time difference. Because of its excellent time resolution BCM1F measures separately both luminosity and machine induced background particles. The performance of the detector in the first running period and radiation damage monitoring of the sensors and electronics chain form the first part of this thesis. Calibration of the luminometers at the LHC is done using van der Meer (Vd

  12. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-10-15

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determination of the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since the Higgs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale and a search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions are of crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross section measurement. To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section, the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} was reached with 10{sup 11} protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In such conditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required, especially for instrumentation near the beam. The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminometers, which fulfill the listed requirements: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), the Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) and the Forward Hadron calorimeter (HF). The BCM1F was upgraded during LS1 from 8 to 24 diamond sensors and is read out by a dedicated fast ASIC. The back-end comprises a deadtime-less histogramming unit, with 6.25 ns bin width and analog-to-digital converters with 2 ns sampling time in the VME standard. A microTCA system with better time resolution is in development. Particles originating from collisions and machine induced background arrive with 12 ns time difference. Because of its excellent time resolution BCM1F measures separately both luminosity and machine induced background particles. The performance of the detector in the first running period and radiation damage monitoring of the sensors and electronics chain form the first part of this thesis. Calibration of the luminometers at the LHC is done using

  13. Fast luminosity monitor at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, C.; De Pedis, D.; De Zorzi, G.; Diambrini-Palazzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Gauzzi, P.; Zanello, D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990 the LEP-5 experiment measured luminosity at LEP by detecting the single bremsstrahlung photons emitted in the e + e - collisions. In 1991 the experiment was upgraded to exploit the intrinsic high speed of the method which allows luminosity measurement of the single bunches of LEP. In this paper the LEP-5 upgrade is described and the results of a test performed are discussed. ((orig.))

  14. THE RADIO AND OPTICAL LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF QUASARS. II. THE SDSS SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, J.; Petrosian, V.; Stawarz, Ł.; Lawrence, A.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the radio and optical luminosity evolutions and the true distribution of the radio-loudness parameter R, defined as the ratio of the radio to optical luminosity, for a set of more than 5000 quasars combining Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical and Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) radio data. We apply the method of Efron and Petrosian to access the intrinsic distribution parameters, taking into account the truncations and correlations inherent in the data. We find that the population exhibits strong positive evolution with redshift in both wavebands, with somewhat greater radio evolution than optical. With the luminosity evolutions accounted for, we determine the density evolutions and local radio and optical luminosity functions. The intrinsic distribution of the radio-loudness parameter R is found to be quite different from the observed one and is smooth with no evidence of a bimodality in radio loudness for log R ≥ –1. The results we find are in general agreement with the previous analysis of Singal et al., which used POSS-I optical and FIRST radio data.

  15. Machine constraints for experiments in an intermediate luminosity interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groom, D.

    1989-05-01

    We summarize existing information about the luminosity as a function of clear space between the interaction point and the front of the final-focus triplet, and about the minimum beam pipe dimensions (stay-clear dimensions) in the region. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Constraining omega from X-ray properties of clusters of galaxies at high redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadat, R.; Blanchard, A.; Oukbir, J.

    1997-01-01

    Properties of high redshift clusters are a fundamental source of information for cosmology. It has been shown by Oukbir and Blanchard (1997) that the combined knowledge of the redshift distribution of X-ray clusters of galaxies and the luminosity-temperature correlation, L-X - T-X, provides a pow...

  17. The x-ray luminous galaxy cluster population at 0.9 < z ≲ 1.6 as revealed by the XMM-Newton Distant Cluster Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, R; Böhringer, H; Nastasi, A; Šuhada, R; Mühlegger, M; Mohr, J J; Pierini, D; De Hoon, A; Kohnert, J; Lamer, G; Schwope, A D; Pratt, G W; Quintana, H; Rosati, P; Santos, J S

    2011-01-01

    We present the largest sample to date of spectroscopically confirmed x-ray luminous high-redshift galaxy clusters comprising 22 systems in the range 0.9 2 of non-contiguous deep archival XMM-Newton coverage, of which 49.4 deg 2 are part of the core survey with a quantifiable selection function and 17.7 deg 2 are classified as ‘gold’ coverage as the starting point for upcoming cosmological applications. Distant cluster candidates were followed up with moderately deep optical and near-infrared imaging in at least two bands to photometrically identify the cluster galaxy populations and obtain redshift estimates based on the colors of simple stellar population models. We test and calibrate the most promising redshift estimation techniques based on the R-z and z-H colors for efficient distant cluster identifications and find a good redshift accuracy performance of the z-H color out to at least z ∼ 1.5, while the redshift evolution of the R-z color leads to increasingly large uncertainties at z ≳ 0.9. Photometrically identified high-z systems are spectroscopically confirmed with VLT/FORS 2 with a minimum of three concordant cluster member redshifts. We present first details of two newly identified clusters, XDCP J0338.5+0029 at z = 0.916 and XDCP J0027.2+1714 at z = 0.959, and investigate the x-ray properties of SpARCS J003550-431224 at z = 1.335, which shows evidence for ongoing major merger activity along the line-of-sight. We provide x-ray properties and luminosity-based total mass estimates for the full sample of 22 high-z clusters, of which 17 are at z ⩾ 1.0 and seven populate the highest redshift bin at z > 1.3. The median system mass of the sample is M 200 ≃ 2 × 10 14 M ⊙ , while the probed mass range for the distant clusters spans approximately (0.7-7) × 10 14 M ⊙ . The majority (>70%) of the x-ray selected clusters show rather regular x-ray morphologies, albeit in most cases with a discernible elongation along one axis. In contrast to

  18. Optical and X-ray luminosities of expanding nebulae around ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek, Magdalena; Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh; Roberts, Timothy P.; Soria, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We have performed a set of simulations of expanding, spherically symmetric nebulae inflated by winds from accreting black holes in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We implemented a realistic cooling function to account for free-free and bound-free cooling. For all model parameters we considered, the forward shock in the interstellar medium becomes radiative at a radius ˜100 pc. The emission is primarily in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is about 50 per cent of the total kinetic luminosity of the wind. In contrast, the reverse shock in the wind is adiabatic so long as the terminal outflow velocity of the wind vw ≳ 0.003c. The shocked wind in these models radiates in X-rays, but with a luminosity of only ˜1035 erg s-1. For wind velocities vw ≲ 0.001c, the shocked wind becomes radiative, but it is no longer hot enough to produce X-rays. Instead it emits in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is comparable to 100 per cent of the wind kinetic luminosity. We suggest that measuring the optical luminosities and putting limits on the X-ray and radio emission from shock-ionized ULX bubbles may help in estimating the mass outflow rate of the central accretion disc and the velocity of the outflow.

  19. MPX Detectors as LHC Luminosity Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Sopczak, Andre; Asbah, Nedaa; Bergmann, Benedikt; Bekhouche, Khaled; Caforio, Davide; Campbell, Michael; Heijne, Erik; Leroy, Claude; Lipniacka, Anna; Nessi, Marzio; Pospisil, Stanislav; Seifert, Frank; Solc, Jaroslav; Soueid, Paul; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    A network of 16 Medipix-2 (MPX) silicon pixel devices was installed in the ATLAS detector cavern at CERN. It was designed to measure the composition and spectral characteristics of the radiation field in the ATLAS experiment and its surroundings. This study demonstrates that the MPX network can also be used as a self-sufficient luminosity monitoring system. The MPX detectors collect data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain, and thus they provide independent measurements of the bunch-integrated ATLAS/LHC luminosity. In particular, the MPX detectors located close enough to the primary interaction point are used to perform van der Meer calibration scans with high precision. Results from the luminosity monitoring are presented for 2012 data taken at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. The characteristics of the LHC luminosity reduction rate are studied and the effects of beam-beam (burn-off) and beam-gas (single bunch) interactions are evaluated. The systematic variations observed in the MPX lum...

  20. Diffusion Geometry Unravels the Emergence of Functional Clusters in Collective Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Manlio

    2017-04-01

    Collective phenomena emerge from the interaction of natural or artificial units with a complex organization. The interplay between structural patterns and dynamics might induce functional clusters that, in general, are different from topological ones. In biological systems, like the human brain, the overall functionality is often favored by the interplay between connectivity and synchronization dynamics, with functional clusters that do not coincide with anatomical modules in most cases. In social, sociotechnical, and engineering systems, the quest for consensus favors the emergence of clusters. Despite the unquestionable evidence for mesoscale organization of many complex systems and the heterogeneity of their interconnectivity, a way to predict and identify the emergence of functional modules in collective phenomena continues to elude us. Here, we propose an approach based on random walk dynamics to define the diffusion distance between any pair of units in a networked system. Such a metric allows us to exploit the underlying diffusion geometry to provide a unifying framework for the intimate relationship between metastable synchronization, consensus, and random search dynamics in complex networks, pinpointing the functional mesoscale organization of synthetic and biological systems.

  1. OLYMPUS luminosity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Ozgur [Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia (United States); Collaboration: OLYMPUS-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY has been measuring the ratio of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange, which is widely considered to be responsible for the discrepancy between measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio with the Rosenbluth and polarization transfer methods. In order to control the systematic uncertainties to the percent level, the luminosities are monitored redundantly with high precision by measuring the rates for symmetric Moller and Bhabha scattering, and by measuring the ep-elastic count rates at forward angles and low momentum transfer with tracking telescopes based on GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and MWPC (Multi Wire Proportional Chamber) technology. During two data taking periods, performances of GEM and MWPC luminosity monitors are presented.

  2. An observational study of disk-population globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armandroff, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Integrated-light spectroscopy was obtained for twenty-seven globular clusters at the Ca II infrared triplet. Line strengths and radial velocities were measured from the spectra. For the well-studied clusters in the sample, the strength of the CA II lines is very well correlated with previous metallicity estimates obtained using a variety of techniques. The greatly reduced effect of interstellar extinction at these wavelengths compared to the blue region of the spectrum has permitted observations of some of the most heavily reddened clusters in the Galaxy. For several such clusters, the Ca II triplet metallicities are in poor agreement with metallicity estimates from infrared photometry by Malkan. Color-magnitude diagrams were constructed for six previously unstudied metal-rich globular clusters and for the well-studied cluster 47 Tuc. The V magnitudes of the horizontal branch stars in the six clusters are in poor agreement with previous estimates based on secondary methods. The horizontal branch morphologies and reddenings of the program clusters were also determined. Using the improved set of metallicities, radial velocities, and distance moduli, the spatial distribution, kinematics, and metallicity distribution of the Galactic globulars were analyzed. The revised data supports Zinn's conclusion that the metal-rich clusters form a highly flattened, rapidly rotating disk system, while the metal-poor clusters make up the familiar, spherically distributed, slowly rotating halo population. The scale height, metallicity distribution, and kinematics of the metal-rich globulars are in good agreement with those of the stellar thick disk. Luminosity functions were constructed, and no significant difference is found between disk and halo samples. Metallicity gradients seem to be present in the disk cluster system. The implications of these results for the formation and evol

  3. Probing BL Lac and Cluster Evolution via a Wide-angle, Deep X-ray Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, E.; Jones, L.; White, N.; Angelini, L.; Giommi, P.; McHardy, I.; Wegner, G.

    1994-12-01

    The WARPS survey (Wide-Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey) has been constructed from the archive of all public ROSAT PSPC observations, and is a subset of the WGACAT catalog. WARPS will include a complete sample of >= 100 BL Lacs at F_x >= 10(-13) erg s(-1) cm(-2) . A second selection technique will identify ~ 100 clusters at 0.15 = 0.304 +/- 0.062 for XBLs but = 0.60 +/- 0.05 for RBLs. Models of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) are also poorly constrained. WARPS will allow us to compute an accurate XLF, decreasing the error bars above by over a factor of two. We will also test for low-luminosity BL Lacs, whose non-thermal nuclear sources are dim compared to the host galaxy. Browne and Marcha (1993) claim the EMSS missed most of these objects and is incomplete. If their predictions are correct, 20-40% of the BL Lacs we find will fall in this category, enabling us to probe the evolution and internal workings of BL Lacs at lower luminosities than ever before. By removing likely QSOs before optical spectroscopy, WARPS requires only modest amounts of telescope time. It will extend measurement of the cluster XLF both to higher redshifts (z>0.5) and lower luminosities (LX<1x10(44) erg s(-1) ) than previous measurements, confirming or rejecting the 3sigma detection of negative evolution found in the EMSS, and constraining Cold Dark Matter cosmologies. Faint NELGs are a recently discovered major contributor to the X-ray background. They are a mixture of Sy2s, starbursts and galaxies of unknown type. Detailed classification and evolution of their XLF will be determined for the first time.

  4. THE CLUSTER AND FIELD GALAXY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION AT z = 1-1.5: EVIDENCE FOR A REVERSAL OF THE LOCAL ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND AGN FRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Paul [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Miller, E. D.; Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Stanford, S. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Galametz, A. [INAF-Osservatorio di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Norman, D.; Dey, A. [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Jannuzi, B. T. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Murray, S.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, M. J. I., E-mail: martini@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M {>=} 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }) at 1 < z < 1.5 selected from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey, as well as the field fraction in the immediate vicinity of these clusters, and combine these data with measurements from the literature to quantify the relative evolution of cluster and field AGN from the present to z {approx} 3. We estimate that the cluster AGN fraction at 1 < z < 1.5 is f{sub A} = 3.0{sup +2.4}{sub -1.4}% for AGNs with a rest-frame, hard X-ray luminosity greater than L{sub X,{sub H}} {>=} 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M{sup *}{sub 3.6}(z) + 1, where M{sup *}{sub 3.6}(z) is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6 {mu}m bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3{sigma} upper limit on the value for AGNs of similar luminosity at z {approx} 0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z {approx} 0.75. AGNs with L{sub X,{sub H}} {>=} 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast to the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field and clusters are consistent at 1 < z < 1.5. This is evidence that the cluster AGN population has evolved more rapidly than the field population from z {approx} 1.5 to the present. This environment-dependent AGN evolution mimics the more rapid evolution of star-forming galaxies in clusters relative to the field.

  5. DISCOVERY OF 14 NEW SLOWLY PULSATING B STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7654

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y. P.; Han, Z. W.; Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out time-series BV CCD photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 7654 (Messier 52) to search for variable stars. Eighteen slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars have been detected, among which 14 candidates are newly discovered, three known ones are confirmed, and a previously found δ Scuti star is also identified as an SPB candidate. Twelve SPBs are probable cluster members based on membership analysis. This makes NGC 7654 the richest galactic open cluster in terms of SPB star content. It is also a new discovery that NGC 7654 hosts three γ Dor star candidates. We found that all these stars (18 SPB and 3 γ Dor stars) have periods longer than their corresponding fundamental radial mode. With such a big sample of g-mode pulsators in a single cluster, it is clear that multi-mode pulsation is more common in the upper part of the main sequence than in the lower part. All the stars span a narrow strip on the period-luminosity plane, which also includes the γ Dor stars at the low-luminosity extension. This result implies that there may be a single period-luminosity relation applicable to all g-mode main-sequence pulsators. As a by-product, three EA-type eclipsing binaries and an EW-type eclipsing binary are also discovered.

  6. STAR CLUSTER FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE MERGING GALAXY NGC 3256

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulia, A. J.; Chandar, R. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States); Whitmore, B. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We use the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the rich population of young massive star clusters in the main body of NGC 3256, a merging pair of galaxies with a high star formation rate (SFR) and SFR per unit area (Σ{sub SFR}). These clusters have luminosity and mass functions that follow power laws, dN / dL ∝ L{sup α} with α = 2.23 ± 0.07, and dN / dM ∝ M{sup β} with β = 1.86 ± 0.34 for τ < 10 Myr clusters, similar to those found in more quiescent galaxies. The age distribution can be described by dN / dτ ∝ τ{sup γ}, with γ ≈ 0.67 ± 0.08 for clusters younger than about a few hundred million years, with no obvious dependence on cluster mass. This is consistent with a picture where ∼80% of the clusters are disrupted each decade in time. We investigate the claim that galaxies with high Σ{sub SFR} form clusters more efficiently than quiescent systems by determining the fraction of stars in bound clusters (Γ) and the CMF/SFR statistic (CMF is the cluster mass function) for NGC 3256 and comparing the results with those for other galaxies. We find that the CMF/SFR statistic for NGC 3256 agrees well with that found for galaxies with Σ{sub SFR} and SFRs that are lower by 1–3 orders of magnitude, but that estimates for Γ are only robust when the same sets of assumptions are applied. Currently, Γ values available in the literature have used different sets of assumptions, making it more difficult to compare the results between galaxies.

  7. The L_X-M relation of Clusters of Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; Evrard, A.E.; McKay, T.A.; Becker, M.R.; Johnston, D.E.; Koester, B.P.; Nord, B.; Rozo, E.; Sheldon, E.S.; Stanek, R.; Wechsler, R.H.

    2008-05-16

    We present a new measurement of the scaling relation between X-ray luminosity and total mass for 17,000 galaxy clusters in the maxBCG cluster sample. Stacking sub-samples within fixed ranges of optical richness, N200, we measure the mean 0.1-2.4 keV X-ray luminosity, , from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. The mean mass, , is measured from weak gravitational lensing of SDSS background galaxies (Johnston et al. 2007). For 9 {le} N{sub 200} < 200, the data are well fit by a power-law, /10{sup 42} h{sup -2} ergs{sup -1} = (12.6{sub -1.3}{sup +1.4}(stat) {+-} 1.6 (sys)) (/10{sup 14} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}){sup 1.65{+-}0.13}. The slope agrees to within 10% with previous estimates based on X-ray selected catalogs, implying that the covariance in L{sub X} and N{sub 200} at fixed halo mass is not large. The luminosity intercept is 30%, or 2{sigma}, lower than determined from the X-ray flux-limited sample of Reiprich & Boehringer (2002), assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. This slight difference could arise from a combination of Malmquist bias and/or systematic error in hydrostatic mass estimates, both of which are expected. The intercept agrees with that derived by Stanek et al. (2006) using a model for the statistical correspondence between clusters and halos in a WMAP3 cosmology with power spectrum normalization {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.85. Similar exercises applied to future data sets will allow constraints on the covariance among optical and hot gas properties of clusters at fixed mass.

  8. A NEW TEST OF THE STATISTICAL NATURE OF THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    A novel statistic is proposed to examine the hypothesis that all cluster galaxies are drawn from the same luminosity distribution (LD). In such a 'statistical model' of galaxy LD, the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are simply the statistical extreme of the galaxy population. Using a large sample of nearby clusters, we show that BCGs in high luminosity clusters (e.g., L tot ∼> 4 x 10 11 h -2 70 L sun ) are unlikely (probability ≤3 x 10 -4 ) to be drawn from the LD defined by all red cluster galaxies more luminous than M r = -20. On the other hand, BCGs in less luminous clusters are consistent with being the statistical extreme. Applying our method to the second brightest galaxies, we show that they are consistent with being the statistical extreme, which implies that the BCGs are also distinct from non-BCG luminous, red, cluster galaxies. We point out some issues with the interpretation of the classical tests proposed by Tremaine and Richstone (TR) that are designed to examine the statistical nature of BCGs, investigate the robustness of both our statistical test and those of TR against difficulties in photometry of galaxies of large angular size, and discuss the implication of our findings on surveys that use the luminous red galaxies to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation features in the galaxy power spectrum.

  9. DETECTION OF SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS FROM KEPLER PHOTOMETRY OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel; Basu, Sarbani; Bruntt, Hans; Mosser, BenoIt; Barban, Caroline; Goupil, Marie-Jo; Stevens, Ian R.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Hekker, Saskia; Brown, Timothy M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Kjeldsen, Hans; Arentoft, Torben; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Ballot, Jerome; GarcIa, Rafael A.; Mathur, Savita

    2010-01-01

    Asteroseismology of stars in clusters has been a long-sought goal because the assumption of a common age, distance, and initial chemical composition allows strong tests of the theory of stellar evolution. We report results from the first 34 days of science data from the Kepler Mission for the open cluster NGC 6819-one of the four clusters in the field of view. We obtain the first clear detections of solar-like oscillations in the cluster red giants and are able to measure the large frequency separation, Δν, and the frequency of maximum oscillation power, ν max . We find that the asteroseismic parameters allow us to test cluster membership of the stars, and even with the limited seismic data in hand, we can already identify four possible non-members despite their having a better than 80% membership probability from radial velocity measurements. We are also able to determine the oscillation amplitudes for stars that span about 2 orders of magnitude in luminosity and find good agreement with the prediction that oscillation amplitudes scale as the luminosity to the power of 0.7. These early results demonstrate the unique potential of asteroseismology of the stellar clusters observed by Kepler.

  10. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UV-CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT z > 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Linhua; Egami, Eiichi; Walth, Gregory [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsuda, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagao, Tohru [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ota, Kazuaki [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 77-8582 (Japan)

    2011-12-10

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations of z > 6 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). The candidates were selected as i'-dropout objects down to z' = 27 AB magnitudes from an ultra-deep SDF z'-band image. With the Keck spectroscopy we identified 19 LBGs with prominent Ly{alpha} emission lines at 6 {<=} z {<=} 6.4. The median value of the Ly{alpha} rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) is {approx}50 A, with four EWs >100 A. This well-defined spectroscopic sample spans a UV-continuum luminosity range of -21.8 {<=} M{sub UV} {<=} -19.5 (0.6 {approx} 5 L*{sub UV}) and a Ly{alpha} luminosity range of (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} (0.3-3 L*{sub Ly{alpha}}). We derive the UV and Ly{alpha} luminosity functions (LFs) from our sample at (z) {approx} 6.2 after we correct for sample incompleteness. We find that our measurement of the UV LF is consistent with the results of previous studies based on photometric LBG samples at 5 < z < 7. Our Ly{alpha} LF is also generally in agreement with the results of Ly{alpha}-emitter surveys at z {approx} 5.7 and 6.6. This study shows that deep spectroscopic observations of LBGs can provide unique constraints on both the UV and Ly{alpha} LFs at z > 6.

  11. Antisymmetrized four-body wave function and coexistence of single particle and cluster structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that each Yakubovski component of the totally antisymmetric four-body wave function satisfies the same equation as the unantisymmetric wave function. In the antisymmetric total wave function, the wave functions belonging to the same kind of partition are totally antisymmetric among themselves. This leads to the coexistence of cluster models, including the single particle model as a special case of the cluster model, as a sum

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Tidal radii of 7 globular clusters (Lehmann+ 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, I.; Scholz, R.-D.

    1998-02-01

    We present new tidal radii for seven Galactic globular clusters using the method of automated star counts on Schmidt plates of the Tautenburg, Palomar and UK telescopes. The plates were fully scanned with the APM system in Cambridge (UK). Special account was given to a reliable background subtraction and the correction of crowding effects in the central cluster region. For the latter we used a new kind of crowding correction based on a statistical approach to the distribution of stellar images and the luminosity function of the cluster stars in the uncrowded area. The star counts were correlated with surface brightness profiles of different authors to obtain complete projected density profiles of the globular clusters. Fitting an empirical density law (King 1962AJ.....67..471K) we derived the following structural parameters: tidal radius rt, core radius rc and concentration parameter c. In the cases of NGC 5466, M 5, M 12, M 13 and M 15 we found an indication for a tidal tail around these objects (cf. Grillmair et al., 1995AJ....109.2553G). (1 data file).

  13. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D. O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Bright, S. N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Dale, D. A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify their genuine nature, produce multiband photometry (from NUV to NIR), and derive their physical properties via spectral energy distribution fitting analyses. We use the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628 as a test case for demonstrating the impact that LEGUS will have on our understanding of the formation and evolution of YSCs and compact stellar associations within their host galaxy. Our analysis of the cluster luminosity function from the UV to the NIR finds a steepening at the bright end and at all wavelengths suggesting a dearth of luminous clusters. The cluster mass function of NGC 628 is consistent with a power-law distribution of slopes ˜ -2 and a truncation of a few times 105 {M}⊙ . After their formation, YSCs and compact associations follow different evolutionary paths. YSCs survive for a longer time frame, confirming their being potentially bound systems. Associations disappear on timescales comparable to hierarchically organized star-forming regions, suggesting that they are expanding systems. We find mass-independent cluster disruption in the inner region of NGC 628, while in the outer part of the galaxy there is little or no disruption. We observe faster disruption rates for low mass (≤104 {M}⊙ ) clusters, suggesting that a mass-dependent component is necessary to fully describe the YSC disruption process in NGC 628. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  14. IRAS 20050+2720: ANATOMY OF A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Spitzbart, B.; Forbrich, J.; Wright, N. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Allen, L.; Megeath, S. T.; Pipher, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    IRAS 20050+2720 is young star-forming region at a distance of 700 pc without apparent high-mass stars. We present results of our multi-wavelength study of IRAS 20050+2720 which includes observations by Chandra and Spitzer, and Two Micron All Sky Survey and UBVRI photometry. In total, about 300 young stellar objects (YSOs) in different evolutionary stages are found. We characterize the distribution of YSOs in this region using a minimum spanning tree analysis. We newly identify a second cluster core, which consists mostly of class II objects, about 10' from the center of the cloud. YSOs of earlier evolutionary stages are more clustered than more evolved objects. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of IRAS 20050+2720 is roughly lognormal, but steeper than the XLF of the more massive Orion Nebula complex. IRAS 20050+2720 shows a lower N H /A K ratio compared with the diffuse interstellar medium.

  15. IRAS 20050+2720: ANATOMY OF A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Spitzbart, B.; Forbrich, J.; Wright, N. J.; Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Allen, L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS-113, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Pipher, J. L., E-mail: hguenther@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 500 Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    IRAS 20050+2720 is young star-forming region at a distance of 700 pc without apparent high-mass stars. We present results of our multi-wavelength study of IRAS 20050+2720 which includes observations by Chandra and Spitzer, and Two Micron All Sky Survey and UBVRI photometry. In total, about 300 young stellar objects (YSOs) in different evolutionary stages are found. We characterize the distribution of YSOs in this region using a minimum spanning tree analysis. We newly identify a second cluster core, which consists mostly of class II objects, about 10' from the center of the cloud. YSOs of earlier evolutionary stages are more clustered than more evolved objects. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of IRAS 20050+2720 is roughly lognormal, but steeper than the XLF of the more massive Orion Nebula complex. IRAS 20050+2720 shows a lower N{sub H}/A{sub K} ratio compared with the diffuse interstellar medium.

  16. Precision of MPX detectors as LHC luminosity monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopczak, Andre; Ali, Babar; Benes, Petr; Bergmann, Benedikt; Biskup, Bartolomej; Caforio, Davide; Heijne, Erik; Pospisil, Stanislav; Seifert, Frank; Solc, Jaroslav; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek [IEAP CTU in Prague (Czech Republic); Asbah, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [University of Montreal (Canada); Campbell, Michael; Nessi, Marzio [CERN (Switzerland); Kladiva, Edward [IEP SAS Kosice (Slovakia)

    2015-07-01

    A network consisting of MPX detectors based on Medipix2 silicon pixel devices were originally adapted for measuring the composition and spectral characteristics of the radiation field in the ATLAS experiment and its surroundings. We demonstrate that the MPX network, which consists of 16 MPX detectors, is a self-contained luminosity monitor system. As the MPX detectors are collecting data independently of the ATLAS data-recording chain, they provide independent measurements of the bunch-integrated ATLAS/LHC luminosity. In particular, the MPX detectors close enough to the primary interaction point are used to perform van der Meer calibration scans with good precision. Results from the luminosity monitoring are presented for 2012 data taken at √(s)=8 TeV proton-proton collisions. The characteristics of the LHC luminosity reduction are studied and the effects of beam-beam (burn-off) and beam-gas (single bunch) interactions are evaluated. The variations of the MPX luminosity measurements around the fitted curve lead to a relative uncertainty on the luminosity measurement below 0.3% for one minute time intervals.

  17. Great Optically Luminous Dropout Research Using Subaru HSC (GOLDRUSH). I. UV luminosity functions at z ˜ 4-7 derived with the half-million dropouts on the 100 deg2 sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Harikane, Yuichi; Toshikawa, Jun; Rauch, Michael; Yuma, Suraphong; Sawicki, Marcin; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Oguri, Masamune; Willott, Chris; Akhlaghi, Mohammad; Akiyama, Masayuki; Coupon, Jean; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Komiyama, Yutaka; Konno, Akira; Lin, Lihwai; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Silverman, John; Tanaka, Masayuki; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    We study the UV luminosity functions (LFs) at z ˜ 4, 5, 6, and 7 based on the deep large-area optical images taken by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP). On the 100 deg2 sky of the HSC SSP data available to date, we take enormous samples consisting of a total of 579565 dropout candidates at z ˜ 4-7 by the standard color selection technique, 358 out of which are spectroscopically confirmed by our follow-up spectroscopy and other studies. We obtain UV LFs at z ˜ 4-7 that span a very wide UV luminosity range of ˜0.002-100 L_UV^\\ast (-26 2 σ significance, and require either double power-law functions or modified Schechter functions that consider a magnification bias due to gravitational lensing.

  18. Functional Interference Clusters in Cancer Patients With Bone Metastases: A Secondary Analysis of RTOG 9714

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Edward; James, Jennifer; Barsevick, Andrea; Hartsell, William; Ratcliffe, Sarah; Scarantino, Charles; Ivker, Robert; Roach, Mack; Suh, John; Petersen, Ivy; Konski, Andre; Demas, William; Bruner, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationships (clusters) among the functional interference items in the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) in patients with bone metastases. Methods: Patients enrolled in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9714 bone metastases study were eligible. Patients were assessed at baseline and 4, 8, and 12 weeks after randomization for the palliative radiotherapy with the BPI, which consists of seven functional items: general activity, mood, walking ability, normal work, relations with others, sleep, and enjoyment of life. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to determine the clusters between the functional items at baseline and the follow-up. Cronbach's alpha was used to determine the consistency and reliability of each cluster at baseline and follow-up. Results: There were 448 male and 461 female patients, with a median age of 67 years. There were two functional interference clusters at baseline, which accounted for 71% of the total variance. The first cluster (physical interference) included normal work and walking ability, which accounted for 58% of the total variance. The second cluster (psychosocial interference) included relations with others and sleep, which accounted for 13% of the total variance. The Cronbach's alpha statistics were 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. The functional clusters changed at week 12 in responders but persisted through week 12 in nonresponders. Conclusion: Palliative radiotherapy is effective in reducing bone pain. Functional interference component clusters exist in patients treated for bone metastases. These clusters changed over time in this study, possibly attributable to treatment. Further research is needed to examine these effects.

  19. RHIC Proton Luminosity and Polarization Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The RHIC proton beam polarization can be improved by raising the Booster scraping, which also helps to reduce the RHIC transverse emittance, and therefore to improve the luminosity. By doing this, the beam-beam effect would be enhanced. Currently, the RHIC working point is constrained between 2/3 and 7/10, the 2/3 resonance would affect intensity and luminosity lifetime, and the working point close to 7/10 would enhance polarization decay in store. Run 2013 shows that average polarization decay is merely 1.8% in 8 hours, and most fills have the luminosity lifetime better than 14 hours, which is not a problem. Therefore, even without beam-beam correction, there is room to improve for RHIC polarization and luminosity. The key to push the Booster scraping is to raise the Booster input intensity; for that, two approaches can be used. The first is to extend the LINAC tank 9 pulse width, which has been successfully applied in run 2006. The second is to raise the source temperature, which has been successfully applied in run 2006 and run 2012.

  20. Fermi Detection of a Luminous gamma-ray Pulsar in a Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. C. C.; Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope detection of gamma -ray (>100 mega-electron volts) pulsations from pulsar J1823--3021A in the globular cluster NGC 6624 with high significance (approx 7 sigma). Its gamma-ray luminosity L (sub 3) = (8:4 +/- 1:6) X 10(exp 34) ergs per second, is the highest observed for any millisecond pulsar (MSP) to date, and it accounts for most of the cluster emission. The non-detection of the cluster in the off-pulse phase implies that its contains < 32 gamma-ray MSPs, not approx 100 as previously estimated. The gamma -ray luminosity indicates that the unusually large rate of change of its period is caused by its intrinsic spin-down. This implies that J1823--3021A has the largest magnetic field and is the youngest MSP ever detected, and that such anomalous objects might be forming at rates comparable to those of the more normal MSPs.

  1. Fermi detection of a luminous γ-ray pulsar in a globular cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    We report on the Fermi Large Area Telescope's detection of γ-ray (>100 mega-electron volts) pulsations from pulsar J1823-3021A in the globular cluster NGC 6624 with high significance (~7 σ). Its γ-ray luminosity, L(γ) = (8.4 ± 1.6) × 10(34) ergs per second, is the highest observed for any millisecond pulsar (MSP) to date, and it accounts for most of the cluster emission. The nondetection of the cluster in the off-pulse phase implies that it contains <32 γ-ray MSPs, not ~100 as previously estimated. The γ-ray luminosity indicates that the unusually large rate of change of its period is caused by its intrinsic spin-down. This implies that J1823-3021A has the largest magnetic field and is the youngest MSP ever detected and that such anomalous objects might be forming at rates comparable to those of the more normal MSPs.

  2. THE STAR CLUSTER SYSTEM IN THE NEARBY STARBURST GALAXY M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sungsoon; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Narae

    2013-01-01

    We present a photometric study of star clusters in the nearby starburst galaxy M82 based on the UBVI-, YJ- and H-band Hubble Space Telescope images. We find 1105 star clusters with V 0 ≈ 0.45, and a weaker red population. The luminosity function of the disk clusters shows a power-law distribution with a power-law index α = –2.04 ± 0.03, and the scale height of their distribution is h z = 9.''64 ± 0.''40 (164 ± 7 pc), similar to that of the stellar thin disk of M82. We have derived the ages of ∼630 star clusters using the spectral energy distribution fit method by comparing UBVI(YJ)H-band photometric data with the simple stellar population models. The age distribution of the disk clusters shows that the most dominant cluster population has ages ranging from 100 Myr to 1 Gyr, with a peak at about 500 Myr. This suggests that M82 has undergone a disk-wide star formation about 500 Myr ago, probably through the interaction with M81. The brightest star clusters in the nuclear region are much brighter than those in other regions, indicating that more massive star clusters are formed in the denser environments. On the other hand, the colors of the halo clusters are similar to those of globular clusters in the Milky Way, and their ages are estimated to be older than 1 Gyr. These are probably genuine old globular clusters in M82.

  3. THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER BERKELEY 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Marco, Amparo, E-mail: ignacio.negueruela@ua.es, E-mail: amparo.marco@ua.es [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    We present UBV photometry of the highly reddened and poorly studied open cluster Berkeley 55, revealing an important population of B-type stars and several evolved stars of high luminosity. Intermediate-resolution far-red spectra of several candidate members confirm the presence of one F-type supergiant and six late supergiants or bright giants. The brightest blue stars are mid-B giants. Spectroscopic and photometric analyses indicate an age 50 {+-} 10 Myr. The cluster is located at a distance d Almost-Equal-To 4 kpc, consistent with other tracers of the Perseus Arm in this direction. Berkeley 55 is thus a moderately young open cluster with a sizable population of candidate red (super)giant members, which can provide valuable information about the evolution of intermediate-mass stars.

  4. Galaxy clusters in the SDSS Stripe 82 based on photometric redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durret, F.; Adami, C.; Bertin, E.; Hao, J.; Márquez, I.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a recent photometric redshift galaxy catalogue, we have searched for galaxy clusters in the Stripe ~82 region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by applying the Adami & MAzure Cluster FInder (AMACFI). Extensive tests were made to fine-tune the AMACFI parameters and make the cluster detection as reliable as possible. The same method was applied to the Millennium simulation to estimate our detection efficiency and the approximate masses of the detected clusters. Considering all the cluster galaxies (i.e. within a 1 Mpc radius of the cluster to which they belong and with a photoz differing by less than 0.05 from that of the cluster), we stacked clusters in various redshift bins to derive colour-magnitude diagrams and galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs). For each galaxy with absolute magnitude brighter than -19.0 in the r band, we computed the disk and spheroid components by applying SExtractor, and by stacking clusters we determined how the disk-to-spheroid flux ratio varies with cluster redshift and mass. We also detected 3663 clusters in the redshift range 0.15< z<0.70, with estimated mean masses between 10"1"3 and a few 10"1"4 solar masses. Furthermore, by stacking the cluster galaxies in various redshift bins, we find a clear red sequence in the (g'-r') versus r' colour-magnitude diagrams, and the GLFs are typical of clusters, though with a possible contamination from field galaxies. The morphological analysis of the cluster galaxies shows that the fraction of late-type to early-type galaxies shows an increase with redshift (particularly in high mass clusters) and a decrease with detection level, i.e. cluster mass. From the properties of the cluster galaxies, the majority of the candidate clusters detected here seem to be real clusters with typical cluster properties.

  5. EPISODIC ACCRETION AT EARLY STAGES OF EVOLUTION OF LOW-MASS STARS AND BROWN DWARFS: A SOLUTION FOR THE OBSERVED LUMINOSITY SPREAD IN H-R DIAGRAMS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Gallardo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present evolutionary models for young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs taking into account episodic phases of accretion at early stages of the evolution, a scenario supported by recent large surveys of embedded protostars. An evolution including short episodes of vigorous accretion followed by longer quiescent phases can explain the observed luminosity spread in H-R diagrams of star-forming regions at ages of a few Myr, for objects ranging from a few Jupiter masses to a few tenths of a solar mass. The gravitational contraction of these accreting objects strongly departs from the standard Hayashi track at constant T eff . The best agreement with the observed luminosity scatter is obtained if most of the accretion shock energy is radiated away. The obtained luminosity spread at 1 Myr in the H-R diagram is equivalent to what can be misinterpreted as an ∼10 Myr age spread for non-accreting objects. We also predict a significant spread in radius at a given T eff , as suggested by recent observations. These calculations bear important consequences for our understanding of star formation and early stages of evolution and on the determination of the initial mass function for young (≤ a few Myr) clusters. Our results also show that the concept of a stellar birthline for low-mass objects has no valid support.

  6. Cosmic evolution of AGN with moderate-to-high radiative luminosity in the COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraj, L.; Smolčić, V.; Delvecchio, I.; Delhaize, J.; Novak, M.

    2018-05-01

    We study the moderate-to-high radiative luminosity active galactic nuclei (HLAGN) within the VLA-COSMOS 3 GHz Large Project. The survey covers 2.6 square degrees centered on the COSMOS field with a 1σ sensitivity of 2.3 μJy/beam across the field. This provides the simultaneously largest and deepest radio continuum survey available to date with exquisite multi-wavelength coverage. The survey yields 10,830 radio sources with signal-to-noise ratios >=5. A subsample of 1,604 HLAGN is analyzed here. These were selected via a combination of X-ray luminosity and mid-infrared colors. We derive luminosity functions for these AGN and constrain their cosmic evolution out to a redshift of z ~ 6, for the first time decomposing the star formation and AGN contributions to the radio continuum emission in the AGN. We study the evolution of number density and luminosity density finding a peak at z ~ 1.5 followed by a decrease out to a redshift z ~ 6.

  7. CONSTRAINING THE SCATTER IN THE MASS-RICHNESS RELATION OF maxBCG CLUSTERS WITH WEAK LENSING AND X-RAY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Evrard, August; McKay, Timothy; Hao Jiangang; Becker, Matthew; Wechsler, Risa H.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hansen, Sarah; Frieman, Joshua; Sheldon, Erin; Johnston, David; Annis, James

    2009-01-01

    We measure the logarithmic scatter in mass at fixed richness for clusters in the maxBCG cluster catalog, an optically selected cluster sample drawn from Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data. Our measurement is achieved by demanding consistency between available weak-lensing and X-ray measurements of the maxBCG clusters, and the X-ray luminosity-mass relation inferred from the 400 days X-ray cluster survey, a flux-limited X-ray cluster survey. We find σ lnM|N 200 =0.45 -0.18 +0.20 (95% CL) at N 200 ∼ 40, where N 200 is the number of red sequence galaxies in a cluster. As a byproduct of our analysis, we also obtain a constraint on the correlation coefficient between ln L X and ln M at fixed richness, which is best expressed as a lower limit, r L,M|N ≥ 0.85(95% CL). This is the first observational constraint placed on a correlation coefficient involving two different cluster mass tracers. We use our results to produce a state-of-the-art estimate of the halo mass function at z = 0.23-the median redshift of the maxBCG cluster sample-and find that it is consistent with the WMAP5 cosmology. Both the mass function data and its covariance matrix are presented.

  8. Constraining the Scatter in the Mass-Richness Relation of maxBCG Clusters With Weak Lensing and X-ray Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U.; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago /Fermilab

    2009-08-03

    We measure the logarithmic scatter in mass at fixed richness for clusters in the maxBCG cluster catalog, an optically selected cluster sample drawn from SDSS imaging data. Our measurement is achieved by demanding consistency between available weak lensing and X-ray measurements of the maxBCG clusters, and the X-ray luminosity-mass relation inferred from the 400d X-ray cluster survey, a flux limited X-ray cluster survey. We find {sigma}{sub lnM|N{sub 200}} = 0.45{sub -0.18}{sup +0.20} (95%CL) at N{sub 200} {approx} 40, where N{sub 200} is the number of red sequence galaxies in a cluster. As a byproduct of our analysis, we also obtain a constraint on the correlation coefficient between lnL{sub X} and lnM at fixed richness, which is best expressed as a lower limit, r{sub L,M|N} {ge} 0.85 (95% CL). This is the first observational constraint placed on a correlation coefficient involving two different cluster mass tracers. We use our results to produce a state of the art estimate of the halo mass function at z = 0.23 - the median redshift of the maxBCG cluster sample - and find that it is consistent with the WMAP5 cosmology. Both the mass function data and its covariance matrix are presented.

  9. Nonthermal emission from clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2009-01-01

    We show that the spectral and radial distribution of the nonthermal emission of massive, M ∼> 10 14.5 M ☉ , galaxy clusters may be approximately described by simple analytic expressions, which depend on the cluster thermal X-ray properties and on two model parameter, β core and η e . β core is the ratio of the cosmic-ray (CR) energy density (within a logarithmic CR energy interval) and the thermal energy density at the cluster core, and η e(p) is the fraction of the thermal energy generated in strong collisionless shocks, which is deposited in CR electrons (protons). Using a simple analytic model for the evolution of intra-cluster medium CRs, which are produced by accretion shocks, we find that β core ≅ η p /200, nearly independent of cluster mass and with a scatter Δln β core ≅ 1 between clusters of given mass. We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) and γ-ray luminosities produced by inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons by electrons accelerated in accretion shocks (primary electrons) exceed the luminosities produced by secondary particles (generated in hadronic interactions within the cluster) by factors ≅ 500(η e /η p )(T/10 keV) −1/2 and ≅ 150(η e /η p )(T/10 keV) −1/2 respectively, where T is the cluster temperature. Secondary particle emission may dominate at the radio and very high energy (∼> 1 TeV) γ-ray bands. Our model predicts, in contrast with some earlier work, that the HXR and γ-ray emission from clusters of galaxies are extended, since the emission is dominated at these energies by primary (rather than by secondary) electrons. Our predictions are consistent with the observed nonthermal emission of the Coma cluster for η p ∼ η e ∼ 0.1. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed. In particular, we identify the clusters which are the best candidates for detection in

  10. Nonthermal emission from clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2009-08-01

    We show that the spectral and radial distribution of the nonthermal emission of massive, M gtrsim 1014.5Msun, galaxy clusters may be approximately described by simple analytic expressions, which depend on the cluster thermal X-ray properties and on two model parameter, βcore and ηe. βcore is the ratio of the cosmic-ray (CR) energy density (within a logarithmic CR energy interval) and the thermal energy density at the cluster core, and ηe(p) is the fraction of the thermal energy generated in strong collisionless shocks, which is deposited in CR electrons (protons). Using a simple analytic model for the evolution of intra-cluster medium CRs, which are produced by accretion shocks, we find that βcore simeq ηp/200, nearly independent of cluster mass and with a scatter Δln βcore simeq 1 between clusters of given mass. We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) and γ-ray luminosities produced by inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons by electrons accelerated in accretion shocks (primary electrons) exceed the luminosities produced by secondary particles (generated in hadronic interactions within the cluster) by factors simeq 500(ηe/ηp)(T/10 keV)-1/2 and simeq 150(ηe/ηp)(T/10 keV)-1/2 respectively, where T is the cluster temperature. Secondary particle emission may dominate at the radio and very high energy (gtrsim 1 TeV) γ-ray bands. Our model predicts, in contrast with some earlier work, that the HXR and γ-ray emission from clusters of galaxies are extended, since the emission is dominated at these energies by primary (rather than by secondary) electrons. Our predictions are consistent with the observed nonthermal emission of the Coma cluster for ηp ~ ηe ~ 0.1. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed. In particular, we identify the clusters which are the best candidates for detection in γ-rays. Finally, we show

  11. Clustering of quasars in SDSS-IV eBOSS: study of potential systematics and bias determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, Pierre; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Burtin, Etienne; Bourboux, Hélion du Mas des; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie [IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Myers, Adam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); White, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, 10003 (United States); Tojeiro, Rita [School of Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Bautista, Julian; Dawson, Kyle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Brinkmann, Jonathan [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Comparat, Johan [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721–0065 (United States); Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama building, PO1 3FX, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Prada, Francisco, E-mail: jmlegoff@cea.fr [Instituto de Fìsica Teórica (IFT) UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2017-07-01

    We study the first year of the eBOSS quasar sample in the redshift range 0.9< z <2.2 which includes 68,772 homogeneously selected quasars. We show that the main source of systematics in the evaluation of the correlation function arises from inhomogeneities in the quasar target selection, particularly related to the extinction and depth of the imaging data used for targeting. We propose a weighting scheme that mitigates these systematics. We measure the quasar correlation function and provide the most accurate measurement to date of the quasar bias in this redshift range, b {sub Q} = 2.45 ± 0.05 at z-bar =1.55, together with its evolution with redshift. We use this information to determine the minimum mass of the halo hosting the quasars and the characteristic halo mass, which we find to be both independent of redshift within statistical error. Using a recently-measured quasar-luminosity-function we also determine the quasar duty cycle. The size of this first year sample is insufficient to detect any luminosity dependence to quasar clustering and this issue should be further studied with the final ∼500,000 eBOSS quasar sample.

  12. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF BRIGHT SWIFT LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. I. SAMPLE PRESENTATION, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvaterra, R.; Campana, S.; Vergani, S. D.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Tagliaferri, G.; Nava, L.; Flores, H.; Piranomonte, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a carefully selected sub-sample of Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that is complete in redshift. The sample is constructed by considering only bursts with favorable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up searches, which are bright in the 15-150 keV Swift/BAT band, i.e., with 1-s peak photon fluxes in excess to 2.6 photons s –1 cm –2 . The sample is composed of 58 bursts, 52 of them with redshift for a completeness level of 90%, while another two have a redshift constraint, reaching a completeness level of 95%. For only three bursts we have no constraint on the redshift. The high level of redshift completeness allows us for the first time to constrain the GRB luminosity function and its evolution with cosmic times in an unbiased way. We find that strong evolution in luminosity (δ l = 2.3 ± 0.6) or in density (δ d = 1.7 ± 0.5) is required in order to account for the observations. The derived redshift distributions in the two scenarios are consistent with each other, in spite of their different intrinsic redshift distributions. This calls for other indicators to distinguish among different evolution models. Complete samples are at the base of any population studies. In future works we will use this unique sample of Swift bright GRBs to study the properties of the population of long GRBs.

  13. A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF BRIGHT SWIFT LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS. I. SAMPLE PRESENTATION, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvaterra, R. [INAF, IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Campana, S.; Vergani, S. D.; Covino, S.; D' Avanzo, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Melandri, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Tagliaferri, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Saint Lucia) (Italy); Nava, L. [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Flores, H. [Laboratoire GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS-UMR8111, Univ. Paris-Diderot 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Piranomonte, S., E-mail: ruben@lambrate.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Rome (Italy)

    2012-04-10

    We present a carefully selected sub-sample of Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that is complete in redshift. The sample is constructed by considering only bursts with favorable observing conditions for ground-based follow-up searches, which are bright in the 15-150 keV Swift/BAT band, i.e., with 1-s peak photon fluxes in excess to 2.6 photons s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The sample is composed of 58 bursts, 52 of them with redshift for a completeness level of 90%, while another two have a redshift constraint, reaching a completeness level of 95%. For only three bursts we have no constraint on the redshift. The high level of redshift completeness allows us for the first time to constrain the GRB luminosity function and its evolution with cosmic times in an unbiased way. We find that strong evolution in luminosity ({delta}{sub l} = 2.3 {+-} 0.6) or in density ({delta}{sub d} = 1.7 {+-} 0.5) is required in order to account for the observations. The derived redshift distributions in the two scenarios are consistent with each other, in spite of their different intrinsic redshift distributions. This calls for other indicators to distinguish among different evolution models. Complete samples are at the base of any population studies. In future works we will use this unique sample of Swift bright GRBs to study the properties of the population of long GRBs.

  14. Comparison of two schemes for automatic keyword extraction from MEDLINE for functional gene clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ciliax, Brian J; Borges, Karin; Dasigi, Venu; Ram, Ashwin; Navathe, Shamkant B; Dingledine, Ray

    2004-01-01

    One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the unprecedented quatities of data on gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the nature of the functional links among genes within the derived clusters. However, the quality of the keyword lists extracted from biomedical literature for each gene significantly affects the clustering results. We extracted keywords from MEDLINE that describes the most prominent functions of the genes, and used the resulting weights of the keywords as feature vectors for gene clustering. By analyzing the resulting cluster quality, we compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalized z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). The best combination of background comparison set, stop list and stemming algorithm was selected based on precision and recall metrics. In a test set of four known gene groups, a hierarchical algorithm correctly assigned 25 of 26 genes to the appropriate clusters based on keywords extracted by the TDFIDF weighting scheme, but only 23 og 26 with the z-score method. To evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clusters from microarray profiles, 44 yeast genes that are differentially expressed during the cell cycle were used as a second test set. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords had higher purity, lower entropy, and higher mutual information than those produced from normalized z-score weighted keywords. The optimized algorithms should be useful for sorting genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters.

  15. LIGHT-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE VARIATIONS AT LOW METALLICITY: THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetrone, Matthew; Martell, Sarah L.; Wilkerson, Rachel; Adams, Joshua; Siegel, Michael H.; Smith, Graeme H.; Bond, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    We present low-resolution (R ≅850) spectra for 67 asymptotic giant branch (AGB), horizontal branch, and red giant branch (RGB) stars in the low-metallicity globular cluster NGC 5466, taken with the VIRUS-P integral-field spectrograph at the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. Sixty-six stars are confirmed, and one rejected, as cluster members based on radial velocity, which we measure to an accuracy of 16 km s -1 via template-matching techniques. CN and CH band strengths have been measured for 29 RGB and AGB stars in NGC 5466, and the band-strength indices measured from VIRUS-P data show close agreement with those measured from Keck/LRIS spectra previously taken for five of our target stars. We also determine carbon abundances from comparisons with synthetic spectra. The RGB stars in our data set cover a range in absolute V magnitude from +2 to -3, which permits us to study the rate of carbon depletion on the giant branch as well as the point of its onset. The data show a clear decline in carbon abundance with rising luminosity above the luminosity function 'bump' on the giant branch, and also a subdued range in CN band strength, suggesting ongoing internal mixing in individual stars but minor or no primordial star-to-star variation in light-element abundances.

  16. Luminosity Measurements at LHCb for Run II

    CERN Multimedia

    Coombs, George

    2018-01-01

    A precise measurement of the luminosity is a necessary component of many physics analyses, especially cross-section measurements. At LHCb two different direct measurement methods are used to determine the luminosity: the “van der Meer scan” (VDM) and the “Beam Gas Imaging” (BGI) methods. A combined result from these two methods gave a precision of less than 2% for Run I and efforts are ongoing to provide a similar result for Run II. Fixed target luminosity is determined with an indirect method based on the single electron scattering cross-section.

  17. The performance of the CDF luminosity monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, D; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Mitselmakher, G; Necula, V; Nomerotski, A; Pronko, A; Sukhanov, A; Safonov, A; Tsybychev, D; Wang, S M; Wong, M

    2002-01-01

    We describe the initial performance of the detector used for the luminosity measurement in the CDF experiment in Run II at the Tevatron. The detector consists of low-mass gaseous Cherenkov counters with high light yield (approx 100 photoelectrons) and monitors the process of inelastic pp-bar scattering. It allows for several methods of precise luminosity measurements at peak instantaneous luminosities of 2x10 sup 3 sup 2 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 , corresponding to an average of six pp-bar interactions per bunch crossing.

  18. High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) general infographics

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC, which is expected to be operational after 2025, will increase the LHC’s luminosity by a factor of 10. To achieve this major upgrade, several technologies, some of which are completely innovative, are being developed.

  19. An HST Survey of Intermediate Luminosity X-ray Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roye, E. W.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Heckman, T.; Ptak, R. F.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2003-03-01

    We searched for optical counterparts to 54 Intermediate-luminosity X-ray Objects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs) using HST WFPC2 archive data, and have uncovered a high yield of intriguing possible correlations. A total of 124 IXOs were identified from searching all of the Chandra ACIS archival galaxy data as of July 17, 2002. Archival WFPC2 data were available for 54 of these IXOs. The optical data utilized in this study consisted of 121 HST WFPC2 associations (stacked images). We will discuss the various methods used to register the HST WFPC2 images with the Chandra X-ray images. Our preliminary analysis indicates that 37 ( ˜70%) of the 54 IXOs have at least one 4 sigma counterpart within 1" of the IXO position, and ˜25% have unique counterparts (mostly in elliptical galaxies). The detection limit of the counterparts was typically 24-25 magnitudes in B, V, and R. The absolute magnitudes of many of the found counterparts appeared to correspond roughly to either the expected magnitudes for globular clusters, or the expected magnitudes for the brightest stars. Initial results illustrate that of the 37 IXOs with counterparts, 25 ( ˜70%) were in spiral, irregular, and merger galaxies, where the counterparts were often diffuse or clump-like sources. The counterparts found in elliptical galaxies were primarily single luminous point-sources, most likely globular clusters. We will discuss the results of color analysis for fields where counterparts in multiple bands exist, particularly for cases where a single counterpart is found. A preliminary finding in elliptical galaxies is that globular clusters associated with IXOs tend to be red, suggesting that IXOs are not found in metal-poor globular clusters.

  20. Evolution of the dusty infrared luminosity function from z = 0 to z = 2.3 using observations from Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnelli, B.; Elbaz, D.; Chary, R. R.; Dickinson, M.; Le Borgne, D.; Frayer, D. T.; Willmer, C. N. A.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: We derive the evolution of the infrared luminosity function (LF) over the last 4/5ths of cosmic time using deep 24 and 70 μm imaging of the GOODS North and South fields. Methods: We use an extraction technique based on prior source positions at shorter wavelengths to build the 24 and 70 μm source catalogs. The majority (93%) of the sources have a spectroscopic (39%) or a photometric redshift (54%) and, in our redshift range of interest (i.e., 1.3 conversion between the infrared luminosity and star-formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy, we study the evolution of the SFR density of the Universe from z = 0 to z = 2.3. We find that the SFR density of the Universe strongly increased with redshift from z = 0 to z = 1.3, but is nearly constant at higher redshift out to z = 2.3. As part of the online material accompanying this article, we present source catalogs at 24 μm and 70 μm for both the GOODS-North and -South fields. Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Tables B1-B4 are only available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/528/A35

  1. A-dependence of structure functions and multiquark clusters in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.; Shmatikov, M.

    1984-01-01

    Assuming existence of 12q-clusters (bags) in nuclei the structure functions of deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nuclei are discussed. Universal momentum distribution of quarks in a multiquark cluster is used with high-momentum component falling exponentially PHIsub(q)sup(2)(k) approximately esup(-k/ksub(0)) with k 0 approximately equal to 50-60 MeV/c. The admixture of 12q-cluster W required for the description of SLAG data increases from 10% for 4 He to 30% for Au. The A-dependence of W agrees well with the A-dependence of cumulative particle spectra

  2. Luminosity measurement and beam condition monitoring at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The BRIL system of CMS consists of instrumentation to measure the luminosity online and offline, and to monitor the LHC beam conditions inside CMS. An accurate luminosity measurement is essential to the CMS physics program, and measurement of the beam background is necessary to ensure safe operation of CMS. In expectation of higher luminosity and denser proton bunch spacing during LHC Run II, many of the BRIL subsystems are being upgraded and others are being added to complement the existing measurements. The beam condition monitor (BCM) consists of several sets of diamond sensors used to measure online luminosity and beam background with a single-bunch-crossing resolution. The BCM also detects when beam conditions become unfavorable for CMS running and may trigger a beam abort to protect the detector. The beam halo monitor (BHM) uses quartz bars to measure the background of the incoming beams at larger radii. The pixel luminosity telescope (PLT) consists of telescopes of silicon sensors designed to provide a CMS online and offline luminosity measurement. In addition, the forward hadronic calorimeter (HF) will deliver an independent luminosity measurement, making the whole system robust and allowing for cross-checks of the systematics. Data from each of the subsystems will be collected and combined in the BRIL DAQ framework, which will publish it to CMS and LHC. The current status of installation and commissioning results for the BRIL subsystems are given.

  3. A spectral scheme for Kohn-Sham density functional theory of clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amartya S.; Elliott, Ryan S.; James, Richard D.

    2015-04-01

    Starting from the observation that one of the most successful methods for solving the Kohn-Sham equations for periodic systems - the plane-wave method - is a spectral method based on eigenfunction expansion, we formulate a spectral method designed towards solving the Kohn-Sham equations for clusters. This allows for efficient calculation of the electronic structure of clusters (and molecules) with high accuracy and systematic convergence properties without the need for any artificial periodicity. The basis functions in this method form a complete orthonormal set and are expressible in terms of spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions. Computation of the occupied eigenstates of the discretized Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian is carried out using a combination of preconditioned block eigensolvers and Chebyshev polynomial filter accelerated subspace iterations. Several algorithmic and computational aspects of the method, including computation of the electrostatics terms and parallelization are discussed. We have implemented these methods and algorithms into an efficient and reliable package called ClusterES (Cluster Electronic Structure). A variety of benchmark calculations employing local and non-local pseudopotentials are carried out using our package and the results are compared to the literature. Convergence properties of the basis set are discussed through numerical examples. Computations involving large systems that contain thousands of electrons are demonstrated to highlight the efficacy of our methodology. The use of our method to study clusters with arbitrary point group symmetries is briefly discussed.

  4. Topological defect clustering and plastic deformation mechanisms in functionalized graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ricardo; Araujo, Joice; Chacham, Helio

    2011-03-01

    We present ab initio results suggesting that strain plays a central role in the clustering of topological defects in strained and functionalized graphene models. We apply strain onto the topological-defect graphene networks from our previous work, and obtain topological-defect clustering patterns which are in excellent agreement with recent observations in samples of reduced graphene oxide. In our models, the graphene layer, containing an initial concentration of isolated topological defects, is covered by hydrogen or hydroxyl groups. Our results also suggest a rich variety of plastic deformation mechanism in functionalized graphene systems. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian agencies: CNPq, Fapemig, and INCT-Materiais de Carbono.

  5. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND SPUR CLUSTERS IN NGC 4921, THE BRIGHTEST SPIRAL GALAXY IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung

    2016-01-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 10 5 M ⊙ . The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V − I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting M I (max) = −8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H 0  = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s −1 Mpc −1 . We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be S N  = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s

  6. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND SPUR CLUSTERS IN NGC 4921, THE BRIGHTEST SPIRAL GALAXY IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: isjang@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V − I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting M{sub I} (max) = −8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0} = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}. We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be S{sub N} = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s.

  7. THE LOW-LUMINOSITY END OF THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Denney, Kelly D.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Grier, Catherine J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; De Rosa, Gisella; Pogge, Richard W.; Barth, Aaron J.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stern, Daniel; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated and revised analysis of the relationship between the Hβ broad-line region (BLR) radius and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Specifically, we have carried out two-dimensional surface brightness decompositions of the host galaxies of nine new AGNs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. The surface brightness decompositions allow us to create ''AGN-free'' images of the galaxies, from which we measure the starlight contribution to the optical luminosity measured through the ground-based spectroscopic aperture. We also incorporate 20 new reverberation-mapping measurements of the Hβ time lag, which is assumed to yield the average Hβ BLR radius. The final sample includes 41 AGNs covering four orders of magnitude in luminosity. The additions and updates incorporated here primarily affect the low-luminosity end of the R BLR -L relationship. The best fit to the relationship using a Bayesian analysis finds a slope of α= 0.533 +0.035 -0.033 , consistent with previous work and with simple photoionization arguments. Only two AGNs appear to be outliers from the relationship, but both of them have monitoring light curves that raise doubt regarding the accuracy of their reported time lags. The scatter around the relationship is found to be 0.19 ± 0.02 dex, but would be decreased to 0.13 dex by the removal of these two suspect measurements. A large fraction of the remaining scatter in the relationship is likely due to the inaccurate distances to the AGN host galaxies. Our results help support the possibility that the R BLR -L relationship could potentially be used to turn the BLRs of AGNs into standardizable candles. This would allow the cosmological expansion of the universe to be probed by a separate population of objects, and over a larger range of redshifts.

  8. Investigations of Calorimeter Clustering in ATLAS using Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2153685

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to search for new physics by colliding protons with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The ATLAS detector is a multipurpose particle detector built to record these proton-proton collisions. In order to improve sensitivity to new physics at the LHC, luminosity increases are planned for 2018 and beyond. With this greater luminosity comes an increase in the number of simultaneous proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). This extra pile- up has adverse effects on algorithms for clustering the ATLAS detector's calorimeter cells. These adverse effects stem from overlapping energy deposits originating from distinct particles and could lead to diffculties in accurately reconstructing events. Machine learning algorithms provide a new tool that has potential to clustering per- formance. Recent developments in computer science have given rise to new set of machine learning algorithms that, in many circumstances, out-perform more conven- tional algorithms....

  9. Density functional study of the bonding in small silicon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, R.; Sinnott, S.B.; DePristo, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    We report the ground electronic state, equilibrium geometry, vibrational frequencies, and binding energy for various isomers of Si n (n = 2--8) obtained with the linear combination of atomic orbitals-density functional method. We used both a local density approximation approach and one with gradient corrections. Our local density approximation results concerning the relative stability of electronic states and isomers are in agreement with Hartree--Fock and Moller--Plesset (MP2) calculations [K. Raghavachari and C. M. Rohlfing, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2219 (1988)]. The binding energies calculated with the gradient corrected functional are in good agreement with experiment (Si 2 and Si 3 ) and with the best theoretical estimates. Our analysis of the bonding reveals two limiting modes of bonding and classes of silicon clusters. One class of clusters is characterized by relatively large s atomic populations and a large number of weak bonds, while the other class of clusters is characterized by relatively small s atomic populations and a small number of strong bonds

  10. The optical properties of galaxies in the Ophiuchus cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durret, F.; Wakamatsu, K.; Adami, C.; Nagayama, T.; Omega Muleka Mwewa Mwaba, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Ophiuchus is one of the most massive clusters known, but due to its low Galactic latitude its optical properties remain poorly known. Aims: We investigate the optical properties of Ophiuchus to obtain clues on the formation epoch of this cluster, and compare them to those of the Coma cluster, which is comparable in mass to Ophiuchus but much more dynamically disturbed. Methods: Based on a deep image of the Ophiuchus cluster in the r' band obtained at the Canada France Hawaii Telescope with the MegaCam camera, we have applied an iterative process to subtract the contribution of the numerous stars that, due to the low Galactic latitude of the cluster, pollute the image, and have obtained a photometric catalogue of 2818 galaxies fully complete at r' = 20.5 mag and still 91% complete at r' = 21.5 mag. We use this catalogue to derive the cluster Galaxy Luminosity Function (GLF) for the overall image and for a region (hereafter the "rectangle" region) covering exactly the same physical size as the region in which the GLF of the Coma cluster was previously studied. We then compute density maps based on an adaptive kernel technique, for different magnitude limits, and define three circular regions covering 0.08, 0.08, and 0.06 deg2, respectively, centred on the cluster (C), on northwest (NW) of the cluster, and southeast (SE) of the cluster, in which we compute the GLFs. Results: The GLF fits are much better when a Gaussian is added to the usual Schechter function, to account for the excess of very bright galaxies. Compared to Coma, Ophiuchus shows a strong excess of bright galaxies. Conclusions: The properties of the two nearby very massive clusters Ophiuchus and Coma are quite comparable, though they seem embedded in different large-scale environments. Our interpretation is that Ophiuchus was built up long ago, as confirmed by its relaxed state (see paper I) while Coma is still in the process of forming. The photometric catalogue of Ophiuchus (full Table B.1) is

  11. Testing and Improving the Luminosity Relations for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazzi, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have several luminosity relations where a measurable property of a burst light curve or spectrum is correlated with the burst luminosity. These luminosity relations are calibrated for the fraction of bursts with spectroscopic redshifts and hence the known luminosities. GRBs have thus become known as a type of "standard candle” where standard candle is meant in the usual sense that luminosities can be derived from measurable properties of the bursts. GRBs can therefore be used for the same cosmology applications as Type Ia supernovae, including the construction of the Hubble Diagram and measuring massive star formation rate. The greatest disadvantage of using GRBs as standard candles is that their accuracy is lower than desired. With the recent advent of GRBs as a new standard candle, every effort must be made to test and improve the distance measures. Here, methods are employed to do just that. First, generalized forms of two tests are performed on the luminosity relations. All the luminosity relations pass one of these tests, and all but two pass the other. Even with this failure, redundancies in using multiple luminosity relations allows all the luminosity relations to retain value. Next, the "Firmani relation” is shown to have poorer accuracy than first advertised. It is also shown to be derivable from two other luminosity relations. For these reasons, the Firmani relation is useless for cosmology. The Amati relation is then revisited and shown to be an artifact of a combination of selection effects. Therefore, the Amati relation is also not good for cosmology. Fourthly, the systematic errors involved in measuring a luminosity indicator (Epeak) are measured. The result is an irreducible systematic error of 28%. Finally, the work concludes with a discussion about the impact of the work and the future of GRB luminosity relations.

  12. Improvement to the D0 luminosity monitor constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bantley, J.

    1996-03-01

    The D0 experiment has previously calculated its luminosity using the visible cross section (luminosity monitor constant) for its Level 0 trigger, σ L0 = 48.2 mb, based on the world average pp inelastic cross sections at √s = 1.8 TeV. The error on luminosity had been set at 12%. Recent studies using the MBR and DTUJET Monte Carlo event generators and unbiased D0 data samples have resulted in a more precise determination of the D0 luminosity monitor constant. The result, σ L0 = 46.7 ± 2.5 mb, lowers the central value by 3.1% and reduces the error to 5.4%. 12 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Luminosity Targets for FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F.; Buffat, X.; Schulte, D.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the choice of target values for the peak and integrated luminosity of a future high-energy frontier circular hadron collider (FCC-hh). We review the arguments on the physics reach of a hadron collider. Next we show that accelerator constraints will limit the beam current and the turnaround time. Taking these limits into account, we derive an expression for the ultimate integrated luminosity per year, depending on a possible pile-up limit imposed by the physics experiments. We finally benchmark our result against the planned two phases of FCC-hh [1, 2, 3

  14. LUCID: the ATLAS Luminosity Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Laura; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A precise measurement of luminosity is a key component of the ATLAS program: its uncertainty is a systematics for all cross-section measurements, from Standard Model processes to new discoveries, and for some precise measurements it can be dominant. To be predictive a precision compatible with PDF uncertainty ( 1-2%) is desired. LUCID (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is sensitive to charged particles generated by the pp collisions. It is the only ATLAS dedicated detector for this purpose and the referred one during the second run of LHC data taking.

  15. Powering the High-Luminosity Triplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarino, A.; Burnet, J. P.

    The powering of the magnets in the LHC High-Luminosity Triplets requires production and transfer of more than 150 kA of DC current. High precision power converters will be adopted, and novel High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads and MgB2 based transfer lines will provide the electrical link between the power converters and the magnets. This chapter gives an overview of the systems conceived in the framework of the LHC High-Luminosity upgrade for feeding the superconducting magnet circuits. The focus is on requirements, challenges and novel developments.

  16. On the Mass and Luminosity Functions of Tidal Disruption Flares: Rate Suppression due to Black Hole Event Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, S.

    2018-01-01

    The tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole is expected to yield a luminous flare of thermal emission. About two dozen of these stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs) may have been detected in optical transient surveys. However, explaining the observed properties of these events within the tidal disruption paradigm is not yet possible. This theoretical ambiguity has led some authors to suggest that optical TDFs are due to a different process, such as a nuclear supernova or accretion disk instabilities. Here we present a test of a fundamental prediction of the tidal disruption event scenario: a suppression of the flare rate due to the direct capture of stars by the black hole. Using a recently compiled sample of candidate TDFs with black hole mass measurements, plus a careful treatment of selection effects in this flux-limited sample, we confirm that the dearth of observed TDFs from high-mass black holes is statistically significant. All the TDF impostor models we consider fail to explain the observed mass function; the only scenario that fits the data is a suppression of the rate due to direct captures. We find that this suppression can explain the low volumetric rate of the luminous TDF candidate ASASSN-15lh, thus supporting the hypothesis that this flare belongs to the TDF family. Our work is the first to present the optical TDF luminosity function. A steep power law is required to explain the observed rest-frame g-band luminosity, {dN}/{{dL}}g\\propto {L}g-2.5. The mean event rate of the flares in our sample is ≈ 1× {10}-4 galaxy‑1 yr‑1, consistent with the theoretically expected tidal disruption rate.

  17. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrin...

  18. THE TAIWAN ECDFS NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY: VERY BRIGHT END OF THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z > 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Wang, Wei-Hao; Lin, Lihwai; Lim, Jeremy; Ho, Paul T. P. [Institute of Astrophysics and Astronomy, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yan, Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Karoji, Hiroshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tsai, Chao-Wei [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    The primary goal of the Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS) is to find well-screened galaxy candidates at z > 7 (z' dropout) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDFS). To this end, TENIS provides relatively deep J and K{sub s} data ({approx}25.3 ABmag, 5{sigma}) for an area of 0.5 Multiplication-Sign 0.5 deg. Leveraged with existing data at mid-infrared to optical wavelengths, this allows us to screen for the most luminous high-z objects, which are rare and thus require a survey over a large field to be found. We introduce new color selection criteria to select a z > 7 sample with minimal contaminations from low-z galaxies and Galactic cool stars; to reduce confusion in the relatively low angular resolution Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) images, we introduce a novel deconvolution method to measure the IRAC fluxes of individual sources. Illustrating perhaps the effectiveness at which we screen out interlopers, we find only one z > 7 candidate, TENIS-ZD1. The candidate has a weighted z{sub phot} of 7.8, and its colors and luminosity indicate a young (45M years old) starburst galaxy with a stellar mass of 3.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The result matches with the observational luminosity function analysis and the semianalytic simulation result based on the Millennium Simulations, which may over predict the volume density for high-z massive galaxies. The existence of TENIS-ZD1, if confirmed spectroscopically to be at z > 7, therefore poses a challenge to current theoretical models for how so much mass can accumulate in a galaxy at such a high redshift.

  19. Gamma-Ray Emission from Galaxy Clusters : DARK MATTER AND COSMIC-RAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzke, Anders

    The quest for the first detection of a galaxy cluster in the high energy gamma-ray regime is ongoing, and even though clusters are observed in several other wave-bands, there is still no firm detection in gamma-rays. To complement the observational efforts we estimate the gamma-ray contributions from both annihilating dark matter and cosmic-ray (CR) proton as well as CR electron induced emission. Using high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters, we find a universal concave shaped CR proton spectrum independent of the simulated galaxy cluster. Specifically, the gamma-ray spectra from decaying neutral pions, which are produced by CR protons, dominate the cluster emission. Furthermore, based on our derived flux and luminosity functions, we identify the galaxy clusters with the brightest galaxy clusters in gamma-rays. While this emission is challenging to detect using the Fermi satellite, major observations with Cherenkov telescopes in the near future may put important constraints on the CR physics in clusters. To extend these predictions, we use a dark matter model that fits the recent electron and positron data from Fermi, PAMELA, and H.E.S.S. with remarkable precision, and make predictions about the expected gamma-ray flux from nearby clusters. In order to remain consistent with the EGRET upper limit on the gamma-ray emission from Virgo, we constrain the minimum mass of substructures for cold dark matter halos. In addition, we find comparable levels of gamma-ray emission from CR interactions and dark matter annihilations without Sommerfeld enhancement.

  20. 4C radio sources in clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHardy, I.M.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of a complete sample of 4C and 4CT radio sources in Abell clusters with the Cambridge One-Mile telescope are analysed. It is concluded that radio sources are strongly concentrated towards the cluster centres and are equally likely to be found in clusters of any richness. The probability of a galaxy of a given absolute magnitude producing a source above a given luminosity does not depend on cluster membership. 4C and 4CT radio sources in clusters, selected at 178 MHz, occur preferentially in Bautz-Morgan (BM) class 1 clusters, whereas those selected at 1.4 GHz do not. The most powerful radio source in the cluster is almost always associated with the optically brightest galaxy. The average spectrum of 4C sources in the range 408 to 1407 MHz is steeper in BM class 1 than in other classes. Spectra also steepen with cluster richness. the morphology of 4C sources in clusters depends strongly on BM class and, in particular, radio-trail sources occur only in BM classes II, II-III and III. (author)

  1. GAMMA-RAY BURST LUMINOSITY RELATIONS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL VERSUS THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORRELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Bo; Qi Shi; Lu Tan

    2009-01-01

    The large scatters of luminosity relations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been one of the most important reasons that prevent the extensive applications of GRBs in cosmology. In this paper, we extend the two-dimensional (2D) luminosity relations with τ lag , V, E peak , and τ RT as the luminosity indicators to three dimensions (3D) using the same set of luminosity indicators to explore the possibility of decreasing the intrinsic scatters. We find that, for the 3D luminosity relations between the luminosity and an energy scale (E peak ) and a timescale (τ lag or τ RT ), their intrinsic scatters are considerably smaller than those of corresponding 2D luminosity relations. Enlightened by the result and the definition of the luminosity (energy released in units of time), we discussed possible reasons behind this result, which may give us helpful suggestions on seeking more precise luminosity relations for GRBs in the future.

  2. WebGimm: An integrated web-based platform for cluster analysis, functional analysis, and interactive visualization of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vineet K; Freudenberg, Johannes M; Hu, Zhen; Medvedovic, Mario

    2011-01-17

    Cluster analysis methods have been extensively researched, but the adoption of new methods is often hindered by technical barriers in their implementation and use. WebGimm is a free cluster analysis web-service, and an open source general purpose clustering web-server infrastructure designed to facilitate easy deployment of integrated cluster analysis servers based on clustering and functional annotation algorithms implemented in R. Integrated functional analyses and interactive browsing of both, clustering structure and functional annotations provides a complete analytical environment for cluster analysis and interpretation of results. The Java Web Start client-based interface is modeled after the familiar cluster/treeview packages making its use intuitive to a wide array of biomedical researchers. For biomedical researchers, WebGimm provides an avenue to access state of the art clustering procedures. For Bioinformatics methods developers, WebGimm offers a convenient avenue to deploy their newly developed clustering methods. WebGimm server, software and manuals can be freely accessed at http://ClusterAnalysis.org/.

  3. THE M33 GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM WITH PAndAS DATA: THE LAST OUTER HALO CLUSTER?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2011-01-01

    We use CFHT/MegaCam data to search for outer halo star clusters in M33 as part of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey. This work extends previous studies out to a projected radius of 50 kpc and covers over 40 deg 2 . We find only one new unambiguous star cluster in addition to the five previously known in the M33 outer halo (10 kpc ≤ r ≤ 50 kpc). Although we identify 2440 cluster candidates of various degrees of confidence from our objective image search procedure, almost all of these are likely background contaminants, mostly faint unresolved galaxies. We measure the luminosity, color, and structural parameters of the new cluster in addition to the five previously known outer halo clusters. At a projected radius of 22 kpc, the new cluster is slightly smaller, fainter, and redder than all but one of the other outer halo clusters, and has g' ∼ 19.9, (g' - i') ∼ 0.6, concentration parameter c ∼ 1.0, a core radius r c ∼ 3.5 pc, and a half-light radius r h ∼ 5.5 pc. For M33 to have so few outer halo clusters compared to M31 suggests either tidal stripping of M33's outer halo clusters by M31, or a very different, much calmer accretion history of M33.

  4. THE FATE OF DWARF GALAXIES IN CLUSTERS AND THE ORIGIN OF INTRACLUSTER STARS. II. COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, Hugo; Barai, Paramita; Brito, William

    2012-01-01

    We combine an N-body simulation algorithm with a subgrid treatment of galaxy formation, mergers, and tidal destruction, and an observed conditional luminosity function Φ(L|M), to study the origin and evolution of galactic and extragalactic light inside a cosmological volume of size (100 Mpc) 3 , in a concordance ΛCDM model. This algorithm simulates the growth of large-scale structures and the formation of clusters, the evolution of the galaxy population in clusters, the destruction of galaxies by mergers and tides, and the evolution of the intracluster light (ICL). We find that destruction of galaxies by mergers dominates over destruction by tides by about an order of magnitude at all redshifts. However, tidal destruction is sufficient to produce ICL fractions f ICL that are sufficiently high to match observations. Our simulation produces 18 massive clusters (M cl > 10 14 M ☉ ) with values of f ICL ranging from 1% to 58% at z = 0. There is a weak trend of f ICL to increase with cluster mass. The bulk of the ICL (∼60%) is provided by intermediate galaxies of total masses 10 11 -10 12 M ☉ and stellar masses 6 × 10 8 M ☉ to 3 × 10 10 M ☉ that were tidally destroyed by even more massive galaxies. The contribution of low-mass galaxies to the ICL is small and the contribution of dwarf galaxies is negligible, even though, by numbers, most galaxies that are tidally destroyed are dwarfs. Tracking clusters back in time, we find that their values of f ICL tend to increase over time, but can experience sudden changes that are sometimes non-monotonic. These changes occur during major mergers involving clusters of comparable masses but very different intracluster luminosities. Most of the tidal destruction events take place in the central regions of clusters. As a result, the ICL is more centrally concentrated than the galactic light. Our results support tidal destruction of intermediate-mass galaxies as a plausible scenario for the origin of the ICL.

  5. Unified treatment of the luminosity distance in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Scaccabarozzi, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the luminosity distance measurements to its theoretical predictions is one of the cornerstones in establishing the modern cosmology. However, as shown in Biern and Yoo, its theoretical predictions in literature are often plagued with infrared divergences and gauge-dependences. This trend calls into question the sanity of the methods used to derive the luminosity distance. Here we critically investigate four different methods—the geometric approach, the Sachs approach, the Jacobi mapping approach, and the geodesic light cone (GLC) approach to modeling the luminosity distance, and we present a unified treatment of such methods, facilitating the comparison among the methods and checking their sanity. All of these four methods, if exercised properly, can be used to reproduce the correct description of the luminosity distance.

  6. Unified treatment of the luminosity distance in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jaiyul; Scaccabarozzi, Fulvio, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: fulvio@physik.uzh.ch [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-09-01

    Comparing the luminosity distance measurements to its theoretical predictions is one of the cornerstones in establishing the modern cosmology. However, as shown in Biern and Yoo, its theoretical predictions in literature are often plagued with infrared divergences and gauge-dependences. This trend calls into question the sanity of the methods used to derive the luminosity distance. Here we critically investigate four different methods—the geometric approach, the Sachs approach, the Jacobi mapping approach, and the geodesic light cone (GLC) approach to modeling the luminosity distance, and we present a unified treatment of such methods, facilitating the comparison among the methods and checking their sanity. All of these four methods, if exercised properly, can be used to reproduce the correct description of the luminosity distance.

  7. The BRAN luminosity detectors for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matis, H.S.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, A.; Turner, W.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bravin, E. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Miyamoto, R. [European Spallation Source, ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2017-03-11

    This paper describes the several phases which led, from the conceptual design, prototyping, construction and tests with beam, to the installation and operation of the BRAN (Beam RAte of Neutrals) relative luminosity monitors for the LHC. The detectors have been operating since 2009 to contribute, optimize and maintain the accelerator performance in the two high luminosity interaction regions (IR), the IR1 (ATLAS) and the IR5 (CMS). The devices are gas ionization chambers installed inside a neutral particle absorber 140 m away from the Interaction Points in IR1 and IR5 and monitor the energy deposited by electromagnetic showers produced by high-energy neutral particles from the collisions. The detectors have the capability to resolve the bunch-by-bunch luminosity at the 40 MHz bunch rate, as well as to survive the extreme level of radiation during the nominal LHC operation. The devices have operated since the early commissioning phase of the accelerator over a broad range of luminosities reaching 1.4×10{sup 34} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} with a peak pileup of 45 events per bunch crossing. Even though the nominal design luminosity of the LHC has been exceeded, the BRAN is operating well. After describing how the BRAN can be used to monitor the luminosity of the collider, we discuss the technical choices that led to its construction and the different tests performed prior to the installation in two IRs of the LHC. Performance simulations are presented together with operational results obtained during p-p operations, including runs at 40 MHz bunch rate, Pb-Pb operations and p-Pb operations.

  8. A search for X-ray bright distant clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, R. C.; Ulmer, M. P.; Kron, R. G.; Wirth, G. D.; Koo, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of a search for X-ray luminous distant clusters of galaxies. We found extended X-ray emission characteristic of a cluster toward two of our candidate clusters of galaxies. They both have a luminosity in the ROSAT bandpass of approximately equals 10(exp 44) ergs/s and a redshift greater than 0.5; thus making them two of the most distant X-ray clusters ever observed. Furthermore, we show that both clusters are optically rich and have a known radio source associated with them. We compare our result with other recent searches for distant X-ray luminous clusters and present a lower limit of 1.2 x 10(exp -7)/cu Mpc for the number density of such high-redshift clusters. This limit is consistent with the expected abundance of such clusters in a standard (b = 2) cold dark matter universe. Finally, our clusters provide important high-redshift targets for further study into the origin and evolution of massive clusters of galaxies.

  9. BV CCD photometry of the old open cluster NGC 2243

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergbusch, P.A.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Infante, L.

    1991-01-01

    The photometry of NGC 2243 is presented, which reaches approximately 4 mag below the turnoff point calibrated independently of studies of the cluster. The color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and luminosity function (LF) are calibrated by utilizing stars from the lists of Landolt and Graham. A strong binary sequence is noted in the CMD which contributes approximately 30 percent of the stars, a gap is observed in the turnoff region, and a clump of HB stars is located. The CMD data are compared to those for the cluster 47 Tuc and are found to match well, although a slightly higher metal abundance accounts for the redder giant branch of the NGC 2243. The distance modulus and the cluster age are calculated, and the Fe/H = -0.47, O/Fe = +0.23 isochrones are the only isochrones that reproduce the location of the giant branch. A flat mass spectrum characterizes the LF, and a small gap is found where V is 16.1. Convective overshooting in the cores of moderate mass stars is theorized as the cause of the gap, and other models of the structure are shown to provide inadequate descriptions. 41 refs

  10. A spectral scheme for Kohn–Sham density functional theory of clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Amartya S., E-mail: baner041@umn.edu; Elliott, Ryan S., E-mail: relliott@umn.edu; James, Richard D., E-mail: james@umn.edu

    2015-04-15

    Starting from the observation that one of the most successful methods for solving the Kohn–Sham equations for periodic systems – the plane-wave method – is a spectral method based on eigenfunction expansion, we formulate a spectral method designed towards solving the Kohn–Sham equations for clusters. This allows for efficient calculation of the electronic structure of clusters (and molecules) with high accuracy and systematic convergence properties without the need for any artificial periodicity. The basis functions in this method form a complete orthonormal set and are expressible in terms of spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions. Computation of the occupied eigenstates of the discretized Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian is carried out using a combination of preconditioned block eigensolvers and Chebyshev polynomial filter accelerated subspace iterations. Several algorithmic and computational aspects of the method, including computation of the electrostatics terms and parallelization are discussed. We have implemented these methods and algorithms into an efficient and reliable package called ClusterES (Cluster Electronic Structure). A variety of benchmark calculations employing local and non-local pseudopotentials are carried out using our package and the results are compared to the literature. Convergence properties of the basis set are discussed through numerical examples. Computations involving large systems that contain thousands of electrons are demonstrated to highlight the efficacy of our methodology. The use of our method to study clusters with arbitrary point group symmetries is briefly discussed.

  11. A spectral scheme for Kohn–Sham density functional theory of clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Amartya S.; Elliott, Ryan S.; James, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the observation that one of the most successful methods for solving the Kohn–Sham equations for periodic systems – the plane-wave method – is a spectral method based on eigenfunction expansion, we formulate a spectral method designed towards solving the Kohn–Sham equations for clusters. This allows for efficient calculation of the electronic structure of clusters (and molecules) with high accuracy and systematic convergence properties without the need for any artificial periodicity. The basis functions in this method form a complete orthonormal set and are expressible in terms of spherical harmonics and spherical Bessel functions. Computation of the occupied eigenstates of the discretized Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian is carried out using a combination of preconditioned block eigensolvers and Chebyshev polynomial filter accelerated subspace iterations. Several algorithmic and computational aspects of the method, including computation of the electrostatics terms and parallelization are discussed. We have implemented these methods and algorithms into an efficient and reliable package called ClusterES (Cluster Electronic Structure). A variety of benchmark calculations employing local and non-local pseudopotentials are carried out using our package and the results are compared to the literature. Convergence properties of the basis set are discussed through numerical examples. Computations involving large systems that contain thousands of electrons are demonstrated to highlight the efficacy of our methodology. The use of our method to study clusters with arbitrary point group symmetries is briefly discussed

  12. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF THE α PERSEI CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillitteri, Ignazio; Evans, Nancy Remage; Wolk, Scott J.; Bruck Syal, Megan

    2013-01-01

    We report on the analysis of an archival observation of part of the α Persei cluster obtained with XMM-Newton. We detected 102 X-ray sources in the band 0.3-8.0 keV, of which 39 of them are associated with the cluster as evidenced by appropriate magnitudes and colors from Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. We extend the X-ray luminosity distribution (XLD) for M dwarfs, to add to the XLD found for hotter dwarfs from spatially extensive surveys of the whole cluster by ROSAT. Some of the hotter stars are identified as a background, possible slightly older group of stars at a distance of approximately 500 pc.

  13. The period-luminosity relation for Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the empirical determination of the period-luminosity-colour relation for classical Cepheids are presented. In this study the quantitative effects of random errors, reddening, sample size and the presence of both colour and period cut-offs (imposed by the finite extent of the instability strip) on the observational redetermination of the original relation are evaluated. Both random errors in the photometry and correlated errors in the reddening corrections are shown to have systematic effects. Especially sensitive to these errors is the colour coefficient in the period-luminosity-colour relation, where the ratio of the error to the width of the instability strip is the determining factor. With present observations only broad confidence limits can be placed on present knowledge of the intrinsic period-luminosity-colour relation and/or its variations from galaxy to galaxy. (author)

  14. Density- and luminosity-functions for UBV-photometric discand halo-stars in SA 54, compared with earlier RGU-results in this field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkart, R.; Esin-Yilmaz, F.

    1983-12-01

    Space density- and luminosity-functions for the photometric halo- and disc-populations in the test-field SA 54 of the Basle Halo Program have been derived on the basis of UBV observations of the same 1377 stars used already for the corresponding RGU investigation by Fenkart (1968). The statistical method for separating the photometrically defined populations and for attributing absolute magnitudes to their members developed, described and first applied to SA 51 in RGU by Becker (1965) has been adapted for use in the UBV system. The (U-B, B- V) diagrams for consecutive intervals in apparent V-magnitude of figures 2a to f contain, contrary to what was first expected in this system, substantial numbers of stars in the covered by this investigation for halo and disc are given in tables IIa and b, and plotted in figures 3 and 4, respectively. The corresponding luminosity-functions within the partial volume up to 1 kpc from the sun over the same overall MVinterval are given together with Glieses (1969) solar values for population I, in table III, and plotted in figure 5. The overall density-functions (3m ≦ MV ≦ 7m) for both populations can be and are compared with the corresponding ones (3m ≦ MG ≦ 8m) in RGU (last column in table II) in figures 6 and 7, for halo and disc, respectively. The coincidence of the density results between UBV and RGU is much better for both populations than the mean misidentification rate per system derived in section 5 would let us expect, suggesting a statistically fairly repartition of the misidentifications with respect to absolute magnitudes and distances.

  15. Density functional study of structural and electronic properties of bimetallic silver-gold clusters: Comparison with pure gold and silver clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacic-Koutecky, Vlasta; Burda, Jaroslav; Mitric, Roland; Ge, Maofa; Zampella, Giuseppe; Fantucci, Piercarlo

    2002-08-01

    Bimetallic silver-gold clusters offer an excellent opportunity to study changes in metallic versus "ionic" properties involving charge transfer as a function of the size and the composition, particularly when compared to pure silver and gold clusters. We have determined structures, ionization potentials, and vertical detachment energies for neutral and charged bimetallic AgmAun 3[less-than-or-equal](m+n)[less-than-or-equal]5 clusters. Calculated VDE values compare well with available experimental data. In the stable structures of these clusters Au atoms assume positions which favor the charge transfer from Ag atoms. Heteronuclear bonding is usually preferred to homonuclear bonding in clusters with equal numbers of hetero atoms. In fact, stable structures of neutral Ag2Au2, Ag3Au3, and Ag4Au4 clusters are characterized by the maximum number of hetero bonds and peripheral positions of Au atoms. Bimetallic tetramer as well as hexamer are planar and have common structural properties with corresponding one-component systems, while Ag4Au4 and Ag8 have 3D forms in contrast to Au8 which assumes planar structure. At the density functional level of theory we have shown that this is due to participation of d electrons in bonding of pure Aun clusters while s electrons dominate bonding in pure Agm as well as in bimetallic clusters. In fact, Aun clusters remain planar for larger sizes than Agm and AgnAun clusters. Segregation between two components in bimetallic systems is not favorable, as shown in the example of Ag5Au5 cluster. We have found that the structures of bimetallic clusters with 20 atoms Ag10Au10 and Ag12Au8 are characterized by negatively charged Au subunits embedded in Ag environment. In the latter case, the shape of Au8 is related to a pentagonal bipyramid capped by one atom and contains three exposed negatively charged Au atoms. They might be suitable for activating reactions relevant to catalysis. According to our findings the charge transfer in bimetallic

  16. LUCID: The ATLAS Luminosity Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cabras, Grazia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    After the long shut-down, the LHC Run2 has started with new running conditions with respect to Run1: in particular the centre of mass energy has reached 13 TeV and the bunch-spacing is now 25 ns. In order to cope with these changes, the ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID and its electronics have been completely rebuilt. This note describes the new detector and electronics, the new luminosity algorithms and the new calibration systems, with a brief review of the first results about the stability of the measurement and evaluation of systematic uncertainties for the 2015 data-taking.

  17. AMPLITUDES OF SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS: CONSTRAINTS FROM RED GIANTS IN OPEN CLUSTERS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; Kallinger, Thomas; Basu, Sarbani; Mosser, BenoIt; Hekker, Saskia; Mathur, Savita; GarcIa, Rafael A.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Grundahl, Frank; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Verner, Graham A.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Meibom, Soeren; Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Szabo, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Scaling relations that link asteroseismic quantities to global stellar properties are important for gaining understanding of the intricate physics that underpins stellar pulsations. The common notion that all stars in an open cluster have essentially the same distance, age, and initial composition implies that the stellar parameters can be measured to much higher precision than what is usually achievable for single stars. This makes clusters ideal for exploring the relation between the mode amplitude of solar-like oscillations and the global stellar properties. We have analyzed data obtained with NASA's Kepler space telescope to study solar-like oscillations in 100 red giant stars located in either of the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811. By fitting the measured amplitudes to predictions from simple scaling relations that depend on luminosity, mass, and effective temperature, we find that the data cannot be described by any power of the luminosity-to-mass ratio as previously assumed. As a result we provide a new improved empirical relation which treats luminosity and mass separately. This relation turns out to also work remarkably well for main-sequence and subgiant stars. In addition, the measured amplitudes reveal the potential presence of a number of previously unknown unresolved binaries in the red clump in NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, pointing to an interesting new application for asteroseismology as a probe into the formation history of open clusters.

  18. Merging history of three bimodal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurogordato, S.; Sauvageot, J. L.; Bourdin, H.; Cappi, A.; Benoist, C.; Ferrari, C.; Mars, G.; Houairi, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a combined X-ray and optical analysis of three bimodal galaxy clusters selected as merging candidates at z ~ 0.1. These targets are part of MUSIC (MUlti-Wavelength Sample of Interacting Clusters), which is a general project designed to study the physics of merging clusters by means of multi-wavelength observations. Observations include spectro-imaging with XMM-Newton EPIC camera, multi-object spectroscopy (260 new redshifts), and wide-field imaging at the ESO 3.6 m and 2.2 m telescopes. We build a global picture of these clusters using X-ray luminosity and temperature maps together with galaxy density and velocity distributions. Idealized numerical simulations were used to constrain the merging scenario for each system. We show that A2933 is very likely an equal-mass advanced pre-merger ~200 Myr before the core collapse, while A2440 and A2384 are post-merger systems (~450 Myr and ~1.5 Gyr after core collapse, respectively). In the case of A2384, we detect a spectacular filament of galaxies and gas spreading over more than 1 h-1 Mpc, which we infer to have been stripped during the previous collision. The analysis of the MUSIC sample allows us to outline some general properties of merging clusters: a strong luminosity segregation of galaxies in recent post-mergers; the existence of preferential axes - corresponding to the merging directions - along which the BCGs and structures on various scales are aligned; the concomitance, in most major merger cases, of secondary merging or accretion events, with groups infalling onto the main cluster, and in some cases the evidence of previous merging episodes in one of the main components. These results are in good agreement with the hierarchical scenario of structure formation, in which clusters are expected to form by successive merging events, and matter is accreted along large-scale filaments. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory, Chile (programs 072.A-0595, 075.A-0264, and 079.A-0425

  19. A STEEP FAINT-END SLOPE OF THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT z ∼ 2-3: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GLOBAL STELLAR MASS DENSITY AND STAR FORMATION IN LOW-MASS HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Naveen A.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    We use the deep ground-based optical photometry of the Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) Survey to derive robust measurements of the faint-end slope (α) of the UV luminosity function (LF) at redshifts 1.9 ≤ z ≤ 3.4. Our sample includes >2000 spectroscopic redshifts and ∼31000 LBGs in 31 spatially independent fields over a total area of 3261 arcmin 2 . These data allow us to select galaxies to 0.07L* and 0.10L* at z ∼ 2 and z ∼ 3, respectively. A maximum-likelihood analysis indicates steep values of α(z = 2) = -1.73 ± 0.07 and α(z = 3) = -1.73 ± 0.13. This result is robust to luminosity-dependent systematics in the Lyα equivalent width and reddening distributions, and is similar to the steep values advocated at z ∼> 4, and implies that ∼93% of the unobscured UV luminosity density at z ∼ 2-3 arises from sub-L* galaxies. With a realistic luminosity-dependent reddening distribution, faint to moderately luminous galaxies account for ∼>70% and ∼>25% of the bolometric luminosity density and present-day stellar mass density, respectively, when integrated over 1.9 ≤ z 2 contrasts with the shallower slope inferred locally, suggesting that the evolution in the faint-end slope may be dictated simply by the availability of low-mass halos capable of supporting star formation at z ∼< 2.

  20. High precision measurements of the luminosity at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzyk, B.

    1994-01-01

    The art of the luminosity measurements at LEP is presented. First generation LEP detectors have measured the absolute luminosity with the precision of 0.3-0.5%. The most precise present detectors have reached the 0.07% precision and the 0.05% is not excluded in future. Center-of-mass energy dependent relative precision of the luminosity detectors and the use of the theoretical cross-section in the LEP experiments are also discussed. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Planck early results. X. Statistical analysis of Sunyaev-Zeldovich scaling relations for X-ray galaxy clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    All-sky data from the Planck survey and the Meta-Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC) are combined to investigate the relationship between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and X-ray luminosity. The sample comprises ~1600 X-ray clusters with redshifts up to ~1 and spans...

  2. A NEW LUMINOSITY RELATION FOR GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND ITS IMPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Shi; Lu Tan

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous astrophysical events observed so far. They are conventionally classified into long and short ones depending on their time duration, T 90 . Because of the advantage that their high redshifts offer, many efforts have been made to apply GRBs to cosmology. The key to this is to find correlations between some measurable properties of GRBs and the energy or the luminosity of GRBs. These correlations are usually referred to as luminosity relations and are helpful in understanding the GRBs themselves. In this paper, we explored such correlations in the X-ray emission of GRBs. The X-ray emission of GRBs observed by Swift has the exponential functional form in the prompt phase and relaxes to a power-law decay at time T p . We have assumed a linear relation between log L X,p (with L X,p being the X-ray luminosity at T p ) and log [T p /(1 + z)], but there is some evidence for curvature in the data and the true relationship between L X,p and T p /(1 + z) may be a broken power law. The limited GRB sample used in our analysis is still not sufficient for us to conclude whether the break is real or just an illusion caused by outliers. We considered both cases in our analysis and discussed the implications of the luminosity relation, especially on the time duration of GRBs and their classification.

  3. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research

  4. Nonthermal emission from clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli, E-mail: doron.kushnir@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il [Physics Faculty, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot (Israel)

    2009-08-01

    We show that the spectral and radial distribution of the nonthermal emission of massive, M ∼> 10{sup 14.5}M{sub ☉}, galaxy clusters may be approximately described by simple analytic expressions, which depend on the cluster thermal X-ray properties and on two model parameter, β{sub core} and η{sub e}. β{sub core} is the ratio of the cosmic-ray (CR) energy density (within a logarithmic CR energy interval) and the thermal energy density at the cluster core, and η{sub e(p)} is the fraction of the thermal energy generated in strong collisionless shocks, which is deposited in CR electrons (protons). Using a simple analytic model for the evolution of intra-cluster medium CRs, which are produced by accretion shocks, we find that β{sub core} ≅ η{sub p}/200, nearly independent of cluster mass and with a scatter Δln β{sub core} ≅ 1 between clusters of given mass. We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) and γ-ray luminosities produced by inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons by electrons accelerated in accretion shocks (primary electrons) exceed the luminosities produced by secondary particles (generated in hadronic interactions within the cluster) by factors ≅ 500(η{sub e}/η{sub p})(T/10 keV){sup −1/2} and ≅ 150(η{sub e}/η{sub p})(T/10 keV){sup −1/2} respectively, where T is the cluster temperature. Secondary particle emission may dominate at the radio and very high energy (∼> 1 TeV) γ-ray bands. Our model predicts, in contrast with some earlier work, that the HXR and γ-ray emission from clusters of galaxies are extended, since the emission is dominated at these energies by primary (rather than by secondary) electrons. Our predictions are consistent with the observed nonthermal emission of the Coma cluster for η{sub p} ∼ η{sub e} ∼ 0.1. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed. In particular

  5. THE VMC SURVEY. XVIII. RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE LOW-MASS, 0.55–0.82 M{sub ⊙} STELLAR MASS FUNCTION IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chaoli; Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA, 6009 (Australia); Deng, Licai; For, Bi-Qing [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Zaggia, Simone; Rubele, Stefano [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Piatti, Andrés E. [Observatorio Astrońomico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); Cioni, Maria-Rosa L. [Universität Potsdam, Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Emerson, Jim [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Ivanov, Valentin D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, Garching bei München, D-85748 (Germany); Chen, Li, E-mail: jackzcl@outlook.com, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-12-20

    We use near-infrared observations obtained as part of the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Survey of the Magellanic Clouds (VMC), as well as two complementary Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data sets, to study the luminosity and mass functions (MFs) as a function of clustercentric radius of the main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae. The HST observations indicate a relative deficit in the numbers of faint stars in the central region of the cluster compared with its periphery, for 18.75 ≤ m{sub F606W} ≤ 20.9 mag (corresponding to a stellar mass range of 0.55 < m{sub *}/M{sub ⊙} < 0.73). The stellar number counts at 6.′7 from the cluster core show a deficit for 17.62 ≤ m{sub F606W} ≤ 19.7 mag (i.e., 0.65 < m{sub *}/M{sub ⊙} < 0.82), which is consistent with expectations from mass segregation. The VMC-based stellar MFs exhibit power-law shapes for masses in the range 0.55 < m{sub *}/M{sub ⊙} < 0.82. These power laws are characterized by an almost constant slope, α. The radial distribution of the power-law slopes α thus shows evidence of the importance of both mass segregation and tidal stripping, for both the first- and second-generation stars in 47 Tuc.

  6. UV TO FAR-IR CATALOG OF A GALAXY SAMPLE IN NEARBY CLUSTERS: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRENDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Jonathan D.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M., E-mail: jonatan@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a sample of cluster galaxies devoted to study the environmental influence on the star formation activity. This sample of galaxies inhabits in clusters showing a rich variety in their characteristics and have been observed by the SDSS-DR6 down to M{sub B} {approx} -18, and by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer AIS throughout sky regions corresponding to several megaparsecs. We assign the broadband and emission-line fluxes from ultraviolet to far-infrared to each galaxy performing an accurate spectral energy distribution for spectral fitting analysis. The clusters follow the general X-