WorldWideScience

Sample records for cluster expansion

  1. Cluster expansion for vacuum confining fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Colored particle Green functions in vacuum background random fields are written as path integrals. Averaging over random fields is done using the cluster (cumulant) expansion. The existence of a finite correlation length for vacuum background fields is shown to produce the linear confinement, in agreement with the results, obtained with the help of averaged Hamiltonians. A modified form of cluster expansion for nonabelian fields is introduced using the path-ordered cumulants

  2. Chemical graph-theoretic cluster expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    A general computationally amenable chemico-graph-theoretic cluster expansion method is suggested as a paradigm for incorporation of chemical structure concepts in a systematic manner. The cluster expansion approach is presented in a formalism general enough to cover a variety of empirical, semiempirical, and even ab initio applications. Formally such approaches for the utilization of chemical structure-related concepts may be viewed as discrete analogues of Taylor series expansions. The efficacy of the chemical structure concepts then is simply bound up in the rate of convergence of the cluster expansions. In many empirical applications, e.g., boiling points, chromatographic separation coefficients, and biological activities, this rate of convergence has been observed to be quite rapid. More note will be made here of quantum chemical applications. Relations to questions concerning size extensivity of energies and size consistency of wave functions are addressed

  3. Topological charges and convergence of the cluster expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1989-01-01

    Cluster expansion of Wilson loops is shown to diverge for the QCD vacuum populated by topological objects (instantons, magnetic monopoles). Using simple models the total sum of the cluster expansion for the string tension is calculated and found to be zero for instantons and nonzero for magnetic monopoles. 14 refs

  4. Alloy design as an inverse problem of cluster expansion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Mahler; Kalidindi, Arvind R.; Schmidt, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Central to a lattice model of an alloy system is the description of the energy of a given atomic configuration, which can be conveniently developed through a cluster expansion. Given a specific cluster expansion, the ground state of the lattice model at 0 K can be solved by finding the configurat......Central to a lattice model of an alloy system is the description of the energy of a given atomic configuration, which can be conveniently developed through a cluster expansion. Given a specific cluster expansion, the ground state of the lattice model at 0 K can be solved by finding...... the inverse problem in terms of energetically distinct configurations, using a constraint satisfaction model to identify constructible configurations, and show that a convex hull can be used to identify ground states. To demonstrate the approach, we solve for all ground states for a binary alloy in a 2D...

  5. Cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvise Bastianello

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in many-body quantum physics is the determination of the ground state of a thermodynamically large physical system. We construct a cluster expansion for ground states of local Hamiltonians, which naturally incorporates physical requirements inherited by locality as conditions on its cluster amplitudes. Applying a diagrammatic technique we derive the relation of these amplitudes to thermodynamic quantities and local observables. Moreover we derive a set of functional equations that determine the cluster amplitudes for a general Hamiltonian, verify the consistency with perturbation theory and discuss non-perturbative approaches. Lastly we verify the persistence of locality features of the cluster expansion under unitary evolution with a local Hamiltonian and provide applications to out-of-equilibrium problems: a simplified proof of equilibration to the GGE and a cumulant expansion for the statistics of work, for an interacting-to-free quantum quench.

  6. Time expansion chamber and single ionization cluster measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, A.H.

    1978-10-01

    The time expansion chamber (TEC), a new type of drift chamber, allows the measurement of microscopic details of ionization. The mean drift time interval from subsequent sngle ionization clusters of a relativistic particle in the TEC can be made large enough compared to the width of a anode signal to allow the recording of the clusters separately. Since single primary electrons can be detected, the cluster counting would allow an improved particle separation using the relativistic rise of primary ionization. In another application, very high position accuracy for track detectors or improved energy resolution may be obtained. Basic ionization phenomena and drift properties can be measured at the single electron level

  7. Stochastic coupled cluster theory: Efficient sampling of the coupled cluster expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles J. C.; Thom, Alex J. W.

    2017-09-01

    We consider the sampling of the coupled cluster expansion within stochastic coupled cluster theory. Observing the limitations of previous approaches due to the inherently non-linear behavior of a coupled cluster wavefunction representation, we propose new approaches based on an intuitive, well-defined condition for sampling weights and on sampling the expansion in cluster operators of different excitation levels. We term these modifications even and truncated selections, respectively. Utilising both approaches demonstrates dramatically improved calculation stability as well as reduced computational and memory costs. These modifications are particularly effective at higher truncation levels owing to the large number of terms within the cluster expansion that can be neglected, as demonstrated by the reduction of the number of terms to be sampled when truncating at triple excitations by 77% and hextuple excitations by 98%.

  8. A cluster expansion approach to exponential random graph models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Mei

    2012-01-01

    The exponential family of random graphs are among the most widely studied network models. We show that any exponential random graph model may alternatively be viewed as a lattice gas model with a finite Banach space norm. The system may then be treated using cluster expansion methods from statistical mechanics. In particular, we derive a convergent power series expansion for the limiting free energy in the case of small parameters. Since the free energy is the generating function for the expectations of other random variables, this characterizes the structure and behavior of the limiting network in this parameter region

  9. Linked cluster expansions for open quantum systems on a lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biella, Alberto; Jin, Jiasen; Viyuela, Oscar; Ciuti, Cristiano; Fazio, Rosario; Rossini, Davide

    2018-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the linked-cluster expansions to study driven-dissipative quantum lattice models, directly accessing the thermodynamic limit of the system. Our method leads to the evaluation of the desired extensive property onto small connected clusters of a given size and topology. We first test this approach on the isotropic spin-1/2 Hamiltonian in two dimensions, where each spin is coupled to an independent environment that induces incoherent spin flips. Then we apply it to the study of an anisotropic model displaying a dissipative phase transition from a magnetically ordered to a disordered phase. By means of a Padé analysis on the series expansions for the average magnetization, we provide a viable route to locate the phase transition and to extrapolate the critical exponent for the magnetic susceptibility.

  10. Bosonization of fermion operators as linked-cluster expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, T.; Tamura, T.

    1983-01-01

    In order for a boson-expansion theory to be useful for practical purposes, it must satisfy at least two requirements: It must be in the form of a linked-cluster expansion, and the pure (ideal) boson states must be usable as basis states. Previously, we constructed such a boson theory and used it successfully for many realistic calculations. This construction, however, lacked mathematical rigor. In the present paper, we develop an entirely new approach, which results in the same boson expansions obtained earlier, but now in a mathematically rigorous fashion. The achievement of the new formalism goes beyond this. Its framework is much more general and flexible than was that of the earlier formalism, and it allows us to extend the calculations beyond what had been done in the past

  11. Derivation of the density functional theory from the cluster expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J Y

    2003-09-26

    The density functional theory is derived from a cluster expansion by truncating the higher-order correlations in one and only one term in the kinetic energy. The formulation allows self-consistent calculation of the exchange correlation effect without imposing additional assumptions to generalize the local density approximation. The pair correlation is described as a two-body collision of bound-state electrons, and modifies the electron- electron interaction energy as well as the kinetic energy. The theory admits excited states, and has no self-interaction energy.

  12. Ternary alloy material prediction using genetic algorithm and cluster expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This thesis summarizes our study on the crystal structures prediction of Fe-V-Si system using genetic algorithm and cluster expansion. Our goal is to explore and look for new stable compounds. We started from the current ten known experimental phases, and calculated formation energies of those compounds using density functional theory (DFT) package, namely, VASP. The convex hull was generated based on the DFT calculations of the experimental known phases. Then we did random search on some metal rich (Fe and V) compositions and found that the lowest energy structures were body centered cube (bcc) underlying lattice, under which we did our computational systematic searches using genetic algorithm and cluster expansion. Among hundreds of the searched compositions, thirteen were selected and DFT formation energies were obtained by VASP. The stability checking of those thirteen compounds was done in reference to the experimental convex hull. We found that the composition, 24-8-16, i.e., Fe3VSi2 is a new stable phase and it can be very inspiring to the future experiments.

  13. A cluster expansion for bound three-alpha particles as a three-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1981-08-01

    A three-body model is proposed to study the nuclear bound states. The nucleus is described as a bound state of three clusters. A cluster expansion is introduced for the three cluster bound state problem. The present integral equations are treated by simple approximate solutions, which lead to effective potentials by using the present cluster expansion. The 12 C nucleus is described as a three-alpha particle bound state. The binding energy of 12 C is calculated numerically using the present cluster expansion as bound three-alpha clusters. The present three-body cluster expansion calculations are very near to the exact three-body calculations using separable potentials. The present theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. (author)

  14. Cluster expansion of the wavefunction. Symmetry-adapted-cluster expansion, its variational determination, and extension of open-shell orbital theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuji, H.; Hirao, K.

    1978-01-01

    The symmetry-adapted-cluster (SAC) expansion of an exact wavefunction is given. It is constructed from the generators of the symmetry-adapted excited configurations having the symmetry under consideration, and includes their higher-order effect and self-consistency effect. It is different from the conventional cluster expansions in several important points, and is suitable for applications to open-shell systems as well as closed-shell systems. The variational equation for the SAC wavefunction has a form similar to the generalized Brillouin theorem in accordance with the inclusion of the higher-order effect and the self-consistency effect. We have expressed some existing open-shell orbital theories equivalently in the conventional cluster expansion formulas, and on this basis, we have given the pseudo-orbital theory which is an extension of open-shell orbital theory in the SAC expansion formula

  15. A cluster expansion model for predicting activation barrier of atomic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Tafizur; Jaipal, M.; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a procedure based on cluster expansion models for predicting the activation barrier of atomic processes encountered while studying the dynamics of a material system using the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method. Starting with an interatomic potential description, a mathematical derivation is presented to show that the local environment dependence of the activation barrier can be captured using cluster interaction models. Next, we develop a systematic procedure for training the cluster interaction model on-the-fly, which involves: (i) obtaining activation barriers for handful local environments using nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations, (ii) identifying the local environment by analyzing the NEB results, and (iii) estimating the cluster interaction model parameters from the activation barrier data. Once a cluster expansion model has been trained, it is used to predict activation barriers without requiring any additional NEB calculations. Numerical studies are performed to validate the cluster expansion model by studying hop processes in Ag/Ag(100). We show that the use of cluster expansion model with KMC enables efficient generation of an accurate process rate catalog

  16. Cluster expansion for abstract polymer models New bounds from an old approach

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, R

    2006-01-01

    We revisit the classical approach to cluster expansions, based on tree graphs, and establish a new convergence condition that improves those by Koteck\\'y-Preiss and Dobrushin, as we show in some examples. The strategy is to better exploit a well known tree-graph expression, due to Penrose.

  17. Core expansion in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, R.A.W.; Freeman, K.C.; Lauer, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    The core radii of 18 rich star clusters in the LMC with ages from 10 Myr to 1 Gyr. Data for an additional 17 clusters with ages from 1 Myr to 10 Gyr are available in the literature. The combined sample shows that the core radii increase from about 0 to about 5 pc between about 1 Myr and 1 Gyr, and then begin to decrease again. The expansion of the cores is probably driven by mass loss from evolving stars. Models of cluster evolution show that the rate of increase in core radius is sensitive to the slope of the initial mass function. The observed core radius-age relation for the LMC clusters favors an intial mass function with slope slightly flatter than the Salpeter value. 20 refs

  18. Quantum-statistical mechanics of an atom-dimer mixture: Lee-Yang cluster expansion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Takahiro; Ueda, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    We use the Lee-Yang cluster expansion method to study quantum-statistical properties of a mixture of interconvertible atoms and dimers, where the dimers form in a two-body bound state of the atoms. We point out an infinite series of cluster diagrams whose summation leads to the Bose-Einstein condensation of the dimers below a critical temperature. Our theory captures some important features of a cold atom-dimer mixture such as interconversion of atoms and dimers and properties of the mixture at the unitarity limit

  19. Cluster-Expansion Model for Complex Quinary Alloys: Application to Alnico Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhou, Lin; Tang, Wei; Kramer, Matthew J.; Anderson, Iver E.; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2017-11-01

    An accurate and transferable cluster-expansion model for complex quinary alloys is developed. Lattice Monte Carlo simulation enabled by this cluster-expansion model is used to investigate temperature-dependent atomic structure of alnico alloys, which are considered as promising high-performance non-rare-earth permanent-magnet materials for high-temperature applications. The results of the Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with available experimental data and provide useful insights into phase decomposition, selection, and chemical ordering in alnico. The simulations also reveal a previously unrecognized D 03 alloy phase. This phase is very rich in Ni and exhibits very weak magnetization. Manipulating the size and location of this phase provides a possible route to improve the magnetic properties of alnico, especially coercivity.

  20. Thermodynamics of non-ideal QGP using Mayers cluster expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanth, J.P; Simji, P.; Bannur, Vishnu M.

    2013-01-01

    The Quark gluon plasma (QGP) is the state in which the individual hadrons dissolve into a system of free (or almost free) quarks and gluons in strongly compressed system at high temperature. The present paper aims to calculate the critical temperature at which a non-ideal three quark plasma condenses into droplet of three quarks (i.e., into a liquid of baryons) using Mayers cluster expansion method

  1. Interaction of intense electromagnetic fields with SF6 molecules and clusters in supersonic expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, V.J.T.

    1987-01-01

    A method of measuring SF 6 cluster formation and inhibition in pulsed supersonic expansion in the presence of intense electromagnetic radiation is presented. The characterization of the expansion of SF 6 molecules was done and, the extension of the collision region was determined. An improved unidimensional theory of supersonic expansion showed good agreement with the experimental results. The spectra of multiphoton absorption of SF 6 molecules in supersonic jet and the average energy absorved by each molecule were determined. The absorption spectra of molecule in the collision region present absorption maxima different from those obtained in the collisionless region. The results, if compared with the literature data, show good agreement, with a small difference in the spetra corresponding to the collisionless region. This difference was observed, for the first time in the multiphoton absorption and is attribuited to cluster formation in the jet. A new technique for measuring cluster formation in the supersonic jet, based on determination of the spatial distribution of the energy of molecules in the jet after passing through a skimmer located in the collision region is shown. The inhibition of cluster formation, due to the incidence of intense electromagnetic radiation from a CO 2 -TEA pulsed laser in the initial collision region of the jet, causes a second expansion in the skimmer. The results obtained show that this method can lead to a new isotope separation process. All the parts of the experimental set up, for example, high vacuum system, pulsed valve and pyroelectric detector, were developed and constructed specially for the experiment. (Author) [pt

  2. Scaling behavior of ground-state energy cluster expansion for linear polyenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, L. L.; Wu, Jian; Klein, D. J.; Schmalz, T. G.; Bytautas, L.

    Ground-state energies for linear-chain polyenes are additively expanded in a sequence of terms for chemically relevant conjugated substructures of increasing size. The asymptotic behavior of the large-substructure limit (i.e., high-polymer limit) is investigated as a means of characterizing the rapidity of convergence and consequent utility of this energy cluster expansion. Consideration is directed to computations via: simple Hückel theory, a refined Hückel scheme with geometry optimization, restricted Hartree-Fock self-consistent field (RHF-SCF) solutions of fixed bond-length Parisier-Parr-Pople (PPP)/Hubbard models, and ab initio SCF approaches with and without geometry optimization. The cluster expansion in what might be described as the more "refined" approaches appears to lead to qualitatively more rapid convergence: exponentially fast as opposed to an inverse power at the simple Hückel or SCF-Hubbard levels. The substructural energy cluster expansion then seems to merit special attention. Its possible utility in making accurate extrapolations from finite systems to extended polymers is noted.

  3. Observation of propane cluster size distributions during nucleation and growth in a Laval expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro, Jorge J.; Chakrabarty, Satrajit; Schläppi, Bernhard; Signorell, Ruth [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-12-07

    We report on molecular-level studies of the condensation of propane gas and propane/ethane gas mixtures in the uniform (constant pressure and temperature) postnozzle flow of Laval expansions using soft single-photon ionization by vacuum ultraviolet light and mass spectrometric detection. The whole process, from the nucleation to the growth to molecular aggregates of sizes of several nanometers (∼5 nm), can be monitored at the molecular level with high time-resolution (∼3 μs) for a broad range of pressures and temperatures. For each time, pressure, and temperature, a whole mass spectrum is recorded, which allows one to determine the critical cluster size range for nucleation as well as the kinetics and mechanisms of cluster-size specific growth. The detailed information about the size, composition, and population of individual molecular clusters upon condensation provides unique experimental data for comparison with future molecular-level simulations.

  4. Cluster expansion of the solvation free energy difference: Systematic improvements in the solvation of single ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego, Josefredo R.

    2017-07-01

    The cluster expansion method has been used in the imperfect gas theory for several decades. This paper proposes a cluster expansion of the solvation free energy difference. This difference, which results from a change in the solute-solvent potential energy, can be written as the logarithm of a finite series. Similar to the Mayer function, the terms in the series are related to configurational integrals, which makes the integrand relevant only for configurations of the solvent molecules close to the solute. In addition, the terms involve interaction of solute with one, two, and so on solvent molecules. The approach could be used for hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanics methods or mixed cluster-continuum approximation. A simple form of the theory was applied for prediction of pKa in methanol; the results indicated that three explicit methanol molecules and the dielectric continuum lead to a root of mean squared error (RMSE) of only 1.3 pKa units, whereas the pure continuum solvation model based on density method leads to a RMSE of 6.6 pKa units.

  5. Linked cluster expansion in the SU(2) lattice Higgs model at strong gauge coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, C.E.M.

    1989-01-01

    A linked cluster expansion is developed for the β=0 limit of the SU(2) Higgs model. This method, when combined with strong gauge coupling expansions, is used to obtain the phase transition surface and the behaviour of scalar and vector masses in the lattice regularized theory. The method, in spite of the low order of truncation of the series applied, gives a reasonable agreement with Monte Carlo data for the phase transition surface and a qualitatively good picture of the behaviour of Higgs, glueball and gauge vector boson masses, in the strong coupling limit. Some limitations of the method are discussed, and an intuitive picture of the different behaviour for small and large bare self-coupling λ is given. (orig.)

  6. Investigation of the alpha cluster model and the density matrix expansion in ion-ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashdan, M.B.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with the investigation of the alpha cluster model (ACM) of brink and studies of the accuracy of the density matrix expansion (DME) approximation in deriving the real part of the ion-ion optical potential. the ACM is applied to calculate the inelastic 0 1 + →2 1 + charge form factor for electron scattering by 12 C to investigate the validity of this model for 12 C nucleus. it is found that the experimental curve can be fitted over the entire range of the momentum transfer by a generator - coordinate state for the 2 1 + state that consist of a superposition of two triangular ACM states with two different cluster separations and the same oscillator parameter

  7. A first principles investigation of the oxygen adsorption on Zr(0001) surface using cluster expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samin, Adib J.; Taylor, Christopher D.

    2017-11-01

    The design of corrosion resistant zircalloys is important for a variety of technological applications ranging from medicine to the nuclear industry. Since corrosion resistance is mainly attributed to the formation of a surface oxide layer, developing a detailed understanding of this process may assist in future corrosion resistance design. In this work, we conduct a systematic multi-scale investigation of the early stages of oxide formation. This was accomplished by first using a database of fully relaxed DFT calculations to build a cluster-expansion description of the potential function. The developed potential was reasonably good at predicting DFT energies as evidenced by the cross-validation score of 4.4 meV/site. The effective cluster expansion parameters were indicative of repulsive adsorbate interactions in the adlayer in agreement with the literature. The potential then allowed for a systematic investigation of the oxygen configurations on the Zr(0001) surface via Monte Carlo simulations. The adsorption energy was recorded as a function of coverage and an increasing trend was observed in agreement with DFT predictions and the repulsive nature of interactions in the adlayer. The convex hull diagram was recorded indicating the most stable configuration to occur around a coverage of 0.6 ML. The adsorption isotherm was also recorded and contrasted for two temperatures relevant for different applications.

  8. Hadron formation in a non-ideal quark gluon plasma using Mayer's method of cluster expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanth, J.P.; Bannur, Vishnu M.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the applicability of using the Mayer's cluster expansion method to derive the equation of state (EoS) of the quark-antiquark plasma. Dissociation of heavier hadrons in QGP is studied. The possibility of the existence of quarkonium after deconfinement at higher temperature than the critical temperature T > T c is investigated. The EoS has been studied by calculating second and third cluster integrals. The results are compared and discussed with available works. (author)

  9. Combining DFT, Cluster Expansions, and KMC to Model Point Defects in Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modine, N. A.; Wright, A. F.; Lee, S. R.; Foiles, S. M.; Battaile, C. C.; Thomas, J. C.; van der Ven, A.

    In an alloy, defect energies are sensitive to the occupations of nearby atomic sites, which leads to a distribution of defect properties. When radiation-induced defects diffuse from their initially non-equilibrium locations, this distribution becomes time-dependent. The defects can become trapped in energetically favorable regions of the alloy leading to a diffusion rate that slows dramatically with time. Density Functional Theory (DFT) allows the accurate determination of ground state and transition state energies for a defect in a particular alloy environment but requires thousands of processing hours for each such calculation. Kinetic Monte-Carlo (KMC) can be used to model defect diffusion and the changing distribution of defect properties but requires energy evaluations for millions of local environments. We have used the Cluster Expansion (CE) formalism to ``glue'' together these seemingly incompatible methods. The occupation of each alloy site is represented by an Ising-like variable, and products of these variables are used to expand quantities of interest. Once a CE is fit to a training set of DFT energies, it allows very rapid evaluation of the energy for an arbitrary configuration, while maintaining the accuracy of the underlying DFT calculations. These energy evaluations are then used to drive our KMC simulations. We will demonstrate the application of our DFT/MC/KMC approach to model thermal and carrier-induced diffusion of intrinsic point defects in III-V alloys. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE.

  10. Nuclear clusters as a probe for expansion flow in heavy ion reactions at (10 endash 15)A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiello, R.; Mattiello, R.; Sorge, H.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1997-01-01

    A phase space coalescence description based on the Wigner-function method for cluster formation in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The momentum distributions of nuclear clusters d, t, and He are predicted for central Au(11.6A GeV)Au and Si(14.6A GeV)Si reactions in the framework of the relativistic quantum molecular dynamics transport approach. Transverse expansion leads to a strong shoulder-arm shape and different inverse slope parameters in the transverse spectra of nuclear clusters deviating markedly from thermal distributions. A clear open-quotes bounce-off close-quote close-quote event shape is seen: The averaged transverse flow velocities in the reaction plane are for clusters larger than for protons. The cluster yields, particularly at low p t at midrapidities, and the in-plane (anti)flow of clusters and pions change if suitably strong baryon potential interactions are included. This allows one to study the transient pressure at high density via the event shape analysis of nucleons, nucleon clusters, and other hadrons. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Temperature evaluation of UF6 and cluster detection in nozzle expansion using low-resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbampato, M.E.; Antunes, L.M.D.; Miranda, S.F.; Sena, S.C.; Santos, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The continuous supersonic expansion of pure gaseous UF 6 and mixtures of UF 6 with argon and nitrogen through a bidimensional nozzle was studied using low-resolution infrared spectroscopy in the ν 3 absorption band region. The experiments were carried out in order to calculate the molecular temperature of the beam and also to verify cluster formation in the expansion. The molecular beam temperature evaluation was based on the measurements of the low-resolution bandwidth, which were compared to simulated spectra results. The temperatures were also evaluated using the measured pressure at the end of the nozzle by a Pitot tube. In the conditions where no cluster formation was observed the calculated theoretical temperatures using an equilibrium expansion model are in good agreement with the data obtained through the analysis of the experimental spectra and through the Pitot tube pressure measurement. Cluster formation was observed for temperatures below about 120 K. In these conditions the infrared spectra showed shoulders in the region above 630 cm -1 and a shoulder or band between 616 and 600 cm -1 . (orig.)

  12. Flexible Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Uncertain Renewable Generation and Load Demand Based on Hybrid Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hao Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible transmission network expansion planning (TNEP approach considering uncertainty. A novel hybrid clustering technique, which integrates the graph partitioning method and rough fuzzy clustering, is proposed to cope with uncertain renewable generation and load demand. The proposed clustering method is capable of recognizing the actual cluster distribution of complex datasets and providing high-quality clustering results. By clustering the hourly data for renewable generation and load demand, a multi-scenario model is proposed to consider the corresponding uncertainties in TNEP. Furthermore, due to the peak distribution characteristics of renewable generation and heavy investment in transmission, the traditional TNEP, which caters to rated renewable power output, is usually uneconomic. To improve the economic efficiency, the multi-objective optimization is incorporated into the multi-scenario TNEP model, while the curtailment of renewable generation is considered as one of the optimization objectives. The solution framework applies a modified NSGA-II algorithm to obtain a set of Pareto optimal planning schemes with different levels of investment costs and renewable generation curtailments. Numerical results on the IEEE RTS-24 system demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Investigation of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} using Monte Carlo and the cluster expansion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Christian D.R.; Gruhn, Thomas; Felser, Claudia [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz (Germany); Windeln, Johannes [IBM Germany, Mgr. Technology Center ISC EMEA, Mainz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    CIGS based solar cells are among the most promising thin-film techniques for cheap, yet efficient modules. They have been investigated for many years, but the full potential of CIGS cells has not yet been exhausted and many effects are not understood. For instance, the band gap of the absorber material Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} varies with Ga content. The question why solar cells with high Ga content have low efficiencies, despite the fact that the band gap should have the optimum value, is still unanswered. We are using Monte Carlo simulations in combination with a cluster expansion to investigate the homogeneity of the In-Ga distribution as a possible cause of the low efficiency of cells with high Ga content. The cluster expansion is created by a fit to ab initio electronic structure energies. The results we found are crucial for the processing of solar cells, shed light on structural properties and give hints on how to significantly improve solar cell performance. Above the transition temperature from the separated to the mixed phase, we observe different sizes of the In and Ga domains for a given temperature. The In domains in the Ga-rich compound are smaller and less abundant than the Ga domains in the In-rich compound. This translates into the Ga-rich material being less homogeneous.

  14. Relativistic rise measurement by cluster counting method in time expansion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walenta, A.H.

    1979-10-01

    A new approach to the measurement of the ionization energy loss for the charged particle identification in the region of the relativistic rise was tested experimentally. The method consists of determining in a special drift chamber (TEC) the number of clusters of the primary ionization. The method gives almost the full relativistic rise and narrower landau distribution. The consequences for a practical detector are discussed

  15. Voltage-dependent cluster expansion for electrified solid-liquid interfaces: Application to the electrochemical deposition of transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzner, Stephen E.; Dabo, Ismaila

    2017-11-01

    The detailed atomistic modeling of electrochemically deposited metal monolayers is challenging due to the complex structure of the metal-solution interface and the critical effects of surface electrification during electrode polarization. Accurate models of interfacial electrochemical equilibria are further challenged by the need to include entropic effects to obtain accurate surface chemical potentials. We present an embedded quantum-continuum model of the interfacial environment that addresses each of these challenges and study the underpotential deposition of silver on the gold (100) surface. We leverage these results to parametrize a cluster expansion of the electrified interface and show through grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations the crucial need to account for variations in the interfacial dipole when modeling electrodeposited metals under finite-temperature electrochemical conditions.

  16. Cluster-based query expansion using external collections in medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heung-Seon; Jung, Yuchul

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing external collections to improve retrieval performance is challenging research because various test collections are created for different purposes. Improving medical information retrieval has also gained much attention as various types of medical documents have become available to researchers ever since they started storing them in machine processable formats. In this paper, we propose an effective method of utilizing external collections based on the pseudo relevance feedback approach. Our method incorporates the structure of external collections in estimating individual components in the final feedback model. Extensive experiments on three medical collections (TREC CDS, CLEF eHealth, and OHSUMED) were performed, and the results were compared with a representative expansion approach utilizing the external collections to show the superiority of our method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Observation of the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of MeV ions accelerated by the hydrodynamic ambipolar expansion of clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanasaki, Masato; Jinno, Satoshi; Sakaki, Hironao; Faenov, Anatoly Ya.; Pikuz, Tatiana A.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kando, Masaki; Sugiyama, Akira; Kondo, Kiminori; Matsui, Ryutaro; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Morishima, Kunihiro; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Scullion, Clare; Smyth, Ashley G.; Alejo, Aaron; Doria, Domenico; Kar, Satyabrata; Borghesi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    An inhomogeneous spatial distribution of laser accelerated carbon/oxygen ions produced via the hydrodynamic ambipolar expansion of CO_2 clusters has been measured by using CR-39 detectors. An inhomogeneous etch pits spatial distribution has appeared on the etched CR-39 detector installed on the laser propagation direction, while homogeneous ones are appeared on those installed at 45° and 90° from the laser propagation direction. From the range of ions in CR-39 obtained by using the multi-step etching technique, the averaged energies of carbon/oxygen ions for all directions are determined as 0.78 ± 0.09 MeV/n. The number of ions in the laser propagation direction is about 1.5 times larger than those in other directions. The inhomogeneous etch pits spatial distribution in the laser propagation direction could originate from an ion beam collimation and modulation by the effect of electromagnetic structures created in the laser plasma. - Highlights: • A spatial distribution of ions due to hydrodynamic ambipolar expansion is measured. • The homogeneous ion energy distribution of 0.78 ± 0.09 MeV/n is measured by CR-39. • The number of ions in the laser axis is about 1.5 times larger than other directions.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of post-cluster argon plasmas during the blast wave expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.-K.; Fournier, K.B.; Edwards, M.J.; Scott, H.A.; Lee, R.W.; Cattolica, R.; Ditmire, T.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we present temperature diagnostics of an expanding laser-produced argon plasma. A short-pulse (35fs) laser with an intensity of I = 1017 W/cm deposits ∼ 100 mJ of energy into argon clusters. This generates a hot plasma filament that develops into a cylindrically expanding shock. We develop spectral diagnostics for the temperatures of the argon plasma in the shock region and the preionized region ahead of the shock. A collisional-radiative model is applied to explore line intensity ratios derived from Ar II-Ar IV spectra that are sensitive to temperatures in a few eV range. The results of hydrodynamic simulations are employed to derive a time dependent radiative transport calculation that generates the theoretical emission spectra from the expanding plasma

  19. Spectroscopic Characterization of Post-Cluster Argon Plasmas During the Blast Wave Expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, H-K.; Fournier, K.B.; Edwards, M.J.; Scott, H.A.; Cattolica, R.; Ditmire, T.; Lee, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we present temperature diagnostics of an expanding laser-produced argon plasma. A short-pulse (35fs) laser with an intensity of I = 10 17 W/cm 2 deposits ∼ 100 mJ of energy into argon clusters. This generates a hot plasma filament that develops into a cylindrically expanding shock. We develop spectral diagnostics for the temperatures of the argon plasma in the shock region and the preionized region ahead of the shock. A collisional-radiative model is applied to explore line intensity ratios derived from Ar II - Ar IV spectra that are sensitive to temperatures in a few eV range. The results of hydrodynamic simulations are employed to derive a time dependent radiative transport calculation that generates the theoretical emission spectra from the expanding plasma

  20. Ancient expansion of the hox cluster in lepidoptera generated four homeobox genes implicated in extra-embryonic tissue formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths. Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria, with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks.

  1. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. I. Triples expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J; Matthews, Devin A; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-21

    The accuracy at which total energies of open-shell atoms and organic radicals may be calculated is assessed for selected coupled cluster perturbative triples expansions, all of which augment the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy by a non-iterative correction for the effect of triple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSD(T-n) triples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the acclaimed CCSD(T) model for both unrestricted as well as restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (UHF/ROHF) reference determinants. By comparing UHF- and ROHF-based statistical results for a test set of 18 modest-sized open-shell species with comparable RHF-based results, no behavioral differences are observed for the higher-order models of the CCSD(T-n) series in their correlated descriptions of closed- and open-shell species. In particular, we find that the convergence rate throughout the series towards the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) solution is identical for the two cases. For the CCSD(T) model, on the other hand, not only its numerical consistency, but also its established, yet fortuitous cancellation of errors breaks down in the transition from closed- to open-shell systems. The higher-order CCSD(T-n) models (orders n > 3) thus offer a consistent and significant improvement in accuracy relative to CCSDT over the CCSD(T) model, equally for RHF, UHF, and ROHF reference determinants, albeit at an increased computational cost.

  2. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. I. Triples expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, Janus J., E-mail: janusje@chem.au.dk; Jørgensen, Poul [qLEAP Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Matthews, Devin A. [The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Gauss, Jürgen [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-05-21

    The accuracy at which total energies of open-shell atoms and organic radicals may be calculated is assessed for selected coupled cluster perturbative triples expansions, all of which augment the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy by a non-iterative correction for the effect of triple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSD(T–n) triples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the acclaimed CCSD(T) model for both unrestricted as well as restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (UHF/ROHF) reference determinants. By comparing UHF- and ROHF-based statistical results for a test set of 18 modest-sized open-shell species with comparable RHF-based results, no behavioral differences are observed for the higher-order models of the CCSD(T–n) series in their correlated descriptions of closed- and open-shell species. In particular, we find that the convergence rate throughout the series towards the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) solution is identical for the two cases. For the CCSD(T) model, on the other hand, not only its numerical consistency, but also its established, yet fortuitous cancellation of errors breaks down in the transition from closed- to open-shell systems. The higher-order CCSD(T–n) models (orders n > 3) thus offer a consistent and significant improvement in accuracy relative to CCSDT over the CCSD(T) model, equally for RHF, UHF, and ROHF reference determinants, albeit at an increased computational cost.

  3. Biorthogonal moment expansions in coupled-cluster theory: Review of key concepts and merging the renormalized and active-space coupled-cluster methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The key ideas behind biorthogonal moment expansions in coupled-cluster theory are discussed. Methods that enable merging active-space and renormalized coupled-cluster approaches are proposed and tested. Abstract: After reviewing recent progress in the area of the development of coupled-cluster (CC) methods for quasi-degenerate electronic states that are characterized by stronger non-dynamical correlation effects, including new generations of single- and multi-reference approaches that can handle bond breaking and excited states dominated by many-electron transitions, and after discussing the key elements of the left-eigenstate completely renormalized (CR) CC and equation-of-motion (EOM) CC methods, and the underlying biorthogonal method of moments of CC (MMCC) equations [P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 224105; P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J.R. Gour, A. Kinal, Chem. Phys. Lett. 418 (2006) 467; M. Włoch, M.D. Lodriguito, P. Piecuch, J.R. Gour, Mol. Phys. 104 (2006) 2149], it is argued that it is beneficial to merge the CR-CC/EOMCC and active-space CC/EOMCC [P. Piecuch, Mol. Phys. 108 (2010) 2987, and references therein] theories into a single formalism. In order to accomplish this goal, the biorthogonal MMCC theory, which provides compact many-body expansions for the differences between the full configuration interaction and CC or, in the case of excited states, EOMCC energies, obtained using conventional truncation schemes in the cluster operator T and excitation operator R μ , is generalized, so that one can correct the CC/EOMCC energies obtained with arbitrary truncations in T and R μ for the selected many-electron correlation effects of interest. The resulting moment expansions, defining the new, Flexible MMCC (Flex-MMCC) formalism, and the ensuing CC(P; Q) hierarchy, proposed in the present work, enable one to correct energies obtained in the active-space CC and EOMCC calculations, in which one selects higher many

  4. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. II. Quadruples expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J; Matthews, Devin A; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-21

    We extend our assessment of the potential of perturbative coupled cluster (CC) expansions for a test set of open-shell atoms and organic radicals to the description of quadruple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSDT(Q-n) quadruples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the prominent CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models. From a comparison of the models in terms of their recovery of total CC singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDTQ) energies, we find that the performance of the CCSDT(Q-n) models is independent of the reference used (unrestricted or restricted (open-shell) Hartree-Fock), in contrast to the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models, for which the accuracy is strongly dependent on the spin of the molecular ground state. By further comparing the ability of the models to recover relative CCSDTQ total atomization energies, the discrepancy between them is found to be even more pronounced, stressing how a balanced description of both closed- and open-shell species-as found in the CCSDT(Q-n) models-is indeed of paramount importance if any perturbative CC model is to be of chemical relevance for high-accuracy applications. In particular, the third-order CCSDT(Q-3) model is found to offer an encouraging alternative to the existing choices of quadruples models used in modern computational thermochemistry, since the model is still only of moderate cost, albeit markedly more costly than, e.g., the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models.

  5. Biorthogonal moment expansions in coupled-cluster theory: Review of key concepts and merging the renormalized and active-space coupled-cluster methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    After reviewing recent progress in the area of the development of coupled-cluster (CC) methods for quasi-degenerate electronic states that are characterized by stronger non-dynamical correlation effects, including new generations of single- and multi-reference approaches that can handle bond breaking and excited states dominated by many-electron transitions, and after discussing the key elements of the left-eigenstate completely renormalized (CR) CC and equation-of-motion (EOM) CC methods, and the underlying biorthogonal method of moments of CC (MMCC) equations [P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 224105; P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J.R. Gour, A. Kinal, Chem. Phys. Lett. 418 (2006) 467; M. Włoch, M.D. Lodriguito, P. Piecuch, J.R. Gour, Mol. Phys. 104 (2006) 2149], it is argued that it is beneficial to merge the CR-CC/EOMCC and active-space CC/EOMCC [P. Piecuch, Mol. Phys. 108 (2010) 2987, and references therein] theories into a single formalism. In order to accomplish this goal, the biorthogonal MMCC theory, which provides compact many-body expansions for the differences between the full configuration interaction and CC or, in the case of excited states, EOMCC energies, obtained using conventional truncation schemes in the cluster operator T and excitation operator Rμ, is generalized, so that one can correct the CC/EOMCC energies obtained with arbitrary truncations in T and Rμ for the selected many-electron correlation effects of interest. The resulting moment expansions, defining the new, Flexible MMCC (Flex-MMCC) formalism, and the ensuing CC(P; Q) hierarchy, proposed in the present work, enable one to correct energies obtained in the active-space CC and EOMCC calculations, in which one selects higher many-body components of T and Rμ via active orbitals and which recover much of the relevant non-dynamical and some dynamical electron correlation effects in applications involving potential energy surfaces (PESs) along bond breaking coordinates, for the

  6. The emergence of nonbulk properties in supported metal clusters: negative thermal expansion and atomic disorder in Pt nanoclusters supported on gamma-Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sergio I; Menard, Laurent D; Bram, Ariella; Kang, Joo H; Small, Matthew W; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Frenkel, Anatoly I

    2009-05-27

    The structural dynamics-cluster size and adsorbate-dependent thermal behaviors of the metal-metal (M-M) bond distances and interatomic order-of Pt nanoclusters supported on a gamma-Al(2)O(3) are described. Data from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies reveal that these materials possess a dramatically nonbulklike nature. Under an inert atmosphere small, subnanometer Pt/gamma-Al(2)O(3) clusters exhibit marked relaxations of the M-M bond distances, negative thermal expansion (NTE) with an average linear thermal expansion coefficient alpha = (-2.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(-5) K(-1), large static disorder and dynamical bond (interatomic) disorder that is poorly modeled within the constraints of classical theory. The data further demonstrate a significant temperature-dependence to the electronic structure of the Pt clusters, thereby suggesting the necessity of an active model to describe the cluster/support interactions mediating the cluster's dynamical structure. The quantitative dependences of these nonbulklike behaviors on cluster size (0.9 to 2.9 nm), ambient atmosphere (He, 4% H(2) in He or 20% O(2) in He) and support identity (gamma-Al(2)O(3) or carbon black) are systematically investigated. We show that the nonbulk structural, electronic and dynamical perturbations are most dramatically evidenced for the smallest clusters. The adsorption of hydrogen on the clusters leads to an increase of the Pt-Pt bondlengths (due to a lifting of the surface relaxation) and significant attenuation of the disorder present in the system. Oxidation of these same clusters has the opposite effect, leading to an increase in Pt-Pt bond strain and subsequent enhancement in nonbulklike thermal properties. The structural and electronic properties of Pt nanoclusters supported on carbon black contrast markedly with those of the Pt/gamma-Al(2)O(3) samples in that neither NTE nor comparable levels of atomic disorder are observed. The Pt

  7. Brome isotope selective control of CF3Br molecule clustering by IR laser radiation in gas-dynamic expansion of CF3Br - Ar mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apatin, V. M.; Lokhman, V. N.; Makarov, G. N.; Ogurok, N.-D. D.; Ryabov, E. A.

    2018-02-01

    We report the results of research on the experimental control of CF3Br molecule clustering under gas-dynamic expansion of the CF3Br - Ar mixture at a nozzle exit by using IR laser radiation. A cw CO2 laser is used for exciting molecules and clusters in the beam and a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer with laser UV ionisation of particles for their detection. The parameters of the gas above the nozzle are determined (compositions and pressure) at which intensive molecule clustering occurs. It is found that in the case of the CF3Br gas without carrier when the pressure P0 above the nozzle does not exceed 4 atm, molecular clusters actually are not generated in the beam. If the gas mixture of CF3Br with argon is used at a pressure ratio 1 : N, where N >= 3, and the total pressure above the nozzle is P0 >= 2 atm, then there occurs molecule clustering. We study the dependences of the efficiency of suppressing the molecule clustering on parameters of the exciting pulse, gas parameters above the nozzle, and on a distance of the molecule irradiation zone from the nozzle exit section. It is shown that in the case of resonant vibrational excitation of gas-dynamically cooled CF3Br molecules at the nozzle exit one can realise isotope-selective suppression of molecule clustering with respect to bromine isotopes. With the CF3Br - Ar mixtures having the pressure ratio 1 : 3 and 1 : 15, the enrichment factors obtained with respect to bromine isotopes are kenr ≈ 1.05 ± 0.005 and kenr ≈ 1.06 ± 0.007, respectively, under jet irradiation by laser emission in the 9R(30) line (1084.635 cm-1). The results obtained let us assume that this method can be used to control clustering of molecules comprising heavy element isotopes, which have a small isotopic shift in IR absorption spectra.

  8. MicroRNA Cluster miR-17-92 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Expansion and Transition to Intermediate Progenitors in the Developing Mouse Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Bian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During development of the embryonic neocortex, tightly regulated expansion of neural stem cells (NSCs and their transition to intermediate progenitors (IPs are critical for normal cortical formation and function. Molecular mechanisms that regulate NSC expansion and transition remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the microRNA (miRNA miR-17-92 cluster is required for maintaining proper populations of cortical radial glial cells (RGCs and IPs through repression of Pten and Tbr2 protein. Knockout of miR-17-92 and its paralogs specifically in the developing neocortex restricts NSC proliferation, suppresses RGC expansion, and promotes transition of RGCs to IPs. Moreover, Pten and Tbr2 protectors specifically block silencing activities of endogenous miR-17-92 and control proper numbers of RGCs and IPs in vivo. Our results demonstrate a critical role for miRNAs in promoting NSC proliferation and modulating the cell-fate decision of generating distinct neural progenitors in the developing neocortex.

  9. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... Author for correspondence (zh4403701@126.com). MS received 15 ... lic clusters using density functional theory (DFT)-GGA of the DMOL3 package. ... In the process of geometric optimization, con- vergence thresholds ..... and Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of. Jiangsu Province ...

  10. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environmental as well as technical problems during fuel gas utilization. ... adsorption on some alloys of Pd, namely PdAu, PdAg ... ried out on small neutral and charged Au24,26,27, Cu,28 ... study of Zanti et al.29 on Pdn (n = 1–9) clusters.

  11. Thermodynamic consideration and ground-state search of icosahedral boron subselenide B12(B1-xSex) 2 from a first-principles cluster expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektarawong, A.

    2018-05-01

    The phase stability of icosahedral boron subselenide B12(B1-xSex) 2 , where 0.5 ≤x ≤1 , is explored using a first-principles cluster expansion. The results shows that, instead of a continuous solid solution, B12(B1-xSex) 2 is thermodynamically stable as an individual line compound at the composition of B9.5Se . The ground-state configuration of B9.5Se is represented by a mixture of B12(Se-Se), B12(B-Se), and B12(Se-B) with a ratio of 1:1:1, where they form a periodic A B C A B C ⋯ stacking sequence of B12(Se-Se), B12(B-Se), and B12(Se-B) layers along the c axis of the hexagonal conventional unit cell. The structural and electronic properties of the ground-state B9.5Se are also derived and discussed. By comparing the derived ground-state properties of B9.5Se to the existing experimental data of boron subselenide B˜13Se , I proposed that the as-synthesized boron subselenide B˜13Se , as reported in the literature, has the actual composition of B9.5Se .

  12. CREATION AND EXPANSION OF A CLUSTER: THE CASE OF THE CERES CLUSTER, GO ABSTRACT PROCESO DE FORMACIÓN Y EXPANSIÓN DE CLUSTER: EL CASO DEL AGLOMERADO DE CERES, GO PROCESSO DE FORMAÇÃO E EXPANSÃO DE CLUSTER: O CASO DO AGLOMERADO DE CERES, GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Manoel Coelho Borges Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the factors that favored creation and expansion of the health organization cluster in the city of Ceres, Goiás. Despite the small population of some 19,000 inhabitants, Ceres is recognized as a center for health services. This article investigates the creation and expansion of the health cluster in Ceres from two perspectives. The  first considers the existence of so-called economic factors such as demand, infrastructure, presence of specialized skills, government policies, invitation to specialized professionals by businessmen and location on an important access route. The second takes into account sociological factors, highlighting social networks, professional and family ties, trust, values, rules and traditions as responsible for the multiplication of companies in the same sector in this location. Through an exploratory study based on interviews with 20 of the 65 physicians in the city, it is concluded that in the case of Ceres, great demand for health services, government actions to populate Brazil’s Mid-West and the activities of pioneers incentivating the entrepreneurial spirit of physicians were determining factors in the creation and expansion of this health cluster.Este trabajo discute los factores que favorecieron la formación y la expansión de la aglomeración de organizaciones de salud en el  municipio de Ceres, en el estado brasileño de Goiás. A pesar  de su pequeña población, cerca de 19.000 habitantes, Ceres es reconocida como una ciudad modelo en lo que se refiere a la  prestación de servicios de salud. En este trabajo, analizamos la formación y expansión del  cluster de salud de Ceres bajo dos perspectivas. La primera considera la existencia de los llamados factores económicos, como la demanda, la infraestructura, la presencia de mano de obra especializada, las políticas gubernamentales, la invitación de empresarios a profesionales especializados y la dependencia de la

  13. Mixed clusters from the coexpansion of C2F6 and n2 in a pulsed, supersonic expansion cluster ion source and beam deflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer: A first application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Steven D.

    The following topics are discussed: (1) cluster ion genesis; (2) cluster ion detection; (3) Ion source; (4) pulse valve; (5) e-gun; (6) Ion optics; (7) a first order model; and (8) a modified Bakker's model.

  14. Virial Expansion Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  15. Cluster-cluster clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Cambridge Univ., England; Sussex Univ., Brighton, England)

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references

  16. Thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  17. Expansion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1985-10-01

    A quantum dynamical model is suggested which describes the expansion and disassembly phase of highly excited compounds formed in energetic heavy-ion collisions. First applications in two space and one time dimensional model world are discussed and qualitatively compared to standard freeze-out concepts. (orig.)

  18. expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a system under investigation is to model the system in terms of some ... The organization of the paper is as follows: In §2, a brief account of the (G /G)- expansion ...... It is interesting to note that from the general results, one can easily recover.

  19. First-principles calculations of the structural and thermodynamic properties of bcc, fcc and hcp solid solutions in the Al-TM (TM = Ti, Zr and Hf) systems: A comparison of cluster expansion and supercell methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, G.; Walle, A. van de; Asta, M.

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of solid solutions with body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures in the Al-TM (TM = Ti, Zr and Hf) systems are calculated from first-principles using cluster expansion (CE), Monte-Carlo simulation and supercell methods. The 32-atom special quasirandom structure (SQS) supercells are employed to compute properties at 25, 50 and 75 at.% TM compositions, and 64-atom supercells have been employed to compute properties of alloys in the dilute concentration limit (one solute and 63 solvent atoms). In general, the energy of mixing (Δ m E) calculated by CE and dilute supercells agree very well. In the concentrated region, the Δ m E values calculated by CE and SQS methods also agree well in many cases; however, noteworthy discrepancies are found in some cases, which we argue originate from inherent elastic and dynamic instabilities of the relevant parent lattice structures. The importance of short-range order on the calculated values of Δ m E for hcp Al-Ti alloys is demonstrated. We also present calculated results for the composition dependence of the atomic volumes in random solid solutions with bcc, fcc and hcp structures. The properties of solid solutions reported here may be integrated within the CALPHAD formalism to develop reliable thermodynamic databases in order to facilitate: (i) calculations of stable and metastable phase diagrams of binary and multicomponent systems, (ii) alloy design, and (iii) processing of Al-TM-based alloys

  20. Clustering of near clusters versus cluster compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Gao; Yipeng Jing

    1989-01-01

    The clustering properties of near Zwicky clusters are studied by using the two-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation functions for compact and medium compact clusters, for open clusters, and for all near Zwicky clusters are estimated. The results show much stronger clustering for compact and medium compact clusters than for open clusters, and that open clusters have nearly the same clustering strength as galaxies. A detailed study of the compactness-dependence of correlation function strength is worth investigating. (author)

  1. Molecular Diversity of HIV-1 among People Who Inject Drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Massive Expansion of Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF) 33_01B and Emergence of Multiple Unique Recombinant Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Ng, Kim Tien; Yong, Yean Kong; Azmel, Azureen; Takebe, Yutaka; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B in Malaysia in the early 2000 s, continuous genetic diversification and active recombination involving CRF33_01B and other circulating genotypes in the region including CRF01_AE and subtype B′ of Thai origin, have led to the emergence of novel CRFs and unique recombinant forms. The history and magnitude of CRF33_01B transmission among various risk groups including people who inject drugs (PWID) however have not been investigated despite the high epidemiological impact of CRF33_01B in the region. We update the most recent molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among PWIDs recruited in Malaysia between 2010 and 2011 by population sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 128 gag-pol sequences. HIV-1 CRF33_01B was circulating among 71% of PWIDs whilst a lower prevalence of other previously dominant HIV-1 genotypes [subtype B′ (11%) and CRF01_AE (5%)] and CRF01_AE/B′ unique recombinants (13%) were detected, indicating a significant shift in genotype replacement in this population. Three clusters of CRF01_AE/B′ recombinants displaying divergent yet phylogenetically-related mosaic genomes to CRF33_01B were identified and characterized, suggestive of an abrupt emergence of multiple novel CRF clades. Using rigorous maximum likelihood approach and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of CRF33_01Bpol sequences to elucidate the past population dynamics, we found that the founder lineages of CRF33_01B were likely to have first emerged among PWIDs in the early 1990 s before spreading exponentially to various high and low-risk populations (including children who acquired infections from their mothers) and later on became endemic around the early 2000 s. Taken together, our findings provide notable genetic evidence indicating the widespread expansion of CRF33_01B among PWIDs and into the general population. The emergence of numerous previously unknown recombinant clades highlights the

  2. Molecular diversity of HIV-1 among people who inject drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: massive expansion of circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B and emergence of multiple unique recombinant clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Ong, Lai Yee; Razak, Siti Humaira; Lee, Yeat Mei; Ng, Kim Tien; Yong, Yean Kong; Azmel, Azureen; Takebe, Yutaka; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B in Malaysia in the early 2000 s, continuous genetic diversification and active recombination involving CRF33_01B and other circulating genotypes in the region including CRF01_AE and subtype B' of Thai origin, have led to the emergence of novel CRFs and unique recombinant forms. The history and magnitude of CRF33_01B transmission among various risk groups including people who inject drugs (PWID) however have not been investigated despite the high epidemiological impact of CRF33_01B in the region. We update the most recent molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among PWIDs recruited in Malaysia between 2010 and 2011 by population sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 128 gag-pol sequences. HIV-1 CRF33_01B was circulating among 71% of PWIDs whilst a lower prevalence of other previously dominant HIV-1 genotypes [subtype B' (11%) and CRF01_AE (5%)] and CRF01_AE/B' unique recombinants (13%) were detected, indicating a significant shift in genotype replacement in this population. Three clusters of CRF01_AE/B' recombinants displaying divergent yet phylogenetically-related mosaic genomes to CRF33_01B were identified and characterized, suggestive of an abrupt emergence of multiple novel CRF clades. Using rigorous maximum likelihood approach and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of CRF33_01Bpol sequences to elucidate the past population dynamics, we found that the founder lineages of CRF33_01B were likely to have first emerged among PWIDs in the early 1990 s before spreading exponentially to various high and low-risk populations (including children who acquired infections from their mothers) and later on became endemic around the early 2000 s. Taken together, our findings provide notable genetic evidence indicating the widespread expansion of CRF33_01B among PWIDs and into the general population. The emergence of numerous previously unknown recombinant clades highlights the escalating

  3. Molecular diversity of HIV-1 among people who inject drugs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: massive expansion of circulating recombinant form (CRF 33_01B and emergence of multiple unique recombinant clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhen Chow

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF 33_01B in Malaysia in the early 2000 s, continuous genetic diversification and active recombination involving CRF33_01B and other circulating genotypes in the region including CRF01_AE and subtype B' of Thai origin, have led to the emergence of novel CRFs and unique recombinant forms. The history and magnitude of CRF33_01B transmission among various risk groups including people who inject drugs (PWID however have not been investigated despite the high epidemiological impact of CRF33_01B in the region. We update the most recent molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among PWIDs recruited in Malaysia between 2010 and 2011 by population sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 128 gag-pol sequences. HIV-1 CRF33_01B was circulating among 71% of PWIDs whilst a lower prevalence of other previously dominant HIV-1 genotypes [subtype B' (11% and CRF01_AE (5%] and CRF01_AE/B' unique recombinants (13% were detected, indicating a significant shift in genotype replacement in this population. Three clusters of CRF01_AE/B' recombinants displaying divergent yet phylogenetically-related mosaic genomes to CRF33_01B were identified and characterized, suggestive of an abrupt emergence of multiple novel CRF clades. Using rigorous maximum likelihood approach and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC sampling of CRF33_01Bpol sequences to elucidate the past population dynamics, we found that the founder lineages of CRF33_01B were likely to have first emerged among PWIDs in the early 1990 s before spreading exponentially to various high and low-risk populations (including children who acquired infections from their mothers and later on became endemic around the early 2000 s. Taken together, our findings provide notable genetic evidence indicating the widespread expansion of CRF33_01B among PWIDs and into the general population. The emergence of numerous previously unknown recombinant clades highlights the

  4. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  5. Performance criteria for graph clustering and Markov cluster experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Dongen

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn~[1] a cluster algorithm for graphs was introduced called the Markov cluster algorithm or MCL~algorithm. The algorithm is based on simulation of (stochastic) flow in graphs by means of alternation of two operators, expansion and inflation. The results in~[2] establish an intrinsic

  6. Correlation expansion: a powerful alternative multiple scattering calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haifeng; Wu Ziyu; Sebilleau, Didier

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a powerful alternative expansion method to perform multiple scattering calculations. In contrast to standard MS series expansion, where the scattering contributions are grouped in terms of scattering order and may diverge in the low energy region, this expansion, called correlation expansion, partitions the scattering process into contributions from different small atom groups and converges at all energies. It converges faster than MS series expansion when the latter is convergent. Furthermore, it takes less memory than the full MS method so it can be used in the near edge region without any divergence problem, even for large clusters. The correlation expansion framework we derive here is very general and can serve to calculate all the elements of the scattering path operator matrix. Photoelectron diffraction calculations in a cluster containing 23 atoms are presented to test the method and compare it to full MS and standard MS series expansion

  7. Perturbation Expansion in Dynamical Nuclear Field Theory and Its Relation with Boson Expansion Theory : Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Teruo, KISHIMOTO; Tetsuo, KAMMURI; Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba; Department of Physics, Osaka University

    1990-01-01

    With the Dynamical Nuclear Field Theory (DNFT) in the Tamm-Dancoff representation we examine higher order corrections in the vibrational mode of a spherical nuclear system. Due to the effects of bubble diagrams, the perturbation expansion in terms of the unrenormalized coupling strength and boson energy fails at full self-consistency. On the other hand, it becomes applicable in the form of linked-cluster expansion when we use thses constants renormalized by the effect of bubble diagrams, in t...

  8. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  9. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  10. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1979-10-15

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  11. Progressive Exponential Clustering-Based Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cluster indexing-based steganography is an important branch of data-hiding techniques. Such schemes normally achieve good balance between high embedding capacity and low embedding distortion. However, most cluster indexing-based steganographic schemes utilise less efficient clustering algorithms for embedding data, which causes redundancy and leaves room for increasing the embedding capacity further. In this paper, a new clustering algorithm, called progressive exponential clustering (PEC, is applied to increase the embedding capacity by avoiding redundancy. Meanwhile, a cluster expansion algorithm is also developed in order to further increase the capacity without sacrificing imperceptibility.

  12. Convergence of mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained

  13. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  14. CO2 laser photolysis of clustered ions, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Yasumasa; Soga, Takeshi; Suzuki, Kazuya; Ohno, Shin-ichi.

    1990-09-01

    Vibrational excitation and the following decomposition of cluster ions by CO 2 laser photons are studied. Characteristics of the cluster ion and the CO 2 laser photon are summarized in their relation to the photolysis of cluster ions. An apparatus was installed, which is composed of (1) corona discharge-jet expansion section (formation of cluster ions), (2) CO 2 laser section (photolysis of cluster ions), and (3) mass spectrometer section. Experimental results of ammonia cluster ions were described. Effects of repeller voltage, shape of repellers, and adiabatic cooling are examined on the formation of ammonia cluster ions by corona discharge-jet expansion method. Collisional dissociation of cluster ions was observed at high repeller voltages. Size distribution of the ammonia cluster ion is discussed in connection with the temperature of cluster ions. Intensity of CO 2 laser was related to decomposition yield of cluster ions. (author)

  15. Cluster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1992-11-01

    Cluster management is a management model that fosters decentralization of management, develops leadership potential of staff, and creates ownership of unit-based goals. Unlike shared governance models, there is no formal structure created by committees and it is less threatening for managers. There are two parts to the cluster management model. One is the formation of cluster groups, consisting of all staff and facilitated by a cluster leader. The cluster groups function for communication and problem-solving. The second part of the cluster management model is the creation of task forces. These task forces are designed to work on short-term goals, usually in response to solving one of the unit's goals. Sometimes the task forces are used for quality improvement or system problems. Clusters are groups of not more than five or six staff members, facilitated by a cluster leader. A cluster is made up of individuals who work the same shift. For example, people with job titles who work days would be in a cluster. There would be registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nursing assistants, and unit clerks in the cluster. The cluster leader is chosen by the manager based on certain criteria and is trained for this specialized role. The concept of cluster management, criteria for choosing leaders, training for leaders, using cluster groups to solve quality improvement issues, and the learning process necessary for manager support are described.

  16. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  17. Fuel Thermal Expansion (FTHEXP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymann, G.A.

    1978-07-01

    A model is presented which deals with dimensional changes in LWR fuel pellets caused by changes in temperature. It is capable of dealing with any combination of UO 2 and PuO 2 in solid, liquid or mixed phase states, and includes expansion due to the solid-liquid phase change. The function FTHEXP models fuel thermal expansion as a function of temperature, fraction of PuO 2 , and the fraction of fuel which is molten

  18. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraedts, J.M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF 6 ) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  19. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a role. Unlike migraine and tension headache, cluster headache generally isn't associated with triggers, such as foods, hormonal changes or stress. Once a cluster period begins, however, drinking alcohol ...

  20. Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Iris

    1985-01-01

    Cluster headache is the most severe primary headache with recurrent pain attacks described as worse than giving birth. The aim of this paper was to make an overview of current knowledge on cluster headache with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. This paper presents hypotheses of cluster headache pathophysiology, current treatment options and possible future therapy approaches. For years, the hypothalamus was regarded as the key structure in cluster headache, but is now thought to be pa...

  1. Categorias Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Dayane Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as categorias cluster, que foram introduzidas por Aslak Bakke Buan, Robert Marsh, Markus Reineke, Idun Reiten e Gordana Todorov, com o objetivo de categoriíicar as algebras cluster criadas em 2002 por Sergey Fomin e Andrei Zelevinsky. Os autores acima, em [4], mostraram que existe uma estreita relação entre algebras cluster e categorias cluster para quivers cujo grafo subjacente é um diagrama de Dynkin. Para isto desenvolveram uma teoria tilting na estrutura triang...

  2. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  3. Horticultural cluster

    OpenAIRE

    SHERSTIUK S.V.; POSYLAYEVA K.I.

    2013-01-01

    In the article there are the theoretical and methodological approaches to the nature and existence of the cluster. The cluster differences from other kinds of cooperative and integration associations. Was develop by scientific-practical recommendations for forming a competitive horticultur cluster.

  4. Resonant state expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.)

  5. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    sell their products successfully in international markets, but there is also an increasingly large consumer base within India. Indeed, Indian industrial clusters have contributed to a substantial part of this growth process, and there are several hundred registered clusters within the country...... of this handbook, which focuses on the role of CSR in MSMEs. Hence we contribute to the literature on CSR in industrial clusters and specifically CSR in Indian industrial clusters by investigating the drivers of CSR in India’s industrial clusters....

  6. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1980-01-01

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  7. Thin foil expansion into a vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma expansion into a vacuum is an old problem which has been renewed recently in various contexts: expansion of ultra-cold plasmas, cluster expansion, of dust grains, expansion of thin foils. In this presentation I will first discuss the physics of the expansion of a thin foil irradiated by an ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulse. The expansion results in the formation of high energy ions. For an infinitely steep plasma-vacuum interface the fastest ions are located in the outer part of the expansion and their velocity is given by ν m ax∼ 2 C s (In ω p it) where c s (Zk B T e /m i )''1/2 is the ion-acoustic velocity ω p i=(n e 0Ze''2/m i e 0 )''1/2 is the ion plasma frequency, n e 0 is the electron density in the unperturbed plasma, Z is the ion charge number. In the above expression, t is either the pulse duration or the effective acceleration time (in particular t∼L/2c s , where L is the width of the foil, when the electron cooling is taken into account). A salient characteristic of the expansion is the occurrence of a double layer structure and a peak of the accelerating electric field at the ion front. I will explain the origin of the peak and predict its temporal behavior. This peak has been diagnosed in recent experiments. I will also discuss the effect of a 2-temperatures electron distribution function on the expansion, showing the dominant role of the hot electron component. Finally I will discuss the occurrence of ion spikes in the expansion when the initial density profile is smooth. The ion spike is due to a wave breaking which cannot be handled in a satisfactory way by a fluid code and requires a kinetic description. A. simple collisionless particle code has been used to treat the evolution of the spike after the wave breaking and the results will be shown. (Author)

  8. Accelerating the loop expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingermanson, R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi 4 theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs

  9. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathsman, J.

    2000-02-07

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.

  10. Thermal expansion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives regression data for a modified second order polynomial fitted to the expansion data of, and percentage expansions for dioxides with (a) the fluorite and antifluorite structure: AmO 2 , BkO 2 , CeO 2 , CmO 2 , HfO 2 , Li 2 O, NpO 2 , PrO 2 , PuO 2 , ThO 2 , UO 2 , ZrO 2 , and (b) the rutile structure: CrO 2 , GeO 2 , IrO 2 , MnO 2 , NbO 2 , PbO 2 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 , TeO 2 , TiO 2 and VO 2 . Reduced expansion curves for the dioxides showed only partial grouping into iso-electronic series for the fluorite structures and showed that the 'law of corresponding states' did not apply to the rutile structures. (author)

  11. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  12. Low-temperature thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the thermal expansion of insulators and metals. Harmonicity and anharmonicity in thermal expansion are examined. The electronic, magnetic, an other contributions to low temperature thermal expansion are analyzed. The thermodynamics of the Debye isotropic continuum, the lattice-dynamical approach, and the thermal expansion of metals are discussed. Relative linear expansion at low temperatures is reviewed and further calculations of the electronic thermal expansion coefficient are given. Thermal expansions are given for Cu, Al and Ti. Phenomenologic thermodynamic relationships are also discussed

  13. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  14. Cumulants in perturbation expansions for non-equilibrium field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauser, R.

    1995-11-01

    The formulation of perturbation expansions for a quantum field theory of strongly interacting systems in a general non-equilibrium state is discussed. Non-vanishing initial correlations are included in the formulation of the perturbation expansion in terms of cumulants. The cumulants are shown to be the suitable candidate for summing up the perturbation expansion. Also a linked-cluster theorem for the perturbation series with cumulants is presented. Finally a generating functional of the perturbation series with initial correlations is studied. We apply the methods to a simple model of a fermion-boson system. (orig.)

  15. Lace expansion for dummies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolthausen, Erwin; Van Der Hofstad, Remco; Kozma, Gady

    2018-01-01

    We show Green's function asymptotic upper bound for the two-point function of weakly self-Avoiding walk in d >4, revisiting a classic problem. Our proof relies on Banach algebras to analyse the lace-expansion fixed point equation and is simpler than previous approaches in that it avoids Fourier

  16. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  17. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  18. Cluster evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The galaxy and cluster luminosity functions are constructed from a model of the mass distribution based on hierarchical clustering at an epoch where the matter distribution is non-linear. These luminosity functions are seen to reproduce the present distribution of objects as can be inferred from the observations. They can be used to deduce the redshift dependence of the cluster distribution and to extrapolate the observations towards the past. The predicted evolution of the cluster distribution is quite strong, although somewhat less rapid than predicted by the linear theory

  19. Notes on Mayer expansions and matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile

    2014-01-01

    Mayer cluster expansion is an important tool in statistical physics to evaluate grand canonical partition functions. It has recently been applied to the Nekrasov instanton partition function of N=2 4d gauge theories. The associated canonical model involves coupled integrations that take the form of a generalized matrix model. It can be studied with the standard techniques of matrix models, in particular collective field theory and loop equations. In the first part of these notes, we explain how the results of collective field theory can be derived from the cluster expansion. The equalities between free energies at first orders is explained by the discrete Laplace transform relating canonical and grand canonical models. In a second part, we study the canonical loop equations and associate them with similar relations on the grand canonical side. It leads to relate the multi-point densities, fundamental objects of the matrix model, to the generating functions of multi-rooted clusters. Finally, a method is proposed to derive loop equations directly on the grand canonical model

  20. Supersonic copper clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.E.; Hansen, S.G.; Geusic, M.E.; Michalopoulos, D.L.; Smalley, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Copper clusters ranging in size from 1 to 29 atoms have been prepared in a supersonic beam by laser vaporization of a rotating copper target rod within the throat of a pulsed supersonic nozzle using helium for the carrier gas. The clusters were cooled extensively in the supersonic expansion [T(translational) 1 to 4 K, T(rotational) = 4 K, T(vibrational) = 20 to 70 K]. These clusters were detected in the supersonic beam by laser photoionization with time-of-flight mass analysis. Using a number of fixed frequency outputs of an exciplex laser, the threshold behavior of the photoionization cross section was monitored as a function of cluster size.nce two-photon ionization (R2PI) with mass selective detection allowed the detection of five new electronic band systems in the region between 2690 and 3200 A, for each of the three naturally occurring isotopic forms of Cu 2 . In the process of scanning the R2PI spectrum of these new electronic states, the ionization potential of the copper dimer was determined to be 7.894 +- 0.015 eV

  1. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  2. Financing electricity expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)

  3. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  4. Expansion of magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic clouds are a carefully defined subclass of all interplanetary signatures of coronal mass ejections whose geometry is thought to be that of a cylinder embedded in a plane. It has been found that the total magnetic pressure inside the clouds is higher than the ion pressure outside, and that the clouds are expanding at 1 AU at about half the local Alfven speed. The geometry of the clouds is such that even though the magnetic pressure inside is larger than the total pressure outside, expansion will not occur because the pressure is balanced by magnetic tension - the pinch effect. The evidence for expansion of clouds at 1 AU is nevertheless quite strong so another reason for its existence must be found. It is demonstrated that the observations can be reproduced by taking into account the effects of geometrical distortion of the low plasma beta clouds as they move away from the Sun

  5. IKEA's International Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Harapiak, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    This case concerns a global retailing firm that is dealing with strategic management and marketing issues. Applying a scenario of international expansion, this case provides a thorough analysis of the current business environment for IKEA. Utilizing a variety of methods (e.g. SWOT, PESTLE, McKinsey Matrix) the overall objective is to provide students with the opportunity to apply their research skills and knowledge regarding a highly competitive industry to develop strategic marketing strateg...

  6. Symmetric eikonal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)

  7. Series expansions without diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.; Horvath, I.; Lacki, J.; Weckel, J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the use of recursive enumeration schemes to obtain low- and high-temperature series expansions for discrete statistical systems. Using linear combinations of generalized helical lattices, the method is competitive with diagrammatic approaches and is easily generalizable. We illustrate the approach using Ising and Potts models. We present low-temperature series results in up to five dimensions and high-temperature series in three dimensions. The method is general and can be applied to any discrete model

  8. Population Genetics of Three Dimensional Range Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Maxim; Nelson, David

    2014-03-01

    We develop a simple model of genetic diversity in growing spherical cell clusters, where the growth is confined to the cluster surface. This kind of growth occurs in cells growing in soft agar, and can also serve as a simple model of avascular tumors. Mutation-selection balance in these radial expansions is strongly influenced by scaling near a neutral, voter model critical point and by the inflating frontier. We develop a scaling theory to describe how the dynamics of mutation-selection balance is cut off by inflation. Genetic drift, i.e., local fluctuations in the genetic diversity, also plays an important role, and can lead to the extinction even of selectively advantageous strains. We calculate this extinction probability, taking into account the effect of rough population frontiers.

  9. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  10. Clustering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romli

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K -mean method ' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods

  11. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  12. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side...

  13. Volume shift and charge instability of simple-metal clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Brajczewska, Marta; Vieira, Armando; Fiolhais, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    Experiment indicates that small clusters show changes (mostly contractions) of the bond lengths with respect to bulk values. We use the stabilized jellium model to study the self-expansion and self-compression of spherical clusters (neutral or ionized) of simple metals. Results from Kohn — Sham density functional theory are presented for small clusters of Al and Na, including negatively-charged ones. We also examine the stability of clusters with respect to charging

  14. Volume shift and charge instability of simple-metal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajczewska, M.; Vieira, A.; Fiolhais, C.; Perdew, J. P.

    1996-12-01

    Experiment indicates that small clusters show changes (mostly contractions) of the bond lengths with respect to bulk values. We use the stabilized jellium model to study the self-expansion and self-compression of spherical clusters (neutral or ionized) of simple metals. Results from Kohn - Sham density functional theory are presented for small clusters of Al and Na, including negatively-charged ones. We also examine the stability of clusters with respect to charging.

  15. Expansions for Coulomb wave functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are

  16. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  17. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A symptom is a condition indicating the presence of a disease, especially, when regarded as an aid in diagnosis.Symptoms are the smallest units indicating the existence of a disease. A syndrome on the other hand is an aggregate, set or cluster of concurrent symptoms which together indicate...... and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c......-mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  18. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  19. Cluster Bulleticity

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, such as the bullet cluster (1E 0657−56) and baby bullet (MACS J0025−12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distributions of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary ‘baryonic’ matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by their rarity. C...

  20. Cluster headache

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Elizabeth; Ducros, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes) of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye). It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name) in bouts that can occur ...

  1. Distribution and evolution of electrons in a cluster plasma created by a laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the properties and the character of the evolution of an electron subsystem of a large cluster (with a number of atoms n ∼ 10 4 -10 6 ) interacting with a short laser pulse of high intensity (10 17 -10 19 W/cm 2 ). As a result of ionization in a strong laser field, cluster atoms are converted into multicharged ions, part of the electrons being formed leaves the cluster, and the other electrons move in a self-consistent field of the charged cluster and the laser wave. It is shown that electron-electron collisions are inessential both during the cluster irradiation by the laser pulse and in the course of cluster expansion; the electron distribution in the cluster therefore does not transform into the Maxwell distribution even during cluster expansion. During cluster expansion, the Coulomb field of a cluster charge acts on cluster ions more strongly than the pressure resulting from electron-ion collisions. In addition, bound electrons remain inside the cluster in the course of its expansion, and cluster expansion therefore does not lead to additional cluster ionization

  2. Radial expansion and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Nakagawa, T.; Patry, J.P.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    The light systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti were measured at several bombarding energies between ∼ 35 and 95 MeV/nucleon. It was found that the predominant part of the cross section is due to binary collisions. In this paper the focus is placed on the properties of the quasi-projectile nuclei. In the central collisions the excitation energies of the quasi-projectile reach values exceeding largely 10 MeV/nucleon. The slope of the high energy part of the distribution can give only an upper limit of the apparent temperature (the average temperature along the decay chain). The highly excited quasi-projectile may get rapidly fragmented rather than sequentially. The heavy fragments are excited and can emit light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He, α,...) what perturbs additionally the spectrum of these particles. Concerning the expansion energy, one can determine the average kinetic energies of the product (in the quasi-projectile-framework) and compare with simulation values. To fit the experimental data an additional radial expansion energy is to be considered. The average expansion energy depends slightly on the impact parameter but it increases with E * / A, ranging from 0.4 to 1,2 MeV/nucleon for an excitation energy increasing from 7 to 10.5 MeV/nucleon. This collective radial energy seems to be independent of the fragment mass, what is possibly valid for the case of larger quasi-projectile masses. The origin of the expansion is to be determined. It may be due to a compression in the interaction zone at the initial stage of the collision, which propagates in the quasi-projectile and quasi-target, or else, may be due, simply, to the increase of thermal energy leading to a rapid fragment emission. The sequential de-excitation calculation overestimates light particle emission and consequently heavy residues, particularly, at higher excitation energies. This disagreement indicates that a sequential process can not account for the di-excitation of very hot nuclei

  3. Rethinking expansive learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    Abstract: This paper analyses an online community of master’s students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. The students initiated and facilitated an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisation where they are employed. By using an online...... discussion forum on Google groups, they created new ways of reflecting and learning. We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. The findings show how students changed practices of organisational learning...

  4. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  5. Expansion patterns and parallaxes for planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberner, D.; Balick, B.; Jacob, R.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: We aim to determine individual distances to a small number of rather round, quite regularly shaped planetary nebulae by combining their angular expansion in the plane of the sky with a spectroscopically measured expansion along the line of sight. Methods: We combined up to three epochs of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data and determined the angular proper motions of rim and shell edges and of other features. These results are combined with measured expansion speeds to determine individual distances by assuming that line of sight and sky-plane expansions are equal. We employed 1D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of nebular evolution to correct for the difference between the spectroscopically measured expansion velocities of rim and shell and of their respective shock fronts. Results: Rim and shell are two independently expanding entities, driven by different physical mechanisms, although their model-based expansion timescales are quite similar. We derive good individual distances for 15 objects, and the main results are as follows: (i) distances derived from rim and shell agree well; (ii) comparison with the statistical distances in the literature gives reasonable agreement; (iii) our distances disagree with those derived by spectroscopic methods; (iv) central-star "plateau" luminosities range from about 2000 L⊙ to well below 10 000 L⊙, with a mean value at about 5000 L⊙, in excellent agreement with other samples of known distance (Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds, and K648 in the globular cluster M 15); (v) the central-star mass range is rather restricted: from about 0.53 to about 0.56 M⊙, with a mean value of 0.55 M⊙. Conclusions: The expansion measurements of nebular rim and shell edges confirm the predictions of radiation-hydrodynamics simulations and offer a reliable method for the evaluation of distances to suited objects. Results of this paper are based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope in Cycle 16 (GO11122

  6. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  7. Provincial hydro expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froschauer, K J

    1993-01-01

    A study of the development of five provincial hydroelectric utilities in Canada indicates that power companies and the state invited manufacturers to use hydroelectricity and natural resources in order to diversify provincial economies. These hydro expansions also show that utilities and government designed hydro projects to serve continental requirements; serving both objectives became problematic. It is argued that when the Canadian state and firms such as utilities use hydro expansions to serve both continentalism and industrialization, then at best they foster dependent industrialization and staple processing. At worst, they overbuild the infrastructure to generate provincial surplus energy for continental, rather than national, integration. Hydro developments became subject to state intervention in Canada mainly through the failures of private utilities to provide power for the less-lucrative industrial markets within provincial subregions. Although the state and utilities invited foreign firms to manufacture hydro equipment within the provinces and others to use electricity to diversify production beyond resource processing, such a diversification did not occur. Since 1962, ca 80% of industrial energy was used to semi-process wood-derived products, chemicals, and metals. The idea for a national power network became undermined by interprovincial political-economic factors and since 1963, the federal national/continential power policy prevailed. 187 refs., 6 figs., 52 tabs.

  8. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  9. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  10. Identity Expansion and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging developments in communications and computing technology may transform the nature of human identity, in the process rendering obsolete the traditional philosophical and scientific frameworks for understanding the nature of individuals and groups.  Progress toward an evaluation of this possibility and an appropriate conceptual basis for analyzing it may be derived from two very different but ultimately connected social movements that promote this radical change. One is the governmentally supported exploration of Converging Technologies, based in the unification of nanoscience, biology, information science and cognitive science (NBIC. The other is the Transhumanist movement, which has been criticized as excessively radical yet is primarily conducted as a dignified intellectual discussion within a new school of philosophy about human enhancement.  Together, NBIC and Transhumanism suggest the immense transformative power of today’s technologies, through which individuals may explore multiple identities by means of online avatars, semi-autonomous intelligent agents, and other identity expansions.

  11. CytoCluster: A Cytoscape Plugin for Cluster Analysis and Visualization of Biological Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Li, Dongyan; Tang, Yu; Wu, Fangxiang; Wang, Jianxin

    2017-08-31

    Nowadays, cluster analysis of biological networks has become one of the most important approaches to identifying functional modules as well as predicting protein complexes and network biomarkers. Furthermore, the visualization of clustering results is crucial to display the structure of biological networks. Here we present CytoCluster, a cytoscape plugin integrating six clustering algorithms, HC-PIN (Hierarchical Clustering algorithm in Protein Interaction Networks), OH-PIN (identifying Overlapping and Hierarchical modules in Protein Interaction Networks), IPCA (Identifying Protein Complex Algorithm), ClusterONE (Clustering with Overlapping Neighborhood Expansion), DCU (Detecting Complexes based on Uncertain graph model), IPC-MCE (Identifying Protein Complexes based on Maximal Complex Extension), and BinGO (the Biological networks Gene Ontology) function. Users can select different clustering algorithms according to their requirements. The main function of these six clustering algorithms is to detect protein complexes or functional modules. In addition, BinGO is used to determine which Gene Ontology (GO) categories are statistically overrepresented in a set of genes or a subgraph of a biological network. CytoCluster can be easily expanded, so that more clustering algorithms and functions can be added to this plugin. Since it was created in July 2013, CytoCluster has been downloaded more than 9700 times in the Cytoscape App store and has already been applied to the analysis of different biological networks. CytoCluster is available from http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/cytocluster.

  12. Computationally inexpensive interpretation of magnetic data for finite spin clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Aagaard; Weihe, Høgni; Bendix, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We show that high-temperature expansion of the partition function is a computationally convenient tool to interpretation of magnetic properties of spin clusters wherein the spin centers are interacting via an isotropic Heisenberg exchange operator. High-temperature expansions up to order 12 are u...

  13. Properties of an ionised-cluster beam from a vaporised-cluster ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, T.; Yamada, I.; Sasaki, A.

    1978-01-01

    A new type of ion source vaporised-metal cluster ion source, has been developed for deposition and epitaxy. A cluster consisting of 10 2 to 10 3 atoms coupled loosely together is formed by adiabatic expansion ejecting the vapour of materials into a high-vacuum region through the nozzle of a heated crucible. The clusters are ionised by electron bombardment and accelerated with neutral clusters toward a substrate. In this paper, mechanisms of cluster formation experimental results of the cluster size (atoms/cluster) and its distribution, and characteristics of the cluster ion beams are reported. The size is calculated from the kinetic equation E = (1/2)mNVsub(ej) 2 , where E is the cluster beam energy, Vsub(ej) is the ejection velocity, m is the mass of atom and N is the cluster size. The energy and the velocity of the cluster are measured by an electrostatic 127 0 energy analyser and a rotating disc system, respectively. The cluster size obtained for Ag is about 5 x 10 2 to 2 x 10 3 atoms. The retarding potential method is used to confirm the results for Ag. The same dependence on cluster size for metals such as Ag, Cu and Pb has been obtained in previous experiments. In the cluster state the cluster ion beam is easily produced by electron bombardment. About 50% of ionised clusters are obtained under typical operation conditions, because of the large ionisation cross sections of the clusters. To obtain a uniform spatial distribution, the ionising electrode system is also discussed. The new techniques are termed ionised-cluster beam deposition (ICBD) and epitaxy (ICBE). (author)

  14. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.; Hou, Siqing

    2017-01-01

    baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number

  15. Thermal expansion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.; Mazurenko, V.G.; Maslov, V.A.; Medvedev, V.A.; Polupanova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Precise measurements of temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear expansion in the 22-320 K temperature range on beryllium oxide monocrystals are conducted. A model of thermal expansion is suggested; the range of temperature dependence minimum of the coefficient of thermal expansion is well described within the frames of this model. The results of the experiment may be used for investigation of thermal stresses in crystals

  16. Laval nozzles for cluster-jet targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, Silke; Bonaventura, Daniel; Hergemoeller, Ann-Katrin; Hetz, Benjamin; Koehler, Esperanza; Lessmann, Lukas; Khoukaz, Alfons [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Cluster-jet targets are highly suited for storage ring experiments due to the fact that they provide high and constant beam densities. Therefore, a cluster-jet target is planned to be the first internal target for the PANDA experiment at FAIR. A cluster source generates a continuous flow of cryogenic solid clusters by the expansion of pre-cooled gases within fine Laval nozzles. For the production of clusters the geometry of the nozzle is crucial. The production of such nozzles with their complex inner geometry represents a major technical challenge. The possibility to produce new fine Laval nozzles ensures the operation of cluster-jet targets, e.g. for the PANDA experiment, and opens the way for future investigations on the cluster production process to match the required targets performance. Optimizations on the recently developed production process and the fabrication of new glass nozzles were done. Initial measurements of these nozzles at the PANDA cluster-jet target prototype and the investigation of the cluster beam origin within the nozzle will be presented and discussed. For the future more Laval nozzles with different geometries will be produced and additional measurements with these new nozzles at the PANDA cluster-jet target prototype towards higher performance will be realized.

  17. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands...... or management. Both the Accelerate Wales and the Accelerate Cluster programmes target this issue by trying to establish networks between companies that can be used to supply knowledge from research institutions to manufacturing companies. The paper concludes that public sector interventions can make...... businesses. The universities were not considered by the participating companies to be important parts of the local business environment and inputs from universities did not appear to be an important source to access knowledge about new product development or new techniques in production, distribution...

  18. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  19. Renormalization group and Mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-02-01

    Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory by Goepfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear sigma-model, and elsewhere. (orig.)

  20. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  1. Renormalization group and mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U (1) lattice gauge theory by Gopfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear σ-model, and elsewhere

  2. On summation of perturbation expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.

    1985-04-01

    The problem of the restoration of physical quantities defined by divergent perturbation expansions is analysed. The Pad'e and Borel summability is proved for alternating perturbation expansions with factorially growing coefficients. The proof is based on the methods of the classical moments theory. 17 refs. (author)

  3. Cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mucha, Hans-Joachim; Sofyan, Hizir

    2000-01-01

    As an explorative technique, duster analysis provides a description or a reduction in the dimension of the data. It classifies a set of observations into two or more mutually exclusive unknown groups based on combinations of many variables. Its aim is to construct groups in such a way that the profiles of objects in the same groups are relatively homogenous whereas the profiles of objects in different groups are relatively heterogeneous. Clustering is distinct from classification techniques, ...

  4. PARALLEL SPATIOTEMPORAL SPECTRAL CLUSTERING WITH MASSIVE TRAJECTORY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Gu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Massive trajectory data contains wealth useful information and knowledge. Spectral clustering, which has been shown to be effective in finding clusters, becomes an important clustering approaches in the trajectory data mining. However, the traditional spectral clustering lacks the temporal expansion on the algorithm and limited in its applicability to large-scale problems due to its high computational complexity. This paper presents a parallel spatiotemporal spectral clustering based on multiple acceleration solutions to make the algorithm more effective and efficient, the performance is proved due to the experiment carried out on the massive taxi trajectory dataset in Wuhan city, China.

  5. Expanding Comparative Literature into Comparative Sciences Clusters with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By using Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, the expansions of comparative literature include: comparative social sciences clusters, comparative natural sciences clusters, comparative interdisciplinary sciences clusters, and so on. Among them, comparative social sciences clusters include: comparative literature, comparative history, comparative philosophy, and so on; comparative natural sciences clusters include: comparative mathematics, comparative physics, comparative chemistry, comparative medicine, comparative biology, and so on.

  6. Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C

    2002-01-01

    The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures

  7. Ionization of large homogeneous and heterogeneous clusters generated in acetylene–Ar expansions: Cluster ion polymerization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočišek, Jaroslav; Lengyel, Jozef; Fárník, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 12 (2013), s. 124306 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0422 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238671 - ICONIC Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : argon * electron impact ionization * evaporation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.122, year: 2013

  8. Fine‐Grained Mobile Application Clustering Model Using Retrofitted Document Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo‐Chan Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fine‐grained mobile application clustering model using retrofitted document embedding. To automatically determine the clusters and their numbers with no predefined categories, the proposed model initializes the clusters based on title keywords and then merges similar clusters. For improved clustering performance, the proposed model distinguishes between an accurate clustering step with titles and an expansive clustering step with descriptions. During the accurate clustering step, an automatically tagged set is constructed as a result. This set is utilized to learn a high‐performance document vector. During the expansive clustering step, more applications are then classified using this document vector. Experimental results showed that the purity of the proposed model increased by 0.19, and the entropy decreased by 1.18, compared with the K‐means algorithm. In addition, the mean average precision improved by more than 0.09 in a comparison with a support vector machine classifier.

  9. Warp drive with zero expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natario, Jose [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal)

    2002-03-21

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  10. Expansion lyre-shaped tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andro, Jean.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates the expansion lyre-shaped tube portions formed in dudgeoned tubular bundles between two bottom plates. An expansion lyre comprises at least two sets of tubes of unequal lengths coplanar and symmetrical with respect to the main tube axis, with connecting portions between the tubes forming said sets. The invention applies to apparatus such as heat exchangers, heaters, superheaters or breeders [fr

  11. Estimates of expansion time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy. 1 figure

  12. Strategic Complexity and Global Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oladottir, Asta Dis; Hobdari, Bersant; Papanastassiou, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of global expansion strategies of newcomer Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by focusing on Iceland, Israel and Ireland. We argue that newcomer MNCs from small open economies pursue complex global expansion strategies (CGES). We distinguish....... The empirical evidence suggests that newcomer MNCs move away from simplistic dualities in the formulation of their strategic choices towards more complex options as a means of maintaining and enhancing their global competitiveness....

  13. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  14. Nuclear clustering - a cluster core model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Selvi, G.; Nandhini, N.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear clustering, similar to other clustering phenomenon in nature is a much warranted study, since it would help us in understanding the nature of binding of the nucleons inside the nucleus, closed shell behaviour when the system is highly deformed, dynamics and structure at extremes. Several models account for the clustering phenomenon of nuclei. We present in this work, a cluster core model study of nuclear clustering in light mass nuclei

  15. Local expansion flows of galaxies: quantifying acceleration effect of dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.

    2013-08-01

    The nearest expansion flow of galaxies observed around the Local group is studied as an archetypical example of the newly discovered local expansion flows around groups and clusters of galaxies in the nearby Universe. The flow is accelerating due to the antigravity produced by the universal dark energy background. We introduce a new acceleration measure of the flow which is the dimensionless ``acceleration parameter" Q (x) = x - x-2 depending on the normalized distance x only. The parameter is zero at the zero-gravity distance x = 1, and Q(x) ∝ x, when x ≫ 1. At the distance x = 3, the parameter Q = 2.9. Since the expansion flows have a self-similar structure in normalized variables, we expect that the result is valid as well for all the other expansion flows around groups and clusters of galaxies on the spatial scales from ˜ 1 to ˜ 10 Mpc everywhere in the Universe.

  16. Hydrodynamic clustering of droplets in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, Rudie; Yavuz, Altug; van Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman

    2017-11-01

    Small, inertial particles are known to cluster in turbulent flows: particles are centrifuged out of eddies and gather in the strain-dominated regions. This so-called preferential concentration is reflected in the radial distribution function (RDF; a quantitative measure of clustering). We study clustering of water droplets in a loudspeaker-driven turbulence chamber. We track the motion of droplets in 3D and calculate the RDF. At moderate scales (a few Kolmogorov lengths) we find the typical power-law scaling of preferential concentration in the RDF. However, at even smaller scales (a few droplet diameters), we encounter a hitherto unobserved additional clustering. We postulate that the additional clustering is due to hydrodynamic interactions, an effect which is typically disregarded in modeling. Using a perturbative expansion of inertial effects in a Stokes-flow description of two interacting spheres, we obtain an expression for the RDF which indeed includes the additional clustering. The additional clustering enhances the collision probability of droplets, which enhances their growth rate due to coalescence. The additional clustering is thus an essential effect in precipitation modeling.

  17. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  18. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  19. Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...

  20. Low thermal expansion glass ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...

  1. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  2. The far from equilibrium structure of argon clusters doped with krypton or xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, A; Bergersen, H; Rander, T; Lundwall, M; Ohrwall, G; Tchaplyguine, M; Svensson, S; Björneholm, O

    2006-04-28

    Heterogeneous clusters created by doping Ar host clusters with Kr or Xe are shown to have radically different structures from the mixed clusters of the same type created by co-expansion of Ar-Kr or Ar-Xe gas mixtures. In contrast to the co-expansion case, the doped mixed clusters can be produced with Kr or Xe on the surface and Ar in the bulk. With the doping technique it is thus possible to control the surface composition of a specific cluster. A study of the cluster properties as a function of the doping pressure is also reported for the case of Ar clusters doped with Xe. The clusters have been studied by means of synchrotron radiation based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  3. Brightest Cluster Galaxies in REXCESS Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, L.; Bruch, S.; Donahue, M.

    2009-01-01

    Most galaxy clusters contain a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) which is larger than the other cluster ellipticals and has a more extended profile. In the hierarchical model, the BCG forms through many galaxy mergers in the crowded center of the cluster, and thus its properties give insight into the assembly of the cluster as a whole. In this project, we are working with the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) team (Boehringer et al 2007) to study BCGs in 33 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters, 0.055 < z < 0.183. We are imaging the BCGs in R band at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) in Chile. In this poster, we discuss our methods and give preliminary measurements of the BCG magnitudes, morphology, and stellar mass. We compare these BCG properties with the properties of their host clusters, particularly of the X-ray emitting gas.

  4. The loop expansion as a divergent-power-series expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, N.

    1981-01-01

    The loop expansion should be divergent, possibly an asymptotic one, in the Euclidean path integral formulation. This consideration is important in applications of the symmetric and mass-independent renormalization. The [1,1] Pade approximant is calculated in a PHI 4 model. Its classical vacua may be not truely stable for nonzero coupling constant. (author)

  5. Cosmological expansion and local physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Jacques, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    The interplay between cosmological expansion and local attraction in a gravitationally bound system is revisited in various regimes. First, weakly gravitating Newtonian systems are considered, followed by various exact solutions describing a relativistic central object embedded in a Friedmann universe. It is shown that the 'all or nothing' behavior recently discovered (i.e., weakly coupled systems are comoving while strongly coupled ones resist the cosmic expansion) is limited to the de Sitter background. New exact solutions are presented which describe black holes perfectly comoving with a generic Friedmann universe. The possibility of violating cosmic censorship for a black hole approaching the big rip is also discussed

  6. Temperature expansions for magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangemi, D.; Dunne, G.

    1996-01-01

    We derive finite temperature expansions for relativistic fermion systems in the presence of background magnetic fields, and with nonzero chemical potential. We use the imaginary-time formalism for the finite temperature effects, the proper-time method for the background field effects, and zeta function regularization for developing the expansions. We emphasize the essential difference between even and odd dimensions, focusing on 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. We concentrate on the high temperature limit, but we also discuss the T=0 limit with nonzero chemical potential. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  7. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  8. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  9. Energy expansion planning by considering electrical and thermal expansion simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Ali Reza; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems. • Employing two form of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies. • The main objective is to minimize the costs. • A new Modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) algorithm is applied. - Abstract: This study focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems employing two forms of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies simultaneously. The main objective of this investigation is confirming network adequacy by adding new equipment to the network, over a given planning horizon. The main objective of the energy expansion planning (EEP) is to minimize the real energy loss, voltage deviation and the total cost of installation equipments. Since the objectives are different and incommensurable, it is difficult to solve the problem by the conventional approaches that may optimize a single objective. So, the meta-heuristic algorithm is applied to this problem. Here, Honey Bee Mating Optimization algorithm (HBMO) as a new evolutionary optimization algorithm is utilized. In order to improve the total ability of HBMO for the global search and exploration, a new modification process is suggested such a way that the algorithm will search the total search space globally. Also, regarding the uncertainties of the new complicated energy systems, in this paper for the first time, the EEP problem is investigated in a stochastic environment by the use of probabilistic load flow technique based on Point Estimate Method (PEM). In order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two modified test systems are used as case studies

  10. The intrinsic thermal expansion of point defects in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, Michel.

    1975-11-01

    The differential length measurement between two specimens, on pure and the other containing point defects, leads to the intrinsic thermal coefficient of expansion β(d) of the defect. A differential dilatometer by Laser interferometry is described operating between 77 and 300 K, with a sensitivity of about 100A on the length difference between an alloy sample and a pure dummy. Concerning substitutional impurities in aluminium between -190 deg C and -90 deg C, the intrinsic thermal coefficient of expansion of the defect β(d) is shown to have an absolute value much larger than the thermal expansion coefficient β 0 of the aluminium matrix: β(d)/β 0 =+3 to +6 for the magnesium impurity, β(d)/β 0 =-3 to -4 for the calcium impurity, and to be independent of the temperature. The existing theoretical models give evaluations for away from modeles theoriques existant sont tres loin d'expliquer les resultats experimentaux. high temperature, the results show that vacancies and divacancies, before collapsing in dislocation loops, form multivacancy clusters with large formation volumes: such a property makes these clusters comparable to cavities where the formation volume per vacancy is equal to the atomic volume of the matrix [fr

  11. The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.

    2009-12-01

    Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (α) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of α as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show α-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among α, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in

  12. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  13. Asymptotic Expansions - Methods and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlander, R.

    1999-01-01

    Different viewpoints on the asymptotic expansion of Feynman diagrams are reviewed. The relations between the field theoretic and diagrammatic approaches are sketched. The focus is on problems with large masses or large external momenta. Several recent applications also for other limiting cases are touched upon. Finally, the pros and cons of the different approaches are briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Model of clinker capacity expansion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stylianides, T

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model which has been applied in practice to determine an optimal plan for clinker capacity expansion. The problem was formulated as an integer linear program aiming to determine the optimal number, size and location of kilns...

  15. The bootstrap and edgeworth expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This monograph addresses two quite different topics, in the belief that each can shed light on the other. Firstly, it lays the foundation for a particular view of the bootstrap. Secondly, it gives an account of Edgeworth expansion. Chapter 1 is about the bootstrap, witih almost no mention of Edgeworth expansion; Chapter 2 is about Edgeworth expansion, with scarcely a word about the bootstrap; and Chapters 3 and 4 bring these two themes together, using Edgeworth expansion to explore and develop the properites of the bootstrap. The book is aimed a a graduate level audience who has some exposure to the methods of theoretical statistics. However, technical details are delayed until the last chapter (entitled "Details of Mathematical Rogour"), and so a mathematically able reader without knowledge of the rigorous theory of probability will have no trouble understanding the first four-fifths of the book. The book simultaneously fills two gaps in the literature; it provides a very readable graduate level account of t...

  16. On Fourier re-expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Liflyand, E.

    2012-01-01

    We study an extension to Fourier transforms of the old problem on absolute convergence of the re-expansion in the sine (cosine) Fourier series of an absolutely convergent cosine (sine) Fourier series. The results are obtained by revealing certain relations between the Fourier transforms and their Hilbert transforms.

  17. On persistently positively expansive maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Arbieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.

  18. Young star clusters in nearby molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, K. V.; Kuhn, M. A.; Feigelson, E. D.; Broos, P. S.; Bate, M. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    2018-06-01

    The SFiNCs (Star Formation in Nearby Clouds) project is an X-ray/infrared study of the young stellar populations in 22 star-forming regions with distances ≲ 1 kpc designed to extend our earlier MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) survey of more distant clusters. Our central goal is to give empirical constraints on cluster formation mechanisms. Using parametric mixture models applied homogeneously to the catalogue of SFiNCs young stars, we identify 52 SFiNCs clusters and 19 unclustered stellar structures. The procedure gives cluster properties including location, population, morphology, association with molecular clouds, absorption, age (AgeJX), and infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) slope. Absorption, SED slope, and AgeJX are age indicators. SFiNCs clusters are examined individually, and collectively with MYStIX clusters, to give the following results. (1) SFiNCs is dominated by smaller, younger, and more heavily obscured clusters than MYStIX. (2) SFiNCs cloud-associated clusters have the high ellipticities aligned with their host molecular filaments indicating morphology inherited from their parental clouds. (3) The effect of cluster expansion is evident from the radius-age, radius-absorption, and radius-SED correlations. Core radii increase dramatically from ˜0.08 to ˜0.9 pc over the age range 1-3.5 Myr. Inferred gas removal time-scales are longer than 1 Myr. (4) Rich, spatially distributed stellar populations are present in SFiNCs clouds representing early generations of star formation. An appendix compares the performance of the mixture models and non-parametric minimum spanning tree to identify clusters. This work is a foundation for future SFiNCs/MYStIX studies including disc longevity, age gradients, and dynamical modelling.

  19. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  20. Un cluster en expansion : les villages de métier de meubles d’art de Đồng Kỵ (Vietnam, réseaux sociaux, dynamiques territoriales et développement économique An Expanding Cluster: Đồng Kỵ (Vietnam Craft Villages of Fine Furniture, Social Networks, Territorial Dynamics and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuân Hoản Nguyễn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis l’instauration de la politique d’ouverture économique des années 1980, le Đổi Mới, un nombre élevé de foyers villageois ont développé de nouvelles activités artisanales et industrielles ou diversifié leur production jusqu’alors traditionnelle, ceci grâce à la liberté d’entreprendre, à l’accélération des rapports villes-campagnes et aux politiques étatiques et provinciales incitatives. Les villages de métier du delta du fleuve Rouge sont pour la plupart organisés en clusters spécialisés dans une activité. Par cluster de villages de métier, on entend un regroupement de villages dont les entreprises non agricoles sont spécialisées dans la même activité ou le même groupe d’activités. Le travail est socialement divisé dans le cadre d’accords de coopération partenariale informels entre des entreprises de petite taille aux activités complémentaires qui effectuent un segment du processus productif et entre entreprises de tailles variables liées par des relations de sous-traitance. L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser, à travers une étude monographique, si le mode de production localisé qu’est le cluster de village de métier est viable dans le contexte d’ouverture économique et d’intégration du Vietnam à l’OMC et peut relever les nombreux défis que sont la concurrence avec la grande industrie et les entreprises chinoises, l’absorption d’une nombreuse main-d’œuvre rurale sous-employée, l’intégration au marché international, ceci dans des conditions de productions acceptables pour l’environnement, dans cette plaine deltaïque où l’eau est omniprésente.Since Đổi Mới, a large number of village households have developed new craft and industrial activities or have diversified production that was until then traditional, thanks to economic liberalization, freedom to conduct business, the acceleration of urban-rural links, and state and provincial incentive

  1. Program package for calculating matrix elements of two-cluster structures in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivec, R.; Mihailovic, M.V.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H.

    1982-01-01

    Matrix elements of operators between Slater determinants of two-cluster structures must be expanded into partial waves for the purpose of angular momentum projection. The expansion coefficients contain integrals over the spherical angles theta and phi. (orig.)

  2. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark. The longit...... but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  3. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  4. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  5. Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to solve current problems of conceptual fragmentation within the field of evolutionary economics. One of the problems, as noted by a number of observers, is that the field suffers from an assemblage of fragmented and scattered concepts (Boschma and Martin 2010). A solution...... to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...... concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light...

  6. Production expansion continues to accelerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) is continuing its accelerated Crude Oil Expansion Program initiated in 1989 that aims at achieving a 10 million bpd productive capacity by 1995. In addition to major engineering, construction and renovation work related to production expansion, Saudi Aramco drilling and workover operations have been markedly expanded. Since January 1991, rig activity has doubled. As an indication of aging of Saudi production, projects include modernizing current injection water treatment facilities, installing a new seawater injection plant on the Persian Gulf, installing dewatering facilities in a number of locations and installing a pilot gas lift project. In addition, equipment orders indicate the new discoveries south of Riyadh may also need the assistance of water injection from inception of production

  7. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...

  8. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  9. Cluster ion beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popok, V.N.; Prasalovich, S.V.; Odzhaev, V.B.; Campbell, E.E.B.

    2001-01-01

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster-surface interactions is presented. Ionised cluster beams could become a powerful and versatile tool for the modification and processing of surfaces as an alternative to ion implantation and ion assisted deposition. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions and possible applications of cluster ion beams are discussed. The outlooks of the Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus (CIDA) being developed in Guteborg University are shown

  10. PREFACE: Nuclear Cluster Conference; Cluster'07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Martin

    2008-05-01

    The Cluster Conference is a long-running conference series dating back to the 1960's, the first being initiated by Wildermuth in Bochum, Germany, in 1969. The most recent meeting was held in Nara, Japan, in 2003, and in 2007 the 9th Cluster Conference was held in Stratford-upon-Avon, UK. As the name suggests the town of Stratford lies upon the River Avon, and shortly before the conference, due to unprecedented rainfall in the area (approximately 10 cm within half a day), lay in the River Avon! Stratford is the birthplace of the `Bard of Avon' William Shakespeare, and this formed an intriguing conference backdrop. The meeting was attended by some 90 delegates and the programme contained 65 70 oral presentations, and was opened by a historical perspective presented by Professor Brink (Oxford) and closed by Professor Horiuchi (RCNP) with an overview of the conference and future perspectives. In between, the conference covered aspects of clustering in exotic nuclei (both neutron and proton-rich), molecular structures in which valence neutrons are exchanged between cluster cores, condensates in nuclei, neutron-clusters, superheavy nuclei, clusters in nuclear astrophysical processes and exotic cluster decays such as 2p and ternary cluster decay. The field of nuclear clustering has become strongly influenced by the physics of radioactive beam facilities (reflected in the programme), and by the excitement that clustering may have an important impact on the structure of nuclei at the neutron drip-line. It was clear that since Nara the field had progressed substantially and that new themes had emerged and others had crystallized. Two particular topics resonated strongly condensates and nuclear molecules. These topics are thus likely to be central in the next cluster conference which will be held in 2011 in the Hungarian city of Debrechen. Martin Freer Participants and Cluster'07

  11. Electron attenuation in free, neutral ethane clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M; Myrseth, V; Harnes, J; Børve, K J

    2014-10-28

    The electron effective attenuation length (EAL) in free, neutral ethane clusters has been determined at 40 eV kinetic energy by combining carbon 1s x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical lineshape modeling. More specifically, theory is employed to form model spectra on a grid in cluster size (N) and EAL (λ), allowing N and λ to be determined by optimizing the goodness-of-fit χ(2)(N, λ) between model and observed spectra. Experimentally, the clusters were produced in an adiabatic-expansion setup using helium as the driving gas, spanning a range of 100-600 molecules in mean cluster size. The effective attenuation length was determined to be 8.4 ± 1.9 Å, in good agreement with an independent estimate of 10 Å formed on the basis of molecular electron-scattering data and Monte Carlo simulations. The aggregation state of the clusters as well as the cluster temperature and its importance to the derived EAL value are discussed in some depth.

  12. A Power Series Expansion and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei

    2006-01-01

    Using the power series solution of a differential equation and the computation of a parametric integral, two elementary proofs are given for the power series expansion of (arcsin x)[squared], as well as some applications of this expansion.

  13. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cluster headache is 0.1% and cluster headache is often not diagnosed or misdiagnosed as migraine or sinusitis. In cluster headache there is often a considerable diagnostic delay - an average of 7 years in a population-based survey. Cluster headache is characterized by very severe...... or severe orbital or periorbital pain with a duration of 15-180 minutes. The cluster headache attacks are accompanied by characteristic associated unilateral symptoms such as tearing, nasal congestion and/or rhinorrhoea, eyelid oedema, miosis and/or ptosis. In addition, there is a sense of restlessness...... and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment...

  14. Symmetries of cluster configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, P.

    1975-01-01

    A deeper understanding of clustering phenomena in nuclei must encompass at least two interrelated aspects of the subject: (A) Given a system of A nucleons with two-body interactions, what are the relevant and persistent modes of clustering involved. What is the nature of the correlated nucleon groups which form the clusters, and what is their mutual interaction. (B) Given the cluster modes and their interaction, what systematic patterns of nuclear structure and reactions emerge from it. Are there, for example, families of states which share the same ''cluster parents''. Which cluster modes are compatible or exclude each other. What quantum numbers could characterize cluster configurations. There is no doubt that we can learn a good deal from the experimentalists who have discovered many of the features relevant to aspect (B). Symmetries specific to cluster configurations which can throw some light on both aspects of clustering are discussed

  15. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963......-2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...... in new resources to the cluster but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  16. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  17. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  18. Comprehensive cluster analysis with Transitivity Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkop, Tobias; Emig, Dorothea; Truss, Anke; Albrecht, Mario; Böcker, Sebastian; Baumbach, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Transitivity Clustering is a method for the partitioning of biological data into groups of similar objects, such as genes, for instance. It provides integrated access to various functions addressing each step of a typical cluster analysis. To facilitate this, Transitivity Clustering is accessible online and offers three user-friendly interfaces: a powerful stand-alone version, a web interface, and a collection of Cytoscape plug-ins. In this paper, we describe three major workflows: (i) protein (super)family detection with Cytoscape, (ii) protein homology detection with incomplete gold standards and (iii) clustering of gene expression data. This protocol guides the user through the most important features of Transitivity Clustering and takes ∼1 h to complete.

  19. Nuclear fuel reprocessing expansion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an effort to apply the techniques of operations research and energy system modeling to the problem of determination of cost-effective strategies for capacity expansion of the domestic nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the 1975 to 2000 time period. The research also determines cost disadvantages associated with alternative strategies that may be attractive for political, social, or ecological reasons. The sensitivity of results to changes in cost assumptions was investigated at some length. Reactor fuel types covered by the analysis include the Light Water Reactor (LWR), High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR)

  20. Thermal expansion of LATGS crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.E.; Kandil, S.H.; Hamed, A.E.; Stankowska, J.

    1989-04-01

    The thermal expansion of triglycine sulphate crystals doped with L-α alanine (LATGS) has been studied around the phase transition temperature (30-60 deg. C) using thermomechanical analysis TMA. With increasing the content of admixture, the transition temperature (T c ) was shifted towards higher values, while the relative changes in the dimension of the crystals (ΔL/L 0 ) of the studied directions varied both in the para- and ferroelectric phases. The transition width in the case of doped crystals was found to be broad, and this broadening increases with increasing the content of L-α alanine. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  1. Contribution of thermal expansion and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I.Pursky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is developed to describe the experimental results obtained for the isobaric thermal conductivity of rare gas solids (RGS. The isobaric thermal conductivity of RGS has been analysed within Debye approximation with regard to the effect of thermal expansion. The suggested model takes into consideration the fact that thermal conductivity is determined by U-processes while above the phonon mobility edge it is determined by "diffusive" modes migrating randomly from site to site. The mobility edge ω0 is determined from the condition that the phonon mean-free path restricted by the U-processes cannot be smaller than half of the phonon wavelength.

  2. Percolation approach for atomic and molecular cluster formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knospe, O.; Seifert, G.

    1987-12-01

    We apply a percolation approach for the theoretical analysis of mass spectra of molecular microclusters obtained by adiabatic expansion technique. The evolution of the shape of the experimental size distributions as function of stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature are theoretically reproduced by varying the percolation parameter. Remaining discrepancies between theory and experiment are discussed. In addition, the even-odd alternation as well as the 'magic' shell structure within metallic, secondary ion mass spectra are investigated by introducing statistical weights for the cluster formation probabilities. Shell correction energies of atomic clusters as function of cluster-size are deduced from the experimental data. (orig.)

  3. Diagrammatic analysis of correlations in polymer fluids: Cluster diagrams via Edwards' field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Edwards' functional integral approach to the statistical mechanics of polymer liquids is amenable to a diagrammatic analysis in which free energies and correlation functions are expanded as infinite sums of Feynman diagrams. This analysis is shown to lead naturally to a perturbative cluster expansion that is closely related to the Mayer cluster expansion developed for molecular liquids by Chandler and co-workers. Expansion of the functional integral representation of the grand-canonical partition function yields a perturbation theory in which all quantities of interest are expressed as functionals of a monomer-monomer pair potential, as functionals of intramolecular correlation functions of non-interacting molecules, and as functions of molecular activities. In different variants of the theory, the pair potential may be either a bare or a screened potential. A series of topological reductions yields a renormalized diagrammatic expansion in which collective correlation functions are instead expressed diagrammatically as functionals of the true single-molecule correlation functions in the interacting fluid, and as functions of molecular number density. Similar renormalized expansions are also obtained for a collective Ornstein-Zernicke direct correlation function, and for intramolecular correlation functions. A concise discussion is given of the corresponding Mayer cluster expansion, and of the relationship between the Mayer and perturbative cluster expansions for liquids of flexible molecules. The application of the perturbative cluster expansion to coarse-grained models of dense multi-component polymer liquids is discussed, and a justification is given for the use of a loop expansion. As an example, the formalism is used to derive a new expression for the wave-number dependent direct correlation function and recover known expressions for the intramolecular two-point correlation function to first-order in a renormalized loop expansion for coarse-grained models of

  4. LMC clusters: young

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, K.C.

    1980-01-01

    The young globular clusters of the LMC have ages of 10 7 -10 8 y. Their masses and structure are similar to those of the smaller galactic globular clusters. Their stellar mass functions (in the mass range 6 solar masses to 1.2 solar masses) vary greatly from cluster to cluster, although the clusters are similar in total mass, age, structure and chemical composition. It would be very interesting to know why these clusters are forming now in the LMC and not in the Galaxy. The author considers the 'young globular' or 'blue populous' clusters of the LMC. The ages of these objects are 10 7 to 10 8 y, and their masses are 10 4 to 10 5 solar masses, so they are populous enough to be really useful for studying the evolution of massive stars. The author concentrates on the structure and stellar content of these young clusters. (Auth.)

  5. Star clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruprecht, J.; Palous, J.

    1983-01-01

    All 33 papers presented at the symposium were inputted to INIS. They dealt with open clusters, globular clusters, stellar associations and moving groups, and local kinematics and galactic structures. (E.S.)

  6. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  7. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  8. Nonperturbative path integral expansion II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.J.

    1976-05-01

    The Feynman path integral representation of the 2-point function for a self-interacting Bose field is investigated using an expansion ('Path Integral Expansion', PIE) of the exponential of the kinetic term of the Lagrangian. This leads to a series - illustrated by a graph scheme - involving successively a coupling of more and more points of the lattice space commonly employed in the evaluation of path integrals. The values of the individual PIE graphs depend of course on the lattice constant. Two methods - Pade approximation and Borel-type extrapolation - are proposed to extract information about the continuum limit from a finite-order PIE. A more flexible PIE is possible by expanding besides the kinetic term a suitably chosen part of the interaction term too. In particular, if the co-expanded part is a mass term the calculation becomes only slightly more complicated than in the original formulation and the appearance of the graph scheme is unchanged. A significant reduction of the number of graphs and an improvement of the convergence of the PIE can be achieved by performing certain sums over an infinity of graph elements. (author)

  9. Clustering at high redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence for clustering of and with high-redshift QSOs is discussed. QSOs of different redshifts show no clustering, but QSOs of similar redshifts appear to be clustered on a scale comparable to that of galaxies at the present epoch. In addition, spectroscopic studies of close pairs of QSOs indicate that QSOs are surrounded by a relatively high density of absorbing matter, possibly clusters of galaxies

  10. Finite-Reynolds-number effects in turbulence using logarithmic expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, K.R.; Bershadskii, A.

    2006-12-01

    Experimental or numerical data in turbulence are invariably obtained at finite Reynolds numbers whereas theories of turbulence correspond to infinitely large Reynolds numbers. A proper merger of the two approaches is possible only if corrections for finite Reynolds numbers can be quantified. This paper heuristically considers examples in two classes of finite-Reynolds-number effects. Expansions in terms of logarithms of appropriate variables are shown to yield results in agreement with experimental and numerical data in the following instances: the third-order structure function in isotropic turbulence, the mixed-order structure function for the passive scalar and the Reynolds shear stress around its maximum point. Results suggestive of expansions in terms of the inverse logarithm of the Reynolds number, also motivated by experimental data, concern the tendency for turbulent structures to cluster along a line of observation and (more speculatively) for the longitudinal velocity derivative to become singular at some finite Reynolds number. We suggest an elementary hydrodynamical process that may provide a physical basis for the expansions considered here, but note that the formal justification remains tantalizingly unclear. (author)

  11. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  12. Ultra-low thermal expansion realized in giant negative thermal expansion materials through self-compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Fei-Ran Shen; Hao Kuang; Feng-Xia Hu; Hui Wu; Qing-Zhen Huang; Fei-Xiang Liang; Kai-Ming Qiao; Jia Li; Jing Wang; Yao Liu; Lei Zhang; Min He; Ying Zhang; Wen-Liang Zuo; Ji-Rong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Materials with zero thermal expansion (ZTE) or precisely tailored thermal expansion are in urgent demand of modern industries. However, the overwhelming majority of materials show positive thermal expansion. To develop ZTE or negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials as compensators has become an important challenge. Here, we present the evidence for the realization of ultra-low thermal expansion in Mn–Co–Ge–In particles. The bulk with the Ni2In-type hexagonal structure undergoes giant NTE o...

  13. Core level photoelectron spectroscopy probed heterogeneous xenon/neon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokapanich, Wandared; Björneholm, Olle; Öhrwall, Gunnar; Tchaplyguine, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Binary rare gas clusters; xenon and neon which have a significant contrariety between sizes, produced by a co-expansion set up and have been studied using synchrotron radiation based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concentration ratios of the heterogeneous clusters; 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% were controlled. The core level spectra were used to determine structure of the mixed cluster and analyzed by considering screening mechanisms. Furthermore, electron binding energy shift calculations demonstrated cluster aggregation models which may occur in such process. The results showed that in the case of low mixing ratios of 3% and 5% of xenon in neon, the geometric structures exhibit xenon in the center and xenon/neon interfaced in the outer shells. However, neon cluster vanished when the concentration of xenon was increased to 10%. - Highlights: • Co-expansion setup is suitable for producing binary Xe/Ne clusters. • Appropriate temperature, pressure, and mixing ratios should be strictly controlled. • Low mixing ratio, Xe formed in the core and Xe/Ne interfacing in the outer shell. • High mixing ratio, only pure Xe clusters were detected.

  14. Size selected metal clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Optical Absorption Spectra of Small Silver Clusters (5-11) ... Soft Landing and Fragmentation of Small Clusters Deposited in Noble-Gas Films. Harbich, W.; Fedrigo, S.; Buttet, J. Phys. Rev. B 1998, 58, 7428. CO combustion on supported gold clusters. Arenz M ...

  15. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities...

  16. Marketing research cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  17. Marketing research cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  18. Minimalist's linux cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang-Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Seyong

    2004-01-01

    Using barebone PC components and NIC's, we construct a linux cluster which has 2-dimensional mesh structure. This cluster has smaller footprint, is less expensive, and use less power compared to conventional linux cluster. Here, we report our experience in building such a machine and discuss our current lattice project on the machine

  19. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  20. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Upcoming Sunyaev–. Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to ...

  1. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  2. Expansion of passive safety function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko; Nei, Hiromichi; Kumada, Toshiaki.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of the use of passive safety functions is proposed. Two notions are presented. One is that, in the design of passive safety nuclear reactors where aversion of active components is stressed, some active components are purposely introduced, by which a system is built in such a way that it behaves in an apparently passive manner. The second notion is that, instead of using a passive safety function alone, a passive safety function is combined with some active components, relating the passivity in the safety function with enhanced controllability in normal operation. The nondormant system which the authors propose is one example of the first notion. This is a system in which a standby safety system is a portion of the normal operation system. An interpretation of the nondormant system via synergetics is made. As an example of the second notion, a PIUS density lock aided with active components is proposed and is discussed

  3. Clusters in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is today one of those domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics that faces the greatest challenges, yet also contains the greatest opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physicists has decided to collaborate in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This third volume follows the successful Lect. Notes Phys. 818 (Vol. 1) and 848 (Vol. 2), and comprises six extensive lectures covering the following topics:  - Gamma Rays and Molecular Structure - Faddeev Equation Approach for Three Cluster Nuclear Reactions - Tomography of the Cluster Structure of Light Nuclei Via Relativistic Dissociation - Clustering Effects Within the Dinuclear Model : From Light to Hyper-heavy Molecules in Dynamical Mean-field Approach - Clusterization in Ternary Fission - Clusters in Light N...

  4. Spatial cluster modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Andrew B

    2002-01-01

    Research has generated a number of advances in methods for spatial cluster modelling in recent years, particularly in the area of Bayesian cluster modelling. Along with these advances has come an explosion of interest in the potential applications of this work, especially in epidemiology and genome research. In one integrated volume, this book reviews the state-of-the-art in spatial clustering and spatial cluster modelling, bringing together research and applications previously scattered throughout the literature. It begins with an overview of the field, then presents a series of chapters that illuminate the nature and purpose of cluster modelling within different application areas, including astrophysics, epidemiology, ecology, and imaging. The focus then shifts to methods, with discussions on point and object process modelling, perfect sampling of cluster processes, partitioning in space and space-time, spatial and spatio-temporal process modelling, nonparametric methods for clustering, and spatio-temporal ...

  5. Clusters and how to make it work : Cluster Strategy Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manickam, Anu; van Berkel, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Clusters are the magic answer to regional economic development. Firms in clusters are more innovative; cluster policy dominates EU policy; ‘top-sectors’ and excellence are the choice of national policy makers; clusters are ‘in’. But, clusters are complex, clusters are ‘messy’; there is no clear

  6. On the Equisummability of Hermite and Fourier Expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove an equisummability result for the Fourier expansions and Hermite expansions as well as special Hermite expansions. We also prove the uniform boundedness of the Bochner-Riesz means associated to the Hermite expansions for polyradial functions.

  7. Energetics of charged metal clusters containing vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogosov, Valentin V.; Reva, Vitalii I.

    2018-01-01

    We study theoretically large metal clusters containing vacancies. We propose an approach, which combines the Kohn-Sham results for monovacancy in a bulk of metal and analytical expansions in small parameters cv (relative concentration of vacancies) and RN,v -1, RN ,v being cluster radii. We obtain expressions of the ionization potential and electron affinity in the form of corrections to electron work function, which require only the characteristics of 3D defect-free metal. The Kohn-Sham method is used to calculate the electron profiles, ionization potential, electron affinity, electrical capacitance; dissociation, cohesion, and monovacancy-formation energies of the small perfect clusters NaN, MgN, AlN (N ≤ 270) and the clusters containing a monovacancy (N ≥ 12) in the stabilized-jellium model. The quantum-sized dependences for monovacancy-formation energies are calculated for the Schottky scenario and the "bubble blowing" scenario, and their asymptotic behavior is also determined. It is shown that the asymptotical behaviors of size dependences for these two mechanisms differ from each other and weakly depend on the number of atoms in the cluster. The contribution of monovacancy to energetics of charged clusters and the size dependences of their characteristics and asymptotics are discussed. It is shown that the difference between the characteristics for the neutral and charged clusters is entirely determined by size dependences of ionization potential and electron affinity. Obtained analytical dependences may be useful for the analysis of the results of photoionization experiments and for the estimation of the size dependences of the vacancy concentration including the vicinity of the melting point.

  8. [Tissular expansion in giant congenital nevi treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Nuoi, V; Francois-Fiquet, C; Diner, P; Sergent, B; Zazurca, F; Franchi, G; Buis, J; Vazquez, M-P; Picard, A; Kadlub, N

    2014-08-01

    Surgical management of giant melanotic naevi remains a surgical challenge. Tissue expansion provides tissue of the same quality for the repair of defects. The aim of this study is to review tissular expansion for giant melanotic naevi. We conducted a retrospective study from 2000 to 2012. All children patients who underwent a tissular expansion for giant congenital naevi had been included. Epidemiological data, surgical procedure, complication rate and results had been analysed. Thirty-tree patients had been included; they underwent 61 procedures with 79 tissular-expansion prosthesis. Previous surgery, mostly simple excision had been performed before tissular expansion. Complete naevus excision had been performed in 63.3% of the cases. Complications occurred in 45% of the cases, however in 50% of them were minor. Iterative surgery increased the complication rate. Tissular expansion is a valuable option for giant congenital naevus. However, complication rate remained high, especially when iterative surgery is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction of rare gas clusters in intense laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobosz, Sandrine

    1998-01-01

    Rare gas cluster jet targets have only been scarcely studied in strong laser fields. This is surprising since their properties are particularly appealing. Although considered as a gas phase target, the local density within clusters is comparable to that of the bulk. Intense irradiation of clusters produces a plasma thereby giving rise to strong collisional heating. This explains, in particular, the observation of very high fragment charge states and the generation of X-rays in the keV energy range. The complete set of our experimental results shows that the intra-cluster atoms are first ionised by tunnel ionisation followed by massive electron impact ionisation. Thus, for Xenon clusters, we have observed up to 30-fold charged. The most energetic electrons leave the cluster which contributes to a positive charge build-up on the cluster surface. The plasma expands under the combined action of the Coulomb and kinetic pressures. The contribution of each pressure depends on the cluster size and we show that the Coulomb pressure is prevailing for the smallest sizes. This scenario explains the ejection of fragments with energies of up to lMeV. We have also performed a high resolution X-ray study to explore in situ the properties of the plasma. These studies underline the importance of electron-ion collisions and allow to deterrnine the mean charge states of the emitting ions. Finally, we have developed a model, describing the cluster expansion, which confirms our experimental observations. (author) [fr

  10. Resonant heating of a cluster plasma by intense laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonsen, Thomas M. Jr.; Taguchi, Toshihiro; Gupta, Ayush; Palastro, John; Milchberg, Howard M.

    2005-01-01

    Gases of atomic clusters are interaction media for laser pulse propagation with properties useful for applications such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and x-ray microscopy, harmonic generation, EUV lithography, and laser plasma acceleration. To understand cluster heating and expansion, a series of two- and three-dimensional electrostatic particle in cell simulations of the explosion of argon clusters of diameter in the range 20 nm-53 nm have been preformed. The studies show that heating is dominated by a nonlinear, resonant absorption process that gives rise to a size-dependent intensity threshold for strong absorption and that controls the dielectric properties of the cluster. Electrons are first accelerated out from the cluster and then driven back into it by the combined effects of the laser field and the electrostatic field produced by the laser-driven charge separation. Above the intensity threshold for strong heating there is a dramatic increase in the production of energetic particles and harmonic radiation. The dielectric properties of a gas of clusters are determined by the ensemble average cluster polarizability. Individual electrons contribute to the polarizability differently depending on whether they are in the core of the cluster or in the outer edge. Consequently, there can be large fluctuations in polarizability during the heating of a cluster

  11. Simulation program for multiple expansion Stirling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Weiss, M.; Fauvel, R.; Reader, G.; Bingham, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple expansion Stirling machines have been a topic of interest at the University of Calgary for some years. Recently a second-order computer simulation program with integral graphics package for Stirling cryocoolers with up to four stages of expansion were developed and made available to the Stirling community. Adaptation of the program to multiple expansion Stirling power systems is anticipated. This paper briefly introduces the program and presents a specimen result

  12. Semiclassical expansions for confined N fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivine, H.; Martorell, J.; Casas, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new derivation of the Wigner Kirkwood expansion for N-fermion systems is presented, showing explicitly the connection to the WKB approximation for a single level. This allows to study separately the two ansatz required to obtain the semiclassical expansions: the asymptotic expansions in powers of ℎ and the smoothing of quantal effects. We discuss the one dimensional and three dimensional, with spherical symmetry, cases. Applications for standard potentials used in nuclear physics are described in detail

  13. Thermal and hygroscopic expansion characteristics of bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Puxi; Chang, Wen-shao; Ansell, Martin P.; Bowen, Chris R.; Chew, John Y. M.; Adamak, Vana i

    2017-01-01

    The expansion and contraction of bamboo caused by temperature and moisture variations must be evaluated\\ud if bamboo is to be utilised as a building material. However, detailed expansion data, especially data in the ascent and\\ud descent processes of temperature and moisture are unexplored. The aim of this study is to investigate the expansion\\ud characteristics of Phyllostachys edulis (Moso bamboo) in ascent and descent processes of temperature and moisture.\\ud The measurement of linear ther...

  14. $\\delta$-Expansion at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1996-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion perturbation scheme to the $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ self-interacting scalar field theory in 3+1 D at finite temperature. In the $\\delta$-expansion the interaction term is written as $\\lambda (\\phi^{2})^{ 1 + \\delta}$ and $\\delta$ is considered as the perturbation parameter. We compute within this perturbative approach the renormalized mass at finite temperature at a finite order in $\\delta$. The results are compared with the usual loop-expansion at finite temperature.

  15. Chromatic Derivatives, Chromatic Expansions and Associated Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the basic properties of chromatic derivatives and chromatic expansions and provides an appropriate motivation for introducing these notions. Chromatic derivatives are special, numerically robust linear differential operators which correspond to certain families of orthogonal polynomials. Chromatic expansions are series of the corresponding special functions, which possess the best features of both the Taylor and the Shannon expansions. This makes chromatic derivatives and ...

  16. Thermal expansion in small metallic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    An anomalously low thermal expansion observable in small particles is attributed to extending effect of the shell. It is shown that the coefficient of thermal expansion of the oxide-film-coated aluminium particles calculated using elastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of massive materials agres well with those measured experimentally. The linear dilatation of the shell, its stress to rupture and the values of the structural tension are estimated vs the temperature

  17. Agricultural Clusters in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Michael Porter was the first to use the term cluster in an economic context. He introduced the term in The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990). The term cluster is also known as business cluster, industry cluster, competitive cluster or Porterian cluster. This article aims at determining and

  18. Open source clustering software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoon, M J L; Imoto, S; Nolan, J; Miyano, S

    2004-06-12

    We have implemented k-means clustering, hierarchical clustering and self-organizing maps in a single multipurpose open-source library of C routines, callable from other C and C++ programs. Using this library, we have created an improved version of Michael Eisen's well-known Cluster program for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux/Unix. In addition, we generated a Python and a Perl interface to the C Clustering Library, thereby combining the flexibility of a scripting language with the speed of C. The C Clustering Library and the corresponding Python C extension module Pycluster were released under the Python License, while the Perl module Algorithm::Cluster was released under the Artistic License. The GUI code Cluster 3.0 for Windows, Macintosh and Linux/Unix, as well as the corresponding command-line program, were released under the same license as the original Cluster code. The complete source code is available at http://bonsai.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/mdehoon/software/cluster. Alternatively, Algorithm::Cluster can be downloaded from CPAN, while Pycluster is also available as part of the Biopython distribution.

  19. Disjoint sum expansion method in FTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Keqiang

    1987-01-01

    An expansion formula for transforming boolean algebraic expressions into disjoint form was proved. Based on this expansion formula, a method for transforming system failure function into disjoint form was devised. The fact that the expansion can be done for several elements simulatneously makes the method flexible and fast. Some examples from fault tree analysis (FTA) and network analysis were examined by the new method to show its algorithm and its merit. Besides, by means of the proved expansion formula some boolean algebraic relations can proved very easily

  20. Thermal expansion of L-ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaï, B.; Barrio, M.; Tamarit, J.-Ll.; Céolin, R.; Rietveld, I. B.

    2017-04-01

    The specific volume of vitamin C has been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction as a function of temperature from 110 K up to complete degradation around 440 K. Its thermal expansion is relatively small in comparison with other organic compounds with an expansivity α v of 1.2(3) × 10-4 K-1. The structure consists of strongly bound molecules in the ac plane through a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The thermal expansion is anisotropic. Along the b axis, the expansion has most leeway and is about 10 times larger than in the other directions.

  1. Adiabatic supernova expansion into the circumstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, D.L.; Liang, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    We perform one dimensional numerical simulations with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code of the adiabatic expansion of a supernova into the surrounding medium. The early expansion follows Chevalier's analytic self-similar solution until the reverse shock reaches the ejecta core. We follow the expansion as it evolves towards the adiabatic blast wave phase. Some memory of the earlier phases of expansion is retained in the interior even when the outer regions expand as a blast wave. We find the results are sensitive to the initial configuration of the ejecta and to the placement of gridpoints. 6 refs., 2 figs

  2. Fuel element cluster for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Hutchinson, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The claim refers to the constructional design of a fuel element cluster the elements of which are held by upper and lower end plates connected to each other in upright position, the bearing being formed by a screw connection between at least one guide tube for control rods and the two end plates. The claims are directed, especially, to the connection of the parts as well as to the materials selection which are determined to a high degree by the thermal expansion coefficients. (UA) [de

  3. Energy and charge transfer in ionized argon coated water clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kočišek, J.; Lengyel, J.; Fárník, M.; Slavíček, P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electron ionization of clusters generated in mixed Ar-water expansions. The electron energy dependent ion yields reveal the neutral cluster composition and structure: water clusters fully covered with the Ar solvation shell are formed under certain expansion conditions. The argon atoms shield the embedded (H 2 O) n clusters resulting in the ionization threshold above ≈15 eV for all fragments. The argon atoms also mediate more complex reactions in the clusters: e.g., the charge transfer between Ar + and water occurs above the threshold; at higher electron energies above ∼28 eV, an excitonic transfer process between Ar + * and water opens leading to new products Ar n H + and (H 2 O) n H + . On the other hand, the excitonic transfer from the neutral Ar* state at lower energies is not observed although this resonant process was demonstrated previously in a photoionization experiment. Doubly charged fragments (H 2 O) n H 2 2+ and (H 2 O) n 2+ ions are observed and Intermolecular Coulomb decay (ICD) processes are invoked to explain their thresholds. The Coulomb explosion of the doubly charged cluster formed within the ICD process is prevented by the stabilization effect of the argon solvent

  4. Explosions of water clusters in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarappan, V.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Mathur, D.

    2003-01-01

    Energetic, highly charged oxygen ions O q+ (q≤6), are copiously produced upon laser field-induced disassembly of highly charged water clusters, (H 2 O) n and (D 2 O) n , n∼60, that are formed by seeding high-pressure helium or argon with water vapor. Ar n clusters (n∼40 000) formed under similar experimental conditions are found to undergo disassembly in the Coulomb explosion regime, with the energies of Ar q+ ions showing a q 2 dependence. Water clusters, which are argued to be considerably smaller in size, should also disassemble in the same regime, but the energies of fragment O q+ ions are found to depend linearly on q which, according to prevailing wisdom, ought to be a signature of hydrodynamic expansion that is expected of much larger clusters. The implication of these observations on our understanding of the two cluster explosion regimes, Coulomb explosion and hydrodynamic expansion, is discussed. Our results indicate that charge state dependences of ion energy do not constitute an unambiguous experimental signature of cluster explosion regime

  5. Electron: Cluster interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidemann, A.A.; Knight, W.D.

    1994-02-01

    Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E ∼ 0.1 to E ∼ 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na 8 , Na 20 , Na 40 . The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size

  6. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2012-01-01

    High-dimensional data, i.e., data described by a large number of attributes, pose specific challenges to clustering. The so-called ‘curse of dimensionality’, coined originally to describe the general increase in complexity of various computational problems as dimensionality increases, is known...... to render traditional clustering algorithms ineffective. The curse of dimensionality, among other effects, means that with increasing number of dimensions, a loss of meaningful differentiation between similar and dissimilar objects is observed. As high-dimensional objects appear almost alike, new approaches...... for clustering are required. Consequently, recent research has focused on developing techniques and clustering algorithms specifically for high-dimensional data. Still, open research issues remain. Clustering is a data mining task devoted to the automatic grouping of data based on mutual similarity. Each cluster...

  7. Hubble expansion in static spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossler, Otto E.; Froehlich, Dieter; Movassagh, Ramis; Moore, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A recently proposed mechanism for light-path expansion in a static spacetime is based on the moving-lenses paradigm. Since the latter is valid independently of whether space expands or not, a static universe can be used to better see the implications. The moving-lenses paradigm is related to the paradigm of dynamical friction. If this is correct, a Hubble-like law is implicit. It is described quantitatively. A bent in the Hubble-like line is predictably implied. The main underlying assumption is Price's Principle (PI 3 ). If the theory is sound, the greatest remaining problem in cosmology becomes the origin of hydrogen. Since Blandford's jet production mechanism for quasars is too weak, a generalized Hawking radiation hidden in the walls of cosmic voids is invoked. A second prediction is empirical: slow pattern changes in the cosmic microwave background. A third is ultra-high redshifts for Giacconi quasars. Bruno's eternal universe in the spirit of Augustine becomes a bit less outlandish

  8. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...

  9. Substructure in clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitchett, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Optical observations suggesting the existence of substructure in clusters of galaxies are examined. Models of cluster formation and methods used to detect substructure in clusters are reviewed. Consideration is given to classification schemes based on a departure of bright cluster galaxies from a spherically symmetric distribution, evidence for statistically significant substructure, and various types of substructure, including velocity, spatial, and spatial-velocity substructure. The substructure observed in the galaxy distribution in clusters is discussed, focusing on observations from general cluster samples, the Virgo cluster, the Hydra cluster, Centaurus, the Coma cluster, and the Cancer cluster. 88 refs

  10. Nuclear cluster states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, W.D.M.; Merchant, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    We review clustering in light nuclei including molecular resonances in heavy ion reactions. In particular we study the systematics, paying special attention to the relationships between cluster states and superdeformed configurations. We emphasise the selection rules which govern the formation and decay of cluster states. We review some recent experimental results from Daresbury and elsewhere. In particular we report on the evidence for a 7-α chain state in 28 Si in experiments recently performed at the NSF, Daresbury. Finally we begin to address theoretically the important question of the lifetimes of cluster states as deduced from the experimental energy widths of the resonances. (Author)

  11. 15th Cluster workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, C. Philippe; The Cluster Active Archive : Studying the Earth’s Space Plasma Environment

    2010-01-01

    Since the year 2000 the ESA Cluster mission has been investigating the small-scale structures and processes of the Earth's plasma environment, such as those involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetospheric plasma, in global magnetotail dynamics, in cross-tail currents, and in the formation and dynamics of the neutral line and of plasmoids. This book contains presentations made at the 15th Cluster workshop held in March 2008. It also presents several articles about the Cluster Active Archive and its datasets, a few overview papers on the Cluster mission, and articles reporting on scientific findings on the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the magnetopause and the magnetotail.

  12. Clusters in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sator, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article concerns the correspondence between thermodynamics and the morphology of simple fluids in terms of clusters. Definitions of clusters providing a geometric interpretation of the liquid-gas phase transition are reviewed with an eye to establishing their physical relevance. The author emphasizes their main features and basic hypotheses, and shows how these definitions lead to a recent approach based on self-bound clusters. Although theoretical, this tutorial review is also addressed to readers interested in experimental aspects of clustering in simple fluids

  13. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Koshi Takenaka

    2012-01-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining pra...

  14. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  15. The δ expansion for stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Cooper, F.; Milton, K.A.; Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912; Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexic o 87545; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklaho ma 73019)

    1989-01-01

    Using a recently proposed perturbation expansion called the δ expansion, we show how to solve the Langevin equation associated with a gphi 4 field theory. We illustrate the technique in zero- and one-dimensional space-time, and then generalize this approach to d dimensions

  16. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs

  17. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Thermal expansion of doped lanthanum gallates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Since the components are in intimate mechanical contact, any stress generated due to their thermal expansion mis- match during thermal cycling could lead to catastrophic failure of the cell. The functional materials must have similar thermal expansions to avoid mechanical stresses. Hence it is useful to study the thermal ...

  19. Platform Expansion Design as Strategic Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina S.; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address how the strategic choice of platform expansion design impacts the subse-quent platform strategy. We identify two distinct approaches to platform expansion – platform bun-dling and platform constellations, which currently co-exist. The purpose of this paper is to outline...

  20. Series expansion of the modified Einstein Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema Chandrakant Shah-Fairbank

    2009-01-01

    This study examines calculating total sediment discharge based on the Modified Einstein Procedure (MEP). A new procedure based on the Series Expansion of the Modified Einstein Procedure (SEMEP) has been developed. This procedure contains four main modifications to MEP. First, SEMEP solves the Einstein integrals quickly and accurately based on a series expansion. Next,...

  1. Clusters - Tourism Activity Increase Competitiveness Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen IORDACHE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism represents one of those areas with the greatest potential of global expansion. Tourism development strategy in terms of maximizing its positive effects on regional economic increase and implicitly on the national one starts from the premise that in global economy value is created in regions which are defined as particular geographical entities, separated by geographical reasons and not as political-administrative structures, and economic increase is centrally cumulated and valued according to the economic policy and the national legal system.Regional economic system approach based on “cluster” concept is explained by the fact that the regional activities portfolio is based on an inter and intra-industry networking grouped by cluster, in which is created the value that increases as the activity results are leading to the final consumers.This type of communication aims to highlight the tourism role as a factor in regional development, the clustering process significance in obtaining some competitiveness advantages, clusters development in tourism beginnings, and also the identification methodology used to select one touristic area to create the cluster.

  2. Maxwell superalgebras and Abelian semigroup expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Concha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Abelian semigroup expansion is a powerful and simple method to derive new Lie algebras from a given one. Recently it was shown that the S-expansion of so(3,2 leads us to the Maxwell algebra M. In this paper we extend this result to superalgebras, by proving that different choices of abelian semigroups S lead to interesting D=4 Maxwell Superalgebras. In particular, the minimal Maxwell superalgebra sM and the N-extended Maxwell superalgebra sM(N recently found by the Maurer–Cartan expansion procedure, are derived alternatively as an S-expansion of osp(4|N. Moreover, we show that new minimal Maxwell superalgebras type sMm+2 and their N-extended generalization can be obtained using the S-expansion procedure.

  3. Use of expansion joints in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birker; Rommerswinkel.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the mode of action of different systems of expansion joints. Special regard is given to the problems of expansion of pipelines of high rated diameter as employed in today's large power plant turbines. Due to the limited space available, the important role of the spring rate of the bellows for the reaction forces and moments acting on the connection points is pointed out. Apart from this details are given on the fabrication and materials selection of expansion joint bellows, and problems are discussed which arise in connection with the mechanical or hydraulic deformation of bellows with one or more walls. The non-destructive methods now in use for the testing of expansion pipe joints are mentioned along with experiments to test their behaviour under changing loads. The paper concludes on some remarks concerning proper transport, storage and installation of expansion pipe joints. (orig./AK) [de

  4. Maxwell superalgebras and Abelian semigroup expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, P.K.; Rodríguez, E.K. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    The Abelian semigroup expansion is a powerful and simple method to derive new Lie algebras from a given one. Recently it was shown that the S-expansion of so(3,2) leads us to the Maxwell algebra M. In this paper we extend this result to superalgebras, by proving that different choices of abelian semigroups S lead to interesting D=4 Maxwell Superalgebras. In particular, the minimal Maxwell superalgebra sM and the N-extended Maxwell superalgebra sM{sup (N)} recently found by the Maurer–Cartan expansion procedure, are derived alternatively as an S-expansion of osp(4|N). Moreover, we show that new minimal Maxwell superalgebras type sM{sub m+2} and their N-extended generalization can be obtained using the S-expansion procedure.

  5. Lifting to cluster-tilting objects in higher cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pin

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we consider the $d$-cluster-tilted algebras, the endomorphism algebras of $d$-cluster-tilting objects in $d$-cluster categories. We show that a tilting module over such an algebra lifts to a $d$-cluster-tilting object in this $d$-cluster category.

  6. Mayer expansion of the Nekrasov prepotential: The subleading ε2-order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Emile Bourgine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mayer cluster expansion technique is applied to the Nekrasov instanton partition function of N=2 SU(Nc super Yang–Mills. The subleading small ε2-correction to the Nekrasov–Shatashvili limiting value of the prepotential is determined by a detailed analysis of all the one-loop diagrams. Indeed, several types of contributions can be distinguished according to their origin: long range interaction or potential expansion, clusters self-energy, internal structure, one-loop cyclic diagrams, etc. The field theory result derived more efficiently in [1], under some minor technical assumptions, receives here definite confirmation thanks to several remarkable cancellations: in this way, we may infer the validity of these assumptions for further computations in the field theoretical approach.

  7. Mayer expansion of the Nekrasov prepotential: The subleading ε2-order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Fioravanti, Davide

    2016-05-01

    The Mayer cluster expansion technique is applied to the Nekrasov instanton partition function of N = 2 SU (Nc) super Yang-Mills. The subleading small ε2-correction to the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limiting value of the prepotential is determined by a detailed analysis of all the one-loop diagrams. Indeed, several types of contributions can be distinguished according to their origin: long range interaction or potential expansion, clusters self-energy, internal structure, one-loop cyclic diagrams, etc. The field theory result derived more efficiently in [1], under some minor technical assumptions, receives here definite confirmation thanks to several remarkable cancellations: in this way, we may infer the validity of these assumptions for further computations in the field theoretical approach.

  8. Wiggler magnetic field assisted third harmonic generation in expanding clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Shivani

    2018-04-01

    A simple theoretical model is constructed to study the wiggler magnetic field assisted third harmonic generation of intense short pulse laser in a cluster in its expanding phase. The ponderomotive force of laser causes density perturbations in cluster electron density which couples with wiggler magnetic field to produce a nonlinear current that generates transverse third harmonic. An intense short pulse laser propagating through a gas embedded with atomic clusters, converts it into hot plasma balls via tunnel ionization. Initially, the electron plasma frequency inside the clusters ω pe > \\sqrt{3}{ω }1 (with ω 1 being the frequency of the laser). As the cluster expands under Coulomb force and hydrodynamic pressure, ω pe decreases to \\sqrt{3}{ω }1. At this time, there is resonant enhancement in the efficiency of the third harmonic generation. The efficiency of third harmonic generation is enhanced due to cluster plasmon resonance and by phase matching due to wiggler magnetic field. The effect of cluster size on the expansion rate is studied to observe that the clusters of different radii would expand differently. The impact of laser intensity and wiggler magnetic field on the efficiency of third harmonic generation is also explored.

  9. Effective action and cluster properties of the abelian Higgs model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaban, T; Imbrie, J Z; Jaffe, A

    1988-02-01

    We continue our program to establish the Higgs mechanism and mass gap for the abelian Higgs model in two and three dimensions. We develop a multiscale cluster expansion for the high frequency modes of the theory, within a framework of iterated renormalization group transformations. The expansions yield decoupling properties needed for a proof of exponential decay of correlations. The result of this analysis is a gauge invariant unit lattice theory with a deep Higgs potential of the shape required to exhibit the Higgs mechanism.

  10. Neurostimulation in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe L; Barloese, Mads; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation has emerged as a viable treatment for intractable chronic cluster headache. Several therapeutic strategies are being investigated including stimulation of the hypothalamus, occipital nerves and sphenopalatine ganglion. The aim of this review is to provide...... effective strategy must be preferred as first-line therapy for intractable chronic cluster headache....

  11. Cauchy cluster process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an instance of the well-know Neyman–Scott cluster process model with clusters having a long tail behaviour. In our model the offspring points are distributed around the parent points according to a circular Cauchy distribution. Using a modified Cramér-von Misses test...

  12. When Clusters become Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.W. Phlippen (Sandra); G.A. van der Knaap (Bert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPolicy makers spend large amounts of public resources on the foundation of science parks and other forms of geographically clustered business activities, in order to stimulate regional innovation. Underlying the relation between clusters and innovation is the assumption that co-located

  13. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  14. Cluster growth kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovik, V.M.; Gal'perin, A.G.; Rikhvitskij, V.S.; Lushnikov, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Processes of some traffic blocking coming into existence are considered as probabilistic ones. We study analytic solutions for models for the dynamics of both cluster growth and cluster growth with fragmentation in the systems of finite number of objects. Assuming rates constancy of both coalescence and fragmentation, the models under consideration are linear on the probability functions

  15. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  16. Mutation types and aging differently affect revertant fiber expansion in dystrophic mdx and mdx52 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Echigoya

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, one of the most common and lethal genetic disorders, and the mdx mouse myopathies are caused by a lack of dystrophin protein. These dystrophic muscles contain sporadic clusters of dystrophin-expressing revertant fibers (RFs, as detected by immunohistochemistry. RFs are known to arise from muscle precursor cells with spontaneous exon skipping (alternative splicing and clonally expand in size with increasing age through the process of muscle degeneration/regeneration. The expansion of revertant clusters is thought to represent the cumulative history of muscle regeneration and proliferation of such precursor cells. However, the precise mechanisms by which RFs arise and expand are poorly understood. Here, to test the effects of mutation types and aging on RF expansion and muscle regeneration, we examined the number of RFs in mdx mice (containing a nonsense mutation in exon 23 and mdx52 mice (containing deletion mutation of exon 52 with the same C57BL/6 background at 2, 6, 12, and 18months of age. Mdx mice displayed a significantly higher number of RFs compared to mdx52 mice in all age groups, suggesting that revertant fiber expansion largely depends on the type of mutation and/or location in the gene. A significant increase in the expression and clustering levels of RFs was found beginning at 6months of age in mdx mice compared with mdx52 mice. In contrast to the significant expansion of RFs with increasing age, the number of centrally nucleated fibers and embryonic myosin heavy chain-positive fibers (indicative of cumulative and current muscle regeneration, respectively decreased with age in both mouse strains. These results suggest that mutation types and aging differently affect revertant fiber expansion in mdx and mdx52 mice.

  17. Picosecond multiphoton ionization of atomic and molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.C.; Smith, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    High peak-power picosecond laser pulses have been used for the first time to effect nonresonant or resonant multiphoton ionization (MPI) of clusters generated in a supersonic nozzle expansion. The resulting ions are subsequently detected and characterized by time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Specifically, we present results involving MPI of clusters of xenon and nitric oxide. Previous MPI studies of many molecular clusters using nanosecond lasers have not been successful in observing the parent ion, presumably due to fast dissociation channels. It is proposed that the present technique is a new and rather general ionization source for cluster studies which is complementary to electron impact but may, in addition, provide unique spectroscopic or dynamical information. 23 refs., 5 figs

  18. Energy band dispersion in photoemission spectra of argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstel, Marko; Mucke, Melanie; Arion, Tiberiu; Lischke, Toralf; Barth, Silko; Ulrich, Volker; Ohrwall, Gunnar; Bjoerneholm, Olle; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Bradshaw, Alex M.

    2011-01-01

    Using photoemission we have investigated free argon clusters from a supersonic nozzle expansion in the photon energy range from threshold up to 28 eV. Measurements were performed both at high resolution with a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser and at lower resolution with a magnetic bottle device. The latter experiments were performed for various mean cluster sizes. In addition to the ∼1.5 eV broad 3p-derived valence band seen in previous work, there is a sharper feature at ∼15 eV binding energy. Surprisingly for non-oriented clusters, this peak shifts smoothly in binding energy over the narrow photon energy range 15.5-17.7 eV, indicating energy band dispersion. The onset of this bulk band-like behaviour could be determined from the cluster size dependence.

  19. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  20. Mathematical classification and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    I am very happy to have this opportunity to present the work of Boris Mirkin, a distinguished Russian scholar in the areas of data analysis and decision making methodologies. The monograph is devoted entirely to clustering, a discipline dispersed through many theoretical and application areas, from mathematical statistics and combina­ torial optimization to biology, sociology and organizational structures. It compiles an immense amount of research done to date, including many original Russian de­ velopments never presented to the international community before (for instance, cluster-by-cluster versions of the K-Means method in Chapter 4 or uniform par­ titioning in Chapter 5). The author's approach, approximation clustering, allows him both to systematize a great part of the discipline and to develop many in­ novative methods in the framework of optimization problems. The optimization methods considered are proved to be meaningful in the contexts of data analysis and clustering. The material presented in ...

  1. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  2. δ expansion applied to quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Boettcher, S.; Milton, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    A recently proposed technique known as the δ expansion provides a nonperturbative treatment of a quantum field theory. The δ-expansion approach can be applied to electrodynamics in such a way that local gauge invariance is preserved. In this paper it is shown that for electrodynamic processes involving only external photon lines and no external electron lines the δ expansion is equivalent to a fermion loop expansion. That is, the coefficient of δ n in the δ expansion is precisely the sum of all n-electron-loop Feynman diagrams in a conventional weak-coupling approximation. This equivalence does not extend to processes having external electron lines. When external electron lines are present, the δ expansion is truly nonperturbative and does not have a simple interpretation as a resummation of conventional Feynman diagrams. To illustrate the nonperturbative character of the δ expansion we perform a speculative calculation of the fermion condensate in the massive Schwinger model in the limit of large coupling constant

  3. Herd Clustering: A synergistic data clustering approach using collective intelligence

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue; Chan, Takming

    2014-01-01

    , this principle is used to develop a new clustering algorithm. Inspired by herd behavior, the clustering method is a synergistic approach using collective intelligence called Herd Clustering (HC). The novel part is laid in its first stage where data instances

  4. Spatial Pattern and the Process of Settlement Expansion in Jiangsu Province from 1980 to 2010, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human settlement expansion has very important effects on regional population migration, economic balance and ecosystem services. Understanding the evolution of settlement expansion and regional differences is significant for regional sustainability. The results showed that in the past 30 years, the urbanization rate in Jiangsu province was lower. From 1980 to 2010, the expansion area of urban settlement was larger than that of rural settlement. Urban settlement expanded slowly from 1980 to 2005 and strongly from 2005 to 2010. Rural settlement expanded greatly from 1980 to 1995, and 37.14% of settlement was mostly on cropland. The type of urban settlement expansion from 1980 to 1995 and from 2000 to 2005 was compact expansion. Settlement expansion in the south of Jiangsu province was greater than that in the north of Jiangsu province. The spatial pattern of settlement in most cities was a cluster. In the past 30 years, urban and rural settlement expansion had significantly different impacts on the soil and water environment. Urban settlement expansion was great in the south of Jiangsu province and widened the economic and social gap between the south and north of Jiangsu province.

  5. Star clusters containing massive, central black holes: evolution calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents a detailed, two-dimensional simulations of star cluster evolution. A Monte-Carlo method is adapted to simulate the development with time of isolated star clusters. Clusters which evolve on relaxation timescales with and without central black holes are treated. The method is flexible and rugged, rather than highly accurate. It treats the boundary conditions of stellar evaporation and tidal disruption by a central black hole in a precise, stochastic fashion. Dynamical cloning and renormalization and the use of a time-step adjustment algorithm enhance the feasibility of the method which simulates systems with wide ranges of intrinsic length and time scales. First, the method is applied to follow the development and core collapse of an initial Plummer-model cluster without a central black hole. Agreement of these results for early times with the results of previous authors serves as a verification of this method. Three calculations of cluster re-expansion, each beginning with the insertion of a black hole at the center of a highly collapsed cluster core is presented. Each case is characterized by a different value of initial black hole mass or black hole accretion efficiency for the consumption of debris from disrupted stars. It is found that for the special cases examined here substantial, but not catastrophic, growth of the central black hole may accompany core re-expansion. Also, the observability of the evolutionary phases associated with core collapse and re-expansion, constraints on x-ray sources which could be associated with growing black holes, and the observable signature of the cusp of stars surrounding a central black hole are discussed

  6. A new apparatus for the study of electron impact fragmentation of molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, G; Burgt, P J M van der

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a new experiment for the study of electron-impact induced dissociation and fragmentation of molecular clusters and biomolecules and other species solvated in water clusters. The purpose is to look at clusters that are of interest to biophysics, atmospheric physics, and other fields. The experiment consists of a differentially pumped vacuum system, with an expansion chamber to generate a pulsed supersonic beam of clusters, and a collision chamber where the cluster beam intersects with an electron beam. Water clusters can be seeded with biomolecules emerging from a resistively heated oven. Investigation will be possible into both ion yields and long-lived neutral metastable yields produced by electron-impact fragmentation of relevant clusters and biomolecules

  7. Interbasis expansions for isotropic harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2012-03-12

    The exact solutions of the isotropic harmonic oscillator are reviewed in Cartesian, cylindrical polar and spherical coordinates. The problem of interbasis expansions of the eigenfunctions is solved completely. The explicit expansion coefficients of the basis for given coordinates in terms of other two coordinates are presented for lower excited states. Such a property is occurred only for those degenerated states for given principal quantum number n. -- Highlights: ► Exact solutions of harmonic oscillator are reviewed in three coordinates. ► Interbasis expansions of the eigenfunctions is solved completely. ► This is occurred only for those degenerated states for given quantum number n.

  8. Decennial plan of expansion 1994-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Decennial Plan of Expansion 1994-2003 of Electric sector reproduces the results of the studies occurred during the planning cycle of 1992/93 from the Coordinator Groups of the Electric System Planning. Based in the market forecasting, economic-financier and time for finishing the the works, the Decennial Plan of Expansion presents the schedule of the main generation and transmission works for the next ten years, the annual spend in generation, transmission and distribution, the costs of expansion and the evaluation of attending conditions in electric system in Brazil. (C.G.C.)

  9. Thermal expansion: Metallic elements and alloys. [Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Kirby, R. K.; Taylor, R. E.; Desai, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    The introductory sections of the work are devoted to the theory of thermal expansion of solids and to methods for the measurement of the linear thermal expansion of solids (X-ray methods, high speed methods, interferometry, push-rod dilatometry, etc.). The bulk of the work is devoted to numerical data on the thermal linear expansion of all the metallic elements, a large number of intermetallics, and a large number of binary alloy systems and multiple alloy systems. A comprehensive bibliography is provided along with an index to the materials examined.

  10. Discrete expansions of continuum functions. General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Ershov, S.N.; Gareev, F.A.; Kazacha, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Different discrete expansions of the continuum wave functions are considered: pole expansion (according to the Mittag-Lefler theorem), Weinberg states. The general property of these groups of states is their completeness in the finite region of space. They satisfy the Schroedinger type equations and are matched with free solutions of the Schroedinger equation at the boundary. Convergence of expansions for the S matrix, the Green functions and the continuous-spectrum wave functions is studied. A new group of states possessing the best convergence is introduced

  11. Semiclassical expansions on and near caustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meetz, K.

    1984-09-01

    We show that the standard WKB expansion can be generalized so that it reproduces the behavior of the wave function on and near a caustic in two-dimensional space time. The expansion is related to the unfolding polynomials of the elementary catastrophes occurring in two dimensions: the fold and the cusp catastrophe. The method determines control parameters and transport coefficients in a self-consistent way from differential equations and does not refer to the asymptotic expansion of Feynman path integrals. The lowest order equations are solved explicitly in terms of the multivalued classical action. The result is a generalized semiclassical approximation on and beyond a caustic. (orig.)

  12. Cosmic growth history and expansion history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The cosmic expansion history tests the dynamics of the global evolution of the universe and its energy density contents, while the cosmic growth history tests the evolution of the inhomogeneous part of the energy density. Precision comparison of the two histories can distinguish the nature of the physics responsible for the accelerating cosmic expansion: an additional smooth component--dark energy--or a modification of the gravitational field equations. With the aid of a new fitting formula for linear perturbation growth accurate to 0.05%-0.2%, we separate out the growth dependence on the expansion history and introduce a new growth index parameter γ that quantifies the gravitational modification

  13. Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Martin, E-mail: marlohmann@gmail.com [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.

  14. Oblique photon expansion of QED structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the oblique photon expansion, the collinear part of photon emission is summed up to all orders in perturbation theory. The number of oblique or non-collinear photons is the expansion order. Unlike in perturbation theory, every term of the expansion is both infrared finite and gauge invariant. The zero oblique photon contribution to the electromagnetic structure tensor in QED is computed in detail. The behaviors of the structure functions F1 and F2 are discussed in the soft and ultra-soft limits

  15. Construction and application of Red5 cluster based on OpenStack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaqing; Song, Jianxin

    2017-08-01

    With the application and development of cloud computing technology in various fields, the resource utilization rate of the data center has been improved obviously, and the system based on cloud computing platform has also improved the expansibility and stability. In the traditional way, Red5 cluster resource utilization is low and the system stability is poor. This paper uses cloud computing to efficiently calculate the resource allocation ability, and builds a Red5 server cluster based on OpenStack. Multimedia applications can be published to the Red5 cloud server cluster. The system achieves the flexible construction of computing resources, but also greatly improves the stability of the cluster and service efficiency.

  16. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio [Richland, WA; Calapristi, Augustin J [West Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  17. Cluster-cluster correlations and constraints on the correlation hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.; Gott, J. R., III

    1988-01-01

    The hypothesis that galaxies cluster around clusters at least as strongly as they cluster around galaxies imposes constraints on the hierarchy of correlation amplitudes in hierachical clustering models. The distributions which saturate these constraints are the Rayleigh-Levy random walk fractals proposed by Mandelbrot; for these fractal distributions cluster-cluster correlations are all identically equal to galaxy-galaxy correlations. If correlation amplitudes exceed the constraints, as is observed, then cluster-cluster correlations must exceed galaxy-galaxy correlations, as is observed.

  18. Formation of stable products from cluster-cluster collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamanova, Denitsa; Grigoryan, Valeri G; Springborg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The formation of stable products from copper cluster-cluster collisions is investigated by using classical molecular-dynamics simulations in combination with an embedded-atom potential. The dependence of the product clusters on impact energy, relative orientation of the clusters, and size of the clusters is studied. The structures and total energies of the product clusters are analysed and compared with those of the colliding clusters before impact. These results, together with the internal temperature, are used in obtaining an increased understanding of cluster fusion processes

  19. Variable surface composition and radial interface formation in self-assembled free, mixed Ar/Xe clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchaplyguine, M.; Maartensson, N.; Lundwall, M.; Oehrwall, G.; Feifel, R.; Svensson, S.; Bjoerneholm, O.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Sorensen, S.

    2004-01-01

    Using photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate how the self-assembling process of cluster formation in an adiabatic expansion leads to radial segregation and layering as well as to variable surface composition for binary Ar/Xe clusters. The radial structuring can be qualitatively understood from the different interatomic bonding strengths of the two components

  20. Tune Your Brown Clustering, Please

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Chester, Sean; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2015-01-01

    Brown clustering, an unsupervised hierarchical clustering technique based on ngram mutual information, has proven useful in many NLP applications. However, most uses of Brown clustering employ the same default configuration; the appropriateness of this configuration has gone predominantly...

  1. Cluster Management Institutionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Normann, Leo; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    of how it was legitimized as a “ready-to-use” management model. Further, our account reveals how cluster management translated into considerably different local variants as it travelled into specific organizations. However, these processes have not occurred sequentially with cluster management first...... legitimized at the field level, then spread, and finally translated into action in the adopting organizations. Instead, we observed entangled field and organizational-level processes. Accordingly, we argue that cluster management institutionalization is most readily understood by simultaneously investigating...

  2. The concept of cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Møller, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together...... to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfold the concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks...

  3. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  4. Introduction to cluster dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje

  5. Contextualizing the Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    This dissertation examines the case of the palm oil cluster in Malaysia and Indonesia, today one of the largest agricultural clusters in the world. My analysis focuses on the evolution of the cluster from the 1880s to the 1970s in order to understand how it helped these two countries to integrate...... into the global economy in both colonial and post-colonial times. The study is based on empirical material drawn from five UK archives and background research using secondary sources, interviews, and archive visits to Malaysia and Singapore. The dissertation comprises three articles, each discussing a major under...

  6. Atomic cluster collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Andrey V.; Solov'yov, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Atomic cluster collisions are a field of rapidly emerging research interest by both experimentalists and theorists. The international symposium on atomic cluster collisions (ISSAC) is the premier forum to present cutting-edge research in this field. It was established in 2003 and the most recent conference was held in Berlin, Germany in July of 2011. This Topical Issue presents original research results from some of the participants, who attended this conference. This issues specifically focuses on two research areas, namely Clusters and Fullerenes in External Fields and Nanoscale Insights in Radiation Biodamage.

  7. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio, E-mail: fabien@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: rosenfel@ift.unesp.br [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  8. Improvement of Expansive Soils Using Chemical Stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikizler, S. B.; Senol, A.; Khosrowshahi, S. K.; Hatipoğlu, M.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of two chemical stabilizers on the swelling potential of expansive soil. A high plasticity sodium bentonite was used as the expansive soil. The additive materials including fly ash (FA) and lime (L) were evaluated as potential stabilizers to decrease the swelling pressure of bentonite. Depending on the type of additive materials, they were blended with bentonite in different percentages to assess the optimum state and approch the maximum swell pressure reduction. According to the results of swell pressure test, both fly ash and lime reduce the swelling potential of bentonite but the maximum improvement occurs using bentonite-lime mixture while the swelling pressure reduction approaches to 49%. The results reveal a significant reduction of swelling potential of expansive soil using chemical stabilizers. Keywords: Expansive soil; swell pressure; chemical stabilization; fly ash; lime

  9. Applications of the large mass expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.; Kotikov, A.V.; ); Veretin, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The method of the large mass expansion (LME) is investigated for selfenergy and vertex functions in two-loop order. It has the technical advantage that in many cases the expansion coefficients can be expressed analytically. As long as only one non-zero external momentum squared, q 2 , is involved also the Taylor expansion (TE) w.r.t. small q 2 yields high precision results in a domain sufficient for most applications. In the case of only one non-zero mass M and only one external momentum squared, the expansion w.r.t. q 2 /M 2 is identical for the TE and the LME. In this case the combined techniques yield analytic expressions for many diagrams, which are quite easy to handle numerically. (author)

  10. Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Kaban, L B; Vargervik, K; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    Twelve adults with maxillary width discrepancy of greater than 5 mm were treated by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The procedure consisted of bilateral zygomatic buttress and midpalatal osteotomies combined with the use of a tooth-borne orthopedic device postoperatively. Mean palatal expansion of 7.5 mm (range of 6 to 13 mm), measured in the first molar region, was achieved within 3 weeks in all patients. Expansion remained stable during the 12-month study period, with a mean relapse for the entire group of 0.88 +/- 0.48 mm. Morbidity was limited to mild postoperative discomfort. The results of this preliminary study indicated that surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion is a safe, simple, and reliable procedure for achieving a permanent increase in skeletal maxillary width in adults. Further study is necessary to document the three-dimensional movements of the maxillary segments and long-term stability of the skeletal and dental changes.

  11. Expansion of the Neyveli lignite mine, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T S [Neyveli Lignite Corp. Ltd., Tamil Nadu (India); Streck, W [Gold (O.) G.m.b.H. und Co. K.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    After giving a picture of the difficult winning conditions at the Neyveli open-cast lignite mine, the author states the reasons for the expansions of the open-cast mine and describes the necessary measures and machinery.

  12. Magnetized relativistic electron-ion plasma expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of relativistic laser-produced plasma expansion across a transverse magnetic field is investigated. Based on a one dimensional two-fluid model that includes pressure, enthalpy, and rest mass energy, the expansion is studied in the limit of λD (Debye length) ≤RL (Larmor radius) for magnetized electrons and ions. Numerical investigation conducted for a quasi-neutral plasma showed that the σ parameter describing the initial plasma magnetization, and the plasma β parameter, which is the ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure are the key parameters governing the expansion dynamics. For σ ≪ 1, ion's front shows oscillations associated to the break-down of quasi-neutrality. This is due to the strong constraining effect and confinement of the magnetic field, which acts as a retarding medium slowing the plasma expansion.

  13. Wilson expansion in the minimal subtraction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The small distance expansion of the product of composite fields is constructed for an arbitrary renormalization procedure of the type of minimal subtraction scheme. Coefficient functions of the expansion are expressed explicitly through the Green functions of composite fields. The expansion has the explicity finite form: the ultraviolet (UV) divergences of the coefficient functions and composite fields are removed by the initial renormalization procedure while the infrared (IR) divergences in massless diagrams with nonvanishing contribution into the coefficient functions are removed by the R-operation which is the IR part of the R-operation. The latter is the generalization of the dimensional renormalization in the case when both UV and IR divergences are present. To derive the expansion, a ''pre-subtracting operator'' is introduced and formulas of the counter-term technique are exploited

  14. Treatment of divergent expansions in scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersten, A.; Malin, S.

    1978-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles in applying quantum field theory to realistic scattering problems are the divergencies of pertubation expansions for large coupling constants and the divergencies of partial wave expansions for massless particles exchanges. There exist, however, methods of summation of the divergent expansions which can lead to significant application in physics. In this paper we treat the problem of summing such expansions using three methods: (i) a generalization of the Pade approximation to the multivariable case. The suggested definition is unique and preserves unitarity. (ii) The summation of divergent partial waves for arbitrary spins. (iii) A successful application of a series inversion to the 3 P 1 nucleon-nucleon phase shift up to 200 MeV. (orig./WL) [de

  15. foundations on expansive soils introduction characteristic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the swelling potential of expansive soils have been found to be: initial moisture content, .... behaviour of such huildin1?1>, it is difficult to give definite recommendations. ..... Structures in Black Cotton Soils, Central Building. Research Institute ...

  16. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  17. Boson expansion theory in the seniority scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Li, C.; Pedrocchi, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    A boson expansion formalism in the seniority scheme is presented and its relation with number-conserving quasiparticle calculations is elucidated. Accuracy and convergence are demonstrated numerically. A comparative discussion with other related approaches is given

  18. Operator expansion at short distance in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubschmid, W [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Mallik, S [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Kernphysik

    1982-11-01

    We present a method of calculating coefficients of gluon operators in the operator product expansion of two-point functions at short distance. It is based on a short-distance expansion of the singular part of the quark propagator in the gluon field, the latter being treated as external. We verify in full generality that the spin zero, gluon operator of dimension six does not contribute to the two-point functions of quark bilinears.

  19. Resolution of hydrodynamical equations for transverse expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Y.; Pottag, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The three-dimensional hydrodynamical expansion is treated with a method similar to that of Milekhin, but more explicit. Although in the final stage one have to appeal to numerical calculation, the partial differential equations governing the transverse expansions are treated without transforming them into ordinary equations with an introduction of averaged quantities. It is only concerned with the formalism and the numerical results will be given in the next paper. (Author) [pt

  20. The critical thermal expansion of gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.; Lanchester, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the critical thermal expansion of single crystals of gadolinium, prepared by solid state electrotransport processing. Although the expansion data can be fitted to a simple power law with exponents lambda + =-0.25, lambda - =-0.33, these values are not predicted by theory and a discontinuity remains at Tsub(c)=293.620 K. It is suggested that the results relate to a region of crossover to uniaxial dipolar behaviour. (Auth.)

  1. Synthesis, microstructure and thermal expansion studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report on the synthesis, microstructure and thermal expansion studies on Ca0.5+/2Sr0.5+/2Zr4P6−2Si2O24 ( = 0.00 to 1.00) system which belongs to NZP family of low thermal expansion ceramics. The ceramics synthesized by co-precipitation method at lower calcination and the sintering temperatures ...

  2. Composite asymptotic expansions and scaling wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Ronald L

    2007-03-15

    In this article, the assumptions and reasoning that yield composite asymptotic expansions for wall turbulence are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the scaling quantities that are used to render the variables non-dimensional and of order one. An asymptotic expansion is proposed for the streamwise Reynolds stress that accounts for the active and inactive turbulence by using different scalings. The idea is tested with the data from the channel flows and appears to have merit.

  3. A pedagogical approach to the Magnus expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanes, S; Casas, F; Oteo, J A; Ros, J

    2010-01-01

    Time-dependent perturbation theory as a tool to compute approximate solutions of the Schroedinger equation does not preserve unitarity. Here we present, in a simple way, how the Magnus expansion (also known as exponential perturbation theory) provides such unitary approximate solutions. The purpose is to illustrate the importance and consequences of such a property. We suggest that the Magnus expansion may be introduced to students in advanced courses of quantum mechanics.

  4. Local behaviour of negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornasini, P.; Dalba, G.; Grisenti, R.; Purans, J.; Vaccari, M.; Rocca, F.; Sanson, A.

    2006-01-01

    EXAFS can represent a powerful probe of the local behaviour of negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials, thanks to the possibility of measuring the expansion of selected inter-atomic bonds and the perpendicular relative atomic displacements. The effectiveness of EXAFS for NTE studies is illustrated by a comparison of results recently obtained on germanium, CuCl and the cuprites Cu 2 O and Ag 2 O

  5. Resolution of hydrodynamical equations for transverse expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Y.; Pottag, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional hydrodynamical expansion is treated with a method similar to that of Milekhin, but more explicit. Although in the final stage we have to appeal to numerical calculation, the partial differential equations governing the transverse expansions are treated without transforming them into ordinary equations with an introduction of averaged quantities. The present paper is concerned with the formalism and the numerical results will be reported in another paper. (Author) [pt

  6. Stochastic quantization and 1/N expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelli, J.C.; Mendes, R.S.

    1992-10-01

    We study the 1/N expansion of field theories in the stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu using the supersymmetric functional approach. This formulation provides a systematic procedure to implement the 1/N expansion which resembles the ones used in the equilibrium. The 1/N perturbation theory for the non linear sigma model in two dimensions is worked out as an example. (author). 19 refs., 5 figs

  7. Foundations on Expansive Soils; A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Kalantari

    2012-01-01

    This study describes various types of foundation designs to be considered for structural engineering projects when the subsoil foundation consists of expansive or swelling soils. Among civil and architectural engineers expansive soils are known to be difficult foundation materials and problematic. These type of soils swell when they are subjected to moistures and shrink due to moisture loss. Because of this different behaviour upon wetting and drying, they cause minor to major structural dama...

  8. Metal cluster compounds - chemistry and importance; clusters containing isolated main group element atoms, large metal cluster compounds, cluster fluxionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, B.

    1988-01-01

    This part of the review on metal cluster compounds deals with clusters containing isolated main group element atoms, with high nuclearity clusters and metal cluster fluxionality. It will be obvious that main group element atoms strongly influence the geometry, stability and reactivity of the clusters. High nuclearity clusters are of interest in there own due to the diversity of the structures adopted, but their intermediate position between molecules and the metallic state makes them a fascinating research object too. These both sites of the metal cluster chemistry as well as the frequently observed ligand and core fluxionality are related to the cluster metal and surface analogy. (author)

  9. Thermal expansion behavior in fabricated cellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oruganti, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Mazumder, J.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal expansion behavior of cellular structures is of interest in applications where undesirable deformation and failure are caused by thermal expansion mismatch. This report describes the role of processing-induced effects and metallurgical aspects of melt-processed cellular structures, such as a bi-material structure designed to contract on heating, as well as uni-material structures of regular and stochastic topology. This bi-material structure utilized the principle of internal geometric constraints to alter the expansion behavior of the internal ligaments to create overall contraction of the structure. Homogenization design method was used to design the structure, and fabrication was by direct metal deposition by laser melting of powder in another part of a joint effort. The degree of porosity and grain size in the fabricated structure are characterized and related to the laser deposition parameters. The structure was found to contract upon heating over a short range of temperature subsequent to which normal expansion ensued. Also examined in this report are uni-material cellular structures, in which internal constraints arise from residual stress variations caused by the fabrication process, and thereby alter their expansion characteristics. A simple analysis of thermal strain of this material supports the observed thermal expansion behavior

  10. Disentangling Porterian Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagtfelt, Tue

    , contested theory become so widely disseminated and applied as a normative and prescriptive strategy for economic development? The dissertation traces the introduction of the cluster notion into the EU’s Lisbon Strategy and demonstrates how its inclusion originates from Porter’s colleagues: Professor Örjan...... to his membership on the Commission on Industrial Competitiveness, and that the cluster notion found in his influential book, Nations, represents a significant shift in his conception of cluster compared with his early conceptions. This shift, it is argued, is a deliberate attempt by Porter to create...... a paradigmatic textbook that follows Kuhn’s blueprint for scientific revolutions by instilling Nations with circular references and thus creating a local linguistic holism conceptualized through an encompassing notion of cluster. The dissertation concludes that the two research questions are philosophically...

  11. Remarks on stellar clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the following, a few simple remarks on the evolution and properties of stellar clusters will be collected. In particular, globular clusters will be considered. Though details of such clusters are often not known, a few questions can be clarified with the help of primitive arguments. These are:- why are spherical clusters spherical, why do they have high densities, why do they consist of approximately a million stars, how may a black hole of great mass form within them, may they be the origin of gamma-ray bursts, may their invisible remnants account for the missing mass of our galaxy. The available data do not warrant a detailed evaluation. However, it is remarkable that exceedingly simple models can shed some light on the questions enumerated above. (author)

  12. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    -principles molecular dynamics collision simulations of (sulphuric acid)1(water)0, 1 + (dimethylamine) → (sulphuric acid)1(dimethylamine)1(water)0, 1 cluster formation processes. The simulations indicate that the sticking factor in the collisions is unity: the interaction between the molecules is strong enough...... control. As a consequence, the clusters show very dynamic ion pair structure, which differs from both the static structure optimisation calculations and the equilibrium first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. In some of the simulation runs, water mediates the proton transfer by acting as a proton...... to overcome the possible initial non-optimal collision orientations. No post-collisional cluster break up is observed. The reasons for the efficient clustering are (i) the proton transfer reaction which takes place in each of the collision simulations and (ii) the subsequent competition over the proton...

  13. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  14. How Clusters Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology innovation clusters are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, universities, and other organizations with a focus on environmental technology. They play a key role in addressing the nation’s pressing environmental problems.

  15. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  16. Galaxy clusters and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    White, S

    1994-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest coherent objects in Universe. It has been known since 1933 that their dynamical properties require either a modification of the theory of gravity, or the presence of a dominant component of unseen material of unknown nature. Clusters still provide the best laboratories for studying the amount and distribution of this dark matter relative to the material which can be observed directly -- the galaxies themselves and the hot,X-ray-emitting gas which lies between them.Imaging and spectroscopy of clusters by satellite-borne X -ray telescopes has greatly improved our knowledge of the structure and composition of this intergalactic medium. The results permit a number of new approaches to some fundamental cosmological questions,but current indications from the data are contradictory. The observed irregularity of real clusters seems to imply recent formation epochs which would require a universe with approximately the critical density. On the other hand, the large baryon fraction observ...

  17. Applications of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Applications of Clustering. Biology – medical imaging, bioinformatics, ecology, phylogenies problems etc. Market research. Data Mining. Social Networks. Any problem measuring similarity/correlation. (dimensions represent different parameters)

  18. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  19. Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Ludger; Pezeshkian, Weria; Ipsen, John H

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of extracellular ligands and proteins on the plasma membrane is required to perform specific cellular functions, such as signaling and endocytosis. Attractive forces that originate in perturbations of the membrane's physical properties contribute to this clustering, in addition to direct...... protein-protein interactions. However, these membrane-mediated forces have not all been equally considered, despite their importance. In this review, we describe how line tension, lipid depletion, and membrane curvature contribute to membrane-mediated clustering. Additional attractive forces that arise...... from protein-induced perturbation of a membrane's fluctuations are also described. This review aims to provide a survey of the current understanding of membrane-mediated clustering and how this supports precise biological functions....

  20. Air void clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Air void clustering around coarse aggregate in concrete has been identified as a potential source of : low strengths in concrete mixes by several Departments of Transportation around the country. Research was : carried out to (1) develop a quantitati...

  1. Performance of the cluster-jet target for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergemoeller, Ann-Katrin; Bonaventura, Daniel; Grieser, Silke; Hetz, Benjamin; Koehler, Esperanza; Khoukaz, Alfons [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The success of storage ring experiments strongly depends on the choice of the target. For this purpose, a very appropriate internal target for such an experiment is a cluster-jet target, which will be the first operated target at the PANDA experiment at FAIR. In this kind of target the cluster beam itself is formed due to the expansion of pre-cooled gases within a Laval nozzle and is prepared afterwards via two orifices, the skimmer and the collimator. The target prototype, operating successfully for years at the University of Muenster, provides routinely target thicknesses of more than 2 x 10{sup 15} (atoms)/(cm{sup 2}) in a distance of 2.1 m behind the nozzle. Based on the results of the performance of the cluster target prototype the final cluster-jet target source was designed and set into operation in Muenster as well. Besides the monitoring of the cluster beam itself and the thickness with two different monitoring systems at this target, investigations on the cluster mass via Mie scattering will be performed. In this presentation an overview of the cluster target design, its performance and the Mie scattering method are presented and discussed.

  2. Speaker segmentation and clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Kotti, M; Moschou, V; Kotropoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    07.08.13 KB. Ok to add the accepted version to Spiral, Elsevier says ok whlile mandate not enforced. This survey focuses on two challenging speech processing topics, namely: speaker segmentation and speaker clustering. Speaker segmentation aims at finding speaker change points in an audio stream, whereas speaker clustering aims at grouping speech segments based on speaker characteristics. Model-based, metric-based, and hybrid speaker segmentation algorithms are reviewed. Concerning speaker...

  3. Fermion cluster algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2000-01-01

    Cluster algorithms have been recently used to eliminate sign problems that plague Monte-Carlo methods in a variety of systems. In particular such algorithms can also be used to solve sign problems associated with the permutation of fermion world lines. This solution leads to the possibility of designing fermion cluster algorithms in certain cases. Using the example of free non-relativistic fermions we discuss the ideas underlying the algorithm

  4. BUILDING e-CLUSTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Davidovic

    2013-01-01

    E-clusters are strategic alliance in TIMES technology sector (Telecommunication, Information technology, Multimedia, Entertainment, Security) where products and processes are digitalized. They enable horizontal and vertical integration of small and medium companies and establish new added value e-chains. E-clusters also build supply chains based on cooperation relationship, innovation, organizational knowledge and compliance of intellectual properties. As an innovative approach for economic p...

  5. Clusters and exotic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to present some data which may be construed as indicating that perhaps clusters play a role in high energy and exotic pion or kaon interactions with complex (A much greater than 16) nuclei. Also an attempt is made to summarize some very recent experimental work on pion interactions with nuclei which may or may not in the end support a picture in which clusters play an important role. (U.S.)

  6. Robust continuous clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sohil Atul; Koltun, Vladlen

    2017-09-12

    Clustering is a fundamental procedure in the analysis of scientific data. It is used ubiquitously across the sciences. Despite decades of research, existing clustering algorithms have limited effectiveness in high dimensions and often require tuning parameters for different domains and datasets. We present a clustering algorithm that achieves high accuracy across multiple domains and scales efficiently to high dimensions and large datasets. The presented algorithm optimizes a smooth continuous objective, which is based on robust statistics and allows heavily mixed clusters to be untangled. The continuous nature of the objective also allows clustering to be integrated as a module in end-to-end feature learning pipelines. We demonstrate this by extending the algorithm to perform joint clustering and dimensionality reduction by efficiently optimizing a continuous global objective. The presented approach is evaluated on large datasets of faces, hand-written digits, objects, newswire articles, sensor readings from the Space Shuttle, and protein expression levels. Our method achieves high accuracy across all datasets, outperforming the best prior algorithm by a factor of 3 in average rank.

  7. Cluster bomb ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

    2012-01-01

    To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  8. Tuberculosis outbreaks predicted by characteristics of first patients in a DNA fingerprint cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Sandra V; Verver, Suzanne; van Soolingen, Dick; de Haas, Petra E W; Cobelens, Frank G; Kremer, Kristin; van Deutekom, Henk; Borgdorff, Martien W

    2008-07-01

    Some clusters of patients who have Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with identical DNA fingerprint patterns grow faster than others. It is unclear what predictors determine cluster growth. To assess whether the development of a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak can be predicted by the characteristics of its first two patients. Demographic and clinical data of all culture-confirmed patients with TB in the Netherlands from 1993 through 2004 were combined with DNA fingerprint data. Clusters were restricted to cluster episodes of 2 years to only detect newly arising clusters. Characteristics of the first two patients were compared between small (2-4 cases) and large (5 or more cases) cluster episodes. Of 5,454 clustered cases, 1,756 (32%) were part of a cluster episode of 2 years. Of 622 cluster episodes, 54 (9%) were large and 568 (91%) were small episodes. Independent predictors for large cluster episodes were as follows: less than 3 months' time between the diagnosis of the first two patients, one or both patients were young (<35 yr), both patients lived in an urban area, and both patients came from sub-Saharan Africa. In the Netherlands, patients in new cluster episodes should be screened for these risk factors. When the risk pattern applies, targeted interventions (e.g., intensified contact investigation) should be considered to prevent further cluster expansion.

  9. Determination of atomic cluster structure with cluster fusion algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2005-01-01

    We report an efficient scheme of global optimization, called cluster fusion algorithm, which has proved its reliability and high efficiency in determination of the structure of various atomic clusters.......We report an efficient scheme of global optimization, called cluster fusion algorithm, which has proved its reliability and high efficiency in determination of the structure of various atomic clusters....

  10. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Koshi

    2012-02-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over -30 ppm K -1 . Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.

  11. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Takenaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.

  12. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Koshi

    2012-01-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K −1 . Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade. (topical review)

  13. Cluster dynamics at different cluster size and incident laser wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Tara; Bernardinello, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    X-ray emission spectra from aluminum clusters of diameter -0.4 μm and gold clusters of dia. ∼1.25 μm are experimentally studied by irradiating the cluster foil targets with 1.06 μm laser, 10 ns (FWHM) at an intensity ∼10 12 W/cm 2 . Aluminum clusters show a different spectra compared to bulk material whereas gold cluster evolve towards bulk gold. Experimental data are analyzed on the basis of cluster dimension, laser wavelength and pulse duration. PIC simulations are performed to study the behavior of clusters at higher intensity I≥10 17 W/cm 2 for different size of the clusters irradiated at different laser wavelengths. Results indicate the dependence of cluster dynamics on cluster size and incident laser wavelength

  14. Cluster fusion algorithm: application to Lennard-Jones clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms. We demonstrate that in this way all known global minima structures of the Lennard-Jones clusters can be found. Our method provides an efficient tool for the calculation and analysis of atomic cluster structure. With its use we justify the magic number sequence......We present a new general theoretical framework for modelling the cluster structure and apply it to description of the Lennard-Jones clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing...... for the clusters of noble gas atoms and compare it with experimental observations. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the dependence of the second derivative of the binding energy per atom on cluster size calculated for the chain of the Lennard-Jones clusters based on the icosahedral symmetry...

  15. Cluster fusion algorithm: application to Lennard-Jones clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms. We demonstrate that in this way all known global minima structures of the Lennard-Jones clusters can be found. Our method provides an efficient tool for the calculation and analysis of atomic cluster structure. With its use we justify the magic number sequence......We present a new general theoretical framework for modelling the cluster structure and apply it to description of the Lennard-Jones clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing...... for the clusters of noble gas atoms and compare it with experimental observations. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the dependence of the second derivative of the binding energy per atom on cluster size calculated for the chain of the Lennard-Jones clusters based on the icosahedral symmetry...

  16. GibbsCluster: unsupervised clustering and alignment of peptide sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreatta, Massimo; Alvarez, Bruno; Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    motif characterizing each cluster. Several parameters are available to customize cluster analysis, including adjustable penalties for small clusters and overlapping groups and a trash cluster to remove outliers. As an example application, we used the server to deconvolute multiple specificities in large......-scale peptidome data generated by mass spectrometry. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/GibbsCluster-2.0....

  17. Ionized-cluster source based on high-pressure corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokuliyanage, K.; Huber, D.; Zappa, F.; Scheier, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: It has been demonstrated that energetic beams of large clusters, with thousands of atoms, can be a powerful tool for surface modification. Normally ionized cluster beams are obtained by electron impact on neutral beams produced in a supersonic expansion. At the University of Innsbruck we are pursuing the realization of a high current cluster ion source based on the corona discharge.The idea in the present case is that the ionization should occur prior to the supersonic expansion, thus supersede the need of subsequent electron impact. In this contribution we present the project of our source in its initial stage. The intensity distribution of cluster sizes as a function of the source parameters, such as input pressure, temperature and gap voltage, are investigated with the aid of a custom-built time of flight mass spectrometer. (author)

  18. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...

  19. Subspace K-means clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-01-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the

  20. Isentropic expansion and related thermodynamic properties of non-ionic amphiphile-water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, João Carlos R; Douhéret, Gérard; Davis, Michael I; Fjellanger, Inger Johanne; Høiland, Harald

    2008-01-28

    A concise thermodynamic formalism is developed for the molar isentropic thermal expansion, ES,m = ( partial differential Vm/ partial differential T)(Sm,x), and the ideal and excess quantities for the molar, apparent molar and partial molar isentropic expansions of binary liquid mixtures. Ultrasound speeds were determined by means of the pulse-echo-overlap method in aqueous mixtures of 2-methylpropan-2-ol at 298.15 K over the entire composition range. These data complement selected extensive literature data on density, isobaric heat capacity and ultrasound speed for 9 amphiphile (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, ethane-1,2-diol, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol)-water binary systems, which form the basis of tables listing molar and excess molar isobaric expansions and heat capacities, and molar and excess molar isentropic compressions and expansions at 298.15 K and at 65 fixed mole fractions spanning the entire composition range and fine-grained in the water-rich region. The dependence on composition of these 9 systems is graphically depicted for the excess molar isobaric and isentropic expansions and for the excess partial molar isobaric and isentropic expansions of the amphiphile. The analysis shows that isentropic thermal expansion properties give a much stronger response to amphiphile-water molecular interactions than do their isobaric counterparts. Depending on the pair property-system, the maximum excess molar isentropic value is generally twenty- to a hundred-fold greater than the corresponding maximum isobaric value, and occurs at a lower mole fraction of the amphiphile. Values at infinite dilution of the 9 amphiphiles in water are given for the excess partial molar isobaric heat capacity, isentropic compression, isobaric expansion and isentropic expansion. These values are interpreted in terms of the changes occurring when amphiphile molecules cluster into an oligomeric form. Present results are discussed

  1. Expansion Under Climate Change: The Genetic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Jimmy; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Range expansion and range shifts are crucial population responses to climate change. Genetic consequences are not well understood but are clearly coupled to ecological dynamics that, in turn, are driven by shifting climate conditions. We model a population with a deterministic reaction-diffusion model coupled to a heterogeneous environment that develops in time due to climate change. We decompose the resulting travelling wave solution into neutral genetic components to analyse the spatio-temporal dynamics of its genetic structure. Our analysis shows that range expansions and range shifts under slow climate change preserve genetic diversity. This is because slow climate change creates range boundaries that promote spatial mixing of genetic components. Mathematically, the mixing leads to so-called pushed travelling wave solutions. This mixing phenomenon is not seen in spatially homogeneous environments, where range expansion reduces genetic diversity through gene surfing arising from pulled travelling wave solutions. However, the preservation of diversity is diminished when climate change occurs too quickly. Using diversity indices, we show that fast expansions and range shifts erode genetic diversity more than slow range expansions and range shifts. Our study provides analytical insight into the dynamics of travelling wave solutions in heterogeneous environments.

  2. Simplified Technique for Predicting Offshore Pipeline Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J. H.; Kim, D. K.; Choi, H. S.; Yu, S. Y.; Park, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we propose a method for estimating the amount of expansion that occurs in subsea pipelines, which could be applied in the design of robust structures that transport oil and gas from offshore wells. We begin with a literature review and general discussion of existing estimation methods and terminologies with respect to subsea pipelines. Due to the effects of high pressure and high temperature, the production of fluid from offshore wells is typically caused by physical deformation of subsea structures, e.g., expansion and contraction during the transportation process. In severe cases, vertical and lateral buckling occurs, which causes a significant negative impact on structural safety, and which is related to on-bottom stability, free-span, structural collapse, and many other factors. In addition, these factors may affect the production rate with respect to flow assurance, wax, and hydration, to name a few. In this study, we developed a simple and efficient method for generating a reliable pipe expansion design in the early stage, which can lead to savings in both cost and computation time. As such, in this paper, we propose an applicable diagram, which we call the standard dimensionless ratio (SDR) versus virtual anchor length (L A ) diagram, that utilizes an efficient procedure for estimating subsea pipeline expansion based on applied reliable scenarios. With this user guideline, offshore pipeline structural designers can reliably determine the amount of subsea pipeline expansion and the obtained results will also be useful for the installation, design, and maintenance of the subsea pipeline.

  3. Preliminary thermal expansion screening data for tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A.R.

    1980-03-01

    A major variable in evaluating the potential of silicic tuffs for use in geologic disposal of heat-producing nuclear wastes is thermal expansion. Results of ambient-pressure linear expansion measurements on a group of tuffs that vary treatly in porosity and mineralogy are presente here. Thermal expansion of devitrified welded tuffs is generally linear with increasing temperature and independent of both porosity and heating rate. Mineralogic factors affecting behavior of these tuffs are limited to the presence or absence of cristobalite and altered biotite. The presence of cristobalite results in markedly nonlinear expansion above 200 0 C. If biotite in biotite-hearing rocks alters even slightly to expandable clays, the behavior of these tuffs near the boiling point of water can be dominated by contraction of the expandable phase. Expansion of both high- and low-porosity tuffs containing hydrated silicic glass and/or expandable clays is complex. The behavior of these rocks appears to be completely dominated by dehydration of hydrous phases and, hence, should be critically dependent on fluid pressure. Valid extrapolation of the ambient-pressure results presented here to depths of interest for construction of a nuclear-waste repository will depend on a good understanding of the interaction of dehydration rates and fluid pressures, and of the effects of both micro- and macrofractures on the response of tuff masss

  4. Mapping Brazilian Cropland Expansion, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is one of the world's leading producers and exporters of agricultural goods. Despite undergoing significant increases in its cropland area in the last decades, it remains one of the countries with the most potential for further agricultural expansion. Most notably, the expansion in production areas of commodity crops such as soybean, corn, and sugarcane has become the leading cause of land cover conversion in Brazil. Natural land covers, such as the Amazon and Cerrado forests, have been negatively affected by this agricultural expansion, causing carbon emissions, biodiversity loss, altered water cycles, and many other disturbances to ecosystem services. Monitoring of change in cropland area extent can provide relevant information to decision makers seeking to understand and manage land cover change drivers and their impacts. In this study, the freely-available Landsat archive was leveraged to produce a large-scale, methodologically consistent map of cropland cover at 30 m. resolution for the entire Brazilian territory in the year 2000. Additionally, we mapped cropland expansion from 2000 to 2013, and used statistical sampling techniques to accurately estimate cropland area per Brazilian state. Using the Global Forest Change product produced by Hansen et al. (2013), we can disaggregate forest cover loss due to cropland expansion by year, revealing spatiotemporal trends that could advance our understanding of the drivers of forest loss.

  5. Hematoma Expansion Following Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, H. Bart; Greenberg, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage, the most devastating form of stroke, has no specific therapy proven to improve outcome by randomized controlled trial. Location and baseline hematoma volume are strong predictors of mortality, but are non-modifiable by the time of diagnosis. Expansion of the initial hematoma is a further marker of poor prognosis that may be at least partly preventable. Several risk factors for hematoma expansion have been identified, including baseline ICH volume, early presentation after symptom onset, anticoagulation, and the CT angiography spot sign. Although the biological mechanisms of hematoma expansion remain unclear, accumulating evidence supports a model of ongoing secondary bleeding from ruptured adjacent vessels surrounding the initial bleeding site. Several large clinical trials testing therapies aimed at preventing hematoma expansion are in progress, including aggressive blood pressure reduction, treatment with recombinant factor VIIa guided by CT angiography findings, and surgical intervention for superficial hematomas without intraventricular extension. Hematoma expansion is so far the only marker of outcome that is amenable to treatment and thus a potentially important therapeutic target. PMID:23466430

  6. Considering FACTS in Optimal Transmission Expansion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Soleimani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power transmission systems is an important part of the expansion of power systems that requires enormous investment costs. Since the construction of new transmission lines is very expensive, it is necessary to choose the most efficient expansion plan that ensures system security with a minimal number of new lines. In this paper, the role of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS devices in the effective operation and expansion planning of transmission systems is examined. Effort was taken to implement a method based on sensitivity analysis to select the optimal number and location of FACTS devices, lines and other elements of the transmission system. Using this method, the transmission expansion plan for a 9 and a 39 bus power system was performed with and without the presence of FACTS with the use of DPL environment in Digsilent software 15.1. Results show that the use of these devices reduces the need for new transmission lines and minimizes the investment cost.

  7. Thermal expansion of fibre-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.

    1991-07-01

    The integral thermal expansion and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon and Kevlar fibre-reinforced composites were measured with high accuracy from 5 K to room temperature. For this, a laser dilatometer and a sophisticated measuring procedure were used. CTE dependence on the orientation angle ω of angle-ply laminates was determined for samples with 5 different fibre alignments (UD 0deg, +/-30deg, +/-45deg, +/-60deg and UD 90deg). A high variability of the CTE with the orientation angle was shown. At angles of approximately +/-30deg even negative CTEs were found. With suitable reinforcing fibres being selected, their absolute values rose up to 30-100% of the positive CTEs of metals. Hence, composites of this type would be suitable as compensating materials in metal constructions where little thermal expansion is desired. To check the lamination theory, theoretical computations of the CTE- ω -dependence were compared with the measured values. An excellent agreement was found. Using the lamination theory, predictions about the expansion behaviour of angle-ply laminates can be made now, if the thermal and mechanical properties of the unidirectional (UD) laminate are known. Furthermore, it is possible to carry out simulation computations aimed at investigating the influence of a single parameter of the UD-laminate (e.g. shear modulus) on the expansion of the angle-ply laminate. (orig.) [de

  8. Understanding the many-body expansion for large systems. I. Precision considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Ryan M.; Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic structure methods based on low-order “n-body” expansions are an increasingly popular means to defeat the highly nonlinear scaling of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations, taking advantage of the inherently distributable nature of the numerous subsystem calculations. Here, we examine how the finite precision of these subsystem calculations manifests in applications to large systems, in this case, a sequence of water clusters ranging in size up to (H 2 O) 47 . Using two different computer implementations of the n-body expansion, one fully integrated into a quantum chemistry program and the other written as a separate driver routine for the same program, we examine the reproducibility of total binding energies as a function of cluster size. The combinatorial nature of the n-body expansion amplifies subtle differences between the two implementations, especially for n ⩾ 4, leading to total energies that differ by as much as several kcal/mol between two implementations of what is ostensibly the same method. This behavior can be understood based on a propagation-of-errors analysis applied to a closed-form expression for the n-body expansion, which is derived here for the first time. Discrepancies between the two implementations arise primarily from the Coulomb self-energy correction that is required when electrostatic embedding charges are implemented by means of an external driver program. For reliable results in large systems, our analysis suggests that script- or driver-based implementations should read binary output files from an electronic structure program, in full double precision, or better yet be fully integrated in a way that avoids the need to compute the aforementioned self-energy. Moreover, four-body and higher-order expansions may be too sensitive to numerical thresholds to be of practical use in large systems

  9. Projected coupled cluster theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yiheng; Henderson, Thomas M; Zhao, Jinmo; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2017-08-14

    Coupled cluster theory is the method of choice for weakly correlated systems. But in the strongly correlated regime, it faces a symmetry dilemma, where it either completely fails to describe the system or has to artificially break certain symmetries. On the other hand, projected Hartree-Fock theory captures the essential physics of many kinds of strong correlations via symmetry breaking and restoration. In this work, we combine and try to retain the merits of these two methods by applying symmetry projection to broken symmetry coupled cluster wave functions. The non-orthogonal nature of states resulting from the application of symmetry projection operators furnishes particle-hole excitations to all orders, thus creating an obstacle for the exact evaluation of overlaps. Here we provide a solution via a disentanglement framework theory that can be approximated rigorously and systematically. Results of projected coupled cluster theory are presented for molecules and the Hubbard model, showing that spin projection significantly improves unrestricted coupled cluster theory while restoring good quantum numbers. The energy of projected coupled cluster theory reduces to the unprojected one in the thermodynamic limit, albeit at a much slower rate than projected Hartree-Fock.

  10. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters

    2009-01-01

    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  11. Reprint of: Negative carbon cluster ion beams: New evidence for the special nature of C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; O'brien, S. C.; Zhang, Q.; Heath, J. R.; Tittel, F. K.; Curl, R. F.; Kroto, H. W.; Smalley, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Cold carbon cluster negative ions are formed by supersonic expansion of a plasma created at the nozzle of a supersonic cluster beam source by an excimer laser pulse. The observed distribution of mass peaks for the Cn- ions for n > 40 demonstrates that the evidence previously given for the special stability of neutral C60 and the existence of spheroidal carbon shells cannot be an artifact of the ionization conditions.

  12. An Experimental Observation of Axial Variation of Average Size of Methane Clusters in a Gas Jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji-Feng, Han; Chao-Wen, Yang; Jing-Wei, Miao; Jian-Feng, Lu; Meng, Liu; Xiao-Bing, Luo; Mian-Gong, Shi

    2010-01-01

    Axial variation of average size of methane clusters in a gas jet produced by supersonic expansion of methane through a cylindrical nozzle of 0.8 mm in diameter is observed using a Rayleigh scattering method. The scattered light intensity exhibits a power scaling on the backing pressure ranging from 16 to 50 bar, and the power is strongly Z dependent varying from 8.4 (Z = 3 mm) to 5.4 (Z = 11 mm), which is much larger than that of the argon cluster. The scattered light intensity versus axial position shows that the position of 5 mm has the maximum signal intensity. The estimation of the average cluster size on axial position Z indicates that the cluster growth process goes forward until the maximum average cluster size is reached at Z = 9 mm, and the average cluster size will decrease gradually for Z > 9 mm

  13. Ultra-low thermal expansion realized in giant negative thermal expansion materials through self-compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei-Ran; Kuang, Hao; Hu, Feng-Xia; Wu, Hui; Huang, Qing-Zhen; Liang, Fei-Xiang; Qiao, Kai-Ming; Li, Jia; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Lei; He, Min; Zhang, Ying; Zuo, Wen-Liang; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen

    2017-10-01

    Materials with zero thermal expansion (ZTE) or precisely tailored thermal expansion are in urgent demand of modern industries. However, the overwhelming majority of materials show positive thermal expansion. To develop ZTE or negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials as compensators has become an important challenge. Here, we present the evidence for the realization of ultra-low thermal expansion in Mn-Co-Ge-In particles. The bulk with the Ni2In-type hexagonal structure undergoes giant NTE owing to a martensitic magnetostructural transition. The major finding is that the thermal expansion behavior can be totally controlled by modulating the crystallinity degree and phase transition from atomic scale. Self-compensation effect leads to ultra-low thermal expansion with a linear expansion coefficient as small as +0.68 × 10-6/K over a wide temperature range around room temperature. The present study opens an avenue to reach ZTE particularly from the large class of giant NTE materials based on phase transition.

  14. Ultra-low thermal expansion realized in giant negative thermal expansion materials through self-compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Ran Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials with zero thermal expansion (ZTE or precisely tailored thermal expansion are in urgent demand of modern industries. However, the overwhelming majority of materials show positive thermal expansion. To develop ZTE or negative thermal expansion (NTE materials as compensators has become an important challenge. Here, we present the evidence for the realization of ultra-low thermal expansion in Mn–Co–Ge–In particles. The bulk with the Ni2In-type hexagonal structure undergoes giant NTE owing to a martensitic magnetostructural transition. The major finding is that the thermal expansion behavior can be totally controlled by modulating the crystallinity degree and phase transition from atomic scale. Self-compensation effect leads to ultra-low thermal expansion with a linear expansion coefficient as small as +0.68 × 10−6/K over a wide temperature range around room temperature. The present study opens an avenue to reach ZTE particularly from the large class of giant NTE materials based on phase transition.

  15. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Attribute clustering has been previously employed to detect statistical dependence between subsets of variables. We propose a novel attribute clustering algorithm motivated by research of complex networks, called the Star Discovery algorithm. The algorithm partitions and indirectly discards...... inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  16. Magnetism of iron, cobalt and nickel clusters studied in molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billas, I.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic properties of iron, cobalt and nickel clusters in a molecular beam have been studied in a magnetic Stern-Gerlach deflection experiment. The molecular beam apparatus consists of a laser vaporization cluster source with high intensity and stability and a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the deflection measurements. Several novel experimental features have been developed in this work, like a nozzle which can be heated up to 1000 K and a chopper to measure the dwell times of the clusters in the source and their corresponding velocities. These new developments have allowed the measurement and the control of the temperature of the free clusters. The Stern-Gerlach deflection experiments have been performed on Fe, Co and Ni clusters in the mass range from 20 to 700 atoms. All clusters show single-sided deflection toward increasing field. This observation indicates that a spin relaxation process occurs within the isolated clusters. The participation of both the cluster rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom to the spin relaxation has been experimentally demonstrated. The cluster magnetization has been determined as a function of applied magnetic field B and as a function of dwell times of the clusters in the source before the supersonic expansion into vacuum. Superparamagnetic behavior has been observed when the cluster rotational speed is much larger than the Larmor frequency of the cluster magnetic moment μ in the field B. In particular, for μB<< kT, the cluster magnetization depends on B/T. For lower rotational speeds, reduced values of the magnetization have been observed. The magnetic moments of the superparamagnetic Fe, Co and Ni clusters have been measured as a) a function of cluster size N at low temperature and b) as a function of cluster temperature T for various size ranges. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  17. Supersonic expansion of argon into vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habets, A H.M.

    1977-01-21

    A theoretical description of a free supersonic expansion process is given. Three distinct regions in the expansion are discussed, namely the continuum region, the gradual transition to the collisionless regime, and the free-molecular-flow stage. Important topics are the peaking-factor formalism, the thermal-conduction model, and the virtual-source formalism. The formation of the molecular beam from the expansion and condensation phenomena occurring in the expanding gas are discussed. The molecular beam machine used in the measurements is described and special attention is given to the cryopumps used in the supersonic sources as well as to the time-of-flight analysis of the molecular beam velocity distributions. Finally, the processing of experimental data is discussed, particularly the least-squares determination of best-fit representations of the measurements.

  18. Origami structures for tunable thermal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatti, Elisa; Bertoldi, Katia

    Materials with engineered thermal expansion, capable of achieving targeted and extreme area/volume changes in response to variations in temperature, are important for a number of aerospace, optical, energy, and microelectronic applications. While most of the proposed structures with tunable coefficient of thermal expansion consist of bi-material 2D or 3D lattices, here we propose a periodic metastructure based on a bilayer Miura-Ori origami fold. We combine experiments and simulations to demonstrate that by tuning the geometrical and mechanical parameters an extremely broad range of thermal expansion coefficients can be obtained, spanning both negative and positive values. Additionally, the thermal properties along different directions can be adjusted independently. Differently from all previously reported systems, the proposed structure is non-porous.

  19. Radial expansion for spinning conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    This paper develops a method to compute any bosonic conformal block as a series expansion in the optimal radial coordinate introduced by Hogervorst and Rychkov. The method reduces to the known result when the external operators are all the same scalar operator, but it allows to compute conformal blocks for external operators with spin. Moreover, we explain how to write closed form recursion relations for the coefficients of the expansions. We study three examples of four point functions in detail: one vector and three scalars; two vectors and two scalars; two spin 2 tensors and two scalars. Finally, for the case of two external vectors, we also provide a more efficient way to generate the series expansion using the analytic structure of the blocks as a function of the scaling dimension of the exchanged operator.

  20. Thermal expansion of quaternary nitride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnádi, Ferenc; Wang, Fei; Odén, Magnus; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2018-04-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient of technologically relevant multicomponent cubic nitride alloys are predicted using the Debye model with ab initio elastic constants calculated at 0 K and an isotropic approximation for the Grüneisen parameter. Our method is benchmarked against measured thermal expansion of TiN and Ti(1-x)Al x N as well as against results of molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the thermal expansion coefficients of Ti(1-x-y)X y Al x N (X  =  Zr, Hf, Nb, V, Ta) solid solutions monotonously increase with the amount of alloying element X at all temperatures except for Zr and Hf, for which they instead decrease for y≳ 0.5 .

  1. On a generalized oscillator system: interbasis expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibler, M [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Mardoyan, L G; Pogosyan, G S [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1997-12-31

    This article deals with a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical study of a dynamical system which generalizes the isotropic harmonic oscillator system in three dimensions. The Schroedinger equation for this generalized oscillator system is separable in spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal (prolate and oblate) coordinates. The quantum mechanical spectrum of this system is worked out in some details. The problem of interbasis expansions of the wave functions is completely solved. The coefficients for the expansion of the cylindrical basis in terms of the spherical basis, and vice-versa, are found to be analytic continuations (to real values of their arguments) of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). The interbasis expansion coefficients for the prolate and oblate spheroidal bases in terms of the spherical or the cylindrical bases are shown to satisfy three-term recursion relations. Finally, a connection between the generalized oscillator system (projected on the z-line) and the Morse system (in one dimension) are discussed. 41 refs.,.

  2. Anisotropic thermal expansion in flexible materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Carl P.

    2017-10-01

    A definition of the Grüneisen parameters for anisotropic materials is derived based on the response of phonon frequencies to uniaxial stress perturbations. This Grüneisen model relates the thermal expansion in a given direction (αi i) to one element of the elastic compliance tensor, which corresponds to the Young's modulus in that direction (Yi i). The model is tested through ab initio prediction of thermal expansion in zinc, graphite, and calcite using density functional perturbation theory, indicating that it could lead to increased accuracy for structurally complex systems. The direct dependence of αi i on Yi i suggests that materials which are flexible along their principal axes but rigid in other directions will generally display both positive and negative thermal expansion.

  3. On a generalized oscillator system: interbasis expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Mardoyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    This article deals with a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical study of a dynamical system which generalizes the isotropic harmonic oscillator system in three dimensions. The Schroedinger equation for this generalized oscillator system is separable in spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal (prolate and oblate) coordinates. The quantum mechanical spectrum of this system is worked out in some details. The problem of interbasis expansions of the wave functions is completely solved. The coefficients for the expansion of the cylindrical basis in terms of the spherical basis, and vice-versa, are found to be analytic continuations (to real values of their arguments) of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). The interbasis expansion coefficients for the prolate and oblate spheroidal bases in terms of the spherical or the cylindrical bases are shown to satisfy three-term recursion relations. Finally, a connection between the generalized oscillator system (projected on the z-line) and the Morse system (in one dimension) are discussed. 41 refs.,

  4. Supersonic expansion of argon into vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habets, A.H.M.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical description of a free supersonic expansion process is given. Three distinct regions in the expansion are discussed, namely the continuum region, the gradual transition to the collisionless regime, and the free-molecular-flow stage. Important topics are the peaking-factor formalism, the thermal-conduction model, and the virtual-source formalism. The formation of the molecular beam from the expansion and condensation phenomena occurring in the expanding gas are discussed. The molecular beam machine used in the measurements is described and special attention is given to the cryopumps used in the supersonic sources as well as to the time-of-flight analysis of the molecular beam velocity distributions. Finally, the processing of experimental data is discussed, particularly the least-squares determination of best-fit representations of the measurements

  5. Back Reaction And Local Cosmological Expansion Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Geshnizjani, G; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Brandenberger, Robert

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the back reaction of cosmological perturbations on a general relativistic variable which measures the local expansion rate of the Universe. Specifically, we consider a cosmological model in which matter is described by a single field. We analyze back reaction both in a matter dominated Universe and in a phase of scalar field-driven chaotic inflation. In both cases, we find that the leading infrared terms contributing to the back reaction vanish when the local expansion rate is measured at a fixed value of the matter field which is used as a clock, whereas they do not appear to vanish if the expansion rate is evaluated at a fixed value of the background time. We discuss possible implications for more realistic models with a more complicated matter sector.

  6. Exotic cluster structures on

    CERN Document Server

    Gekhtman, M; Vainshtein, A

    2017-01-01

    This is the second paper in the series of papers dedicated to the study of natural cluster structures in the rings of regular functions on simple complex Lie groups and Poisson-Lie structures compatible with these cluster structures. According to our main conjecture, each class in the Belavin-Drinfeld classification of Poisson-Lie structures on \\mathcal{G} corresponds to a cluster structure in \\mathcal{O}(\\mathcal{G}). The authors have shown before that this conjecture holds for any \\mathcal{G} in the case of the standard Poisson-Lie structure and for all Belavin-Drinfeld classes in SL_n, n<5. In this paper the authors establish it for the Cremmer-Gervais Poisson-Lie structure on SL_n, which is the least similar to the standard one.

  7. From superdeformation to clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, R R [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1992-08-01

    Much of the discussion at the conference centred on superdeformed states and their study by precise gamma spectrometry. The author suggests that the study of superdeformation by fission fragments and by auto-scattering is of importance, and may become more important. He concludes that there exists clear evidence of shell effects at extreme deformation in light nuclei studied by fission or cluster decay. The connection between the deformed shell model and the multi-center shell model can be exploited to give give insight into the cluster structure of these extremely deformed states, and also gives hope of a spectroscopy based on selection rules for cluster decay. A clear disadvantage at this stage is inability to make this spectroscopy more quantitative through calculation of the decay widths. The introduction of a new generation of high segmentation, high resolution, particle arrays has and will have a major impact on this aspect of the study of highly deformed nuclei. 20 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Longitudinal expansion of field line dipolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, O.; Hayashi, K.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the substorm expansions that started at 1155 UT 10 August 1994 in the midnight sector focusing on the longitudinal (eastward) expansion of field line dipolarization in the auroral zone. Eastward expansion of the dipolarization region was observed in all of the H, D, and Z components. The dipolarization that started at 1155 UT (0027 MLT) from 260° of geomagnetic longitude (CMO) expanded to 351°(PBQ) in about 48 min. The expansion velocity was 0.03-0.04°/s, or 1.9 km/s at 62°N of geomagnetic latitude. The dipolarization region expanding to the east was accompanied by a bipolar event at the leading edge of the expansion in latitudes equatorward of the westward electrojet (WEJ). In the midnight sector at the onset meridian, the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MAP) on board geosynchronous satellite L9 measured electrons and ions between 10 eV and 40 keV. We conclude from the satellite observations that this dipolarization was characterized by the evolution of temperature anisotropies, an increase of the electron and ion temperatures, and a rapid change in the symmetry axis of the temperature tensor. The field line dipolarization and its longitudinal expansion were interpreted in terms of the slow MHD mode triggered by the current disruption. We propose a new magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling (MI-coupling) mechanism based on the scenario that transmitted westward electric fields from the magnetosphere in association with expanding dipolarization produced electrostatic potential (negative) in the ionosphere through differences in the mobility of collisional ions and collisionless electrons. The field-aligned currents that emerged from the negative potential region are arranged in a concentric pattern around the negative potential region, upward toward the center and downward on the peripheral.

  9. Eigenfunction expansion for fractional Brownian motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccone, C.

    1981-01-01

    The fractional Brownian motions, a class of nonstationary stochastic processes defined as the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral/derivative of the Brownian motion, are studied. It is shown that these processes can be regarded as the output of a suitable linear system of which the input is the white noise. Their autocorrelation is then derived with a study of their standard-deviation curves. Their power spectra are found by resorting to the nonstationary spectral theory. And finally their eigenfunction expansion (Karhunen-Loeve expansion) is obtained: the eigenfunctions are proved to be suitable Bessel functions and the eigenvalues zeros of the Bessel functions. (author)

  10. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  11. Large J expansion in ABJM theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, H; Mladenov, S; Rashkov, R C

    Recently there has been progress in the computation of the anomalous dimensions of gauge theory operators at strong coupling by making use of the AdS/CFT correspondence. On the string theory side they are given by dispersion relations in the semiclassical regime. We revisit the problem of a large-charge expansion of the dispersion relations for simple semiclassical strings in an [Formula: see text] background. We present the calculation of the corresponding anomalous dimensions of the gauge theory operators to an arbitrary order using three different methods. Although the results of the three methods look different, power series expansions show their consistency.

  12. Near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendels, E.

    2005-01-01

    The near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams is derived from their configuration space representation, by performing all x integrations. The general scalar Feynman diagram is considered, with an arbitrary number of external momenta, an arbitrary number of internal lines and an arbitrary number of loops, in n dimensions and all masses may be different. The expansions are considered both below and above threshold. Rules, giving real and imaginary part, are derived. Unitarity of a sunset diagram with I internal lines is checked in a direct way by showing that its imaginary part is equal to the phase space integral of I particles

  13. Thermal expansion of diamond at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V

    2010-02-26

    Temperature variation of a lattice parameter of a synthetic diamond crystal (type IIa) was measured using high-energy-resolution x-ray Bragg diffraction in backscattering. A 2 order of magnitude improvement in the measurement accuracy allowed us to directly probe the linear thermal expansion coefficient at temperatures below 100 K. The lowest value measured was 2x10{-9} K-1. It was found that the coefficient deviates from the expected Debye law (T3) while no negative thermal expansion was observed. The anomalous behavior might be attributed to tunneling states due to low concentration impurities.

  14. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  15. Testing the isotropy of the Hubble expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Migkas, K.; Plionis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: We have used the Union2.1 SNIa compilation to search for possible Hubble expansion anisotropies, dividing the sky in 9 solid angles containing roughly the same number of SNIa, as well as in two Galactic hemispheres. We identified only one sky region, containing 82 SNIa (~15% of total sample with z > 0.02), that indeed appears to share a Hubble expansion significantly different from the rest of the sample. However, this behaviour can be attributed to the joint "erratic" behaviour of ...

  16. Scenarios of Expansion to Electric Generation Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Somoza-Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We show the building scenarios of expansion to electric generation capacity enough to supply the demand to 2050. We were using the LEAP facility (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System, to simulate dispatch of electricity at minimum cost. Finally, we show the cost-benefice analysis of the technologies availability, included externality and CO2 emission limited. However that we included the externals cost in this analysis, it results insufficient to closed gap between fossil and renewable technologies of electric generation. Nevertheless, in some opportunities the renewable options had very important participations in the minimal cost scenario of expansion.

  17. The Monetary Policy – Restrictive or Expansive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy plays an important role in macroeconomic policy of government. There is a question concerning type of this policy expansive or restrictive (easy or tidy monetary policy. Unfortunately, we have a lot of criteria. Each of them gives us other answer. So due to equitation of Irving Fisher we have dominantly expansive monetary policy. This same situation exists when we use nominal value of rediscount interest rate of central bank. Opposite result appears when we use real value of this interest rate or level of obligatory reserve. Taking under consideration liquidity on money market we know, that level of interest rate is too high.

  18. Towards finite density QCD with Taylor expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsch, F.; Schaefer, B.-J.; Wagner, M.; Wambach, J.

    2011-01-01

    Convergence properties of Taylor expansions of observables, which are also used in lattice QCD calculations at non-zero chemical potential, are analyzed in an effective N f =2+1 flavor Polyakov quark-meson model. A recently developed algorithmic technique allows the calculation of higher-order Taylor expansion coefficients in functional approaches. This novel technique is for the first time applied to an effective N f =2+1 flavor Polyakov quark-meson model and the findings are compared with the full model solution at finite densities. The results are used to discuss prospects for locating the QCD phase boundary and a possible critical endpoint in the phase diagram.

  19. Expansion program is a challenging project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that construction is set to begin on the $1.5 billion PGT-PG and E Pipeline Expansion Project. It will consist of 691 miles of 42-in pipeline and 110 miles of 36-in. pipeline, to be built over 2 years. The project, which will transport additional supplies of natural gas to US West Coast markets, has its US regulatory approval in hand. On Oct. 16, 1991, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission authorized Pacific Gas Transmission Co. to construct its Pacific Northwest segment of the expansion. Pacific Gas and Electric Co. received approval to build its California segment in late 1990 from the California Public Utilities Commission

  20. Strategic Expansion Models in Academic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Rajni; Yang, Wei T; Tannir, Habib; Parikh, Jay

    2016-03-01

    In response to economic pressures, academic institutions in the United States and their radiology practices, are expanding into the community to build a larger network, thereby driving growth and achieving economies of scale. These economies of scale are being achieved variously via brick-and-mortar construction, community practice acquisition, and partnership-based network expansion. We describe and compare these three expansion models within a 4-part framework of: (1) upfront investment; (2) profitability impact; (3) brand impact; and (4) risk of execution. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anharmonic effects in the quantum cluster equilibrium method

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Domaros, Michael; Perlt, Eva

    2017-03-01

    The well-established quantum cluster equilibrium (QCE) model provides a statistical thermodynamic framework to apply high-level ab initio calculations of finite cluster structures to macroscopic liquid phases using the partition function. So far, the harmonic approximation has been applied throughout the calculations. In this article, we apply an important correction in the evaluation of the one-particle partition function and account for anharmonicity. Therefore, we implemented an analytical approximation to the Morse partition function and the derivatives of its logarithm with respect to temperature, which are required for the evaluation of thermodynamic quantities. This anharmonic QCE approach has been applied to liquid hydrogen chloride and cluster distributions, and the molar volume, the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, and the isobaric heat capacity have been calculated. An improved description for all properties is observed if anharmonic effects are considered.

  2. Hydrodynamic time scales for intense laser-heated clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Enrique; Alexeev, Ilya; Fan, Jingyun; Kim, Kiong Y.; McNaught, Stuart J.; Milchberg, Howard M.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements are presented of x-ray (>1.5 keV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ equal to 2-44 nm) emission from argon clusters irradiated with constant-energy (50 mJ), variable-width laser pulses ranging from 100 fs to 10 ns. The results for clusters can be understood in terms of two time scales: a short time scale for optimal resonant absorption at the critical-density layer in the expanding plasma, and a longer time scale for the plasma to drop below critical density. We present a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the intense laser-cluster interaction in which the laser field is treated self-consistently. We find that nonuniform expansion of the heated material results in long-time resonance of the laser field at the critical-density plasma layer. These simulations explain the dependence of generation efficiency on laser pulse width

  3. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years...

  4. I Cluster geografici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Rosina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographic ClustersOver the past decade, public alphanumeric database have been growing at exceptional rate. Most of data can be georeferenced, so that is possible gaining new knowledge from such databases. The contribution of this paper is two-fold. We first present a model of geographic clusters, which uses only geographic and functionally data properties. The model is useful to process huge amount of public/government data, even daily upgrading. After that, we merge the model into the framework GEOPOI (GEOcoding Points Of Interest, and show some graphic map results.

  5. I Cluster geografici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Rosina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Clusters Over the past decade, public alphanumeric database have been growing at exceptional rate. Most of data can be georeferenced, so that is possible gaining new knowledge from such databases. The contribution of this paper is two-fold. We first present a model of geographic clusters, which uses only geographic and functionally data properties. The model is useful to process huge amount of public/government data, even daily upgrading. After that, we merge the model into the framework GEOPOI (GEOcoding Points Of Interest, and show some graphic map results.

  6. Clustering via Kernel Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Girolami, Mark A.; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Methods for spectral clustering have been proposed recently which rely on the eigenvalue decomposition of an affinity matrix. In this work it is proposed that the affinity matrix is created based on the elements of a non-parametric density estimator. This matrix is then decomposed to obtain...... posterior probabilities of class membership using an appropriate form of nonnegative matrix factorization. The troublesome selection of hyperparameters such as kernel width and number of clusters can be obtained using standard cross-validation methods as is demonstrated on a number of diverse data sets....

  7. From greedy to lazy expansions and their driving dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dajani, K.; Kraaikamp, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study the ergodic properties of non-greedy series expansions to non-integer bases β > 1. It is shown that the so-called 'lazy' expansion is isomorphic to the 'greedy' expansion. Furthermore, a class of expansions to base β > 1, β =2 Z, 'in between' the lazy and the greedy

  8. Parabolic cyclinder functions : examples of error bounds for asymptotic expansions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vidunas; N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSeveral asymptotic expansions of parabolic cylinder functions are discussedand error bounds for remainders in the expansions are presented. Inparticular Poincaré-type expansions for large values of the argument$z$ and uniform expansions for large values of the parameter areconsidered.

  9. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  10. Momentum-space cluster dual-fermion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakov, Sergei; Terletska, Hanna; Gull, Emanuel

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have seen the development of two types of nonlocal extensions to the single-site dynamical mean field theory. On one hand, cluster approximations, such as the dynamical cluster approximation, recover short-range momentum-dependent correlations nonperturbatively. On the other hand, diagrammatic extensions, such as the dual-fermion theory, recover long-ranged corrections perturbatively. The correct treatment of both strong short-ranged and weak long-ranged correlations within the same framework is therefore expected to lead to a quick convergence of results, and offers the potential of obtaining smooth self-energies in nonperturbative regimes of phase space. In this paper, we present an exact cluster dual-fermion method based on an expansion around the dynamical cluster approximation. Unlike previous formulations, our method does not employ a coarse-graining approximation to the interaction, which we show to be the leading source of error at high temperature, and converges to the exact result independently of the size of the underlying cluster. We illustrate the power of the method with results for the second-order cluster dual-fermion approximation to the single-particle self-energies and double occupancies.

  11. Geographic Expansion of Lyme Disease in the Southeastern United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, Paul M; Nigrovic, Lise E; Auwaerter, Paul G; Fowler, Vance G; Ruffin, Felicia; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Reber, Jodi; Williams, Carl; Broyhill, James; Pan, William K; Gaines, David N

    2015-12-01

    Background.  The majority of Lyme disease cases in the United States are acquired on the east coast between northern Virginia and New England. In recent years the geographic extent of Lyme disease has been expanding, raising the prospect of Lyme disease becoming endemic in the southeast. Methods.  We collected confirmed and probable cases of Lyme disease from 2000 through 2014 from the Virginia Department of Health and North Carolina Department of Public Health and entered them in a geographic information system. We performed spatial and spatiotemporal cluster analyses to characterize Lyme disease expansion. Results.  There was a marked increase in Lyme disease cases in Virginia, particularly from 2007 onwards. Northern Virginia experienced intensification and geographic expansion of Lyme disease cases. The most notable area of expansion was to the southwest along the Appalachian Mountains with development of a new disease cluster in the southern Virginia mountain region. Conclusions.  The geographic distribution of Lyme disease cases significantly expanded in Virginia between 2000 and 2014, particularly southward in the Virginia mountain ranges. If these trends continue, North Carolina can expect autochthonous Lyme disease transmission in its mountain region in the coming years.

  12. Edgeworth expansion for functionals of continuous diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolskij, Mark; Yoshida, Nakahiro

    This paper presents new results on the Edgeworth expansion for high frequency functionals of continuous diffusion processes. We derive asymptotic expansions for weighted functionals of the Brownian motion and apply them to provide the Edgeworth expansion for power variation of diffusion processes....... Our methodology relies on martingale embedding, Malliavin calculus and stable central limit theorems for semimartingales. Finally, we demonstrate the density expansion for studentized statistics of power variations.......This paper presents new results on the Edgeworth expansion for high frequency functionals of continuous diffusion processes. We derive asymptotic expansions for weighted functionals of the Brownian motion and apply them to provide the Edgeworth expansion for power variation of diffusion processes...

  13. Principles of Thermal Expansion in Feldspars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Guy; Medford, Aaron; Conlon, Maricate; Tether, Allison; Romanoski, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    Following the recent thermal expansion work of Hovis et al. (1) on AlSi3 feldspars, we have investigated the thermal expansion of plagioclase, Ba-K, and Ca-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data were collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six natural plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase, the K-exchanged equivalents of these plagioclase specimens, and five synthetic Ba-K feldspars with compositions ranging from 25 to 99 mol % BaAl2Si2O8. The resulting thermal expansion coefficients (α) for volume have been combined with earlier results for end-member Na- and K-feldspars (2,3). Unlike AlSi3 feldspars, Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study plus Sr- and Pb-feldspar from other workers (4,5), show essentially constant and very limited thermal expansion, regardless of divalent cation size. In the context of structures where the Lowenstein rule (6) requires Al and Si to alternate among tetrahedra, the proximity of bridging Al-O-Si oxygen ions to divalent neighbors (ranging from 0 to 2) produces short Ca-O (or Ba-O) bonds (7,8) that apparently are the result of local charge-balance requirements (9). Gibbs et al. (10) suggest that short bonds such as these have a partially covalent character. This in turn stiffens the structure. Thus, for feldspar series with coupled substitution the change away from a purely divalent M-site occupant gives the substituting (less strongly bonded) monovalent cations increasingly greater influence on thermal expansion. Overall, then, thermal expansion in the feldspar system is well represented on a plot of α against room-temperature volume, where one sees a quadrilateral bounded by data for (A) AlSi3 feldspars whose expansion behavior is controlled largely by the size of the monovalent alkali-site occupant, (B) Al2Si2 feldspars whose expansion is uniformly limited by partially-covalent bonds between divalent M-site occupants and

  14. High temperature expansions for the free energy of vortices respectively the string tension in lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenster, G.

    1980-05-01

    We derive high temperature cluster expansions for the free energy of vortices in SU(2) and Z 2 lattice gauge theories in 3 and 4 dimensions. The expected behaviour of the vortex free energy is verified. It obeys an area law behaviour. The coefficient of the area is shown to be equal to the string tension between static quarks. We calculate its expansion up to 12th order. For SU(2) in 4 dimensions the result is compared with Monte Carlo calculations of Creutz and is in good agreement at strong and intermediate coupling. (orig.)

  15. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  16. Modelling solid solutions with cluster expansion, special quasirandom structures, and thermodynamic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltas, V.; Horlait, D.; Sgourou, E. N.; Vallianatos, F.; Chroneos, A.

    2017-12-01

    Modelling solid solutions is fundamental in understanding the properties of numerous materials which are important for a range of applications in various fields including nanoelectronics and energy materials such as fuel cells, nuclear materials, and batteries, as the systematic understanding throughout the composition range of solid solutions for a range of conditions can be challenging from an experimental viewpoint. The main motivation of this review is to contribute to the discussion in the community of the applicability of methods that constitute the investigation of solid solutions computationally tractable. This is important as computational modelling is required to calculate numerous defect properties and to act synergistically with experiment to understand these materials. This review will examine in detail two examples: silicon germanium alloys and MAX phase solid solutions. Silicon germanium alloys are technologically important in nanoelectronic devices and are also relevant considering the recent advances in ternary and quaternary groups IV and III-V semiconductor alloys. MAX phase solid solutions display a palette of ceramic and metallic properties and it is anticipated that via their tuning they can have applications ranging from nuclear to aerospace industries as well as being precursors for particular MXenes. In the final part, a brief summary assesses the limitations and possibilities of the methodologies discussed, whereas there is discussion on the future directions and examples of solid solution systems that should prove fruitful to consider.

  17. Multi-Optimisation Consensus Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Swift, Stephen; Liu, Xiaohui

    Ensemble Clustering has been developed to provide an alternative way of obtaining more stable and accurate clustering results. It aims to avoid the biases of individual clustering algorithms. However, it is still a challenge to develop an efficient and robust method for Ensemble Clustering. Based on an existing ensemble clustering method, Consensus Clustering (CC), this paper introduces an advanced Consensus Clustering algorithm called Multi-Optimisation Consensus Clustering (MOCC), which utilises an optimised Agreement Separation criterion and a Multi-Optimisation framework to improve the performance of CC. Fifteen different data sets are used for evaluating the performance of MOCC. The results reveal that MOCC can generate more accurate clustering results than the original CC algorithm.

  18. Photochemistry in rare gas clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.; Haeften, K. von; Pietrowski, R. von

    1999-01-01

    In this contribution photochemical processes in pure rare gas clusters will be discussed. The relaxation dynamics of electronically excited He clusters is investigated with luminescence spectroscopy. After electronic excitation of He clusters many sharp lines are observed in the visible and infrared spectral range which can be attributed to He atoms and molecules desorbing from the cluster. It turns out that the desorption of electronically excited He atoms and molecules is an important decay channel. The findings for He clusters are compared with results for Ar clusters. While desorption of electronically excited He atoms is observed for all clusters containing up to several thousand atoms a corresponding process in Ar clusters is only observed for very small clusters (N<10). (orig.)

  19. Photochemistry in rare gas clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, T.; Haeften, K. von; Pietrowski, R. von [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor; Laarman, T. [Universitaet Hamburg, II. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    In this contribution photochemical processes in pure rare gas clusters will be discussed. The relaxation dynamics of electronically excited He clusters is investigated with luminescence spectroscopy. After electronic excitation of He clusters many sharp lines are observed in the visible and infrared spectral range which can be attributed to He atoms and molecules desorbing from the cluster. It turns out that the desorption of electronically excited He atoms and molecules is an important decay channel. The findings for He clusters are compared with results for Ar clusters. While desorption of electronically excited He atoms is observed for all clusters containing up to several thousand atoms a corresponding process in Ar clusters is only observed for very small clusters (N<10). (orig.)

  20. Globular clusters, old and young

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samus', N.N.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of similarity of and difference in the globular and scattered star clusters is considered. Star clusters in astronomy are related either to globular or to scattered ones according to the structure of Hertzsprung-Russell diagram constructed for star clusters, but not according to the appearance. The qlobular clusters in the Galaxy are composed of giants and subgiants, which testifies to the old age of the globular clusters. The Globular clusters in the Magellanic clouds are classified into ''red'' ones - similar to the globular clusters of the Galaxy, and ''blue'' ones - similar to them in appearance but differing extremely by the star composition and so by the age. The old star clusters are suggested to be called globular ones, while another name (''populous'', for example) is suggested to be used for other clusters similar to globular ones only in appearance

  1. Globular clusters and galaxy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Den Bergh, S.

    1984-01-01

    Using semipartial correlation coefficients and bootstrap techniques, a study is made of the important features of globular clusters with respect to the total number of galaxy clusters and dependence of specific galaxy cluster on parent galaxy type, cluster radii, luminosity functions and cluster ellipticity. It is shown that the ellipticity of LMC clusters correlates significantly with cluster luminosity functions, but not with cluster age. The cluter luminosity value above which globulars are noticeably flattened may differ by a factor of about 100 from galaxy to galaxy. Both in the Galaxy and in M31 globulars with small core radii have a Gaussian distribution over luminosity, whereas clusters with large core radii do not. In the cluster systems surrounding the Galaxy, M31 and NGC 5128 the mean radii of globular clusters was found to increase with the distance from the nucleus. Central galaxies in rich clusters have much higher values for specific globular cluster frequency than do other cluster ellipticals, suggesting that such central galaxies must already have been different from normal ellipticals at the time they were formed

  2. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  3. Nonparametric Collective Spectral Density Estimation and Clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi

    2017-04-12

    In this paper, we develop a method for the simultaneous estimation of spectral density functions (SDFs) for a collection of stationary time series that share some common features. Due to the similarities among the SDFs, the log-SDF can be represented using a common set of basis functions. The basis shared by the collection of the log-SDFs is estimated as a low-dimensional manifold of a large space spanned by a pre-specified rich basis. A collective estimation approach pools information and borrows strength across the SDFs to achieve better estimation efficiency. Also, each estimated spectral density has a concise representation using the coefficients of the basis expansion, and these coefficients can be used for visualization, clustering, and classification purposes. The Whittle pseudo-maximum likelihood approach is used to fit the model and an alternating blockwise Newton-type algorithm is developed for the computation. A web-based shiny App found at

  4. Nonparametric Collective Spectral Density Estimation and Clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Maadooliat, Mehdi; Sun, Ying; Chen, Tianbo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method for the simultaneous estimation of spectral density functions (SDFs) for a collection of stationary time series that share some common features. Due to the similarities among the SDFs, the log-SDF can be represented using a common set of basis functions. The basis shared by the collection of the log-SDFs is estimated as a low-dimensional manifold of a large space spanned by a pre-specified rich basis. A collective estimation approach pools information and borrows strength across the SDFs to achieve better estimation efficiency. Also, each estimated spectral density has a concise representation using the coefficients of the basis expansion, and these coefficients can be used for visualization, clustering, and classification purposes. The Whittle pseudo-maximum likelihood approach is used to fit the model and an alternating blockwise Newton-type algorithm is developed for the computation. A web-based shiny App found at

  5. Clustering in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The importance of local variations in patterns of health and disease are increasingly recognised, but, particularly in the case of tropical infections, available methods and resources for characterising disease clusters in time and space are limited. Whilst the Global Positioning System. (GPS) allows accurate and ...

  6. Hardness of Clustering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hardness of Clustering. Both k-means and k-medians intractable (when n and d are both inputs even for k =2). The best known deterministic algorithms. are based on Voronoi partitioning that. takes about time. Need for approximation – “close” to optimal.

  7. On small clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, N.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is presented of zero-point motion effects on the binding energy of a small cluster of identical particles interacting through short range attractive-repulsive forces. The model is appropriate to a discussion of both Van der Waals as well as nuclear forces. (Author) [pt

  8. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers...

  9. Greedy subspace clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We consider the problem of subspace clustering: given points that lie on or near the union of many low-dimensional linear subspaces, recover the subspaces. To this end, one first identifies sets of points close to the same subspace and uses the sets ...

  10. Eta-Expansion Does The Trick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Malmkjær, Karoline; Palsberg, Jens

    1996-01-01

    -sum type. For the latter case, it enables “The Trick.” In this article, we extend Gomard and Jones' partial evaluator for the &lgr;-calculus, &lgr;-Mix, with products and disjoint sums; we point out how eta-expansion for (finite) disjoint sums enable The Trick; we generalize our earlier work by identifying...

  11. Eta-Expansion Does The Trick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Malmkjær, Karoline; Palsberg, Jens

    1995-01-01

    -sum type. For the latter case, it enables “The Trick.” In this article, we extend Gomard and Jones' partial evaluator for the &lgr;-calculus, &lgr;-Mix, with products and disjoint sums; we point out how eta-expansion for (finite) disjoint sums enable The Trick; we generalize our earlier work by identifying...

  12. Thermal Expansion Properties of Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E. F.

    1969-01-01

    Thermal expansion properties of materials used in aerospace systems are compiled into a single handbook. The data, derived from experimental measurements supplemented by information from literature sources, are presented in charts and tables arranged in two sections, covering cryogenic and elevated temperatures.

  13. Cropland expansion in Brazil, 2000 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Stehman, S. V.; Tyukavina, A.; Pickens, A. H.; Okpa, C.; Aguilar, R.; John, N.; Chavez, S.

    2017-12-01

    Brazil has become a global leader in the production of commodity row crops such as soybean, sugarcane, cotton, and corn. Here, we employ 30m spatial resolution Landsat data to estimate cropland extent in the year 2000 and its subsequent expansion through 2014. A probability-based sample of reference data allows us to report unbiased estimates of national, biome, and state-scale area of crop expansion with associated uncertainties. We find an increase in Brazilian cropland extent from 26.0 Mha in 2000 to 46.1 Mha in 2014. The cropland frontier states of Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, Bahia (MATOPIBA), Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Para all more than doubled in cropland extent. The states of Goias, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo experienced >50% increases. The vast majority of expansion, 79%, occurred on repurposed pasture lands, and 20% from the conversion of natural vegetation. Area of converted Cerrado savannas was nearly 2.5 times that of Amazon forests, and accounted for over half of new cropland in MATOPIBA. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cropland expansion are reflected in market conditions, land use policies, and other factors. Continued extensification of cropland is a viable option across Brazil with attendant benefits for and challenges to development.

  14. Territorial expansion and primary state formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Charles S

    2010-04-20

    A major research problem in anthropology is the origin of the state and its bureaucratic form of governance. Of particular importance for evaluating theories of state origins are cases of primary state formation, whereby a first-generation state evolves without contact with any preexisting states. A general model of this process, the territorial-expansion model, is presented and assessed with archaeological data from six areas where primary states emerged in antiquity: Mesoamerica, Peru, Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China. In each case, the evidence shows a close correspondence in time between the first appearance of state institutions and the earliest expansion of the state's political-economic control to regions lying more than a day's round-trip from the capital. Although additional research will add detail and clarity to the empirical record, the results to date are consistent with the territorial-expansion model, which argues that the success of such long-distance expansion not only demanded the bureaucratization of central authority but also helped provide the resources necessary to underwrite this administrative transformation.

  15. Thermal expansion absorbing structure for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya.

    1995-01-01

    A thermal expansion absorbing structure for a pipeline is disposed to the end of pipelines to form a U-shaped cross section connecting a semi-circular torus shell and a short double-walled cylindrical tube. The U-shaped longitudinal cross-section is deformed in accordance with the shrinking deformation of the pipeline and absorbs thermal expansion. Namely, since the central lines of the outer and inner tubes of the double-walled cylindrical tube deform so as to incline, when the pipeline is deformed by thermal expansion, thermal expansion can be absorbed by a simple configuration thereby enabling to contribute to ensure the safety. Then, the entire length of the pipeline can greatly be shortened by applying it to the pipeline disposed in a high temperature state compared with a method of laying around a pipeline using only elbows, which has been conducted so far. Especially, when it is applied to a pipeline for an FBR-type reactor, the cost for the construction of a facility of a primary systems can greater be reduced. In addition, it can be applied to a pipeline for usual chemical plants and any other structures requiring absorption of deformation. (N.H.)

  16. The asymptotic expansion method via symbolic computation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Juan F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for implementing a perturbation method based on an asymptotic expansion of the solution to a second-order differential equation. We also introduce a new symbolic computation system which works with the so-called modified quasipolynomials, as well as an implementation of the algorithm on it.

  17. The Asymptotic Expansion Method via Symbolic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for implementing a perturbation method based on an asymptotic expansion of the solution to a second-order differential equation. We also introduce a new symbolic computation system which works with the so-called modified quasipolynomials, as well as an implementation of the algorithm on it.

  18. Discrete expansions of continuum wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Ershov, S.N.; Gareev, F.A.; Kazacha, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Different methods of expanding continuum wave functions in terms of discrete basis sets are discussed. The convergence properties of these expansions are investigated, both from a mathematical and a numerical point of view, for the case of potentials of Woods-Saxon and square well type. (orig.)

  19. Phase transition from strong-coupling expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonyi, J.; Szlachanyi, K.

    1982-01-01

    Starting with quarkless SU(2) lattice gauge theory and using the strong-coupling expansion we calculate the action of the effective field theory which corresponds to the thermal Wilson loop. This effective action makes evident that the quark liberating phase transition traces back to the spontaneous breaking of a global Z(2) symmetry group. It furthermore describes both phases qualitatively. (orig.)

  20. On Learning Ring-Sum-Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Simon, H. -U.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of learning ring-sum-expansions from examples is studied. Ring-sum-expansions (RSE) are representations of Boolean functions over the base {#123;small infinum, (+), 1}#125;, which reflect arithmetic operations in GF(2). k-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions containing only monomials...... of length at most k:. term-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions having at most I: monomials. It is shown that k-RSE, k>or=1, is learnable while k-term-RSE, k>2, is not learnable if RPnot=NP. Without using a complexity-theoretical hypothesis, it is proven that k-RSE, k>or=1, and k-term-RSE, k>or=2 cannot...... be learned from positive (negative) examples alone. However, if the restriction that the hypothesis which is output by the learning algorithm is also a k-RSE is suspended, then k-RSE is learnable from positive (negative) examples only. Moreover, it is proved that 2-term-RSE is learnable by a conjunction...

  1. Regulatory Holidays and Optimal Network Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Bert; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2016-01-01

    We model the optimal regulation of continuous, irreversible, capacity expansion, in a model in which the regulated network firm has private information about its capacity costs, investments need to be financed out of the firm’s cash flows from selling network access and demand is stochastic. If

  2. On the Convergence of the Virial Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramawadh, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    The virial expansion appears in statistical mechanics, an area where physics and mathematics intersect. Throughout this thesis we will mostly ignore the physics and mainly focus on the mathematical aspects. This is a deliberate choice, made for two reasons. Firstly, there are several books that

  3. The optimizied expansion method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    , for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain operator.In this abstract, we propose an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with its low rank representation. The rank defines the number

  4. Asymptotic expansions for the Gaussian unitary ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Thorbjørnsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Let g : R ¿ C be a C8-function with all derivatives bounded and let trn denote the normalized trace on the n × n matrices. In Ref. 3 Ercolani and McLaughlin established asymptotic expansions of the mean value ¿{trn(g(Xn))} for a rather general class of random matrices Xn, including the Gaussian U...

  5. Analytic continuation and perturbative expansions in QCD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caprini, I.; Fischer, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2002), s. 127-135 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : perturbative expansion * quantum chromodynamics * infrared ambiguity * essential singularities Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.162, year: 2002

  6. A Pedagogical Approach to the Magnus Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes, S.; Casas, F.; Oteo, J. A.; Ros, J.

    2010-01-01

    Time-dependent perturbation theory as a tool to compute approximate solutions of the Schrodinger equation does not preserve unitarity. Here we present, in a simple way, how the "Magnus expansion" (also known as "exponential perturbation theory") provides such unitary approximate solutions. The purpose is to illustrate the importance and…

  7. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, Shunli

    2014-11-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

  8. Instability of a planar expansion wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A L; Zalesak, S T; Metzler, N; Wouchuk, J G

    2005-10-01

    An expansion wave is produced when an incident shock wave interacts with a surface separating a fluid from a vacuum. Such an interaction starts the feedout process that transfers perturbations from the rippled inner (rear) to the outer (front) surface of a target in inertial confinement fusion. Being essentially a standing sonic wave superimposed on a centered expansion wave, a rippled expansion wave in an ideal gas, like a rippled shock wave, typically produces decaying oscillations of all fluid variables. Its behavior, however, is different at large and small values of the adiabatic exponent gamma. At gamma > 3, the mass modulation amplitude delta(m) in a rippled expansion wave exhibits a power-law growth with time alpha(t)beta, where beta = (gamma - 3)/(gamma - 1). This is the only example of a hydrodynamic instability whose law of growth, dependent on the equation of state, is expressed in a closed analytical form. The growth is shown to be driven by a physical mechanism similar to that of a classical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the opposite extreme gamma - 1 gas with low . Exact analytical expressions for the growth rates are derived for both cases and favorably compared to hydrodynamic simulation results.

  9. Stakeholder Support for School Food Policy Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Donovan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which parents and school-based stakeholders (principals, teachers, canteen managers and Parents & Citizen Committee presidents) are supportive of potential expansions to a new school food policy. Eight additional policy components elicited in preliminary focus groups with parents and 19 additional…

  10. Instability of a planar expansion wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A.L.; Zalesak, S.T.; Metzler, N.; Wouchuk, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    An expansion wave is produced when an incident shock wave interacts with a surface separating a fluid from a vacuum. Such an interaction starts the feedout process that transfers perturbations from the rippled inner (rear) to the outer (front) surface of a target in inertial confinement fusion. Being essentially a standing sonic wave superimposed on a centered expansion wave, a rippled expansion wave in an ideal gas, like a rippled shock wave, typically produces decaying oscillations of all fluid variables. Its behavior, however, is different at large and small values of the adiabatic exponent γ. At γ>3, the mass modulation amplitude δm in a rippled expansion wave exhibits a power-law growth with time ∝t β , where β=(γ-3)/(γ-1). This is the only example of a hydrodynamic instability whose law of growth, dependent on the equation of state, is expressed in a closed analytical form. The growth is shown to be driven by a physical mechanism similar to that of a classical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the opposite extreme γ-1 -1/2 , and then starts to decrease. The mechanism driving the growth is the same as that of Vishniac's instability of a blast wave in a gas with low γ. Exact analytical expressions for the growth rates are derived for both cases and favorably compared to hydrodynamic simulation results

  11. Hole expansion test of third generation steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Julen; Mendiguren, Joseba; Galdos, Lander; de Argandoña, Eneko Sáenz

    2017-10-01

    The trend towards the implementation of new materials in the chassis of the automobiles is considerably making more complex the manufacturing of the components that built it up. In this scenario materials with higher strengths and lower formabilities are daily faced by tool makers and component producers what reduces the process windows and makes the forming processes to be in the limits of the materials. One of the concerns that tool makers must face during the definition of the tools is the expansion ratios that the holes in the sheet may reach before producing a breakage due to the stretching of the material (also known as edge cracks). For the characterization of such limits, a standard test, the hole expansion test, can be applied so that the limits of the material are known. At the present study, hole expansion tests of a third generation steel, Fortiform1050 with a thickness of 1.2 millimeters have been carried out and compared them to a mild steel, DX54D with a thickness of 0.6 millimeters. A comparison for each material in terms of technology used to punch the hole, mechanical punching vs laser cutting has also been conducted. In addition, the measurement technique (online measurement vs offline measurement) followed in the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) identification has also been analyzed. Finally, differences between both materials and techniques are presented.

  12. Asymptotic behaviour of firmly non expansive sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, B.D.

    1993-04-01

    We introduce the notion of firmly non expansive sequences in a Banach space and present several results concerning their asymptotic behaviour extending previous results and giving an affirmative answer to an open question raised by S. Reich and I. Shafir. Applications to averaged mappings are also given. (author). 16 refs

  13. The stagnation of electric system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.M. dos

    1989-01-01

    The main works in the Brazilian electric sector in 1988 is presented, mentioning the fault of financier resources. The electric power tariffs by a real economical cost are also cited, allowing some advantages that can resolve the investment problem in the electric power expansion. (author)

  14. Peruvian Higher Education: Expansions Amid Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Peruvian university system is described, focusing on periods of rapid expansion. Enrollment declines in 1974-78 are analyzed in the context of the educational reform program of the military government. The 1983 new university law, following return to civilian government, and future prospects for higher education are discussed.…

  15. Form factor expansion for thermal correlators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozsgay, B.; Takács, G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider finite temperature correlation functions in massive integrable quantum field theory. Using a regularization by putting the system in finite volume, we develop a novel approach (based on multi-dimensional residues) to the form factor expansion for thermal correlators. The first few terms

  16. Data clustering algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2013-01-01

    Research on the problem of clustering tends to be fragmented across the pattern recognition, database, data mining, and machine learning communities. Addressing this problem in a unified way, Data Clustering: Algorithms and Applications provides complete coverage of the entire area of clustering, from basic methods to more refined and complex data clustering approaches. It pays special attention to recent issues in graphs, social networks, and other domains.The book focuses on three primary aspects of data clustering: Methods, describing key techniques commonly used for clustering, such as fea

  17. Cluster structures in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, H.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Clustering in neutron-rich nuclei is discussed. To understand the novel features (1,2,3) of the clustering in neutron-rich nuclei, the basic features of the clustering in stable nuclei (4) are briefly reviewed. In neutron-rich nuclei, the requirement of the stability of clusters is questioned and the threshold rule is no more obeyed. Examples of clustering in Be and B isotopes (4,5) are discussed in some detail. Possible existence of novel type of clustering near neutron dripline is suggested (1). (author)

  18. Cluster model of the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, H.; Ikeda, K.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the development of the cluster model study. The stress is put on two points; one is how the cluster structure has come to be regarded as a fundamental structure in light nuclei together with the shell-model structure, and the other is how at present the cluster model is extended to and connected with the studies of the various subjects many of which are in the neighbouring fields. The authors the present the main theme with detailed explanations of the fundamentals of the microscopic cluster model which have promoted the development of the cluster mode. Examples of the microscopic cluster model study of light nuclear structure are given

  19. Cycle expansions: From maps to turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Y.

    2010-03-01

    We present a derivation, a physical explanation and applications of cycle expansions in different dynamical systems, ranging from simple one-dimensional maps to turbulence in fluids. Cycle expansion is a newly devised powerful tool for computing averages of physical observables in nonlinear chaotic systems which combines many innovative ideas developed in dynamical systems, such as hyperbolicity, invariant manifolds, symbolic dynamics, measure theory and thermodynamic formalism. The concept of cycle expansion has a deep root in theoretical physics, bearing a close analogy to cumulant expansion in statistical physics and effective action functional in quantum field theory, the essence of which is to represent a physical system in a hierarchical way by utilizing certain multiplicative structures such that the dominant parts of physical observables are captured by compact, maneuverable objects while minor detailed variations are described by objects with a larger space and time scale. The technique has been successfully applied to many low-dimensional dynamical systems and much effort has recently been made to extend its use to spatially extended systems. For one-dimensional systems such as the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, the method turns out to be very effective while for more complex real-world systems including the Navier-Stokes equation, the method is only starting to yield its first fruits and much more work is needed to enable practical computations. However, the experience and knowledge accumulated so far is already very useful to a large set of research problems. Several such applications are briefly described in what follows. As more research effort is devoted to the study of complex dynamics of nonlinear systems, cycle expansion will undergo a fast development and find wide applications.

  20. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  1. Thermal Expansion of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S V.; Palczer, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic Cu-8%Cr, Cu-26%Cr, Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, NiAl and NiCrAlY monolithic coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal expansion property measurements between 293 and 1223 K. The corrected thermal expansion, (DL/L(sub 0) varies with the absolute temperature, T, as (DL/L(sub 0) = A(T - 293)(sup 3) + BIT - 293)(sup 2) + C(T - 293) + D, where, A, B, C and D are thermal, regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for all of the coatings except for data obtained on the Cu-8%Cr and Cu-26%Cr coatings in the first heat-up cycle, which deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation is attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during the spraying of the coatings, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle. In the cases of Cu-8%Cr and NiAl, the thermal expansion data were observed to be reproducible for three specimens. The linear expansion data for Cu-8% Cr and Cu-26%Cr agree extremely well with rule of mixture (ROM) predictions. Comparison of the data for the Cu-8%Cr coating with literature data for Cr and Cu revealed that the thermal expansion behavior of this alloy is determined by the Cu-rich matrix. The data for NiAl and NiCrAlY are in excellent agreement with published results irrespective of composition and the methods used for processing the materials. The implications of these results on coating GRCop-84 copper alloy combustor liners for reusable launch vehicles are discussed.

  2. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA

  3. Efficient generation of series expansions for ±J Ising spin glasses in a classical or a quantum field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. R. P.; Young, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    We discuss generation of series expansions for Ising spin glasses with a symmetric ±J (i.e., bimodal) distribution on d -dimensional hypercubic lattices using linked-cluster methods. Simplifications for the bimodal distribution allow us to go to higher order than for a general distribution. We discuss two types of problems, one classical and one quantum. The classical problem is that of the Ising spin glass in a longitudinal magnetic field h , for which we obtain high temperature series expansions in variables tanh(J /T ) and tanh(h /T ) . The quantum problem is a T =0 study of the Ising spin glass in a transverse magnetic field hT for which we obtain a perturbation theory in powers of J /hT . These methods require (i) enumeration and counting of all connected clusters that can be embedded in the lattice up to some order n , and (ii) an evaluation of the contribution of each cluster for the quantity being calculated, known as the weight. We discuss a general method that takes the much smaller list (and count) of all no free-end (NFE) clusters on a lattice up to some order n and automatically generates all other clusters and their counts up to the same order. The weights for finite clusters in both cases have a simple graphical interpretation that allows us to proceed efficiently for a general configuration of the ±J bonds and at the end perform suitable disorder averaging. The order of our computations is limited by the weight calculations for the high-temperature expansions of the classical model, while they are limited by graph counting for the T =0 quantum system. Details of the calculational methods are presented.

  4. TreeCluster: Massively scalable transmission clustering using phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Moshiri, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Background: The ability to infer transmission clusters from molecular data is critical to designing and evaluating viral control strategies. Viral sequencing datasets are growing rapidly, but standard methods of transmission cluster inference do not scale well beyond thousands of sequences. Results: I present TreeCluster, a cross-platform tool that performs transmission cluster inference on a given phylogenetic tree orders of magnitude faster than existing inference methods and supports multi...

  5. The rotation of galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    The method for detection of the galaxy cluster rotation based on the study of distribution of member galaxies with velocities lower and higher of the cluster mean velocity over the cluster image is proposed. The search for rotation is made for flat clusters with a/b> 1.8 and BMI type clusters which are expected to be rotating. For comparison there were studied also round clusters and clusters of NBMI type, the second by brightness galaxy in which does not differ significantly from the cluster cD galaxy. Seventeen out of studied 65 clusters are found to be rotating. It was found that the detection rate is sufficiently high for flat clusters, over 60 per cent, and clusters of BMI type with dominant cD galaxy, ≈ 35 per cent. The obtained results show that clusters were formed from the huge primordial gas clouds and preserved the rotation of the primordial clouds, unless they did not have mergings with other clusters and groups of galaxies, in the result of which the rotation has been prevented

  6. Molecular Evolution and Expansion Analysis of the NAC Transcription Factor in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Ming; Miao, Ying; Ni, Mi; Bibi, Noreen; Yuan, Shuna; Li, Feng; Wang, Xuede

    2014-01-01

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1, 2 and CUC2) family is a plant-specific transcription factor and it controls various plant developmental processes. In the current study, 124 NAC members were identified in Zea mays and were phylogenetically clustered into 13 distinct subfamilies. The whole genome duplication (WGD), especially an additional WGD event, may lead to expanding ZmNAC members. Different subfamily has different expansion rate, and NAC subfamily preference was found during the expansion in maize. Moreover, the duplication events might occur after the divergence of the lineages of Z. mays and S. italica, and segmental duplication seemed to be the dominant pattern for the gene duplication in maize. Furthermore, the expansion of ZmNAC members may be also related to gain and loss of introns. Besides, the restriction of functional divergence was discovered after most of the gene duplication events. These results could provide novel insights into molecular evolution and expansion analysis of NAC family in maize, and advance the NAC researches in other plants, especially polyploid plants. PMID:25369196

  7. Single-cluster dynamics for the random-cluster model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Y.; Qian, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    We formulate a single-cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the random-cluster model. This algorithm is a generalization of the Wolff single-cluster method for the q-state Potts model to noninteger values q>1. Its results for static quantities are in a satisfactory agreement with those

  8. Choosing the Number of Clusters in K-Means Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Steinley (2007) provided a lower bound for the sum-of-squares error criterion function used in K-means clustering. In this article, on the basis of the lower bound, the authors propose a method to distinguish between 1 cluster (i.e., a single distribution) versus more than 1 cluster. Additionally, conditional on indicating there are multiple…

  9. Direct observation of interfacial C60 cluster formation in polystyrene-C60 nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Joong Tark; Lee, Geon-Woong; Kim, Sangcheol; Lee, Hae-Jeong; Douglas, Jack F; Karim, Alamgir

    2009-01-01

    Large interfacial C 60 clusters were directly imaged at the supporting film-substrate interface in physically detached polystyrene-C 60 nanocomposite films by atomic force microscopy, confirming the stabilizing mechanism previously hypothesized for thin polymer films. Additionally, we found that the C 60 additive influences basic thermodynamic film properties such as the interfacial energy and the film thermal expansion coefficient.

  10. Intensities and cross-sections of Ar clusters in a molecular beam, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deursen, A.P.J. van; Lumig, A. van; Reuss, J.

    1976-01-01

    Ar-cluster beams were produced by supersonic expansion under various source conditions. The experimental intensities have been scaled such that universal curves are obtained, up to moderate source pressures. The ratio of dimer/monomer cross-sections has been determined. (Auth.)

  11. Finite size effects in the evaporation rate of 3He clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guirao, A.; Pi, M.; Barranco, M.

    1991-01-01

    We have computed the density of states and the evaporation rate of 3 He clusters, paying special attention to finite size effects which modify the 3 He level density parameter and chemical potential from their bulk values. Ready-to-use liquid-drop expansions of these quantities are given. (orig.)

  12. Microscopic analysis of nuclear collective motions in terms of the boson expansion theory. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Hideo; Kishimoto, Teruo

    1988-01-01

    A normal-ordered linked-cluster boson expansion theory, previously worked out by one of the authors (T.K.) and Tamura, has been developed further by reformulating it in a 'physical' quasiparticle subspace which contains no spurious particle-number excitation modes. The expansion coefficients of the collective hamiltonian for low-lying quadrupole motions are determined starting from a microscopic fermion hamiltonian including self-consistent higher-order (many-body) interactions derived in our previous work. The contributions from the non-collective states with all possible non-collective one-boson excitations having I π = 0 + -4 + , which can directly couple to the collective states with one or two phonons, are taken into account in a systematic and compact way. (orig.)

  13. Heavy hitters via cluster-preserving clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nelson, Jelani; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2016-01-01

    In the turnstile lp heavy hitters problem with parameter ε, one must maintain a high-dimensional vector xεRn subject to updates of the form update (i,Δ) causing the change xi≤ ← xi + Δ, where iε[n], ΔεR. Upon receiving a query, the goal is to report every "heavy hitter" iε[n] with |xi| ≥ε......|x|p as part of a list L⊆[n] of size O(1/εp), i.e. proportional to the maximum possible number of heavy hitters. For any pε(0,2] the COUNTSKETCH of [CCFC04] solves lp heavy hitters using O(ε-plog n) words of space with O(log n) update time, O(nlog n) query time to output L, and whose output after any query......, providing correctness whp. In fact, a simpler version of our algorithm for p = 1 in the strict turnstile model answers queries even faster than the "dyadic trick" by roughly a log n factor, dominating it in all regards. Our main innovation is an efficient reduction from the heavy hitters to a clustering...

  14. An algorithm for high order strong coupling expansions: The mass gap in 3d pure Z2 lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, K.; Hamburg Univ.

    1985-12-01

    An efficient description of all clusters contributing to the strong coupling expansion of the mass gap in three-dimensional pure Z 2 lattice gauge theory is presented. This description is correct to all orders in the strong coupling expansion and is chosen in such a way that it remains valid in four dimensions for gauge group Z 2 . Relying on this description an algorithm has been constructed which generates and processes all the contributing graphs to the exact strong coupling expansion of the mass gap in the three-dimensional model in a fully automatic fashion. A major component of this algorithm can also be used to generate exact strong coupling expansions for the free energy logZ. The algorithm is correct to any order; thus the order of these expansions is only limited by the available computing power. The presentation of the algorithm is such that it can serve as a guide-line for the construction of a generalized one which would also generate exact strong coupling expansions for the masses of low-lying excited states of four-dimensional pure Yang-Mills theories. (orig.)

  15. Evolution of the spherical clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    The possible processes of the Galaxy spherical clusters formation and evolution are described on a popular level. The orbits of spherical cluster motion and their spatial velocities are determined. Given are the distrbutions of spherical cluster stars according to their velocities and the observed distribution of spherical clusters in the area of the Galaxy slow evolution. The dissipation and dynamic friction processes destructing clusters with the mass less than 10 4 of solar mass and bringing about the reduction of clusters in the Galaxy are considered. The paradox of forming mainly X-ray sources in spherical clusters is explained. The schematic image of possible ways of forming X-ray sources in spherical clusters is given

  16. Clusters in nuclei. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Following the pioneering discovery of alpha clustering and of molecular resonances, the field of nuclear clustering is presently one of the domains of heavy-ion nuclear physics facing both the greatest challenges and opportunities. After many summer schools and workshops, in particular over the last decade, the community of nuclear molecular physics decided to team up in producing a comprehensive collection of lectures and tutorial reviews covering the field. This first volume, gathering seven extensive lectures, covers the follow topics: - Cluster Radioactivity - Cluster States and Mean Field Theories - Alpha Clustering and Alpha Condensates - Clustering in Neutron-rich Nuclei - Di-neutron Clustering - Collective Clusterization in Nuclei - Giant Nuclear Molecules By promoting new ideas and developments while retaining a pedagogical nature of presentation throughout, these lectures will both serve as a reference and as advanced teaching material for future courses and schools in the fields of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. (orig.)

  17. Structure and bonding in clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1991-10-01

    We review here the recent progress made in the understanding of the electronic and atomic structure of small clusters of s-p bonded materials using the density functional molecular dynamics technique within the local density approximation. Starting with a brief description of the method, results are presented for alkali metal clusters, clusters of divalent metals such as Mg and Be which show a transition from van der Waals or weak chemical bonding to metallic behaviour as the cluster size grows and clusters of Al, Sn and Sb. In the case of semiconductors, we discuss results for Si, Ge and GaAs clusters. Clusters of other materials such as P, C, S, and Se are also briefly discussed. From these and other available results we suggest the possibility of unique structures for the magic clusters. (author). 69 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  18. Random matrix improved subspace clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Couillet, Romain; Kammoun, Abla

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a spectral method for statistical subspace clustering. The method is built upon standard kernel spectral clustering techniques, however carefully tuned by theoretical understanding arising from random matrix findings. We show

  19. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  20. Formation of atomic clusters through the laser ablation of refractory materials in a supersonic molecular beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haufler, R.E.; Puretzky, A.A.; Compton, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    Concepts which guide the design of atomic cluster supersonic beam sources have been developed. These ideas are founded on the knowledge of laser ablation dynamics and are structured in order to take advantage of certain features of the ablation event. Some of the drawbacks of previous cluster source designs become apparent when the sequence of events following laser ablation are clarified. Key features of the new cluster source design include control of the cluster size distribution, uniform performance with a variety of solid materials and elements, high beam intensity, and significant removal of internal energy during the supersonic expansion

  1. Dynamical aspects of galaxy clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fall, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent work on the origin and evolution of galaxy clustering is reviewed, particularly within the context of the gravitational instability theory and the hot big-bang cosmological model. Statistical measures of clustering, including correlation functions and multiplicity functions, are explained and discussed. The close connection between galaxy formation and clustering is emphasized. Additional topics include the dependence of galaxy clustering on the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations and the mean mass density of the Universe. (author)

  2. [Cluster analysis in biomedical researches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopov, A S; Moskovtsev, A A; Dolenko, S A; Savina, G D

    2013-01-01

    Cluster analysis is one of the most popular methods for the analysis of multi-parameter data. The cluster analysis reveals the internal structure of the data, group the separate observations on the degree of their similarity. The review provides a definition of the basic concepts of cluster analysis, and discusses the most popular clustering algorithms: k-means, hierarchical algorithms, Kohonen networks algorithms. Examples are the use of these algorithms in biomedical research.

  3. THE ASSEMBLY OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the formation of 53 galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10 14.0-14.76 M sun ) formed within a pair of cosmological Λ cold dark matter N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host ∼0.3 L * galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'preprocessing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; less than 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past (∼<6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local cluster processes such as ram pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass, and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with ∼20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and ∼20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate timescale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be ∼6 Gyr.

  4. Defining chemical expansion: the choice of units for the stoichiometric expansion coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrocchelli, Dario; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Bishop, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical expansion refers to the spatial dilation of a material that occurs upon changes in its composition. When this dilation is caused by a gradual, iso-structural increase in the lattice parameter with composition, it is related to the composition change by the stoichiometric expansion coeffi...... are provided for changes in oxygen content in fluorite, perovskite, and Ruddlesden-Popper (K2NiF4) phase materials used in solid oxide fuel cells....

  5. Morphology control and negative thermal expansion in cubic ZrWMoO8 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qinqin; Yang, Juan; Sun, Xiujuan; Cheng, Xiaonong

    2008-01-01

    Cubic ZrWMoO 8 powders with rod-like aggregate and thin fasciculus-like and flower-like rod cluster morphologies have been successfully fabricated with different amounts of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 as surfactant using a hydrothermal method. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were utilized to investigate the influence of the addition of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 on the crystallization process and crystal morphology of the resulting products. The results show that the purity and the thermal expansion property of the resulting products are not influenced by the addition of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 . The cubic ZrWMoO 8 powders with both rod-like aggregate and flower-like rod cluster morphologies show a positive thermal expansion property in the temperature range from room temperature to 120 C, while they show a negative thermal expansion property in the temperature range from 120 C to 700 C. The abnormal thermal expansion property of cubic ZrWMoO 8 below 120 C is caused by the presence of water molecules. Investigations also show that the essence of the different morphologies of the ZrWMoO 8 particles obtained is the result of the different aggregation modes of the nanorods, which act as nuclei, and the corresponding aggregation process is dominated by the addition of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 and its amount. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Chronorisk in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, Mads; Haddock, Bryan; Lund, Nunu T

    2018-01-01

    and a spectral analysis identifying oscillations in risk. Results The Gaussian model fit for the chronorisk distribution for all patients reporting diurnal rhythmicity (n = 286) had a goodness of fit R2 value of 0.97 and identified three times of increased risk peaking at 21:41, 02:02 and 06:23 hours....... In subgroups, three to five modes of increased risk were found and goodness of fit values ranged from 0.85-0.99. Spectral analysis revealed multiple distinct oscillation frequencies in chronorisk in subgroups including a dominant circadian oscillation in episodic patients and an ultradian in chronic....... Conclusions Chronorisk in cluster headache can be characterised as a sum of individual, timed events of increased risk, each having a Gaussian distribution. In episodic cluster headache, attacks follow a circadian rhythmicity whereas, in the chronic variant, ultradian oscillations are dominant reflecting...

  7. CSR in Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Pillay, Renginee G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to review the literature on CSR in industrial clusters in developing countries, identifying the main strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in this literature, pointing to future research directions and policy implications in the area of CSR and industrial cluster development....... Design/methodology/approach – A literature review is conducted of both academic and policy-oriented writings that contain the keywords “industrial clusters” and “developing countries” in combination with one or more of the following terms: corporate social responsibility, environmental management, labor...... standards, child labor, climate change, social upgrading, and environmental upgrading. The authors examine the key themes in this literature, identify the main gaps, and point to areas where future work in this area could usefully be undertaken. Feedback has been sought from some of the leading authors...

  8. Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchtmeier, W. K.; Richter, O. G.; Materne, J.

    1981-09-01

    The large-scale structure of the universe is dominated by clustering. Most galaxies seem to be members of pairs, groups, clusters, and superclusters. To that degree we are able to recognize a hierarchical structure of the universe. Our local group of galaxies (LG) is centred on two large spiral galaxies: the Andromeda nebula and our own galaxy. Three sr:naller galaxies - like M 33 - and at least 23 dwarf galaxies (KraanKorteweg and Tammann, 1979, Astronomische Nachrichten, 300, 181) can be found in the evironment of these two large galaxies. Neighbouring groups have comparable sizes (about 1 Mpc in extent) and comparable numbers of bright members. Small dwarf galaxies cannot at present be observed at great distances.

  9. Text Clustering Algorithm Based on Random Cluster Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays clustering has become a popular text mining algorithm, but the huge data can put forward higher requirements for the accuracy and performance of text mining. In view of the performance bottleneck of traditional text clustering algorithm, this paper proposes a text clustering algorithm with random features. This is a kind of clustering algorithm based on text density, at the same time using the neighboring heuristic rules, the concept of random cluster is introduced, which effectively reduces the complexity of the distance calculation.

  10. On clusters and clustering from atoms to fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PJ

    1993-01-01

    This book attempts to answer why there is so much interest in clusters. Clusters occur on all length scales, and as a result occur in a variety of fields. Clusters are interesting scientifically, but they also have important consequences technologically. The division of the book into three parts roughly separates the field into small, intermediate, and large-scale clusters. Small clusters are the regime of atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. The intermediate regime is the transitional regime, with its characteristics including the onset of bulk-like behavior, growth and aggregation, a

  11. Divergence of activity expansions: Is it actually a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushcats, M. V.; Bulavin, L. A.; Sysoev, V. M.; Ushcats, S. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    For realistic interaction models, which include both molecular attraction and repulsion (e.g., Lennard-Jones, modified Lennard-Jones, Morse, and square-well potentials), the asymptotic behavior of the virial expansions for pressure and density in powers of activity has been studied taking power terms of high orders into account on the basis of the known finite-order irreducible integrals as well as the recent approximations of infinite irreducible series. Even in the divergence region (at subcritical temperatures), this behavior stays thermodynamically adequate (in contrast to the behavior of the virial equation of state with the same set of irreducible integrals) and corresponds to the beginning of the first-order phase transition: the divergence yields the jump (discontinuity) in density at constant pressure and chemical potential. In general, it provides a statistical explanation of the condensation phenomenon, but for liquid or solid states, the physically proper description (which can turn the infinite discontinuity into a finite jump of density) still needs further study of high-order cluster integrals and, especially, their real dependence on the system volume (density).

  12. Cosmology, Clusters and Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2005-01-01

    I will review the current state of Cosmology with Clusters and discuss the application of microcalorimeter arrays to this field. With the launch of Astro-E2 this summer and a slew of new missions being developed, microcalorimeters are the next big thing in x-ray astronomy. I will cover the basics and not-so-basic concepts of microcalorimeter designs and look at the future to see where this technology will go.

  13. Three-atom clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen'kov, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation is used to obtain an equation for the effective interaction in three atoms bound by a single electron. For low binding energies in an 'electron + atom' pair, long-range forces arise between the atoms, leading to bound states when the size of the three-atom cluster is a few tens of angstrom. A system made of alkali-metal atoms is considered as an example

  14. Seizure clusters: characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, Sheryl R

    2015-04-01

    Many patients with epilepsy experience 'clusters' or flurries of seizures, also termed acute repetitive seizures (ARS). Seizure clustering has a significant impact on health and quality of life. This review summarizes recent advances in the definition and neurophysiologic understanding of clustering, the epidemiology and risk factors for clustering and both inpatient and outpatient clinical implications. New treatments for seizure clustering/ARS are perhaps the area of greatest recent progress. Efforts have focused on creating a uniform definition of a seizure cluster. In neurophysiologic studies of refractory epilepsy, seizures within a cluster appear to be self-triggering. Clinical progress has been achieved towards a more precise prevalence of clustering, and consensus guidelines for epilepsy monitoring unit safety. The greatest recent advances are in the study of nonintravenous route of benzodiazepines as rescue medications for seizure clusters/ARS. Rectal benzodiazepines have been very effective but barriers to use exist. New data on buccal, intramuscular and intranasal preparations are anticipated to lead to a greater number of approved treatments. Progesterone may be effective for women who experience catamenial clusters. Seizure clustering is common, particularly in the setting of medically refractory epilepsy. Clustering worsens health and quality of life, and the field requires greater focus on clarifying of definition and clinical implications. Progress towards the development of nonintravenous routes of benzodiazepines has the potential to improve care in this area.

  15. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkin, Z.; Veugen, T.; Toft, T.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Clustering is a very important tool in data mining and is widely used in on-line services for medical, financial and social environments. The main goal in clustering is to create sets of similar objects in a data set. The data set to be used for clustering can be owned by a single entity, or in some

  16. Electron localization in water clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landman, U.; Barnett, R.N.; Cleveland, C.L.; Jortner, J.

    1987-01-01

    Electron attachment to water clusters was explored by the quantum path integral molecular dynamics method, demonstrating that the energetically favored localization mode involves a surface state of the excess electron, rather than the precursor of the hydrated electron. The cluster size dependence, the energetics and the charge distribution of these novel electron-cluster surface states are explored. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Subspace K-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Marieke E; Ceulemans, Eva; De Roover, Kim; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2013-12-01

    To achieve an insightful clustering of multivariate data, we propose subspace K-means. Its central idea is to model the centroids and cluster residuals in reduced spaces, which allows for dealing with a wide range of cluster types and yields rich interpretations of the clusters. We review the existing related clustering methods, including deterministic, stochastic, and unsupervised learning approaches. To evaluate subspace K-means, we performed a comparative simulation study, in which we manipulated the overlap of subspaces, the between-cluster variance, and the error variance. The study shows that the subspace K-means algorithm is sensitive to local minima but that the problem can be reasonably dealt with by using partitions of various cluster procedures as a starting point for the algorithm. Subspace K-means performs very well in recovering the true clustering across all conditions considered and appears to be superior to its competitor methods: K-means, reduced K-means, factorial K-means, mixtures of factor analyzers (MFA), and MCLUST. The best competitor method, MFA, showed a performance similar to that of subspace K-means in easy conditions but deteriorated in more difficult ones. Using data from a study on parental behavior, we show that subspace K-means analysis provides a rich insight into the cluster characteristics, in terms of both the relative positions of the clusters (via the centroids) and the shape of the clusters (via the within-cluster residuals).

  18. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  19. Thermal expansion coefficient determination by CBED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Bentley, J.

    1984-01-01

    The present application of CBED involves measurements of thermal-expansion coefficients by measurement of changes in HOLZ line positions as a function of temperature. Previous work on this subject was performed on Si at a constant accelerating voltage of 100 kV between about 90 and 600 K. Diffraction patterns were recorded and line shifts correlated to lattice parameter changes. Differences were noted between values determined by CBED and accepted thermal expansion values. Significant HOLZ line interactions and splitting occurring in the (111) patterns were noted to contribute to the differences. Preliminary measurements have been made on Al, Al 2 O 3 , and single-crystal tau (Ni/sub 20.3/Ti/sub 2.7/B 6 ). An example of changes in HOLZ lines present in (114) patterns for Al are shown and the effect of temperature on the position of lines in the pattern illustrated

  20. The delta expansion in zero dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.T.; Milton, K.A.; Pinsky, S.S.; Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The recently introduced δ-expansion (or logarithmic-expansion) technique for obtaining nonperturbative information about quantum field theories is reviewed in the zero-dimensional context. There, it is easy to study questions of analytic continuation that arise in the construction of the Feynman rules that generate the δ series. It is found that for six- and higher-point Green's functions, a cancellation occurs among the most divergent terms, and that divergences that arise from summing over an infinite number of internal lines are illusory. The numerical accuracy is studied in some detail: The δ series converges inside a circle of radius one for positive bare mass squared, and diverges if the bare mass squared is negative, but in all cases, low-order Pade approximants are extremely accurate. These general features are expected to hold in higher dimensions, such as four