WorldWideScience

Sample records for clover

  1. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  2. The Clover detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F A; Byrski, Th; Durien, D; Duchene, G; France, G de; Kharraja, B; Wei, L [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Butler, P; Jones, G; Jones, P [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hannachi, F [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4{pi}-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  3. Fold distributions at clover, crystal and segment levels for segmented clover detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R; Bhattacharya, P

    2014-01-01

    Fold distributions at clover, crystal and segment levels have been extracted for an array of segmented clover detectors for various gamma energies. A simple analysis of the results based on a model independant approach has been presented. For the first time, the clover fold distribution of an array and associated array addback factor have been extracted. We have calculated the percentages of the number of crystals and segments that fire for a full energy peak event

  4. Measurements on a prototype segmented Clover detector

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, S L; Cullen, D M; Appelbe, D E; Simpson, J; Gerl, J; Kaspar, M; Kleinböhl, A; Peter, I; Rejmund, M; Schaffner, H; Schlegel, C; France, G D

    1999-01-01

    The performance of a segmented Clover germanium detector has been measured. The segmented Clover detector is a composite germanium detector, consisting of four individual germanium crystals in the configuration of a four-leaf Clover, housed in a single cryostat. Each crystal is electrically segmented on its outer surface into four quadrants, with separate energy read-outs from nine crystal zones. Signals are also taken from the inner contact of each crystal. This effectively produces a detector with 16 active elements. One of the purposes of this segmentation is to improve the overall spectral resolution when detecting gamma radiation emitted following a nuclear reaction, by minimising Doppler broadening caused by the opening angle subtended by each detector element. Results of the tests with sources and in beam will be presented. The improved granularity of the detector also leads to an improved isolated hit probability compared with an unsegmented Clover detector. (author)

  5. Modeling of clover detector in addback mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, R.

    2012-07-01

    Based on absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, a formalism has been presented for modeling the clover germanium detector in addback mode and to predict its response for high energy γ-rays. In the present formalism, the operation of a bare clover detector could be described in terms of three quantities only. Considering an additional parameter, the formalism could be extended for suppressed clover. Using experimental data on relative single crystal efficiency and addback factor as input, the peak-to-total ratio has been calculated for three energies (Eγ = 3.401, 5.324 and 10.430 MeV) where direct measurement of peak-to-total ratio is impossible due to absence of a radioactive source having single monoenergetic gamma-ray of that energy. The experimental validation and consistency of the formalism have been shown considering data for TIGRESS clover detector. In a recent work (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008), we showed that for a given γ-ray energy, the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of number of detector modules. In the present paper, we have shown that for a given composite detector (clover detector is considered here), the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of γ-ray energy.

  6. A first principle approach for clover detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, R.

    2012-08-01

    A simple model based on probability flow arguments has been presented for understanding the clover germanium detector. Using basic concepts of absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, the operation of the clover detector has been described in terms of six probability amplitudes and a parameter. Instead of using an empirical method or simulation, this work presents the first attempt to calculate the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the clover detector using experimental data of relative single crystal efficiency and addback factor as an input. A unique feature of our approach is that these ratios could be calculated for energies where their direct measurement is impossible due to absence of a radioactive source having single monoenergetic gamma-ray of that energy. Results for four gamma-ray energies (Eγ = 1.408, 3.907, 7.029 and 10.430 MeV) have been discussed. Agreement between experimental data and analysis results has been observed. The present approach could describe clover-type detectors as well. As an example, the nine element detector has been considered. We have demonstrated that our formalism can describe both finite and infinite interactions of γ-rays with the clover crystals. The work presented in this paper follows similar philosophy as presented in a recent paper (R. Kshetri, JInst 2012 7 P04008), which deals with modeling of encapsulated type composite detectors like miniball, cluster and SPI (Spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite).

  7. Modeling of clover detector in addback mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    Based on absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, a formalism has been presented for modeling the clover germanium detector in addback mode and to predict its response for high energy γ-rays. In the present formalism, the operation of a bare clover detector could be described in terms of three quantities only. Considering an additional parameter, the formalism could be extended for suppressed clover. Using experimental data on relative single crystal efficiency and addback factor as input, the peak-to-total ratio has been calculated for three energies (E γ = 3.401, 5.324 and 10.430 MeV) where direct measurement of peak-to-total ratio is impossible due to absence of a radioactive source having single monoenergetic gamma-ray of that energy. The experimental validation and consistency of the formalism have been shown considering data for TIGRESS clover detector. In a recent work (R. Kshetri, JINST 2012 7 P04008), we showed that for a given γ-ray energy, the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of number of detector modules. In the present paper, we have shown that for a given composite detector (clover detector is considered here), the formalism could be used to predict the peak-to-total ratio as a function of γ-ray energy.

  8. A first principle approach for clover detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A simple model based on probability flow arguments has been presented for understanding the clover germanium detector. Using basic concepts of absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, the operation of the clover detector has been described in terms of six probability amplitudes and a parameter. Instead of using an empirical method or simulation, this work presents the first attempt to calculate the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the clover detector using experimental data of relative single crystal efficiency and addback factor as an input. A unique feature of our approach is that these ratios could be calculated for energies where their direct measurement is impossible due to absence of a radioactive source having single monoenergetic gamma-ray of that energy. Results for four gamma-ray energies (E γ = 1.408, 3.907, 7.029 and 10.430 MeV) have been discussed. Agreement between experimental data and analysis results has been observed. The present approach could describe clover-type detectors as well. As an example, the nine element detector has been considered. We have demonstrated that our formalism can describe both finite and infinite interactions of γ-rays with the clover crystals. The work presented in this paper follows similar philosophy as presented in a recent paper (R. Kshetri, JInst 2012 7 P04008), which deals with modeling of encapsulated type composite detectors like miniball, cluster and SPI (Spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite).

  9. Crystal Structure of Green Fluorescent Protein Clover and Design of Clover-Based Redox Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Benjamin C; Petsko, Gregory A; Liu, Ce Feng

    2018-02-06

    We have determined the crystal structure of Clover, one of the brightest fluorescent proteins, and found that its T203H/S65G mutations relative to wild-type GFP lock the critical E222 side chain in a fixed configuration that mimics the major conformer of that in EGFP. The resulting equilibrium shift to the predominantly deprotonated chromophore increases the extinction coefficient (EC), opposes photoactivation, and is responsible for the bathochromic shift. Clover's brightness can further be attributed to a π-π stacking interaction between H203 and the chromophore. Consistent with these observations, the Clover G65S mutant reversed the equilibrium shift, dramatically decreased the EC, and made Clover photoactivatable under conditions that activated photoactivatable GFP. Using the Clover structure, we rationally engineered a non-photoactivatable redox sensor, roClover1, and determined its structure as well as that of its parental template, roClover0.1. These high-resolution structures provide deeper insights into structure-function relationships in GFPs and may aid the development of excitation-improved ratiometric biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling interactions in grass-clover mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassiri Mahallati, M.

    1998-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focuses on a quantitative understanding of the complex interactions in binary mixtures of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under cutting. The first part of the study describes the dynamics of growth, production

  11. Application of various technological processes in red clover seed processing

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Marković, Jordan; Radivojević, Gordana; Anđelković, Bojan; Barać, Saša

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the processing of natural red clover seed on the processing equipment using different technological methods. Red clover seed, for the establishment and crop utilization, must be of high purity, germination, and high genetic values. These requirements are achieved by processing, or removing impurities and poor quality seeds. Red clover seed processing involves a number of operations, of which the most important are: cleaning, packaging, labeling and storage. ...

  12. White clover regenerative ability under N fertilizing and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Leto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, ecological and economic factors in milk and meat production stimulate use of legumes and grass-legumes mixtures, with zero or minimum mineral N as alternative to grass monoculture with high rate of mineral N. Research objective was to examine the effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S on white clover: growing points number, stolon lenght, stolon dry weight, dry matter yield and clover contribution to total annual herbage production. N150 significantly reduced the growing points number, stolon length and stolon dry weight for more than 70 % compared to N0. Grazing treatment affected stolon population density only in interaction with N application because of N150 significantly reduced white clover population density only in sheep grazing. S-treatment had higher clover DM yield (0.21 t ha-1 than C-treatment (0.13 t ha-1. N0 had higher clover DM yield (0.25 t ha-1 than N150 (0.09 t ha-1. However, the interaction grazing management x N rate was significant for clover DM yield and clover contribution to total DM yield. N150 reduced both parameters for 80 % only in sheep grazing while difference in DM yield and clover contribution to total DM yield between grazing treatment was recorded only in N0 Sheep grazing increased DM yield for 150 % and clover contribution for 99 % compared to cattle grazing.

  13. Complementary effects of red clover inclusion in ryegrass-white clover swards for grazing and cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Søegaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Increasing plant species diversity in grasslands may improve productivity and stability of yields. In a field experiment, we investigated the herbage dry-matter (DM) yield and crude protein content of two-species swards of perennial ryegrass–white clover (Lolium perenne L.–Trifolium repens L...... clover in sown swards are discussed. These may include higher nitrogen-use efficiency in ruminants, increased soil fertility and improved sward flexibility to cope with changing managements. The findings also suggest positive yield effects of alternating between cutting and grazing within the season...

  14. Cytoskeleton-amyloplast interactions in sweet clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guikema, J. A.; Hilaire, E.; Odom, W. R.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of organelles within columella cells of sweet clover was examined by transmission electron microscopy following growth under static or clinorotating conditions. A developmentally conditioned polarity was observed, with a proximal location of the nucleus and a distal accumulation of the endoplasmic reticulum. This polarity was insensitive to clinorotation. In contrast, clinorotation altered the location of amyloplasts. Application of cytoskeletal poisons (colchicine, cytochalasin D, taxol, and phalloidin), especially during clinorotation, had interesting effects on the maintenance of columella cell polarity, with a profound effect on the extent, location, and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum. The site of cytoskeletal interactions with sedimenting amyloplasts is thought to be the amyloplast envelope. An envelope fraction, having over 17 polypeptides, was isolated using immobilized antibody technology, and will provide a means of assessing the role of specific peptides in cytoskeleton/amyloplast interactions.

  15. Predicting Dry Matter Composition of Clover Grass Leys Using Data Simulation and Camera-based Segmentation of Field Canopies into White Clover, Red Clover, Grass and Weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Søren; Dyrmann, Mads; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    species in the biomass. In our setup, we exploit the top-down canopy view of the clover grass ley to estimate the volumetric composition of the yield, and predict the composition of the dry matter of the forage. Using a deep learning approach, the canopy image is automatically pixel-wise segmented....... The biggest hindrance to training a fully convolutional deep neural network is the requirement of labeled data. Due to the complexity, the high number of leaves and high levels of occlusions in clover grass canopies, hand labeling the data requires roughly 20 hours of manual labor per image. The need...... for hundreds or thousands labeled training images renders this approach unfeasible. We have shown that implementation of image simulation of distinct clover grass fields can reduce the labeling task significantly. Investing less than 20 hours of labor, thousands of simulated images and corresponding labels can...

  16. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  17. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  18. Potential for yield in red clover (Trifolium pratense L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Red clover (Trifolium pratense L. is botanically a perennial, although it often behaves as a biennial. The crop usually lives 2 to 3 seasons in most clover-growing regions of the world and is generally conceded to be lacking in persistence. The objective of this investigation was to analyze the production potential and persistence of domestic and imported red clover varieties. Experiments were conducted at Rimski Šančevi Experiment Field during the period 2004-2006. The experimental materials were six varieties (K-17, Kolubara, Una, Viola, Start, Nike which were analyzed for the most important production characteristics: yield of green mass, dry matter yield and persistence. .

  19. Estimating the content of clover and grass in the sward using a consumer camera and image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Karstoft, Henrik; Søegaard, Karen

    the dry matter ratio of clover and grass in clover grass fields from sparse close up images. First, the light conditions is determined, which is used for selecting model parameters to estimate the coverage of both clover and grass. Next, the clover and grass coverage are transformed to give the dry matter...

  20. Association of phytoplasmas and viruses with malformed clovers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Paltrinieri, S.; Botti, S.; Šimková, Marie; Bertaccini, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2004), s. 617-624 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5051014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : mycoplasma-like organismus * viruses * clovers * classification Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  1. Genetic variation of white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) to investigate the genetic relationships among white clover germplasms of China, and four commercial cultivars were included for a comparison. The results revealed that the populations showed diverse morphological traits, RAPD and SSR patterns.

  2. Genetic variation of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... incompatibility mechanism of disomic inheritance (Thomas,. 1987). In essence ..... Badr A, Sayed-Ahmed H, El-Shanshouri A, Watson LE (2002). Ancestors of white ... Caradus JR, Woodfield DR (1997). World checklist of ... within a natural population of white clover (Trifolium repense L). J. Ecol. 73: 615-624 ...

  3. Growth of bermudagrass with white clover or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White clover (Trifolium repens) var ‘Durana’ was oversown into established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in 2009. Soil analysis indicated potassium (K) was low and potash at 112 and 336 kg/ha was added as main plots. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate or an ammonium sulfate/urea blend was added as 0, 34...

  4. Salt tolerance in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) seedlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... This study was conducted to investigate the effect of salt stress on germination of 28 red clover. (Trifolium pratense ... tolerance with the aim of improving crop plants (Zhu,. 2001) or soil .... The interaction of salinity and population in terms of PI ... in shoot growth is probably due to hormonal signals generated ...

  5. Genetic variations between two ecotypes of Egyptian clover by inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Four Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L) cultivars representing two ecotypes were used in the present study. Fahl cultivar is prevalent in whole Egypt and is good for single cut as it has poor regeneration ability, whereas Serw1, Giza6 and Gemmiza1 give 5-6 cuts of good fodder. Techniques based ...

  6. Kinetics and optimization of red clover pulp drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the drying process conducted with bagasse red clover on an experimental dry¬er superheated steam at atmospheric pressure in the active hydrodynamic regimes were study¬ing. The rational intervals of parameter changes were obtained. The problem of optimization, which allowed allocating the optimum range of variation of the input factors according to three criteria through compromise was solved.

  7. Sources of N2O in organic grass-clover pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming practises, and in particular dairy production systems based on grass-clover pastures are becoming increasingly abundant within Danish agriculture. Grass-clover pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce grassland nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Velthof et al. 1998). The objectives of this work was to examine the relationship between N2O emissions and transformations of inorganic N in organically managed grass-clover pastures of different ages. Results from the projec...

  8. Estimating grass-clover ratio variations caused by traffic intensities using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole

    Grass and especially clover have a negative yield response as a function of  traffic intensity.  Conventional grass-clover production for silage have high traffic intensity due to fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass...... to fulfill the aim [1]http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/publications/press_articles/dairy-2/role-of-clover.htm...

  9. Non-perturbative improvement of stout-smeared three flavour clover fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundy, N.; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2009-01-15

    We discuss a 3-flavour lattice QCD action with clover improvement in which the fermion matrix has single level stout smearing for the hopping terms together with unsmeared links for the clover term. With the (tree-level) Symanzik improved gluon action this constitutes the Stout Link Non-perturbative Clover or SLiNC action. To cancel O(a) terms the clover term coefficient has to be tuned. We present here results of a non-perturbative determination of this coefficient using the Schroedinger functional and as a by-product a determination of the critical hopping parameter. Comparisons of the results are made with lowest order perturbation theory. (orig.)

  10. Fate in Soil of Flavonoids Released from White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Sandra C. K.; Pedersen, Hans A.; Spliid, Niels H.

    2012-01-01

    the presence in soil of bioactive secondary metabolites from clover has received limited attention. In this paper we examine for the first time the release of flavonoids both from field-grown white clover and from soil-incorporated white clover plants of flavonoids, as analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The dominant...... flavonoid aglycones were formononetin, medicarpin, and kaempferol. Soil-incorporated white clover plants generated high concentrations of the glycosides kaempferol-Rha-Xyl-Gal and quercetin-Xyl-Gal. Substantial amounts of kaempferol persisted in the soil for days while the other compounds were degraded...

  11. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and in soil N 2 O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N 2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N 2 O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N 2 O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N 2 as a source of N 2 O. 2: examining the link between N 2 O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N 2 O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N 2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N 2 O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m -2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor

  12. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White clover grows naturally all over the Himalayan regions including the hilly areas of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of white clover residues alone or in combination with phosphorus (P) fertilizer on maize (Zea mays L.) yield, nutrient uptake and ...

  13. Inclusion of caraway in the ryegrass-red clover mixture modifies soil microbial community composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Wenfeng; Jing, Jingying; Søegaard, Karen

    -containing grass-clover mixtures may potentially affect soil microbial community structure, biomass and associated ecosystem functions, but it is yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that inclusion of plantain in the grass-clover mixture would enhance soil microbial biomas and functions through its high biomass...

  14. A New NPGS Special Collection: Norman L. Taylor University of Kentucky Clover Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Norman L. Taylor was a world renowned Professor and clover breeder in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences at the University of Kentucky for 48 years. Following retirement in 2001, he continued working on clovers up until his death in 2010. Dr. Taylor’s entire career was devoted to enhancin...

  15. Linyphiid spider populations in sustainable wheat‐clover bi‐cropping compared to conventional wheat‐growing practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard

    2008-01-01

    Linyphiid web densities in wheat-clover bi-crop systems where winter wheat was grown in an under-storey of white clover were compared with web densities estimated in conventional wheat-growing systems. The web densities in the wheat-clover bi-crop systems were on average between 200 and 250 webs ...

  16. Effects of clover density on N2O emissions and plant-soil N transfers in a fertilised upland pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Katja; Bloor, Juliette M. G.; Ambus, Per

    2011-01-01

    regression analysis revealed that water-filled pore space (WFPS) and clover dry mass were the main factors driving cumulative N2O emissions in the high clover treatment, whereas variation in cumulated N2O emissions in the low clover treatment was best explained by WFPS and grass mass. We hypothesize...

  17. Specific activity isolation and determination of radioactive Estrogenic Substances in White Clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupiales T, G.; Mejia M, G.

    1986-01-01

    Due to high number of leguminous that exhibit estrogenic activity, subterranean clover between others, which causes infertility in sheep that eat it. It has been considered that white clover (Trifolium repens, variety Ladino, is an specie of low estrogenic activity, however at Bogota City (Colombia) it has high estrogenic activity and may cause reduction in the dairy cattle fertility. Research done in the IAN (today Ingeominas) over this clover variety, showed that the radioactivity substances presents in the white clover have high activity for stradiol, affecting organs from mouse females; Isoflavonoids from vegetables have an anabolism and utero tropic action; estrogenic activity of clover leaves, was exponentially proportional to the amount of ultraviolet radioactivity, falling upon plants during leaves development stage

  18. Honeybees tolerate cyanogenic glucosides from clover nectar and flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Green, Amelia Ann; Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) pollinate flowers and collect nectar from many important crops. White clover (Trifolium repens) is widely grown as a temperate forage crop, and requires honeybee pollination for seed set. In this study, using a quantitative LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry...... indicates that plant secondary metabolites found in nectar may protect pollinators from disease or predators. In a laboratory survival study with chronic feeding of secondary metabolites, we show that honeybees can ingest the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and amygdalin at naturally occurring...

  19. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  20. Does white clover (Trifolium repens abundance in temperate pastures determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae larval populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Richard McNeill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over four years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne (cv. Nui sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand with % clover measured in autumn (April and spring (September of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 310, 38, 59 and 31 larvae m-2, respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3 and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted

  1. Does White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abundance in Temperate Pastures Determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Mark R; van Koten, Chikako; Cave, Vanessa M; Chapman, David; Hodgson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover ( Trifolium repens ) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012-2015 were 310, 38, 59, and 31 larvae m -2 , respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3, and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October) larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April) found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted, but the numbers

  2. Leaching of cyanogenic glucosides and cyanide from white clover green manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnholt, Nanna; Lægdsmand, Mette; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2008-01-01

    Use of crops for green manure as a substitute for chemical fertilizers and pesticides is an important approach towards more sustainable agricultural practices. Green manure from white clover is rich in nitrogen but white clover also produces the cyanogenic glucosides (CGs) linamarin...... and lotaustralin; CGs release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon hydrolysis which may be utilized for pest control. We demonstrate that applying CGs in the form of a liquid extract of white clover to large columns of intact agricultural soils can result in leaching of toxic cyanide species to a depth of at least 1...

  3. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-156 radionuclides in clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachnov, V.; Valkovic, V.; Dekner, R.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains the results of the intercomparison IAEA-156 on the determination of radionuclides in clover. Initially participants were requested to determine the levels of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr and invited to provide data for other radionuclides. The participants included 46 laboratories located in 25 countries, and statistical evaluation of their data yield recommended values for these four radionuclides. Additional radionuclides reported were 210 Pb, 239 Pu and 125 Sb; however, insufficient data exists to statistically determine recommended values for these radionuclides. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (reference date: 1 August 1986): 134 Cs 132.1 Bq/kg (126.4-137.7); 137 Cs 264 Bq/kg (254-274); 40 K 657 Bq/kg (637-676); 90 Sr 14.8 Bq/kg (13.4-16.3). Figs and tabs

  4. Relationship between nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emission in grass-clover pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports on a work assessing the relationship between gross N transformations in grass-clover soils and emissions of nitrous oxide. By this manner, the source strength of the biogenic processes responsible for nitrous oxide production is evaluated.

  5. N transfer in three species grass-clover mixtures with chicory, ribwort plantain or caraway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aimsThere is substantial evidence that legume-derived Nitrogen (N) is transferred to neighboring non-legumes in grassland mixtures. However, there is sparse information about how deep rooted non-legume forage herbs (forbs) influence N transfer in multi-species grasslands. Methodology......Red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) was grown together with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and one of three forb species: chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) or caraway (Carum carvi L.) in a field experiment. During the first year after the establishment, red...... clover leaves were labeled with 15N-urea to determine the N transfer from red clover to companion ryegrass and forbs. ResultsOn an annual basis, up to 15 % of red clover N was transferred to the companion ryegrass and forbs, but predominantly to the grass. The forb species did not differ in their ability...

  6. Reduction in clover-grass yield caused by different traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16...... close to the north, south and east border of the field. No significant interactions were found between the timing of crop and soil damage as affected by wheel load and tire pressure. However, at specific times, there was a significant effect of wheel load and secondary by the tire pressure. At all...... measurement times, the yield was lower using a wheel load of 4745 kg than for a wheel load of 2865 kg.     Key words (for Electronic Reference Library) Traffic intensities, tire load/pressure, clover/grass, yield loss, ...

  7. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized...

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from clover in the Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iride Volpi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducing nitrogen N2-fixing crops into cereal-based crop rotations reduces N-fertiliser use and may mitigate soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O. However, the effect of the cultivation of N2-fixing crops on N2O emissions is still not well understood. N2O from N2-fixing crops can be emitted in two ways: during biological N2 fixation itself and when legume residues are returned to the soil. A field trial was carried out on clover (Trifolium squarrosum Savi to test the role of leguminous crops on N2O emissions in the Mediterranean environment. Monitoring was performed from December 2013 to September 2014. Cumulated N-N2O fluxes were calculated for the growing season (Phase 1 and the post-harvest period (Phase 2 in order to assess the importance of each phase. Our results did not show statistically significant differences between the two phases in term of contribution to the total cumulative N-N2O emissions, in fact Phase 1 and Phase 2 accounted respectively for 43 and 57% of the total.

  9. Elemental analysis and nutritional value of edible Trifolium (clover) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounden, Thaveshan; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2018-04-30

    Trifolium species, commonly known as clover species, have a cosmopolitan distribution and, as such, are used in many different traditional systems of medicine and consumed by many communities all over the world. In this study, the elemental distribution and nutritional value of five edible Trifolium species, namely, Trifolium africanum, Trifolium burchellianum, Trifolium repens, Trifolium dubium and Trifolium pratense were investigated to evaluate the potential of these plant species to alleviate malnutrition, thereby contributing toward the fight against food insecurity. Trifolium species were found to be a rich alternate source of essential nutrients with concentrations of elements being in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Se > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Co > Cd > As and with adequate levels of lipids (4.2 to 8.6%), proteins (35.1 to 45.4%) and carbohydrates (26.7 to 47.0%). Trifolium species were found to be rich in Se (contributing greater than 516% toward its RDA) with T. dubium having a concentration of 0.53 mg 10 g -1 , dry mass, which is higher than Brazil nuts. T. pratense was found to be the most suitable species for human consumption due to it having low levels of toxic metals (As, Cd and Pb) while being rich in macro- and micro-elements, especially Fe (7.84 mg 10 g -1 , dry mass) and Se (0.36 mg 10 g -1 , dry mass).

  10. Comparison of breeding methods for forage yield in red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Jalůvka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three methods of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. breeding for forage yield in two harvest years on locations in Bredelokke (Denmark, Hladké Životice (Czech Republic and Les Alleuds (France were compared. Three types of 46 candivars1, developed by A recurrent selection in subsequent generations (37 candivars, divided into early and late group, B polycross progenies (4 candivars and C ge­no-phe­no­ty­pic selection (5 candivars were compared. The trials were sown in 2005 and cut three times in 2006 and 2007; their evaluation is based primarily on total yield of dry matter. The candivars developed by polycross and geno-phenotypic selections gave significantly higher yields than candivars from the recurrent selection. However, the candivars developed by the methods B and C did not differ significantly. The candivars developed by these progressive methods were suitable for higher yielding and drier environment in Hladké Životice (where was the highest yield level even if averaged annual precipitation were lower by 73 and 113 mm in comparison to other locations, respectively; here was ave­ra­ge yield higher by 19 and 13% for B and C in comparison to A method. Highly significant interaction of the candivars with locations was found. It can be concluded that varieties specifically aimed to different locations by the methods B and C should be bred; also the parental entries should be selected there.

  11. Assessment of nickel bioavailability through chemical extractants and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) in an amended soil: Related changes in various parameters of red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz, Ali Khan; Iqbal, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Hussain, Sabir; Ibrahim, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    Application of immobilizing agents may efficiently reduce the bioavailability of nickel (Ni) in the soil. Here we report the effect of biochar (BC), gravel sludge (GS) and zeolite (ZE) as a sole treatment and their combinations on the bioavailability of Ni after their application into a Ni-polluted soil. The bioavailability of Ni after the application of immobilizing agents was assessed through an indicator plant (red clover) and chemical indicators of bioavailability like soil water extract (SWE), DTPA and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 extracts. Additionally, the effects of Ni bioavailability and immobilizing agents on the growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of red clover were also observed. Application of ZE significantly reduced Ni concentrations in all chemical extracts compared to rest of the treatments. Similarly, the combined application of BC and ZE (BC+ ZE) significantly reduced Ni concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) whereas, significant enhancement in the growth, physiological and biochemical attributes along with an improvement in antioxidant defence machinery of red clover plant, compared to rest of the treatments, were observed. Furthermore, BC+ ZE treatment significantly reduced bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Ni in red clover, compared to rest of the treatments. The Ni concentrations in red clover leaves individually reflected a good correlation with Ni concentrations in the extracts (SWE at R 2 =0.79, DTPA extract at R 2 =0.84 and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 extracts at R 2 =0.86). Our results indicate that combined application of ZE and BC can significantly reduce the Ni bioavailability in the soil while in parallel improve the antioxidant defence mechanism in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transformation kinetics of corn and clover residues in mineral substrates of different composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinskii, D. L.; Maltseva, A. N.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Dmitrieva, E. D.

    2017-06-01

    Mineralization kinetics of corn and clover residues in quartz sand, loam, sand + 15% bentonite, and sand + 30% kaolinite have been studied. A scheme has been proposed for the transformation of plant residues in mineral substrates. Kinetic parameters of mineralization have been calculated with the use of a first-order two-term exponential polynomial. It has been shown that the share of labile organic carbon pool in the clover biomass is higher (57-63%) than in the corn biomass (47-49%), which is related to the biochemical composition of plant residues. The mineralization constants of clover residues generally significantly exceed those of corn because of the stronger stabilization of the decomposition products of corn residues. The turnover time of the labile clover pool (4-9 days) in all substrates and that of the labile corn pool (8-10 days) in sands and substrates containing kaolinites and bentonite are typical for organic acids, amino acids, and simple sugars. In the loamy substrate, the turnover time of labile corn pool is about 46 days due to the stronger stabilization of components of the labile pool containing large amounts of organic acids. The turnover time of the stable clover pool (0.95 years) is significantly lower than that of the stable corn pool (1.60 years) and largely corresponds to the turnover time of plant biomass.

  13. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of wildland collections of western and Searls prairie clovers for rangeland revegetation in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor Bhattarai

    2010-01-01

    Western prairie clover [Dalea ornata (Douglas ex Hook.) Eaton & J. Wright] is a perennial legume that occurs in the northern Great Basin, Snake River Basin, and southern Columbia Plateau, whereas Searls prairie clover [Dalea searlsiae (A. Gray) Barneby], also a perennial legume, occurs in the southern Great Basin and surrounding areas. Understanding the genetic and...

  14. Phyto-oestrogens in herbage and milk from cows grazing whiteclover, red clover, lucerne or chicory-rich pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C; Nielsen, T S; Purup, S

    2009-01-01

    A grazing experiment was carried out to study the concentration of phyto-oestrogens in herbage for cattle and in milk during two periods (May and June). Forty-eight Danish Holstein cows were divided into four groups with four treatment diets; white clover, red clover, lucerne and chicory-rich pas...

  15. Effects of field characteristics on abundance of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) and seed yield in red clover fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Kirsten Haugaard; Dupont, Yoko L.

    2010-01-01

    Red clover is a key floral ressource for bumblebees (Bombus spp.).We here investigate variation within and among red clover fields in species richness and abundance of Bombus spp. in addition to Apis mellifera. Bumblebee individuals were grouped into the following functional groups, based on castes...

  16. A survey of the invertebrates feeding on living clover roots (Trifolium repens L.) using 32P as a radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylis, J.P.; Cherrett, J.M.; Ford, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Clover roots were labelled in the field with 32 P and the radioactive soil fauna were detected by autoradiography. The animals which consumed labelled clover roots were, in order of importance, earthworms (Aporrectodea longa, A. caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus), weevil larvae, dipteran larvae (Bibio marci) and a few Collembola (family: Entomobryidae). (author)

  17. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202... Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for... for the purpose of determining whether seed of alfalfa or red clover from any foreign country or...

  18. Nitrogen fertilization of grass/clover swards under cutting or grazing by dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    farms over a period of three years. Nitrogen was applied at four rates (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg N year-1) with cutting or grazing regime in Year 1 and Year 2, after establishment. A spring-only application of 150 kg N was compared with four applications during the season, which was the fertilization...... affected. The results indicate different possibilities for strategic fertilization both at farm and field level, and in swards with a high clover content it demonstrates how the clover content can be used as a buffer both for maximizing the N-response and for manipulating the production profile.......Intensively managed perennial ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) swards receive relatively high levels of fertilizer N, and high N surpluses can subsequently be found. The N-fertilization effects on growth, yield, and herbage quality were therefore examined on three...

  19. Analysis of the effects of pair production for the suppressed clover detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full energy peak, single escape peak and double escape peak areas have been extracted for an escape suppressed clover detector. Results have been obtained for the single crystal and addback modes of operation as well as the active and passive suppression cases at several gamma energies. We have compared the ratio of single escape peak areas in addback mode with that of single crystal mode to study if the single escape peak gains or loses counts due to addback mode. Detailed analysis has been performed for quantifying the advantages of using addback mode and active suppression. Comparison is made for different types of clover detectors with different volumes

  20. Effect of red clover on the microbial transformation of phenanthrene and octadecane in the soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, A. V.; Shestakova, E. A.; Anan'yina, L. N.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.) plants on the decomposition of phenanthrene and octadecane in the soil has been studied. Effect of plant root mass on the abundance of hydrocarbondegrading bacteria, the composition of their communities, and the degradation of hydrocarbons in the soil has been revealed. Changes in the taxonomic composition of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria under the effect of red clover are characterized by an increase in the abundance of species from the genera Acinetobacter, Kaistia, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas. A positive effect of the studied microbial-plant association on the degradation of octadecane and especially phenanthrene in the soil has been revealed.

  1. Enchytraeids as indicator of soil quality in temporary organic grass-clover leys under contrasting management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Kristine; Schmelz, Rüdiger; Larsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One objective in organic farming is to sustain the quality of the soil resource. Because enchytraeids are an important soil faunal component, they stand as bioindicators of soil quality. We tested this candidature in a field experiment on loamy sand soil with 1- and 4-year old grass-clover leys...... interactions among soil physical, chemical and biological properties suggest that enchytraeid abundance is not a feasible stand-alone indicator of management impacts on soil quality in temporary grass-clover leys but may candidate as one of several biological key parameters in more comprehensive soil quality...

  2. Preliminary research on amino acid composition and nutritional value of clover proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłyszejko-Stefanowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid composition and nutritional value of 5 clover varieties including 3 Polish ones ('Gloria', 'Hruszowska', 'Skrzeszowicka' and 2 of foreign origin ('Rotra' and 'Violetta' were investigated. No significant differences in the total protein content (19.2–20.0% of dry matter as well as in qualitative amino acid composition were found among the clover varieties under examination. EAA index (Essential amino acid index calculated according to Oser for 'Gloria' and 'Hruszowska' showed the highest nutritional value was – 40. The lowest value of EAA index was found for 'Violetta' cvar. – 32, intermediate values however for Rotra and Skrzeszowicka was 37 and 36.

  3. Estimation of the Botanical Composition of Clover-Grass Leys from RGB Images Using Data Simulation and Fully Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Green, Ole; Karstoft, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Optimal fertilization of clover-grass fields relies on knowledge of the clover and grass fractions. This study shows how knowledge can be obtained by analyzing images collected in fields automatically. A fully convolutional neural network was trained to create a pixel-wise classification of clover, grass, and weeds in red, green, and blue (RGB) images of clover-grass mixtures. The estimated clover fractions of the dry matter from the images were found to be highly correlated with the real clover fractions of the dry matter, making this a cheap and non-destructive way of monitoring clover-grass fields. The network was trained solely on simulated top-down images of clover-grass fields. This enables the network to distinguish clover, grass, and weed pixels in real images. The use of simulated images for training reduces the manual labor to a few hours, as compared to more than 3000 h when all the real images are annotated for training. The network was tested on images with varied clover/grass ratios and achieved an overall pixel classification accuracy of 83.4%, while estimating the dry matter clover fraction with a standard deviation of 7.8%. PMID:29258215

  4. In situ carbon and nitrogen dynamics in ryegrass-clover mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.; Eriksen, J.; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2007-01-01

    =9). 15N-enriched compounds were not detected in percolating pore water, which may be caused by either dilution from irrigation or low availability of leachable N compounds. 14C was found solely as 14CO2 in the pore water indicating that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) did not originate from fresh......Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in a third production year ryegrass–clover mixture were investigated in the field. Cylinders (diameter 29.7 cm) were installed to depths of 20, 40 and 60 cm and equipped with suction cups to collect percolating pore water. Ryegrass and clover leaves were cross......-labelled with 14C- and 15N-enriched urea and the fate of the two tracers was studied for 3 months during summer. Transfer of 14C occurred mainly from ryegrass to clover, whereas the largest transfer of 15N was in the opposite direction. The average transfer of N from clover was 40% (SE±3.1, n=9) of N in ryegrass...

  5. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  6. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... The residual effects of white clover on soil properties indicated a significant increase in saturation percentage (17–23%) and .... determined by leaching the soil with KCl followed by extraction of ...... accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. ... of the Final Workshop of the Farming System Integrated Pest.

  7. Improving Resilience of Northern Field Crop Systems Using Inter-Seeded Red Clover: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Deen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the environmental challenges ahead, resilience of the most abundant field crop production systems must be improved to guarantee yield stability with more efficient use of nitrogen inputs, soil and water resources. Along with genetic and agronomic innovations, diversification of northern agro-ecosystems using inter-seeded legumes provides further opportunities to improve land management practices that sustain crop yields and their resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. Benefits of legume cover crops have been known for decades and red clover (Trifolium pratense is one of the most common and beneficial when frost-seeded under winter wheat in advance of maize in a rotation. However, its use has been declining mostly due to the use of synthetic fertilizers and herbicides, concerns over competition with the main crop and the inability to fully capture red clover benefits due to difficulties in the persistence of uniform stands. In this manuscript, we first review the environmental, agronomic, rotational and economical benefits associated with inter-seeded red clover. Red clover adaptation to a wide array of common wheat-based rotations, its potential to mitigate the effects of land degradation in a changing climate and its integration into sustainable food production systems are discussed. We then identify areas of research with significant potential to impact cropping system profitability and sustainability.

  8. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on red clover and its rhizobial symbiont

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Janine; Okupnik, Annette; Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Van Der Heijden, Marcel G A; Widmer, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two

  9. Biochar application rate affects biological nitrogen fixation in red clover conditional on potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mia, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Oram, N.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, Liesje; Jeffery, S.

    2014-01-01

    Increased biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by legumes has been reported following biochar application to soils, but the mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly elucidated. We investigated the effects of different biochar application rates on BNF in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Red

  10. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of western prairie clover collections from the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor Bhattarai; B. Shaun Bushman; Douglas A. Johnson; John G. Carman

    2010-01-01

    Few North American legumes are available for rangeland revegetation in the semiarid western United States. Western prairie clover (Dalea ornata [Douglas ex Hook.] Eaton & J. Wright) is a perennial legume with desirable forage characteristics and is distributed in the northern Great Basin, Snake River Basin, and southern Columbia Plateau. Understanding the...

  11. Searls prairie clover (Dalea searlsiae) for rangeland revegetation: Phenotypic and genetic evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor Bhattarai; Shaun Bushman; Douglas A. Johnson; John G. Carman

    2011-01-01

    Few North American legumes are available for use in rangeland revegetation in the western USA, but Searls prairie clover [Dalea searlsiae (A. Gray) Barneby] is one that holds promise. Commercial-scale seed production of this species could address the issues of unreliable seed availability and high seed costs associated with its wildland seed collection. To evaluate its...

  12. Molecular evolution of the Li/li chemical defence polymorphism in white clover (Trifolium repens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K M; Sutherland, B L; Small, L L

    2007-10-01

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is naturally polymorphic for cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release following tissue damage). The ecological factors favouring cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants have been examined in numerous studies over the last half century, making this one of the best-documented examples of an adaptive polymorphism in plants. White clover cyanogenesis is controlled by two, independently segregating Mendelian genes: Ac/ac controls the presence/absence of cyanogenic glucosides; and Li/li controls the presence/absence of their hydrolysing enzyme, linamarase. In this study, we examine the molecular evolution and population genetics of Li as it relates to the cyanogenesis polymorphism. We report here that Li exists as a single-copy gene in plants possessing linamarase activity, and that the absence of enzyme activity in li/li plants is correlated with the absence of much or all of the gene from the white clover genome. Consistent with this finding, we confirm by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that Li gene expression is absent in plants lacking enzyme activity. In a molecular population genetic analysis of Li and three unlinked genes using a worldwide sample of clover plants, we find an absence of nucleotide variation and statistically significant deviations from neutrality at Li; these findings are consistent with recent positive directional selection at this cyanogenesis locus.

  13. Forbs enhance productivity of unfertilised grass-clover leys and support low-carbon bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Wen-Feng; Jing, Jingying; Rasmussen, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Intensively managed grasslands are dominated by highly productive grass-clover mixtures. Increasing crop diversity by inclusion of competitive forbs may enhance biomass production and sustainable biofuel production. Here we examined if one or all of three forbs (chicory, Cichorium intybus L.; car...

  14. Relationships between Nitrate and Oxygen Supply in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by White Clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minchin, F. R.; Ines Minguez, M.; Sheedy, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of mature, nodulated plants of white clover (Trifolium repens) cv. Blanca to 330 mg dm−3 NO3-N for 8 d caused nitrogenase activity per plant to decrease by 80%. Total nodulated root respiration was not significantly affected but analysis of its components showed an 81% decrease in nitrog...

  15. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  16. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics - Dry matter digestibility and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions...... was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. RESULTS: Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) content of 451 g/kg DM and 530 g/kg DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively and a pulp with CP content of 313 and 374 g...

  17. Effect of fertilizer type on cadmium and fluorine concentrations in clover herbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated whether changing phosphatic fertilizer type affects the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) in pasture herbage. North Carolina phosphate rock and partially acidulated fertilizers derived from this rock generally have higher Cd and F concentrations compared to single superphosphate currently manufactured in Australia. Clover herbage from sites of the National Reactive Phosphate Rock (RPR) trial was collected and analysed for concentrations of Cd (11 sites) and F (4 sites). A comparison was made between pastures fertilized with 4 rates of single superphosphate, North Carolina phosphate rock, and partially acidulated phosphate rock having Cd concentrations of 283, 481, and 420 mg Cd/kg P respectively, and 170, 271, and 274 g F/kg P respectively. One site used Hemrawein (Egypt) phosphate rock (HRP) having a Cd and F concentration of 78 mg Cd/kg P and 256 g F/kg P respectively. To help identify differences in herbage Cd concentrations between sites, unfertilised soils from each site were analyzed for total and extractable Cd contents. At one site Cd concentrations in bulk herbage (clover, grasses and weeds) were related to infestation of the pasture by capeweed (Arctotheca calendula L. Levyns). There were no significant differences between F in herbage from plots fertilized with single superphosphate, partially acidulated phosphate rock or North Carolina phosphate rock, or between sites. Concentrations of F in herbage were low, generally less than 10 mg F /kg. However, there were large differences in Cd concentrations in herbage between sites, while differences between fertilizer treatments were small in comparison. The site differences were only weakly related to total or extractable (0.01 mol/L CaCl 2 ) Cd concentrations in soil. Significant differences in Cd concentrations in clover due to fertilizer type were found at 5 sites. North Carolina phosphate rock treatments had significantly higher Cd concentrations in clover compared to

  18. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensit...

  19. Determination of toxicity limiting values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for oat and red clover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodenberg, A V; Finck, A

    1975-01-01

    Toxicity limiting values of Zn, Cu and Pb are determined in order to investigate the causes of growth damages in certain fields. Since the true toxicity limit is difficult to estimate, a somewhat higher content is called the toxicity limiting value resulting after the subtraction of a significant yield difference. The pot experiments with increasing fertilization of Zn, Cu and Pb in soil cultures gave the following results. For Zn, the toxicity limit is 410 ppm in oats at the beginning of tilling. In red clover six weeks of age, it is only 290 ppm of Zn and therefore much lower. For Cu, the toxicity limit is 20 ppm in oats at the beginning of tilling and 18 ppm in six weeks old red clover. For Pb, a toxic effect could be observed above 50 ppm, but this does not seem to be the true limit because of disturbing salt effects.

  20. Nitrogen transfer via VA mycorrhiza hyphae link between roots of red clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junling; Li Xiaolin; Yang Zhifu

    1997-01-01

    Five compartments with a air gap was designed to examine underground N transfer via VAM hyphae link between roots of red clover. 15 N was injected into the root compartment for donor plant 4 weeks after planting. Plants were harvested 6 weeks afterwards. The experiment had four treatments: two N levels (receiver root compartment); mycorrhiza and non-mycorrhiza treatment (B compartment), and each with four replicates. It was demonstrated that there was no significant difference in 15 N abundance in receiver red clover regardless of the inoculation of mycorrhiza fungi and nitrogen fertilization. Both shoot and root dry weight of receiver plants were not affected too, however, plant P and N nutrient status got better under this condition

  1. Modelling Gene Flow between Fields of White Clover with Honeybees as Pollen Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løjtnant, Christina; Boelt, Birte; Clausen, Sabine Karin

    2012-01-01

    The portion-dilution model is a parametric restatement of the conventional view of animal pollination; it predicts the level of pollinator-mediated gene dispersal. In this study, the model was applied to white clover (Trifolium repens) and its most frequent pollinator, the honeybee (Apis mellifera......). One of the three parameters in the portion-dilution model is the mean number of flowers a pollinator visits in one foraging bout. An alternative method to estimate this parameter was developed that was not depending on pollinator hive-seeking behaviour. The new estimation method, based on nectar......% with an estimated 95% percentile of 70%. The results show that the European Union threshold limit of 0.9% GM admixture for food and feed will likely be exceeded at times and especially organic farmers that do not accept GM admixture and often have clover and clover–grass fields might face challenges with admixture...

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of red clover necrotic mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Stanton L.; Guenther, Richard H.; Sit, Tim L.; Swartz, Paul D.; Meilleur, Flora; Lommel, Steven A.; Rose, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Virions of red clover necrotic mosaic virus have been purified and crystallized. The space group was determined to be I23, with unit-cell parameter a = 377.8 Å. The crystals diffracted to 4 Å resolution. Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a species that belongs to the Tombusviridae family of plant viruses with a T = 3 icosahedral capsid. RCNMV virions were purified and were crystallized for X-ray analysis using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Self-rotation functions and systematic absences identified the space group as I23, with two virions in the unit cell. The crystals diffracted to better than 4 Å resolution but were very radiation-sensitive, causing rapid decay of the high-resolution reflections. The data were processed to 6 Å in the analysis presented here

  3. Performance comparison for modes of operation and suppression cases of the clover detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2014-01-01

    Peak-to-total ratios have been extracted for a segmented clover detector for various modes of operation and suppression cases. Based on absorption and scattering of gamma-rays, a formalism has been presented for quantifying the advantages of using addback mode and active suppression. Further investigations have been performed to find if the reduction of background counts is caused more by active suppression or by addback process

  4. Effects of oil sands effluent on cattail and clover: photosynthesis and the level of stress proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, A.U.; Han, B.; Kermode, A.R.; Bendell-Young, L.I.; Plant, A.L. [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2001-07-01

    The oil sands industry located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, generates large volumes of effluent characterized by a high level of dissolved ions and naphthenic acids. The dikes used to store the effluent seep, creating wetlands which are subsequently invaded by obligate wetland flora such as cattail (Typha latifolia L.). The appearance of these wetlands prompted the oil sands industry to consider wetlands as part of their reclamation strategy. However, to ensure long-term viability of such wetlands, the response of the flora to the industrial effluent needed to be determined. To this end, apparent photosynthesis (APS), the level of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo) large subunit, dehydrin-related polypeptides, and protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) were evaluated in cattail and alsike clover plants (Trifolium hybridum L.) exposed to the oil sands effluent. APS measured in plants impacted by oil sands effluent was significantly higher than that of plants in the non-impacted off-site location. Among the on-site locations, plants growing in the natural wetlands site had higher APS compared to all other sites. The level of RuBisCo was not increased in cattail or clover growing in effluent-contaminated sites indicating that enhanced photosynthesis was not due to greater levels of this enzyme. Dehydrin-related polypeptides were detected only in the roots of cattail and were absent in clover. The polypeptide profile was altered in cattail exposed to oil sands effluent indicating that they were responding to an osmotic stress. The level of PDI was unaffected in the leaves of cattail regardless of the nature of the effluent to which they were exposed. Overall, the data indicate that cattail and clover are adapted to the oil sands effluent, although further studies are needed to assess their long-term ability to survive in the presence of this anthropogenic stress. (Author)

  5. Inhibitory potential of pure isoflavonoids, red clover, and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hosseini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin is complications of diabetes. Antioxidant system imbalance can result in the emergence of free radicals’ destructive effects in the long-term. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. contain isoflavonoids and have antioxidant activity. This experimental study evaluated the inhibitory activity of pure isoflavonoids (daidzein and genistein, red clover and alfalfa extracts on hemoglobin glycosylation. METHODS: This study was performed in Iran. Stock solution of hydroalcoholic extracts of red clover and alfalfa in concentrations of 1 and 10 g/100 ml and stock solution of daidzein and genistein in concentrations of 250 ng, 500 ng, 25 µg and 250 µg/100 ml were prepared as case groups. Control group was without hydroalcoholic extracts of plants and pure isoflavonoids. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Hemoglobin was prepared and antioxidant activities were investigated to estimate degree of nonenzymatic hemoglobin glycosylation. RESULTS: There was no significantly difference between used extracts (extract of red clover and alfalfa and control of the hemoglobin glycosylation but using daidzein (P = 0.046, 0.029 and 0.021, respectively and genistein (P = 0.034, 0.036 and 0.028 significantly inhibited (P < 0.050 this reaction in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations when compared to control. in 25 µg/100 ml, 250 ng and 500 ng/100 ml concentrations percentage of inhibition were 32, 80 and 74.5% respectively with used of daidzein and were 21, 83 and 76% respectively with consumption of genistein. CONCLUSION: According to decrease of glycation of hemoglobin with isoflavonoids, two used plant in this study containing isoflavonoid may be useful on diabetes.   

  6. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  7. Investigation of Amino Acids As Herbicides for Control of Orobanche minor Parasitism in Red Clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Fernández-Aparicio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain amino acids induce inhibitory effects in plant growth due to feedback inhibition of metabolic pathways. The inhibition patterns depend on plant species and the plant developmental stage. Those amino acids with inhibitory action on specific weeds could be utilized as herbicides, however, their use for weed control has not been put into practice. Orobanche minor is a weed that parasitizes red clover. O. minor germination is stimulated by clover root exudates. The subsequent seedling is an obligated parasite that must attach quickly to the clover root to withdraw its nutrients. Early development of O. minor is vulnerable to amino acid inhibition and therefore, a series of in vitro, rhizotron, and field experiments were conducted to investigate the potential of amino acids to inhibit O. minor parasitism. In in vitro experiments it was found that among a collection of 20 protein amino acids, lysine, methionine and tryptophan strongly interfere with O. minor early development. Field research confirmed their inhibitory effect but revealed that methionine was more effective than lysine and tryptophan, and that two successive methionine applications at 308 and 543 growing degree days inhibited O. minor emergence in red clover up to 67%. We investigated additional effects with potential to influence the practical use of amino acids against broomrape weeds, whether the herbicidal effect may be reversible by other amino acids exuded by host plants or may be amplified by inducing host resistance barriers against O. minor penetration. This paper suggests that amino acids may have the potential to be integrated into biorational programs of broomrape management.

  8. Investigation of Amino Acids As Herbicides for Control of Orobanche minor Parasitism in Red Clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Bernard, Alexandre; Falchetto, Laurent; Marget, Pascal; Chauvel, Bruno; Steinberg, Christian; Morris, Cindy E; Gibot-Leclerc, Stephanie; Boari, Angela; Vurro, Maurizio; Bohan, David A; Sands, David C; Reboud, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Certain amino acids induce inhibitory effects in plant growth due to feedback inhibition of metabolic pathways. The inhibition patterns depend on plant species and the plant developmental stage. Those amino acids with inhibitory action on specific weeds could be utilized as herbicides, however, their use for weed control has not been put into practice. Orobanche minor is a weed that parasitizes red clover. O. minor germination is stimulated by clover root exudates. The subsequent seedling is an obligated parasite that must attach quickly to the clover root to withdraw its nutrients. Early development of O. minor is vulnerable to amino acid inhibition and therefore, a series of in vitro , rhizotron, and field experiments were conducted to investigate the potential of amino acids to inhibit O. minor parasitism. In in vitro experiments it was found that among a collection of 20 protein amino acids, lysine, methionine and tryptophan strongly interfere with O. minor early development. Field research confirmed their inhibitory effect but revealed that methionine was more effective than lysine and tryptophan, and that two successive methionine applications at 308 and 543 growing degree days inhibited O. minor emergence in red clover up to 67%. We investigated additional effects with potential to influence the practical use of amino acids against broomrape weeds, whether the herbicidal effect may be reversible by other amino acids exuded by host plants or may be amplified by inducing host resistance barriers against O. minor penetration. This paper suggests that amino acids may have the potential to be integrated into biorational programs of broomrape management.

  9. Cleaning the Soil from Zinc Using Red Clovers “Arimaičiai”

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Mikalajūnė; Giedrė Jasulaitytė

    2011-01-01

    Zinc as a nutrition element is required to plants in small quantities to maintain normal functions of metabolism mechanisms. Our work analyses the efficiency of red clovers “Arimaičiai” for cleaning zinc from the soil contaminated with zinc under laboratory conditions. Seeds were sown in three differently polluted soils: clean soil, once contaminated with zinc and periodically contaminated with zinc soil. Zinc concentration in one time contaminated soil was 45 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytore...

  10. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Janine; Okupnik, Annette; Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Widmer, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l-1 of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems.

  11. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Red Clover and Its Rhizobial Symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Moll

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs are in consideration to be used in plant protection products. Before these products can be placed on the market, ecotoxicological tests have to be performed. In this study, the nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium trifolii and red clover were exposed to two TiO2 NPs, i.e., P25, E171 and a non-nanomaterial TiO2. Growth of both organisms individually and their symbiotic root nodulation were investigated in liquid and hydroponic systems. While 23 and 18 mg l-1 of E171 and non-nanomaterial TiO2 decreased the growth rate of R. trifolii by 43 and 23% respectively, P25 did not cause effects. Shoot length of red clover decreased between 41 and 62% for all tested TiO2 NPs. In 21% of the TiO2 NP treated plants, no nodules were found. At high concentrations certain TiO2 NPs impaired R. trifolii as well as red clover growth and their symbiosis in the hydroponic systems.

  12. PERSISTENCE ASSESSMENT OF RED CLOVER (Trifolium pratense L. IN TÂRGOVISTE PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DUNEA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the most important deficiency of forage stands is the inability to maintain adequate legume participation in mixture, it is the purpose of this paper to examine persistence in red clover in Târgoviste Plain eco-climatic conditions, together with the factors that affect it. Six red clover cultivars (Napoca-Tetra, Dacia Tetra, Vesna – tetraploids; Flora, Roxana, Start – diploids and one white clover diploid cultivar (Karina were used in pure culture and in mixture (50:50 with hybrid ryegrass (Zefir – tetraploid in a randomized block design with three replicates. Ground cover assessment in early spring was a suggestive indicator of the stand persistence to define the stability and sustainability boundaries of a reliable intensive system. In the beginning of the third year of cropping, ground cover was 54.33% for tetraploid cultivars (CV = 43.25%, and 67% for diploid cultivars (CV = 6.83% in pure stands. Same ground cover average of 27% was established both for tetraploid cultivars (CV = 36.47%, and for diploid cultivars (CV = 16.97% in mixtures with hybrid ryegrass.

  13. The "clover technique" as a novel approach for correction of post-traumatic tricuspid regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, O; De Bonis, M; Lapenna, E; Agricola, E; Quarti, A; Maisano, F

    2003-07-01

    To describe a novel technique, named "clover," to correct complex post-traumatic tricuspid valve lesions. Five patients with severe post-traumatic tricuspid insufficiency underwent valve reconstruction with the clover technique, a new surgical approach that consists of stitching together the middle point of the free edges of the tricuspid leaflets, producing a clover-shaped valve. The mechanism of tricuspid regurgitation was complex in all patients, and right ventricular function was always moderately to severely depressed. An echocardiographic study was performed after cardiopulmonary bypass, at discharge, and at follow-up. Cardiopulmonary bypass time was 32 +/- 6.3 minutes and crossclamp time was 23 +/- 7.4. There was no hospital mortality or morbidity. Intraoperative transesophageal and predischarge transthoracic echocardiography showed perfect results in all patients. No late deaths occurred. At the latest follow-up, extending to 14.2 months (mean 11.3; median 12.4), all patients were asymptomatic (New York Heart Association class I) with trivial (2 patients) or no residual regurgitation (3 patients) on 2-dimensional echocardiogram. No transvalvular gradient was revealed in any patient. A significant reduction of the right ventricular end-diastolic dimensions was noted as well (from 54 +/- 7.1 mm to 40 +/- 7.5 mm, P tricuspid valve repair in case of severe traumatic tricuspid valve insufficiency, leading to very satisfactory mid-term results even in the presence of complex lesions or dilatation and deterioration of the right ventricle.

  14. Cleaning the Soil from Zinc Using Red Clovers “Arimaičiai”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Mikalajūnė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Zinc as a nutrition element is required to plants in small quantities to maintain normal functions of metabolism mechanisms. Our work analyses the efficiency of red clovers “Arimaičiai” for cleaning zinc from the soil contaminated with zinc under laboratory conditions. Seeds were sown in three differently polluted soils: clean soil, once contaminated with zinc and periodically contaminated with zinc soil. Zinc concentration in one time contaminated soil was 45 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytoremediation, the remained zinc concentration in the soil was 3 times lower comparing with the initial concentration. It was also determined that under such conditions, the uptake of red clovers made approximately 65% of zinc. Permanent soil contamination with zinc increased concentration before phytoremediation up to 80 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytoremediation, zinc concentration was determined to be 1.9 times lower. Otherwise, the soil was permanently contaminated with larger zinc quantities and after application of which reached 300 mg/kg. In this case, following half a year of phytoremediation, zinc concentration in the soil was 1.7 times lower comparing with the initial concentration after contamination. It was determined that the uptake of red clovers made approximately 17% of zinc.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Effects of grass-clover management and cover crops on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions in a stockless organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, Søren O; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions...... in the rotation (spring barley, potato and winter wheat); actual digestion of grass-clover cuttings was not possible, instead digested pig manure was used as substitute for digested grass-clover. Nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored between April 2008 and May 2009. In general, application of digested manure had...

  16. Production of N{sub 2}O in grass-clover pastures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and in soil N{sub 2}O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N{sub 2}) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N{sub 2} lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N{sub 2}O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N{sub 2}O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N{sub 2} as a source of N{sub 2}O. 2: examining the link between N{sub 2}O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N{sub 2}O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 {+-} 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N{sub 2} was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N{sub 2}O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m{sup -2} was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised

  17. Joseph Clover and the cobra: a tale of snake envenomation and attempted resuscitation with bellows in London, 1852.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, C

    2010-07-01

    The Industrial Revolution saw the creation of many new jobs, but probably none more curious than that of zookeeper. The London Zoological Gardens, established for members in 1828, was opened to the general public in 1847. In 1852 the "Head Keeper in the Serpent Room", Edward Horatio Girling, spent a night farewelling a friend departing for Australia. He arrived at work in an inebriated state and was bitten on the face by a cobra that he was handling in a less than sensible manner. He was taken by cab to University College Hospital where he was resuscitated by a number of doctors, including Joseph Clover then the resident medical officer to the hospital and later to become the leading anaesthetist in London. Clover recorded this event in his diary along with the resuscitation method used. The patient eventually died but his treatment created a flurry of correspondence in the medical and lay press. Interestingly, the attempted resuscitation was with bellows, which had been abandoned by the Royal Humane Society twenty years earlier Clover records other cases of resuscitation with bellows at University College Hospital during his time as a resident medical officer there (1848 to 1853). There is a casebook belonging to Joseph Clover in the Geoffrey Kaye Museum, in Melbourne. This story is one of the many interesting stories uncovered during a study of this book and Clover's other personal papers.

  18. The performance of a white clover-based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system. II. Animal production, economics and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Boxem, T.; Jagtenberg, C.J.; Verboom, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a white clover based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system was studied during three years. Both systems had 59 cows, plus young stock, on an area of 40.6 ha for grass/clover and 34.4 ha for grass/fertiliser-N. During the grazing season, the cows in both

  19. Biological activity of clovers - free radical scavenging ability and antioxidant action of six Trifolium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Kowalska, Iwona; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-10-01

    Clovers were chosen on the basis of traditional medicine recommendations, agricultural value, or available information on their promising chemical profiles. This study evaluates and compares free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of six clover species: Trifolium alexandrinum L. (Leguminosae), Trifolium fragiferum L., Trifolium hybridum L., Trifolium incarnatum L., Trifolium resupinatum var. majus Boiss., and Trifolium resupinatum var. resupinatum L. Free radical scavenging activity of the extracts (1.5-50 µg/ml) was estimated by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid (ABTS(•)) radicals. The Trifolium extract effects on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma were determined by the reduction of ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•) radicals, as well as with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. The UPLC analysis of chemical profiles of the examined extracts showed the presence of three or four groups of phenolic substances, including phenolic acids, clovamides, isoflavones, and other flavonoids. The measurements of free radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of the examined clover extracts revealed the strongest effect for T. alexandrinum. Furthermore, antioxidant activity assays in human plasma have shown protective effects of all extracts against peroxynitrite-induced reduction of total antioxidant capacity. Trifolium plants may be a rich source of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties. The examined extracts displayed free radical scavenging action and partly protected blood plasma against peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress; however, the beneficial effects of T. alexandrinum and T. incarnatum seem to be slightly higher.

  20. Effect of aditive supplementation to ensiled red clover on voluntary intake, digestibility and N balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine effect of additive supplementation to red clover silage on ad libitum intake of fresh silage and dry matter (DM, in vivo digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM, OM in DM (D-value, crude protein (CP and nitrogen (N balance. Red clover was harvested at 60% bloom stage. It was ensiled into round bales without an additive (CD and with an additive supplementation (CDA in the amount of 2 L t-1 fresh material. Statistically lower (P<0.001 DM content was recorded in CD (405 g kg-1 fresh sample in comparison with CDA (665 g ST kg-1 fresh sample. Statistically higher CP content (P<0.001 was recorded in CD (127 g kg-1 ST in comparison with CDA (110 g SP kg-1 ST. CD had lower pH (P<0.001 (4.9 in comparison with CDA (5.2. No differences were recorded in NH3 between treatments. Ad libitum intake of fresh silage and silage DM was higher (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively in CD in comparison with CDA. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, D-value and N balance were not different between treatments. It was concluded that the positive effect of additive supplementation to red clover silage on chemical composition, ad libitum intake, digestibility and N balance was not recorded due to applied ensiling technology as additive can improve feeding value of roughage, but it is not a replacement for good management practices.

  1. Characterisation of a Compton suppressed Clover detector for high energy gamma rays (=<11MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Sarkar, M.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Raut, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, A.; Sinha, Mandira; Ray, Maitreyi; Goswami, A.; Roy, Subinit; Basu, P.; Majumder, H.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectra of two (p,γ) resonances have been utilised for the characterisation of the Clover detector at energies beyond 5MeV. Apart from the efficiency and the resolution of the detector, the shapes of the full energy peaks as well as the nature of the escape peaks which are also very crucial at higher energies have been analysed with special attention. Proper gain matching in software have checked deterioration in the energy resolution and distortion in the peak shape due to addback. The addback factors show sharp increasing trend even at energies around 11MeV

  2. Characterisation of a Compton suppressed Clover detector for high energy gamma rays (=<11MeV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha Sarkar, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)]. E-mail: maitrayee.sahasarkar@saha.ac.in; Kshetri, Ritesh [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Raut, Rajarshi [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Mukherjee, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Sinha, Mandira [Gurudas College, Narkeldanga, Kolkata-700054 (India); Ray, Maitreyi [Behala College, Parnashree, Kolkata-700060 (India); Goswami, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Roy, Subinit [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Basu, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Majumder, H. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India); Dasmahapatra, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectra of two (p,{gamma}) resonances have been utilised for the characterisation of the Clover detector at energies beyond 5MeV. Apart from the efficiency and the resolution of the detector, the shapes of the full energy peaks as well as the nature of the escape peaks which are also very crucial at higher energies have been analysed with special attention. Proper gain matching in software have checked deterioration in the energy resolution and distortion in the peak shape due to addback. The addback factors show sharp increasing trend even at energies around 11MeV.

  3. The influence of phosphorus deficiency on growth and nitrogen fixation of white clover plants

    OpenAIRE

    Høgh-Jensen, Dr Henning; Schjoerring, Dr Jan K.; Soussana, Dr Jean-Francois

    2002-01-01

    The effects of P deficiency on growth, N2‐fixation and photosynthesis in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) plants were investigated using three contrasting relative addition rates of P, or following abrupt withdrawal of the P supply. Responses to a constant below‐optimum P supply rate consisted of a decline in N2‐fixation per unit root weight and a small reduction in the efficiency with which electrons were allocated to the reduction of N2 in nodules. Abrupt removal of P arrested nodule grow...

  4. Nucleon form factors and structure functions from Nf=2 Clover fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.; Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P.

    2010-12-01

    We give an update on our ongoing efforts to compute the nucleon's form factors and moments of structure functions using N f =2 flavours of non-perturbatively improved Clover fermions. We focus on new results obtained on gauge configurations where the pseudo-scalar meson mass is in the range of 170-270 MeV. We compare our results with various estimates obtained from chiral effective theories since we have some overlap with the quark mass region where results from such theories are believed to be applicable. (orig.)

  5. Short-term residual N unaffected by forbs in grass-clover mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Cong, Wenfeng

    2017-01-01

    We determined the effect on residual nitrogen (N) of including forbs (chicory, ribwort plantain and caraway) in perennial ryegrass-red clover mixtures. Although soil N inputs during the grassland phase differed markedly between mixtures, in a pot experiment we found no differences...... in the potentially mineralizable N of the soil or in the dry matter production and N content of the spring barley test crop. The fertilizer value of the grassland mixtures corresponded to 10 g N/m2, irrespective of forb inclusion. Thus, the inclusion of nonlegume forbs did not negatively affect short-term residual N...

  6. Effects of field characteristics on abundance of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) and seed yield in red clover fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Kirsten Haugaard; Dupont, Yoko L.

    2010-01-01

    Red clover is a key floral ressource for bumblebees (Bombus spp.).We here investigate variation within and among red clover fields in species richness and abundance of Bombus spp. in addition to Apis mellifera. Bumblebee individuals were grouped into the following functional groups, based on castes...... and tongue length: (1) all queens, (2) all workers, (3) short-tongued workers and (4) long-tongued workers. In 14 study fields, no spatial or diurnal within-field differences were found in abundances of bee groups. However, seasonal differences were detected. On average 6.3±0.6 Bombus spp. were observed...

  7. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  8. Effect of microgravity on stress ethylene and carbon dioxide production in sweet clover (Melilotus alba L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Gregory L.; Odom, William R.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    The study of higher plant growth and development in the microgravity (micro-g) environment continues to be a challenge. This is in part a result of the available flight qualified hardware with restrictive closed gas environments. This point is underscored by considering that gas exchange of seedlings grown in microgravity may be further limited owing to a thicker layer of water wicked onto the roots and to the absence of convective mixing. We hypothesized that seedlings grown under such conditions will experience greater hypoxia in microgravity than at Earth gravity, and thus produce greater stress ethylene. We compared flight and ground samples of sweet clover seedlings grown in the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) during STS-57 and found them to contain extremely high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and stress ethylene. There were time dependent increases for both gases, and seedling growth was greatly inhibited. We repeated these experiments aboard STS-60 using modified chambers which increased, by fifty fold, the air available to the developing seedlings. Sweet clover seed germination and subsequent seedling growth to eight days within the FPA modified with a gas permeable membrane is not compromised by the microgravity environment.

  9. NUTRITIVE VALUES OF SOME ANNUAL CLOVERS (Trifolium sp. AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A TEKELI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted between the years of 2001-2002 in the experimental area and laboratory of Field Crops Department of Agriculture Faculty in Trakya University, Tekirdağ (Turkey. Five different clovers [Persian (Trifolium resupinatum L. var. majus Boiss., Mediterranean (T. spumosum L., narrow-leaved (T. angustifolium L., hedgehog (T. echinatum M. Bieb. and lappa (T. lappaceum L. clovers] were used. Each plot consisted of 8 rows with a length of 5 m. Row spacing of 30 cm and sowing rate of 10 kg ha-1 were used. Sowing times were on 2.25.2001 and on 2.28.2002. Plots were not irrigated and fertilized after sown and harvest. One cut was taken in both years at 4 growing stages such as pre-bud, pre-bloom, 50% bloom and full-bloom. The central 1 m-2 sections was cut at ground level for dry matter. Approximately 500g samples were dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and stored for one day at room temperature then found dry matter. Crude protein (% was determined by Kjeldahl method.

  10. Estimating impact on clover-grass yield caused by traffic intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R N; Green, Ole; Kristensen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Steer and a 15 m3 Kimadan slurry tanker on two axels, was used to perform the simulated traffic treatment on the parcels. The different traffic intensities are combinations of different tire pressure (1,0 and 2,5 bar), tire load (3000 and 6000 kg), time of year and number of passes (variating from 0 to 8...... components must be determined.   The objective of this paper was to measure yield affects on clover-grass as a consequence of different traffic intensities. The experiments were carried out in the context of a full scale field trial. A 14 hectare full scale grass-clover field trial with 24 different traffic......). The harvesting procedure was preformed with a Haldrup plot harvester modified with RTK-GPS. This paper shows the initial results from measuring the yield affects References M.A. Hamza, M.A.; Anderson, W.K 2005. Soil compaction in cropping systems: A review of the nature, causes and possible solutionsRaper , R...

  11. Morphological traits and yield of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. genotypes with varying inflorescence length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two red clover breeding strains with elongated flower heads, developed by one of the authors (H.Góral, were studied for forage and seed yield and compared to the standard cultivar 'Nike'. In addition, six morphological shoot traits were measured and their interrelations were computed. The leaf area index (LAI of successive cuts in two harvest years was determined on the basis of shoot density and leaf area of individual shoots. All three genotypes exhibited a high leaf area on shoots and a very high forage productivity. Among the morphological traits only shoot height could be a good selective criterion because it is easily measured, is significantly associated with shoot weight and shoot leaf area and its variation is low. Both strains, particularly the one with longer inflorescences belong to short-lived red clover forms giving satis factory forage and seed yields in the first harvest year. Depending on the strain the number of seeds per elongated inflorescence in the first harvest year was higher by 92 and 42% compared to that of a standard cultivar.

  12. Forage production in mixed grazing systems of elephant grass with arrowleaf clover or forage peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristine Seibt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Most dairy production systems are pasture-based, usually consisting of sole grass species. This system facilitates pasture management, but results in high production costs, mainly because of nitrogen fertilizers. An alternative to making forage systems more sustainable is to introduce legumes into the pasture. Mixed pastures allow better forage distribution over time and reduce fertilization costs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate, throughout the year, three forage systems (FS: FS1 (control - elephant grass (EG, ryegrass (RG, and spontaneous species (SS; FS2 - EG + RG + SS + arrowleaf clover; and FS3 - EG + RG + SS + forage peanut. Elephant grass was planted in rows spaced 4 m apart. Ryegrass was sown between the EG lines, in the winter. Arrowleaf clover was sown according to the respective treatments and forage peanut was preserved. Evaluation was carried out using Holstein cows. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with three treatments (FS, and three repetitions (paddocks with repeated measurements (grazing cycles. Forage mass achieved 3.46, 3.80, and 3.91 t ha-1 for the treatments FS1, FS2 and FS3, respectively. The forage systems intercropped with legumes produced the best results.

  13. Effect of digestibility of grass-clover silage and concentrate to forage ratio on methane emission from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    and D, respectively. TMR forage DM consisted of 2/3 of one of the respective grass-clover silages and 1/3 maize silage, and concentrate (soya meal and wheat) proportion of DM was 20% (low) or 50% (high). Methane emissions from the cows were measured 20-22 hours in one of four chambers working after...

  14. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on biomass production and nitrogen fixation of berseem clover plants subjected to water stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saia

    Full Text Available Several studies, performed mainly in pots, have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on plant growth. No information is available about the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on berseem clover growth and nitrogen (N fixation under conditions of water shortage. A field experiment was conducted in a hilly area of inner Sicily, Italy, to determine whether symbiosis with AM fungi can mitigate the detrimental effects of drought stress (which in the Mediterranean often occurs during the late period of the growing season on forage yield and symbiotic N2 fixation of berseem clover. Soil was either left under water stress (i.e., rain-fed conditions or the crop was well-watered. Mycorrhization treatments consisted of inoculation of berseem clover seeds with arbuscular mycorrhizal spores or suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by means of fungicide treatments. Nitrogen biological fixation was assessed using the 15N-isotope dilution technique. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was able to mitigate the negative effect of water stress on berseem clover grown in a typical semiarid Mediterranean environment. In fact, under water stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis resulted in increases in total biomass, N content, and N fixation, whereas no effect of crop mycorrhization was observed in the well-watered treatment.

  15. A study of the wet deposit and foliar uptake of iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio; Levi, Emilio; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra

    1977-12-01

    Foliar uptake of iodine and strontium by rye-grass and clover was studied as a function of aspersion intensities. At the same time, the contribution of root sorption to foliar uptake was measured. The effective half-lives of radionuclides of standing and harvested grass were also determined together with their uptake under the action of demineralized water aspersion [fr

  16. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...

  17. Nitrate leaching in maize after cultivation of differently managed grass-clover leys on coarse sand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    When grass-clover leys have been ploughed nitrate leaching may increase. However, management of leys before or after ploughing may affect the leaching risk. We examined the effect of cultivating a six year ley, which the last two years had been treated differently (grazing only; spring cut follow...

  18. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on biomass production and nitrogen fixation of berseem clover plants subjected to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Sergio; Amato, Gaetano; Frenda, Alfonso Salvatore; Giambalvo, Dario; Ruisi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Several studies, performed mainly in pots, have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can mitigate the negative effects of water stress on plant growth. No information is available about the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on berseem clover growth and nitrogen (N) fixation under conditions of water shortage. A field experiment was conducted in a hilly area of inner Sicily, Italy, to determine whether symbiosis with AM fungi can mitigate the detrimental effects of drought stress (which in the Mediterranean often occurs during the late period of the growing season) on forage yield and symbiotic N2 fixation of berseem clover. Soil was either left under water stress (i.e., rain-fed conditions) or the crop was well-watered. Mycorrhization treatments consisted of inoculation of berseem clover seeds with arbuscular mycorrhizal spores or suppression of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by means of fungicide treatments. Nitrogen biological fixation was assessed using the 15N-isotope dilution technique. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was able to mitigate the negative effect of water stress on berseem clover grown in a typical semiarid Mediterranean environment. In fact, under water stress conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis resulted in increases in total biomass, N content, and N fixation, whereas no effect of crop mycorrhization was observed in the well-watered treatment.

  19. Does introduction of clover in an agricultural grassland affect the food base and functional diversity of Collembola?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annibale, D' Alessandra; Sechi, Valentina; Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Søren; Krogh, Paul Henning; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of legumes (i.e. white clover) in agricultural grasslands is a common practice to improve yields, but how this affects soil fauna populations, particularly mesofauna, is still poorly understood. We investigated taxonomical and functional differences of Collembola communities between

  20. Uptake and Distribution of Added Selenite and Selenate by Barley and Red Clover as Influenced by Sulphur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1973-01-01

    The uptake of added Se from selenite and selenate by barley and red clover was investigated in a pot experiment. Much more of selenate than of selenite was taken up but the Se concentrations in the plants declined more with time when selenate was the source. Increasing sulphate addition to the soil...

  1. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100),...

  2. A note on the effects of paddock size on the white clover content of swards grazed by sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.L.; Schulte, R.P.O.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The maintenance of a high white clover content in mixed swards under sheep grazing has been a challenge to date. This paper presents the results of an experiment in which the effect of the length of a grazing period on the botanical composition of a mixed sward was studied. Paddocks ranging in size

  3. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics: dry matter digestibility and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry; Laerke, Helle N; Jensen, Søren K

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the use of white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) contents of 451 g kg -1 and 530 g kg -1 DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively, and a pulp with CP contents of 313 and 374 g kg -1 DM from plant and leaves, respectively. The amino acid composition ranged from 4.72 to 6.49 g per 16 g of nitrogen (N) for lysine, 1.82-2.6 g per 16 g N for methionine and cysteine, and 3.66-5.24 g per 16 g N for threonine. True faecal digestibility of protein varied from 0.81 to 0.88, whereas DM digestibility was in the range 0.72-0.80. Methionine and cysteine were found to be limiting in all fractions, regardless of the reference group used. A high digestibility of white clover protein was found irrespective of the physical fractionation. Together with a well-balanced amino acid composition, this makes white clover a promising protein source for monogastrics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Soil properties and clover establishment six years after surface application of calcium-rich by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchey, K.D.; Belesky, D.P.; Halvorson, J.J. [USDA ARS, Beaver, WV (US). Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center

    2004-12-01

    Calcium-rich soil amendments can improve plant growth by supplying Ca and reducing detrimental effects of soil acidity, but solubility and neutralizing capacity of Ca sources vary. Our objectives were to evaluate effects of calcitic dolomite and several coal combustion by-products on soil properties at various depths 6 yr after surface application and their influence on grass-clover herbage accumulation. Calcium and Mg soil amendments were surface-applied to an acidic grassland in 1993, and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbyshire) were oversown in 1994. In 1998, amendment treatment plots were split to accommodate sod seeding with red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or white clover (T. repens L.) as well as a nonseeded control. No N fertilizer was applied after sod seeding. Six years after amendment application, reductions in soil Al and Mn and increases in Ca and pH from 4654 kg ha{sup -1} calcitic dolomite, 15 000 kg ha{sup -1} fluidized bed combustion residue, or 526 kg ha{sup -1} MgO amendment were greatest in the surface 2.5 cm while rates of gypsum as high as 32 000 kg ha{sup -1} left little residual effect except for decreases in Mg. Percentage clover in the sward tripled as pH increased from 4.3 to 5.0 while herbage mass increased 75% as clover percentage increased. Herbage mass was generally more closely correlated with properties of soil samples collected from the surface 2.5 cm than from deeper samples.

  5. Utilization of kura clover-reed canarygrass silage versus alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Heemink, G B H; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K

    2008-08-01

    The mixture of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern United States, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (DM) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (KRS) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage (AS). Forages were cut, wilted, ensiled in horizontal plastic bags, and allowed to ferment for at least 50 d before beginning the feeding experiment. The KRS was approximately 40% kura clover and 60% reed canarygrass. Treatments were total mixed rations formulated with either 57% of total DM from 1) AS or 2) KRS. Experimental periods were 28 d, with the first 14 d for diet adaptation and the last 14 d for measurement of intake and milk production. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of AS and KRS were 37.3 and 47.3%, respectively. The fermentation analyses indicated that both silages underwent a restricted fermentation, producing primarily lactic acid and some acetic acid. Dry matter intake (24.2 vs. 22.8 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (32.8 vs. 30.9 kg) were significantly higher for cows fed AS than for cows fed KRS. Cows consumed less NDF (6.7 vs. 8.0 kg) and less digestible NDF (3.0 vs. 4.4 kg) when fed AS diets compared with KRS diets, but the pool of ruminally undegraded NDF was similar (3.7 kg) between diets. Cows produced 1.5 kg of milk/kg of DM consumed regardless of the diet, indicating that digestible NDF of KRS was utilized with similar efficiency as the cell wall constituents of AS, but the intake of cows fed KRS may have been limited by rumen fill. Milk fat concentration tended to be higher for cows fed AS, but the milk true protein concentration and yields of fat and protein did not differ by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen content was higher when cows consumed AS (16.4 mg/ d

  6. Red Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer or other hormone-sensitive cancers. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  7. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Measured and simulated performance of Compton-suppressed TIGRESS HPGe clover detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, M. A.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Svensson, C. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Maharaj, R.; Morton, A. C.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, H. C.; Smith, M. B.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Tests of the performance of a 32-fold segmented HPGe clover detector coupled to a 20-fold segmented Compton-suppression shield, which form a prototype element of the TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS), have been made. Peak-to-total ratios and relative efficiencies have been measured for a variety of γ-ray energies. These measurements were used to validate a GEANT4 simulation of the TIGRESS detectors, which was then used to create a simulation of the full 12-detector array. Predictions of the expected performance of TIGRESS are presented. These predictions indicate that TIGRESS will be capable, for single 1 MeV γ rays, of absolute detection efficiencies of 17% and 9.4%, and peak-to-total ratios of 54% and 61% for the "high-efficiency" and "optimized peak-to-total" configurations of the array, respectively.

  9. Response of irradiated Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) to water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamideldin, N; Hussein, O.S

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is one of the main leguminous forage crops in Egypt. Gamma rays represent one of the important physical activators for growth and productivity. The seed were irradiated using three doses of gamma radiation (100,200 and 300 Gy) and two levels of irrigation (10 and 20 days) after germination. Gamma radiation treatments stimulated growth criteria in normal irrigation treatment, while drought irrigation treatment stunted these criteria. The most significant dose was 100 Gy, which stimulated growth criteria, chlorophylls a , b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids in both irrigation treatments used and growth hormones under drought condition. Drought stress and gamma irradiation increase amino acid content and caused change in band concentration of esterase and peroxidase isozyme .Also, 13 protein bands appeared only in treated plant with 100 Gy under drought condition. It could be concluded that the low dose (100 Gy) of gamma irradiation release the effect of drought stress.

  10. New uses of clover-grass mixtures in the structure of fodder crops on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Sláma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of clover-grasses in the structure of fodder crops grown on arable soil, especially those with intergeneric hybrids as the main component part, could avert the negative current trend, i.e. further decreasing the area of perennial fodder plants or fodder crops as a whole on arable soil. They have an irreplaceable role in crop sequences and in preserving the cultural character of the countryside, above all due to the fact that they improve soil fertility and microbial life in the soil and that they have an excellent pre-produce value, and, at the same time, they are applied in various farming systems (both conventional and ecological and in various climatic conditions, and agricultural businesses are well equipped for growing, harvesting and storing them. In the Czech Republic, the area of fodder crops grown on arable soil was decreased from 1,019.9 thousand hectares to mere 396.7 thousand hectares between 1980 and 2009, which is 15.6 % of the total area of arable soil whereas perennial fodder plants only take up 8.5 %. Fodder from clover crops and clover-grass growths on arable soil are one of the main resources of voluminous fodder for dairy cows. Most of this fodder is preserved through a fermentation process (silages, hay storage; a smaller part is fed as fresh fodder, or serves for production of hay. Silages made with perennial fodder plants are the most important source of both proteins and other nutrients for ruminants, especially for high-yielding milch cows. The basis of fodder production systems are the conservative elements of the landscape area (geomorphology in combination with the progressive elements (weather conditions, plants and human labour and relict ones, the representative of which is the soil. The fodder production systems in Europe are divided into five main fodder production zones. From this point of view, the areas where short-term clover-grass mixtures are grown on arable soil could be classed with Zone 4, i

  11. Sexual polyploidization in red clover Poliploidização sexual em trevo vermelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Simioni

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Because sexual polyploidization broadens genetic basis and supply plant breeders with more variability for the selection process, it can be useful in red clover breeding. This paper reports results of three crossing cycles, starting from a parental generation of tetraploid red clover plants (female parent, and diploids from the Quiñiqueli cultivar, selected for production of more than 1% of giant pollen grains (male parent aiming to obtain tetraploid plants to be used in red clover breeding programs. Crosses in the next generations were performed by mutual cross-pollinations. Chromosome number chimerism and high pollen sterility were detected in F1, F2 and F3, but there was a trend towards increasing seed production and seed viability along the generations, probably due to successful competition between fertile and sterile gametes. The identification of fertile triploids, as well as their recurrent formation along the generations, indicates that triploid block is not complete in red clover, and that triploids may be successfully used as a bridge for the production of sexual polyploids.Porque a poliploidização sexual amplia a base genética e proporciona aos melhoristas maior variabilidade para o processo de seleção, ela pode ser uma ferramenta útil ao melhoramento de trevo vermelho. Com o objetivo de obter plantas tetraplóides que possam ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento de trevo vermelho, este trabalho relata resultados de três ciclos de cruzamentos, partindo de uma população parental de plantas tetraplóides de trevo vermelho, como genitores femininos, e de diplóides da cultivar Quiñiqueli, selecionados para produção de mais de 1% de grãos de pólen gigantes, como genitores masculinos. Nas outras gerações, os cruzamentos foram realizados por polinizações cruzadas mútuas. Quimerismo para número cromossômico e alta esterilidade de pólen foram detectados em F1 , F2 e F3, mas houve uma tendência para aumento da

  12. Ozone and Water Stress: Effects on the Behaviour of Two White Clover Biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    Full Text Available ozone pollution, water stress, stomata conductance, ozone uptake, clover, OTC.Ozone is a strong oxidizing pollutant which derives by alteration of the photolytic NOx cycle and it accumulates in the troposphere spreading in rural areas and therefore determining injuries on natural vegetation and crops. Since its penetration occurs mainly through stomata, all factors which alter plant-atmosphere relations could be able to modify plant response to ozone. Interaction between ozone and water stress in Mediterranean environment was studied on ozone resistant and sensitive biotypes of white clover, which were grown in charcoal filtered and notfiltered Open Top Chambers in factorial combination with different levels of water supply. Measurements of biomass, leaf area and stomatal conductance were made during the growth period. Ozone injuries were estimated as not-filtered/filtered OTC yield ratio; the stomatal flux of ozone was estimated multiplying stomata conductance x diffusivity ratio between ozone and water vapour (0.613 x ozone hourly concentrations. The hourly values of ozone uptake were cumulated throughout the cropping periods of the two years. In the sensitive biotype, water stress reduced yield losses due to ozone from 38% to 22%, as well as yield losses due to water stress were reduced by the presence of ozone from 43% to 29%, while no interaction between ozone and water stress was observed in the resistant biotype. Biomass yield losses of the sensitive biotype were strictly correlated to cumulated ozone uptake (R2 = 0.99, while biomass yield losses of the resistant biotype were not affected by the ozone fluxes variations created by the treatments. Flux based models could better estimate yield losses due to ozone in Mediterranean environments in which other stresses could be contemporary present; therefore, the new European directives might replace the actual thresholds based

  13. Quantitative historical change in bumblebee (Bombus spp. assemblages of red clover fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko L Dupont

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flower visiting insects provide a vitally important pollination service for many crops and wild plants. Recent decline of pollinating insects due to anthropogenic modification of habitats and climate, in particular from 1950's onwards, is a major and widespread concern. However, few studies document the extent of declines in species diversity, and no studies have previously quantified local abundance declines. We here make a quantitative assessment of recent historical changes in bumblebee assemblages by comparing contemporary and historical survey data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We take advantage of detailed, quantitative historical survey data from the 1930's on bumblebee (Bombus spp. abundances and species composition in red clover (Trifolium pratense fields, an important floral resource and an attractant of all bumblebee species. We used the historical survey data as a pre-industrialization baseline, and repeated the same sampling protocol at nearly the same localities at present, hence setting up a historical experiment. We detected historical changes in abundances (bees/m(2 of both workers (the "pollinatory units" and queens (effective population size, in addition to species composition. In particular, long-tongued bumblebee species showed consistent and dramatic declines in species richness and abundances throughout the flowering season of red clover, while short-tongued species were largely unaffected. Of 12 Bombus species observed in the 1930's, five species were not observed at present. The latter were all long-tongued, late-emerging species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because bumblebees are important pollinators, historical changes in local bumblebee assemblages are expected to severely affect plant reproduction, in particular long-tubed species, which are pollinated by long-tongued bumblebees.

  14. Forage mass and the nutritive value of pastures mixed with forage peanut and red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate three pasture-based systems mixed with elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species, annual ryegrass, for pasture-based system 1; elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + forage peanut, for pasture-based system 2; and elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + annual ryegrass + red clover, for pasture-based system 3. Elephantgrass was planted in rows 4 m apart from each other. During the cool-season, annual ryegrass was sown in the alleys between the rows of elephantgrass; forage peanut and red clover were sown in the alleys between the elephantgrass according to the respective treatment. The experimental design was totally randomized in the three treatments (pasture-based systems, two replicates (paddocks in completely split-plot time (grazing cycles. Holstein cows receiving 5.5 kg-daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. Pre-grazing forage mass, botanical composition and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples of simulated grazing were collected to analyze organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP and organic matter in situ digestibility (OMISD. Nine grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (341 days. The average dry matter values for pre-grazing and stocking rate were 3.34; 3.46; 3.79 t/ha, and 3.28; 3.34; 3.60 AU/ha for each respective pasture-based system. Similar results were observed between the pasture-based systems for OM, NDF, CP and OMISD. Considering forage mass, stocking rate and nutritive value, the pasture-based system intercropped with forage legumes presented better performance.

  15. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    and actinomycetes was unaffected by plant species, but pool of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was greater under white clover at the 10 percent significance level. In the short term, microorganisms more actively utilised fresh exudates (13C-labelled) of ryegrass than of white clover. We expected ryegrass...... microbial groups in soil under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following leaf-labelling with 13C-bicarbonate and 15N-urea. In this way microbial N and 15N and the composition of PLFAs reflect the medium-term (two months) response of microorganisms to rhizodeposits......, whereas the 13C-label of the PLFAs reflects the short-term (one week) utilisation of root exudates following labelling of shoots. In the medium term, microbial biomass N and 15N were greater under the ryegrass, whereas total PLFA was higher under white clover. The relative abundance of fungi...

  16. Characterisation of a compton suppressed clover detector for high energy gamma rays (5 MeV ≤ E ≤ 11 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Sarkar, M.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Raut, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, A.; Goswami, A.; Ray, S.; Basu, P.; Majumder, H.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Sinha, Mandira; Ray, Maitreyee

    2004-01-01

    The Clover detectors in their add back mode have been seen to be excellent tools for detecting high energy gamma rays (≥ 2 MeV). Recently studies were carried out on the characteristics of a Compton suppressed Clover germanium detector up to 5 MeV using a radioactive 66 Ga (T 1/2 =9.41 h) source for the first time

  17. Environmental Impact Research Program: White Clover (Trifolium repens). Section 7.3.5, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    types where they are common (Kohn and Mooty 1971). Rumen analyses of white-tailed deer in Montana showed that forbs comprised 80% of summer samples...frequency of occurrence in deer rumens collected from January through March in the Northern Black Hills. Bluegrass- white clover meadows are also...CAUTIONS AND LIMITATIONS White clover, like most legumes, occasionally causes bloat in animals, particularly cattle and sheep that have overfilled

  18. Effects of feeding level and NDF content of grass-clover silages on chewing activity, fecal particle size and NDF digestibility in dairy heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder

    2014-01-01

    intake (PRumination time per kg DM intake (Pcontents (Prumination with greater...... NDF content (Prumination time increased with greater NDF content (Pcontent (P...The objective of this study was to assess effects of feed intake and NDF content of highly digestible grass-clover silage on chewing behavior, fecal particle size distribution and apparent digestibility in restrictively fed heifers. Four grass-clover silages (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense...

  19. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass...... and faeces, respectively, were collected over 94 h to cover the diurnal variation, pooled, and subsequently analysed. Rumen fluid was collected in same sampling procedure. To estimate the duodenal flow of microbial protein, microbes were isolated from the rumen and analysed for amino acids (AA) and purines...... flow of AA. The higher duodenal flow of AA derived from a lower rumen degradation of feed protein and a tendency towards a higher microbial synthesis in the rumen. Fibre digestibility and CH4 production were not affected by silage DM concentration. In conclusion, MP concentration in grass-clover silage...

  20. Effects of soil properties and P fertilizers on trace element uptake of red clover in a pot experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osztoics, E.; Bujtas, K.

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of superphosphate and Algerian phosphate rock and their various application rates on soil pH and on the availability of trace elements by red clover were studied in a pot experiment on several types of acidic soils from the Carpathian basin. The differences among the soils' original pH and texture, and those differences in soil pH, which resulted from the application of different P forms and rotes were reflected in the Mn, Ni, Al, Co, Sr, Cd and Cr contents of red clover. Plant concentrations of those elements were smaller on the slightly acidic than on the strongly and extremely strongly acidic soils. Elemental concentrations were generally higher when there was less time between two cuts, and decreased in the later cuts. Refs. 11 (author)

  1. Assessment of Protective Effect of Some Modern Agrochemicals against Ozone-Induced Stress in Sensitive Clover and Tobacco Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Oleg; Didyk, Nataliya; Pavluchenko, Nataliya; Godzik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland). All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators "Emistym C" and "Agrostymulin" was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide "Strobi" and natural growth regulator "Emistym C" demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  2. Optimization of a protocol for direct organogenesis of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. meristems for breeding purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C CARRILLO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments were carried out in order to optimize a protocol for the direct organogenesis of Chilean red clover germplasm. A range of cultivars were used to analyze the effect of explant source (crown or stem meristems of vegetative plants, culture media and plant growth regulators. Our findings showed that stem meristems were easier to obtain, presented lower levels of contamination and a better development than crown meristems. The L2 medium showed better results than B5 and MS media for the cultivars and experimental lines studied. L2 medium supplemented with 0.003 mg/l of 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid and 1.0 mg/l of 6-benzylaminopurine gave consistently better results and will be applied in our breeding program to propagate, maintain and eliminate viruses from elite red clover clones.

  3. The beneficial effect of dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, XG.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the effect of phosphorus on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, and dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover under field microplots and pot experiments was conducted on fluvo-aquic soils of semi-arid region in north China. The results showed that 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate was the most favorable phosphorus level for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection ; mycorrhizal infection, nodulation, dry weight of shoots and roots, total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements, the final yields and recovery of phosphorus of white clover were significantly increased by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and dual inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium. The highest response of inoculation was obtained by adding fertilizer phosphorus at the level of 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate.

  4. Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens and pyoverdine on the phytoextraction of cesium by red clover in soil pots and hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazotte, Alice; Péron, Olivier; Gaudin, Pierre; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Lebeau, Thierry

    2018-05-12

    With the aim of improving the phytoextraction rate of cesium (Cs), the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 and its siderophore pyoverdine (PVD) on the uptake of Cs by red clover was studied in soil pots. This work also provides a mechanistic understanding of the Cs-bacteria (or PVD)-illite-plant interactions by using a simplified experimental design, i.e., hydroponics with either Cs in solution or Cs-spiked illite in suspension. For soil spiked with 11.2 mmol kg -1 (1480 mg kg -1 ) of Cs, 0.43% of total Cs was taken up by red clover in 12 days (119 μmol g -1 (16 mg g -1 ) of Cs dry matter in roots and 40 μmol g -1 (5 mg g -1 ) in shoots). In hydroponics with Cs in solution (0.1 mmol L -1 or 13 mg L -1 ), 75% of Cs was taken up vs. only 0.86% with Cs-spiked illite suspension. P. fluorescens and PVD did not increase Cs concentrations in aboveground parts and roots of red clover and even decreased them. The damaging effect of PVD on red clover growth was demonstrated with the biomass yielding 66% of the control in soil pots (and 100% mortality after 12 days of exposition) and only 56% in hydroponics (78% with illite in suspension). Nonetheless, PVD and, to a lesser extent, P. fluorescens increased the translocation factor up to a factor of 2.8. This study clearly showed a direct damaging effect of PVD and to a lower extent the retention of Cs by biofilm covering both the roots and illite, both resulting in the lower phytoextraction efficiency.

  5. The beneficial effect of dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, XG.; Hao, WY.; Wu, TH.

    1993-01-01

    Investigation on the effect of phosphorus on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, and dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover under field microplots and pot experiments was conducted on fluvo-aquic soils of semi-arid region in north China. The results showed that 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate was the most favorable phosphorus level for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection ; mycorrhizal infection, nodulation, dry weight ...

  6. Towards an optimal sampling strategy for assessing genetic variation within and among white clover (Trifolium repens L. cultivars using AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Mehdi Khanlou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost reduction in plant breeding and conservation programs depends largely on correctly defining the minimal sample size required for the trustworthy assessment of intra- and inter-cultivar genetic variation. White clover, an important pasture legume, was chosen for studying this aspect. In clonal plants, such as the aforementioned, an appropriate sampling scheme eliminates the redundant analysis of identical genotypes. The aim was to define an optimal sampling strategy, i.e., the minimum sample size and appropriate sampling scheme for white clover cultivars, by using AFLP data (283 loci from three popular types. A grid-based sampling scheme, with an interplant distance of at least 40 cm, was sufficient to avoid any excess in replicates. Simulations revealed that the number of samples substantially influenced genetic diversity parameters. When using less than 15 per cultivar, the expected heterozygosity (He and Shannon diversity index (I were greatly underestimated, whereas with 20, more than 95% of total intra-cultivar genetic variation was covered. Based on AMOVA, a 20-cultivar sample was apparently sufficient to accurately quantify individual genetic structuring. The recommended sampling strategy facilitates the efficient characterization of diversity in white clover, for both conservation and exploitation.

  7. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitors Limit Water Stress Responses in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Nikmatullah, Aluh; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    The response of plants to water deficiency or drought is a complex process, the perception of which is triggered at the molecular level before any visible morphological responses are detected. It was found that different groups of plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are induced and play an active role during abiotic stress conditions such as drought. Our previous work with the white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitor ( Tr-KPI ) gene family showed that Tr-KPIs are differentially regulated to ontogenetic and biotic stress associated cues and that, at least some members of this gene family may be required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Altered cellular homeostasis may also affect abiotic stress responses and therefore, we aimed to understand if distinct Tr-PKI members function during drought stress. First, the expression level of three Tr-KPI genes, Tr-KPI1 , Tr-KPI2 , and Tr-KPI5 , was measured in two cultivars and one white clover ecotype with differing capacity to tolerate drought. The expression of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 increased in response to water deficiency and this was exaggerated when the plants were treated with a previous period of water deficiency. In contrast, proline accumulation and increased expression of Tr-NCED1 , a gene encoding a protein involved in ABA biosynthesis, was delayed in plants that experienced a previous drought period. RNAi knock-down of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 resulted in increased proline accumulation in leaf tissue of plants grown under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. In addition, increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis was found. The data suggests that Tr-KPIs , particularly Tr-KPI5 , have an explicit function during water limitation. The results also imply that the Tr-KPI family has different in planta proteinase targets and that the functions of this protein family are not solely restricted to one of storage proteins or in response to biotic stress.

  8. Reaction of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. in grass-clover mixture on N fertilization and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Andreata-Koren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Grazing is the most common way of using a hill and mountain areas because of their specific agro-ecological conditions. Cocksfoot is a grass with high productivity and quality, and it is very good for sowing in the sward for grazing. Because of its good adaptability to different growing conditions, especially in very dry and cold areas, it is excellent in relation to some other good grasses, which can not be raised in such areas. The aim of the experiment was to determine effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S, and their interaction on the cocksfoot sown in a mixture of smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L. in hill mountain areas. In a three-year average, the application of 150 kg ha-1 N had significant impact on cocksfoot population density (number of tillers m-2, and it was 51.4 % higher than the recorded one before grazing (P<0.05 and 42.2 % higher after grazing (P<0.01 in comparison to N0. The application of 150 kg ha-1 N resulted in significantly higher cocksfoot dry matter (DM yield for 38.6 % (P<0.01 and 15.3 % higher cocksfoot share in the total mixture in relation to N0 (P<0.01. Grazing management and grazing management interaction with N rate did not significantly affect the population density of individual years. However, in the three-year average, grazing management significantly affected cocksfoot DM (P<0.01 and its percentage in the total DM mixture (P<0.01. Cattle grazing resulted in 9.9 % higher cocksfoot DM yield and 15.2 % higher cocksfoot percentage in pasture. Interaction of grazing management and N-level had significant influence on the percentage of cocksfoot DM in grass-clover mixture. On cattle grazed areas fertilized with 150 kg ha-1 N, the percentage of cocksfoot DM was the highest (74. 07%, while the lowest percentage of cocksfoot DM was recorded on the sheep grazed areas without N (55.12%.

  9. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitors Limit Water Stress Responses in White Clover (Trifolium repens L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsana Islam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of plants to water deficiency or drought is a complex process, the perception of which is triggered at the molecular level before any visible morphological responses are detected. It was found that different groups of plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs are induced and play an active role during abiotic stress conditions such as drought. Our previous work with the white clover (Trifolium repens L. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitor (Tr-KPI gene family showed that Tr-KPIs are differentially regulated to ontogenetic and biotic stress associated cues and that, at least some members of this gene family may be required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Altered cellular homeostasis may also affect abiotic stress responses and therefore, we aimed to understand if distinct Tr-PKI members function during drought stress. First, the expression level of three Tr-KPI genes, Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5, was measured in two cultivars and one white clover ecotype with differing capacity to tolerate drought. The expression of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 increased in response to water deficiency and this was exaggerated when the plants were treated with a previous period of water deficiency. In contrast, proline accumulation and increased expression of Tr-NCED1, a gene encoding a protein involved in ABA biosynthesis, was delayed in plants that experienced a previous drought period. RNAi knock-down of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 resulted in increased proline accumulation in leaf tissue of plants grown under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. In addition, increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis was found. The data suggests that Tr-KPIs, particularly Tr-KPI5, have an explicit function during water limitation. The results also imply that the Tr-KPI family has different in planta proteinase targets and that the functions of this protein family are not solely restricted to one of storage proteins or in response to biotic stress.

  10. Polish Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis L. Honey, Chromatographic Fingerprints, and Chemical Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Jasicka-Misiak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD were applied to determine the characteristic components of honey. While ubiquitous in most honeys, carbohydrates, terpene derivatives, and phenylacetic acid dominated in the Soxhlet extracts (25.54% and in the application of SPE (13.04%. In addition, lumichrome (1.85% was found, and may be considered as a marker of this honey. Due to the presence of these compounds, Polish yellow sweet clover honey is similar to French lavender honeys. The major compounds determined in the methanolic extract were (+-catechine (39.7% and gallic acid (up to 30%, which can be regarded as specific chemical markers of the botanical origin of melilot honey. With respect to total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity, typical for light honeys, which correlates well with its phenolic and flavonoid composition.

  11. Proportional crosstalk correction for the segmented clover at iThemba LABS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, T D; Noncolela, S P; Lawrie, E A; Dinoko, T R S; Easton, J L; Erasmus, N; Lawrie, J J; Mthembu, S H; Mtshali, W X; Shirinda, O; Orce, J N

    2017-01-01

    Reaching new depths in nuclear structure investigations requires new experimental equipment and new techniques of data analysis. The modern γ -ray spectrometers, like AGATA and GRETINA are now built of new-generation segmented germanium detectors. These most advanced detectors are able to reconstruct the trajectory of a γ -ray inside the detector. These are powerful detectors, but they need careful characterization, since their output signals are more complex. For instance for each γ -ray interaction that occurs in a segment of such a detector additional output signals (called proportional crosstalk), falsely appearing as an independent (often negative) energy depositions, are registered on the non-interacting segments. A failure to implement crosstalk correction results in incorrectly measured energies on the segments for two- and higher-fold events. It affects all experiments which rely on the recorded segment energies. Furthermore incorrectly recorded energies on the segments cause a failure to reconstruct the γ -ray trajectories using Compton scattering analysis. The proportional crosstalk for the iThemba LABS segmented clover was measured and a crosstalk correction was successfully implemented. The measured crosstalk-corrected energies show good agreement with the true γ -ray energies independent on the number of hit segments and an improved energy resolution for the segment sum energy was obtained. (paper)

  12. Effects of Seeding Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Productivity of Egyptian Clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwan G. Rafaat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to show the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg urea/ha, and two seeding rates 15 and 30 kg/ha. The study was conducted at Bakrajo research field during the winter season 2011-2012 to some growth characteristics of Egyptian clover, such as plant height, dry leaf weight percent, dry stem weight percent, leave stem ratio, fresh yield t/ha, dry yield t/ha and dry matter percent. The experiment was designed as (R.C.B.D. The results can be summarized as follow; significant differences were observed between all three cuts, and the third cut was superior in almost characters especially in the forage yield. The application of 40 and 60 kg urea gave maximum yield. Using 15 kg seeds/ha showed superior value due to fresh yield in compare to 30 kg for all cutting, while the dry yield responded non-significantly to seeding rates.

  13. Effect of forage supplements on the incidence of bloat in dairy cows grazing high clover pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C J; James, N L; Murray-Evans, J P

    1996-08-17

    The effect of offering forage supplements of different compositions was examined in two experiments with cows grazing high clover swards. In the first experiment strawmix supplements of high or low energy content (11 and 9 MJ metabolisable energy/kg dry matter [DM]) and high or low crude protein content (17 and 4 g/kg DM) were offered for periods of three weeks. The energy and protein contents were varied by the content of molasses and soyabean meal, respectively. The high energy, high protein supplement increased the incidence of bloat, and the low energy, high protein supplement reduced it, compared with grazing alone. Bloat was most evident in the first two weeks of each feeding period, suggesting that the cows partially adapted to the diets within three weeks. In the second experiment silage supplements reduced the incidence of bloat among cows grazing both tall and short swards. The most suitable forages to feed when there is a risk of bloat are those that are slowly fermented in the rumen but are eaten in sufficient quantity to reduce periods of rapid herbage intake.

  14. Fecal microbiota of lambs fed purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianqian; Holman, Devin B; Alexander, Trevor; Hu, Tianming; Jin, Long; Xu, Zhongjun; McAllister, Tim A; Acharya, Surya; Zhao, Guoqi; Wang, Yuxi

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the effect of purple prairie clover (PPC) and PPC condensed tannins (CT) on the fecal microbiota of lambs using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 18 individual lambs were randomly divided into three groups and fed either green chop alfalfa (Alf), a 40:60 (DM basis; Mix) mixture of Alf and PPC, or Mix supplemented with polyethylene glycol (Mix-P) for 18 days. Fecal samples were collected on days 13 through 18 using digital rectal retrieval. The DNA of fecal samples was extracted and the microbial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Regardless of diet, the bacterial community was dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes with many sequences unclassified at the genus level. Forage type and CT had no effect on the fecal microbial composition at the phylum level or on α-diversity. Compared to the Alf diet, the Mix diet reduced the relative abundance of Akkermansia (P = 0.03) and Asteroleplasma (P = 0.05). Fecal microbial populations in Alf and Mix-P clustered separately from each other when assessed using unweighted UniFrac (P < 0.05). These results indicate that PPC CT up to 36 g/kg DM in the diet had no major effect on fecal microbial flora at the phyla level and exerted only minor effects on the genera composition of fecal microbiota in lambs.

  15. Genetic variability of isoflavones in the USDA red clover core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele P. Ramos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Red clover is one of the most utilized forage in agriculture and contains many of the isoflavones known for their human health benefits. The objectives of this study were: i to quantify, using HPLC analysis, isoflavones in 77 accessions from the USDA core collection and a Brazilian line; ii to verify possible relationships depending on their origin, improvement status or maturity type and; iii to verify the seasonal variation. The isoflavone mean contents were 29.27 µg g-1 of dry material for daidzein, 163.69 µg g-1 for genistein, 11353.29 µg g-1 for formononetin and 6568.8 µg g-1 for biochanin A. Clustering was mainly influenced by the total amount of isoflavones and partially due to maturity type, improvement status and geographic origin. The seasonal evaluation demonstrated an increase of concentration during winter, and decrease during spring. These results highlighted accessions that can be used to develop new varieties with low or high isoflavones concentration.

  16. A study of the red clover extract trinovin by ESR HPLC/MS and UVS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.; Hutton, D.; Hunter, C.; Hewitt, D.; Mulinacci, N.; Romani, A.; Pinelli, P.; Mancini, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Trinovin is an extract of red clover, recently released on the dietary supplement market. It is recommended for 'Men's Health', because it contains the phenolics (isoflavones) genistein, biochanin, daidzein and formononetin, said to act as 'phytoestrogens', and is therefore a possible help in prostate gland problems. An Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) study (∼9.1Ghz, room temperature) revealed at least 3 different free radical lines, one with hyperfine structure, consistent with the listed molecules. Accordingly, HPLC/DAD (High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Diode Array Detector) and HPLC/Mass Spectroscopy analyses were performed in order to evaluate the quali-quantitative contents of flavonoidic compounds. The HPLC profile shows two main isoflavones and another three compounds, one of them being a quercetin glycoside. The quercetin glycosides are flavonoidic derivatives abundant in plant materials and present in wine. We can therefore say: even if the phytoestrogen properties claimed for Trinovin turn out to be less than hoped for, the antioxidants contained are very powerful, and so possibly helpful in protection against many diseases, including cancers, atherosclerosis, diabetic retinal bleeding, and non-alcoholic dementia

  17. In vitro isoflavonoid production and analysis in natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense (red clover calluses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ercetin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover, is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.

  18. In vitro isoflavonoid production and analysis in natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense (red clover calluses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Ercetin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are polyphenolic phytoestrogens, predominantly found in leguminous plants. Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae (red clover, is rich in isoflavones that possess estrogenic activity due to their similar molecular structure and effectiveness in preventing health conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and hormone-dependent cancers. In this study, presence and amount of various phytoestrogens in the tetraploid plant and in the calluses derived from the plants were investigated. Calluses were generated from explants obtained from natural tetraploid T. pratense seedlings. The best callus formation was obtained from hypocotyl explants cultured in Phillips Collins and Gamborg B5 media containing different plant growth regulators. Flowers of plants and calluses were analysed for formononetin, biochanin A, genistein and daidzein contents using HPLC. In HPLC analysis, high levels of formononetin (0.249 µg/mg were determined in natural tetraploid T. pratense flowers in addition to genistein and biochanin A. In calluses, highest isoflavone content (1.15 µg/mg formononetin was observed in modified Gamborg B5 medium. Biochanin A content of calluses and the plant were found to be nearly the same. But formononetin and genistein contents of the calluses in this medium were found to be respectively 4.62 and 21.39 folds higher than the tetraploid plant.

  19. Mitigation of salt stress in white clover (Trifolium repens) by Azospirillum brasilense and its inoculation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Hassani, Danial; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Wang, Hang; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-12-01

    Salinity is one of the increasingly serious environmental problems worldwide for cultivating agricultural crops. The present study was aimed to ascertain the potential of beneficial soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense to alleviate saline stress in Trifolium repens. Experimental plants (white clover) were grown from seeds and inoculated with or without A. brasilense bacterial strain supplemented with 0, 40, 80, or 120 mM NaCl into soil. The growth attributes including, shoot heights, root lengths, fresh and dry weights, leaf area and chlorophyll content were significantly enhanced in T. repens plants grown in A. brasilense inoculated soil than un-inoculated controls, particularly under elevated salinity conditions (40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl). Malondialdehyde content of leaf was recorded to be declined under saline conditions. Moreover, the K + /Na + ratio was also improved in bacterium-inoculated plants, since A. brasilense significantly reduced the root and shoot Na + level under high salty environment. Results revealed that soil inoculation with A. brasilense could significantly promote T. repens growth under both non-saline and saline environments, and this study might be extended to other vegetables and crops for the germination and growth enhancement.

  20. Biologically fixed N2 as a source for N2O production in a grass–clover mixture, measured by 15N2 (erratum i vol. 74 p. 203)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Ambus, P.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of biologically fixed dinitrogen (N-2) to the nitrous oxide (N2O) production in grasslands is unknown. To assess the contribution of recently fixed N-2 as a source of N2O and the transfer of fixed N from clover to companion grass, mixtures of white clover and perennial ryegrass...

  1. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (IV) The Volume Dependence of the Light Hadron Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S R; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A

    2011-07-01

    The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with nf = 2 + 1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ? 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ? 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_\\pi ? 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is

  2. Climate Clever Clovers: New Paradigm to Reduce the Environmental Footprint of Ruminants by Breeding Low Methanogenic Forages Utilizing Haplotype Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwinder Kaur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitigating methane production by ruminants is a significant challenge to global livestock production. This research offers a new paradigm to reduce methane emissions from ruminants by breeding climate-clever clovers. We demonstrate wide genetic diversity for the trait methanogenic potential in Australia’s key pasture legume, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.. In a bi-parental population the broadsense heritability in methanogenic potential was moderate (H2 = 0.4 and allelic variation in a region of Chr 8 accounted for 7.8% of phenotypic variation. In a genome-wide association study we identified four loci controlling methanogenic potential assessed by an in vitro fermentation system. Significantly, the discovery of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on Chr 5 in a defined haplotype block with an upstream putative candidate gene from a plant peroxidase-like superfamily (TSub_g18548 and a downstream lectin receptor protein kinase (TSub_g18549 provides valuable candidates for an assay for this complex trait. In this way haplotype variation can be tracked to breed pastures with reduced methanogenic potential. Of the quantitative trait loci candidates, the DNA-damage-repair/toleration DRT100-like protein (TSub_g26967, linked to avoid the severity of DNA damage induced by secondary metabolites, is considered central to enteric methane production, as are disease resistance (TSub_g26971, TSub_g26972, and TSub_g18549 and ribonuclease proteins (TSub_g26974, TSub_g26975. These proteins are good pointers to elucidate the genetic basis of in vitro microbial fermentability and enteric methanogenic potential in subterranean clover. The genes identified allow the design of a suite of markers for marker-assisted selection to reduce rumen methane emission in selected pasture legumes. We demonstrate the feasibility of a plant breeding approach without compromising animal productivity to mitigate enteric methane emissions, which is one of the most

  3. The clover technique for the treatment of complex tricuspid valve insufficiency: midterm clinical and echocardiographic results in 66 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, Elisabetta; De Bonis, Michele; Verzini, Alessandro; La Canna, Giovanni; Ferrara, David; Calabrese, Maria Chiara; Taramasso, Maurizio; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2010-06-01

    This study assesses the results of the 'clover technique' (suturing together the middle point of the free edges of the tricuspid leaflets) for the treatment of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) due to severe prolapse or tethering. From 2001, 66 patients with severe TR due to prolapsing or tethered leaflets underwent 'clover repair'. Annuloplasty was associated in 64 patients (97%). The aetiology of TR was degenerative in 52 cases (79%), post-traumatic in eight (12%) and secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in six (9%). The main mechanism of TR was prolapse/flail of one leaflet in 15 patients (23%), of two leaflets in 31 (47%) and of all three leaflets in 14 (21%). The remaining six patients (9%) presented with severe leaflets' tethering. Four deaths (6%) occurred during hospitalisation and one patient died 3.6 years after surgery. Survival was 91 + or - 4.1% at 5 years. Follow-up of the 62 hospital survivors was 100% complete (mean length 3.5 + or - 1.6 years, range 13 months-7.1 years). At the last echocardiogram, no or mild TR was detected in 55 (88.7%) patients, moderate (2+/4+) in six (9.6%) and severe (4+/4+) in one patient (1.6%). Mean tricuspid valve area and gradient were 4.3 + or - 0.6 cm(2) and 2.8 + or -1.4 mmHg. In six patients, stress echocardiography was performed and no signs of tricuspid stenosis were detected. At the multivariable analysis, the degree of TR at hospital discharge was identified as the only predictor of TR > or = 2+ at follow-up. Midterm clinical and echocardiographic results confirm the role of the 'clover technique' in the surgical treatment of TR due to lesions, which are unlikely to be effectively treatable by annuloplasty alone. Copyright 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Ensiled Berseem Clover and Citrus Pulp Mixture on Performance of Zel Fattened Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maedeh feyz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed contributes about 75% of the total cost of animal production, therefore utilizing of by-products such as Berseem clover and citrus pulp, as nutritive and low cost components of rations would decrease the production cost. In north of Iran over autumn and winter, utilizing of these by-products in making of silage as feed for ruminants provides good feed ingredient especially in feedlot operations, also eliminates pathogens, and reduces the effect of drugs and pesticides that are used locally without a serious control or discipline. However, little information available on utilizing silage made from these local by-products. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effects of ensiled Berseem clover and orange peels mixture on intake, digestibility, chewing behavior and performance of Zel fattening lambs. Materials and methods Twenty male Zel lambs fed with five experimental rations containing basal concentrate and 35% Berseem clover silage as: 1 without additives, 2 supplemented with 40% dried orange peels, 3 supplemented with 40% dried tangerine peel, 4 supplemented with 35% dried tangerine peel and 5% ground barley and 5 supplemented with 35% dried orange peels and 5% ground barley. Lambs were housed in individual box and fed ad libitum, twice daily at 09:00 and 21:00 h with total mixed rations as experimental treatments, allowing for at least 10% residuals (as-fed basis. Water and mineralized salt stone were available throughout the experiment. Feed particle size distribution, geometric mean and the standard deviation of geometric mean were determined by dry sieving in four replicates, using two set of Penn State particle separator. Feed, feces and orts were analyzed for dry matter, Kjeldahl N, ether extract, organic matter and ash at 605°C, neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDF and ADF when α-amylase being added for concentrates during NDF extraction; sodium sulfite was not added. Neutral detergent fiber was

  5. Hydrographs Showing Groundwater Level Changes for Selected Wells in the Chambers-Clover Creek Watershed and Vicinity, Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, G.B.; Julich, R.; Payne, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Selected groundwater level hydrographs for the Chambers-Clover Creek watershed (CCCW) and vicinity, Washington, are presented in an interactive web-based map to illustrate changes in groundwater levels in and near the CCCW on a monthly and seasonal basis. Hydrographs are linked to points corresponding to the well location on an interactive map of the study area. Groundwater level data and well information from Federal, State, and local agencies were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS), Groundwater Site Inventory (GWSI) System.

  6. Distribution of radionuclides in leaf-stem biomass of lupine and clover under production of protein concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Yu.F.; Lobach, G.A.; Buzenko, T.A.; Zaretskaya, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The basic regularities of radionuclide distribution between the obtained products have been studied using the fractionation of lupine and clover phytomass as an example. The content of radionuclides in protein concentrates has been shown to be strongly related to the crop species. A scheme and a regime of the fractionation of leaf-stem lupine biomass contaminated with cesium radioisotopes and strontium-90 which ensured the minimizing of their residual content in protein-vitaminic and protein concentrates have been selected with due accout of experimental data

  7. Perturbative determination of c{sub sw} for plaquette and Symanzik gauge action and stout link clover fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division, Dept. of Mathematical Sicences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Using plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge action and stout link clover fermions we determine the improvement coefficient c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory from the off-shell quark-quark-gluon three-point function. In addition, we compute the coefficients needed for the most general form of quark field improvement and present the one-loop result for the critical hopping parameter {kappa}{sub c}. We discuss mean field improvement for c{sub SW} and {kappa}{sub c} and the choice of the mean field coupling for the actions we have considered. (orig.)

  8. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the effects of feeding silage mixtures of a plant containing polyphenol oxidase (PPO; red clover [; RC]), a plant containing tannins (sainfoin [; SF]), and a grass species not containing these compounds (timothy [; T]) on ruminal and intramuscular (i.m.) fatty acids of lambs. Forty 4-mo-old castrated male Romane lambs, divided into 5 groups, received 1 of the following silages: 1) T (100%), 2) a binary mixture of timothy and tannin-containing sainfoin ( cv. Perly; 50:50 [T-SF]), 3) a binary mixture of timothy and PPO-containing red clover ( cv. Mervius; 50:50 [T-RC]), 4) a ternary mixture of timothy, sainfoin, and red clover containing both tannins and PPO (50:25:25, respectively [T-SF-RC]), and 5) a binary mixture of tannin-containing sainfoin and PPO-containing red clover (50:50 [SF-RC]). In the rumen digesta, the partial or total replacement of T with forage legumes was associated with greater concentrations of PUFA ( forage legumes in the silage favored the accumulation of 18:3 -3 ( Forage legumes decreased the -11 18:1 to 30% of T in rumen digesta ( Forage legumes decreased the total concentration of branched-chain fatty acids in the rumen digesta (on average, -28%; comparison with T. The dietary treatment tended to affect the proportion of MUFA ( = 0.081) and of PUFA ( = 0.079) in the i.m. fat of the LM, respectively, at the highest and lowest numerical value in the T group. The sum of -3 fatty acids was less in the T and T-SF groups compared with the mixture of legumes without T (SF-RC; comparison with lambs given T-RC, T-SF-RC, and SF-RC. Rumenic acid (-9 -11 CLA) was detected at a greater percentage in the LM from the animals fed the T silage compared with animals fed the T-SF-RC treatment ( = 0.004). Contrarily, -9 -12 -15 18:3 was found at a greater concentration in the muscle from lambs in the SF-RC treatment compared with lambs in the other treatments ( forage for growing lambs in terms of i.m. fatty acid composition.

  9. Design and fabrication of 4π Clover Detector Array Assembly for gamma-spectroscopy studies using thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manish; Kamble, S.R.; Chaudhari, A.T.; Sabharwal, T.P.; Pathak, Kavindra; Prasad, N.K.; Kinage, L.A.; Biswas, D.C.; Bhagwat, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear spectroscopy has been studied earlier from the measurement of prompt gamma rays produced in reactions with thermal neutrons from CIRUS reactor. For studying the prompt γ-spectroscopy using thermal neutrons from Dhruva Reactor, BARC, the development of a dedicated beam line (R-3001) is in progress. In this beam line a detector assembly consisting of Clover Ge detectors will be used. This experimental setup will be utilized to investigate nuclear structure using prompt (n,γ) reactions and also to study the spectroscopy of neutron-rich fission-fragment nuclei

  10. Effect of Plant Density on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Persian Clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Hassanzadeh Aval

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate intercropping of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2004 growing season. Treatments were sole cropping of Persian clover (eight rows, double-row intercropping of Persian clover and summer savory with 27, 40 and 80 plants.m-2 (eight rows and sole cropping of summer savory with 27, 40 and 80 plants m-2 (eight rows. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with 4 replications was used. Shoot and stem percentage of summer savory in sole crop treatments were significantly higher than in intercrop. In sole crop treatments, these parameters decreased by increasing plant density, in contrast to the intercrop. Leaf percentage and leaf and flower to stem ratio of summer savory in sole crop treatments were significantly lower than in intercrop. In sole crop treatments, these parameters were increased by increasing plant density, in contrast to intercrop. Effect of different treatments on essential oil percentage of summer savory was not significant. In sole cropping of Persian clover treatment, dry weight of vegetative organs and stem percentage of Persian clover in the first harvest, was lower than other treatments. By decreasing plant density these parameters were decreased in intercropping. In the second and third harvests a reversed pattern was observed. The highest Area Time Equivalent Ratio was obtained in intercropping of persian clover and summer savory with 27 plants.m-2. Keywords: Intercropping, Plant density, Satureja hortensis, Trifolium resupinatum, Essential oil percentage, Area Time Equivalent Ratio

  11. Estimating legume N-2 fixation in grass-clover mixtures of a grazed organic cropping system using two N-15 methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, F.P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    The input of Nitrogen (N) through symbiotic N-2 fixation (SNF) in grass-clover mixtures was determined in an organic cropping. system for grazing during 3 years. The mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) was established by undersowing in spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and maintained subsequently for two production years. Dinitrogen fixation was determined using the N-15 isotope dilution techniques and two labelling procedures. Using either pre-labelling of the soil with immobilisation of the N-15 by addition of a carbon source before...

  12. Dinitrogen fixation in white clover grown in pure stand and mixture with ryegrass estimated by the immobilized 15N isotope dilution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.V.; Jensen, E.S.; Schjørring, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) grown in pure stand and mixture with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was determined in the field using N-15 isotope dilution and harvest of the shoots. The apparent transfer of clover N to perennial ryegrass was simultaneously...... assessed. The soil was labelled either by immobilizing N-15 in organic matter prior to establishment of the sward or by using the conventional labelling procedure in which N-15 fertilizer is added after sward establishment. Immobilization of N-15 in the soil organic matter has not previously been used...

  13. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  14. Effect of maturity and conservation of grass/clover on digestibility and rumen pH in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, A.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate effects of maturity and conservation of primary growth grass/clover on apparent digestibility and rumen pH. Two batches of mixed ryegrass, red and white clover harvested in 2009 on May 9 and 25 were conserved as either silage or hay. The forages early silage (ES) and hay...... (EH), and late silage (LS) and hay (LH) had DM contents of 45, 84, 25 and 83%, and NDF contents of 32, 44, 42 and 50% of DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake......, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Potentially digestible NDF (DNDF) was determined after 288 h in situ. Apparent digestibility of OM and NDF was estimated using Cr3O2 as marker. Rumen fluid pH in the medial and ventral rumen was measured with 1 h intervals from 0730 to 1530 h. Data...

  15. Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trifluralin Herbicide on Emergence, Growth and Root Colonization of Clover (Trifolium repens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shahgholi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbicides, despite of their control of weeds, have the potential to affect sensitive crops in rotation and also beneficial non-targeted soil microbes including vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM fungi (6. AM fungi can increase the growth of crops through increasing uptake of phosphorus and insoluble micronutrients, and indirectly by improving soil quality parameters (30. However, several authors have reported different effects of herbicides on VAM symbiosis, which ranges from no adverse effects to slightly or highly toxic effects (6. Pesticides have also been reported to stimulate colonization of plant roots by AM fungi (27. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of mycorrhizal fungi and Trifluralin herbicide on the growth and root colonization of clover. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood during 2012. Treatments were included three levels of mycorrhiza inoculation, M1: non mycorrhiza (control, M2: Glommus mosseae and M3: Glommus intraradices and herbicide treatments were included four levels of Trifluralin(T1: 0, T2: 1000, T3: 1500 and T4: 2000 ml ha-1. In mycorrhizal treatments, 20 g inoculums were thoroughly mixed with soil. Seeds of clover (Trifolium repens L. were sown in the pots maintained near the field in order to provide normal environmental conditions. Seedlings were thinned to two plants per pot at three leaf stages. At the time of harvesting, the emergence and growth characteristics of clover and root colonization was also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software MSTATC. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 calculated by LSD test. Results and Discussion: The results showed that emergence, uniformity (EU values decreased and time to 10% (D10 and 90% (D90 of

  16. The Growth Rate and Efficiency of Rumen Microbial Protein Digestion of Red Clover Silage (Trifolium pratense cv. Sabatron)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asih Kurniawati

    2004-01-01

    (Trifolium pratense cv. Sabatron). Red clover silage supplemented with different level of carbohydrates has been examined using the in-vitro gas production technique. Cumulative gas production, hydro.gen sulfite production, and ammonia was followed and used as indicators of microbial growth rate and extent of protein degradation. Microbial nitrogen production, VFA, and efficiency microbial production was used as indicator of nitrogen use efficiency. 15 N was used as a microbial marker to estimate the amount of nitrogen incorporation into microbial protein. Supplementation of Red clover with increasing 5 levels; 0 g; 0.625 g; 0.15 g; 0.225 g and 0.3 g of maize starch led to graded increase in microbial growth and protein degradation. This was reflected in the increasing gas production and the accumulation of hydrogen sulfite. Diurnal change in ammonia production reflected the microbial utilization of ammonia for protein synthesis. Protein microbe (P<0.001) as VFA (P<0.001) increased due to carbohydrate addition as well as utilization of nitrogen (P<0.001). There was also the efficiency of nitrogen utilization which increased significantly. This result suggested that energy supply can increased efficiency of nitrogen use in the rumen and may reduce nitrogen losses into the environment. (author)

  17. Response of biomass and nitrogen yield of white clover to radiation and atmospheric CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderscheid, R.; Bender, J.; Schenk, U.; Weigel, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to test (i) whether the effect of season-long CO 2 enrichment on plant dry matter production of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Karina) depends on the temperature or can solely be explained by changes in radiation use efficiency, and (ii) whether the atmospheric CO 2 concentration affects the relationship between tissue %N and plant biomass. Plants were grown in pots with adequate nutrient and water supply and were exposed to ambient and above ambient CO 2 concentrations (approximately +80 ppm, +160 ppm, +280 ppm) in open-top chambers for two seasons. Nitrogen fertilizer was given only before the experiment started to promote N 2 fixation. Plants were clipped to a height of 5 cm, when the canopy had reached a height of about 20 cm and when the CO 2 effect had not been diminished due to self-shading of the leaves. Photon exposure (400–700 nm) measured above the canopy was linearly related to the above ground biomass, the leaf area index and the nitrogen yield (r 2 > 0.94). The slopes of the curves depended on the CO 2 concentration. Since most of the radiation (>90%) was absorbed by the foliage, the slopes were used to calculate the CO 2 effect on the radiation use efficiency of biomass production, which is shown to increase curvilinearly between 380 and 660 ppm CO 2 from 2.7 g MJ −1 to 3.9 g MJ −1 . CO 2 enrichment increased above ground biomass by increasing the leaf number, the individual leaf weight and the leaf area; specific leaf weight was not affected. The relative CO 2 response varied between harvests; there was a slight but not significant positive relationship with mean daytime temperature. At the beginning of the season, plant nitrogen concentration in the above ground biomass was decreased by CO 2 enrichment. However, at later growth stages, when the plants depended solely on N 2 fixation, nitrogen concentration was found to be increased when the nitrogen concentration value was adjusted for the decrease

  18. Breeding biologies, pollinators and seed beetles of two prairie-clovers, Dalea ornata and D. searlsiae (Fabaceae: Amorpheae), from the Intermountain West USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two prairie-clovers, Dalea ornata and D. searlsiae, are perennial forbs that flower during early summer throughout the Colombia Plateau and Great Basin of the western USA, respectively. Their seed is desirable for use in rangeland restoration. We experimentally characterized the breeding biologies ...

  19. Effects of forest management on running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum Muhl. Ex A. Eaton) distribution and abundance in the Fernow Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Q. Burkhart; J.R. Rentch; T.M. Schuler

    2013-01-01

    Identifying habitat preferences of species of concern is fundamental to the practice of conservation, but disturbances and other environmental processes can substantially affect suitability. Trifolium stoloniferum, or running buffalo clover, is a federally endangered plant species that occurs on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia....

  20. The combined effect of fertiliser nitrogen and phosphorus on herbage yield and change in soil nutrients of a grass/clover and grass-only sward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Snijders, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The combined effect of reduced nitrogen ( N ) and phosphorus ( P ) application on the production of grass- only and grass/ clover swards was studied in a five- year cutting experiment on a marine clay soil, established on newly sown swards. Furthermore, changes in soil N, P and carbon ( C ) were

  1. Disconnected quark loop contributions to nucleon observables using Nf=2 twisted clover fermions at the physical value of the light quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis

    2015-11-01

    We compute the disconnected quark loops contributions entering the determination of nucleon observables, by using a N f =2 ensemble of twisted mass fermions with a clover term at a pion mass m π =133 MeV. We employ exact deflation and implement all calculations in GPUs, enabling us to achieve large statistics and a good signal.

  2. Disconnected quark loop contributions to nucleon observables using N{sub f}=2 twisted clover fermions at the physical value of the light quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rehim, Abdou; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis [Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Alexandrou, Constantia; Constantinou, Martha; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Cyprus Univ. (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Jansen, Karl [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Aviles-Casco, Alejandro Vaquero [INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    We compute the disconnected quark loops contributions entering the determination of nucleon observables, by using a N{sub f}=2 ensemble of twisted mass fermions with a clover term at a pion mass m{sub π}=133 MeV. We employ exact deflation and implement all calculations in GPUs, enabling us to achieve large statistics and a good signal.

  3. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  4. Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS.

  5. Annual maize and perennial grass-clover strip cropping for increased resource use efficiency and productivity using organic farming practice as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2013-01-01

    A cropping system was designed to fulfill the increasing demand for biomass for food and energy without decreasing long term soil fertility. A field experiment was carried out including alternating strips of annual maize (Zea mays L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – clover (Trifolium...

  6. Short-term effects of a dung pat on N2 fixation and total N uptake in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.V.; Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The short-term effects of a simulated cattle dung pat on N-2 fixation and total uptake of N in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture was studied in a container experiment using sheep faeces mixed with water to a DM content of 13%. We used a new N-15 cross-labelling technique to determine...

  7. Biochanin A (an isoflavone produced by red clover) promotes weight gain of steers grazed in mixed grass pastures and fed dried-distillers grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochanin A (BCA) is an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifloium pratense L.) that can inhibit hyper-ammonia producing bacteria (HAB) to reduce deamination in the rumen and increase the feed amino acids available for gastric digestion. An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect...

  8. The effect of additives in silages of pure timothy and timothy mixed with red clover on chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetta, M.; Cone, J.W.; Gustavsson, A.M.; Martinsson, K.

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effects of additives on direct cut silages of pure timothy and timothy mixed with tetraploid red clover. First and second growth cuts were ensiled during three consecutive years, 1994, 1995 and 1996, either without any additive or with the addition of formic acid, or

  9. Transcription of Biotic Stress Associated Genes in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Differs in Response to Cyst and Root-Knot Nematode Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Mercer, Chris F; Leung, Susanna; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The transcription of four members of the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) gene family of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), designated as Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5, was investigated at both local infection (roots) and systemic (leaf tissue) sites in white clover in response to infection with the clover root knot nematode (CRKN) Meloidogyne trifoliophila and the clover cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera trifolii. Invasion by the CRKN resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance of Tr-KPI4 locally at both 4 days post-infection (dpi) and at 8 dpi, and an increase in transcription of Tr-KPI1 systemically at 8 dpi. In contrast, an increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally at 4 and 8 dpi, and an increase of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 at 8 dpi systemically was observed in response to infection with the CCN. Challenge of a resistant (R) genotype and a susceptible (S) genotype of white clover with the CCN revealed a significant increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally in the R genotype, while an increase in abundance of only Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 was observed in the S genotype, and only at 4 dpi. The transcript abundance of a member of the1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE (ACC) SYNTHASE gene family from white clover (Tr-ACS1) was significantly down-regulated locally in response to CRKN infection at 4 and 8 dpi and at 4 dpi, systemically, while abundance increased locally and systemically at 8 dpi in response to CCN challenge. Conversely, the abundance of the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling gene, CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE PROTEIN 1 from white clover (Tr-COI1) increased significantly at 8 dpi locally in response to CRKN infection, but decreased at 8 dpi in response to CCN infection. The significance of this differential regulation of transcription is discussed with respect to differences in infection strategy of the two nematode species.

  10. Microbial protein synthesis, digestion and lactation responses of cows to grass or grass-red clover silage diet supplemented with barley or oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. VANHATALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate effects of silage type (grass-red clover vs. pure grass and grain supplement (oats vs. barley on rumen fermentation, post-ruminal nutrient flows, diet digestion and milk production. Four primiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fitted with cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with four 28-d experimental periods and 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments. Using red clover-containing (40% silage rather than pure grass silage had minor effects on rumen fermentation or diet digestion but increased non-ammonia nitrogen (N flow in terms of increased flows of microbial and dietary N entering to the small intestine. This was reflected as a reduced ruminal N degradability on grass-red clover diets. Furthermore, grass-red clover diets in comparison to grass silage diets increased milk lactose concentration and yields of milk, protein and lactose. Feeding oats in replacement for barley had minor effects on rumen fermentation or post-ruminal non-ammonia N flows but reduced digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre in the diet. Using oats rather than barley increased yields of milk and lactose but reduced milk protein concentration. Oats also increased proportions of C18:0 and C18:1 in milk fat and reduced those of C10:0 to C16:0. It is concluded that inclusion of red clover and replacement of barley with oats in grass silage based diets have beneficial effects in dairy cow production.;

  11. Utilization of protein in red clover and alfalfa silages by lactating dairy cows and growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A

    2018-02-01

    Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein. Thirty-two multiparous (4 ruminally cannulated) plus 16 primiparous Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk and fed diets as total mixed rations in an incomplete 8 × 8 Latin square trial with four 28-d periods. Production data (over the last 14 d of each period) and digestibility and excretion data (at the end of each period) were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Although DM intake was 1.2 kg/d greater on AS than RCS, milk yield and body weight gain were not different. However, yields of fat and energy-corrected milk as well as milk content of fat, true protein, and solids-not-fat were greater on AS. Relative to AS, feeding RCS increased milk and energy-corrected milk yield per unit of DM intake, milk lactose content, and apparent N efficiency and reduced milk urea. Relative to AS, apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, NDF, and acid detergent fiber were greater on RCS, whereas apparent and estimated true N digestibility were lower. Urinary N excretion and ruminal concentrations of ammonia, total AA, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids were reduced on RCS, indicating reduced ruminal protein degradation. Supplementation of RPM increased intake, milk true protein, and solids-not-fat content and tended to increase milk fat content. There were no silage × RPM interactions, suggesting that RPM was equally limiting on both AS and RCS. Supplementation of RPL did not

  12. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...... of 315, 436, 414 and 503 g/kg DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake, divided equally across two daily meals offered at 0800 and 1530 h. Chewing activity was estimated...... from recorded jaw movements (JM) oscillations continuously logged for 96 h and summarized per 24 h as mean effective rumination time and eating time. Eating behavior was further observed during four 20-min test meals. Weight proportion of large feces particles (>1.0 mm) and geometric mean fecal...

  13. Effects of grazing strategy on limiting nitrate leaching in grazed grass-clover pastures on coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    -term mean. The experiment was initiated in a 4-yr-old grass-clover sward in south Denmark. Three treatments were as follows grazing only (G), spring cut followed by grazing (CG) and both spring and autumn cuts with summer grazing (CGC). Nitrate leaching was calculated by extracting water isolates from 80 cm......Urinations of ruminants on grazed pastures increase the risk of nitrate leaching. The study investigated the effect of reducing the length of the grazing season on nitrate leaching from a coarse sandy, irrigated soil during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. In both years, precipitation was above the long...... depth using ceramic suction cups. Because of considerable variation in measured nitrate concentrations, the 32 installed suction cups per treatment were insufficient to reveal differences between treatments. However, weighted nitrate leaching estimations for G, CG and CGC showed estimated mean nitrate N...

  14. Does introduction of clover in an agricultural grassland affect the food base and functional diversity of Collembola?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Sechi, Valentina; Larsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    plots with either perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), whiteclover (Trifolium repens L.) or a mixture of both in a Danish agricultural grassland 6 and 14 months after establishing the leys (September and May, respectively). Diet preferences were investigated via stable isotope analyses (SIA...... in the white clover than ryegrass plots. Changes in taxa specific density and traits distribution as a response to the C:N ratio of plant material, suggest that plant material quality was the main factor affecting the collembolan community,especially when comparing the two sampling occasions. Functional...... richness decreased under conditions of low quality material. In contrast to our hypothesis, population densities did not increase under mixture treatment and functional richness decreased. Our results suggest that habitat changes, via different plant composition, can affect some functional groups, having...

  15. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii rosR is required for interaction with clover, biofilm formation and adaptation to the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piersiak Tomasz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodules on roots of host plants Trifolium spp. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are crucial for establishment of a successful symbiosis with legumes that form indeterminate-type nodules, such as Trifolium, Pisum, Vicia, and Medicago spp. and aid the bacterium in withstanding osmotic and other environmental stresses. Recently, the R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii RosR regulatory protein which controls exopolysaccharide production has been identified and characterized. Results In this work, we extend our earlier studies to the characterization of rosR mutants which exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes. The mutants produce three times less exopolysaccharide than the wild type, and the low-molecular-weight fraction in that polymer is greatly reduced. Mutation in rosR also results in quantitative alterations in the polysaccharide constituent of lipopolysaccharide. The rosR mutants are more sensitive to surface-active detergents, antibiotics of the beta-lactam group and some osmolytes, indicating changes in the bacterial membranes. In addition, the rosR mutants exhibit significant decrease in motility and form a biofilm on plastic surfaces, which differs significantly in depth, architecture, and bacterial viability from that of the wild type. The most striking effect of rosR mutation is the considerably decreased attachment and colonization of root hairs, indicating that the mutation affects the first stage of the invasion process. Infection threads initiate at a drastically reduced rate and frequently abort before they reach the base of root hairs. Although these mutants form nodules on clover, they are unable to fix nitrogen and are outcompeted by the wild type in mixed inoculations, demonstrating that functional rosR is important for competitive nodulation. Conclusions This report demonstrates the significant role RosR regulatory protein plays in

  16. Microbial biomass, microbial diversity, soil carbon storage, and stability after incubation of soil from grass-clover pastures of different age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory incubation study with clover grass pasture soils of seven different ages (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 16 production years) was carried out to determine initial soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and potentials for greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CO2). Compared with the soil from...... the recently established pasture, an increase of total soil C and N was observed along with pasture age. Greenhouse gas emissions were low and not significantly different among the soils from younger pastures (0-5 years), but especially N2O emissions increased markedly in the soil from 16-year-old grass......-clover. Low emissions might mainly be due to an early C limitation occurring in the soils from younger pastures, which was also corroborated by decreasing levels of cold water-extractable C and early shifts within the microbial community. However, higher emissions from the old pasture soil were offset by its...

  17. Bicarbonate as tracer for plant assimilated C and homogeneity of 14C and 15N distribution in ryegrass and white clover tissue by alternative labeling approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Kusliene, Gedrime; Jacobsen, Ole Stig

    2013-01-01

    that 15N also had a heterogeneous distribution (up to two orders of magnitude). Conclusion Bicarbonate can efficiently be used to introduce 14C or 13C into plant via the leaf-labeling method. Both 14C and 15N showed heterogeneous distribution in the plant, although the distribution of 15N was more even......Aims: Application of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopes is an essential tool to study C and N flows in plant-soil-microorganisms systems. When targeting single plants in a community the tracers need to be added via e.g., leaf-labeling or stem-feeding approaches. In this study we: (i) investigated...... if bicarbonate can be used to introduce 14C (or 13C) into white clover and ryegrass, and (ii) compared the patterns of 14C and 15N allocation in white clover and ryegrass to evaluate the homogeneity of tracer distribution after two alternative labeling approaches. Methods Perennial ryegrass and white clover were...

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan; Smith, F. Andrew; Wang Youshan; Chen Baodong

    2008-01-01

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 μm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  20. Red clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial [ISRCTN42940165

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Charlotte; Warren, Ruth ML; Sala, Evis; Dowsett, Mitch; Dunning, Alison M; Healey, Catherine S; Runswick, Shirley; Day, Nicholas E; Bingham, Sheila A

    2004-01-01

    Isoflavones are hypothesized to protect against breast cancer, but it is not clear whether they act as oestrogens or anti-oestrogens in breast tissue. Our aim was to determine the effects of taking a red clover-derived isoflavone supplement daily for 1 year on mammographic breast density. Effects on oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity and menopausal symptoms were also assessed. A total of 205 women (age range 49–65 years) with Wolfe P2 or DY mammographic breast patterns were randomly assigned to receive either a red clover-derived isoflavone tablet (26 mg biochanin A, 16 mg formononetin, 1 mg genistein and 0.5 mg daidzein) or placebo. Change in mammographic breast density, serum oestradiol, FSH, LH, menopausal symptoms and lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity from baseline to 12 months were assessed. A total of 177 women completed the trial. Mammographic breast density decreased in both groups but the difference between the treatment and placebo was not statistically significant. There was a significant interaction between treatment group and oestrogen receptor (ESR1) PvuII polymorphism for the change in estimated percentage breast density (mean ± standard deviation): TT isoflavone 1.4 ± 12.3% and TT placebo -9.6 ± 14.2%; CT isoflavone -5.2 ± 12.0% and CT placebo -2.8 ± 10.3%; and CC isoflavone -3.4 ± 9.7% and CC placebo -1.1 ± 9.5%. There were no statistically significant treatment effects on oestradiol, FSH, or LH (assessed only in postmenopausal women), or on lymphocyte tyrosine kinase activity. Baseline levels of menopausal symptoms were low, and there were no statistically significant treatment effects on frequency of hot flushes or other menopausal symptoms. In contrast to studies showing that conventional hormone replacement therapies increase mammographic breast density, the isoflavone supplement did not increase mammographic breast density in this population of women

  1. Changes During Growth in Cell Wall Components of Berseem Clover Under Different Cutting Treatments in a Mediterranean Region

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    Giuditta De Santis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Forage digestibility of berseem clover (Trifolium Alexandrinum L. is influenced by plant cell wall composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different cutting treatments on cell-wall components of the herbage and plant fractions in two Mediterranean berseem genotypes during growth and to examine the relationship between digestibility and cell wall components in these plant fractions. Cutting treatments were initiated at sixth internode elongation (A and early flowering (B and there was an uncut control treatment (C. Spring growth of genotypes of Egyptian (cv. Giza 10 and Italian (cv. Sacromonte origins was harvested in each of two years beginning 196 days after sowing and thereafter every 6 days (twelve harvests in total to measure cell wall components. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and acid detergent lignin (ADL concentrations were determined for leaf, stem, and total forage of each cultivar at each harvest. Without defoliation, NDF, ADF and ADL concentrations of herbage increased linearly to a maximum of 528, 375 and 84 g kg-1 DM, respectively, by 220 days after planting, when plant height reached maximum values, then plateaued until 257 days after planting. Plant parts differed in cell-wall concentration, with stems being of higher fibre components than leaves, in the two cutting treatments. Herbage and plant fraction fibre concentrations were negatively correlated with digestibility for all cutting treatments. Defoliation induced a reduction in fibre concentrations and plant height, although a rapid regrowth was observed after cutting, in both treatments A and B. However, delaying defoliation to the early flowering stage (B increased fibre components concentrations both at cutting time and during the growing season and significantly reduced the regrowth height. Conversely, plants cut at the sixth internode elongation (treatment A showed lower concentrations of fibre fractions than initiating

  2. Effect of harvest time of red and white clover silage on chewing activity and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfelt, L F; Nørgaard, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the effects of harvest time of red and white clover silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in cows. The clover crops were harvested at two stages of growth and ensiled in bales. Red clover crops had 36% and 45% NDF in dry matter (DM) at early (ER) and late (LR) harvest, respectively, and the white clover crops had 19% and 29% NDF in DM at the early (EW) and late (LW) harvest, respectively. The silages were fed restrictively (80% of ad libitum intake) twice daily to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (588 ± 52 kg) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Jaw movements (JM) were recorded for 96 h continuously. Swallowed boli, rumen mat, rumen fluid and faeces samples were collected, washed in nylon bags (0.01 mm pore size) and freeze-dried before dry sieving through 4.750, 2.360, 1.000, 0.500, 0.212 and 0.106 mm into seven fractions. The length (PL) and width (PW) values of rumen and faeces particles within each fraction were measured by use of image analysis. The eating activity (min/kg DM intake; P rumen mat (P rumen fluid (P rumen mat and faeces, but only one peak (mode 1) for PL values. There was no difference in the mean and mode 1 PW and PL value in rumen mat between the four treatments. The mean PL, mode PL, mode 2 PW and mean PW in faeces were highest for LR (P rumen mat and faeces particles are most likely related to the leaves and the stems/petioles. In conclusion, the mean total chewing activity per kg DM was lowest for the white clover silage and increased for both silages due to later harvest time. The mean particle size in boli was smallest for LR, whereas the mean PL and PW in faeces were highest for the LR.

  3. Assessment of Qualitative and Quantitative Characters of Two Persian Clover Ecotypes Inoculated by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovartrifoli and Pesudomonas putida Bacteria

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    R Azamei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Over the past decades, world attitude has changed towards the reduction of environmental pollutants. Harmful effects of synthetic fertilizers on environment have been identified. Bio-fertilizers are not harmful to the environment, but also they have favorable effects on plant growth processes. Soil biotechnology can be defined as the study of soil organisms and their metabolic processes which may have positive effects on plant yields. The main goal of this study is to asess the biotechnology fertilizers beneficial effects on soil organisms and their subsequently to maximize the yield. It is also our desire conside the soil quality, hygiene and environmental protection along this process. Among the strain of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, symbiotic bacteria such as rhizobium bacteria are important and essential in planning the sustainable farming systems. Several studies have shown that crop varieties which inoculated with rhizobium and pseudomonas were superior in yield production and performance. Material and Methods An experiment was designed as factorial performed in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in Agricultural Research Center of Golpayegan (Isfahan during 2010 – 2011. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of inoculation of two ecotypes of Persian clover by various strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum. Biovar trifoli bacteria accompanied with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR Pseudomonas putida was employed to find certain qualitative and quantitative characteristics of clover yield, The main plots included two local ecotypes of Persian clover; Arak Haft Chin (V1 and Isfahan Haft Chin (V2, the subplots included inoculation by two strain of Rhizobium; Rb-3, Rb-13 and one strain of Pseudomonas; PS -168.4 cuts were performed during the experiment and 60 kg/ha seed was used for cultivation based on local knowledge. According to recommendations of the Institute of Soil and Water

  4. Nitrogen-doped two-dimensional porous carbon sheets derived from clover biomass for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cunjing; Wu, Dapeng; Wang, Hongju; Gao, Zhiyong; Xu, Fang; Jiang, Kai

    2017-09-01

    Highly porous carbon sheets were prepared from fresh clover stems under air atmosphere via a facile potassium chloride salt-sealing technique, which not only avoids using the high cost inert gas protection but also spontaneously introduce multi-level porosity into the carbon structure taking advantage of the trace of oxygen in the molten salt system. The as-obtained porous carbon sheets possess high specific surface area of 2244 m2 g-1 and interconnected hierarchical pore structures from micro-to macro-scale, which provide abundant storage active sites and fast ion diffusion channels. In addition, the spontaneously formed N (2.55 at%) and O (6.94 at%) doping sites not only improve the electron conductivity of the electrode but also enhance the specific capacitance by introducing pseudocapacitance. When employed as supercapacitor electrodes, a high specific capacitance of 436 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and an excellent rate capacity with capacitance remaining 290 F g-1 at 50 A g-1 are demonstrated. Furthermore, the assembled symmetric supercapacitor delivers a high specific capacitance of 420 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, excellent energy density of 58.4 Wh kg-1 and good cycling stability which retains 99.4% of the initial capacitance at 5 A g-1 after 30,000 cycles.

  5. Interannual variation in nitrous oxide emissions from perennial ryegrass/white clover grassland used for dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchill, William; Li, Dejun; Lanigan, Gary J; Williams, Micheal; Humphreys, James

    2014-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions are subject to intra- and interannual variation due to changes in weather and management. This creates significant uncertainties when quantifying estimates of annual N2 O emissions from grazed grasslands. Despite these uncertainties, the majority of studies are short-term in nature (Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from fertilized and grazed perennial ryegrass/white clover grassland (WC) and from perennial ryegrass plots that were not grazed and did not receive N input (GB), over 4 years from 2008 to 2012 in Ireland (52°51'N, 08°21'W). The annual N2 O-N emissions (kg ha(-1); mean ± SE) ranged from 4.4 ± 0.2 to 34.4 ± 5.5 from WC and from 1.7 ± 0.8 to 6.3 ± 1.2 from GB. Interannual variation in N2 O emissions was attributed to differences in annual rainfall, monthly (December) soil temperatures and variation in N input. Such substantial interannual variation in N2 O emissions highlights the need for long-term studies of emissions from managed pastoral systems. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU, may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1 urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2 broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75% of N sources; and (3 a single fall (100% application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT, ammonium nitrate (AN, or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN at 0, 56, 84, and 112 kg·N·ha−1 on wheat yield, wheat biomass, N uptake by wheat, and frost-seeded red clover (FSC (Trifolium pratense L. forage yield (2004–2007. PCU applied in fall released less than 30% urea by February. Urea released from PCU by harvest was 60% and 85% in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In poorly-drained soils, wheat yields ranked PCU > AN > U + NBPT > urea ≥ UAN over the rates evaluated for fall-only application. PCU was a viable fall-applied N source, with yields similar to or greater than urea or U + NBPT split-applied. Split-N applications of AN, urea, UAN, and U + NBPT generally resulted in greater wheat yields than a fall application. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers provide farmers with flexible options for maintaining high yielding production systems.

  7. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N; Brown, M A

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted during the 2009 and 2010 grazing seasons to assess carcass parameters and chevon (goat meat) quality when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on pastures of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCL), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT), or chicory (Cichorium intybus L.; CHIC). Final live weight (Pgoats were finished on RCL compared to CHIC with BFT being intermediate. Ribeye area, backfat thickness, body wall thickness, internal fat score, and leg score were not different (P>0.10) among treatments when adjusted for the covariate of carcass weight. Finishing meat-goat kids on RCL, BFT, or CHIC impacted concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) 18:1 trans-10, 18:1 cis-11, 18:2, 18:3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-6, omega-3, and PUFA:saturated fatty acid ratio in longissimus lumborum samples. Finishing meat-goat kids on CHIC, RCL, or BFT pastures produced carcass weights acceptable for most ethnic markets in the USA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can decrease the uptake of uranium by subterranean clover grown at high levels of uranium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufyikiri, Gervais; Huysmans, Lien; Wannijn, Jean; Hees, May van; Leyval, Corinne; Jakobsen, Iver

    2004-01-01

    Subterranean clover inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices was grown on soil containing six levels of 238 U in the range 0-87 mg kg -1 . Increasing U concentration in soil enhanced the U concentration in roots and shoots of both mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants but had no significant effects on plant dry matter production or root AM colonization. Mycorrhizas increased the shoot dry matter and P concentration in roots and shoots, while in most cases, it decreased the Ca, Mg and K concentrations in plants. The AM fungus influenced U concentration in plants only in the treatment receiving 87 mg U kg -1 soil. In this case, U concentration in shoots of nonmycorrhizal plants was 1.7 times that of shoots of mycorrhizal plants. These results suggested that mycorrhizal fungi can limit U accumulation by plants exposed to high levels of U in soil. - Plant mycorrhization may decrease U concentration in shoots of plants grown at high level of U in soil

  9. Effect of substituting fresh-cut perennial ryegrass with fresh-cut white clover on bovine milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Hynes, Deborah N; Thomson, Anna L; Kliem, Kirsty E; Berlitz, Carolina Gb; Günal, Mevlüt; Yan, Tianhai

    2018-03-06

    Including forage legumes in dairy systems can help address increasing environmental/economic concerns about perennial ryegrass monoculture pastures. This work investigated the effect of substituting fresh-cut grass with increasing quantities of fresh-cut white clover (WC) on milk fatty acid (FA) profile and transfer efficiency of dietary linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic (ALNA) acids to milk fat. Three groups of three crossbred dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 crossover design. Dietary treatments were 0 g kg -1 WC + 600 g kg -1 grass, 200 g kg -1 WC + 400 g kg -1 grass, and 400 g kg -1 WC + 200 g kg -1 grass. All treatments were supplemented with 400 g kg -1 concentrates on a dry matter basis. Cows had a 19-day adaptation period to the experimental diet before a 6-day measurement period in individual tie stalls. Increasing dietary WC did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield or milk concentrations of fat, protein or lactose. Milk polyunsaturated FA concentrations (total n-3, total n-6, LA and ALNA) and transfer efficiency of LA and ALNA were increased with increasing dietary WC supply. Inclusion of WC in pastures may increase concentrations of nutritionally beneficial FA, without influencing milk yield and basic composition, but any implications on human health cannot be drawn. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

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    Angela E. Gradish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp. are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common, red clover (Trifolium pratense, and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  11. Discussion of a Well-Designed Clinical Trial Which Did Not Demonstrate Effectiveness: UIC Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research Study of Black Cohosh and Red Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lee P.; Banuvar, Suzanne; Fong, Harry H. S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a clinical trial for pharmaceutical agents is usually undertaken only after there is likely benefit demonstrated from the use of the putative agent. The consideration of botanical products as pharmaceutical agents must similarly go through a rigorous evaluation process. The present work reviews the recently published Phase II study evaluating the effectiveness of black cohosh and red clover in a randomized trial with conjugated equine estradiol/medroxyprogesterone acetate and placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. We analyze the possible reasons why this study failed to show benefit for either botanical product in reducing menopause-related vasomotor symptoms. PMID:21034798

  12. Identification of an extensive gene cluster among a family of PPOs in Trifolium pratense L. (red clover using a large insert BAC library

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    Thomas Ann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity in plants is a trait with potential economic, agricultural and environmental impact. In relation to the food industry, PPO-induced browning causes unacceptable discolouration in fruit and vegetables: from an agriculture perspective, PPO can protect plants against pathogens and environmental stress, improve ruminant growth by increasing nitrogen absorption and decreasing nitrogen loss to the environment through the animal's urine. The high PPO legume, red clover, has a significant economic and environmental role in sustaining low-input organic and conventional farms. Molecular markers for a range of important agricultural traits are being developed for red clover and improved knowledge of PPO genes and their structure will facilitate molecular breeding. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library comprising 26,016 BAC clones with an average 135 Kb insert size, was constructed from Trifolium pratense L. (red clover, a diploid legume with a haploid genome size of 440–637 Mb. Library coverage of 6–8 genome equivalents ensured good representation of genes: the library was screened for polyphenol oxidase (PPO genes. Two single copy PPO genes, PPO4 and PPO5, were identified to add to a family of three, previously reported, paralogous genes (PPO1–PPO3. Multiple PPO1 copies were identified and characterised revealing a subfamily comprising three variants PPO1/2, PPO1/4 and PPO1/5. Six PPO genes clustered within the genome: four separate BAC clones could be assembled onto a predicted 190–510 Kb single BAC contig. Conclusion A PPO gene family in red clover resides as a cluster of at least 6 genes. Three of these genes have high homology, suggesting a more recent evolutionary event. This PPO cluster covers a longer region of the genome than clusters detected in rice or previously reported in tomato. Full-length coding sequences from PPO4, PPO5, PPO1/5 and PPO1/4 will facilitate

  13. The effects of PPO activity on the proteome of ingested red clover and implications for improving the nutrition of grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E H; Onime, L A; Davies, T E; Morphew, R M; Kingston-Smith, A H

    2016-06-01

    Increasing the rumen-stable protein content of feed would lead to improved nitrogen utilisation in cattle, and less nitrogenous waste. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high protein ruminant feed containing high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. PPO mediated protein-quinone binding has been linked to protecting plant proteins from proteolysis. To explore the mechanism underlying the effect of PPO on protein protection in fresh forage feeds, proteomic components of feed down-boli produced from wild-type red clover and a low PPO mutant, at point of ingestion and after 4h in vitro incubation with rumen inoculum were analysed. Significant differences in proteomic profiles between wild-type and mutant red clover were determined after 4h incubation, with over 50% less spots in mutant than wild-type proteomes, indicating decreased proteolysis in the latter. Protein identifications revealed preferentially retained proteins localised within the chloroplast, suggesting that PPO mediated protection in the wild-type operates due to the proximity of target proteins to the enzyme and substrates, either diffusing into this compartment from the vacuole or are present in the chloroplast. This increased understanding of protein targets of PPO indicates that wider exploitation of the trait could contribute to increased protein use efficiency in grazing cattle. One of the main challenges for sustainable livestock farming is improving capture of dietary nitrogen by ruminants. Typically up to 70% of ingested protein-N is excreted representing a loss of productivity potential and a serious environmental problem in terms of nitrogenous pollution of lands and water. Identification of key characteristics of rumen-protected protein will deliver target traits for selection in forage breeding programmes. The chloroplastic enzyme PPO catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to quinones, which react with protein. Little is currently known about the intracellular protein targets of the products

  14. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A K S; Weisbjerg, M R; Storm, A C; Nørgaard, P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake, chewing activity, and apparent digestibility. Four grass/clover harvests (Mixtures of Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Trifolium repens) were performed from early May to late August at different maturities, at different regrowth stages, and with different clover proportions, resulting in silages with NDF contents of 312, 360, 371, and 446 g/kg DM, respectively, and decreasing NDF digestibility with greater NDF content. Four rumen-fistulated dairy heifers were fed silage at 90% of ad libitum level as the only feed source in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Silage, ingested feed boluses, medial and ventral ruminal digesta, and feces samples were washed with neutral detergent in nylon bags of 10-μm pore size, freeze dried, and divided into small (1 mm) particles by dry-sieving. Chewing activity, rumen pool size, and apparent digestibility were measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0.31), medial rumen digesta (P = 0.95), ventral rumen digesta (P = 0.84), and feces (P = 0.09). Greater proportions of DM (P ruminal digesta compared with ventral rumen, and differences in DM proportion increased with greater NDF content (P = 0.02). Particle size distributions were similar for digesta from the medial and ventral rumen regardless of NDF content of the silages (P > 0.13). The LP proportion was >30% of particles in the ventral and medial rumen, whereas in the feces, the LP proportion was content of the silages

  15. Use of some inorganic and organic compounds as decontaminants for cobalt-60 and caesium-134 by clover plant grown on Inshas sandy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Sabour, M.F.; El-Naggar, H.A.; Soliman, S.M. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Chemistry Dept.)

    1991-01-01

    Outdoor lysimeter experiments were carried out to elucidate the effect of 4 inorganic and 3 organic salts on {sup 60}Co and {sup 134}Cs uptake and dry matter yield of three cuts of clover in the soils of Inshas. A new concept was proposed for assessing the difference in capacity of soil to supply radionuclides to plants as affected by applied inorganic or organic compounds. A relation of plant tissue radionuclide content with time can be expressed in an exponential equation with corresponding regression coefficients. When the same plant species is grown on the same soil differing only in the applied compounds (e.g. Fe-EDDHA, Fe-DTPA, Fe-OAC, Fe(COO){sub 2}, Al(OH){sub 3}, Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) the derived equation will change. Differences of either Co or Cs accumulation with time between control and any other treatment were evaluated. The data also show that Fe-DTPA is preferred for {sup 60}Co as enhancing compound for plant uptake (for decontamination use), compared with other applied salts, on the other hand, any tested salts did not significantly effect {sup 134}Cs taken by clover. It was also found that more than 70% of the total cobalt uptake was accumulated in the roots which indicate that Co is less mobile in plants than Cs. (orig.).

  16. Use of some inorganic and organic compounds as decontaminants for cobalt-60 and caesium-134 by clover plant grown on Inshas sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Sabour, M.F.; El-Naggar, H.A.; Soliman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Outdoor lysimeter experiments were carried out to elucidate the effect of 4 inorganic and 3 organic salts on 60 Co and 134 Cs uptake and dry matter yield of three cuts of clover in the soils of Inshas. A new concept was proposed for assessing the difference in capacity of soil to supply radionuclides to plants as affected by applied inorganic or organic compounds. A relation of plant tissue radionuclide content with time can be expressed in an exponential equation with corresponding regression coefficients. When the same plant species is grown on the same soil differing only in the applied compounds (e.g. Fe-EDDHA, Fe-DTPA, Fe-OAC, Fe(COO) 2 , Al(OH) 3 , Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 , Fe 2 O 3 ) the derived equation will change. Differences of either Co or Cs accumulation with time between control and any other treatment were evaluated. The data also show that Fe-DTPA is preferred for 60 Co as enhancing compound for plant uptake (for decontamination use), compared with other applied salts, on the other hand, any tested salts did not significantly effect 134 Cs taken by clover. It was also found that more than 70% of the total cobalt uptake was accumulated in the roots which indicate that Co is less mobile in plants than Cs. (orig.) [de

  17. Resistance of red clover (Trifolium pratense) to the root parasitic plant Orobanche minor is activated by salicylate but not by jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Dai; Goldwasser, Yaakov; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2007-09-01

    Obligate root holoparasites of the genus Orobanche attack dicotyledonous crops and cause severe losses in many parts of the world. Chemical induction of plant defence systems such as systemic acquired resistance was proposed to be an available strategy to control the root parasite, but the detailed mechanisms involved have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and their analogues on resistance of red clover to Orobanche parasitism. Roots of red clover grown in plastic chambers were applied with SA, S-methyl benzo[1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and n-propyl dihydrojasmonate (PDJ), and then were inoculated with O. minor seeds. Attachments of the parasite were observed after 5 weeks. SA and BTH, inducers of SA-mediated defences, significantly reduced the number of established parasites by more than 75 %. By contrast, MeJA and PDJ, inducers of JA-mediated defences, did not affect parasitism. The reduction in the number of established parasites by SA and BTH was due to the inhibited elongation of O. minor radicles and the activation of defence responses in the host root including lignification of the endodermis. These results suggest that SA-induced resistance, but not JA-induced resistance, is effective in inhibiting Orobanche parasitism and that the resistance is expressed by the host root both externally and internally.

  18. Immunogold Labelling to Localize Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) During Wilting of Red Clover Leaf Tissue and the Effect of Removing Cellular Matrices on PPO Protection of Glycerol-Based Lipid in the Rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) reduces the extent of proteolysis and lipolysis within red clover fed to ruminants. PPO catalyses the conversion of phenols to quinones which can react with nucleophilic cellular constituents (e.g. proteins), forming protein-phenol complexes that may reduce protei...

  19. Changes in the spore numbers of AM fungi and in AM colonisation of roots of clovers and grasses on a peat-muck soil with respect to mineral fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska, T. K.; Kwiatkowaska, E.

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year plot experiment was conducted to determine the dynamics of changes in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and of the degree of endomycorrhizal colonisation of roots of clovers and meadow grasses on an organic peat-muck soil in a post-marshy habitat, taking into account the effect of mineral fertilisation (NPK). The experimental object comprised four plots that represented the fertilisation treatments, sown with white clover (Trifolium repens L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and a mix of grasses composed of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis L.), and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.). Analogous sowing was performed on control (non-fertilised) plots. It was found that spores of AMF occurred in 100 percent of the samples of the soil studied, and the average total number of AMF spores isolated from soil under the particular plant combinations was high and amounted to 1858 spores (range from 1392 to 2443) in 100 g of air-dried soil. The percentage share of the clover and grass roots colonised by indigenous endomycorrhizal fungi was very low and varied from 0 to 46 (average from 4.1 percent to 12.2 percent). No correlation was found between the spore numbers of AMF in the soil and the degree of mycorrhized roots of the clovers and grasses. Mineral fertilisation stimulated the sporulation of AM fungi but had no effect on root colonisation by these fungi. (author)

  20. Nitrate leaching and residual effect in dairy crop rotations with grass-clover leys as influenced by sward age, grazing, cutting and fertilizer regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Intensive dairy farming, with grass-arable crop rotations is challenged by low N use efficiency that may have adverse environmental consequences. We investigated nitrate leaching and N fertility effects of grass–clover leys for five years in two organic crop rotations with different grassland...... with the 2-yr-old leaching the most (36–46 kg N ha−1), and (4) high leaching (>50 kg N ha−1) with lupin and maize, where especially maize was consistently high in all five years (average 81 kg N ha−1). Great care should be taken during all phases of the dairy crop rotation where grasslands cause considerable...... build-up of fertility. With due care and the best management practice, nitrate leaching losses may be reduced to low levels....

  1. Environmental monitoring near the Macaulay Point and Clover Point marine sewage outfalls at Victoria, British Columbia in 1989 and 1990. Regional data report No. DR 92-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colodey, A G; Salmon, R A; Lim, P G

    1992-01-01

    The marine environment surrounding the Capital Region district (CRD) of British Columbia that includes the City of Victoria has been monitored by municipal, provincial, and federal authorities over the past 20 years to determine the impact of wastewater discharges. This report presents data from limited sampling conducted near the main CRD deep-water outfalls at Clover and Macaulay Points, the Canadian Department of National Defence septic tank outfall off Belmont and Esquimault Lagoon, and reference locations on Constance Bank and Discovery Island. Samples for this study were collected in April and October 1989, and April 1990. Parameters investigated were sediment and biota trace metals, sediment particle size, sediment volatile residues, visual descriptions of sediment, bacterial counts, water conductivity, temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen.

  2. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Storm, Adam Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake...... measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0.......31), medial rumen digesta (P = 0.95), ventral rumen digesta (P = 0.84), and feces (P = 0.09). Greater proportions of DM (P ruminal digesta compared with ventral rumen, and differences in DM proportion increased with greater NDF content (P = 0...

  3. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late......) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production...... digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake...

  4. Exogenous Application of GABA Improves PEG-Induced Drought Tolerance Positively Associated with GABA-Shunt, Polyamines, and Proline Metabolism in White Clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Bin; Xie, Huan; Li, Zhou; Li, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Gang; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Lin-Kai; Yan, Yan-Hong; Peng, Yan

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on drought tolerance in white clover (Trifolium repens), GABA shunt, polyamines (PAs), and proline (Pro) metabolism were examined after plants pretreated with or without GABA (8 mM) and then exposed to water or 15% PEG-induced drought stress in growth chamber. In this study, exogenous application of GABA effectively alleviated drought-induced damage in leaves, as reflected by significantly higher relative water content, lower electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, and leaf wilt. Exogenous GABA further promoted drought-induced increases in GABA transaminase and alpha ketone glutarate dehydrogenase activities, but inhibited glutamate decarboxylase activity under both control and drought conditions, resulting in an increase in endogenous glutamate (Glu) and GABA content. Besides, exogenous GABA could well accelerated PAs synthesis and suppressed PAs catabolism, which lead to the extremely enhanced different types of PAs content (free Put and Spd, insoluble bound Spd and Spm, soluble conjugated Spd and Spm, and total Put, Spd and Spm) under drought stress. In addition, exogenous GABA application further activated drought-induced Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and proline dehydrogenase activities, but suppressed drought-facilitated ornithine -δ-amino transferase activities, leading to a higher Pro accumulation and metabolism in GABA-pretreated plants in the middle and last period of drought. The results suggested that increased endogenous GABA by exogenous GABA treatment could improve drought tolerance of white clover associated with a positive regulation in the GABA-shunt, PAs and Pro metabolism.

  5. Use of inorganic and organic compounds as decontaminates for cobalt T-60 and cesium-134 by clover plant grown on Inshas Sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; El-naggr, H.A.; Soliman, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Out door lysimeter experiment was carried out to elucidate the effect of four inorganic and three organic salts on 60 Co and 134 Cs uptake and dry matter yield of three cuts of clover in the soil Inshas A new concept was proposed for assessing the difference in capacity of soil to supply radionuclides (i.e. 60 Co and 134 Cs) to plants as affected by applied inorganic or organic compounds. The relation of plant tissues (P c ) Co/IR Cs content with increasing time can be expressed as log (Pc) = A + B log time (T), where A and B the regression. When the same plant species is grown on the same soil differ only in the applied compound (e.g. Fe-EDDHA, Fe-DTPA, Fe-O A C, Fe(Coo)z, A1(OH)3, Ca(H2 P O 4 )2 and Fe 2 O 3 ) the equation will change to, log (P'c) = A + B' log (T) (I). Based on both equations, the relationship between (Pc) becomes; log (P'c) = [(A'B')/(A B + A B ) [ +[1/A'B + A B ) [ log (Pc) (II). The intercept (C) and slope (S) in Eq. (II) were determined among 7 treatments (for either 60 Co or 134 Cs). Then the difference of either Co or Cs accumulation with time between control and any other treatment was evaluated according to (C) and (S) values. The data also that Fe-DTPA is preferred for 60 Co as enhancing compound for plant uptake (for decontamination use); compared with other applied salts; on the other hand, any tested salts did not significantly effect 134 Cs taken by clover. Also, it was found that more than 70% of total cobalt uptake was accumulated in the roots which indicate that Co is less mobile in plants than Cs. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  6. High spatial variation in population size and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with white clover in New Zealand pasture soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillard, Guyléne; van Ham, Robert; Ballard, Ross; Farquharson, Elizabeth; Gerard, Emily; Geurts, Rene; Brown, Matthew; Ridgway, Hayley; O’Callaghan, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation through the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is important for sustainable pastoral production. In New Zealand, the most widespread and valuable symbiosis occurs between white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (Rlt). As variation in the population size (determined by most probable number assays; MPN) and effectiveness of N-fixation (symbiotic potential; SP) of Rlt in soils may affect white clover performance, the extent in variation in these properties was examined at three different spatial scales: (1) From 26 sites across New Zealand, (2) at farm-wide scale, and (3) within single fields. Overall, Rlt populations ranged from 95 to >1 x 108 per g soil, with variation similar at the three spatial scales assessed. For almost all samples, there was no relationship between rhizobia population size and ability of the population to fix N during legume symbiosis (SP). When compared with the commercial inoculant strain, the SP of soils ranged between 14 to 143% efficacy. The N-fixing ability of rhizobia populations varied more between samples collected from within a single hill country field (0.8 ha) than between 26 samples collected from diverse locations across New Zealand. Correlations between SP and calcium and aluminium content were found in all sites, except within a dairy farm field. Given the general lack of association between SP and MPN, and high spatial variability of SP at single field scale, provision of advice for treating legume seed with rhizobia based on field-average MPN counts needs to be carefully considered. PMID:29489845

  7. Knock-down of transcript abundance of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor genes in white clover (Trifolium repens) reveals a redundancy and diversity of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Laing, William A; Richardson, Kim A; Hofmann, Rainer W; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional regulation of four phylogenetically distinct members of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) genes isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens; designated Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5) has been investigated to determine their wider functional role. The four genes displayed differential transcription during seed germination, and in different tissues of the mature plant, and transcription was also ontogenetically regulated. Heterologous over-expression of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5 in Nicotiana tabacum retarded larval growth of the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and an increase in the transcription of the pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR4 was observed in the Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI4 over-expressing lines. RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down lines in white clover displayed significantly altered vegetative growth phenotypes with inhibition of shoot growth and a stimulation of root growth, while knock-down of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2 and Tr-KPI5 transcript abundance also retarded larval growth of S. litura. Examination of these RNAi lines revealed constitutive stress-associated phenotypes as well as altered transcription of cellular signalling genes. These results reveal a functional redundancy across members of the KPI gene family. Further, the regulation of transcription of at least one member of the family, Tr-KPI2, may occupy a central role in the maintenance of a cellular homeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Forage Quantity and Quality of Berseem Clover (Trifolium ‎alexandrinum L. as Affected by Uses of Pseudomonas putida ‎Strains and Phophorus Fertilizer in the Second Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Ansari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of phosphate fertilizer and pseudomonas putida strains on the quantity and quality of forage of berseem clover as a second crop was studied in a factorial field experiment using randomized complete block design with three replications at Fooman, Guilan province, Iran. Treatments consisted of phosphate fertilizer with three levels (0, 75 and 150 kg/ha as triple super phosphate and Pseudomonas putida strains with four levels (M21, M5, M168 and control. The results showed that use of phosphate fertilizers increased the soil pH during growing season while bacterial inoculation adjusted soil pH. The bacterial inoculation increased amount of crude protein, digestible protein, acidic and alkaline phosphatase activity compared to non-inoculated treatment, but it decreased crude fiber of the forage. Clover forage yield, protein yield and phosphorus content of foliage also were influenced by the interaction of bacterial strains and phosphate fertilizer. The highest forage and protein yield were obtained by using strain M5+150 kg P ha-1. Significant increases in forage and protein yield were found to be 16.49% and 8.01%, respectively, as compared with non-inoculated treatment. Based on the result of this experiment, application of 150 kg P ha-1 and Pseudomonas putida strain M5 inoculation can be used to obtain highest forage yield and quality of berseem clover as second crop in the experimental site.

  9. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Involvement of P3N-PIPO in Overcoming Recessive Resistance against Clover Yellow Vein Virus in Pea Carrying the cyv1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Hee; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Atsumi, Go; Shimada, Ryoko; Hisa, Yusuke; Naito, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In pea carrying cyv1, a recessive gene for resistance to Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV), ClYVV isolate Cl-no30 was restricted to the initially infected cells, whereas isolate 90-1 Br2 overcame this resistance. We mapped the region responsible for breaking of cyv1-mediated resistance by examining infection of cyv1 pea with chimeric viruses constructed from parts of Cl-no30 and 90-1 Br2. The breaking of resistance was attributed to the P3 cistron, which is known to produce two proteins: P3, from the main open reading frame (ORF), and P3N-PIPO, which has the N-terminal part of P3 fused to amino acids encoded by a small open reading frame (ORF) called PIPO in the +2 reading frame. We introduced point mutations that were synonymous with respect to the P3 protein but nonsynonymous with respect to the P3N-PIPO protein, and vice versa, into the chimeric viruses. Infection of plants with these mutant viruses revealed that both P3 and P3N-PIPO were involved in overcoming cyv1-mediated resistance. Moreover, P3N-PIPO quantitatively affected the virulence of Cl-no30 in cyv1 pea. Additional expression in trans of the P3N-PIPO derived from Cl-no30, using White clover mosaic virus as a vector, enabled Cl-no30 to move to systemic leaves in cyv1 pea. Susceptible pea plants infected with chimeric ClYVV possessing the P3 cistron of 90-1 Br2, and which were therefore virulent toward cyv1 pea, accumulated more P3N-PIPO than did those infected with Cl-no30, suggesting that the higher level of P3N-PIPO in infected cells contributed to the breaking of resistance by 90-1 Br2. This is the first report showing that P3N-PIPO is a virulence determinant in plants resistant to a potyvirus. PMID:23616656

  11. Preferential flow, nitrogen transformations and 15N balance under urine-affected areas of irrigated and non-irrigated clover-based pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakro, Naser; Dillon, Peter

    1995-12-01

    Urine-affected areas can lead to considerable losses of N by leaching, ammonia volatilisation and denitrification from dairy pastures in the southeast of South Australia. Potable groundwater supplies are considered to have become contaminated by nitrate as a result of leaching from these leguminous pastures. Dairy cow urine, labelled with 15N urea, was applied to micro-plots and mini-lysimeters installed in two adjacent irrigated (white clover-rye grass) and non-irrigated (subterranean clover-annual grasses) paddocks of a dairy farm on four occasions representing different seasonal conditions. These experiments allowed measurement of nitrogen transformations, recovery of 15N in the pasture and soil, and leaching below various depths. Gaseous losses were calculated from the nitrogen balance. The results of the four experiments showed that within a day of urine application up to 40% of the applied urinary-N was leached below a depth of 150 mm as a result of macropore flow in the irrigated paddock, and up to 24% in the non-irrigated one. After application to the irrigated paddock 17% of the urinary-N moved immediately below 300 mm but only 2% below the 450-mm depth. The urinary-N remaining in the soil was converted from urea to ammonium within a day regardless of season. Within the first 7 days of application six times more nitrate was produced in summer than in winter. This has obvious implications for leaching potential. Leaching of 15N from the top 150 mm of soil, following urine applications in all seasons, was between 41% and 62% of the applied 15N in the irrigated paddock and 25-51% in the non-irrigated paddock. However, leaching losses measured at depths of 300 or 450 mm were smaller by a factor of 2-4. The leaching loss of 15N applied in spring in both paddocks was 41% below 150 mm and 12% below 450 mm. Recovery of 15N from the soil-plant system in the 450-nm deep lysimeters was ˜60% of that applied. Estimated ammonia was ˜9% of applied 15N with no paddock

  12. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein

  13. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Lund, Peter; Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    . The supplement under investigation was: lupins in experiment 1, barley in experiment 2 and soybeans in experiment 3. The same forage mixture of grass-clover silage (84% of DM), grass pellets (11% of DM) and straw (5% of DM) was fed ad libitum in all the experiments. Toasting decreased effective rumen protein...... degradability determined in situ for all three supplements. Compared to untreated lupins toasting of lupins tended (P = 0.10) to increase milk yield, whereas toasting of soybeans did not affect milk yield. Toasting of lupins decreased (P = 0.03) milk protein content (32.2 versus 32.7 g/kg), whereas toasting...... of soybeans did not affect milk protein content. ECM yield was significantly higher (P = 0.002) for cows fed toasted soybeans than for cows fed untreated soybeans (28.1 versus 26.4 kg ECM) whereas there was no significant effect on ECM yield from toasting lupins or barley. It can be concluded...

  14. Lattice Calculation of D- and B-meson Semileptonic Decays, using the Clover Action at beta=6.0 on APE

    CERN Document Server

    Allton, C R; Lubicz, V; Martinelli, G; Rapuano, F; Stella, N; Vladikas, A; Bartoloni, A; Battista, C; Cabasino, S; Cabibbo, Nicola; Panizzi, E; Paolucci, P S; Sarno, R; Todesco, G M; Torelli, M; Vicini, P

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a high statistics lattice calculation of hadronic form factors relevant for $D-$ and $B-$meson semi-leptonic decays into light pseudoscalar and vector mesons. The results have been obtained by averaging over 170 gauge field configurations, generated in the quenched approximation, at $\\beta=6.0$, on a $18^3 \\times 64$ lattice, using the $O(a)$-improved SW-Clover action.From the study of the matrix element $$, we obtain $f_+ (0)=0.78\\pm 0.08$ and from the matrix element $$ we obtain $V(0)=1.08\\pm 0.22$, $A_1(0)=0.67\\pm 0.11$ and $A_2(0)=0.49\\pm 0.34$. We also obtain the ratios $V(0)/A_1(0)=1.6\\pm 0.3$ and $A_2(0)/A_1(0)= 0.7\\pm 0.4$. Our predictions for the different form factors are in good agreement with the experimental data, although, in the case of $A_2(0)$, the errors are still too large to draw any firm conclusion. With the help of the Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) we have also extrapolated the lattice results to $B$-meson decays. The form factors follow a behaviour compat...

  15. Evalution of the healthiness of winter wheat cultivated in conventional tillage, direct sowing and direct sowing with underplant crop of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Moszczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of the healthiness of winter wheat depending on the soil tillage system and rate of nitrogen fertilization were carried out in 1998-2001. The largest threat to the healthiness of plants was tan spot, which was caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, especially in cropping season 1999/2000. The soil tillage system diversified the intensification of occurence of this pathogen, only in two last years of research. The most infected by P. tritici-i was wheat, which was cultivated in the direct sowing. Application of underplant crop of white clover in the direct sowing contributed to the improvement of the plants healthiness. The highest rate of nitrogen fertilization (120 kg N.ha-1 in the highest degree favoured the damage of wheat by P. tritici-repentis, but only in two first years of research. The second pathogen Blumeria graminis, which caused powdery mildew of cereals, occured in small amount and didn't have any influence on the healthiness of winter wheat.

  16. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (Pproducts (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (Pmeat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  17. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX, mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD, osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1 has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1 shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms.

  18. Mitigating N2O emissions from clover residues by 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) without adverse effects on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xianwang; Duan, YunFeng; Schramm, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    in a 28-d mesocosm experiment, where DMPP spraying prior to tillage was simulated. Above-ground parts of 15N-labelled clover residues were treated with DMPP and either placed at 10 cm depth to simulate ploughing (PL), or mixed with soil at 0–10 cm depth to simulate rotovation (RO). Earthworms (Lumbricus...... terrestris) were introduced to study their role in residue decomposition and N2O emissions. Fluxes and isotopic composition of N2O were determined with dynamic chambers using laser spectroscopy. A gradual increase in 15N-enrichment of N2O indicated that denitrification was the main source. DMPP reduced...... cumulative N2O emissions in PL from 241 to 146 mg N m−2; the reduction in RO was smaller, from 103 to 94 mg N m−2, and not significant, possibly due to higher oxygen and soil NO3− availability. After 28 d incubation, on average > 90% of the earthworms were recovered, and in vivo N2O production from L...

  19. Discrimination of Clover and Citrus Honeys from Egypt According to Floral Type Using Easily Assessable Physicochemical Parameters and Discriminant Analysis: An External Validation of the Chemometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis K. Karabagias

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two honey samples, namely clover and citrus honeys, were collected from the greater Cairo area during the harvesting year 2014–2015. The main purpose of the present study was to characterize the aforementioned honey types and to investigate whether the use of easily assessable physicochemical parameters, including color attributes in combination with chemometrics, could differentiate honey floral origin. Parameters taken into account were: pH, electrical conductivity, ash, free acidity, lactonic acidity, total acidity, moisture content, total sugars (degrees Brix-°Bx, total dissolved solids and their ratio to total acidity, salinity, CIELAB color parameters, along with browning index values. Results showed that all honey samples analyzed met the European quality standards set for honey and had variations in the aforementioned physicochemical parameters depending on floral origin. Application of linear discriminant analysis showed that eight physicochemical parameters, including color, could classify Egyptian honeys according to floral origin (p < 0.05. Correct classification rate was 95.5% using the original method and 90.9% using the cross validation method. The discriminatory ability of the developed model was further validated using unknown honey samples. The overall correct classification rate was not affected. Specific physicochemical parameter analysis in combination with chemometrics has the potential to enhance the differences in floral honeys produced in a given geographical zone.

  20. Forage yield and nutritive value of Elephant grass, Italian ryegrass and spontaneous growing species mixed with forage peanut or red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Schalemberg Diehl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate of three grazing systems (GS with elephant grass (EG, Italian ryegrass (IR + spontaneous growing species (SGS; EG + IR + SGS + forage peanut (FP; and EG + IR + SGS + red clover (RC, during the winter and summer periods in rotational grazing with dairy cattle. Experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments, two replicates with repeated measures. Lactating Holstein cows receiving 1% BW-daily feed supplement with concentrate were used in the evaluation. Eight grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period. The values of pre forage mass and stocking rate were 2.52, 2.60 and 2.99 t ha-1 and 2.64, 2.77 and 3.14 animal unit ha-1, respectively for GS. Samples of forage were collected by hand-plucking technique to analyze the crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, in situ dry matter digestibility (ISDMD, in situ organic matter digestibility (ISOMD of forage present between rows of elephant grass, in the rows of elephant grass and the legumes. Higher value of CP, ISOMD and lower of NDF were observed for the grazing systems mixed with legumes forage.

  1. Ameliorating Effects of Biochar Derived from Poultry Manure and White Clover Residues on Soil Nutrient Status and Plant growth Promotion--Greenhouse Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Anwar, Ahsan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Biochar application to agricultural soils is rapidly emerging as a new management strategy for its potential role in carbon sequestration, soil quality improvements, and plant growth promotion. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of biochars derived from white clover residues and poultry manure on soil quality characteristics, growth and N accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in a loam soil under greenhouse conditions. Treatments comprised of: untreated control; mineral N fertilizer (urea N, UN) at the rate of 200, and 100 mg N kg(-1), white clover residues biochar (WCRB), poultry manure biochar (PMB) at 30 Mg ha(-1), and the possible combinations of WCRB+PMB (50:50), UN+WCRB (50:50), UN+PMB (50:50), and UN+WCRB+PMB (50:25:25). The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications. Results indicated a significant increase in the growth and biomass production of maize and wheat supplemented with biochars alone or mixed with N fertilizer. Biochars treatments showed varying impact on plant growth depended upon the type of the biochar, and in general plant growth under PMB was significantly higher than that recorded under WCRB. The growth characteristics in the combined treatments (half biochar+half N) were either higher or equivalent to that recorded under full fertilizer N treatment (N200). The biochar treatments WCRB, PMB, and WCRB+PMB (50:50) increased maize shoot N by 18, 26 and 21%, respectively compared to the control while wheat shoot N did not show positive response. The N-uptake by maize treated with WCRB, PMB, and WCRB+PMB (50:50) was 54, 116, and 90 mg g(-1) compared to the 33 mg g(-1) in the control while the N-uptake by wheat was 41, 60, and 53 mg g(-1) compared to 24 mg g(-1) in the control. The mixed treatments (half biochar+half N) increased N-uptake by 2.3 folds in maize and 1.7 to 2.5 folds in wheat compared to the N100 showing increasing effect of biochar on N

  2. Produtividade de sistemas forrageiros consorciados com amendoim forrageiro ou trevo vermelho Productivity of pastures-based systems mixed to forage peanut or red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar três sistemas forrageiros (SF com capim elefante (CE Pennisetum purpureum Schum., cv. 'MerckeronPinda' + espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE + azevém anual (AZ Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. 'Comum', como SF1; CE + ECE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF Arachis pintoi Krap. e Greg., cv. 'Amarillo', como SF2; e CE + ECE + AZ + trevo vermelho (TV Trifolium pratense L., cv. 'Estanzoela 116', como SF3. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4m. O azevém anual foi estabelecido entre as linhas do CE durante o período hibernal; o TV foi semeado e o AF foi preservado nos respectivos tratamentos. Para avaliação, foram usadas vacas da raça Holandesa que receberam 5,5kg dia-1 como complemento alimentar. Foram avaliadas a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (TA, a massa de forragem desaparecida (MFD, a matéria seca desaparecida com base em 100kg de peso vivo (MSD e a produção de forragem (PF, as composições botânica e estrutural do CE. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (SF e duas repetições (piquetes em parcelas subdivididas no tempo (pastejo. Durante o período experimental (341 dias, foram efetuados nove ciclos de pastejo. Os valores médios de TA, MFD, MSD e PF foram de 53,16kg ha-1; 36,13%; 2,77kg de matéria seca por 100kg de peso vivo e 17,80t ha-1. Para a variável ECE, houve aumento significativo no SF1. Considerando a carga animal, o SF3 apresentou melhor desempenho.The objective of this research was to evaluate of tree pasture-based systems (PS with elephantgrass (EG Pennisetum purpureum Schum., cv. 'Merckeron Pinda' + spontaneous growing species (SGS, annual ryegrass (RG Lolium multiflorum Lam., cv. 'Comum', for PS1; EG + SGS + forage peanut (FP Arachis pintoi Krap. e Greg., cv. 'Amarillo', for PS2; and EG + SGS + RG + red clover (RC Trifolium pratense L., cv. 'Estanzoela 116', for PS3. EG was planted in lines with a distance of 4m

  3. Cap-independent translation mechanism of red clover necrotic mosaic virus RNA2 differs from that of RNA1 and is linked to RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Hiroyuki; Iwakawa, Hiro-Oki; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2006-04-01

    The genome of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) in the genus Dianthovirus is divided into two RNA molecules of RNA1 and RNA2, which have no cap structure at the 5' end and no poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of RCNMV RNA1 contains an essential RNA element (3'TE-DR1), which is required for cap-independent translation. In this study, we investigated a cap-independent translational mechanism of RNA2 using a firefly luciferase (Luc) gene expression assay system in cowpea protoplasts and a cell-free lysate (BYL) prepared from evacuolated tobacco BY2 protoplasts. We were unable to detect cis-acting RNA sequences in RNA2 that can replace the function of a cap structure, such as the 3'TE-DR1 of RNA1. However, the uncapped reporter RNA2, RNA2-Luc, in which the Luc open reading frame (ORF) was inserted between the 5' UTR and the movement protein ORF, was effectively translated in the presence of p27 and p88 in protoplasts in which RNA2-Luc was replicated. Time course experiments in protoplasts showed that the translational activity of RNA2-Luc did not reflect the amount of RNA2. Mutations in cis-acting RNA replication elements of RNA2 abolished the cap-independent translational activity of RNA2-Luc, suggesting that the translational activity of RNA2-Luc is coupled to RNA replication. Our results show that the translational mechanism differs between two segmented genomic RNAs of RCNMV. We present a model in which only RNA2 that is generated de novo through the viral RNA replication machinery functions as mRNA for translation.

  4. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyamine (PA may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd, and spermine (Spm. Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2 were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling.

  5. Changes in soil solution Zn and pH and uptake of Zn by arbuscular mycorrhizal red clover in Zn-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Christie, P

    2001-01-01

    Red clover plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae were grown in a sterile pasture soil containing 50 mg Zn kg(-1) in 'Plexiglas' (acrylic) containers with nylon net partitions (30 microm mesh) designed to separate the soil into a central root zone and two outer zones for hyphal growth with no root penetration. Two porous plastic soil moisture samplers were installed in each pot, one in the root compartment and the other in one of the hyphal compartments. The soil in the outer compartments was amended with one of the four application rates of Zn (as ZnSO4) ranging from 0 to 1000 mg kg(-1). Non-mycorrhizal controls were included, and there were five replicates of each treatment in a randomised block in a glasshouse. Uninoculated plants received supplementary P to avoid yield limitation due to low soil P status. Plants grew in the central compartment for nine weeks. Soil moisture samples were collected 4, 24 and 62 days after sowing to monitor changes in the Zn concentration and pH of the soil solution. At harvest, the mean mycorrhizal infection rate of inoculated plants ranged from 29% to 34% of total root length and was little affected by Zn application. Root and shoot yields were not affected by mycorrhizal infection. Plant Zn concentration and uptake were lower in mycorrhizal plants than non-mycorrhizal controls, and this effect was more pronounced with increasing Zn application rate to the soil. Soil solution Zn concentrations were lower and pH values were higher in mycorrhizal treatments than non-mycorrhizal controls and the mycorrhiza effect was more pronounced at higher Zn application rates. The protective effect of mycorrhiza against plant Zn uptake may have been associated with changes in Zn solubility mediated by changes in the soil solution pH, or by immobilisation of Zn in the extraradical mycelium.

  6. A comparative study of transfer factors of water, iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover. Development of a model of evaluation of the limits of foliar contamination by wet deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio; Levi, Emilio.

    1977-07-01

    Transfer factors of water, iodine ( 131 I) and strontium ( 85 Sr) on above-ground parts of rye-grass and clover were determined as a function of aspersion intensities. An analysis of the results showed the effect of aspersion intensities, nature of the chemical element and plant species on the values of transfer factors of iodine and strontium. It also made it possible to propose a simple method of evaluation of contamination limits of the aerial parts of plants by wet deposit, based on transfer values of water on plants only [fr

  7. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Dry Matter and Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Berseem Clover, by Cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hashem aram

    2016-02-01

    Zanjan, after the complete analysis of soil and obtaining the chemical and physical properties in the laboratory. 6 kg of soil was weighed for each pot and then the soil was contaminated. Cadmium sulfate was used in this experiment. The mycorrhizal fungi weighed 150 grams and was mixed with the soil. After mixing the soil with mycorrhizal fungi, the soil was put in pots and then it was cultivated with clover. In this study, clover seeds weighed 0/5 grams and were disinfected with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and were added to each pot. Distilled water was used for irrigation. After the completion of growth of plants (about 70 day, plant aerial parts and roots were harvested and before measuring, they were washed with distilled water and then were dried in the oven for 72 hours. Plant aerial parts were harvested. Data were analyzed by SAS (version 9 and MSTATC (version 2.10 software, and obtained variance analysis tables. Mean comparison of different treatments was conducted by Duncan test. Charts were obtained by excel software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured (P< 0.01. With increasing cadmium concentration in soil, dry matter of 37% and 39%, nitrogen concentration of 35% and 28%, Potassium 9/27% and 37%, and phosphorus concentration of 37% and 39%, reduced in root and aerial, respectively. Also the results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased dry matter amount by 42% and 26%, nitrogen concentration by 40.3% and 30%, phosphorus concentration by 6% and 15.4%, potassium concentrations by 54% and 91.2% in root and aerial, respectively. Interaction between cadmium levels and mycorrhizal fungi in statistics was significant on dry matter aerial, nitrogen concentration in aerial and root, and potassium concentrations in plant root (P< 0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured in one percent level. Cadmium

  8. Sweet clover production and agronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, B P

    1980-05-01

    Sweetclover has a notorious reputation for causing "sweetclover disease" when improperly cured. In spite of this, however, sweetclover remains a useful forage legume with valuable agronomic traits. It is drought-resistant and well adapted to Western Canada. Sweetclover is the highest yielding legume forage in this region and is valuable in soil improvement, silage, hay and pasture production and a prized crop for the honey producer. It is the most saline-tolerant of the legumes and is particularly useful on saline "white alkali" soils where cereals and other crops cannot grow. Special precautions are necessary to avoid spoilage and concomitant dicoumarol formation in preserving sweetclover hay and silage. Feeding recommendations are suggested for the safe utilization of spoiled forage. Low coumarin cultivars of sweetclover are completely safe and will not result in sweetclover disease despite spoilage. The breeding program at Saskatoon is expected to produce a new low coumarin (yellow flowered) sweetclover cultivar within the next two years.

  9. P3N-PIPO, a Frameshift Product from the P3 Gene, Pleiotropically Determines the Virulence of Clover Yellow Vein Virus in both Resistant and Susceptible Peas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Haruka; Miyashita, Yuri; Choi, Sun Hee; Hisa, Yusuke; Rihei, Shunsuke; Shimada, Ryoko; Jeon, Eun Jin; Abe, Junya; Uyeda, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peas carrying the cyv1 recessive resistance gene are resistant to clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) isolates No.30 (Cl-No.30) and 90-1 (Cl-90-1) but can be infected by a derivative of Cl-90-1 (Cl-90-1 Br2). The main determinant for the breaking of cyv1 resistance by Cl-90-1 Br2 is P3N-PIPO produced from the P3 gene via transcriptional slippage, and the higher level of P3N-PIPO produced by Cl-90-1 Br2 than by Cl-No.30 contributes to the breaking of resistance. Here we show that P3N-PIPO is also a major virulence determinant in susceptible peas that possess another resistance gene, Cyn1, which does not inhibit systemic infection with ClYVV but causes hypersensitive reaction-like lethal systemic cell death. We previously assumed that the susceptible pea cultivar PI 226564 has a weak allele of Cyn1. Cl-No.30 did not induce cell death, but Cl-90-1 Br2 killed the plants. Our results suggest that P3N-PIPO is recognized by Cyn1 and induces cell death. Unexpectedly, heterologously strongly expressed P3N-PIPO of Cl-No.30 appears to be recognized by Cyn1 in PI 226564. The level of P3N-PIPO accumulation from the P3 gene of Cl-No.30 was significantly lower than that of Cl-90-1 Br2 in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient assay. Therefore, Cyn1-mediated cell death also appears to be determined by the level of P3N-PIPO. The more efficiently a ClYVV isolate broke cyv1 resistance, the more it induced cell death systemically (resulting in a loss of the environment for virus accumulation) in susceptible peas carrying Cyn1, suggesting that antagonistic pleiotropy of P3N-PIPO controls the resistance breaking of ClYVV. IMPORTANCE Control of plant viral disease has relied on the use of resistant cultivars; however, emerging mutant viruses have broken many types of resistance. Recently, we revealed that Cl-90-1 Br2 breaks the recessive resistance conferred by cyv1, mainly by accumulating a higher level of P3N-PIPO than that of the nonbreaking isolate Cl-No.30. Here we show that a

  10. Relating N2O emissions from energy crops to the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2 – a study on bioethanol and biogas produced from organically managed maize, rye, vetch and grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2010-01-01

    ‐derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not account for farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co‐production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from...... fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2......) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas missions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel...

  11. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  12. Avaliação do potencial de produção de sementes de acessos de trevo branco Evaluation of the seed production potential of white clover accessions

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    Rodrigo Ramos Lopes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de produção de sementes de 25 acessos da coleção básica de trevo-branco provenientes do Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos. Por meio de amostragens semanais realizadas entre 6/11/2003 e 10/3/2004, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: número de inflorescências/planta, número de flores/inflorescência, número de inflorescências maduras/planta, número de legumes maduros/inflorescência, peso de mil sementes e rendimento de sementes/planta. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, com os acessos arranjados individualmente em cinco repetições. O rendimento de sementes em trevo-branco é altamente influenciado pelo número de inflorescências por planta, pelo número de inflorescências maduras por planta e pelo peso de mil sementes. Os acessos 53, 2 e 20 destacam-se pela superioridade em relação aos demais (7, 68, 19, 79, 58, 3, 15, 75, 64, 50, 33, 13, 59, 38, 28, 80, 54, 29, 31, 23, 22, 27, 65 e 73 na produção de sementes. Os acessos 27, 65 e 73 não produzem sementes nas condições locais durante o primeiro ano de avaliação.This work was carried out to evaluate the potential of seed production of 25 accessions of the basic collection of white clover from the United States Department of Agriculture. Through weekly samplings performed from 11/6th/2003 to 3/10th/04 the following variables were analyzed: number of inflorescence/plant, number of flowers/inflorescence, number of mature inflorescence/plant, number of mature legumes/inflorescence, weight of 1000 seeds, and seed yield/plant. It was used a complete randomized experimental design with the accessions individually arranged in five replications. Seed yield of white clover is highly affected by number of inflorescence/plant, number of mature inflorescence/plant, and weight of 1000 seeds. The 53, 2 and 20 accessions differ from the others because of their superiority

  13. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A. K. S.; Storm, A. C.; Weisbjerg, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    (NDF) content and time after feeding on the medial to ventral VFA and pH gradient as well as rumen motility in the rumen of heifers fed grass/clover silages. Four silages were harvested at different growth stages with NDF contents of 31–45% of DM and in vitro organic matter digestibilities of 75......–82% and fed to four rumen-fistulated Jersey heifers at 90% of ad libitum level in a Latin square design, with half the ration fed at 0800 hours and 1530 hours. Rumen fluid was sampled hourly from 0730 hours to 1530 hours in the medial and ventral rumen, and analysed for pH and concentrations of VFA, L......-lactic acid, and ammonia to assess ruminal chemical gradient. Reticular contractions were continuously recorded by a pressure transducer. Time relative to feeding affected rumen parameters as pH was generally lower and VFA content greater in medial compared with ventral rumen fluid. Greater NDF content...

  14. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Storm, Adam Christian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    (NDF) content and time after feeding on the medial to ventral VFA and pH gradient as well as rumen motility in the rumen of heifers fed grass/clover silages. Four silages were harvested at different growth stages with NDF contents of 31–45% of DM and in vitro organic matter digestibilities of 75......–82% and fed to four rumen-fistulated Jersey heifers at 90% of ad libitum level in a Latin square design, with half the ration fed at 0800 hours and 1530 hours. Rumen fluid was sampled hourly from 0730 hours to 1530 hours in the medial and ventral rumen, and analysed for pH and concentrations of VFA, L......-lactic acid, and ammonia to assess ruminal chemical gradient. Reticular contractions were continuously recorded by a pressure transducer. Time relative to feeding affected rumen parameters as pH was generally lower and VFA content greater in medial compared with ventral rumen fluid. Greater NDF content...

  15. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Sesamum indicum L. with application of cover crops of Lathyrus sp. and Persian clover (Trifolium resopinatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops cultivation and application of plant growth rhizobacteria are the key factors to enhance agroecosystem health. A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. A split plot arrangement based on a complete randomized block design with three replications was used. Cultivation and no cultivation of Lathyrus sp. and Persian clover (Trifolium resopinatum in autumn assigned to the main plots. The sub plot factor consisted of three different types of biofertilizers plus control, including 1-nitroxin (containing of Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., 2- phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB (containing of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 3- biosulfur (containing of Thiobacillus ssp. and 4- control (no fertilizer. The results showed the effect of cover crops on seed number and seed weight per plant, biological and seed yield was significant, as the seed yield increased of 9 %. In general, biofertilizers showed superiority due to the most studied traits compared to control. Nitroxin, PSB and biosulfur increased biological yield of 44, 28 and 26 % compared to control, respectively. Cover crops and biofertilizers interactions, showed significant effect on all studied traits, as the highest and the lowest harvest index resulted in cover crop combined with biofertilizers (22.1% and cultivation and no cultivation of cover crops combined with control (15.3%, respectively. The highest seed oil and protein content resulted from cover crops plus biofertilizers (42.4% and cover crops plus PSB (22.5%, respectively. In general, the results showed cover crops cultivation in combination with biofertilizers application could be an ecological alternative for chemical fertilizers, in addition of achieving advantages of cover crops. According to the results, it should be possible to design an ecological cropping system and produce appropriate and healthy

  16. Grazing ecology of female lambs on Italian ryegrass plus red clover pasture under different defoliation intensities Ecologia do pastejo por cordeiras em pastagem de azevém e trevo-vermelho sob diversas intensidades de desfolha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Lisete Glienke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between pasture dynamics and ingestive behavior of female lambs was studied on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. plus red clover (Trifolium pratense L. mixture under a range of defoliation intensities. Rotational grazing was used and the grazing interval was determined by the thermal sum of 313 degree days. The initial pre-grazing canopy height disappearance values were 65 (very high, 58 (high, 47 (medium and 37% (low. The sward vertical structure was similar among defoliation intensities. The forage allowance decreased linearly as defoliation intensities increased, with 0.35 bite/minute reduction for each 1% increase in forage allowance. The bite rate and number of bites/feeding station decreased with reduced contribution of leaves in the sward structure. It was associated, respectively, with an increase and a decrease of NDF and CP levels in forage as grazed by female lambs. The pasture cycle proves to be more important than defoliation intensities as a source for changes in feeding stations and displacement patterns of female lambs.Estudou-se a relação entre a dinâmica do pasto e o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiras em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e trevo-vermelho (Trifolium pratense L. em diferentes intensidades de desfolha. O pastejo foi rotacionado e o intervalo entre pastejos foi determinado pela soma térmica de 313 graus-dia. Os valores de desaparecimento da altura do dossel no pré-pastejo foram de 65 (muito alta, 58 (alta, 47 (média e 37% (baixa, respectivamente. A estrutura vertical do pasto foi semelhante entre as intensidades de desfolha testadas. A oferta de forragem diminuiu linearmente com o aumento da intensidade de desfolha, com redução de 0,35 bocado/minuto a cada 1% a mais na oferta de forragem. A taxa de bocados e o número de bocados/estação alimentar reduziram com a diminuição da contribuição de folhas na estrutura da pastagem, acompanhada do aumento do teor de FDN e

  17. Effectiveness on mild stress and mixed urinary incontinence and impact on Quality of Life of a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations. Results from a monocentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Risi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess any beneficial effect on quality of life of a daily treatment with a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations in a cohort of female patients complaining mild stress urinary incontinence (SUI or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI. Materials and methods: 42 non-consecutive female out-patients with mild SUI or mild MUI were assessed with a clinical evaluation, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF and Patients’ Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS at baseline the start of the study and after two months of therapy with the phytotherapic product. At the end of the therapy the patients also compiled Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I. Results: After the completion of the study there was a trend towards better results in each item of ICIQ-SF, but without any statistical significance with an average score in ICIQ-SF-1 of 3.12 ± 0.981 versus 3.21 ± 0.914 (p = 0.556, in ICIQ-SF-2 of 3.69 ± 1.422 versus 3.79 ± 1.372 (p = 0.68 and in ICIQ-SF-3 of 5.95 ± 1.618 versus 6.14 ± 1.670 (p = 0.462. The average reduction of PPIUS was of 0.09 (1.26 ± 1.481 versus 1.357 ± 1.509, p = 0.705. There was a reduction of average consumption of pads/die from 1.69 ± 0.636 to 1.54 ± 0.543 (p = 0.101. In relation to the PGI score, 23/42 patients (54.7% reported no changes after the completion of the therapy, 13/42 (30.9% reported a slight improvement, 5/42 (11.9% were much improved and 1/42 (2.3% was slightly worsened. Only 2/42 (4.7% patients discontinued the treatment before of the completion of the study. We did not observe any adverse effects during the period of the study. Conclusions: The phytotherapic product seems to cause a slight improvement of the symptoms in a good rate of patients. Moreover it has a low rate of withdrawal, due to the lack of adverse events.

  18. Effectiveness on mild stress and mixed urinary incontinence and impact on Quality of Life of a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations. Results from a monocentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Oreste; Manica, Michele; Lisanti, Rocca Carmela; Manfredi, Antonio; Tecci, Giuseppe Romeo

    2017-12-31

    To assess any beneficial effect on quality of life of a daily treatment with a phytotherapic product containing astragalus, thyme, lavender, hop, equisetum, red clover, cypress and agrimonia at titrated concentrations in a cohort of female patients complaining mild stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). 42 non-consecutive female out-patients with mild SUI or mild MUI were assessed with a clinical evaluation, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and Patients' Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS) at baseline the start of the study and after two months of therapy with the phytotherapic product. At the end of the therapy the patients also compiled Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I). After the completion of the study there was a trend towards better results in each item of ICIQ-SF, but without any statistical significance with an average score in ICIQ-SF-1 of 3.12 ± 0.981 versus 3.21 ± 0.914 (p = 0.556), in ICIQ-SF-2 of 3.69 ± 1.422 versus 3.79 ± 1.372 (p = 0.68) and in ICIQ-SF-3 of 5.95 ± 1.618 versus 6.14 ± 1.670 (p = 0.462). The average reduction of PPIUS was of 0.09 (1.26 ± 1.481 versus 1.357 ± 1.509, p = 0.705). There was a reduction of average consumption of pads/die from 1.69 ± 0.636 to 1.54 ± 0.543 (p = 0.101). In relation to the PGI score, 23/42 patients (54.7%) reported no changes after the completion of the therapy, 13/42 (30.9%) reported a slight improvement, 5/42 (11.9%) were much improved and 1/42 (2.3%) was slightly worsened. Only 2/42 (4.7%) patients discontinued the treatment before of the completion of the study. We did not observe any adverse effects during the period of the study. The phytotherapic product seems to cause a slight improvement of the symptoms in a good rate of patients. Moreover it has a low rate of withdrawal, due to the lack of adverse events.

  19. Berseem (egyptian clover): a nutritive multicut fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Hussain, A.; Gurmani, Z.A.; Khan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is an important winter (Rabi) leguminous crop, grown for green fodder. It was first introduced into Sindh in 1904 and then cultivated in peshawar in 1924. The berseem is a multicut fodder, which could play a pivotal role in establishing a more productive dairy industry in the country. The improved varieties of berseem produce three-fold green fodder, i.e. 100-120 tonnes per hectare, and could feed double the number of animals per unit area, as against the traditional fodder-crop. (author)

  20. RDM plunger setup with clover detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohilla, Aman; Gupta, Chandan Kumar; Chamoli, S.K.; Singh, R.P.; Bala, Indu; Muralither, S.

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of level lifetimes of the excited nuclear states provides deeper insight into the internal structure of the nucleus. The transition probabilities obtained form level lifetimes, give direct information about the wave functions of the two states involved in the electromagnetic decay of the nucleus

  1. Nuclear structure and Indian Clover array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    also presented experimental challenge since the heavy ion reactions to be used for produc- ..... recoil products produced in the reaction. Ni(. Ѕѕ. C; ЬФ Э ... accelerator, the staff of central workshop and central services in TIFR for their help and.

  2. Arrowleaf Clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: A New Species of Annual Legumes for High Rainfall Areas of the Mediterranean Climate Zone of Chile Trébol Vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: Una Nueva Especie de Leguminosa Anual para Áreas de Alta Precipitación en la Zona Mediterránea de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ovalle M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines the main attributes and agronomic characteristics of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi and its incorporation into production systems in dryland areas of the Andean foothills of the humid Mediterranean climate zone of Chile. It is a new species of annual legume in Chile for light and medium textured soils. The root system can reach a depth of 1.5 m and its seeds have a high percentage of hardseedness (99.8%. It is an upright plant, with purplish-white flowers. The mature plant has large arrow-shaped leaves up to 50 mm long, often marked with a large white “V”. Dry matter and seed production in the Andean foothills is high (3.9-8.8 t DM ha-1 and 700-900 kg ha-1, respectively, surpassing the productivity of sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mount Barker and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.. However, DM production in the second year was lower, possibly because the high percentage of hardseedness inhibited plant emergence. The phenological records and productive performance suggest that arrowleaf clover could contribute to improving pastoral production in dryland areas with annual rainfall levels of more than 800 mm, such as the Andean foothills in the central-southern region of Chile.En la presente revisión se examinan los principales atributos y características agronómicas del trébol vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi y su eventual incorporación a sistemas de producción en la precordillera andina de la zona de clima mediterráneo húmedo de Chile. Se trata de una nueva especie de leguminosa forrajera anual para suelos de textura liviana y media. El sistema radical puede alcanzar 1,5 m de profundidad y las semillas tienen un alto porcentaje de dureza seminal (99,8%. Es una planta de crecimiento erecto, flores de color blanco con una leve coloración púrpura. Las plantas adultas tienen grandes hojas con forma de flecha de más de 50 mm de largo, a menudo muestran una marca blanca en

  3. Características morfofisiológicas associadas à tolerância à seca em sete genótipos da coleção nuclear de trevo branco Morphophysiological traits associated with drought tolerance in seven genotypes of the white clover core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bortolini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O trevo branco é uma leguminosa forrageira muito importante para utilização em pastagens temperadas no Rio Grande do Sul. Entretanto, ele é mais sensível ao déficit de água no solo do que as outras leguminosas perenes, apresentando problemas de persistência no verão. Com o objetivo de determinar características morfofisiológicas relacionadas à resposta ao déficit hídrico dessa espécie, foi realizado um experimento em casa-de-vegetação, o qual avaliou o efeito da disponibilidade hídrica (90 e 40% da umidade de capacidade de campo do solo sobre sete acessos pertencentes à Coleção Nuclear de Trevo Branco do Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos (USDA. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, totalizando 56 vasos. Foram realizadas duas avaliações, aos 130 e aos 196 dias após a semeadura, ocasião em que foram avaliadas diversas características morfofisiológicas. A análise dos resultados indicou que o déficit hídrico teve um efeito marcante sobre a altura de plantas (EST, área foliar (AF, número de folhas vivas (NFV, comprimento de estolão (CES, produção de massa seca (MSPA, taxa fotossintética (A, condutância (g e eficiência do uso da água (EUA. Nas duas avaliações, em ambas as disponibilidades hídricas, verificaram-se correlações positivas e significativas (PThe white clover is a forage legume very important for use in temperate pastures in Rio Grande do Sul. However it is more sensitive to water deficit in the soil than other perennial legumes, presenting a lack of persistence in the summer. With the objective of determining morphophysiological traits related to the answer to the water deficit of this species, an experiment was carried out in greenhouse, which evaluated the effect of water availability (90 and 40% of the soil moisture field capacity on seven genotypes belonging to the white clover core collection from the United States

  4. Efeito de diferentes sistemas de pastejo sobre o desempenho de suínos mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L. Effect of different grazing systems on the performance of pigs, in growing and finishing phases, kept on white clover (Trifolium repens L. pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denyse Maria Galvão Leite

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo sobre as características de desempenho de suínos (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e espessura de toucinho nas fases de crescimento e terminação mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L.. Foram realizadas também avaliações da disponibilidade e composição química da pastagem. Trinta e seis suínos machos foram distribuídos em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três tratamentos e três repetições, e doze foram mantidos em sistema de confinamento. Não foi observada influência significativa dos sistemas de pastejo sobre as características de desempenho dos animais e a disponibilidade de forragem. Entretanto, houve diferença significativa na composição química da pastagem entre os sistemas de pastejo estudados. Os suínos em sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo consumiram de 13,41 a 15,92% a menos de ração e apresentaram menores ganhos de peso e espessura de toucinho que aqueles criados em confinamento. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar entre os suínos mantidos em confinamento e em pastagem.This trial was carried out to determine the effect of continuous, alternated or rotational grazing systems on the performance of pigs (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness, in the growing and finishing phases, as well as the forage availability and chemical composition of a white clover pasture (Trifolium repens L.. Thirty-six castrated pigs were allotted to a randomized complete-block experimental design with three treatments and three replications. Twelve feedlot pigs were kept on a rearing system. No significant differences were found between grazing systems on parameters of animal performance and forage on offer. However, significant differences were observed on the pasture chemical composition

  5. Rendimento de milho em área de integração lavoura-pecuária sob o sistema plantio direto, em presença e ausência de trevo branco, pastejo e nitrogênio Corn yield on no tillage crop-pasture rotation in presence and absence of white clover, grazing and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Assmann

    2003-08-01

    system, in presence and absence of white clover and grazing animals. The experimental layout was a completely randomized block design with three replications. The treatments were arranged in split-plots. Four N rates (N-TI = 0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1 of N were previously applied on the main plots during the winter season, while the treatments of the sub-plots consisted in combinations of presence and absence of white clover and grazing (CT = with clover; ST = without clover; CP = with grazing, and SP = without grazing. During the summer each sub-plot that had been prepared during the winter was cultivated with corn which received five N rates (N-TV = 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 kg ha-1 of N top dressed. The maximum re-growth efficiency of winter culture plants occurred eighteen days after the animals had been removed from the plots, obtained with 231 kg ha-1 of N (N-TI. The areas CP/N-TI presented higher corn yields than the SP plots, although these differences were not statistically significant. The areas without N-TI produced most in the SP subplots. On plots that had received 300 kg ha-1 of N N-TI there was no response of corn to the N-TV, confirming the residual effect of N-TI. The conclusion was drawn that the interaction between grazing and N-TI contributes to nitrogen nutrition in maize.

  6. Produção de gado de corte e acúmulo de matéria seca em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em presença e ausência de trevo branco e nitrogênio Beef cattle production and dry matter accumulation in the crop-pasture rotation system in presence and absence of white clover and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Luiz Assmann

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada em uma pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorium L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Scherb em presença e ausência de trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., conferida pelo acúmulo e produção de matéria seca, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso vivo e carga animal no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema de plantio direto. A cultura antecessora da pastagem foi a soja (Glycine Max L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 e nas subparcelas, a combinação de presença e ausência de trevo branco. A elevação das doses crescentes de N aumentaram de forma linear crescente o acúmulo e a produção de matéria seca da pastagem. A carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare de bovinos aumentaram com o incremento de nitrogênio. Os resultados demonstram o efeito da adubação nitrogenada no acúmulo diário, na produção de matéria seca, carga animal e no ganho de peso vivo.The research was carried out to verify the influence of the nitrogen input in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L. and oat (Avena strigosa Scherb pasture, in presence and absence of white clover (Trifolium repens L., checked by the dry matter accumulation, dry matter yield, average daily gain, liveweight gain and stocking rate a crop-pasture rotation system, on no tillage system. Soybean (Glycine Max L. was cultivated before the grass. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot model and three replications. In the plots, four nitrogen levels were tested (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1 and in the split-plot model, the presence and absence of white clover. Increasing nitrogen levels increased in a cresecent linear way the dry matter accumulation and dry matter yield. The stocking rate and

  7. Efeito de diferentes isolados fúngicos da mesma comunidade micorrízica no crescimento e absorção de fósforo em soja e trevo vermelho Effect of different fungal isolates from the same mycorrhizal community on plant growth and phosphorus uptake in soybean and red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Stürmer

    2004-08-01

    separadamente. O teste da eficiência relativa de isolados fúngicos originados de uma mesma comunidade representa um primeiro passo para a adoção das estratégias de manejo de fungos nativos versus inoculação com isolados exóticos, visando aumentar a produtividade em ecosistemas naturais ou agrícolas.Experiments testing the efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF originating from the same soil sample complement studies of taxonomic diversity by assessing functional relationships within mycorrhizal communities. In this study fungal isolates from three distinct communities were evaluated regarding their efficiency to increase dry biomass production and P content in two mycotrophic hosts. In the first experiment, the effect of 13 AMF isolates from the JA205, MN414, and VA105 communities were screened in order to test the hypothesis that at least one isolate of each mycorrhizal community was efficient for soybean. All three isolates from the JA205 community and Glomus clarum from the VA105 community increased the biomass production compared to non-mycorrhized plants. No isolate from the community MN414 had a significant effect compared to control plants. Phosporus content, however, was significantly increased by 7 out of 13 isolates compared to control plants. In the second experiment, it was evaluated the effect of single inoculation or co-inoculation using isolates from communities VA105 and MN414 in red clover. Colonizaton by 5 isolates from both communities significantly increased dry biomass production and P content in red clover, with exception of Scutellospora calospora MN414C that had an effect only on P content. Co-inoculation of isolates did not necessarily confer a higher benefit to plants than inoculation with a single isolate. Plants colonized by S. verrucosa VA105B + Glomus clarum VA105D produced significantly larger quantities of biomass than plants inoculated with only S. verrucosa, but dry biomass production and P content did not differ from those

  8. Chandra Looks Over a Cosmic Four-Leaf Clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A careful analysis of observations by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory of a rare quadruple quasar has uncovered evidence that possibly a single star in a foreground galaxy magnified X-rays coming from the quasar. This discovery gives astronomers a new and extremely precise probe of the gas flow around the supermassive black hole that powers the quasar. "If our interpretation is correct, then we are seeing details around this black hole that are 50,000 times smaller than either the Hubble Space Telescope or Chandra could see under ordinary circumstances," said George Chartas of Penn State University in University Park, and lead author of a recent article on the Cloverleaf quasar in The Astrophysical Journal. The Cloverleaf quasar is a single object about 11 billion light years from Earth that appears as four images produced by a process known as gravitational lensing. If one or more galaxies lie along the line of sight to a more distant quasar, the gravitational field of the intervening galaxies can bend and magnify the light from the quasar and produce multiple images of it. The four images of the Cloverleaf quasar have been produced by one or more intervening galaxies. Cloverleaf Quasar Chandra X-ray Image of the Cloverleaf quasar One of the images (A), in the Cloverleaf is brighter than the others in both optical and X-ray light. Chartas and his colleagues found the relative brightness of this image was greater in X-ray than in optical light. The X-rays from iron atoms were also enhanced relative to X-rays at lower energies. Since the amount of brightening due to gravitational lensing does not vary with the wavelength, this means that an additional object has magnified the X-rays. The increased magnification of the X-ray light can be explained by gravitational microlensing, an effect which has been used to search for compact stars and planets in our galaxy. Microlensing occurs when a star or a multiple star system passes in front of light from a background object. Cloverleaf Quasar Hubble Optical Image of the Cloverleaf quasar If a single star or a multiple star system in one of the foreground galaxies passed in front of the light path for the brightest image, then that image would be selectively magnified. The X-rays would be magnified much more than the visible light, if they came from a smaller region around the black hole than the visible light. The enhancement of the X-rays from iron ions would be due to this same effect. The analysis indicates that the X-rays are coming from a very small region, about the size of the solar system, around the supermassive black hole. The visible light is coming from a region ten or more times larger. The angular size of these regions at a distance of 11 billion light years is tens of thousands times smaller than the smallest region that can be resolved by the Hubble Space Telescope. Illustration of Wind from Accretion Disk Around a Black Hole Illustration of Wind from Accretion Disk Around a Black Hole "The significance of the detection of microlensed X-rays from the Cloverleaf quasar lies in the extremely small region that is enhanced by the microlens," said Chartas. "This gives us the ability to make strong tests of models for the flow of gas around a supermassive black hole." Other team members include Michael Eracleous (Penn State), Eric Agol (University of Washington), and Sarah Gallagher (UCLA). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  9. Analysis of fold distributions of segmented clover detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Pintu; Kshetri, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the effect of segmentation on the full energy energy deposition of a gamma-ray through the studies on fold distribution. The response of seven segmented TIGRESS detectors up to an energy of 8 MeV has been studied by utilizing standard sources of 152 Eu, 56,60 Co and a radioactive 11 Be beam with an energy of 16.5 MeV. Experiment was performed at the ISAC-II facility at TRIUMF, using a thick gold target. The β¯ decay of 11 Be (τ 1/2 = 13.81(8) sec) produces high energy gamma-rays up to 7974 keV. A 1 mm thick annular double-sided silicon detector of the BAMBINO detector, was mounted 19.4 mm downstream of the target position and used for detection of the electrons in coincidence with the gamma-rays from the seven TIGRESS detectors. The master trigger allowed data to be collected either in Ge singles mode or with a Ge-Si coincidence condition. Standard sources of 152 Eu and 56,60 Co were also used to obtain low energy data

  10. Investigation of reduction in background counts of clover detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    The peak-to-total ratio can be improved by increasing the full energy peak (FEP) counts and/or by decreasing the background counts. It is notable that FEP counts will be effected by mode of operation, while background counts will be effected by both modes of operation and suppression cases. It would be interesting to know if the reduction in background is caused more by active suppression or by add back process. We introduce a simple formalism to investigate the reduction of background counts for different cases-single crystal or add back mode with active or passive suppression. A more sophisticated formalism for modeling a general composite detector had been presented in a series of six recent papers by the author

  11. Salt tolerance in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) seedlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... suited for germination under the range of salinity stress in this study. The population 17 gave the ... INTRODUCTION. Although, forage .... Except GSTI, a general ANOVA was applied to the data from the experiment, following ...

  12. TIGRESS highly-segmented high-purity germanium clover detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scraggs, H. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Hackman, G.; Smith, M. B.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Boston, A. J.; Bricault, P.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Cowan, N.; Cronkhite, G.; Cunningham, E. S.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Leslie, J. R.; Martin, J.-P.; Morris, D.; Morton, A. C.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.; Zimmerman, L.

    2005-05-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) will consist of twelve units of four high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals in a common cryostat. The outer contacts of each crystal will be divided into four quadrants and two lateral segments for a total of eight outer contacts. The performance of a prototype HPGe four-crystal unit has been investigated. Integrated noise spectra for all contacts were measured. Energy resolutions, relative efficiencies for both individual crystals and for the entire unit, and peak-to-total ratios were measured with point-like sources. Position-dependent performance was measured by moving a collimated source across the face of the detector.

  13. Effect of osmopriming on antioxidant activity of Bersim clover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... the performance of forage crops and to develop novel production strategies (1st ... but prevents radicle protrusion through the seed coat (Ashraf and ..... Specific check points regulate plant cell cycle progression in response to ...

  14. Corporate social responsibility: a personal reflection on Clover Mama Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vlok

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Although corporate social responsibility (CSR or corporate social investment (CSI, the term preferred by most South African busines-ses, has been studied from the 1950s, up to date no universally ac-cepted definition has been formulated. However, the basic concepts put forward in the definition of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD (2000 are generally accepted as forming the core of CSR.

  15. Produção de cordeiros em pastagem de azevém e trevo-branco sob diferentes níveis de resíduos de forragem Lamb production in a mixture of italian ryegrass and white clover under different forage mass levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Weber do Canto

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Na presente pesquisa, objetivou-se analisar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de resíduos de forragem na produção de cordeiros. O experimento foi estabelecido em Tupanciretã, região do Planalto Médio do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em uma pastagem de azevém cv. Estanzuela 284 (Lolium multiflorum Lam + trevo-branco cv. Yi (Trifolium repens L., submetida a diferentes níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o completamente casualizado, estudando-se os níveis de RMS mantidos na pastagem de 1.119, 1.320, 1.477, 1.695, 2.146, 2.166, 2.410 e 2.483 kg de matéria seca por hectare (MS/ha. O período experimental foi de 30/09 a 08/12/1992 e os animais utilizados foram cordeiros cruza Ile de France x Corriedale desmamados aos 80 dias. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso vivo/ha (GPV/ha, carga animal, animais dia/ha e a eficiência de conversão de MS em kg de peso vivo de cordeiros. Os resultados obtidos mostraram uma relação linear positiva entre o GMD e GPV/ha com o aumento nos níveis de RMS/ha, observando-se nos níveis de RMS superiores a 2.400 kg um GMD de 0,12 kg/cordeiro/dia e um GPV/ha médio de 497 kg. Não houve relação quanto à carga animal e animais.dia/ha; verificou-se uma relação linear negativa entre a eficiência de conversão de MS com os níveis de RMS estudados. Os resultados demonstram o efeito dos níveis de RMS na resposta animal.The objective of this research was to analyse the effects of different forage mass levels on lamb production. The experiment was conducted in Tupanciretã, Planalto Médio region at the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in a mixture of italian ryegrass cv. Estanzuela 284 (Lolium multiflorum Lam. + white clover cv. Yi (Trifolium repens L., under different forage mass (FM levels. The experimental design used was completely randommized, and the FM levels studied were: 1,119, 1,320, 1,477, 1,695, 2,146, 2,166, 2,410 and 2

  16. Performance of the clover detector considering the effects of pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Gamma rays having sufficient energy to produce positron-electron pairs in a detector generate three peaks in the energy spectrum, corresponding to the full gamma-ray energy, and this gamma-ray energy minus 511 and 1022 keV because of the single and double escape of the 511 keV annihilation quanta. The escape peaks are frequently used to extend the precision of energy calibration, simply by providing additional spectral peaks at well-known energies. At energies around 6 MeV, the pair production process dominates over other gamma interaction processes in germanium. It has been observed that the intensity of the single and double escape peaks (SEP and DEP) for gamma-rays around these energies increases rapidly. This results in a difficulty to correctly identify new gamma-rays, which is crucial for precision gamma-ray spectroscopy that involves mostly the use of tapered cylindrical germanium detectors

  17. Inheritance of changes conditioned by the leaf-reducing gene in Swedish clover (Tnfolium hybridum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of a new mutant of Trifolium hybridum with reduced leaf blades is given. The mutants are female sterile due to deficient ovary development. The genetic analysis showed that morphological changes and lowered fertility are caused by one recessive allele of the gene called reductivus. Male infertility in B1 plants depends also on one recessive gene, but located on a different chromosome than is the reductivus gene.

  18. Stress-induced memory alters growth of clonal offspring of white clover (Trifolium repens)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González, Alejandra Pilar Rendina; Chrtek, Jindřich; Dobrev, Petre; Dumalasová, Veronika; Fehrer, Judith; Mráz, Patrik; Latzel, Vít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 9 (2016), s. 1567-1574 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : asexual reproduction * DNA methylation * epigenetic variation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 3.050, year: 2016

  19. Suppression of downy brome by red clover as a cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are one of the primary obstacles to successful organic farming. Organic producers till to control weeds, but soil health is being damaged by the extensive tillage. Therefore, organic producers are interested in reducing the amount of tillage in their production systems. This study examined t...

  20. Irradiation of Egyptian Clover (Fahl) Seeds Resist The Growth of Dodder (Cuscuta Pedicellata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Enany, M.F; Zayed, E.M.; Abdel-Daem, G.A.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted at Weed Research Laboratory wire green house, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt during 2011/ 2012. In the two experiments 100 pots 25 cm in diameter, In the first experiment series of Fahl treated with dodder in same rates. In the second experiment 100 seeds of Fahl ecotype with different dodder rates, 10, 20, 30 and 40 seeds (20 in each pot) were applied. Five doses were used .The 100 seeds of Fahl ecotype were subjected to the five gamma ray treatments,100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 Gray (gamma ray is cobalt Co 60 ), of atomic Energy Authority (AEA-Egypt). The isozymes analyses were used to measure variation in Fahl resistant to the infection by dodder. The RAPD-PCR using 10 primers. The aims of this study to induced mutations and measure the difference among doses in Fahl and response to tolerance dodder. In The results showed in the isozymes fractionation: can appear the variation among doses and infection of dodder, investigated the variation between dodder rates. As molecular study results showed the existence of differences between healthy and infected Fahl

  1. Calibration of the new composite ''clover'' detector as a Compton polarimeter for the EUROGAM array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.; Beck, F.A.; Butler, P.A.; Duchene, G.; France, G. de; Hannachi, F.; Jones, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The application of a composite Ge detector to the measurement of the linear polarisation of γ-rays has been investigated. The polarisation sensitivity of this device has been determined over the energy range 197-1368 keV. Comparison to a previous design of a similar detector has been made. (orig.)

  2. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...

  3. Molecular identification of stolbur phytoplasma associated with red clover dwarf disease symptoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Navrátil, M.; Jakešová, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 157, 7-8 (2009), s. 502-506 ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Trifolium pratense * stolbur phytoplasma * PCR/RFLP * sequencing * rDNA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2009

  4. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  5. Improving persistence in red clover: Insights from QTL analysis and comparative phenotypic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Dorris; Boller, Beat; Studer, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    , persistence is difficult to improve. The objectives of this study were to optimize the phenotypic evaluation of persistence, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for this important trait, and to investigate the association of persistence with other important traits. A weighted average of vigor scores...... assessed during two winters and three growing seasons was identified as the optimal method to phenotype persistence. For this index, one QTL explaining 12.2% of the total phenotypic variation was identified. While there was no negative correlation between persistence and seed yield, persistence...

  6. The Response of Arabidopsis to Co-cultivation with Clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hans; Kudsk, Per; Fiehn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    in terms of several metabolite groups including amino acids, phenolics, carbohydrates and lipids. 87 A. thaliana and 53 T. repens metabolites were significantly affected. In A. thaliana 34 metabolites increased relative to the control upon co-cultivation while 54 decreased; in T. repens 20 increased while...

  7. Combined red clover isoflavones and probiotics potently reduce menopausal vasomotor symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Max Norman Tandrup; Thorup, Anne Cathrine Sønderstgaard; Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben

    2017-01-01

    IU/L. Participants received either twice daily treatment with bioavailable RC extract (RCE), providing 34 mg/d isoflavones and probiotics, or masked placebo formulation for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in daily hot flush frequency (HFF) from baseline to 12 weeks using 24hr SC. Secondary...

  8. Contribution of orchardgrass and white clover roots to total soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding ecosystem carbon dioxide flux requires knowledge of component fluxes including photosynthetic uptake and respiratory loss. Experimental separation of soil respiration into its heterotrophic and autotrophic components has been difficult, complicating efforts to quantify management and e...

  9. Lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grass-clover as cut-and-carry fertilizers in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Onfarm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grassclover directly as sources of fertilizer on arable land: cutandcarry fertilizers. In two arable crops, the use of lucerne

  10. Mitigation of ergot vasoconstriction by clover isoflavones in goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala; formerly Neotyphodium coenphialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) can induce persistent constriction of the vasculature in ruminants, hindering their capability to thermo-regulate core body temperature. There is e...

  11. North Idaho E. coli Infections Linked to Raw Clover Sprouts > Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Establishing Legal Fatherhood Genetic Testing Ending Services Fees for Services Child Support and Children's Special Health Program Genetic/Metabolic Services Genetic Condition Information Health Care Healthcare Associated Infections Antibiotic Resistance Epidemiology Idaho Disease Bulletin Data and

  12. Virus infection decreases the attractiveness of white clover plants for a non-vectoring herbivore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Caluwe, Hannie de; Hordijk, Cornelis A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant pathogens and insect herbivores are prone to share hosts under natural conditions. Consequently, pathogen-induced changes in the host plant can affect herbivory, and vice versa. Even though plant viruses are ubiquitous in the field, little is known about plant-mediated interactions between ...

  13. The Effects of Dispersal and Predator Density on Prey Survival in an Insect-Red Clover Metacommunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasek, David J; Radl, James N; Crist, Thomas O

    2018-01-01

    Trophic interactions are often studied within habitat patches, but among-patch dispersal of individuals may influence local patch dynamics. Metacommunity concepts incorporate the effects of dispersal on local and community dynamics. There are few experimental tests of metacommunity theory using insects compared to those conducted in microbial microcosms. Using connected experimental mesocosms, we varied the density of the leafhopper Agallia constricta Van Duzee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and a generalist insect predator, the damsel bug (Nabis spp., Heteroptera: Nabidae), to determine the effects of conspecific and predator density and varying the time available to dispersal among mesocosms on predation rates, dispersal rates, and leafhopper survival. Conspecific and damsel bug density did not affect dispersal rates in leafhoppers, but this may be due to leafhoppers' aversion to leaving the host plants or the connecting tubes between mesocosms hindering leafhopper movement. Leafhopper dispersal was higher in high-dispersal treatments. Survival rates of A. constricta were also lowest in treatments where dispersal was not limited. This is one of the first experimental studies to vary predator density and the time available to dispersal. Our results indicate that dispersal is the key to understanding short-term processes such as prey survival in predator-prey metacommunities. Further work is needed to determine how dispersal rates influence persistence of communities in multigenerational studies. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L.E.; Krogh, P.H.; Nielsen, T.

    2003-01-01

    three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were verified with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene), the N-, S-, and O...

  15. Emissions of N2O and CO2, denitrification measurements and soil properties in red clover and ryegrass stands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Miloslav; Elhottová, Dana; Klimeš, F.; Hopkins, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2004), s. 9-21 ISSN 0038-0717 Grant - others:NATO(XX) CRG 97/1331; Evropská unie(XE) EVK2-CT-2000-00096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911; CEZ:MSM 122200003 Keywords : emission * denitrification * denitrifying enzyme activity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.234, year: 2004

  16. Assessment of Clover Root Curculio, Sitona puncticollis Stephens (Col.: Curculionidae Injury on Lucerne (Medicago sativa in Pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pourhaji

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is one of the most important crops that are infested by Sitona species in Iran. Adults and larvae of Sitona spp. feed on foliage and root of legumes and cause serious damages on them. Collection of adults of this genus during 2003 -2004 years from alfalfa fields of eleven localities in East Azarbaidjan Province, Sitona puncticollis Stephens was found to be the dominant species. To estimate of damage of this species, 100 pots of common alfalfa cultivar (Ghara yonje were sowed and after 2.5 months. Fifty pots were infested with eggs of S. puncticollis and the rests were maintained as control. After two months, length of stem and roots and their dry and fresh weights were measured in 30 infested and 30 uninfested pots. The data of infested and uninfested pots were compared by T- test. Results showed that there were significant differences (P< 0.01 between all measured traits in infested and uninfested pots.

  17. The role of transgenerational effects in adaptation of clonal offspring of white clover (Trifolium repens) to drought and herbivory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González, Alejandra Pilar Rendina; Dumalasová, Veronika; Rosenthal, J.; Skuhrovec, J.; Latzel, Vít

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2017), s. 345-361 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : jasmonic acid * epigenetics * plant behaviour Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  18. Effect of conservation and maturity of primary growth grass/clover on chewing activity and fecal particle size in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    silage or hay. The forages early silage (ES) and hay (EH), and late silage (LS) and hay (LH) had DM contents of 45, 84, 25 and 83%, and NDF contents of 32, 44, 42 and 50% of DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding...... level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Jaw movements oscillations (JMO) were recorded for 96 h continuously using Hall sensor fitted chewing halters. Jaw movements (JM) were identified from JMO, clustered into cycles and periods of rumination...... spent eating, but lower mean rumination per kg NDF intake (P=0.002). Hay compared to silage caused higher NDF intake (Pruminating (P=0.004) in min/kg NDF intake. Feeding silage compared to hay resulted in a higher proportion of washed fecal particle...

  19. Performance and gastroinstestinal nematode control when meat-goat kids grazed chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pasutures

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most pasture-based meat-goat production systems, a major management challenge is control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Use of legumes and forbs that contain plant secondary compounds may reduce fecal egg count (FEC) and/or improve the overall protein nutrition to help animals better toler...

  20. Voluntary intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed ensiled grass clover mixture harvested at three stages of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of grass maturity at harvest on silage ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The sward was harvested at the stem elongation, tasseling and flowering growth stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata. Three silages were offered to four Charolais wether sheep in an incomplete change over design with four periods. As the crop matured, there was an increase (P<0.001 in dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentration and a decrease in crude protein (CP concentration (P<0.001. Increasing maturity of grass ensiled showed a linear decrease (P<0.01 in voluntary silage intake of DM, OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, a linear decrease (P<0.01 in digestibility of silage DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, and a linear decrease in nitrogen balance (P<0.01. No quadratic response was recorded in silage intake, digestibility or N balance. The results suggest that grass maturity at harvest influences the nutritive value of grass silage, in terms of ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in sheep, as a result of changes in chemical composition.

  1. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2016-01-01

    of C16 : 0, riboflavin and α-tocopherol were decreased with autumn silage. The majority of C18 FAs in milk and α-tocopherol concentration increased with rapeseed whereas C11 : 0 to C16 : 0 FA were reduced. Autumn silage reduced biohydrogenation of C18 : 2n6, whereas rapeseed increased biohydrogenation...

  2. Uptake of 32P from labelled organic matter by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Jakobsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    -32 uptake at all P levels. Specific activity in plants was consistently higher than in corresponding soil. This indicates that the added P-32 never reached an equilibrium with inorganic P in the soil. P mineralized from organic matter thus had a residence time in the soil solution short enough...

  3. Effect of volumetric water content and clover (Trifolium incarnatum) on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a soil matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the inevitable introduction of zoonotic manure-born human pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, into minimally processed, ready-to-eat and organic vegetable production systems via animal manure-based organic fertilizer, studies aimed at understanding the survival dynamics of these path...

  4. Strip cropping of alternating perennial grass–clover and annual rye–vetch intercrops when grown within an organic farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, A.; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2012-01-01

    interactions. Less soil water content below the perennial strip indicated greater water uptake, than below the annual strips. Unfortunately, the present strip cropping system did not possess the right balance of co-existence and complementarity. However, from a practical point of view the system was manageable...

  5. Soil 13C–15N dynamics in an N2-fixing clover system under long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van C.J.; Six, J.; Harris, D.; Blum, H.; Kessel, van C.

    2003-01-01

    Reduced soil N availability under elevated CO2 may limit the plant's capacity to increase photosynthesis and thus the potential for increased soil C input. Plant productivity and soil C input should be less constrained by available soil N in an N2-fixing system. We studied the effects of Trifolium

  6. The ultrastructure of the mature embryo sac in the natural tetraploid of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.: that has a very low rate of seed formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül Algan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrastructural organization of cells in the mature embryo sac of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. was investigated. The mature embryo sac of this plant contains an egg cell with two synergids at the micropylar end, and a central cell with two polar nuclei. The ultrastructure of these cells agrees with what is known for most angiosperms studied with the electron microscope. The egg cell is a large and highly vacuolate cell, partially surrounded by a wall. Much of the cytoplasm is located around the nucleus at the chalazal end and there are few numbers of channel-shaped endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids and numerous ribosomes distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Unlike the egg cell, much of the cytoplasm in synergid cells is located at micropylar part of the cell and the synergid cytoplasm contains especially, large numbers of rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, mitochondria and plastids. The central cell of T. pratense L. contains two large polar nuclei which lie close to the egg apparatus. Each polar nucleus has a single, large, dense nucleolus that contains several nucleolar vacuoles. Much of the central cell cytoplasm consisting of granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, ribosomes, dictyosomes and lipid bodies are placed around polar nuclei.

  7. Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Forage Legumes, Forbs and a Grass-Clover Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Fresh forages are an important natural source of vitamins and fatty acids in ruminant diets, and their concentrations in forage species are important for the quality of animal-derived foods such as dairy and meat products. The aims of this study were to obtain novel information on vitamins...

  8. Cumulative impact of a clover cover crop on the persistance and efficancy of Beauveria bassiana in suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. Endemic levels of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can occur in pecan orchards and contribute to natural control of C. caryae. Commercial formulations of the fungus can also be applied for suppression of C. caryae. We hypothesized tha...

  9. EJST V9N2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and biomass yield response of clover (Trifolium decorum) to preceding crop and organic treatment in ... growth and yield of legume crops and forages was reported by ...... indicators to estimate total biomass production of clover. Strong ...

  10. Leaching of dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen from legume-based grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Eriksen, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Leaching of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a considerable loss pathway in grassland soils. We investigated the white clover (Trifolium repens) contribution to N transport and temporal N dynamics under a pure stand of white clover and white clover...

  11. Translational genomics from model species Medicago truncatula to crop legume Trifolium pratense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang Chunting, Chunting

    2012-01-01

    The legume Trifolium pratense (red clover) is an important fodder crop and produces important secondary metabolites. This makes red clover an interesting species. In this thesis, the red clover genome is compared to the legume model species Medicago truncatula, of which the

  12. Yields and quality of forage legumes under imbalanced year precipitation conditions on south Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Lang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, yield and quality of forage following species of forage legumes were evaluated with regard to precipitations: lucerne (Medicago sativa L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L., white clover (Trifolium repens L., kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M., alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L. and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. The trial was sown in the spring of 2008, evaluated in the period 2009–2011. Analysis of samples was performed with the apparatus NIRS 6500. Following parameters were evaluated: production of dry matter, energy concentration (NEL, contents of fibre and crude protein. The highest three year yield average was measured for lucerne (15.01 t.ha−1, followed by red clover group (9.3–11.8 t.ha−1. Kura clover gained the lowest yield (1.97 t.ha−1. The average crude protein contents (g.kg−1 were: lucerne 211.47, red clover group (184.3–194.8, white clover group (229.1–238.7 and birdsfoot trefoil (204.2. The obtained results indicated that lucerne responded at best to periods of drought. Although the production of dry matter decreased in periods of drought, the canopy of stands remained to be complete in contradistinction to white clover, which partly disappeared from the stand. Red clover and alsike clover disappeared from the stand during the trial.

  13. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to the red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, L. E.; Krogh, P. H.; Nielsen, T.

    2003-01-01

    three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were veri.ed with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (.uoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and .uorene), the N-, S-, and O...

  14. The Tr-cp 14 cysteine protease in white clover (Trifolium repens) is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and is associated with programmed cell death during development of tracheary elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulisch, Maria; Asp, Torben; Krupinska, Karin

    2013-01-01

    family of cysteine proteases with homology to XCP1 and XCP2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and p48h-17 from Zinnia elegans, which previously have been reported to be associated with tracheary element differentiation. The proform as well as the processed form of the protein was detected in petioles, flowers....... Immunogold studies suggest that the protease prior to the burst of the vacuole was associated to the ER cisternae. After disruption of the tonoplast, it was found in the cytoplasm, and, in later stages, associated with disintegrating material dispersed throughout the cell....

  15. Interrelations between Herbage Yield, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, Lutein, Protein, and Fiber in Non-Leguminous Forbs, Forage Legumes, and a Grass−Clover Mixture as Affected by Harvest Date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    , protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago...

  16. A decade of free‐air CO2 enrichment increased the carbon throughput in a grass‐clover ecosystem but did not drastically change carbon allocation patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staddon, Philip Louis; Reinsch, Sabine; Olsson, Pål A.

    2014-01-01

    labelling to determine whether elevated CO2 (+230 μL L−1) concentration changes the fate of recently assimilated carbon in the soil microbial community. Elevated CO2 (eCO2) concentration had an overall positive effect on microbial abundance (P negative bacteria showing significantly...... increased quantities. Gram‐negative bacteria and saprotrophic fungi tended to utilize a higher amount of recently assimilated carbon under eCO2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) utilized plant‐assimilated carbon within 1 day after the 13CO2 pulse and 13C uptake patterns in AMF suggest that carbon transfer...

  17. Development of Genomic Resources in the Species of Trifolium L. and Its Application in Forage Legume Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Skøt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Clovers (genus Trifolium are a large and widespread genus of legumes. A number of clovers are of agricultural importance as forage crops in grassland agriculture, particularly temperate areas. White clover (Trifolium repens L. is used in grazed pasture and red clover (T. pratense L. is widely cut and conserved as a winter feed. For the diploid red clover, genetic and genomic tools and resources have developed rapidly over the last five years including genetic and physical maps, BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome end sequence and transcriptome sequence information. This has paved the way for the use of genome wide selection and high throughput phenotyping in germplasm development. For the allotetraploid white clover progress has been slower although marker assisted selection is in use and relatively robust genetic maps and QTL (quantitative trait locus information now exist. For both species the sequencing of the model legume Medicago truncatula gene space is an important development to aid genomic, biological and evolutionary studies. The first genetic maps of another species, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. have also been published and its comparative genomics with red clover and M. truncatula conducted. Next generation sequencing brings the potential to revolutionize clover genomics, but international consortia and effective use of germplasm, novel population structures and phenomics will be required to carry out effective translation into breeding. Another avenue for clover genomic and genetic improvement is interspecific hybridization. This approach has considerable potential with regard to crop improvement but also opens windows of opportunity for studies of biological and evolutionary processes.

  18. Lactic acid fermentation for refining proteins from green crops and obtaining a high quality feed product for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santamaria-Fernandez, M.; Molinuevo-Salces, B.; Kiel, P.

    2017-01-01

    of organic protein-rich feeds from green crops. In this context, red clover, clover grass, alfalfa and oilseed radish were studied as possible feedstocks for the development of an organic biorefinery system in Northern Europe. For this purpose, the green crops were processed into a nitrogen-rich protein...

  19. N2-fixation and residual N effect of four legume species and four companion grass species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Søegaard, Karen; Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin

    2012-01-01

    and climatic conditions. We conducted a field experiment on a sandy soil at two nitrogen levels with seven two-species forage mixtures: alfalfa, bird's-foot trefoil, red clover, or white clover in mixture with perennial ryegrass, and white clover in mixture with meadow fescue, timothy, or hybrid ryegrass. We...... found high N2-fixation of more than 300 kg N ha-1 from both red clover and alfalfa even when the two mixtures received 300 kg total-N ha-1 in cattle slurry. The addition of cattle slurry N fertilizer lowered N2-fixation for white clover and red clover as expected, but for bird's-foot trefoil and alfalfa...... no changes in the proportion of N derived from N2-fixation was observed. We conclude that the competition for available soil N from perennial ryegrass in mixture was an important factor for the proportion of N in alfalfa, white clover, and bird's-foot trefoil obtained from N2-fixation. White clover had...

  20. Effect of pasture botanical composition on milk composition in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S.; Dahl, A.V.; Vae, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Milk samples from sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows grazing mixed swards of either grass-red clover (GR) or mixed swards of sown and unsown species of grass, clover and other herbs (GCH) were collected during four periods. Both pastures were organically managed. Pasture botanical composition had...

  1. Effect of legume–grass silages and α-tocopherol supplementation on fatty acid composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in organically produced bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Martinsson, K

    2012-01-01

    - or three-cut red clover–grass silages (R2 and R3, respectively) or two-cut birdsfoot trefoil–grass silage (B2). In Exp. 2, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover (S3) or long-term ley silage with white clover (L3) in combination with the supplementation of RRR...

  2. Alpha-tocopherol and β-carotene in legume-grass mixtures as influenced by wilting, ensiling and type of silage additive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Effects of wilting, ensiling and type of additive on α-tocopherol and β-carotene contents in legume–grass mixtures were examined. Swards of birdsfoot trefoil + timothy (Bft + Ti), red clover + timothy (Rc + Ti) and red clover + meadow fescue (Rc + Mf) were harvested as a first regrowth in August...

  3. 78 FR 22425 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... Valley, Fernley Area, Mason Valley, and Clovers Area. EPA is taking this action under the Clean Air Act... Reese Valley, Fernley Area, Mason Valley, and Clovers Area III. Final Action and Request for Comment IV... Reese Valley (HA 59), Gabbs Valley (HA 122), Fernley Area (HA 76), Truckee Meadows (HA 87), Mason Valley...

  4. Predation determines different selective pressure on pea aphid host races in a complex agricultural mosaic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbert Balog

    Full Text Available Field assessments were conducted to examine the interplay between host plant and predation in complex agricultural mosaic on pea aphid clover and alfalfa races. In one experiment, we examined the relative fitness on clover race (CR and alfalfa race (AR pea aphids on broad bean, red clover and alfalfa alone. But because clover is typically grown in a more complex agricultural mosaic with alfalfa and broad bean, a second experiment was conducted to assess the fitness consequences under predation in a more complex agricultural field setting that also included potential apparent competition with AR pea aphids. In a third experiment we tested for the effect of differential host race density on the fitness of the other host race mediated by a predator effect. CR pea aphids always had fitness losses when on broad bean (had lower fitness on broad bean relative to red clover and fitness benefits when on red clover (higher fitness on red clover relative to broad bean, whether or not in apparent competition with alfalfa race aphids on bean and alfalfa. AR suffered fitness loss on both alfalfa and bean in apparent competition with CR on clover. Therefore we can conclude that the predation rate between host races was highly asymmetrical. The complexity of the agricultural mosaic thus can influence prey selection by predators on different host plants. These may have evolutionary consequences through context dependent fitness benefits on particular host plants.

  5. On the stability of mixed grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, R.P.O.

    2001-01-01

    Recent years have seen a renewed interest in the use of white clover (Trifolium repens) in grasslands, as a more sustainable alternative to fertiliser nitrogen inputs. However, mixtures of grasses and white clover have frequently been associated with unstable and hence unreliable herbage

  6. Het cyanophore karakter van witte klaver (Trifolium repens L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, de D.

    1942-01-01

    The positive correlation found in New Zealand between quality of white clover and its hydrocyanic acid content, could not be confirmed for Dutch white clover in the Netherlands. HCN occurred bound to an incompletely identified glucoside. As Weevers and Treub et al. found the glucoside and HCN

  7. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  8. and the quality of silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Syrjälä-Qvist

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Five silages having different proportions of red clover and timothy (100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 were preserved in five glass-fibre silos of 0.4 m 3. Chopped red clover and timothy were mixed during ensiling and preserved with AIV II solution (80 % formic acid and 2 % orthophosphoric acid, applied at the rate of 6 l/1000kg fresh material. The timothy sward was fertilized with 100kg N/ha and the red clover with 15kg N/ha. The dry matter content in red clover was 14.5 % and in timothy 18.6%, and the crude protein content of DM 22.9 % and 11.5 %, respectively. True protein formed 75—76 % of crude protein in both herbages and the proportion of watersoluble N in total N was 32 % in red clover and 36 % in timothy. The rumen degradability of protein during the first two hours was under 10 % in both herbages; after 18 and 24h ours it was 76 % and 87 % in red clover, and 65 % and 70 % in timothy. In red clover the contents of lysine, methionine and cysteine were 5.7 g, 0.4 g and 0.9 g/16 g N, respectively, the corresponding values for timothy being 4.8 g, 0.7 g and 1.4g/16 g N. In red clover the content of water-soluble carbohydrates was 10.6 % of DM and in timothy 16.5 %; the contents of plant acids were 6.7 % and 3.5 % of DM, respectively. Red clover contained 10.9g Ca/kg DM and timothy 3.1 g Ca. The total amount of inorganic constituents was also higher in red clover than in timothy. Although the chemical composition of red clover was less suitable for ensiling than the composition of timothy, the quality of all the silages was good. During ensiling the decrease in the proportion of true protein in crude protein and the increase in the proportion of watersoluble N in total N were smaller in red clover than in timothy silage. These changes were reflected in the ruminal protein degradation, which seemed to be slower when they were small. The amino acid profile of the protein did not alter during ensiling. The ensiling losses were higher in

  9. The effect of different levels of fertilizer on nitrogen nutrient of pasture using 15N-isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dongpu; Bai Lingyu; Hua Luo; Yao Yunyin

    2000-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of different levels of fertilizer on N% of ryegrass in monoculture or mixed culture with white clover and symbiotic dinitrogen fixation of white clover by using 15 N-isotope dilution method. It showed that (1) N% of ryegrass in monoculture or mixed culture was the highest at 67 days after fertilizing (DAF) and decreased with time; (2) N% of white clover was the greatest at 67 DAF, slightly decreased at 92 DAF, and then increased at 137 DAF, related to the increasing of nitrogen fixation by white clover; (3) At 164 kg 15 NH 4 SO 4 /hm 2 , N% of ryegrass in mixed culture at different cutting time was greater than that in monoculture. It obviously occurred that fixed nitrogen was transferred from white clover to ryegrass in mixed; (4) During the whole growth period, the main nitrogen resource of white clover was symbiotic dinitrogen fixation and that of ryegrass was soil nitrogen; (5) Effect of different levels of applied N on N% of ryegrass and white clover was significant

  10. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents of forage species in four-cut system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, H.; Nadeau, A.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations were measured in herbage of birdsfoot trefoil (Bft), red clover (Rc), white clover (Wc), timothy (Ti) and perennial ryegrass (Pr) grown in four mixtures (Bft+Ti, Rc+Ti, Rc+Pr and Wc+Pr) in a small-plot field experiment at Foulum, Denmark, over 2 years. P......-carotene concentrations were 54 and 62 mg kg−1 DM. In conclusion, herbage of birdsfoot trefoil generally had higher vitamin concentrations than white or red clover, but differences between the two grass species were small and inconsistent....

  11. Changes in nutritive value and herbage yield during extended growth intervals in grass-legume mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2018-01-01

    . Perennial ryegrass was sown with each of four legumes: red clover, white clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil, and white clover was sown with hybrid ryegrass, meadow fescue and timothy. Effects of species composition on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF...... in quality parameters differed among species and functional groups, i.e., grasses and legumes. Results are discussed in the context of quantifying the impact of delaying the harvest date of grass–legume mixtures and relationships between productivity and components of feed quality....

  12. Tréboles de cuatro hojas. Escritoras decimonónicas españolas en el canon literario y en el canon escolar (1900-1949 / Four-leaf clovers. Nineteenth-century writers in the literary canon and school canon (1900-1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gutiérrez Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El artículo aborda el estudio de la visión y valoración de las escritoras del siglo XIX en las historias literarias a lo largo de las primeras décadas del siglo XX y estudia además cómo se trataron estas escritoras en antologías escolares y libros de texto, analizando su repercusión en la educación literaria de los receptores de esos momentos. Abstract The article discusses the study of vision and evaluation of the writers of the nineteenth century literary along the first decades of the twentieth century stories and also studies how these writers were treated in school anthologies and textbooks, analyzing their impact on literary education of the recipients of those moments.

  13. Occurrence of plant growth-promoting traits in clover-nodulating rhizobia strains isolated from different soils in Rio Grande do Sul state Ocorrência de características de promoção de crescimento em rizóbios noduladores de trevo isolados de solos do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Kayser Vargas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria has become an alternative to improve crop production. Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii is one of the most promising rhizobacteria and is even used with non-legume plants. This study investigated in vitro the occurrence of plant growth-promoting characteristics in several indigenous R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii isolated from soils in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Isolates were obtained at 11 locations and evaluated for indoleacetic acid and siderophore production and inorganic phosphate solubilization. Ten isolates were also molecularly characterized and tested for antagonism against a phytopathogenic fungus and for plant growth promotion of rice seedlings. Of a total of 252 isolates, 59 produced indoleacetic acid, 20 produced siderophores and 107 solubilized phosphate. Some degree of antagonism against Verticillium sp. was observed in all tested isolates, reducing mycelial growth in culture broth. Isolate AGR-3 stood out for increasing root length of rice seedlings, while isolate ELD-18, besides increasing root length in comparison to the uninoculated control, also increased the germination speed index, shoot length, and seedling dry weight. These results confirm the potential of some strains of R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.Nas últimas décadas, o uso de rizobactérias promotoras de crescimento de plantas tem se mostrado uma alternativa para aumentar a produção vegetal. Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii está entre as mais promissoras rizobactérias e tem sido usada também em não leguminosas. O presente trabalho analisou in vitro a ocorrência de características de promoção de crescimento vegetal em isolados de R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii nativos de solos do Rio Grande do Sul. Os isolados foram obtidos de 11 localidades e avaliados quanto à produção de ácido indolacético, produção de sideróforos e solubilização de fosfato. Dez isolados foram também caracterizados molecularmente e testados com relação a antagonismo a um fungo fitopatogênico e promoção de crescimento em plântulas de arroz. De um total de 252 isolados, 59 produziram ácido indolacético, 20 produziram sideróforos e 107 solubilizaram fosfato. Todos os isolados apresentaram algum grau de antagonismo a Verticillium sp., reduzindo o crescimento micelial em meio líquido. O isolado AGR-3 destacou-se por aumentar o crescimento radicular das plântulas de arroz, enquanto o isolado ELD-18, além de aumentar o comprimento das raízes em comparação com o controle não inoculado, também aumentou o índice de velocidade de germinação, o comprimento da parte aérea e a massa das plântulas secas. Esses resultados confirmam o potencial de R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii como rizobactéria promotora de crescimento de plantas.

  14. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  15. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Feasibility of gamma-ray spectroscopy at relativistic energies with exotic heavy-ions and new generation of germanium detectors (segmented Clover) is discussed. An experiment with such detector array and radioactive is discussed.

  16. 76 FR 27317 - Ziram, Diquat Dibromide, and Chloropicrin; Order for Amendments To Terminate Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... ASHTA Gold Chloropicrin Mushroom casing soil, potting soil, and small area seed beds using handheld... 27835-0648. 45728 Taminco, Inc., 21320 Sweet Clover Place, Ashburn, VA 20147. 58266 Shadow Mountain...

  17. Effects of digestate from anaerobically digested cattle slurry and plant materials on soil microbial community and emission of CO2 and N2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Jensen, Erik S.

    2013-01-01

    ) anaerobically digested cattle slurry/grass-clover, or (5) fresh grass-clover was applied to soil at arable realistic rates. Experimental unites were sequentially sampled destructively after 1, 3 and 9 days of incubation and the soil assayed for content of mineral N, available organic C, emission of CO2 and N2O......, microbial phospholipid fatty acids (biomass and community composition) and catabolic response profiling (functional diversity). Fertilizing with the anaerobically digested materials increased the soil concentration of NO3− ca. 30–40% compared to when raw cattle slurry was applied. Grass-clover contributed...... with four times more readily degradable organic C than the other materials, causing an increased microbial biomass which depleted the soil for mineral N and probably also O2. Consequently, grass-clover also caused a ∼10 times increase in emissions of CO2 and N2O greenhouse gasses compared to any...

  18. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantification

    The potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for

  19. Pion in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Schierholz, G.; Regensburg Univ.

    2010-02-01

    The residual mass of the pion in a finite spatial box at vanishing quark masses is computed with two flavors of dynamical clover fermions. The result is compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory in the δ regime. (orig.)

  20. B-Parameters of 4-Fermion Operators from Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rajan

    1997-07-01

    This talk summarizes the status of the calculations of B K , B 7 , B 8 , and B s , done in collaboration with T. Bhattacharya, C. Kilcup, and S. Sharpe. Results for staggered, Wilson, and Clover fermions are presented

  1. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2015-10-09

    , PO Box 3000, ... red clover silage (RC) : barley concentrate), a diet with sunflower ... et al., 2012; 2015) which have potential human health benefits ...... and waste to health and opportunity. Meat Sci. 92,. 210-220. Mapiye, C.

  2. Cloning and characterization of the immunodominant membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl4

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... A; Amp, antigenic membranes protein; AY, aster yellows; CPh, clover phyllody; JHP ... host-phytoplasma interactions and the IDPs are classified into three distinct types: type I was ..... Range of phytoplasma concentrations in ...

  3. Swainsonine biosynthesis genes in diverse symbiotic and pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainsonine, a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug, is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont, Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glo...

  4. Quinoa-geheleplantensilage in het rantsoen van melkkoeien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.; Schooten, van H.; Pinxterhuis, I.

    2002-01-01

    Report of a feeding experiment with the aim to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of wilted grass-clover silage by quinoa whole crop silage on feed intake and milk production and milk composition of dairy cows.

  5. Environmental Impact Research Program. Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) Section 4.1.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    tors in most populations (Edminster 1954, Gullion and Marshall 1968). However, hunting may depress grouse numbers on areas that receive intensive...in the diversity of ruffed grouse diets. Clover and other green leafy material and the fruits of Arctostaphylos, cranberry , and meadow rue contribute...Christmas fern Polystichum acrostichoides Clover Trifoliwn spp. Cranberry Viburnum edule Dandelion Taraxaum spp. Dogwood Corfus spp. Douglas fir Pseudotsuga

  6. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Warren M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White clover (Trifolium repens is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Results T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Conclusions Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime, along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a

  7. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Warren M; Ellison, Nicholas W; Ansari, Helal A; Verry, Isabelle M; Hussain, S Wajid

    2012-04-24

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH) and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens) hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale) to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime), along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a broad adaptive range.

  8. [Genetic and physiological compatibility of different forms of stem eelworms. VI. The crossing of eelworms from cultivated plants and weeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladygina, N M

    1978-01-01

    The crossing of stem eelworms of onion and red clover with these from Cirsium setosum and Taraxacum officinale resulted in the fertilization of females, egglaying and embriogenesis. However, the hybrid eggs died, as a rule. Only in one experiment a large population developed up to F5 but few hybrids survived to F10. The studied stem eelworms of weeds are genetically non-compatible with Ditylenchus dipsaci of onion and red clover and are distinct species.

  9. Influence of different forages on gastrointestinal namatode infections in grazing lambs

    OpenAIRE

    Thamsborg, S.M.; Mejer, H.; Bandier, M.; Larsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Nematode infections of sheep may be influenced by secondary compounds in the diet, e.g. condensed tannins. A study was performed with 7 groups of lambs experimentally infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostronglylus vitrinus. All groups were grazed on clean clover-grass pasture and then moved to paddocks with bioactive forages with either sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) (groups Pre-S and Post-S), chicory (Cichorium intybus, cv. Grasslands Puna) (Pre-C and Post-C) or clover-grass...

  10. Environmental Impact Research Program. Yellow Sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis) Section 7.3.4, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Nevada Mountains (Short 1943, Pickford and Jackman 1944, Cornelius and Talbot 1955, Hull and Johnson 1955, Lavin and Springfield 1955). Yellow...sodbound pastures (Peterson and Hughes 1947). Mixed with red clover (Trifolium pratense) and alsike clover (T. hybridum), it is used to renovate...American Wildlife and 07 Plants. Dover Publ., Inc., New York. 500 pp. U.5 |1 Peterson, H. L., and H. D. Hughes . 1947. Let’s remodel our pastures. Iowa Farm

  11. The effect of intercropping on weed infestation of a spring barley crop cultivated in monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kwiecińska-Poppe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study carried out in the years 2005-2007 in the Bezek Experimental Farm near the city of Chełm, Poland, on heavy mixed rendzina soil. The effect of intercropping, using red clover (cv. Dajana and white clover (cv. Astra, on weed infestation of a spring barley crop was studied. The species composition of weeds in the spring barley crop changed to a small extent under the influence of the application of clover intercropping, whereas the population size of particular species showed large fluctuations. In the spring barley crop with the red clover intercrop, Sonchus arvensis occurred in greatest numbers among dicotyledonous weed species. In the barley crop with white clover and without intercrop, Viola arvensis and Sonchus arvensis were the dominant dicotyledonous species. Setaria pumila was the dominant monocotyledonous species in all the treatments. Intercropping using red and white clover clearly limited the growth and development of weeds. The red clover intercrop in the spring barley crop better reduced the infestation with dicotyledonous weeds and also significantly reduced the number of monocotyledonous weeds and the total number of weeds, whereas the white clover intercrop limited only the number of monocotyledonous weeds. The application of the herbicide Chwastox Extra 300 SL significantly reduced the fresh weight of weeds found in the spring barley crop. The presence of the intercrop resulted in different total numbers of weeds in particular treatments. Intercropping distinctly limited the occurrence of the following weed species: Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus, Melandrium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Veronica arvensis and Medicago lupulina. The investigated intercrop species also reduced the biomass of weeds. The application of the herbicide did not differentiate the number of monocotyledonous weeds, which resulted from the application of Chwastox Extra 300 SL that controls only

  12. Effects of Trifolium alexandrinum phytoestrogens on oestrous behaviour, ovarian activity and reproductive performance of ewes during the non-breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, N M; El-Azrak, K M; Nour El-Din, A N M; Sallam, S M; Taha, T A; Salem, M H

    2018-03-08

    Phytoestrogens are classified as naturally occurring endocrine disrupting chemicals that may affect reproductive performance of farm animals. To investigate the effects of Berseem clover phytoestrogens on reproductive performance of seasonal anoestrus ewes, twenty four late pregnant Rahmani ewes were fed either Berseem clover or maize silage (n = 12/treatment). Treatment started 2 months prepartum and continued until oestrous induction (week 8 postpartum), using the CIDR-eCG based protocol, and early pregnancy. Throughout the 2-8 weeks postpartum, oestrous rate and ovarian activity were not affected by treatment. After oestrous induction, ewes in both groups expressed comparable oestrous rates; however feeding Berseem clover extended (P ewes fed maize silage than for those fed Berseem clover. Fecundity and litter size tended to be greater (about 35%; P = 0.132 and 0.085, respectively) in the maize silage fed ewes. In conclusion, feeding Berseem clover throughout seasonal anoestrus disrupted aspects of behavioural oestrus and there was less luteal P 4 synthesis and fecundity of ewes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reflectance measurements of leaves for detecting visible and non-visible ozon damage to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.; Weigel, H.-J.; Mejer, G.-J.; Brandes, F.

    1996-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Turbo), white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Karina) and maize (Zea mays cv. Bonny) plants were exposed for 20–30 days in open top chambers to charcoal-filtered air (CF, control) and CF air supplied with O 3 for 8–12 h/per day in the concentration range of 180–240 μg O 3 /m 3 (8–12 h/day treatment mean). At the end of the O 3 treatment spectral reflectance measurements were made on single leaves of all 3 species and on canopies of wheat and clover using a CCD (Charged Coupled Device) camera and wavelength filters with 11 wavelength bands ranging from 450 nm to 950 nm. Different vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the ≪main inflection point≫ (MIP) were calculated. Based on these results it was shown that visible O 3 damages were correlated to the spectral reflectance changes: Both leaves and canopies showed an increased reflectance of visible light after ozone treatment. While clover and maize leaves as well as clover and wheat canopies showed a decreased near infrared (NIR) reflectance, the NIR reflectance of wheat leaves did not change, even if the leaves had visible symptoms. A decreased infrared reflectance was detectable for all clover leaves after O 3 treatment although for part of the leaves no visible foliar damage symptoms could be observed

  14. Improving brightness and photostability of green and red fluorescent proteins for live cell imaging and FRET reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajar, Bryce T; Wang, Emily S; Lam, Amy J; Kim, Bongjae B; Jacobs, Conor L; Howe, Elizabeth S; Davidson, Michael W; Lin, Michael Z; Chu, Jun

    2016-02-16

    Many genetically encoded biosensors use Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to dynamically report biomolecular activities. While pairs of cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (FPs) are most commonly used as FRET partner fluorophores, respectively, green and red FPs offer distinct advantages for FRET, such as greater spectral separation, less phototoxicity, and lower autofluorescence. We previously developed the green-red FRET pair Clover and mRuby2, which improves responsiveness in intramolecular FRET reporters with different designs. Here we report the engineering of brighter and more photostable variants, mClover3 and mRuby3. mClover3 improves photostability by 60% and mRuby3 by 200% over the previous generation of fluorophores. Notably, mRuby3 is also 35% brighter than mRuby2, making it both the brightest and most photostable monomeric red FP yet characterized. Furthermore, we developed a standardized methodology for assessing FP performance in mammalian cells as stand-alone markers and as FRET partners. We found that mClover3 or mRuby3 expression in mammalian cells provides the highest fluorescence signals of all jellyfish GFP or coral RFP derivatives, respectively. Finally, using mClover3 and mRuby3, we engineered an improved version of the CaMKIIα reporter Camuiα with a larger response amplitude.

  15. Determination of Phytoestrogen Content in Fresh-Cut Legume Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Hloucalová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine phytoestrogen content in fresh-cut legume forage. This issue has been much discussed in recent years in connection with the health and safety of feedstuffs and thus livestock health. The experiments were carried out on two experimental plots at Troubsko and Vatín, Czech Republic during June and July in 2015. Samples were collected of the four forage legume species perennial red clover (variety “Amos”, alfalfa (variety “Holyně”, and annuals Persian clover and Alexandrian clover. Forage was sampled twice at regular three to four day intervals leading up to harvest and a third time on the day of harvest. Fresh and wilted material was analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Higher levels ( p < 0.05 of isoflavones biochanin A (3.697 mg·g −1 of dry weight and formononetin (4.315 mg·g −1 of dry weight were found in red clover than in other species. The highest isoflavone content was detected in red clover, reaching 1.001% of dry matter ( p < 0.05, representing a risk for occurrence of reproduction problems and inhibited secretion of animal estrogen. The phytoestrogen content was particularly increased in wilted forage. Significant isoflavone reduction was observed over three to four day intervals leading up to harvest.

  16. Intercropping of reed canary grass, phalaris arundinacea l., with legumes can cut costs for n-fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden, Umeaa (Sweden)), e-mail: eva.lindvall@njv.slu.se

    2010-07-15

    In a field experiment close to Oestersund in mid Sweden reed canary grass was intercropped with barley, Alsike clover, Trifolium hybridum L., red clover, T. pratense L., goats rue, Galega orientalis L. or a combination of red clover and goats rue. There were also three fertilization treatments: A: Recommended amounts of N, P and K. B: Recommended amounts of P and K and half amount of N. C: Sewage sludge application before sowing (establishment year) and recommended amounts of P and K and half amount of N. The biomass was lower where reed canary grass had been undersown in barley, and higher with full N-fertilization than with half N-fertilization. However there were no significant differences between legume intercrops with half N-fertilization and pure reed canary grass with full Nfertilization. Alsike clover was the most productive legume, followed by red clover. The amount of nitrogen fixed by the legumes was less with full N-fertilization (29 kg/ha as a mean) than with half N-fertilization (38 kg/ha). Intercropping with legumes could substitute half of the N in fertilization but similar experiments in other parts of Sweden has shown that there is a higher risk of weed problems

  17. Ensiling – Wet-storage method for lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2011-01-01

    , and consequently by lowing pH, inhibiting other microbes to degrade the polysaccharides. Following silage treatment, enzymatic convertibility tests showed that 51.5%, 36.5%, and 41.9% of the cellulose was converted by cellulytic enzymes in ensiled maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively. In addition, tests......Ensiling of humid biomass samples wrapped in plastic bales has been investigated as a wet-storage for bioethanol production from three lignocellulosic biomass samples i.e. maize, rye, and clover grass. During the silage process, lactic acid bacteria fermented free sugars to lactic acid.......5% (by S. cerevisiae); the yields significantly increased after hydrothermal pretreatment: 77.7%, 72.8%, 79.5% (by K. marxianus) and 72.0%, 80.7%, 75.7% (by S. cerevisiae) of the theoretical based on the C6 sugar contents in maize, rye, and clover grass, respectively....

  18. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... red clover-grass silage diet (1,494μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  19. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  20. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of novel totivirus-like double-stranded RNAs from field-collected powdery mildew fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hisano, Sakae; Chiba, Sotaro; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Andika, Ida Bagus; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-02-02

    The identification of mycoviruses contributes greatly to understanding of the diversity and evolutionary aspects of viruses. Powdery mildew fungi are important and widely studied obligate phytopathogenic agents, but there has been no report on mycoviruses infecting these fungi. In this study, we used a deep sequencing approach to analyze the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments isolated from field-collected samples of powdery mildew fungus-infected red clover plants in Japan. Database searches identified the presence of at least ten totivirus (genus Totivirus)-like sequences, termed red clover powdery mildew-associated totiviruses (RPaTVs). The majority of these sequences shared moderate amino acid sequence identity with each other (powdery mildew fungus populations infecting red clover plants in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reprint of "Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of novel totivirus-like double-stranded RNAs from field-collected powdery mildew fungi".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hideki; Hisano, Sakae; Chiba, Sotaro; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Andika, Ida Bagus; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Fujimori, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-07-02

    The identification of mycoviruses contributes greatly to understanding of the diversity and evolutionary aspects of viruses. Powdery mildew fungi are important and widely studied obligate phytopathogenic agents, but there has been no report on mycoviruses infecting these fungi. In this study, we used a deep sequencing approach to analyze the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments isolated from field-collected samples of powdery mildew fungus-infected red clover plants in Japan. Database searches identified the presence of at least ten totivirus (genus Totivirus)-like sequences, termed red clover powdery mildew-associated totiviruses (RPaTVs). The majority of these sequences shared moderate amino acid sequence identity with each other (powdery mildew fungus populations infecting red clover plants in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mobilization and utilization of sparingly soluble phosphates by VA mycorrhizal fungus external hyphae I-32P indirectly labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Qing; Zhao Zijuan; Feng Gu; Li Xiaolin; Chen Baodong

    2000-01-01

    Red clover were grown in three-compartment boxes, and were inoculated with VA mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus mosseae. External hyphae were separated from root system by 30 μm pore size membrane. Phosphorus fertilizer indirectly labelled with 32 P and five kind of phosphates were applied in the hyphae compartment, and the ability of external hyphae to mobilize the sparingly soluble phosphates were evaluated. the results showed that external hyphae mobilized and up took Ca 2 -P, Ca 8 -P, Al-P, Fe.P, but not Ca 10 -P. The phosphorus uptake by clover from phosphates and the contribution of phosphates to clover phosphorus nutrition were ranked as Ca 2 -P > Ca 8 -P, Al-P > Fe-P

  3. Biogas in organic agriculture-effects on productivity, energy self-sufficiency and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    was obtained for all biogas scenarios, showing that biomass production for biogas on 10% of the farm area results in an energy surplus, provided that the heat from the electricity production is utilized. The energy surplus implies a displacement of fossil fuels and thereby reduced CO2 emission from the farm...... of anaerobic digestion and biogas production were analyzed on a 1000 ha model farm with combined dairy and cash crop production, representing organic agriculture in Denmark. The effects on crop rotation, nitrogen flows and losses, yield, energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were evaluated for four...... scenarios of biogas production on the farm. Animal manure was digested for biogas production in all scenarios and was supplemented with: (1) 100 ha grass–clover for biogas, (2) 100 ha maize for biogas, (3) 200 ha grass–clover for biogas and reduced number of livestock, and (4) 200 ha grass–clover for biogas...

  4. Comparing annual and perennial crops for bioenergy production - influence on nitrate leaching and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Schelde, Kirsten; Ugilt Larsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Production of energy crops is promoted as a means to mitigate global warming by decreasing dependency on fossil energy. However, agricultural production of bioenergy can have various environmental effects depending on the crop and production system. In a field trial initiated in 2008, nitrate...... concentration in soil water was measured below winter wheat, grass-clover and willow during three growing seasons. Crop water balances were modelled to estimate the amount of nitrate leached per hectare. In addition, dry matter yields and nitrogen (N) yields were measured, and N balances and energy balances...... was also measured in an old willow crop established in 1996 from which N leaching ranged from 6 to 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. Dry matter yields ranged between 5.9 and 14.8 Mg yr−1 with lowest yield in the newly established willow and the highest yield harvested in grass-clover. Grass-clover gave the highest net...

  5. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae: Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Tundis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium pratense (red clover and T. repens (white clover edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  6. Fate of 15N and 14C from labelled plant material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Gjettermann, Birgitte; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    strength of labelled plant residues in dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and dissolved organic N (DON) in pore water from the plough layer, and (ii) the plant uptake of organically bound N. Litterbags containing 14C- and 15N-labelled ryegrass or clover roots or leaves were inserted into the sward of a ryegrass......–clover mixture in early spring. The fate of the released 14C and 15N was monitored in harvested biomass, roots, soil, and pore water percolating from the plough layer. No evidence of plant uptake of dual-labelled organic compounds from the dual-labelled residues could be observed. N in pore water from the plough...

  7. Full energy peak efficiency of composite detectors for high energy gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Experiments involving radioactive beams demand high detection efficiencies. One of the ways to obtain high detection efficiency without deteriorating the energy resolution or timing characteristics is the use of composite detectors which are composed of standard HPGe crystals arranged in a compact way. Two simplest composite detectors are the clover and cluster detectors. The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) comprises of 16 large volume, 32-fold segmented HPGe clover detectors, where each detector is shielded by a 20-fold segmented escape suppression shield (ESS)

  8. Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

  9. Biohydrogenation of Fatty Acids Is Dependent on Plant Species and Feeding Regimen of Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    and LA between single plant species and feeding regimens. Rumen fluid was collected from cows fed either total mixed ration (TMR), species-rich silage (HERB), or grass silage (GRASS). Five single species (alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, English plantain, and salad burnet) and a grass–clover mixture...... (white clover and ryegrass) were incubated in three replicas up to 30 h and subsequently analyzed for fatty acid content. Michaelis–Menten kinetics was applied for quantifying the BH rate. BH proceeded at the lowest rate in alfalfa and salad burnet (P ... was lower in HERB and GRASS compared to TMR (P

  10. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  11. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43......% fractional bandwidth at the 2.4 GHz ISM-band. The slot antenna has been optimized for excitation by a passive chip soldered onto it. Measurement results are compared with simulation results and show good agreements....

  12. Impact of floral sources and processing on the antimicrobial activities of different unifloral honeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, Khaled; Attalla, Khaled; Elbadry, Medhat; Abdeltawab, Awad; Gamal-Eldin, Hosny; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study in vitro antibacterial activity and physicochemical properties of three unifloral honeys (citrus, clover and cotton honeys), and to study the impacts of storage, dilution with water (33%, w/v) and autoclaving (121 °C for 15 min) on honeys characteristics. Methods Honey samples from monofloral sources including citrus (Citrus spp.), Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrium) and cotton (Gossypium vitifolium) were obtained during three successive seasons (2010-2012). Physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activities of different honey samples were studies. Results In honey samples stored for 12 or 24 month, colour, hydroxymethyl furfural and acidity increased, while refractive index, water activity, total soluble solids, electrical conductivity and pH remained relatively unaffected, but H2O2 values decreased. Types of honey exhibited various degrees of antibacterial activity against different indicator bacteria, wherein the highest antibacterial activity was recorded for clover honey followed by citrus and cotton honeys, respectively. Different species of bacteria were differed in their sensitivity to honey, wherein Salmonella enteritidis was the most sensitive followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, respectively. Storage up to 24 months at room temperature slightly reduced the antibacterial activity. The reduction levels were about 2.6% and 4.6% after 12 and 24 months, respectively. Diluting honeys with water increased the antibacterial activity by ca. 8.3%, while autoclaving decreased the antibacterial activity by ca. 13.5%. The relative contribution of the peroxide and non-peroxide components in the total antibacterial activity of fresh honeys was investigated. The antibacterial activity of honeys was mainly attributed to non-peroxide antibacterial agents, wherein their contribution was ca. 88%, while the contribution of H2O2 was only 12%. The contribution of the thermostable antibacterial components

  13. Rooting depth and root depth distribution of Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S N; Hofmann, R W; Williams, W M; van Koten, C

    2016-05-20

    Traits related to root depth distribution were examined in Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum backcross 1 (BC 1 ) hybrids to determine whether root characteristics of white clover could be improved by interspecific hybridization. Two white clover cultivars, two T. uniflorum accessions and two BC 1 populations were grown in 1 -m deep tubes of sand culture. Maximum rooting depth and root mass distribution were measured at four harvests over time, and root distribution data were fitted with a regression model to provide measures of root system shape. Morphological traits were measured at two depths at harvest 3. Root system shape of the hybrids was more similar to T. uniflorum than to white clover. The hybrids and T. uniflorum had a higher rate of decrease in root mass with depth than white clover, which would result in higher proportions of root mass in the upper profile. Percentage total root mass at 100-200 mm depth was higher for T. uniflorum than white clover, and for Crusader BC 1 than 'Crusader'. Roots of the hybrids and T. uniflorum also penetrated deeper than those of white clover. T. uniflorum had thicker roots at 50-100 mm deep than the other entries, and more of its fine root mass at 400-500 mm. The hybrids and white clover had more of their fine root mass higher in the profile. Consequently, T. uniflorum had a higher root length density at 400-500 mm than most entries, and a smaller decrease in root length density with depth. These results demonstrate that rooting characteristics of white clover can be altered by hybridization with T. uniflorum, potentially improving water and nutrient acquisition and drought resistance. Root traits of T. uniflorum are likely to be adaptations to soil moisture and fertility in its natural environment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Encoded Protease Does Not Recognize Primary Translation Products of M RNAs from Other Comoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Goldbach, Rob; Krijt, Jette

    1982-01-01

    The protease encoded by the large (B) RNA segment of cowpea mosaic virus was tested for its ability to recognize the in vitro translation products of the small (M) RNA segment from the comoviruses squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, and cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPsMV, strains Dg and Ark), and from the nepovirus tomato black ring virus. Like M RNA from cowpea mosaic virus, the M RNAs from squash mosaic virus, red clover mottle virus, CPsMV-Dg, and CPsMV-Ark were all translated int...

  15. Combining protein extraction and anaerobic digestion to produce feed, fuel and fertilizer from green biomass – An organic biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Maria Santamaria; Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; Lübeck, Mette

    Organically grown green biomass (red clover, clover grass) was investigated as a resource for organic feed and organic fertilizer by combination of proteins extraction and anaerobic digestion of the residues. Extraction of proteins from both crops revealed very favourable amino acid composition...... for the use as animal feed. The residual 90% of organic matter, leaving the separation as solid press cake and brown juice was subjected to anaerobic digestion to produce biogas and fertilizer. Methane yields of 220-310 and 430-540 ml CH4/g VS were obtained for press cake and brown juice, respectively...

  16. Do green manures as winter cover crops impact the weediness and crop yield in an organic crop rotation?

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Helena; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Alaru, Maarika; Kauer, Karin; Luik, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different winter cover crops and their combination with composted cattle manure on weeds and crop yields were investigated within a five-field crop rotation (barley undersown with red clover, red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato) in three organic cropping systems. The control system (Org 0) followed the rotation. In organic systems Org I and Org II the winter cover crops were used as follows: ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in 2011/2012) and a mixture of winter oilseed-rape (Brass...

  17. The Uptake by Plants of Diethylstilboestrol and of Its Glucuronide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers Hansen, B.

    1964-01-01

    The uptake of diethylstilboestrol and its glucuronide by plants could, under certain circumstances, present a potential health hazard. The relative uptake of the two compounds has therefore been studied in rye grass, red clover, mushrooms, and maize in pot and water culture experiments. It is con......The uptake of diethylstilboestrol and its glucuronide by plants could, under certain circumstances, present a potential health hazard. The relative uptake of the two compounds has therefore been studied in rye grass, red clover, mushrooms, and maize in pot and water culture experiments...

  18. The CARDS array for neutron-rich decay spectroscopy at HRIBF

    CERN Document Server

    Batchelder, J C; Bingham, C R; Carter, H K; Cole, J D; Fong, D; Garrett, P E; Grzywacz, R; Hamilton, J H; Hartley, D J; Hwang, J K; Krolas, W; Kulp, D C; Larochelle, Y; Piechaczek, A; Ramayya, A V; Rykaczewski, K; Spejewski, E H; Stracener, D W; Tantawy, M N; Winger, J A; Wood, J; Zganjar, E F

    2003-01-01

    An array for decay studies of neutron-rich nuclei has been commissioned for use at the UNISOR separator at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. This array consists of three segmented clover Ge detectors, plastic scintillators, and a high-resolution (approx 1 keV) Si conversion electron spectrometer. These detectors are mounted on a support that surrounds a moving tape collector. This system has been named clover array for radioactive decay studies. The detectors have been outfitted with digital flash ADCs (XIA DGFs) that fit the preamp signals, with built-in pileup rejection.

  19. The CARDS array for neutron-rich decay spectroscopy at HRIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelder, J.C.; Bilheux, J.-C.; Bingham, C.R.; Carter, H.K.; Cole, J.D.; Fong, D.; Garrett, P.E.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J.H.; Hartley, D.J.; Hwang, J.K.; Krolas, W.; Kulp, D.; Larochelle, Y.; Piechaczek, A.; Ramayya, A.V.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Spejewski, E.H.; Stracener, D.W.; Tantawy, M.N.; Winger, J.A.; Wood, J.; Zganjar, E.F.

    2003-01-01

    An array for decay studies of neutron-rich nuclei has been commissioned for use at the UNISOR separator at Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. This array consists of three segmented clover Ge detectors, plastic scintillators, and a high-resolution (∼1 keV) Si conversion electron spectrometer. These detectors are mounted on a support that surrounds a moving tape collector. This system has been named clover array for radioactive decay studies. The detectors have been outfitted with digital flash ADCs (XIA DGFs) that fit the preamp signals, with built-in pileup rejection

  20. Evolution of nuclear spectroscopy at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Currently Saha Institute is building a multi-element gamma heavy ion neutron array detector (MEGHNAD), which will have six high efficiency clover Ge detector together with charged particle ball and other accessories. The system is expected to be usable in 2002 and will be used in experiments using high energy heavy ...

  1. Sulfur dioxide content of the air and its influence on the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeck, G; Reckendorfer, P; Beran, F

    1929-01-01

    Clover was exposed to concentrations of sulfur dioxide ranging from 5 to 50 ppm for periods of 1 to 4 hours. The higher concentrations caused an increase in sulfur content. Single exposures did not affect the digestible protein content of the plants. 10 tables, 3 figures.

  2. Batch fermentations on synthetic mixed sugar and starch medium with amylolytic lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Guyot, J.P.; Kiel, P.

    2007-01-01

    The green crop drying industry in Denmark uses Italian rye grass, clover, and alfalfa as raw materials for the production of green pellets. The green crop drying industry solves its energy economical problems by heating and pressing of the green crop before drying. The produced sidestream is called...

  3. PNA Directed Sequence Addressed Self-Assembly of DNA Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    sequence specifically recognize another PNA oligomer. We describe how such three domain PNAs have utility for assembling dsDNA grid and clover leaf structures, and in combination with SNAP-tag technol. of protein dsDNA structures. (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics. [on SciFinder (R)] Udgivelsesdato...

  4. Effect of mixed and single crops on disease suppressiveness of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of mixed cropping on disease suppressiveness of soils was tested for two cropping systems, Brussels sprouts¿barley and triticale¿white clover. Disease suppressiveness of field soils was evaluated in bioassays for the soilborne pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini,

  5. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (clary sage) Salvia sclarea L. Clover Trifolium spp. Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. and other spp. of Erythroxylum. Coffee Coffea spp. Cola nut Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola. Coriander Coriandrum sativum L. Cumin (cummin) Cuminum cyminum L. Curacao orange peel (orange...

  6. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Clover Trifolium spp. Coca (decocainized) Erythroxylum coca Lam. and other spp. of Erythroxylum. Coffee Coffea spp. Cola nut Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola. Coriander Coriandrum... Cola acuminata Schott and Endl., and other spp. of Cola. Laurel berries Laurus nobilis L. Laurel leaves...

  7. Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology - Vol 10, No 3 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and biomass yield response of clover (Trifolium decorum) to preceding crop and organic treatment in the highlands of Awi Administrative Zone, Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Agegnehu Shibabaw, Getachew Alemayehu, Enyew ...

  8. Sodseeding - a promising new development in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of sodseeding experiments have indicated that, provided adequate attention is given to the lime and fertilizer requirements, lucerne and white and red clovers can be successfully established in Dohne sourveld by sod-seeding in the autumn. The need for further research on weed encroachment, sodseeding ...

  9. Response to selection under controlled environment versus natural selection in diverse regions across Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red clover is a widely adaptable and productive forage legume species found in most temperate regions of the world. To date, specific selection techniques for identifying genotypes with superior persistence have not been successful in improving the general adaptation and the long-term persistence o...

  10. Effect of strategies regarding concentrate supplementation and day-time grazing on N utilization at both field and dairy cow level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Søegaard, Karen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2008-01-01

    N utilization at cow and field level was examined over two grazing periods of 30 days with 64 Holstein dairy cows. At cow and field level the effect of sward type (diploid vs. tetraploid perennial ryegrass, both mixed with white clover) and compressed sward height (6 vs. 10 cm) was examined....

  11. Influence of Liming and Mineral Fertilization on Plant Uptake of Radiostrontium from Danish Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. J.

    1963-01-01

    The uptake of radioactive strontium by rye grass and red clover was studied in pot experiments, using 20 typical Danish agricultural soils. Comparisons were made between the effects of adding Ca in the form of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride, and the respective Mg compounds on Sr uptake by plant...

  12. Informal Science and Youth Development: Creating Convergence in Out-of-School Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noam, Gil G.; Shah, Ashima

    2014-01-01

    This chapter highlights the fit between youth-development-oriented programming and informal science activities in out-of-school time (OST) and illustrates how science and youth development can and should co-occur. The clover model and Dimensions of Success tool are introduced as lenses for designing and assessing science program quality in OST.…

  13. Plant host range of Verticillium longisporum and microsclerotia density in Swedisch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, A.; Goud, J.C.; Dixelius, C.

    2006-01-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne fungal pathogen causing vascular wilt of Brassica crops. This study was conducted to enhance our knowledge on the host range of V. longisporum. Seven crop species (barley, oat, oilseed rape, pea, red clover, sugar beet and wheat) and five weed species (barren

  14. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensor...

  15. Assessing effects of ambient ozone on injury and growth of Trifolium subterraneum at four rural sites in the Netherlands with ethylenediurea (EDU)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Dijk, van C.J.

    1997-01-01

    To assess adverse effects of ambient ozone on injury and growth, EDU (ethylenediurea) and non-EDU-treated plants of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum cv. Geraldton) were exposed to ambient air at four rural sites in the Netherlands. In each of two successive experiments of eight weeks

  16. Onderzoekingen over virusziekten van de boon (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Want, van der J.P.H.

    1954-01-01

    Three viruses were studied which produce diseases in French beans, Phaseolus virus I (PV1), Phaseolus virus 2 (PV2) and a virus isolated from white clover (WKV). Included are symptoms, host plants, properties in vitro, occurrence and spread in the field. Special attention was given to the

  17. Renormalisaton of composite operators in lattice QCD. Perturbative versus nonperturbative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M.; Nakamura, Y. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The perturbative and nonperturbative renormalisation of quark-antiquark operators in lattice QCD with two flavours of clover fermions is investigated within the research programme of the QCDSF collaboration. Operators with up to three derivatives are considered. The nonperturbative results based on the RI-MOM scheme are compared with estimates from one- and two-loop lattice perturbation theory. (orig.)

  18. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens), 2) cutting frequency, and 3) slurry application. The experiment was carried out over three years. The herb mixture contained salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), chicory (Cichcorium intybus), caraway...

  19. Development and reprotuction of Spodoptera eridania on natural hosts and artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and reproductive potential of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae was compared on natural and artificial diets. Its biology was determined under laboratory conditions, providing an artificial diet, leaves of white clover and the peach cultivar 'Chimarrita' and fruits and leaves of the apple cultivar 'Gala'. Larvae of S. eridania could not complete their biological cycle when fed on apple fruits or peach leaves. The artificial diet provided the shortest development time, with a cycle of 28.5±0.14 days from egg to adult and 37.3% total viability. Apple leaves led to a longer development time from egg to adult (62.8±1.22 days and lower total viability (23% and white clover provided the highest total viability (54.3%. The results showed that S. eridania can use white clover and apple leaves to develop normally in apple orchards. The reduction of food sources such as white clover used by the larvae results in infestation and damage to fruits from “test bites”.

  20. Development and reprotuction of Spodoptera eridania on natural hosts and artificial diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Baronio, C A; Galzer, E C W; Garcia, M S; Botton, M

    2018-04-09

    The development and reproductive potential of Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) was compared on natural and artificial diets. Its biology was determined under laboratory conditions, providing an artificial diet, leaves of white clover and the peach cultivar 'Chimarrita' and fruits and leaves of the apple cultivar 'Gala'. Larvae of S. eridania could not complete their biological cycle when fed on apple fruits or peach leaves. The artificial diet provided the shortest development time, with a cycle of 28.5±0.14 days from egg to adult and 37.3% total viability. Apple leaves led to a longer development time from egg to adult (62.8±1.22 days) and lower total viability (23%) and white clover provided the highest total viability (54.3%). The results showed that S. eridania can use white clover and apple leaves to develop normally in apple orchards. The reduction of food sources such as white clover used by the larvae results in infestation and damage to fruits from "test bites".

  1. De economische ontwikkeling van de landbouw in Groningen 1800 - 1910 : een kwalitatieve en kwantitatieve analyse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priester, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    This study deals with the causes and consequences of technical change in agriculture. It shows changes in farming methods in the Dutch province of Groningen during the period 1800-1910. The adoption of new methods (such as the cultivation of clover, more frequent hoeing, drainage and convertible

  2. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 82 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based molecular characterization of popular ... Effect of metabolic enzyme on organic acids in developing 'Dangshansuli' pear leaf ... Effect of osmopriming on antioxidant activity of Bersim clover (Trifolium ... Characterization and stability of D-amino acid oxidase and catalase within the ...

  3. Effect of carbohydrate source and rumen pH on enteric methane from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the enteric methane emissions in dairy cows fed diets rich in starch or sugar with and without manipulation of rumen pH. The rations were based on grass-clover silage supplemented with either wheat (W), NaOH treated wheat (WNaOH), sugar beet molasses (M...

  4. Urea and short-chain fatty acids metabolism in Holstein cows fed a low-nitrogen grass-based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, B A; Lund, P; Kristensen, N B

    2008-01-01

    Three ruminally cannulated and multicatheterised lactating dairy cows were used to investigate the effect of different supplement strategies to fresh clover grass on urea and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism in a zero-grazing experiment with 24-h blood and ruminal samplings....

  5. FOOD CONSUMPTION AND UTILISATION OF THE GRASSHOPPER CHROTOGONUS LUGUBRIS BLANCHARD (ORTHOPTERA, ACRIDOIDEA, PYRGOMORPHIDAE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE EGG DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K RAHMAN

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The grasshopper is found all the year round. It is considered as a pest for seedlings. The consumption index differed significantly between groups fed on different diets. Mated females consume more food than virgin females or virgin males. The highest values were recorded for the bean seedlings fed groups indicating some inadequacy in the nutritional value of bean. The growth rate was the highest in clover fed groups. Insects were able to digest bean and clover more efficiently than either wheat seedlings or cotton leaves. The growth rate was accompanied with a higher C.I. in bean, wheat, and cotton indicating that most of these food was excreted. The ECD and ECI were significantly higher in clover fed groups. This indicated that clover was utilised efficiently than the other groups. The different food stuff affected the egg production which could be attributed to the nutritional efficiencies of these diets. The preovipositional period and number of egg-pods were also affected. The number of abnormal egg-pods was the highest in the bean seedlings fed groups.

  6. Restoration of Emergent Sandbar Habitat Complexes in the Missouri River, Nebraska and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    of smartweeds (Polygonum spp.), cottonwood and willow seedlings, cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium ), beggarticks (Bidens spp.), flatsedges (Cyperus spp...observed on the sandbars during an ESH PDT boat trip in late summer of 2012 included small amounts of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium ) and sweet clover

  7. Investigation of exotic modes of spinning nuclei near 90 Zr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... Recently, a digital data acquisition system with 96 channels has been set up for the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) consisting of 24 Compton-suppressed clover detectors. The digital system provides higher throughput, better energy resolution and better stability for the multidetector ...

  8. Growth changes of plants following the removal of nutritional stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, D.

    1965-01-01

    Differential changes in leaf area of plants were used to assess the fertility status of soils. For this method subterranean clover plants were raised in solutions with different levels of nutrients and transferred either into complete solutions or to solutions lacking one of the elements. Response

  9. A status report of the QCDSF N{sub f}=2+1 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, Meinulf [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, Roger [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Nakamura, Yoshifumi [DESY, Zeuthen (DE). John von Neumann Institute NIC] (and others)

    2007-12-20

    We report about on-going simulations of N{sub f}=2+1 lattice QCD. We use a tadpole improved Symanzik gauge action and stout link smeared Wilson fermions with a clover term. We employ the Hasenbusch trick for the degenerate u- and d-quarks, and the RHMC algorithm for the simulation of the strange quark. (orig.)

  10. 75 FR 74714 - DCNA (dicloran), Ziram, Diquat Dibromide, and Chloropicrin; Notice of Receipt of Requests to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... III. In a letter dated August 2, 2010, Shadow Mountain Products Corporation requested that EPA amend... fumigation devices. 62531-2 ASHTA Gold Chloropicrin Mushroom casing soil, potting soil, and small area seed.... 45728 Taminco, Inc., 21320 Sweet Clover Place, Ashburn, VA 20147. 58266 Shadow Mountain Products...

  11. Against the Corrosive Language of Corpspeak in the Contemporary University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Many universities today are businesses, embracing the priorities and values of any other consumerist enterprise. There is an argument that, insofar as the phenomenon of marketisation is a function of what (Michaels, F. [2011]. "Monoculture: How one story is changing everything". Red Clover Press) terms a global economic…

  12. Evaluation of Commercially Available Cyanide Test Kits against Various Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    commercial products. This report may not be cited for purposes of advertisement . Acknowledgments The authors acknowledge the hard work...Sigma-Aldrich);  DG Clover Valley coffee creamer (Lot 09603235 9864 2048); and  Powdered milk ( Nestle ; Vevey, Switzerland). 2. PHASE I TESTING

  13. Marginella orstomi, a new species from deeper water off the coast of West Africa (Gastropoda, Marginellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Marginella (s. str.) orstomi nov. spec. was collected at a depth of 200 to 250 m, off Pointe Noire, Congo. The species is related to M. huberti Clover, 1972, from Angola. Both species have a characteristic white tooth on the inside of the outer lip near the posterior end.

  14. Mass anomalous dimension of SU(2) with Nf=8 using the spectral density method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suorsa, Joni M.; Leino, Viljami; Rantaharju, Jarno

    2015-01-01

    SU(2) with Nf=8 is believed to have an infrared conformal fixed point. We use the spectral density method to evaluate the coupling constant dependence of the mass anomalous dimension for massless HEX smeared, clover improved Wilson fermions with Schr\\"odinger functional boundary conditions....

  15. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) against gastrointestinal nematode parasites in experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Desrues, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments studied the effects of dietary chicory against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, stabled calves were fed chicory silage (CHI1; n = 9) or ryegrass/clover hay (CTL1; n = 6) with balanced protein/energy intakes between groups. After 16 days, all calves rec...

  16. To mow or to mow less: Lawn mowing frequency affects bee abundance and diversity in suburban yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Alexandra R. Contosta; Joan Milam; Christofer Bang

    2018-01-01

    Green spaces embedded within the urban matrix, particularly residential yards, could mitigate negative aspects of urban development and provide pollinator habitat. Lawns represent a dominant green space, and their management consists of frequent mowing to inhibit the growth of ostensibly “weedy” species (e.g., dandelions and clover). Since widespread population...

  17. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove bee...

  18. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcutaneous and perirenal fatty acid (FA) profiles were compared in steers fed a control diet (70 : 30 red clover silage (RC) : barley concentrate), a diet with sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS-15 and DDGS-30) substituted for RC and SS.

  19. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-01

    Nov 1, 2014 ... An experimental campaign aimed at studying various high spin phenomena using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) at the BARC–TIFR Pelletron Linac Facility has been successfully completed. The array consisting of a large number of Compton-suppressed clover detectors was coupled to a digital ...

  20. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for improving wheat grain quality by management strategies involving crop rotation, catch crops, and organic manure was tested in organic long-term experiments in Denmark and Austria. Growing grass clover in a four-year rotation resulted in a higher wheat yield increase that could n...

  1. Effect of forage on the content of phyto-oestrogens in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Phyto-oestrogens are believed to have a range of beneficial effects on predominant Western diseases. A few studies on phyto-oestrogens in milk exist and show that the composition can be affected by feeding. Therefore, the aim was to study how feeding of lucerne and grass/clover silages (GCSs) aff...

  2. First Report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii’-Related Strain of 16SrVI-A Phytoplasma Subgroup, Associated with Elm Yellows Disease in American Elm ( Ulmus americana L.) in Ohio, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.E. Flower; N. Hayes-Plazolles; J.M. Slavicek; C. Rosa

    2018-01-01

    During the investigation of the sudden and early onset of yellowing and mortality of American elm (Ulmus americana L.) trees at the USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station in Delaware, OH, a phytoplasma of the clover proliferation group (16SrVI) was detected as the putative causal agent of the disease outbreak.

  3. Recommended Species for Vegetative Stabilization of Training Lands in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    bitterbrush Purshia glandulosa Apache plume Fallugia paradoxa Arizona fesce Festuca arizonica Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei Australian saltbush Atriplex...elm Ulmus crassifolia *Cheatgrass Bromus tectorum -Chinkapin oak Quercus muhlenbergii Cholla Opuntia, spp. * Cicer milkvetch Astragalus cicer Clovers...Linum lewisii Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium *Littleleaf palo verde Cercidium microphyllum *Live oak Quercus virginiana Lovegrasses Eragrostis

  4. Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos include Engle turning propeller while his son sits in the cockpit (34323); both Engle and son examine propeller (34324); Engle works on engine while his son sits in cockpit (34325).

  5. SOLID participatory research from Denmark: Use of herbs in pastures for dairy cows: Farmers’ experience, pasture coverage analyses, and literature survey of Danish research results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad; Karydi, Emmanouela; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    chicory and salad burnet. In both fields, birdsfoot trefoil, yellow sweet clover, Sainfoin and starflower never established although the originally seed mixture had a quite high content of their seeds. The plant coverage analyses of the fields which were one to six years old, generally, dandelions...

  6. Developing novel farming systems: effective use of nutrients from cover crops in intensive organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    On-farm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using alfalfa or grass-clover crops directly as fertilizer on other fields: cut-and-carry fertilizers. In two crops in two years, the use of several types of

  7. Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from Trifolium pratense L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, A.H.; de Boer, V.; Verkleij, J.A.; Lingeman, H.; Ernst, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a complicated procedure. This is due to the relatively unstable character of the thermolabile glucoside malonates as well as by action of native β-glucosidases, resulting in a rapid degradation of malonylated

  8. Extraction of riboflavine malonylglucosides from Tritolium pratense L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, A.H.W.; de Boer, V.; Verkley, J.A.C.; Lingeman, H.; Ernst, W.H.O.

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a complicated procedure. This is due to the relatively unstable character of the thermolabile glucoside malonates as well as by action of native β-glucosidases, resulting in a rapid degradation of malonylated

  9. Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from Tritolium pratense L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, A.H.; De Boer, V.; Verkleij, J.A.; Lingeman, H.; Ernst, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of isoflavone malonylglucosides from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a complicated procedure. This is due to the relatively unstable character of the thermolabile glucoside malonates as well as by action of native β-glucosidases, resulting in a rapid degradation of malonylated

  10. Plant colonization by pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Zahra S; Tombolini, Riccardo; Gerhardson, Berndt

    2004-03-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium are characterized by being able to rely on methanol as a sole carbon and energy source and by presenting a more or less intense pink reddish pigmentation. These bacteria, also referred to as pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs), are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere and are found in many other environmental samples. Since they grow slowly they are often overlooked and their impact on phyllosphere microbial communities and on the plants harboring them is not well studied nor has their ecology been elucidated. In a survey of PPFM colonization in three different agricultural sites, PPFM populations were identified on both red clover and winter wheat, but red clover was more consistently colonized. Isolations from collected leaves showed PPFM populations to decrease from spring towards summer, but they increased again towards the end of the cropping season. Isolates from red clover readily colonized winter wheat leaves and vice versa in greenhouse experiments, but population sizes were dependent on the application procedure. Tested isolates had also good potential to colonize the rhizosphere, especially after seed inoculations. Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed gfp-tagged isolates to colonize the surface of clover leaves by forming large aggregates.

  11. Fatty acid content and lipid fractions in herbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Experiments have shown a higher transfer efficiency of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) to milk when feeding herbs compared to feeding grass-clover. With the aim to gain more knowledge for this, the FA profile of ten single plant species and the incorporation of FA in lipid fractions were analysed...

  12. Microbial N Transformations and N2O Emission after Simulated Grassland Cultivation: Effects of the Nitrification Inhibitor 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole Phosphate (DMPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Yun-Feng (Kevin); Kong, Xianwang; Schramm, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    corresponded to plowing or rotovation to study the effects of soil-residue contact on N transformations. DMPP was sprayed on aboveground parts of ryegrass and white clover plants before incorporation. During a 42-day incubation, soil mineral N dynamics, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO), denitrifying enzyme...

  13. Nitrogen and Winter Cover Crop Effects on Spring and Summer Nutrient Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilization of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] with swine-lagoon effluent in summer, April to September, does not match the period of productivity of the winter annual cover crops, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), cereal rye (Secale cereale), and berseem clover (Trifolium alexan...

  14. Biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl esters and amides in legume species

    Science.gov (United States)

    In forage crops, protein that is degraded following harvest is poorly utilized by ruminant animals, resulting in both economic and environmental consequences. In red clover, secondary reactions of quinones resulting from polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mediated oxidation of the caffeic acid derivatives pha...

  15. Elytrigia repens population dynamics under different management schemes in organic cropping systems on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo; Askegaard, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    -year crop rotations including various cash crops and grass-clover leys; two rotations running during the first two courses with the one replaced with another rotation during the last course. The rotations were combined with four combinations of the treatments; with and without animal manure (‘without...

  16. Laparoscopy in private practice | Mayat | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (a) The knee-chest position in which the patient is placed and held by a Clover's clutch is not favoured by the anaesthetist, because of the respiratory embarrassment which may occur. Patients often complain of pain along the sites where the shoulder straps are plaoed. When the procedure is prolonged, puffiness of the ...

  17. Two Complete Genome Sequences of Phasey Bean Mild Yellows Virus, a Novel Member of the Luteoviridae from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Murray; Kehoe, Monica; Coutts, Brenda; van Leur, Joop; Filardo, Fiona; Thomas, John

    2016-02-04

    We present here the complete genome sequences of a novel polerovirus from Trifolium subterraneum (subterranean clover) and Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and compare these to a partial viral genome sequence obtained from Macroptilium lathyroides (phasey bean). We propose the name phasey bean mild yellows virus for this novel polerovirus. Copyright © 2016 Sharman et al.

  18. Two Complete Genome Sequences of Phasey Bean Mild Yellows Virus, a Novel Member of the Luteoviridae from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sharman, Murray; Kehoe, Monica; Coutts, Brenda; van Leur, Joop; Filardo, Fiona; Thomas, John

    2016-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequences of a novel polerovirus from Trifolium subterraneum (subterranean clover) and Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and compare these to a partial viral genome sequence obtained from Macroptilium lathyroides (phasey bean). We propose the name phasey bean mild yellows virus for this novel polerovirus.

  19. Diverse phytoplasmas associated with leguminus crops in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large scale survey of diseased legume plants (mainly clover and alfalfa in the Fabaceae family) was conducted from 2009-2013 in four Economic Regions of Russia - Northern (Arkhangelsk and Vologda oblast), Central (Moscow oblast), Volga (Samara oblast) and West Siberian (Novosibirsk oblast). The m...

  20. US Army Institute of Surgical Research Annual Research Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    opportunity for physiotherapy . This method of wound care has two distinct disadvantages, sodium and 1 Batchelor ADR, Sutherland AB, and Clover C: Sodium...Strand LM, Strate RG, Cipolle RJ, and Rotschafter J: Wide interpatient variations in gentamicin dose requirements for geriatric patients. JAMA 248

  1. Protein concentrate production from the biomass contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizhko, V.F.; Shinkarenko, M.P.; Polozhaj, V.V.; Krivchik, O.V.

    1992-01-01

    Coefficients of radionuclides accumulation are determined for traditional and rare forage crops grown on contaminated soils. It is shown that with low concentration of radionuclides in soil minimal level of contamination were found in the biomass of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) and sainfoin (Onobrychis hybridus L.). Relatively high levels of contamination were found in comfrey (Symphytum asperum Lepech.) and bistort (Polygonum divaricatum L.). Comparatively low accumulation coefficients in case of higher density of soil contamination were observed for white and yellow sweetclovers (Melilotus albus Medik. and M. officinalis (L.) Desr.), while higher values of coefficients were found for bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and alsike clover (t. hybridum L.). Biomass of white sweet-clover and alsike clover has been processed to produce leaf protein concentrate. It is shown that with biomass contamination of 1 kBq/kg and above conventional technology based on thermal precipitation of the protein does not provide production of pure product. More purified protein concentrates are obtained after two-stage processing of the biomass

  2. Fumigation toxicity of volatile natural and synthetic cyanohydrins to stored-product pests and activity as soil fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Sik Park; Chris Peterson; Shaohan Zhao; Joel R. Coats

    2004-01-01

    secondary plant metabolites are useful for defense against herbivores.1 Many food and feed plants have been shown to synthesize cyanogenic compounds which can decompose to produce hydrocyanic acid (HCN) as a main source of plant defense, which acts as a toxicant or feeding deterrent to herbivores. Cassava, lima beans, peas, almonds, white clover...

  3. Influence on wine biogenic amine composition of modifications to soil N availability and grapevine N by cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Cabrita, Maria João; García-Escudero, Enrique; Peregrina, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Vineyard soil management can modify the nitrogen soil availability and, therefore, grape amino acid content. These compounds are precursors of biogenic amines, which have negative effects on wine quality and human health. The objective was to study whether the effect of conventional tillage and two cover crops (barley and clover) on grapevine nitrogen status could be related to wine biogenic amines. Over 4 years, soil NO 3 - -N, nitrogen content in leaf and wine biogenic amine concentration were determined. Barley reduced soil NO 3 - -N availability and clover increased it. In 2011, at bloom, nitrogen content decreased with barley treatment in both blade and petiole. In 2012, nitrogen content in both leaf tissues at bloom was greater with clover than with tillage and barley treatments. Also, total biogenic amines decreased in barley with respect to tillage and clover treatments. There were correlations between some individual and total biogenic amine concentrations with respect to nitrogen content in leaf tissues. Wine biogenic amine concentration can be affected by the grapevine nitrogen status, provoked by changes in the soil NO 3 - -N availability with both cover crop treatments. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effects of Nitrogen Fixing Pre-Crops and Fertilizers on Physical and Chemical Properties Down the Soil Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobley, E.; Honermeier, B.; Don, A.; Gocke, M. I.; Amelung, W.; Kogel-Knabner, I.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effects of pre-crops with and without biological nitrogen fixation capacity (fava beans, clover mulch, fodder maize) and fertilization (no fertilizer, NPK fertilizer, PK fertilizer) on soil physico-chemical properties (bulk density, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and stocks, N concentration and stocks) and their depth distribution (down to 1 m) at a long-term field experiment set up in 1982 in Gießen, Germany. Fertilization had significant but small impacts on the soil chemical environment, most particularly the salt content of the soil, with PK fertilization increasing electrical conductivity throughout the soil profile. Similarly, fertilization resulted in a small reduction of soil pH throughout the entire soil profile. The soil was physically and chemically affected by the type of pre-crop. Plots with fava beans and maize had lower bulk densities in the subsoil than those with clover. Pre-crop type also significantly affected the depth distribution of both N and SOC. Specifically, clover pre-cropping led to an enrichment of N at the surface compared with fava beans and maize. SOC enrichment at the surface was also observed under clover, with the effect most pronounced under PK fertilization. Combined with the bulk density effects, this shift in N distribution resulted in significantly higher N stocks under clover than under fava beans. However, the total stocks of SOC were not affected by pre-crop or fertilizer regime. Our results indicate that humans influence C and N cycling and distribution in soils through the selection of pre-crops and that the influence of crop type is greater than that of fertilization regimes. Pre-cropping with clover, which is used as a mulch, leads to N enrichment in the topsoil, reducing the need for N fertilizer for the subsequent cereal crop. In contrast, the use of fava beans as a pre-crop does not lead to N enrichment. We believe this is due to the greater rooting depth of

  5. Effects of Rhizobium inoculation on Trifolium resupinatum antioxidant system under sulfur dioxide pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Bayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant growth stimulating rhizobacteria are beneficial bacteria that can cause resistance to various stresses in plants. One of these stresses is SO2 air pollution. SO2 is known as a strong damaging air pollutant that limits growth of plants. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effects of bacterial inoculation with native and standard Rhizobium on Persian clover root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity under air SO2 pollution. Materials and methods: In this study, 31 days plants (no-inoculated and inoculated with two strains of Rhizobium exposed to the different concentrations of SO2 (0 as a control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 ppm for 5 consecutive days and 2 hours per day. Results: Results showed different concentrations of SO2 had a significant effect on Persian clover root weight and antioxidant system. Increasing SO2 stress decreased root fresh and dry weight and antioxidant capacities (IC50 and increased antioxidant activities (I% of Persian clover leaves significantly in comparison to the control plants (under 0 ppm and increased SOD, CAT and GPX activity. Inoculation of Persian clover plants with native and standard Rhizobium increased root weight and did not show a significant effect on antioxidants activity and capacity, but interaction between Rhizobium inoculation and SO2 treatment reduced significantly the stress effects of high concentration of SO2 on root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity. In fact, level of this change of root growth and antioxidant system under SO2 pollution stress in inoculated plants was lower than in the non-inoculated plants. Discussion and conclusion: As a result, an increase in SO2 concentration caused a decrease in root weight, increase in antioxidants activity and capacity of Persian clover. Inoculation with Rhizobium strains could alleviate the effect of SO2 pollution on antioxidant system by effects on root growth.

  6. Weed species diversity in organic and integrated farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological data were collected in 1994–1996 in plots (relevés at the Research Station for Organic Farming and Conservation Breeding of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Popielno included in a large-area experiment conducted according to the concept and method proposed by Prof. S. Nawrocki. In a four-field crop rotation (root crops – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses – red clover/grass mixture – winter triticale, each field was divided into two management units, organic and integrated. Data were collected in relevés by the Braun-Blanquet method, each year at the peak of the growing season. Weed abundance (% cover in cultivated fields and the number of weed species (species richness in crops were determined, which provided a basis for calculating the Shannon-Wiener indices of species diversity and evenness, and the Rényi profiles. The qualitative (species and quantitative structure of weed communities was compared using the Sørensen index. A total of 115 weed taxa (species, subspecies and varieties were identified in the examined agro-phytocenoses. Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Thlaspi arvense and Stellaria media were the most abundant. Weed infestation was slightly higher in the organic farming system than in the integrated system. Organic farming contributed to higher weed species diversity in root crops, red clover/grass mixtures and winter triticale. Weed species richness was reduced in red clover/grass stands, while root crops and – to a lesser degree – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses decreased weed species diversity. The species composition and in particular the quantitative structure of weeds were affected by crop species and cultivation regime rather than by the farming system. Weed communities of crops grown under organic and integrated farming systems were more similar with regard to species composition

  7. Influence of the compound effect between nitrogen and zinc on the resource of nitrogen of herbage in mixed and pure culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhongjun; Hua Luo

    2002-01-01

    Under pot culture, the influence of compound effect between nitrogen and zinc on the resource of nitrogen of ryegrass in mono-culture and ryegrass/clover in mixture were studied on yellow brown earth which collected from sub-tropic mountain sward of southern China. The result showed as follows: (1) The percentage of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (% Ndfa) was decreased by nitrogen application in early growth stage and suitable amount of nitrogen application increased it in later growth stage. The % Ndfa of white clover in mixture was the highest with 6 mg/kg zinc application in all nitrogen levels. The transfer of fixed nitrogen by white clover to ryegrass was decreased by nitrogen application and increased by low amount of zinc application. (2) The percentage of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (% Ndff) was significantly increased by nitrogen application, of which the treatments with 6-20 mg/kg zinc application was higher than other zinc application treatments on ryegrass in monoculture, and the treatments with 6-20 mg/kg zinc application on white clover/ryegrass in mixture was lower than other zinc treatments at the range from 30 to 90 mg/kg nitrogen application. (3) The percentage of nitrogen derived from soil (% Ndfs) of ryegrass both in pure and in mixture was significantly decreased as the increasing of the levels of nitrogen application, of which ryegrass in mono-culture was not obviously influenced by zinc application, and ryegrass/clover in mixture was decreased by 6-20 mg/kg zinc application under all nitrogen levels

  8. Effect of gamma ray and fast neutron irradiation on winter rapeed shoots ''in vitro''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruczkowa, H.; Miszke, W.; Wlowska, H.; Skucinska, B.

    1995-01-01

    In the process of hybridization and selection for a high number of seeds in flower heads within red clover population of shortened corolla tube a characteristic phenotype of elongated inflorescences was isolated. On the average these inflorescences were longer than the normal ones by 76%. Flower head length was associated with the number of florets per head, which resulted in an increased number of seed per head. The plants with elongated inflorescences had a reduced number of flower heads and exhibited a lower seed setting per 100 florets which resulted in the seed yield per plant comparable to the check cultivar (cv. Nike). The new phenotype represents a new source of variation which may be used in breeding programs aiming at improvement of seed yield in red clover. (author)

  9. Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Fretté, Xavier; Kristensen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to study to what extent grazing large amounts ofwhite clover (WCL), red clover (RCL), lucerne (LUC) or chicory (CHI) was suitable for production of bovine milk with a high milk fat content of tocopherols, carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and conjugated......), carotenoids (6 μg g−1) and α-tocopherol (21 μg g−1 milk fat). There were minor differences between herbage types and periods, but multivariate analysis of these data showed no clear grouping. Chemical composition of herbage varied with species as well as period, but it was not possible to relatemilk and feed...... contents of specific fatty acids, carotenoids or tocopherols. CONCLUSION: All four herbages tested were suitable for production of milk with a high content of beneficial compounds. Thus any of these herbages could be used in production of such differentiated milk based on a large proportion of grazing...

  10. Field dodder – How to control it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Broad geographic distribution and spectrum of hosts make field dodder, Cuscuta campestris, one of the most widespread and most harmful pests among flowering parasitic plants. Field dodder may become a problem in vegetable nurseries (e.g. tomato, sweet pepper and cabbage or in potato or some other crop grown in plastic greenhouses. However, the most devastating damage comes from field dodder outbreaks in newly-established perennial legume crops (alfalfa, clover, etc., which are generally the preferred hosts of this parasitic flowering species. Apart from alfalfa and clover, an expansion of field dodder has been observed in recent years in sugar beet, too. Different measures are available for controlling field dodder, from preventive (pure seeding material, tolerant cultivars, etc., to mechanical removal (mowing and hand weeding to herbicide treatments. The most successful control of field dodder requires a systematic approach ensured through integrated protection, which contributes to a more effective control of parasitic flowering plants.

  11. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    species interactions as a response to the actual growing conditions observed which is not achieved with sole cropping of one species/cultivar. It is also concluded that when growing pea as a sole cropping available soil mineral N reduce N{sub 2} fixation and the full potential of symbiotic nitrogen fixation is not exploited which is regarded as an overall inefficient use of N sources. Using clover-grass intercropping raw materials, as another potential species combination with equivalent field responses to e.g. pea-wheat intercropping, conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments show that wet oxidation is an efficient method for fractionating clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures into a convertible solid cellulose fraction and a soluble hemicellulose fraction. The highest yield of fermentable sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis is achieved in clover-grass (mixed 1:1) pretreated at 195 deg. C for 10 minutes using 12 bar oxygen. The optimum pretreatment conditions for clover, grass, and clover-grass mixtures is not significantly different from that of wheat, which indicates that wheat straw and clover-grass (from intercropping) could be pretreated in one step. The produced sugars were converted into ethanol by Mucor indicus giving good ethanol yields Y{sub E/TS,Aerobic} = 0.37 and Y{sub E/TS,oxygen} {sub li} It is also concluded that fructans from unheated clover-grass juice can be co-converted into ethanol by natural enzymes and yeast increasing the ethanol production significantly. Using field data and biomass conversion yields obtained in laboratory experiments a decentralized biorefinery concept for co-production of bioethanol and biogas is described with strong emphasis on sustainability, localness and recycling principles. (au)

  12. [Modeling of lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurkhno, R A; Validov, Sh Z; Boronin, A M; Naumova, R P

    2006-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices was modeled to provide a comparative efficiency assessment of the previously selected strains of lactic acid bacteria as potential components of starter cultures. Juices of the legumes fodder galega, red clover, and alfalfa were subjected to lactic acid fermentation in 27 variants of experiment. Local strains (Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, and Lactobacillus sp. RS 4) and the collection strain Lactobacillus plantarum BS 933 appeared the most efficient (with reference to the rate and degree of acidogenesis, ratio of lactic and acetic acids, and dynamics of microflora) in fermenting fodder galega juice; Lactobacillus sp. RS 1, Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, Lactobacillus sp. RS 4, and L. plantarum BS 933 were the most efficient for red clover juice. Correction of alfalfa juice fermentation using the tested lactic acid bacterial strains appeared inefficient, which is explainable by its increased protein content and a low level of the acids produced during fermentation.

  13. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  14. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  15. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  16. Fatty acid composition, fat soluble vitamin concentrations and oxidative stability in bovine milk produced on two pastures with different botanical composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Dahl, A V; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    to oxidation. Two groups of 8 multiparous Norwegian Red dairy cows [mean (standard deviation); 599 (45.1) kg body weight, 73 (15.0) d in milk, 29.9 (2.90) kg milk/d at experiment start] grazed either a short-term pasture (SP) or a long-term pasture (LP). Both pastures were organically managed, meaning......Previous research has shown that grazing pastures compared to feeding preserved forages has large impact on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, but differences between grazing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or white clover (Trifolium repens L.) are small, whereas the herbage proportions...... of dicotyledon botanical families is positively correlated with the milk-fat proportions of total polyunsaturated FA when grazing pastures in the Alps. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of botanically different pastures on bovine milk composition and milk susceptibility...

  17. FLIC-overlap fermions and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, W.; Kusterer, D.J.; Leinweber, D.B.; Williams, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    APE smearing the links in the irrelevant operators of clover fermions (Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermions) provides significant improvement in the condition number of the Hermitian-Dirac operator and gives rise to a factor of two savings in computing the overlap operator. This report investigates the effects of using a highly-improved definition of the lattice field-strength tensor F μν in the fermion action, made possible through the use of APE-smeared fat links in the construction of the irrelevant operators. Spurious double-zero crossings in the spectral flow of the Hermitian-Wilson Dirac operator associated with lattice artifacts at the scale of the lattice spacing are removed with FLIC fermions composed with an O(α 4 )-improved lattice field strength tensor. Hence, FLIC-Overlap fermions provide an additional benefit to the overlap formalism: a correct realization of topology in the fermion sector on the lattice

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    will be lower than indicated by our data. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co-production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from either fresh grass-clover or whole crop maize. Here the net reduction corresponded to about 8 tons CO2 per hectare per year...... or incorporation of crop residues. In this study we relate measured field emissions of N2O to the reduction in fossil fuel-derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye-vetch, vetch and grass......-clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2) biogas production and 3) co-production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas...

  19. Simulating QCD at the physical point with Nf=2 Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rehim, A.; Alexandrou, C.; Cyprus Univ. Nicosia; Burger, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present simulations of QCD using N f =2 dynamical Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with physical value of the pion mass and at one value of the lattice spacing. Such simulations at a∼0.09 fm became possible by adding the clover term to the action. While O(a) improvement is still guaranteed by Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist, the introduction of the clover term reduces O(a 2 ) cutoff effects related to isospin symmetry breaking. We give results for a set of phenomenologically interesting observables like pseudo-scalar masses and decay constants, quark masses and the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons. We mostly find remarkably good agreement with phenomenology, even though we cannot take the continuum and thermodynamic limits.

  20. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development...... of the plant, although the commercial success of an agronomically superior cultivar is dependent on a reliable supply of competitively priced seed. In seed production of the three most important forage legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...

  1. Effect of forage type, harvesting time and exogenous enzyme application on degradation characteristics measured using in vitro technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharrery, Ali; Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    Five forage species cut at different harvest times were studied for their degradation characteristics using in vitro digestibility technique. The forage species were two grasses and three legumes growing in two seasons (spring growth and second re-growth). Grass and legume forages were harvested...... at three harvesting times being early (E), middle (M) and late (L), both during the spring growth and the second re-growth. The grasses included perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and festulolium (XFestulolium), and the legumes included white clover (Trifolium repens), red clover (Trifolium pratense......) and neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) degradation profiles were fitted to an exponential equation. The fractional rate of degradation (c) of DM or aNDFom did vary among the forage species and was highest for the legumes. The potential degradability ranged from 580 to 870 g/kg for DM and from 380 to 900 g...

  2. Changes in plant availability of Pu-238 during a nine year experimental period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aa.

    1985-01-01

    A short description is given of the changes observed in the plant availability of Pu-238 in eight soils during a nine year experimental period. It was found that during the first four-year period with clover as test crop, the plant uptake of Pu-238 was reduced with availability half lives ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 years. The reduction rate seemed proportional to the initial uptake levels, except for lime rich clay soils, where the reduction rate was high regardless of the uptake level. In 1980 when the test crop clover was replaced by spring wheat, the necessary soil management operations caused intenser aeration and drying in one block of the replicates. As a consequence, the Pu-uptake in that block became considerably higher than in the others. This event can be interpreted as an indirect evidence for the reversibility of that process in soil, which has caused the reduced plant availability of Pu-238

  3. In-Vitro gas production technique as for feed evaluation: volume of gas production and feed degradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asih Kurniawati

    2007-01-01

    In-vitro gas production technique can be used to predict feed quality. The effect of molasses supplementation as a source of degradable carbohydrate to protein source red clover silage has been done using this technique. Data showed there were positive correlation between total volume gas produced and feed degradability (r = 0.96), between total volume gas produced and microbial biomass (r = 0,96). Dry matter degradability, dry matter degraded, microbial biomass production and efficiency of nitrogen utilization, highly significant (P<0,01) increased due to increasing of degradable carbohydrate. The addition of 0.3 g molasses gave the best result whereas the addition of 0.15 g and 0.225 g have better effect than 0.0625 g molasses addition and red clover only. This result suggested that In-vitro production technique can be used as tool for feed evaluation. (author)

  4. Effects of species diversity on seasonal variation in herbage yield and nutritive value of seven binary grass-legume mixtures and pure grass under cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Intensively managed sown temperate grasslands are generally of low species diversity, although swards based on grass-legume mixtures may have superior productivity and herbage quality than grass-only swards. We conducted a cutting experiment over two years to test the effect of species composition...... and diversity on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne) was sown alone and with each of four forage legumes: red clover (RC, Trifolium pratense), lucerne (LU, Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (BT......, Lotus corniculatus) and white clover (WC, Trifolium repens); WC was also sown with hybrid ryegrass (HR, Lolium × boucheanum), meadow fescue (MF, Festuca pratensis) and timothy (TI, Phleum pratense). Herbage productivity was lowest in pure PR followed by PR/BT, and highest in PR/RC; this mixture had...

  5. Producción, evaluación y caracterización microbiológica de un biofertilizante artesanal para la fijación de nitrógeno en especies vegetales forrajeras.

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Villegas, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The increased production of grasslands in Ecuador has necessitated the use of chemical fertilizers, as in the case of commercial urea, which has caused impacts on agricultural land. As an alternative to this chemical fertilizer , developed , tested and characterized a craft biofertilizer made from roots of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) , White Clover ( Trifolium repens ) and rye grass ( Lolium perenne), which has diazotrophic microbiological activity of bacterial species such...

  6. Grassing over colliery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    In South Wales, tailings from Oakdale, Marine, Bedwas, Abertillery, and Nantgarw collieries are being mixed with cement to form a softrock that will be stable when deposited in waste tips. Dr. Allan Charles of the Welsh Plant Breeding Station at Aberystwyth has been carrying out tests to determine whether plants will grow in this stabilized material. The work has shown that clover and lucerne plants will grow very healthily.

  7. Fusion cross sections for 6,7Li + 24Mg at energies around the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Maitreyi; Pradhan, M.K.; Kshetri, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Biswas, M.; Roy, S.; Basu, P.; Majumdar, H.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Sinha, M.; Palit, R.; Mazumdar, I.; Joshi, P.K.; Jain, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The 6,7 Li + 24 Mg reactions in the energy interval E lab = 11-32 MeV using 6,7 Li beams have been investigated from the 14 UD BARC-TIFR Pelletron accelerator at TIFR, Mumbai. The γ-ray cross sections were measured using a Compton suppressed clover detector, placed at 55 deg with respect to the beam direction

  8. Nucleon spin and quark content at the physical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, Constantia

    2016-12-01

    We present results on the spin and quark content of the nucleon using N_f=2 twisted mass clover-improved fermion simulations with a pion mass close to its physical value. We use recently developed methods to obtain accurate results for both connected and disconnected contributions. We provide results for the axial charge, quark and gluon momentum fraction as well as the light, strange and charm σ-terms.

  9. Assessing changes to in-stream turbidity following construction of a forest road in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Pamela J. Edwards; William A. Goff

    2011-01-01

    Two forested headwater watersheds were monitored to examine changes to in-stream turbidity following the construction of a forest haul road. One watershed was used as an undisturbed reference, while the other had a 0.92-km (0.57-mi) haul road constructed in it. The channels in both are intermittent tributaries of the Left Fork of Clover Run in the Cheat River watershed...

  10. First results of the EXILL and FATIMA campaign at the Institut Laue Langevin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolie, Jan; Regis, Jean-Marc; Saed-Samii, Nima; Warr, Nigel [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Wilmsen, Dennis [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); GANIL, BP 55027 (France); France, Gilles de; Clement, Emmanuel [GANIL, BP 55027 (France); Blanc, Aurelien; Jentschel, Michael; Koester, Uli; Mutti, Paolo; Soldner, Thorsten [ILL, 71 Av. des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Simpson, Gary [University of Western Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); UIrban, Waldek [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Bruce, Alison; Lalskovski, Stefan [SCEM, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Fraile, Luis [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Complutese, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kroell, Thorsten [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Podolyak, Zsolt; Regan, Patrick [Dept. of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Korten, Wolfram [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ur, Calin; Marginean, Nicu [Horia Hulubei NIPNE, 77125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-07-01

    At the PF1B cold neutron beam line at the Institut Laue Langevin the EXILL and FATIMA array consisting of 8 EXOGAM clover Ge detectors and 16 LaBr3(Ce) scintillators was used for the measurement of lifetimes using the generalised centroid difference method. The studied nuclei were formed by the (n,γ) and (n,fission) reactions. We report on the set-up and present first results on {sup 90}Zr and {sup 196}Pt.

  11. Gradient flow coupling in the SU(2) gauge theory with two adjoint fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno

    2016-01-01

    We study SU(2) gauge theory with two fermion flavors in the adjoint representation. Using a clover improved HEX smeared action and the gradient flow running coupling allows us to simulate with larger lattice size than before. We find an infrared fixed point after a continuum extrapolation in the ...... in the range 4.3g∗24.8. We also measure the mass anomalous dimension and find the value 0.25γ∗0.28 at the fixed point....

  12. Assessing insecticide hazard to bumble bees foraging on flowering weeds in treated lawns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Larson

    Full Text Available Maintaining bee-friendly habitats in cities and suburbs can help conserve the vital pollination services of declining bee populations. Despite label precautions not to apply them to blooming plants, neonicotinoids and other residual systemic insecticides may be applied for preventive control of lawn insect pests when spring-flowering weeds are present. Dietary exposure to neonicotinoids adversely affects bees, but the extent of hazard from field usage is controversial. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus impatiens to turf with blooming white clover that had been treated with clothianidin, a neonicotinoid, or with chlorantraniliprole, the first anthranilic diamide labeled for use on lawns. The sprays were applied at label rate and lightly irrigated. After residues had dried, colonies were confined to forage for six days, and then moved to a non-treated rural site to openly forage and develop. Colonies exposed to clothianidin-treated weedy turf had delayed weight gain and produced no new queens whereas those exposed to chlorantraniliprole-treated plots developed normally compared with controls. Neither bumble bees nor honey bees avoided foraging on treated white clover in open plots. Nectar from clover blooms directly contaminated by spray residues contained 171±44 ppb clothianidin. Notably, neither insecticide adversely impacted bee colonies confined on the treated turf after it had been mown to remove clover blooms present at the time of treatment, and new blooms had formed. Our results validate EPA label precautionary statements not to apply neonicotinoids to blooming nectar-producing plants if bees may visit the treatment area. Whatever systemic hazard through lawn weeds they may pose appears transitory, however, and direct hazard can be mitigated by adhering to label precautions, or if blooms inadvertently are contaminated, by mowing to remove them. Chlorantraniliprole usage on lawns appears non-hazardous to bumble bees.

  13. Effect of sulfur dioxide on proteins of the vegetable organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckendorfer, P; Beran, F

    1931-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of sulfur dioxide on red clover in a controlled environment. An increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide caused a significant decrease in the digestible protein. However, after the sulfur dioxide was discontinued, there was a decrease in the indigestible protein. The leaves showed an increase in spotting with an increase in sulfur dioxide concentration. Chemical analysis of the soil revealed a higher sulfur content in these experiments.

  14. Assessing Insecticide Hazard to Bumble Bees Foraging on Flowering Weeds in Treated Lawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jonathan L.; Redmond, Carl T.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining bee-friendly habitats in cities and suburbs can help conserve the vital pollination services of declining bee populations. Despite label precautions not to apply them to blooming plants, neonicotinoids and other residual systemic insecticides may be applied for preventive control of lawn insect pests when spring-flowering weeds are present. Dietary exposure to neonicotinoids adversely affects bees, but the extent of hazard from field usage is controversial. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus impatiens to turf with blooming white clover that had been treated with clothianidin, a neonicotinoid, or with chlorantraniliprole, the first anthranilic diamide labeled for use on lawns. The sprays were applied at label rate and lightly irrigated. After residues had dried, colonies were confined to forage for six days, and then moved to a non-treated rural site to openly forage and develop. Colonies exposed to clothianidin-treated weedy turf had delayed weight gain and produced no new queens whereas those exposed to chlorantraniliprole-treated plots developed normally compared with controls. Neither bumble bees nor honey bees avoided foraging on treated white clover in open plots. Nectar from clover blooms directly contaminated by spray residues contained 171±44 ppb clothianidin. Notably, neither insecticide adversely impacted bee colonies confined on the treated turf after it had been mown to remove clover blooms present at the time of treatment, and new blooms had formed. Our results validate EPA label precautionary statements not to apply neonicotinoids to blooming nectar-producing plants if bees may visit the treatment area. Whatever systemic hazard through lawn weeds they may pose appears transitory, however, and direct hazard can be mitigated by adhering to label precautions, or if blooms inadvertently are contaminated, by mowing to remove them. Chlorantraniliprole usage on lawns appears non-hazardous to bumble bees. PMID:23776667

  15. TIGRESS: TRIUMF-ISAC gamma-ray escape-suppressed spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, C. E.; Amaudruz, P.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Chen, A. A.; Churchman, R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Kanungo, R.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J. P.; Morris, D.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Smith, M. B.; Starinsky, N.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.

    2005-10-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC gamma-ray escape-suppressed spectrometer (TIGRESS) is a new γ-ray detector array being developed for use at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion beam facility. TIGRESS will comprise 12 32-fold segmented clover-type HPGe detectors coupled with 20-fold segmented modular Compton suppression shields and custom digital signal processing electronics. This paper provides an overview of the TIGRESS project and progress in its development to date.

  16. Structure of A∼130 nuclei in La–Ce region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Clover detector array; measured Eγ , Iγ , DCO (directional correlation of ori- ented states) ... all the nuclei in this mass region, on the contrary, is contributed mainly by the. 25 .... plane at ±30◦, 60◦, 90◦, 120◦, −70◦, −105◦ and −145◦ angles with respect to the .... OXBASH [23,24], the details of which are given in ref. [15].

  17. Improving brightness and photostability of green and red fluorescent proteins for live cell imaging and FRET reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Bajar, Bryce T.; Wang, Emily S.; Lam, Amy J.; Kim, Bongjae B.; Jacobs, Conor L.; Howe, Elizabeth S.; Davidson, Michael W.; Lin, Michael Z.; Chu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Many genetically encoded biosensors use F?rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to dynamically report biomolecular activities. While pairs of cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins (FPs) are most commonly used as FRET partner fluorophores, respectively, green and red FPs offer distinct advantages for FRET, such as greater spectral separation, less phototoxicity, and lower autofluorescence. We previously developed the green-red FRET pair Clover and mRuby2, which improves responsiveness in intra...

  18. Can farmers mitigate environmental impacts through combined production of food, fuel and feed? A consequential life cycle assessment of integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Birkved, Morten

    2018-01-01

    (Sys-II). Processing of grass-clover to produce feed protein was considered in Sys-II, particularly to substitute the imported soybean meal. Waste generated from the livestock and GBR systems were considered for the conversion to biomethane (Sys-IV). Digestate produced therefrom was assumed...... potential and freshwater ecotoxicity, compared to a conventional mixed crop-livestock system, without the biogas conversion facility and the GBR....

  19. Nucleon spin and quark content at the physical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, Constantia [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Constantinou, Martha; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Kallidonis, Christos; Koutsou, Giannis [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Jansen, Karl; Wiese, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Vaquero Aviles-Casco, Alejandro [INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    We present results on the spin and quark content of the nucleon using N{sub f}=2 twisted mass clover-improved fermion simulations with a pion mass close to its physical value. We use recently developed methods to obtain accurate results for both connected and disconnected contributions. We provide results for the axial charge, quark and gluon momentum fraction as well as the light, strange and charm σ-terms.

  20. Research and development for EXOGAM: A future γ multidetector for SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, J.; Azaiez, F.; Bouneau, S.; Bourgeois, C.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Stanoiu, M.; Porquet, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    We have carried out numerical simulation using GEANT code (CERN) in order to define the design of EXOGAM, a future γ-spectrometer for SPIRAL. The effective photopeak efficiency dependence on both the γ energy and multiplicity has been simulated. A choice on the clover segmentation orientation is proposed. Finally, research and development is carried out to study the possibility to localize the radial position of the γ-impact in the crystal using pulse-shape analysis. (authors)

  1. An automatic gain matching method for {gamma}-ray spectra obtained with a multi-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattabiraman, N.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Ghugre, S.S. E-mail: ssg@alpha.iuc.res.in

    2004-07-01

    The increasing size of data sets from large multi-detector arrays makes the traditional approach to the pre-evaluation of the data difficult and time consuming. The pre-sorting involves detection and correction of the observed on-line drifts followed by calibration of the raw data. A new method for automatic detection and correction of these instrumental drifts is presented. An application of this method to the data acquired using a multi-Clover array is discussed.

  2. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. P K Joshi. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 54 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 347-354 Research Articles. Parity of the band head at 3710 keV inRh using clover detector as Compton polarimeter · R Palit H C Jain P K Joshi S Nagaraj B V T Rao S N ...

  3. An automatic gain matching method for γ-ray spectra obtained with a multi-detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattabiraman, N.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Ghugre, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing size of data sets from large multi-detector arrays makes the traditional approach to the pre-evaluation of the data difficult and time consuming. The pre-sorting involves detection and correction of the observed on-line drifts followed by calibration of the raw data. A new method for automatic detection and correction of these instrumental drifts is presented. An application of this method to the data acquired using a multi-Clover array is discussed

  4. Dependence of the current renormalisation constants on the quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Crisafulli, M.; Martinelli, G.; Vladikas, A.; Crisafulli, M; Lubicz, V; Martinelli, G; Vladikas, A

    1995-01-01

    We study the behaviour of the vector and axial current renormalisation constants Z_V and Z_A as a function of the quark mass, m_q. We show that sizeable O(am_q) and O(g_0^2 a m_q) systematic effects are present in the Wilson and Clover cases respectively. We find that the prescription of Kronfeld, Lepage and Mackenzie for correcting these artefacts is not always successful.

  5. Mowing mitigates bioactivity of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of flowering lawn weeds and turfgrass guttation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jonathan L; Redmond, Carl T; Potter, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides are used to control turfgrass insect pests. The authors tested their transference into nectar of flowering lawn weeds or grass guttation droplets, which, if high enough, could be hazardous to bees or other insects that feed on such exudates. The authors applied imidacloprid or clothianidin to turf with white clover, followed by irrigation, and used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze residues in clover blooms that were directly sprayed during application or that formed after the first mowing. Imidacloprid residues in guttation fluid from field-grown creeping bentgrass were assessed similarly. The authors used Orius insidiosus, a small anthrocorid bug that is sensitive to dietary neonicotinoids, as a bioindicator of the exudates' toxicity. Nectar from directly sprayed clover blooms contained 5493 ng/g to 6588 ng/g imidacloprid or 2882 ng/g to 2992 ng/g clothianidin and was acutely toxic to Orius. Residues were 99.4% to 99.8% lower in nectar of blooms formed after mowing, and nontoxic to Orius. Imidacloprid residues in turfgrass guttation averaged 88 ng/g at 1 wk after treatment, causing some intoxication of Orius, but declined to 23 ng/g within 3 wk. Systemic transference of neonicotinoids into white clover nectar and creeping bentgrass guttation appears relatively low and transitory. The hazard to nontarget insects via nectar of flowering weeds in treated lawns can be mitigated by adhering to label precautions and mowing to remove blooms if they are inadvertently sprayed. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. DIMENSIONS OF CARCASS AND INTERNAL ORGANS IN YOUNG SHEEP, UNDER CONDITIONS OF GRAZING ON ASSOCIATIONS OF PERENNIAL GRAMINACEOUS AND LEGUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. DRAGOMIR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The temporary pastures’ floristic structure influences directly the growth and development of young sheep during grazing. The associations, beside the graminaceous and perennial legume species (white clover and birdsfoot trefoil, contribute mostly to the increase of carcass dimension and organ weight. The quality of the forage from such a pasture, better balanced in terms of energy and protein, influences all growth and development parameters in young sheep.

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF DNA MARKERS TO IMPROVE BREEDING OF FORAGE LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grljušić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the forage species involved in program and comparison of conventional and molecular marker efficiency in variability evaluation. RAPDs were used (i to estimate availability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Medicago falcata L. genetic variation and (ii to identify changes of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. variability after natural selection. SSRs were applied to evaluate diversity within and among field pea (Pisum sativum L. var. arvense and sativum groups/varieties. A total of 90 (alfalfa or 92 (red clover polymorphic bands was found by RAPDs. Total number of SSR alleles recorded was 118. The average Roger's distance per species/genus estimated was 0.29 (red clover, 0.33 (alfalfa and 0.51 (field pea. 2D PCo analysis of each species/genus separated materials into respective groups. A high degree of genetic variation within populations/varieties of each investigated species was found by AMOVA. The correspondence between pairs of matrices based on the morphological and molecular data was significant (p=0.95 only for red clover. RAPD and SSR data have given valuable information on genetic structure of materials and provided a description that determines heterogeneity. Further studies will be focused on identifying quantitative trait loci and marker assisted selection.

  8. Wilson flow and scale setting from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornyakov, V.G. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation). School of Biomedicine; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Hudspith, R. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics; Collaboration: QCDSF-UKQCD Collaboration; and others

    2015-08-15

    We give a determination of the phenomenological value of the Wilson (or gradient) flow scales t{sub 0} and w{sub 0} for 2+1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The simulations are performed keeping the average quark mass constant, which allows the approach to the physical point to be made in a controlled manner. O(a) improved clover fermions are used and together with four lattice spacings this allows the continuum extrapolation to be taken.

  9. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on poten...

  10. The light bound states of N=1 supersymmetric SU(3) Yang-Mills theory on the lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Bergner, Georg; Gerber, Henning; Giudice, Pietro; Montvay, Istvan; Münster, Gernot; Piemonte, Stefano; Scior, Philipp

    2018-03-01

    In this article we summarise our results from numerical simulations of N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU(3). We use the formulation of Curci and Veneziano with clover-improved Wilson fermions. The masses of various bound states have been obtained at different values of the gluino mass and gauge coupling. Extrapolations to the limit of vanishing gluino mass indicate that the bound states form mass-degenerate supermultiplets.

  11. Can we use photography to estimate radiation interception by a crop canopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakwizira, E; Meenken, E D; George, M J; Fletcher, A L

    2015-03-01

    Accuracy of determining radiation interception, and hence radiation use efficiency, depends on the method of measuring photosynthetically active radiation intercepted. Methods vary, from expensive instruments such as Sunfleck ceptometers to simple methods such as digital photography. However, before universal use of digital photography there is need to determine its reliability and compare it with conventional, but expensive, methods. In a series of experiments at Lincoln, New Zealand, canopy development for barley, wheat, white clover and four forage brassica species was determined using both digital photographs and Sunfleck ceptometer. Values obtained were used to calculate conversion coefficient (Kf/Ki) ratios between the two methods. Digital photographs were taken at 45° and 90° for barley, wheat and white clover and at only 90° for brassicas. There was an interaction of effects of crop and cultivar for the cereal crops. Barley closed canopies earlier than wheat, and 'Emir' barley and 'Stettler' wheat had consistently higher canopy cover than 'Golden Promise' and 'HY459', respectively. Canopy cover was consistently larger at 45° than 90° for cereals. However, for white clover, the angle of digital photography was not important. There was also an interaction between effects of species and method of determining canopy cover for brassicas. Photographs gave higher cover values than ceptometer for forage rape and turnip, but the relationship was variable for forage kale and swede. Kf/Ki ratios of 1.0-1.10 for cereals, white clover and forage rape and turnip show that digital photographs can be used to estimated radiation interception, in place of Sunfleck ceptometer, for these crops. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Investigation of surface deposition pertaining to the calculation of the deposition of aerosols released in core-meltdown accidents in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1981-10-01

    Deposition of fall-out particles of cesium-137 on vertical building surfaces has been measured. The deposition is combined with the corresponding concentration in air of fall-out particles to give the dry deposition velocity. The dry deposition velocity on plane collectors like building surfaces, plane bare soil, roads, etc. is compared to the velocity on rough surfaces like grass, clover, etc. This is done on the basis of our own measurements and the relevant literature. (author)

  13. Essiac for cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    An analysis of a mixture of herbs in Essiac, an alternative-medicine anti-cancer therapy, has shown it contains a variety of compounds which have antioxidant activity as well as the ability to block cell growth. The Essiac mixture contains burdock root, Indian rhubarb, sheep sorrel, inner bark of slippery elm, watercress, blessed thistle, red clover, and kelp. A review of patients taking Essiac shows that there was no obvious toxicity. Clinical trials are recommended to determine Essiac's efficacy.

  14. Neutron Electric Dipole Moment from quark Chromoelectric Dipole Moment

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2016-01-01

    The connection between a regularization-independent symmetric momentum substraction (RI-$\\tilde{\\rm S}$MOM) and the $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ scheme for the quark chromo EDM operators is discussed. A method for evaluating the neutron EDM from quark chromoEDM is described. A preliminary study of the signal in the matrix element using clover quarks on a highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) ensemble is shown.

  15. Reconnaissance Report Yolo Bypass, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    fluctuations are common in the palmate-bracted bird’s-beak. These oscillations may be a result of changes in pollination success, rainfall patterns...regulate vegetative growth through feeding activity and assist in pollination of many flowering plant species. Restrictions in geographic movement make...bur clover, storks bill, horseweed, wild lettuce , telegraph weed, and many other less common herbaceous species, Grassland is the common vegetation

  16. Case report: Malnutrition and undernutrition as cause of mortality in farmed reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik O. Ågren

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhoea evolved during the third year of farming in a group of six reindeer farmed in central Sweden. The first death occurred in July, and despite offering supplemental feed, the deaths continued. Within 9 months five animals (83% were dead. The necropsy findings indicated emaciation in all cases. The initially adequate clover vegetation in the paddock had been depleted over the years, leading to malnutrition and undernutrition of reindeer in the summer season.

  17. Ecological Survey Data for Environmental Considerations on the Trinity River and Tributaries, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-01

    cardinalis Carolina clover Trifolium carolinianum Michx. Carolina geranium Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina horse- nettle Solanum carolinense L. Carolina...MiI~y~ic~zuhl. 1 .,Ats-bekir cagillitIs (L.) Wali. Eh!iteai gitle Urticn chamaedryoides Pursh Heartleaf nettle Urtica chamaedryoides var. Runyonli...the bridge on Interstate Highway 10, contained only two insecticides , Lindane (0.2 micrograms per kilogram of sediment) and Chlordane (less than 1.0

  18. g-Factor measurements of first 2+ states of heavy Te isotopes based on nuclear spin de orientation for nuclei recoiling in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, M.; Pavan, J.; Stone, N.J.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J.; Benczer-Koller, N.; Bingham, C.R.; Dupak, J.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gross, C.J.; Kumbartzki, G.; Radford, D.C.; Stone, J.R.; Timlin, C.L.; Yu, C.-H.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that the recoil-in-vacuum (RIV) method can be used to determine the g-factor of the Coulumb excited first 2 + state of 132 Te. This was possible owing to advantages provided by CLARION (ORNL clover multi-detector array) and the segmented charged particle detector HyBall. Calibratory experiments were performed with 122,126,13 Te and a g-factor of 132 Te was deduced g = (+)0.35(5)

  19. Soil Decomposition of Added Organic C in an Organic Farming System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpomblekou-A, Kokoasse; Sissoko, Alassane; McElhenney, Wendell

    2015-04-01

    In the United States, large quantities of poultry waste are added every year to soil under organic management. Decomposition of the added organic C releases plant nutrients, promotes soil structure, and plays a vital role in the soil food web. In organic agriculture the added C serves as the only source of nutrients for plant growth. Thus understanding the decomposition rates of such C in organic farming systems are critical in making recommendations of organic inputs to organic producers. We investigated and compared relative accumulation and decomposition of organic C in an organic farming system trial at the George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station at Tuskegee, Alabama on a Marvyn sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Kanhapludults) soil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates and four treatments. The main plot (54' × 20') was split into three equal subplots to plant three sweet potato cultivars. The treatments included a weed (control with no cover crop, no fertilizer), crimson clover alone (CC), crimson clover plus broiler litter (BL), and crimson clover plus NPK mineral fertilizers (NPK). For five years, late in fall, the field was planted with crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L) that was cut with a mower and incorporated into soil the following spring. Moreover, broiler litter (4.65 Mg ha-1) or ammonium nitrate (150 kg N ha-1), triple super phosphate (120 kg P2O5 ha-1), and potassium chloride (160 kg K2O ha-1) were applied to the BL or the NPK plot and planted with sweet potato. Just before harvest, six soil samples were collected within the two middle rows of each sweet potato plot with an auger at incremental depths of 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm. Samples from each subplot and depth were composited and mixed in a plastic bag. The samples were sieved moist through a

  20. Transpiration efficiency of three Mediterranean annual pasture species and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, T P; Turner, N C

    1998-06-01

    Attempts to improve water use efficiency in regions with Mediterranean climates generally focus on increasing plant transpiration relative to evaporation from the soil and increasing transpiration efficiency. Our aim was to determine if transpiration efficiency differs among key species occurring in annual pastures in southern Australia. Two glasshouse experiments were conducted with three key pasture species, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), capeweed [Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns] and annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Transpiration efficiency was assessed at the levels of␣whole-plant biomass and water use (W), leaf gas exchange measurements of the ratio of CO 2 assimilation to leaf conductance to water vapour (A/g), and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in leaf tissue. In addition, Δ was measured on shoots of the three pasture species growing together in the field. In the glasshouse studies, annual ryegrass had a consistently higher transpiration efficiency than subterranean clover or capeweed by all methods of measurement. Subterranean clover and capeweed had similar transpiration efficiencies by all three methods of measurement. Wheat had W values similar to ryegrass but A/g and Δ values similar to subterranean clover or capeweed. The high W of annual ryegrass seems to be related to a conservative leaf gas exchange behaviour, with lower assimilation and conductance but higher A/g than for the other species. In contrast to the glasshouse results, the three pasture species had similar Δ values when growing together in mixed-species swards in the field. Reasons for these differing responses between glasshouse and field-grown plants are discussed in terms of the implications for improving the transpiration efficiency of mixed-species annual pasture communities in the field.